You are on page 1of 36

1 2011 .

1
1.1 . . . . . .
1.2 .
1.3 . . . . . . . .
1.4 . . .
1.5 . . . . . .
1.6 . . . . . . .
1.7 . . . . . . .
2
2.1 . . . .
2.2 .
2.3 . .

. . . .
. . . .
. . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

3
3
6
9
12
15
17
18

20
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3
3.1 . .
3.2
3.3 .
3.4 .
3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

27
27
28
29
30
32

4
34
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5
35
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

36

1
1.1
(Trigonometric functions).
(Sine)
sin(x), x (, ), y [1, 1]
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(Cosine)
cos(x), x (, ), y [1, 1]
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(Tangent)
tan(x) =

sin(x)
, x (/2, /2), y (, )
cos(x)

x (k/2, (k + 2)/2), y (, ), k = 1, 3, 5, . . .
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: , : ) (Cotangent)
cot(x) =

cos(x)
, x (0, ), y (, )
sin(x)

x (k, (k + 1)), y (, ), k = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: , : ) (Secant)
sec(x) =

1
, x (/2, /2), y (, 1] [1, )
cos(x)

x (k/2, (k + 2)/2), y (, 1] [1, ), k = 1, 3, 5, . . .


3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: , : ) (Cosecant)
csc(x) =

1
, x (0, ), y (, 1] [1, )
sin(x)

x (k, (k + 1)), y (, 1] [1, ), k = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .


3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

1.2
(Inverse trigonometric functions). Arc
(Arc stands for arcus).
(Inverse sine)
arcsin(x), x [1, 1], y [/2, /2]
x [1, 1], y [k/2, (k + 2)/2], k = 1, 3, 5, . . .
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(Inverse cosine)
arccos(x), x [1, 1], y [0, ]
x [1, 1], y [k, (k + 1)], k = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(Inverse tangent)
arctan(x), x (, ), y (/2, /2)
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: arctan, : arccot) (Inverse cotangent)


arccot(x) =

arctan(x), x (, ), y (0, )
2

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: arccos, : arcsec) (Inverse secant)


arcsec(x) = arccos(x1 ) = arccos(1/x)
x (, 1], y (/2, ] x [1, ), y [0, /2)
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: arcsin, : arccsc) (Inverse cosecant)


arccsc(x) = arcsin(x1 ) = arcsin(1/x)
x (, 1], y [/2, 0) x [1, ), y (0, /2]
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

1.3
(Hyperbolic functions).
(Hyperbolic sine)
sinh(x) =

ex ex
, x (, ), y (, )
2

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(Hyperbolic cosine)
cosh(x) =

ex + ex
, x (, ), y [1, )
2

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

10

(Hyperbolic tangent)
tanh(x) =

sinh(x)
ex ex
e2x 1
= x
, x (, ), y (1, 1)
=
cosh(x)
e + ex
e2x + 1

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: tanh, : coth) (Hyperbolic cotangent)


coth(x) =

cosh(x)
ex + ex
= x
, x (, 0) (0, ), y (, 1) (1, )
sinh(x)
e ex
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

11

(: cosh, : sech) (Hyperbolic secant)


sech(x) =

1
2
= x
, x (, ), y (0, 1]
cosh(x)
e + ex

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: sinh, : csch) (Hyperbolic cosecant)


csch(x) =

1
2
= x
, x (, 0) (0, ), y (, 0) (0, )
sinh(x)
e ex
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

12

1.4
() (Inverse (area) hyperbolic functions). Ar
(Ar stands for area).
(Inverse hyperbolic sine)

arsinh(x) = ln(x + x2 + 1), x (, ), y (, )


3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(I : +, IV : )
(Inverse hyperbolic cosine)

arcosh(x) = ln(x x2 1), x [1, ), y (, )


3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

13

(Inverse hyperbolic tangent)


artanh(x) =

1 1+x
ln
, x (1, 1), y (, )
2 1x

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: artanh, : arcoth)
(Inverse hyperbolic cotangent)
arcoth(x) = artanh(1/x) =

1 x+1
ln
2 x1

x (, 1) (1, ), y (, 0) (0, )
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

14

(I : +, IV : ) (: arcosh, : arsech) (Inverse hyperbolic secant)

1 1 x2
, x (0, 1], y (, )
arsech(x) = arcosh(1/x) = ln
x
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(I : +, III : )
(: arsinh, : arcsch) (Inverse hyperbolic cosecant)

1 1 + x2
, x 6= 0, y 6= 0
arcsch(x) = arsinh(1/x) = ln
x
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

15

1.5

1.5

0.5

sin(x)

-0.5

cos(x)

-1

-1.5
-1

cosh(x)
sinh(x)

1
ex/2

e-x/2

-ex/2

-e-x/2

-1

-2
-3

-2

-1


y = ax , x (, ), y (0, ), a > 0, a 6= 1

16

(Exponential function)
y = ex , x (, ), y (0, )
:

lim

1+

1
n

n

eln(x) = x, ex+y = ex ey

x n
= e = 2.7(1828), lim 1 +
= exp(x) = ex
n
n

-2

-4
-10

-5

10

(Logarithmic function)
y = loga (x), x (0, ), y (, ), a > 0, a 6= 1
(Natural logarithm)
y = ln(x), x (0, ), y (, )
:
 
x
ln(e ) = x, ln(x) + ln(y) = ln(xy), ln(x) ln(y) = ln
y
x

 
x
ln(x) ln(y) = ln(x) + (1) ln(y) = ln(x) + ln(y ) = ln(xy ) = ln
y
1

(: ex , : ln(x)):

17

-2

-4
-10

-5

10

1.6
:
x0 =

1
1
0

y
=
y0
x0

:
y = ln(x) x = ey (= f 1 (y))
1
1
(ey )0 =
=
= x = ey
0
(ln(x))
1/x
:
y = arctan(x) x = tan(y)
1
1
1
1
2
(arctan(x))0 =
=
=
cos
(y)
=
=
2
(tan(y))0
1/ cos2 (y)
1 + tan (y)
1 + x2
:
(sin(x))0 = cos(x), (cos(x))0 = sin(x),
(tan(x))0 =

1
1
, (cot(x))0 = 2 ,
2
cos (x)
sin (x)

(sec(x))0 = sec(x) tan(x) =


(arcsin(x))0 =
(arctan(x))0 =

sin(x)
cos(x)
, (csc(x))0 = csc(x) cot(x) = 2 ,
2
cos (x)
sin (x)

1
1
, (arccos(x))0 =
,
1 x2
1 x2

1
1
, (arccot(x))0 =
,
2
1+x
1 + x2

18

1
1
(arcsec(x))0 =
, (arccsc(x))0 =
,
2
x x 1
x x2 1
(sinh(x))0 = cosh(x), (cosh(x))0 = sinh(x),
(tanh(x))0 =

1
1
, (coth(x))0 =
,
2
cosh (x)
sinh2 (x)

(sech(x))0 = sech(x) tanh(x), (csch(x))0 = csch(x) coth(x),


1
1
(arsinh(x))0 =
, (arcosh(x))0 =
,
2
2
x 1
x +1
(artanh(x))0 =

1
1
, (arcoth(x))0 =
,
2
1x
1 x2

1
1
, (arcsch(x))0 =
,
(arsech(x))0 =
x 1 x2
x 1 + x2
(ax )0 = ax ln(a), (ex )0 = ex ,
(loga (x))0 =

1
1
, (ln(x))0 = ,
x ln(a)
x

(xn )0 = nxn1 , (Cx)0 = C, C 0 = 0.

1.7
:
x3
4x
y=
3
10

-5

-10
-10

-5

10

19

x2 4, 2 2. 2 , . 2 ,
.
, .
10

-5

-10
-10

-5

10

2x, . ,
. , (/ ).
10

-5

-10
-10

-5

10

2
2.1
x2 y 2
+
= 1.
42 42
: x = cos(t), y = sin(t), x = 4 cos(t), y = 4 sin(t).

: x2 + y 2 = 1, x2 + y 2 = 16

-2

-4
-4

-2

x2 (y 5)2
(x 10)2 (y 10)2
+
= 1,
+
= 1.
7
7
25
25

: x = 7 cos(t), y = 7 sin(t) + 5, x = 5 cos(t) + 10, y =


5 sin(t) + 10.

20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

21

(x 5)2 y 2
(x 10)2 (y 10)2
+
= 1,
+
= 1.
25
9
8
49

: x = 5 cos(t) + 5, y = 3 sin(t), x = 8 cos(t) + 10, y =


7 sin(t) + 10.

{gnuplot: plot 5*cos(t) + 5, 3*sin(t), sqrt(8.)*cos(t) + 10, 7*sin(t) + 10}


20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

2.2
: x2 y 2 = 1, (x 5)2 (y 10)2 = 1.
1
1
: x =
, y = tan(t), x =
+ 5, y = tan(t) + 10.
cos(t)
cos(t)
{gnuplot: plot 1/cos(t), tan(t), 1/cos(t) + 5, tan(t) + 10}
20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

22

: y 2 x2 = 1, (y 5)2 (x 15)2 = 1.
1
1
: x = tan(t), y =
, x = tan(t) + 15, y =
+ 5.
cos(t)
cos(t)
{gnuplot: plot tan(t), 1/cos(t), tan(t) + 15, 1/cos(t) + 5}
20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

(x 5)2 (y 10)2

= 1.
9
16
3
3
: x =
, y = tan(t), x =
+ 5, y = 4 tan(t) + 10.
cos(t)
cos(t)
{gnuplot: plot 3/cos(t), tan(t), 3/cos(t) + 5, 4*tan(t) + 10}

x2
y 2 = 1,
9

20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

23

(y 5)2 (x + 2)2
(x 15)2 (y 10)2

= 1,

= 1.
8
2
7
11

8
7
: x = 2 tan(t) 2, y =
+ 5, x =
+ 15, y =
cos(t)
cos(t)

11 tan(t) + 10.

{gnuplot: plot sqrt(2.)*tan(t) - 2, sqrt(8.)/cos(t) + 5,


sqrt(7.)/cos(t) + 15, sqrt(11.)*tan(t) + 10}
20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

: x2 y 2 = 1, (x 5)2 (y 10)2 = 1.
: x = cosh(t), y = sinh(t), x = cosh(t) + 5, y = sinh(t) + 10.
{gnuplot: plot cosh(t), sinh(t), cosh(t) + 5, sinh(t) + 10}
20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

24

, :
x = cosh(t), y = sinh(t)

x = cosh(t) + 5, y = sinh(t) + 10

{gnuplot: plot -cosh(t), -sinh(t), -cosh(t) + 5, -sinh(t) + 10}


20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

(y 14)2 (x 7)2
(y 7)2
= 1,

= 1.
: x
8
9
4

: x = cosh(t), y = 8 sinh(t) + 7, x = 3 sinh(t) + 14, y =


2 cosh(t) + 7.

: x = cosh(t), y = 8 sinh(t) + 7, x = 3 sinh(t) +


14, y = 2 cosh(t) + 7.
2

20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

25

2.3
: y = x2 , y = (x 5)2 , y 5 = (x 5)2 .
: x = t, y = t2 , x = t + 5, y = t2 , x = t + 5, y = t2 + 5.
{gnuplot: plot t, t**2, t + 5, t**2, t + 5, t**2 + 5}
20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

: y 2 = x, (y 5)2 = x + 2, (y 15)2 = x 15.


: x = t2 , y = t, x = t2 2, y = t+5, x = t2 +15, y = t+15.
{gnuplot: plot t**2, t, t**2 - 2, t + 5, -t**2 + 15, t + 15}
20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

26

: y = 8x2 , y 2 = 8x.
: x = t, y = 8t2 , x = t2 , y =

8 t.

{gnuplot: plot t, 8*t**2, t**2, sqrt(8.)*t}


20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

: 4(y 8) = 3(x 6)2 , 4(y 2)2 = 7(x 12).


: x = 2t + 6, y = 3t2 + 8, x = 4t2 + 12, y =

{gnuplot: plot 2*t + 6, 3*t**2 + 8, -4*t**2 + 12, sqrt(7.)*t + 2}


20

15

10

-5
-5

10

15

20

7 t + 2.

3
: ( ), (
).

3.1
(): a 6= b 6= c.
(): b = c.
: a = b = c.
{gnuplot: u, v, splot cos(u)*cos(v), sin(u)*cos(v), sin(v)}
x2 y 2 z 2
+ 2 + 2 =1
a2
b
c

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1

-1 -0.8
-0.6 -0.4
-0.2

-0.2
-0.4
0 0.2
-0.6
0.4 0.6
0.8 1-1-0.8

.
x2 y 2 z 2
+ 2 + 2 = 1
a2
b
c
().
x2 y 2 z 2
+ 2 + 2 =0
a2
b
c

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

28

3.2
( , ). : a = b.
{gnuplot: u, v, splot cos(u)/cos(v), sin(u)/cos(v), tan(v)}
x2 y 2 z 2
+ 2 2 =1
a2
b
c

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
3
2
-3

1
-2

-1

-1

-2

3-3

( , ).
{gnuplot: u, v, splot cos(u)*tan(v), sin(u)*tan(v), 1/cos(v)}
x2 y 2 z 2
+ 2 2 = 1
a2
b
c

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

29

(-: x2 + y 2 = z 2 ).
{gnuplot: u, r v, splot cos(u)*v, sin(u)*v, v}
x2 y 2 z 2
+ 2 2 =0
a2
b
c

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

3.3
. : a = b.
{gnuplot: u, r v, splot cos(u)*v, sin(u)*v, v**2}
x2 y 2
+ 2 =z
a2
b

25
20
15
10
5
0

-5 -4
-3 -2
-1

5-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

30

().
{gnuplot: x u, y v, splot u, v, u**2 v**2}
x2 y 2
2 =z
a2
b

25
20
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
6
4
-6

2
-4

-2

0
0

-2
2

-4
6-6

3.4
: a 6= b. : a = b.
{gnuplot: splot cos(u), sin(u), v}
x2 y 2
+ 2 =1
a2
b

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

-1 -0.8
-0.6 -0.4
-0.2

-0.2
-0.4
0 0.2
-0.6
0.4 0.6
0.8 1-1-0.8

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

31

.
x2 y 2
+ 2 = 1
a2
b
Oz (0, 0, z) ().
x2 y 2
+ 2 =0
a2
b
.
{gnuplot: splot 1/cos(u), tan(u), v}
x2 y 2
2 =1
a2
b

4
2
0
-2
-4
4
2
-4

-2

0
-2

-4

.
{gnuplot: splot tan(u), 1/cos(u), v}
x2 y 2
2 = 1
a2
b
Oz.
x2 y 2
2 =0
a2
b

32

.
{gnuplot: splot u, u**2, v}
x2 = y

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
25
20
-6

15
-4

-2

10
2

5
60

3.5
Oyz (x = 0). {gnuplot: splot 0, u, v}

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
6
4
-1

2
0

-0.5

0
x

-2
0.5

-4
1-6

Oxz (y = 0). {gnuplot: splot u, 0, v}

33

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
1
0.5
-6

-4

-2

0
x

-0.5
4

6-1

Oxy (z = 0). {gnuplot: splot u, v, 0}

1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
6
4
-6

2
-4

-2

0
x

-2
2

-4
6-6

4
:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spherical_coordinate_system#Cartesian_coordinates
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_31-11#Coordinate_systems.

4.1
,
= r:
x = r cos(), y = r sin()
, = abr:
x = ar cos(), y = br sin()

4.2
, :
= r:
x = r cos()
y = r sin()
z=z
, = abr:
x = ar cos()
y = br sin()
z=z

4.3
: x y (
Oxy), x; z Oxy,
z.
, : = r2 sin():
x = r sin() cos()
y = r sin() sin()
z = r cos()
, : = abcr2 sin():
x = ar sin() cos()
y = br sin() sin()
z = cr cos()

5
5.1
:

a b = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 = number
:

a b = |
a || b | cos()

:
q
q

|
a | = a21 + a22 + a23 , | b | = b21 + b22 + b23
:

a b
cos() =

|
a || b |
( ).
.

5.2
:


i j k







a1 a2
a2 a3
a1 a3



a b = a1 a2 a3 = i
j
+ k
= vector
b2 b3
b1 b3
b1 b2
b1 b2 b3
:

|
a b | = |
a || b | sin()
.
.

5.3
,
, :


a1 a2 a3

a b
c = (
a b )
c = b1 b2 b3 = number
c1 c2 c3
, .
( ).


: . (,)
: . (), . ()
: . (), . ()
: Wikibooks LaTeX, gnuplot tips, Wikipedia, Wolfram MathWorld
: TeX Live, gnuplot, Notepad++, Sumatra PDF, Windows XP