Introduction
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Burj Khalifa (formally Dubai) is the new tallest tower in the world. Construction began on 21 September 2004 & completed on 1 October 2009. The building was officially opened on 4 January 2010 Height of the Tower is 828m . It·s Owner is EMAAR Properties with total investments of US$ 1.5 billion. The tower is designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) Adrian smith was chief architect.

World·s Tallest Building
‡ From the head start , it has been intended that the Burj Dubai be the Worlds· Tallest Building. ‡ The official arbiter of height is the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban the illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, Illinois. ‡ The CTBUH measures the height of buildings (measured from sidewalk at the main entrance).

‡ Burj Dubai is the tallest skyscraper to top of spire: 828 m ‡ Building with highest occupied floor in the world163rd floor

World·s Tallest Building
‡ Highest outdoor observation deck in the world (124th floor) at 452 m ‡ World's highest elevator installation, situated inside a rod at the very top of the building ‡ World's fastest elevators at speed of 64 km/h (40 mph) or 18 m/s ‡ Highest vertical concrete pumping (for a building): 606 m ‡ World's highest installation of an aluminum and glass facade, at a height of 512 m ‡ World's highest New Year fireworks display

Architectural Concept
The context of the Burj Dubai being located in the city of Dubai, UAE, drove the inspiration for the building form to incorporate cultural and historical particular to the region. y The influences of the Middle Eastern domes and pointed arches in traditional buildings, spiral imagery in Middle Eastern architecture, resulted in the tri-axial shape of the building
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Architecture
Burj Dubai includes163 habitable floors plus 46 maintenance levels in the spire and 9 parking levels in the basement. Floor Area 309,473 m2 y The Residences 900 residence from floor y Armani Residences Armani Residences Dubai has been designed personally by Giorgio Armani. 144 suites.

Pinnacle Spire

Communication (L160) Office (L153)

Observator y (L123) Residence (L108)

Hotel (L39)

Express lifts take office visitors directly to a lounge lobby at Level 123 Communication (L160) Office (L153) Observatory (L123) Residence (L108) y Hotel (L39) . Connected to the tower are The Offices. is a must-see attraction and offers breathtaking views of the city and the surrounding emirate. Burj Dubai. At the Top. with the top three floors merged into a single office.Architecture y Pinnacle Spire The observatory On level 123. a 12-storey annex of prime office space The Corporate Suites: Are located on the highest levels of the tower. They occupy 37 floors.

water tanks and pumps. Located every 30 storeys. These floors occupy the levels just below the spire. y . air-handling units etc. that are essential for the operation of the tower and the comfort of its occupants. y Broadcast and Communications Floors The top four floors have been reserved for communications and broadcasting.Architecture Mechanical Floors Seven double-storey mechanical floors house the equipment that bring Burj Dubai to life. the mechanical floors house the electrical sub-stations.

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with its own high performance concrete corridor walls and perimeter columns. or hexagonal hub y . buttresses the others via a six-sided central core. y The structural system can be described as a ´buttressedµ core. and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the pinnacle.Main Structure & Design The tower superstructure of Burj Dubai is designed as an all reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to level 156. y Designers purposely shaped the structural concrete Burj Dubai ² ´Yµ shaped in plan ² to reduce the wind forces on the tower. Each wing. as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability.

Main Structure & Design .

Structural Analysis & Design y y The top section of the Tower consists of a structural steel spire utilizing a diagonally braced lateral system. The structural steel spire was designed for gravity. wind.The exterior exposed steel is protected with a flame applied aluminum finish . seismic and fatigue in accordance with the requirements of AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (1999).

y . y The advantage of the stepping and shaping is to ´confuse the windµ. The setbacks are organized with the tower·s grid. such that the building stepping is accomplished by aligning columns above with walls below to provide a smooth load path.Main Structure & Design The result is a tower that is extremely stiff laterally and torsionally similar to a closed tube. The wind vortices never get organized because at each new tier the wind encounters a different building shape. y Each tier of the building sets back in a spiral stepping pattern up the building.

Main Structure .

.Structural Analysis & Design y The center hexagonal walls are buttressed by the wing walls and hammer head walls which behave as the webs and flanges of a beam to resist the wind shears and moments.

all of the vertical concrete is utilized to support both gravity and lateral loads. .Structural Analysis & Design y Outriggers at the mechanical floors allow the columns to participate in the lateral load resistance of the structure. hence.

The core walls are typically linked through a series of 800mm to 1100mm deep reinforced concrete or composite link beams at every level.Structural Analysis & Design Concrete Dimensions y y The core walls vary in thickness from 1300mm to 500mm. . The residential and hotel floor framing system of the Tower consists of 200mm to 300mm two-way reinforced concrete flat plate slabs spanning approximately 9 meters between the exterior columns and the interior core wall.

. a width of 650 mm and a height of 825 mm.Structural Analysis & Design Link Beams y y The demands on the link beams vary greatly.85. The typical link beams used in the Burj Dubai are quite stocky with a shear-span ratio (l/2h) of 0.

The conventional deep beam design method in the ACI 318-992 2. y . with Appendix A enabling the design of link beams somewhat beyond the conventionally designed maximum deep beam stress limit. 3.Structural Analysis & Design Link Beams For the design of reinforced concrete link beams: 1. In the case of members subjected to very large shear forces. Strut-and-tie method in ACI 318-023 were used. embedded built-up structural steel sections were provided within the core of the concrete link beams to carry the entire shear and flexure demand.

Strut and Tie model for the Link Beam .

Design Details of Link Beams y The geometry. factored loads. . are shown in Table 1. LB1 to LB4. and design methods of four Burj Dubai link beams.

Design Details of Link Beams .

after the time-dependant shortening effects of creep and shrinkage. will be greater than the asdesigned final height. y . This vertical compensation was selected to ensure the actual height of the structure. Each story is being constructed incorporating a modest increase in the typical floor-to-floor height.Structural Analysis & Design Clear Heights y The tower is being constructed utilizing a horizontal compensation program.

000 nodes . The full 3D analysis model consisted of over73. piles. wind. and the spire structural steel system. and seismic loadings by ETABS version 8. slabs.500 shells and 75. link beams.Structural Analysis & Design y y y The structure was analyzed for gravity (including P-Delta analysis).4 . The three-dimensional analysis model consisted of the reinforced concrete walls. raft.

Structural Analysis & Design Design Code The reinforced concrete structure was designed in accordance with the requirements of ACI 318-02 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. .

Structural Analysis & Design Seismic Loads ‡ Dubai is situated towards the eastern edge of the geologically stable Arabian Plate and separated from the unstable Iranian Fold Belt to the north by the Arabian Gulf.15 and soil profile Sc. . The site is therefore considered to be located within a seismically active area. ‡ The Dubai Municipality (DM) specifies Dubai as a UBC97 Zone 2a seismic region with a seismic zone factor Z = 0.

‡ Dr Max Irvine developed site-specific seismic reports for the project. ‡ Seismic loading typically did not govern the design of the reinforced concrete tower structure.Structural Analysis & Design Seismic Analysis ‡ The seismic analysis consisted of a site-specific response spectra analysis. But did govern the design of the steel spire. . including a seismic hazard analysis.

‡ The second mode is a perpendicular lateral sidesway with a period of 10.2 seconds. ‡ Torsion is the fifth mode with a period of 4.3 seconds .Structural Analysis & Design Dynamic Analysis ‡ The dynamic analysis indicated the first mode is lateral sidesway with a period of 11.3 seconds .

Types of wind y Winds that are of interest in the design of buildings can be classified into three major types Prevailing Winds (Trade winds) seasonal winds local winds .

y . The variations in the local winds are referred to as gusts.Types of wind The characteristics of the prevailing and seasonal winds are analytically studied together. whereas those of local winds are studied separately. y The variations in the speed of prevailing and seasonal winds are referred to as fluctuations in mean velocity.

‡ Dynamic nature of wind²structure interaction. ‡ Wind turbulence. . ‡ Statistical probability.CHARACTERISTICS OF WIND ‡ Variation of wind velocity with height. ‡ Vortex shedding phenomenon.

.Variation of Wind Velocity with Height y The viscosity of air reduces its velocity adjacent to the earth·s surface to almost zero.

Wind Turbulence y For structural engineering purposes. velocity of wind can be considered as having two components: Mean velocity component that increases with height. . Turbulent velocity that remains the same over height.

Probabilistic Approach
In wind engineering the speed of wind is considered to vary with return periods. y For example, the fastest-mile wind 33 ft (10 m) above ground in Dallas, TX, corresponding to a 50-year return period,(30 m/s), compared to the value of (31.7 m/s) for a 100-year recurrence interval.
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Vortex Shedding
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The flow of wind is simplified and considered two-dimensional
Along wind transverse wind

Vortex Shedding
At low wind speeds, shedding occurs at the same instant on either side of the building, It is therefore subject to along-wind oscillations parallel to the wind direction y At higher speeds, the vortices are shed alternately, first from one and then from the other side. there is an impulse in the along-wind direction as before, but in addition, there is an impulse in the transverse direction.
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Wind behavior .

y Wind loads. therefore. need to be studied as if they were dynamic in nature.Dynamic Nature of Wind Wind loads associated with gustiness or turbulence creating effects much larger than if the same loads were applied gradually. y . y The intensity of a wind load depends on how fast it varies and also on the response of the structure.

including most importantly the data from Dubai International Airport.7 m/s in standard open terrain at the 10 m level. y y . Gust data from all stations were merged into the equivalent a super-station to obtain an enlarged database The 50 year 3 second gust from this analysis was estimated to be 37.WIND CLIMATE STUDIES y In the course of the Burj Dubai studies local ground based data from several weather stations in the region were used.

5 m/s. y y .7 m/s to 37. again in standard open terrain conditions at 10 m.6 m/s.WIND CLIMATE STUDIES y In addition the mean hourly data from Dubai were used to obtain a model of the parent distribution of hourly winds This yielded a 50 year mean hourly speed of 23. Depending on exactly which method one used to estimate the relationship between mean and gust speeds the corresponding gust was estimated to be in the range 35.

y y .WIND CLIMATE STUDIES y An important question when designing a tower of over 600 m height is the nature of the wind velocity profile and wind turbulence in the upper levels. It is a large extrapolation to go from ground-based data at the 10 m height to heights of over 600 m using standard assumptions Therefore for Burj Dubai more direct measurements of upper level winds were sought. where about 16 years of data were available taken on average about twice per day. The closest station with balloon records was Abu Dhabi.

WIND CLIMATE STUDIES .

The Wind Engineering of the Burj Dubai Tower
For a building of this height and slenderness, wind forces and the resulting motions in the upper levels become dominant factors in the structural design. y The local wind pressures on the building envelope and the wind speeds around the base of the building and on terraces at various levels were of concern.
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WIND-TUNNEL ENGINEERING
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Therefore, an extensive program of wind tunnel tests and other studies were undertaken
Rigid pressure model High-frequency force-balance technique Full multi-degree of freedom aeroelastic model study Measurements of local pressures Pedestrian wind environment studies

‡ These studies used models mostly at 1:500 scale but for the pedestrian wind studies a larger scale of 1:250 was utilized

Rigid Pressure Model (PM)
The primary purpose of the rigidmodel test is for obtaining cladding design pressures, get the floor-by-floor shear forces for the design of the overall main wind-force-resisting frame. y The wind-tunnel test is run for a duration of about 60 sec which corresponds to approximately 1 hr in real time.
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Cladding Pressure Testing .

Cladding Pressure Testing .

The fluctuating load from the unsteady nature of the wind that results in oscillation of the building Inertia forces similar to the lateral forces induced in a building during earthquakes . that bends and twists a building.HighHigh-Frequency Base Force Balance Model y The effect of wind load on a flexible building can be considered as an integrated action resulting from three distinct sources The mean wind load.

at each level y .HighHigh-Frequency Base Force Balance Model A rigid model is convenient for measuring local wind pressures consisting of positive and negative pressures distributed uniquely around a building. y These local pressures are integrated to derive net lateral forces in two perpendicular directions and a torsional moment about a vertical axis.

It is necessary to assume a conservative gust factor to increase the mean values. y y .HighHigh-Frequency Base Force Balance Model y These values have been sufficient for the design of buildings bracing system. HFBFB ignore the influence of gust factor.

y .WIND LOADING ON THE MAIN STRUCTURE To determine the wind loading on the main structure wind tunnel tests were undertaken early in the design using the high-frequencyforce-balance technique. y The model itself is rigid and is mounted on a fast response force balance y The technique is that it is relatively quick to undertake and provides the complete spectra of the wind generated modal forces acting on the tower.

The wind tunnel data were then combined with the dynamic properties of the tower in order to compute the tower·s dynamic response and the overall effective wind force distributions at full scale using aeroelastic model analysis y .WIND LOADING ON THE MAIN STRUCTURE y The results of the force balance tests were used as early input for the structural design and allowed parametric studies to be undertaken on the effects of varying the tower·s stiffness and mass distribution.

The building has essentially six important wind directions .

than from the opposite direction (tail).Orientation of the tower It was noticed that the force spectra for different wind directions showed less excitation in the important frequency range for winds impacting the pointed or nose end of a wing. y . south and east. y most frequent strong wind directions for Dubai: northwest.

.HighHigh-Frequency Base Force Balance Model y y Several rounds of force balance tests were undertaken as the geometry of the tower evolved and was refined architecturally After each round of wind tunnel testing. the data was analyzed and the building was reshaped to minimize wind effects and accommodate unrelated changes in the Client·s program.

Original Configuration .

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y The aeroelastic studies require similarity of the inertia. y .Aeroelastic model study Aeroelastic model study attempts to take the guesswork out of the gust factor computation by measuring directly the magnitude of dynamic loads. and damping characteristics of the building. stiffness.

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the building is slender. in addition to providing information on the overall wind-induced mean and dynamic loads.e. i. Approximate calculations show that there is a likelihood of vortex shedding phenomenon. y . Factors may be used as a guide in making a decision aeroelastic model study The building height-to-width ratio is greater than about 5.Aeroelastic model study y Aeroelastic study basically examines the windinduced sway response..

making it torsionally flexible. The structural stiffness is concentrated in the interior of the building. The calculated period of oscillation of the building is long. in excess of 4 or 5 sec.25 to 1.57 kN/m3). . A building with a braced central core is one such example.Aeroelastic model study The structure is light in density on the order of 8 to 10 lb/ft3 (1.

Aeroelastic model study It is more accurate than a force balance study since the aeroelastic interaction between the structure and wind is fully simulated. y . y Accurate determination of the relationship between peak response and RMS response.

Aeroelastic model study For the Burj Dubai the modal deflection shapes were similar to those of a tapered cantilevered column. y Therefore it was possible to obtain excellent agreement between frequencies and mode shapes on the model with those predicted at full scale by using a single machined metal spine in the model with outer shell segments attached to it. y .

. Bending moments were measured at the base as well as at several higher levels. Accelerations were also measured in the upper levels.Aeroelastic model study y The aeroelastic model was able to model the first six sway modes.

y . y Part of this was identified as a Reynolds number effect because the force balance tests had been run at lower Reynolds number.Comparing aeroelastic model test results force balance results It was found that the base moment and the accelerations in the upper levels were significantly lower in the aeroelastic model results.

.Comparing aeroelastic model test results force balance results y Differences between the force balance method and the aeroelastic method on Burj Dubai Due to approximations in the force balance procedure as applied to a highly tapered towered. which entails reducing the Reynolds number. Force balance method keep model resonance frequencies high enough to avoid them interfering with the frequency range of interest and one solution is to run at lower tunnel wind speeds.

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at over 37 milli-g for the 5 year return period By the end of 2004 November 2003 they had come down to about 19 milli-g for the same return period y y . Initial predictions obtained in May 2003.BUILDING MOTIONS y Based on the High-Frequency-Force-Balance test results combined with local wind statistics the building motions in terms of peak accelerations were predicted for various return periods in the 1 to 10 year range.

The accelerations were reduced to the range of 12 milli-g. y y . structural improvements and shape adjustments.BUILDING MOTIONS y Half of this improvement came about as a result of improved knowledge of the wind statistics and the rest through re-orientation. Several variations of tower height were tested using aeroelastic models.

0% of gravity (20 mg) for a 10-year return period.Human Response to Building Motions y Building motion under the action of wind is a serviceability issue. A commonly used criterion is to limit the acceleration of a building·s upper floors to no more than 2. y .

Some of it will be deflected upward.PEDESTRIAN WIND STUDIES y A sheet of air moving over the earth·s surface is reluctant to rise when it meets an obstacle such as a tall building. but most of it will spiral to the ground. y . creating a so-called standing vortex or mini tornado at sidewalk level. it prefers to flow around the building rather than over it Wind is driven in two directions.

y . known as the Marilyn Monroe effect. y Another effect. refers to the billowing action of women·s skirts in the turbulence of wind around and in the vicinity of a building. referring to the tendency of the wind to lift the pedestrian literally off his or her feet.PEDESTRIAN WIND STUDIES Smooth-skinned skyscrapers may be subjected to what is called the Mary Poppins syndrome.

Two aspects of pedestrian comfort were considered: the effect of the mechanical force of the wind thermal comfort y .PEDESTRIAN WIND STUDIES y The comfort of pedestrians at ground level and on the numerous terrace levels was evaluated by combining wind speed measurements on wind tunnel models with the local wind statistics and other climatic information.

PEDESTRIAN WIND STUDIES Initial wind tunnel tests used 1:500 scale models. y Subsequently three 1:250 scale partial models were employed to examine ground level areas. y .

Foundations .

specialist laboratory testing and contamination testing ‡ 3 geophysical boreholes with cross-hole ‡ tomography geophysical surveys . ‡ installation of 4 standpipe piezometers.Soil Investigation Hyder Consulting (UK) Ltd (HCL) were appointed geotechnical consultant for the works by Emaar and carried out the design of the foundation system Soil Investigation in 4 stages included: ‡ 23 boreholes ‡ in situ SPT·s ‡ 40 pressuremeter tests in 3 boreholes. ‡ laboratory testing.

‡ therefore the defects noted in the earlier rock cores may not have been representative of the actual defects present in the rock mass. ‡ Phase 4 of the investigation was targeted to assess the difference in core quality and this indicated that the differences were probably related to the drilling fluid used and the overall quality of drilling .Soil Investigation ‡ The quality of core recovered in some of the earlier boreholes was somewhat poorer than that recovered in later boreholes.

‡ Measures implemented include specialized waterproofing systems: 1. A controlled permeability formwork liner .Soil Investigation & Ground Water ‡ The groundwater in which the Burj Dubai substructure is constructed is particularly severe. Stringent crack control design criteria and 4. Addition of corrosion inhibitors to the concrete mix 3. Impressed current cathodic protection system utilizing titanium mesh . 5. ‡ The chloride and sulfate concentrations found in the groundwater are even higher than the concentrations in sea water. Increased concrete cover 2.

A robust cathodic protection system for both the bored piles and the raft foundation . and a water to cement ratio of 0. ‡ The concrete mix for the piles was a 60 MPa mix based on a triple blend with 25% fly ash.32. 7% silica fume.Ground Water & Concrete Mix ‡ A specially designed concrete mix was formulated to resist attack from the ground water. ‡ The concrete was also designed as a fully self consolidating concrete.

45m long with the tower raft founded at -7. When the rebar cage was placed in the piles.55m The C60 (cube strength) SCC concrete was placed by the tremie method utilizing polymer slurry. special attention was paid to orient the rebar cage such that the raft bottom rebar could be threaded through the numerous pile rebar cages without interruption.Piles y y y The Tower raft is supported by 194 boredcast-inplace piles 1. . which greatly simplified the raft construction.5m diameter and 47.

e.e. In addition. Static load tests on eight works piles. dynamic pile testing was carried out on 10 of the works piles for the tower and 31 piles for the podium. 2. carried out during the foundation construction phase (i. on about 1% of the total number of piles constructed). on about 5% of the total works piles. i. 4. Static load tests on seven trial piles prior to foundation construction. 3. Sonic integrity testing was also carried out on a number of the works piles. .Pile Testing 1.

allowing various factors to be investigated. The effects of lateral loading 6. The effects of shaft grouting 3. The effect of cyclic loading y . as follows: 1.Static Testing on trial piles The main purpose of the tests was to assess the general load-settlement behaviour of piles of the anticipated length below the tower. The effects of increasing the pile shaft length 2. and to verify the design assumptions. Each of the test piles was different. The effects of uplift (tension) loading 5. The effects of reducing the shaft diameter 4.

000 ton each.000 ton. The Tower pile load test supported over 6. The piles are 1.5 meter in diameter and approximately 43 meters long with a design capacity of 3. .Static Working Pile Test y y The Tower raft is supported by 194 bored cast-in-place piles.

When the construction was at Level 135.Settlement y It was determined the maximum long-term settlement over time would be about a maximum of 80mm . the average foundation settlement was 30mm y . This settlement would be a gradual curvature of the top of grade over the entire large site.

y . y Utilize optimum formwork system to accommodate various building shapes along the building height. y Develop organized logistic plans throughout the construction period. y Develop optimum transportation systems with large capacity high speed equipment.Construction Achieve a three (3) day-cycle for structural works. y Apply all high-rise construction technologies available at the time of construction.

Planning for the concrete work ‡ Prior to the construction of the tower. Tests are needed to confirm the construction sequence of these large elements and to develop curing plans that are appropriate for the project. considering major daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations ‡ . extensive concrete testing and quality control programs were put in place to ensure that all concrete works are done in agreement with all parties involved.

Mechanical properties. Water penetration tests and rapid chloride permeability test. Shrinkage test program for all concrete mix designs. and split tensile strength. Creep and shrinkage test program for all concrete mix design. including compressive strength. Durability tests which included initial surface absorption test and 30 minute absorption test.Testing Regimes for Concrete ‡ Trial mix designs for all concrete types needed for the ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ project. Heat of hydration analysis and tests. . Pump simulation test for all concrete mix design grades up to at least 600 meters. modulus of elasticity.

Testing Regimes for Concrete ‡ Creep Test .

Testing Regimes for Concrete ‡ Pump Simulation Test :using over 600m of pipe length to confirm the pump capacity and evaluate the overall pressure losses in the pipes due to friction /connections /concrete type .

Testing Regimes for Concrete ‡ Pump Simulation .

Testing Regimes for Concrete ‡ Heat of Hydration Make-op Test .

high modulus.Technologies used to achieve 3-day cycles 3‡ Auto Climbing formwork system (ACS) ‡ Rebar pre-fabrication ‡ High performance concrete suitable for providing high strength. part of ACS formwork system . and pumping ‡ Advanced concrete pumping technology ‡ Simple drop head formwork system that can be dismantled and assembled quickly with minimum labor requirements ‡ Column/Wall proceeding method. high durability requirement.

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.Sequence of Construction and ACS The ACS form work is divided into four sections consisting of the center core wall that is followed by the wing wall construction along each of the three tower wings.

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Rebar Pre-fabrication Pre‡ Most of the reinforcing bars for the core walls. ‡ This rebar fabrication and pre-assembly method resulted in man quality control advantages and reduced the number of workers going up and down the tower. wing walls. . and the nose columns were prefabricated at the ground level. ‡ The rebar was assembled in double story modules to speed up the vertical element construction time.

resulting in maximum reusability of formwork & economy) used for the slab construction .Slab Formwork System Drop head system (also known as slab support system is specially designed to sustain a large combination of grid sizes.

However. the shoring props at the upper-most slab were left undisturbed Day 0 : Con¶c Pouring Day 1 : Slab formwork Day 2 : Slab formwork : Rebar Installation : MEP N+1 Day 3 : Con¶c Pouring N+0 Form N-1 Additional Raking Shore Form N-2 1/2 of Raking Shore 1/2 of Raking Shore 2/3 of Prop 2/3 of Prop N-5 1/3 of Prop 1/2 of Raking Shore 2/3 of Prop Form Form N-3 N-4 .Slab Formwork System The slab shoring system consists of four levels of shores and one level of reshore to control the maximum loads in the slabs at the lowest level.

5 Lines (1 for back up) CPB#3 CPB#2 . of 28m boom for Wing Core .7 m Pouring Method Direct Pumping Re-pumping Hopper by T/C Remarks Target Height (RC Structure) Secondary Pump on L124 (East wing 442m) From Ground Level Concrete Pump Level Pressure Output Engin e 470 kw 200 kw Remarks 2 nos.3nos. Pipe Lines . of Main 1 no. THK 11mm .D150mm.32m boom for Center Core .Concrete Pumping Level Ground ~ L145 L146 ~ L160M L160M ~ Spire1 Height 531 m 624 m 681. of Stand by Secondary Pumping CPB#4 CPB#1 Pumping Area (Ground Level) Pipe Lines Pump#1~ #3 185 / 320 bar 220 / 260 bar 71 / 36 m3/hr Pump#4 110 m3/hr Concrete Placing Boom .

Pipe Lines .5 Lines (1 for back up) Pumping Area Pump#1~#3 . (L112) for West Wing Line#2. THK 11mm .Concrete Pumping Pinnacle Line#1. (Secondary Pump on L124) Line#3. (L160) for Back up L160Mezzanine : Steel Structure L154 : RC Structure Pump#4. (L124) for East Wing Line#4.D150mm. (L160) for Center Core Top of Finial : Spire Line#5. (L139) for South Wing .

Concrete Pumping .

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varies in thickness from 60mm at the lowest level to 30mm at the top. ‡ The erection of the spire and the pinnacle starts from level 156.Spire Erection and Pinnacle Assembly ‡ At Level 156. and the erection of the spire was done in traditional steel construction method. the pinnacle pipe sections are stacked from level 156 and lifted to the final position from within the spire . However. the reinforced concrete core wall will reach its highest point and serves as the foundation for the spire·s structural steel works. which consists of 1200mm-2100mm diameter structural steel pipe. ‡ The central pinnacle structure.

Spire Erection and Pinnacle Assembly The sequence of the pinnacle installation is shown in Figure below and as follows: ‡ Erection of the spire structure ‡ Installation of the support beam ‡ Installation of the lifting block and assemblies ‡ Installation of the lifting equipment and assemblies ‡ Lifting the pinnacle in a three step process ‡ Installing cladding after each lift ‡ Completing lift of the pinnacle and all connection ‡ connections (gravity and lateral) Completion of the cladding installation .

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Survey & Monitoring ‡ Low Level Tower Control (Classical Control Method ) XYZ XYZ XYZ XYZ .

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Evacuation Burj Dubai has built in fire protection as its concrete back bone is naturally fire resistant But how will people go out in an emergency? The answer they don·t ‡ The burj dubai contains 9 special rooms build throw layers of reinforced concrete and fire proof sheeting ‡ The walls of these rooms will stand the heat of a fire for 2 hours ‡ Each room has special supply of air pumped throw fire resistant pipes. sealed fire proofed doors stop smoke from leaking in .

Evacuation ‡ There is 1 of these rooms in about every 30 floors  ‡ How they prevent the smoke from blocking the access route to the rooms? Early warning system: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Fire activate a smoke detector Heat sensor Water sprinklers Net work of high power fans kick in Fans force new clean cool air throw fire resistant ducts into the building The fresh air pushes the smoke out of the stair way keeping the evacuation route clear. .

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Outside coat reflects the daily solar heat comes direct from the sun. The metal coating deflects U.V. Radiation that will otherwise heat up the building .Cladding ‡ 30000 glass panels of high quality European glass enough to cover 17 football fields ‡ The glass is thicker at the top to resist the high wind ‡ Its designed to let the maximum light in and to keep heat out Sun screen (inside face) is useless against infrared from the hot desert sun so the inner plan is coated with a thin layer of silver that keeps the heat rays out.

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57 elevators and eight escalators to streamline the needs of the residents and visitors to commute within the tower. builders of Burj Dubai ensure a speedy journey from the ground to the 160th floor. ‡ . These elevators mark the highest installation in any building and have been developed by Otis.Elevators ‡ With an ¶intelligent elevator installation· mechanism.

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Thank You Mosatafa atteya Ahmed Essam Ramez Nazir Mohamed Salah .

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