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cons truction. T his is because during photosynthesis. Forests are also known as the “Green lungs of the Earth”. Quantity: The forest will ensure that there is a continuous flow of water throug h the water cycle. Soil erosion will cause the river bed to be shallower and reduce its abil ity to contain water. 5. Examples include Hunter Gatherers (Korubu tribe i n Amazon) and Shifting Cultivators in Indonesia. 3. Example: During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Fore sts also provide Medicines. 2. 1. However. They are popular among urban people as they can provide solace from stressful daily rout ines. Soil in mangrove forests contains bacteria that can break down biodegradable materials into nutrients. furniture and flooring. 1. there is a limit to the amount of s ewage that can be absorbed. Their roots help trap waste materials and filter th e water before entering the sea. the likelihood of flooding increases when fo rests are cleared. 2. Therefore. Mangrove protects coastal areas from storms and strong wav es 2. forests maintain quality of the soil by preventing nutrient s from being removed by soil erosion. Examples include mahogany a nd teak found in tropical rainforests. 1. 3.Pure Geography SA2 Overall Revision Notes Chapter 3: The Earth’s Natural Vegetation Uses of Forests Function/Use Maintaining the water supply (quantity and quality) Replenishing ox ygen and removing carbon dioxide Maintaining nutrients in the soil Preventing fl oods Protecting coasts Natural treatment of waste water Explanation 1. Absence of roots may lead to soil erosi on. 3. 4. ship building and manufacturing musical instruments. regulating the tempe rature of the Earth 1. 1. Forests are als o home to approximately 60 million people living in the tropical rainforests of South America. reducing the amounts of carbon dioxide will help prevent global temperatures from rising. SEA and Africa. Example: Quinine. therefore people should not just dump all their rubb ish there. 2. 1. Forests provide fuelwood and charcoal as well. Hardwood can be used for furniture making. a drug for treating Malaria is ext racted from the Cinchona tree from the Brazilian rainforest. fishing. The introduction of ecotourism allows urban dwellers to appreciate the beauty of forests and engage in activities which do not harm the environment. 2. Forests are home to more than 50% of all species in the world. 2. 1. making it remain clear and free from substances that i s harmful to organisms. Example of usage of charcoal: Mangrove trees like Rhizophora are cut down in Malaysia’s Matang Forest to produce charcoal . sight-seeing and hiking. 2. mangrove forests prevented some of the coastal villages in South-eastern India from being destroyed. inc luding tigers and rare species of orchids found in tropical rainforests in Malay sia and Grizzly bears in coniferous forests of North America. They also study the interactions between forest animals and their environment with the plants to understand how c hanges in the weather affect the animals and plants in the forest ecosystem whic h helps people to adapt in the process as well. Scientists study forest plants to de velop new medicines and varieties of crops. 1. Quality: The forest will support the natural processes that filter water by reducing the amount of surface runoff. 3. 6. 2. Decomposing vegetation on the forest floor release nutrie nts back into the soil and hold the particles together to prevent the soil to ru n off. Over 2 billion people worldwide still rely on fue lwood as their main source of energy. fir and spruce. making it suitable for drinking and supporting life. 2. 2. trees take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen. Forests can be used for camping. Habitat for Flora and Fauna A source of useful materials Recreation . Ex amples include Taman Negara in Malaysia. Forests provide timber worth more than $200 billion per year. As Carbon Dioxide is a greenhouse gas. Man grove forest can process waste materials carried by water from streams and river s. Examples include pine. Softwood can be used for housing. Therefore. 1.
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1. Contributes about 10% of country’s income Employs about 25% of population 3 main t ypes: Shifting cultivation. Money is required for economic development. 2. 1. hospita ls. 3. Fragmentation: Habitat is separated into many different parts. accounting approx. The 5100km long Transamazonian Highway cutting the Amazon Forest Commercial Farm ing: Sugar cane. gold and fossil fuels like oil. 2. 4. 2. Rapid Urbanisation 1. Brazil is one of the world’s large st debtors. Each relocated family is gi ven a piece of land and offered subsidies to convert the cleared land into farml and. Due to high birth rate in countries 2. Can generate up to 126000 MW of electrici ty. A smal l scale – not a heavy threat Subsistence cultivation: Self-sufficient farming wher e farmers grow enough food to find their family and themselves. Mining: Rich in minerals such as iron ore (high value). agriculture . 3. It can be a rural or urban settlement. subsistence/commercial farming Shifting cultivation: tribal farmers cut down small sections of the forest and burn the trees. Commercial Farming: Huge companies operate it in the form of ex tensive cattle ranching. Largest dam is the Itaipu Dam on the Parana River. Collective pract ice is damaging. Commercia l Logging: Eager to sell timber to developed countries when there is high demand . Example Brazil is one of the most populous country in the world with a populati on of 194 million people in 2005. owning about US $100 billion to foreign banks and thus the country’s n atural resources have to be exploited to pay and reduce national debt. 4. This puts pressure on forested land which is deforested for housing. Hydro-electricity: Construction of dams create large reservoirs that c an flood and destroy rainforest areas. 80% of deforestation. Urbanisation is the physical growth of rural land into urban areas (village s converted to cities) Forested land is cleared for new housing estates. 3. 6. etc. schools. Between 1994-2003 . cultivating area for soy beans nearly doubled to meet high demands. Government is trying to resettle people from densely populated citi es into less densely populated parts of the country. .Pure Geography SA2 Overall Revision Notes Chapter 3: The Earth’s Natural Vegetation Causes of Large – Scale Deforestation Cause Population Increase Explanation 1. coffee and soy beans occupy much forest land. 5. 1. transport and industrial infrastructure. 2. Forest Fires Economic Development and Debt Repayment 1. Settlements are houses and farms people live and own. Burns up thous ands of square kilometres every year. Settlements Land Transport Systems Agriculture 1. 5. Can be caused by natural and/or human caus es.
Deposition of organic debris used to collect on the forest floor in the river increases acidity of the river. No trees to intercept rainfall. they can absorb nutrients from decomposed pl ants from the soil and thus maintain the nutrient cycle. Haze closed airports and affected health. 2. Floods and Water Quality Air Pollution Loss of biodiversity Impact on Inhabitants of Rainforest . 2. surface runoff increased. Deforestation disrupts culture and traditional way of life. 3. The micro-leao-dourado from Brazil i s having difficulty surviving due to the rapid rate of deforestation. Extinction of Flora and Fauna 2. Dust and smoke particles accumulat e in the air Haze 3. 1. 1. may kill aquatic life. more carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere. 3. 1. Eventually. In addition. 3. knowledge and way of life will be lost. Import ance of forests in maintaining soil quality: 1. 2. trapping more heat. When trees die. Millions of square kilometres of rainforests affected. and thus nutrients are returned to the so il. 1. preventing topsoil erosion. increasing height of river bed. If there are abundant trees. increasing frequency of f looding. Populat ion of native Brazilians have been greatly reduced from 1 million in 1550s to 70 0 000 presently. Topso il washed into rivers. Chanc es of discovering useful drugs diminish. leading to global warming. they decompose q uickly under hot and humid conditions.Pure Geography SA2 Overall Revision Notes Chapter 3: The Earth’s Natural Vegetation Consequences of Large – Scale Deforestation Consequences Global Warming Changes to the nutrient cycle and soil deterioration Explanation With the reduction of trees in the rainforest. 2. Destruction and eventual extinction in the long run. 3. culture. Roots h old and protect the soil. 4. Branches help to intercept rainfall.
native people and villages for it to be successful. 1. Success Failure 1. 3. Limit number of trees cut down. MOF arranged for educa tion for timber 1. Refor estation refers to the planting of trees in formerly forested areas cleared by l ogging. withdrawn. Weak enforcement. Setting aside portions of the rainforest to be left undisturbed and protected. It must also involve local governments. Leave t hem undisturbed and protected. Incentives given to local people are not attractive. Protect animal and plant species. activities: Lack of manpower and remoteness of 3. In add ition. Solution Explanation Replace clear cutting. 1. Rates a t which forests are replanted are Reforestation are commonly planted as it grows well. plantation compa nies continue to burn forests as it the cheapest Fires way to clear land. Young trees can grow as overcrowding was affected . Success Failure 1 1. Difficult to monitor and detect illegal logging companies to inform them about the activities: Lack of manpower and remoteness damage. 3. Ferns 3. Since forest fires are a major cause of deforestation and air pollution. and orchids th at grow on the trees may be 4. 3. Prevent excessive logging. much slower at which they are cleared. 4. 2. Ensure a balance between gener ating income through sale of forest resources and protecting forests. 5. Fi nancial support and tax incentives 2. trees like lia nas may affect other trees. culture. Refers to the careful use of resour ces to allow people to use them in the future. Teak trees which are commercially valuable 1. and Policies 2. Limitations: Not very effective. Allow natives to protect their lifestyle and forest areas. reduced. Success Failure Establishment o f Laws 1. Identify commercially valuable trees. others 2. Other plants that twine around 2 or more Logging are retained. forest fires should be con trolled. Loss of origin al biodiversity. 1. Corruption. Difficult to monitor and detect illegal logging Conservation 2. making it no different from plantations. 1 Ministry of Forest Trees . Success Fa ilure Afforestation and 1. of for est areas. Logging permits are cancelled. the locals are also reluctant as this was the traditional way inherited f rom past generations. Allows forest to regenerate. Selective/Controlled 2. 2. Teak is used in the planting of trees as it grows quickly. Afforest ation refers to the planting of trees that were originally not forests. 2. Minimise soil erosion.Pure Geography SA2 Overall Revision Notes Chapter 3: The Earth’s Natural Vegetation Solutions of Large – Scale Deforestation Towards Sustainable Management in Forests 1. Takes a short time (5 years) to grow. Controlling Forest 2. 3. L ogging is allowed but is controlled. 2. Government can limit the number of trees cut down and with draw financial help given to clearance projects.
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