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Casio FX6300G En

Casio FX6300G En

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Published by: Gerardo Varela on Aug 07, 2011
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GRAPHIC SCIENTIFIC
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Introduction
Thank you for your purchase of the CASIO fx-6300G. This unit is a totally new type of advanced programmable calculator. Besides versatile scientific functions, graph functions also make it possible to produce a wide variety of useful graphs. Manual calculations can be easily performed following written formulas (true algebraic logic). A replay function is provided that allows confirmation or correction when key operation errors occur. Programs can also be input by following true algebraic logic, so repeat and/or complex calculations are simplified. All of this power built into a compact configuration that folds up to slip right into your pocket. To use the fx-6300G to its full potential, be sure to carefully read this manual and keep it handy for future reference.

:The content~ of this manual are subject to change without notice. N~ part of this manual may be reproduced in any form without the express written consent of the manufacturer. -In no event will the manufacturer and its suppliers be liable to you or an other person for a~~ damages, expenses, lost profits, lost savings or a/ other damages arising out of use of or inability to use this calculator o~ manual. . -In no event will the manufacturer and its suppliers be liable to you or an o:~er person for a.n~damages, expenses, lost profits, lost savings or an~ o e~ damages arising out of loss of data and/or formulas caused by use of this calculator or manual. -D~e to limitations imposed by printing processes, the displays shown in td~IS manual are only approximations and may differ somewhat from actual isplays.

Important - Reset your calculator before using it for the first time! -------------See page 10 for details on the reset procedure.

Important -

Always back up data! -------

This product features electronic memory that is capable of storing large volumes of data. You must also remember that your data is safely stored as long as power is being supplied to the memory. Data stored in memory will be irreparably damaged or lost entirely if you let battery power become too low, if you make a mistake while replacing batteries, or if power is cut off. Data can also be damaged by strong impact or electrostatic charge, or by environmental extremes. Once data is damaged or lost, it cannot be recovered, so we strongly recommend that you back up all important data.

-2-

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.....::•:...••••.. Coordinate transformation Other functions Fractions 54 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 1-3 Key Layout 1-4 Key Operati~~·~ 20 ~~=e:~:~~~. : :.•. 29 Special operation ke.. ... Decimal.... the number of significant digits and the exponent display . Manual Calculations 2-1 Basic Calculations 44 . :. General Guide .......~~~~~~""""""""""""""""""""""'" Calculation priority sequence Number of stacks Calculation modes .~..t~··~·~d··~~i~~i~t·i~~·d·i··it····················· 32 Overflow and errors gs 33 Number of input charact~~~""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""'" 34 Graphic and text displays 35 2-5 Statistical Calculations 67 67 69 70 71 72 73 E -5- .........••.....: :: •• • 1-5 Before Beginning"~~....:. octal..•.......i -4- Number of input/oui~~i·d....: :.. decimal..:..~ "...·.... Contents About the Power Supply Replacing batteries Auto Power Off function Reset operation 2. • •••••••••••••• '" '" 8 10 8 Handling Pre~~~t'i'~~'~"""""""""""""""""""" 1.. octal. 14 16 16 17 18 19 2-3 Functional Calculations Angular measurement units Trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions Logarithmic and exponential functions Hyperbolic functions and inverse hyperbolic functions . Octal.. hexadecimal conversions Negative expressions Basic arithmetic operations using binary....~~'. Hexadecimal Calculations 62 64 64 65 66 30 30 31 Binary. 1-2 How to Read the Display Display indicators About the display I~~~~t··:::::::::::::································· Exponential display Speical display formats ...:........~: :•...... decimal and hexadecimal values Logical operations Standard deviation Regression calculation Linear regression Logarithmic regression Exponential regression Power regression ~:~O::~~~=. ..······t·k··········································· 21 Calculation keys npu eys 24 2-4 Binary. 11 10 Arithmetic operations 44 Parenthesis calculations 45 Memory calculations 46 Specifying the number of decimal places.· :~ 21 Numeric/Decimal point/Exponent ·....'" 47 2-2 Special Functions Answer (Ans) function Continuous calculation function Replay function Error position display function Multistatement function : 49 49 50 51 52 53 1-1 Key Markings ..

........••••....3..~.. :..le-V....~~ ...~ . Addition..~~i~~································· 118 -7- .. :.~~.....~~ :~~~~~~~~~~~ 4-6 Erasing Programs Erasing a single program Erasing all programs 119 119 119 4-7 Convenient Program Commands ...•••••••••••.~~~~..•. Function Reference Error Message Table Input Ranges of Functions 172 179 181 Specifications Index 184 187 4-4 Counting the Number of Steps 4-5 Program Areas and Calculation Modes Program area and calculation mode specification in the WRT mode ..~.....~.~.. :..........~... Program Calculations 4-1 a Program? 104 ~~:~.••••••••.. :...ariable.... .......•.. 96 97 97 Using array-type memories Cautions when using array-type memories Application of the array-type memories Alpha-numeric characters and symbols 4-9 Displaying Alpha-Numeric Characters and Symbols 135 135 3-5 Pair~d-V~riable. 114 ~~~~g!~~..........:::::::::::::::::"""'" Checkpoints for each type of error .. :.••••...~~i~ti~~ . Graphs 3-1 Built-in Function Graphs Overdrawing built-in function gr~~h~' •. 78 82 83 78 f:~~~~~~~" ..• User generated ers function ra h····· FUlJction ra hover g ps Zoom fun~ti:n draw ...Statisti...... ......•••••••.... Jump commands Unconditional jump Conditional jumps Count jumps Summary Subroutines 4-8 Array-Type Memories 130 130 131 132 Graph scroll fu tl nc Ion 93 95 3-3 S~me Graphing Examples 3-4 Smg.. :.... :.!: Program executi Ion Program Library :~~~~:~~~~~~~:~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ~g: . ..........•••. :. Statistical Graphs Drawing single-variable statistical graphs .... 109 109 109 ~~~ Prime factor analysis Definite integrals using Simpson's rule ~ Y transformation Minimum loss matching Cantilever under concentrated load Normal distribution Graph variation by parameters Hysteresis loop Regression curve Parade diagram 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 156 160 168 Program execu~io~··:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Appendix 4-3 Progr~m Debugging (Correcting Errors) 113 ~~.~~~.. Deletion) programmi.. 120 120 120 122 124 126 127 3-2 Range Generated Graphs User paramet •••.~..a~~:n . :. Cautions concerning the 116 117 ·~~..cal Graphs Drawing paired-variable statistical graphs 100 100 4-10 Using the Graph Function in Programs 137 4..~~~~...••••••• ••• •••• •• ••••• •••••••··•••·•··••••·••·•• •• ~~ . :......•.. ~~~. ~~~..••••••••. 106 107 4-2 Program Checking and Editing ~~:~~~tion....:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Program editin . 117 -6....•••••.

and secure them with their screws. @Remove the old batteries.. -Nevsr leave dead batteries in the battery compartment. -After replacing batteries.The life of the original batteries supplied with the calculator is calculated from the date of installation at the factory. 'P'. @Remove the screws that secure the battery holders in place. remove the 2 screws that hold the back cover of the calculator in place. . -Stored programs or data are erased when batteries are replaced. Remove the back cover. there is the danger of leakage. If the power of the batteries should diminish. . If you face the battery compartment down and tap the top of the calculator. and remove the battery holders. @Wipethesurfacesoftwo new batteries with a s~ft. not from the date of purchase.About the Power Supply • Replacing batteries Precautions: Incorrectly using batteries can cause them to burst or leak. let them become shorted. the back cover of the calculator and secure it in place with its 2 screws. A weak display even after contrast adjustment (see page 29) may indicate power is too low. -If batteries are used for longer than 5 years. Se sure to make written copies of data before performing these operations. possibly damaging the interior of the unit.. Power is supplied to this unit by two lithium batteries (CR2032). ALL RESET button f ~ ® Replace the battery holders. Note the following precautions: -Se sure that the positive c±> and negative 8 poles of each battery are facing in the proper direction. so the batteries should be replaced. -Note that replacing batteries and performing the reset operation erases all data stored in the calculator. • To replace the batteries (Important) _Always make sure that the power of the calculator is switched off before replacing batteries. consult with a physician immediately. power on. Keep batteries out of the reach of small children. or try to take them apart. Battery holder o ® Replace 0Switch H ~I . the batteries should fall out. When making replacements. -Never mix batteries of different types. If swallowed. (DAfter making sure that unit power is switched off. it is recommended that programs and data required for later use be recorded on a coding sheet before replacing batteries. be sure to switch the calculator on and then perform the reset operation. Therefore. Be sure to replace batteries at least once every 5 years even if the unit is not used during that period. =Never mix old batteries and new ones. be sure to replace all two batteries. the display will weaken and become difficult to read. -Do not expose batteries to direct heat. and load them into the calculator with their positive c±> sides facing up.. Screws a o -8- -9- . =Never try to recharge the batteries supplied with the unit. dry cloth.

Never leave dead batteries in the battery compartment. RUN mode 2. -Avoid using volatile liquids such as thinner or benzine to clean the unit. programming or operational errors. DOing so can cause irreparable damage t °thperatlons are being performed. to restore power and then start ~ f eset? message is displayed. 6 minutes after can be restored by pressing the iii key. perform the Reset operation to clear the memory and restore normal key operation. -Be sure that the power is off when replacing batteries. -The display will go blank and keys will not operate during calculations. or large amounts of dust. To abort the reset operar. De~imal mode (for BASE-N calculations) 6. power grams or calculation modes are unaffected wh es . lost savings or any other damages arising out of loss of data and/or formulas arising out of malfunction. -Note that strong vibration or impact during program execution can cause execution to stop or can damage the calculator's memory contents.) Handling Precautions _Your calculator is made up of precislon components. jReset? ] 3. When you are operating the keyboard. be sure to always keep 1. _Avoid dropping your calculator and subjecting it to other strong impacts. Press @) to clear the calculator and clear th .Auto Power Off function The power of the unit is automatically switched off a . -If the calculator is exposed to a strong electrostatic charge. repairs. dry cloth. Shouldthis hap en g s can cause this calculator to reset the calculator.nce th. Input buffer clear 11. be sure to watch the display to make sure that all your key operations are being performed correctly. or other components by burning them. Switch the power of the calculator on 2. o e memory of your calculator • -10- . -In no event will the manufacturer and its suppliers be liable to you or any other person for any damages. be sure to carefully reread this manual and ensure that the problem is not due to insufficient battery power.In th~ memones. Van able memories cleared 7. COMP mode 3. Wipe it with a soft. calculator and clear memory cont t on irm whether you want to reset the en s. follows: sen ed above. Correct operation will resume once the calculator is brought back to normal temperature. -11- . The user should prepare physical records of data to protect against such data loss. . (Numeric v:7~' . Defm 0 (400 program steps) 8. In such a case. or with a cloth that has been dipped in a solution of water and a neutral detergent and wrung out. press any key other than @) Following the reset procedure de ib . Replay memory clear -If the Auto Power Off function activates while th "R " press. proen power IS sWItched off. the last key operation (except during program calculatipp7~mateIY. A message appears on the display to c e ~~Iculator WIth a thin. pen. -Betore assuming malfunction of the unit. oss 0 Important data.Reset operation • Strong external electrostatic char e malfunction. the liquid crystal panel. Program clear 10. the calculator may require more time to display results and may even fail to operate. pOinted object. the calculator is initialized as 1. Never try to take it apart. lost profits. Press the RESET button on the back of th . -Never dispose of batteries. NORM1 mode 5.• .s occur~. Answer memory clear 9. They can leak and damage the unit. perform the fOllowingprocedureto [Warning! I The fOllowing procedure clears all data from cannot be unconei To avoid the If' the memory of the calculator and written backup copies. When exposed to low temperatures. again rom step 1 Never press the RESET button while internal . -Do not store the calculator or leave it in areas exposed to high temperatures or humidity. DEG mode 4. its memory contents may be damaged or the keys may stop working. expenses. _Replace batteries once every 5 years regardless of how much the calculator is used during that period. or battery replacement. tion without clearing the calculato e dispiay.

.1 = • • • • • = = • • • • • • 1-1 Key Markings 1-2 How to Read the Display 1-3 Key Layout 1-4 Key Operations 1-5 Before Beginning Calculations ...

for example. Press key in SO or LR mode. and so you should read this section carefully before using your calculator for the first time. Mode Direct Input [@] Function x-1 xl A fA ~ BASE-N. concerning the key illustrated above. The keys of this unit perform a number of different functions. Press key in BASE-N mode. and then key. The key illustrated below. fA. key rnark Keyboard Marking Yellow Red Green In blue brackets Press ~ Meaning Press [@] and then key. Important) The keys of a scientific calculator perform more than one function. e to perfor d ings on the keyboar . x! fA ~ A Note the following.I L__G_e_"_e_ra_I_G_u_id_e ] Before using this unit for the first time. A. be sure to perform the Reset operation described on page 10. an erform a number of different functions. is used to perform 4 different functions: x-1. The keyThe keyS of this calculator c P lckl determine the key sequence you have board is color-coded to ~elp~ouf~~~Wi:9 table shows how to interpret the various m for each nmcnon. xl. • Key Markings number of key sequences Indicated on the In addition to the ab?ve. there harea[ALPHA ~ 1[1 EX2]). HEX -15-14- . These key sequences nel beneath the display (sue as ~:n be used in the SO or LR mode only. The following explains all of the operations of each key.

I • Display indicators The following indicators appear on the display to show you the current status of the calculator at a glance.. Number of decimal places specified. specified. .. key pressed. as well as an area for indicators The display You can monitor the status of the calculator and programs by and characters .. III 99 I. ~ tID (M) @ Y="Im!m'" I]]: @ill key pressed... ~ key pressed. m: Mode Status Display @xample ] Program WRT mode Mode Status m: m: Degrees specified at the unit of angular measurement.About the display layout . Radians specified at the unit of angular measurement. . Indicates display consists of more than 12 characters .. 03' 9' 4894-I-Mantissa Number of significant digits specified. WRT: LR2 III W~T PCl: X =.. y = : 345 I- Remaining number of program steps area status Indicates current x.. X= I!lrn SciFix hyp m WRT pel Graph Display Coordinates x= I I!l -12 f-Exponent 2. P0 2__ 56789-+-Program 1DIm: Indicates displayed value is intermediate result... . viewin~ the display.345678-I-Mantissa Graph I Shows Trace function coordinates Calculation Display 00: [Ij: Sci: Fix: hyp: ~ ~ key pressed. -16- -17- . .Exponent _. indicates characters run off right side. Grads specified at the unit of angular measurement.and y-coordinate location of Trace function pointer.. consists of a dot area for graphing. indicates extra characters run off left side of display. Program write mode (~(IJ) Program clear mode (~OO) specified..

are automatically displayed in exponential format.2 three places to the left.01» Ixl.2x10".000. This means that you 1hould move the decimal point in 1.2" indicates that the result is equivalent to 1. .' L1~========Ill====~1 How to interpret exponential format Special display formats are used for the representation of fraction. however.000..--t Mantissa . when no specification has been made for the number of decimal places or significant digits. (NORM 1 mode) .... This results in the value 120. 1l1 200[.t ---IL)r-. hexadecimal.2 x 10-3..___ -+~-. This results in the value 0.78" 12'34'56. Exponent > I x I.000000001) L- Ill_. . (NORM 2 mode) • Fraction value display Display 12 of 456 23 (All of the examples in this manual show calculation 1 mode.) results using the NORM . since the exponent ~snegative.:. NORM 1 mode: 10-2(0. The present status is not displayed..000.78" Degrees~ M~es Seconds -18- -19- .000 1. 1. this unit is capable of displaying up to 10 digits.0012 Selection of these modes can be carried out by pressing ~[[]I@. so it is necessary to perform the following procedure to specify either display format: 1 2-03 indicates that the result is equivalent to 1._ Mantissa 11 t • Hexadecimal value display "00"'"' BASE-N IAIBC[)E IF1 2 H Display of ABCDEF12 ( . 120..Sexagesimal value display Display of 12°34'56. You can choose between 2 different types of exponential display formats. since the exponent is positive.lxl ~10'0 NORM 2 mode: 10-9(0.2x10-3 0. I x I ~ 10'0 "1.005 . • 5~031 0..)TI .Special display formats and sexagesimal values .0012.1412567278) ..2 eleven places to the right.+-2--.2 X 10" . Values that exceed this limit.000. o_3_.• Exponential display During normal calculation.000. This means that you should move the decimal point in 1.

Entering a value followed by [@will specify the number of memories available.Fix displayed.. ITJ through [[]. Ex.] displayed. "The mode last selected is retained in memory when the unit's power is switched off. ~81 O[@ --+ Number of memories available increased by 10. a. An (I] will blink on the display to indicate that ~ has been pressed. f3. unit of angular measurement is specified as grads..) "With the exception of the BASE-N mode.. a ~rn -20- -21- . For writing or checking programs.. "If you have not specified the number of decimal places or the number of significant digits.. Pressing [@ will cancel the specified number of decimal places or the specified number of significant digits.Special operation keys @jill Shift key CASIO /x-6300G GRAPHICS -. ~ displayed. ~03[@ --+ Three decimal places §!II]] .. ~(]] pel displayed.. ~I]] . Entering a value from 0 to 9 followed by [@ will specify the number of decimal places according to the value entered. Ex. (NORM 11NORM 2) (see page 18. CJ displayed. Program key Alphabet key Mode key Graph key [§@ Mode key Function command keys Power ON/OFF All clear key Numeric keys Other command keys Arithmetic operation keys Execute key ~---~------- Answer key Exponent key Use the ~ key in combination with 8. Entering a value from 0 to 9 followed by [@ will specify the number of significant digits from 1 to 10.=+-1-+.. ~ITJ For manual calculations and program execution (RUN mode).Display window Press when using the function commands and functions marked in yellow on the key panel. ~1]]5@1 --+ 5 significant digits ~I]]O[@ --+ 10 significant digits ~[[] . If [@ is pressed... you can press ~[[][@ and then change the range of the exponential display.Defm displayed... unit of angular measurement is specified as radians. unit of angular measurement is specified as degrees. ~0 . pressing ~ again will cause the (I] to disappear from the display and the unit to return to the status it was in before ~ was originally pressed. ~~ (. 0.. ~® . ~8 . modes 0 . For clearing programs.[[] be used in comcan bination with the manual calculation modes. and to specify the calculation mode and the unit of angular measurement. Sci displayed. WRT displayed. Ex. If [@ is pressed. If [@ is pressed.

Pressing ~ displays [A) and allows the input of only one character. For production of a regression line according to paired variable statistical data (LR2 mode). You can switch between display of the x-coordinate and the y-coordinate by pressing ~B. Pressing ~m1 switches the power of the calculator off. After you draw a graph. Pressing ~ followed by ITiJ makes it possible to produce line graphs or regression lines. ~£t For standard deviation calculations (S01 mode). ~~£t . ~@@rn Pressed after a numeric value representing radians (r) is input. Pressing ~~~ will clear the memory contents. ~@@0 Pressed after a numeric value representing degrees (0) is input..If @J is pressed without entering a value. Pressing ~ followed by ~ will lock the unit in this mode and allow consecutive input of alphabetic characters until ~ is pressed again./ functions are not available in the LR1 mode. This is a jump command used in programs.. Once a formula or numeric value is input and @J is pressed. octal or hexadecimal calculations/conversions (BASEN mode).. the unit returns to the status it was in before the ~ key was originally pressed.. The xY and f. @@U For regression calculations (LR1 mode). pressing ~ displays the formula or numeric value from the beginning. first perform the statistical operations and then press ~D to enter the CaMP mode. ~~U . For production of a bar graph or normal distribution curve according to single variable statistical data (S02 mode). Specifies CaMP mode for arithmetic calculation or function calculation (program execution possible). To use these functions. lEI ~ EJ (2) [K) @!) (EJ @] [QllJ Delete key IJD CD Press to delete the character at the current position of the cursor. Note that mode setting and memory contents are protected even when power is turned off. Mel 00 00 @] [EJ (M) [EJ (ill @) @] [ID (£] ffiJ @) CD GO 00 ITI [QJ D D 00 (W [ID m ITJ [Y) EON OFF All clear/Power ON/Power OFF key 00 mITlrn~D -22- Press to clear all input characters or formulas.. After that. --'23- . Holding any of the keys down will·cause the cursor to continuously move in the respective direction. This allowS the formula to be executed again by changing the values. press ~~ to display a 7-digit (including the negative sign) value that shows the x-coordinate for the current location of the pointer on the graph. Press to switch the power of the calculator on (even if power was switched off by the Auto Power Off function). Pressing ~~ changes the coordinate display to 11 digits (including the negative sign) for even more precision. Pressing ~ followed by ~ displays the insert cursor (~~). while pressing IB displays it from the end. the current number of memories available and remaining steps will be displayed (see page 40. 1!§l1 @J ---> Execution of Program 1 begins Pressing ~ followed by ~ will cause Goto to appear on the display..) [§iJ Program/Goto Goto key I Example I @@c:J@J IM-26 8-320 pre~~ ~.. In the Plot function. The IB key moves the cursor (blinking "_") to the left. enter a value from 0 to 9 and then press @J to execute a program. When the character is deleted. the IB key and ~ key become "replay" keys. the [Q] key moves the pointer up. For binary. In this case. m-LOCK @1~ Cursor/Replay [Ql[QJ Line Value x-ev REPLAY keys IALPHAI Alphabet key Press to input alphabetic characters or special characters. You can also use this key to clear the Error message from the display (page 113). Pressing ~ followed by !ill enters the "Lbl" (Label) command. and [Q} moves the pointer down. Entering a value while the insert cursor is displayed inserts the value in the position immediately preceding the insert cursor location. @@D . ~ moves the cursor to the right. @@I:I . everything to the right of the cursor position will shift one space to the left. ~~[[] Pressed after a numeric value representing grads (g) is input.. Ex.

To indicate data input within a programmed calculation or repeat calculation. These keys cannot be used in the BASE-N mode. To input 1. Pressing ~ followed by @]will recall the last calculation result.. • Press following I!!TII to magnify or reduce the upper and lower ranges of graphs. ~. Factor . Graph/Original zoom key Pol(. .Graph keys Used to produce a variety of graphs (see page 76 for details). Rec(. press 1823@J1!!TII1BI6. .~ Execute key _Pressto obtain the result of a calculation or to draw a graph. ' [§J~ COMP mode or SO mode . -Used to confirm or set the range and size of graphs.. multiplication and division.When pressed following the ~ key. SO mode (~f3) ~ §] ~ LR mode (~O) ~ CD Range/Factor key ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ @B 00 00 ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ @B [ID [ID Standard deviation functions can be used.Press following ~ in order to assign the same value to more than one memory. • . press ~ and then [1).23 x 10-6. Coordinate transformation [g)[Z) . 456El[@)~mElm@] Plot ~ -24- -Used to trace over an existing graph and display the x or y coordinate value . the last result calculated is recalled.' Press following ~ key to input a space. subtraction. Following I!!TII. . Press the enter the decimal point In the desired position. this key causes the graph currently shown on the display to be enlarged or reduced in accordance with the factor setting. enter the number in order.Press to return an enlarged or reduced graph to its original size. Pressed after data Input for a programmed calculation or to advance to the next execution after a calculation result is obtained. It can be recalled by ~@] even after it has been cleared using the rD key or by switching the power of the unit off. Ex. i For addition. . I!!TII key combinations fQr the various modes are as follows: COMP mode 1!!n"XBI . ? Trace/Plot key -25- . To store the value 456 to memories A through F. Ran # and be used in this mode.. I!!TII key combinations for the various modes are as follows: 8 key to . enter the calculation as it reads. (-) iJx ay I( Aec( • Calculation keys Zoom x £I S f Zoom x VI L~J Lj>J a T Arithmetic operation keys ~ SPACE Answer/Minus key .ric ~alues..123 -+ 1!!TII1BI123 . Press following I!!TII key to entering a numeric value to make that value negative Ex. • Press following I!!TII to plot a point on the graph screen. When used during program execution.. Rnd.Numeric/Decimal point/Exponent input keys CQJ-008@) z LrJ 0 [ Rnd ~ Aan# TC LR mode Estimated value calculation of x and y [§J~ Coordinate transformation 1 When enterin~ nume. Zoom Org ~ COMP mode (~D) ~ §] ~ BASE-N mode (~a) ~ §] ~ ~ mg) ~ ~ ~ [S) ~ mg) ~ ~ ~ [S) cannot ~ ~ [ID o 0 7r • Press before entering a formula to be used for a graph ("Graph Y =" appears on the display). the results of each section of the programmed calculations or consecutive calculations are sequentially displayed with each press of@]. Paired variable statistic functions can be used.

the subsequently entered value is specified as a decimal value. =Press following ~ in the BASE·N mode to enter the logical operation for nega. ~ Nott. • Press followed by @Jin the BASE·N mode to specify the octal calculation mode. 78°45'12"~78E145E112E1 . DecLdJ.Press followed by @Jin the BASE·N mode to specify the hexadecimal calculation mode. the subsequently entered value becomes an exponent of 10.When pressed following the ~ key.Press prior to entering a value to obtain the natural logarithm of that value.When pressed following the ~ key in the BASE·N mode. . ~ tleX LhJn Square/Fraction key • Function keys Press for functional calculation. and/or depending on the mode being used. 10-3= giga milli m. LxnorJ CD k Multistatement key @ BinLbJP Common logarithm/ Antilogarithm key =Press to separate formulas or commands in programmed calculations or con.10-12= pica p) ·When obtaining logical negation for a value in the BASE·N mode. . • Press in the BASE·N mode to enter B (1110)of a hexadecimal value.Press followed by@J in the BASE-N mode to specify the binary calculation mode. a decimal based value can be displayed in degrees/minutes/seconds (hours/minutes/seconds) . The result of such combinations is known as a rnuliistaternent (see page 53).press following ~ key prior to inputting number in order to obtain fraction part of that number. the factorial of a previously entered value can be obtained. 109= G. • Press followed by @Jin the BASE-N mode to specify the decimal calculation mode. .Press in the BASE·N mode to enter A (1010)of a hexadecimal value. . ·When pressed following the ~ key in the BASE·N mode. . the integer portion of a value can be obtained.When pressed following the ~ key.10-9= nanc n . tion of logical sums (xnor).xcr-rrn Engineering/Negation key .lEI Cis Graph-text/Clear screen key ·Switches between the graph display and text display (see page 36).Press after entering a value to obtain the reciprocal of that value. the subsequently entered value is specified as a hexadecimal value. . ·When pressed following the ~ key.Press prior to entering a value to obtain the common logarithm of that value. -Press to convert a calculation result to an exponential display whose exponent is a multiple of three. 10-6= micro fl . the subsequently entered value is specified as an octal value. Various uses are available in combination with the ~ key. . .When pressed following the ~ key. . . • ~@!)@J clears the graph display ("done" is displayed). . the subsequently entered value is specified as a binary value. the subsequently entered value becomes an exponent of e. (10 3 lliiI &' octloJf Natural logarithm / Exponential key = kilo k.When pressed following the ~ key.press after a numeric value is entered to obtain the square of that value. key =Press prior to entering a numeric value to obtain the square root of that value. secutive calculations. . B IB B Degree/minute/second key (decimal-sexagesimal key) • Press to enter sexagesimal value (degree/minute/second or hour/minute/second). . =Press following the ~ key in the BASE·N mode to obtain the exclusive logical sum. .u [B Square root/Integer key Int ~ fA ~ A Reciprocal/Factorial .When pressed following the ~ key in the BASE·N mode. -26- -27- . 106= mega M .When pressed following the ~ key in the BASE-N mode. Ex. press prior to entering the value.

it probably means that battery power is getting low. tanh) for the value. a comma or semicolon can be inserted to separate the arguments in coordinate transformation or consecutive calculations. d/.Press in the BASE-N mode to obtain a logical sum ("or"). In the SO or LR mode. ·Use this key for input of simple fractions and mixed fractions. Pressing any other key besides I§@. Ex. Parenthesis keys J ·Press the open parenthesis key and the closed parenthesis key at the position required in a formula. . -Press in the BASE-N mode prior to entering a value to obtain the negative of that value. then ~ and then~. F (1310. CD dJ I .Press in the SO or LR mode to delete input data. After replacing batteries. press this key and then enter y (any number) to compute x to the power of y. The negative number is the two's complement of the value entered. sin-' cos-1 tan-" ~ [) ~ D IE E ~ IF F Trigonometric function/Inverse function keys trigonometric . this function is only available after pressing the ~ key. replace batteries as soon as possible. LSclJH • Contrast adjustment Pressing the!B or §) key following the I§@ key adjusts the contrast of the display. . this function is only available after pressing the ~ key. . -28- -29- . =Press in the BASE-N mode to enter C (1210)of a hexadecimal value. (Q) cancels contrast adjustment.Press following the ~ key to obtain the cube root of a subsequently entered numeric value.Enter x (any number). press this key and then enter y to calculate the xth root of y. To input 23/45: 23~45 To input 2-3/4: 2~3~4 ·For improper fractions.Used as Q data input key in the SO or LR mode. Holding either key down will cause the display to successively become respectively lighter or darker.bs • Pressing ~. 84). ·When pressed following the ~ key. tahn-') for the value.Press in the BASE-N mode to obtain a logical product ("and"). §]. §] or ~ prior to entering a value produces the respective inverse hyperbolic function (sinh :". • Press ~ and then one of these keys prior to entering a value to obtain the respective inverse trigonometric function for the value. or ~ prior to entering a value produces the respective hyperbolic function (sinh. press this key following ~ (indicated by ~@ in this manual). ·Pressing~. and then ~. while §) makes it darker. even if you increase contrast. In such a case. . E.using the ~ key (see page 78. !B. perform the RESET operation described on page 10. • Press one of these keys prior to entering a value to obtain the respective trigonometric function for the value. Ex. 1510) of a hexadecimal value. Pressing!B makes the screen lighter. . or §) (as well as [Q]. . In the SO or LR mode. .1410. E8 Assignment key ·Press prior to entering a memory to assign the result of a calculation to that memory. •Contrast adjustment is impossible during range display using the ~ key or during factor display.Press following the ~ key to obtain the absolute value of a subsequently entered numeric value. cosh-l.II: ~ C Hyperbolic key @ Power/Absolute value key andlCLJK . To assign the result of 12 + 45 to memory A: 12045E1@!!!J!Kl@] ·Press this key following ~ to clear all data from the statistical memories.Enter x. ~ :r Root/Cube root key orLOTJL ~ Neg G Fraction/Negative key . 'If the display becomes dim and difficult to read. ·Press in the BASE-N mode to enter 0. cosh.

X X ?: ® ® is performed 5 4 + x ( ~ [QJ [1] are used in series. execution e ln.. 'Compound •Anything functions contained are executed from right to left. Not ~lll~llll~l~ 7 7 3) 5) + 8 = Numeric stack value Command stack [jJ (2)Abbreviated multiplication format in front of Type B functions 2V3.. 0) @Type A functions With these functions. b. ~. B functions With these functions. tanh. 10X.J12O)] Otherwise. ®X. the function key is_pressed and then the value is entered. tanh -1. >. xor.8)=22. sin" ". ex. @land BASE-N calculations only. a stack error (Stk ERROR) message appears on the display. ~ 2+3x(log sin27r2 +6. x2. Rec (r. etc. receives highest priority. with the highest priority Once a calculation is executed. xnor ] ~ ~ [4] @ Relational operators <. cos-1. cosh. 9. 4R. while the command stack has 24. 0. the value is entered and then the function key is pressed. @or. Int.0' " @ Power/root xY. 0. =. cos.J12O ---> e [ln(. In. ® Type v. y).. x!. within parentheses + 'Calculations are performed in sequence.. If a formula exceeds the stack space available. memory or parenthesis 27r. • When functions with the same priority from right to left. The numeric value stack has 10 levels. log. -s . LillJ ~ LQL_j ® ® x :". V. sinh. it is cleared from the stack. v- . Neg. '. (-). etc. execution is from left to right. Abs.).. parenthesis. A log2. etc.Number of stacks This calculator uses a memory known as a "stack" for temporary storage of low priority numeric values and commands (functions. sinh -1.. cosh -1. Frac. Before Beginning Calculations . h.07101691 (in the "Rad" mode) • Calculation priority sequence This calculator employs true algebraic logic to calculate the parts of a formula in the following order: G)Coordinate transformation Pol (x. tan".. operation first. tan.7 CD ® @ 2 3 4 x ( ( ®+. @xample I 2 x ( ( 3 + 4 x (5 + 4) @Fractions able @Abbreviated multiplication format in front of 7r. -30- -31- . sin.. (following in BASE-N calculations only) d.

§@[[] (Norm mode).) 2.Calculation modes . And the displayed mantissa can be used for the next calculation.. (See Section 4.14286 0. mrnrnrn[[JoomOO[[] £I[[]OOrnOO@J 12+. @xample j 123456789 x 9638 = • Calculation 1. 14286 5. 1428571 'Calculation results greater than 1010 (10 billion) or less than 10-2 (0. -32- -33- .) OO@)[[JGlm@J OO@)[[JGlmarnrnoo[[Jm@J 42857. BASE-N mode Binary. including functional calculations. ~ 3x10577= • Operation 1.) 'Values are stored in memory with 12 digits for the mantissa and 2 digits for the exponent. the current system mode is cancelled. (See page 69.Number of input/output digits and calculation digits This unit features modes for manual calculations. numbe~ of significant digits (§@([]n). 14286 0. General calculations. are internally performed with a range of 12 digits for a mantissa and 2 digits for an exponent. al requirements should be employed. decimal. as well as logical operations. SD2 mode For production of bar graph or normal distribution curve according to single· variable statistical data. number of decimal place setting (~!Ll n). . WRT mode 3. Program storage and editing.Exponent 1. and modes for general as well as statistical calculations. 189876532+Mantissa 2. octal. RUN mode modes There are a total of three operation modes. storing programs. Gra) will be retained in memory. PCl mode Deletion of stored programs. however. calculations should always be performed after confirming which mode is active. and angle unit (Deg. (See page 67. and the unit will be set to the RUN mode when switched on again. *IMPORTANT: When the power of the unit is switched off (including Auto Power Off).01) are automatically displayed in exponential form. the calculation mode. Rad.) Function calculations and graph drawing cannot be performed. 6. hexadecimal conversion and calculations. SD1 mode Standard deviation calculation (single-variable statistics).The allowable inputloutput range (number of digits) of this unit is 10 digits for a mantissa and 2 digits for an exponent. COMP mode modes There are a total of six calculation modes which are employed according to the type of calculation. Graph production as well as manual calculations and program executions. (See page 100. The proper mode to suit calculation. (See Section 4.) With so many modes available. lR1 mode Regression calculation (paired-variable statistics). However. Once a calculation is completed. the mantissa is rounded off to 10 digits and displayed. jExamplej3x10577= 3. (See page 62.) 4. *To return to standard operation (initialized state) press ~D (COMP mode) §@GJ (RUN mode) .) OO@)[[JGlm@J amrnoo[[Jm@J 42857. Calculations. (See page 97. lR2 mode For production of regression line graph according to paired-variable statistical data.

Each press of numeric or D. Calculational results. they actually comprise only one function and. 1:1. (Ex._ error message will appear on the display window and subsequent operation Will be impossible. This is the error check function. These errors mainly occur when using programs. Though such operations as I!IDITI~ require two key . but once the 121st step is reached the curs~r changes to a." appears during a calculation. they appear on the display window from the left. however. With each press of the ~ or ~ key the cursor is moved one step. The following operations will reS~lt in errors: (1) The answer.• Overflow and errors • If the calculation range of the unit is exceeded. or any value in memory excee~ the value of ± 9. -34- -35- .". a memory name such as Z [21 is used.) (4) The capacity of the numeric value stack or the command stack is exceeded.) (6) Input errors are made. (Le.tion.b~inking ".9 for Sci or Fix. erations. are displayed from the a x right. whether intermediate or final. only one step. (2) An attempt is made to perform functional calculations that exceed the input range. Attempting to obtain or xo« without data input. £f and n keys comprise one step '. The following error messages will be displayed for the operations noted above: (1)-(3) Ma ERROR (4) Stk ERROR (5) Mem ERROR (6) Syn ERROR (7) Arg ERROR Besides these. Entering 23 successive CD's followed by 2D3£f4@) (5) Even though memory has not been expanded. Usually the cursor IS represented by : blinking "_". ~~ese steps can be confirmed using the cursor. therefore. (See page 41 for details on memory. * Whennumeric values or calculation commands are input. If the".) • Number of input characters This unit features a 127-step area for calculation execu. .) (3) Improper operation during statistical calculations. (See page 181. S£f£f3@) (7) When improper arguments are used in commands or functions that require arguments.999999999 x 1099. (Ex. there are an "Ne ERROR" (nesting error) and a "Go ERROR". (Ex. o e function comprises one step. Input of an argument outside of the range of 0 . I put characters are limited to 127-steps. or incorrect inputs are made. the calculation should be divided at some point and performed in two parts. See page 113 or the Error Message Table on page 179.

use the [B and ~ keys to move to the position of the error and press the @ill key. olf an unnecessary character has been included in a formula. -36- -37- . Each press of I@ will delete one command (one step). use the [B and ~ to move to the position of the error and press the correct keys. however. input of the formula is complete.p • Graphic and text displays This unit has a graph display for production of graphs.To make corrections in a formula that is being input. advance the cursor using the ~ key to the end of the formula for input. \369XX2 369X2 Operations to clear the display depend upon the type of display being shown: Graphs: ~~@] Text: Pressing the key causes a cleared text display to appear if pressed during a graph display. (Graphic display) @xample I To correct an input of 369 x x 2 to 369 x 2: w(K][[)EJEJ[]] ~~[QITl ~---------------. These two types of display contents are stored independently of each other. ~ To change an input of 122 to 123: keys I Example I (Text display) ~ To change an input of cos60 to sin60: 123_ I~ I~ aa aa (Graphic display) ] §I(K][QJ §]~§] §] COS 60 COS 60 sin 60 (Text display) •If. more is to be added to the formula. Each press of §] switches from the current type of display to the other. the answer can be obtained by pressing @]. after making corrections. If. as well as a text display for production of formulas and commands. Switching between graph and text displays is performed using the §] key. • corrections .

To store the same numeric value to multiple memories. or rD. §). followed by 8. . 45_] \ El key followed by the memory name. The insert function is activated iJntii you press ~.47_J -38- -39- .45 . and press @ill fol· lowed by the Illi§) key.35_J B: I Example I To add 74. press ~ @xample To store a value of 10 in memories A through J: 12) .To check the contents of a memory.362 I To clear I the contents of memory A only: @J8~OOI@ @ample To clear the contents of all the memories: 12). 45~A_ 1 .12 to memory ~OODILIGJ8[I]OO8~OO I@ 1 8+74. Numeric values with 12 digits for a mantissa and 2 digits for an exponent can be stored. • Memory This unit contains 26 standard memories.362: 008rn[]J~ IBIBIBIBIB @[ffi[j@ @ 2.45 in memory A: [I]OOrn8GJ[[)8~OO I@ Values are assigned to a memory using the 123.362_ g. proceed as follows: §ample To correct an input of 2. 12~8_ 276. 123. I Example I To store the sum of memory ~OODILI[[]8008~OO I@ IA+78. use the ~ and §) keys to move to the position where the character should have been input. I Example I 123. press the name of the memory to be checked followed by @]. or until you perform @illllli§) again. the letter at the insertion position is surrounded by "~J" and blinks. A + 78. Memory names are composed of the 26 letters of the alphabet. ·When @illllli§) are pressed. I Example I I To store 123.362 to sin2. .362 sin :2:. 9~8_ 212)2.To clear the contents of a memory (make them 0).elf a character has been omitted from a formula. . Press @illllli§) and insertions can be subsequently performed as desired.9 in memory B: [I]@J8@[ffi~OOE1QJ [@ 112).

enter a zero for the value in the memory expansion sequence outlined above. Memory expansion is performed by converting 8 steps to one memory. followed by 0 and then @]. The number of remaining steps indicates the current unused area.. • Using expanded memories Expanded memories are used in the same manner as standard memories and are referred to as Z[1). press ~. see page 131. memories Z[1) through Z[5) are available. To check the current number of memories.• Memory expansion Though there are 26 standard memories. with a subscript being appended to the name. 1M-56 8-160 1 To initialize the number of memories (to return the number to 26). For more information concerning an array. J 76 0 '" _I I Example I To expand Memory is expanded in units of one. A maximum of 50 memories can be added for a maximum total of 76 (26 + 50). 'See page 116 for information on the number of program steps. The use of these memories is similar to that of a standard computer array. fOllowed by 0. The size of the memory expansion must be equal to or less than the number of steps remaining. 'The expansion procedure (~0 expansion value) can also be stored as a program. an error will be generated. and then @]. they can be expanded by changing program storage steps to memory. if a program has already been stored and the number of remaining steps is less than the desired expansion. Expansion is performed by pressing §y. The letter Z followed by a value in brackets indicating the sequential position of the memory is used as the memory name.. and will differ according to the size of the program stored.) After the number of memories has been expanded by 5. -40- -4)- . etc. Z[2). a value representing the size of the expansion. the number of memories by 30 to bring the total to 56: loefm 1M-56 Number of memories SeL 8-160 I steps L::r==J I currerit number of remaining The number of memories and number of remaining steps are displayed. IM-26 8-400 I 'Though a maximum of 50 memories can be added. I Number I Number of memories of steps J 400 1 392 l 384 1 261 271 28 1 361 1 74 1320 I J 16 . (Brackets are formed by ~0 for" [" and ~@] for")".

2-1 Basic Calculations 2-2 Special Functions 2-3 Functional Calculations 2-4 Binary. Octal. Hexadecimal Calculations 2-5 Statistical Calculations . Decimal.

5 .001035) (2 + 3) x 102 = 500 4.7142857 14285.5~75EJI!ffiill[8)2.71429 (1 X105)+7-14285 =0.2.035 (NORM -03 1) 10-[2+7x(3+6)J= 110a~207CD306~ -55 *Henceforth.7142857 4.6 2304. 36. abbreviated style will not be used in this manual.035x10-3 (-0.~M_a_n_u_a_I_C_a_IC_U_I_a_ti_o_n_s J - . -1. however. Be sure to enter EI 1 between the [I) and Il!!) in the above example.903680613 *Closed parentheses occurring immediately before operati~n of the @)key may be omitted.0.6 7EJ8a4EJ5~ 102a3EJ4U506~ -Arithmetic operations are performed by pressing the keys in the same sequence as in the formula. -44- -45- .5 .3~ 1!ffiill[8)79~ *A multiplication sign EI occurring immediately before an open parenthesis can be omitted. the mantissa of the result is 12 digits. Example Operation Display f:II Basic Calculations • Arithmetic operations Example 23 + 4. 6. multiplication and division are given priority over addition and subtraction. (7-2)x(8+5)=65 I -55 CD7a2[I)CD805~ 65 (4. *The above is the same as ~U4U5@). Internally.8125 18 1~5117a14285~ 0.25.8125 *The correct result cannot be derived by entering m2D3[I)1l!!)2. ~=(2X3+4)+5=2 5 5><6+6x8 15x4+12x3 0.5 X 1075)x( .5a53~ 56EJI!ffiill[8) 12UI!ffiill[8) 2.3 * Internal calculations are calculated with 12 digits for a mantissa. * Results greater than 1010 billion) or less thanl0-2 (10 displayed in exponential form. press 1!illJ[B before entering the value. -For negative values. and the result is displayed rounded off to 10 digits. CD203[I)EJ1 ~2~ 500.5~ 1236913753213 74103~ (0.For mixed arithmetic operations.8 305EJ6~ 7><B-4X5=36 33.5 0.5x 1018 100 6 4x5 =0.3x 10 -79) = -1.Parenthesis Example 100-(2+3) x4=80 2+3>«4+5)=29 calculations Operation Display 268.3 . 29 12369 x 7532 x 74103= 6.2~19aCD2.2x 1019)_ [(2.71429 (1.5 56 x (-12)+ (. Operation Display - 1+2-3x4+5+6=6.53 = .5~ 20EJ3U100[I)~ 6UCD4EJ5[I)~ 2 (1 X 105) + 7 = 14285.903680613 x 1012 (6903680613000) 6.5x 1020) x_1_J =4. CD2EJ304[I)U5~ CD5EJ606EJ8[I)U CD15EJ4012EJ3[I)~ 1. no matter how many are required.8 12 1OOaCD203[I)EJ4~ 203EJCD405~ 80.2.5)=268.01) are -25.

346 - ~0EJ7@1 ~[!)EJ12~ I!WJ!J[!)EJ26~ 1!WJ!J0EJ29~ 'The El key is used to input numeric values in memory. They are cleared by pressing I!l1!l followed by ~ and then @I.874 x 26 = 256.303. a value indicating the number of significant digits (0-9 to set from 1 to 10 digits) and then @I.3+3. press I!l1!l followed by ~ and then @I.To specify the number of decimal places.) I signs (x) immeTdiatelY before memory names can {Continues calculation with 10 digits display.) ~([J~ off to the place specified. Sci) while the calculator is in the BASE-N mode.) .7 63. 98.) ~([J~ 12 x (2.) I ~OO3~ 200a7~ EJ 14~ 16.) (Specification 16..5El~[[J~ 30EJ[I)~@)O~[[Jm a151W[[J~ 32.5 'Multiplication be omitted.To specify the number of significant digits.118 118. Fix Fix 8.5)-15 x 4. the number of significant digits and the exponent display .874 69. (ClearIng a memory before input is not required.66666666 .488 256. .874 x 29 = 286. .118 9.66666667 1. 00. 22. a value indicating the number of places (0-9) and.4 4.specifying the number of decimal places.3+ 3. 33.57142857 x_ Fix 480.4) .Pressing the I@ key or I!l1!l followed by ~ will cause the exponent display for the number being displayed to change in multiples of 3. 47. then @I.874x7=69.4El~@)~ 12EJ~@)a5~ 4.874ElI!WJ!J0@1 9.5=238.66666667 Fix I ~OO4~ 16.6667 16. 'You cannot specify the display format (Fix. press ~ followed by [[). 200+ 7 x 14 = 400 (Three decimal places specified. 5.4 (Five significant digits specified.) ~[[)5~ I 30 x (2.724 286. internal calculations are performed in 12 digits for a mantissa.5 238. @I. -11.5 Example 100-i.66666667 Sci 01 cancelled.Even if the number of decimal places and number of significant digits are specified. Such speCifications can only be made if you first exit the BASE-N mode.346 9. 79. because the previous value in the memory will be automatically replaced with the new value.667 28. (Specified values are not cancelled even if power is switched off or another mode (besides ~[ID) is specified. 'Values are displayed I rounded (Specification I cancelled..6667 16.The specified number of decimal places or number of significant digits will not be cancelled until another value or ~[ID is specified using the sequence: ~. 9.080 -46- -47- . and the displayed value is stored in 10 digits.5 = 63.• Memory calculations =The contents of memories are not erased when power is off.874 x 12= 118. To convert these values to the specified number of decimal places and significant digits.571 .724 9.6 = 16. Operation Display 100a6~ (Four decimal places specified. press ~ followed by 00..488 9.4+4. Example Operation Display .) 23+9=32 53-6=47 -) 45x2=90 9973=33 Total 22 2309El~[[)@1 53a6~ ~[[)O~El~[[)~ 45EJ2~ ~[[)a~El~[[)~ 99a3~ ~[[)O~El~[[)~ 2. .

The value can be used in subsequent calculations. 56.Example If the same calculation Operation is performed with the specified number of digits: Display 200D7~ (Value stored internally cut off at specified decimal place.571 Fix Fix . I Example I Perform calculation 78 + 56 = 134.96 = 74. 399. ~~ . Once a numeric value or numeric expression is entered and @) is pressed. press the ~ key. When execution of a calculation results in an error. Numeric values with 12 digits for a mantissa and 2 digits for an exponent can be stored in the Ans memory.07488kg 123£J456~ 579.88 0. however.088km 78g x 0.994 56088. it will be referred to as "Ans memory" throughout this manual. that value is not stored in the Ans memory.994 . Each time @) is pressed. the value in the Ans memory is replaced with the value produced by the new calculation. 78£JO. The Ans memory is not cleared even if the power of the unit is turned off. [¥xample I 123 + 456 = 579 789-579=210 1lE!m~~ £J 14~ (Specification cancelled. "Ans" appears on the display along with the Answer function value..Answer function The Answer function stores the result of the most recent calculation. the result is stored by this function.) ~[[)~ 28.88g =0. When ~ is pressed.088 03 Fix Fix 123m x 456 = 56088m = 56.96~ 74.571 28.571 x 399. Checking the content of Ans memory 184. 128.) 28. -48- -49- . the Ans memory retains its current value. To recall the stored value. Whena value is stored to another memory using the@) key.07488 03 I 789-Ans_ 210.. then store the value 123 to memory A: 184. 'Since the HAns" function works just like any other memory. 184.

3 x 3 = : 1 12. (Continuing) El~@] I Example I . with the cursor located at the space following the last character.!IITJarnEJrn~ ITJarn~ (Continuing) EJrn~ v.9999999999 0' ". xl.3333333333 10. +. the result obtained can be used for further calculations. After execution is complete. [Example I. the £f immediately before ~ can be omitted. -. ~ @_Xample To square the result of 78 -i.The Ans memory can be used in the same manner as the other memories. §ample I To store the result of 12 x 45 in memory C: 640. to check the formula.Replay function I Example I To calculate + 3.'. pressing either the @) or IE key will display the formula. x". 66088. Pressing @) will display the formula from the beginning. 73. r. 1 123X466_ -50- -51- . thus making it possible to use it in calculation formulas.9. In multiplication operations. This function can be used with memory and Type A functions (X2. with the cursor located under the first character.If I 15 x 3=45 78 x 45 . You can edit numeric values or commands for subsequent execution. see page 30). 10. (Continuing) ~ 169. After this. and 66088. 821666061 ] 1 I Example I To calculate This function stores the latest formula executed. . use @) and IB to move the cursor. 1.23 = 3487 1640. ] 3487. x-1. 46.14 after 3 x 4 = 12: 12. ] (Continuing) arnc:JITJI:!J 1 -i. 1123X466 • The formula appears after clearing the display. ] • Continuous calculation function Even if calculations are concluded with the @l key. 0. 14_ 3. Such calculations are performed with 10-digit mantissa of the displayed value. Pressing IE will display the formula from the end.6 = 13: I 13. ~C_ 640.

7 123 -7 3. regardless of whether a ". I Example I 38. ~ 6. . • pressing the @J key after a multistatement is entered causes the entire chain of statements to be executed from left to right.The multistatement function available in program calculations can also be used in manual calculations. . multiple statements are linked together with . ] ] !IJ1]](]]E1~illlJJ [[)8(]]£I~ill~1]] ~illGl(]]81]] 16.2 = 38.A73.4375 «tne final result of a multistatement is always displayed.0IIII " symbol is input at the end of the last statement in the chain.4375 111 23X456_ * Replay function is cleared when mode or operation is switched.With the multistatement function.3: ri.r I * As with the number of input steps (see page 35). .0IIII " (~[I)) in place of a colon displays the calculation result up to the point that ". You can also clear an error by pressing rD and then reenter the values and formulas from the beginning. ] . * The replay function is not cleared even when rD is pressed or when power is turned off. so contents can be recalled even after rD is pressed.9xA".Multistatement function I Example I 11 23x456_ 1 ] 56088.9x123=848. 3 3. 2_ • Error position display function When an ERROR message appears. *Consecutive calculations contained in multistatements cannot be performed. press IB or @) to display the calculation with the cursor located at the step that caused the error.22 -52- -53- .ta!IJ[!]GI(]]£I1]]8(]]~ §) (or (B) Ma ERROR Cursor indicates generated where error is Invalid 11 47l:0:x2. Appears on display ~7 when" A" is used.3 mistakenly input instead of 14 -7 10 x 2.0IIII" is encountered.a colon (CD) separating them .Using ". 123x 456: x 5 l__ 1 14 -7 0 x 2. the replay function can accept input of up to 127 steps.

1.5 .25 GlIlE!ffi(ID(@ ~I±l(@ --> tan-10.23~~1]](@ ~I]](@ L ca~ be omitted.20181 ° 12.5(@ t 85. .Trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions .612800788 Conversion degrees Conversion radians Conversion grads of 4. it remains in effect until a new unit is set.33497° Result displayed in radians 24°6'31" + 85.4" "I!l" ~~O.8 gra = 486.5 rad = 4774. p • The numeric value from 4 through tively.Se sure to set the unit of angular measurement before performing trigonometric mode.20181 486.5976724775 §@I]](@ --> "m" ~1lE!ffi1Bl35(@ §@@](@ --> "I!l" 2EJ~45EJ§l65(@ of 1.4° + 8.732050808 sec ( 2. radians.612800788 0.7853981634 ~~[I)02G12[IJ(@ 0. Display function and inverse trigonometric function calculations.5 tan( .53844577° = 36°32' 18.732050808 Result displayed in degrees 47.25 rad to ~@](@ 4.2 rad = 2663.8 ~~I]](@ 8~§@@] D85. .766666667 4774.3 rad .897859012 Operation -Once a unit 'of angular measurement is set. Such specifications can only be made if you first exit the BASE-N Example mode.53844577 36°32'18.3~~[[]a1.5070629 0.873462 2=0.4D8. Operation Display sin 63°52'41" ~@](@ --> "I!l" ~63852841 ~[[](@ --> "ID" §I[I)~(IDGl3 8(@ [IJ(@ 0.5976724775 cos (i rad ] = 0.741 =36.0.76077464 rad Result displayed in grads 36.873462 ~@](@ 47.0193207948 8. 30.3°+82.89 degrees to 7.sin 45° x cos 65° = 0.7853981634 = .34(@ 1 cosec300 = sin300 = 2 §@[[](@ 2486831 "I!l" 1G1~30(@ ~(!@O. gra §@I]](@ 36. 12.5.34 rad =85.2 1lE!ffi§@[[](@ _ {2 COS 1 2663. grads) while the calculator is in the BASE-N mode.25~~[[](@ 243.897859012 0.Angular Calculations measurement units is set by pressing radians and grads respec. 2.89~~@](@ 1G1~30(@ §@[[](@ --> "rn" 1GI§I[I)~(IDGl3[IJ(@ ~@](@ --> 1.9° + 41. - Example =0. grads) ~ followed by a value from 4 through and then @I.9~~@]D41.5~~[[](@ I.4" .5) Can be entered as .0.23 grad to ~[[](@ 1.35gra) = . Settings are not cleared when power is off.3D82.The operations noted below cannot be performed in the BASE·N ·The unit of angular measurement (degrees.· i rad ] cos (7r~3Tad) =2 2.76077464 (Oetermines x for sin x ~ 0.L rad 4 rad ~[[](@ --> "ID" 0. 6 specifies degrees. of 7.33497 1 cot300 = tan300 = 1.. radians.741(@ ~I§ -54-55- 36.f:IJ Functional . ·You cannot specify the unit of angular measurement (degrees.

988647795 = 1.s = 1.5@§ (Continuing) lliJ~@§ 0.99051114 x 10-2 In90 (loge 90) = 4. cos-10. the entire value is stored within the unit as a decimal value.5878667 5.9866142981 cosh 1. -21 1.0171313 sinh -130 = 4. 2.49980967 0. and any lower-order values are not displayed.58143837 sinh-12 x costr+t.28545536 1.2£J@1l2:l2.0171313 (To obtain the anti-logarithm of natural I logarithm 1.23) = 8.5 ± sinhx ~ e ± x) [§)640[§)4@§ !!illm1l2:l1.23@§ lliJ90@§ [§)4560lliJ456@§ 0.2231301602 -1.5 (Proof of coshx 4X=64 x·log 4 = log 64 x= log 64 =3 log 4 101. However.3 = 422.5878667 52.389388923 sinh1 (~)+tanh-l ~@~2£J~@~ 1.9ITJ@§!!illm1§ * xY and x.723757406 -56- -57- .5) X= tanh-1O.53" 2 X 3.7) = 3306232.3@) 422.4342944819 - Example Display sinh 3.4~rn506.3@) 5.sinh 1. 16.988647795 71f:j123@) G) 1.98243652 (To obtain the anti-logarithm of common ~1§l1.23= 1.5@) logarithm 4.2231301602 =e-1.094622224 ~!!illm~3O@§ ~!!illm~rn200 15ITJ@) 4.98243652 90.23) Determine the value of x when tanh 4x ~ 0.305111829 10.856761057 0.001 2£J3.5@§ 18.3439419141 104• e .389388923 1.4(5+ 6.7953654612 e45=90.5 = 0.723757406 = 1.4342944819 (Iog/ln ratio ~ constanl M) • Hyperbolic functions and inverse hyperbolic functions - .5£Jrn!!illm~O.r- given calculation priority over x and 68°13'13.23 (log101.9866142981 cosh 1. the high-order values (degrees and minutes) are given display priority.102.81:1 !!illm~O.The operations noted below cannot be performed Operation in the BASE-N mode.001 • Logarithmic and exponential functions -The operations noted below cannot be performed Operation in the BASE-N mode.5 .094622224 0.23@) 3.62.88 !!illm~4.9) =68°13'13.6~2.81 (78.6 = 18.2 .23)-12 = 1.58143837 \/123 (=1237) 1 !!illm1l2:l4£J!!illm~!!illm1B40 1.856761057 tanh 2.7953654612 eosn " (~~) = 0.0899051114 4.0.23@§ ~1§]2.5@) ~!!illm~rn203ITJO ~!!illml!illrn405ITJ@) 1.305111829 X 10-21 2+3XV64 -4= 10 rn781:123ITJ~!!illm1B12 @§ 203£J31f:j641:14@§ +".*If the total number of digits fOrldegrees/minutes/seconds exceeds 11 digits.4 + 1.5=0.53" 2. 7ITJ@§ 3306232.23= 16.5 x (sin.49980967 log456 + In456 = 0.51:1~~1.3439419141 ~!!illmI!illO.8804@) 0.3 = 52. Display Example log 1.28545536 ~~3.6@§ ~1§l1.88 4 = 0. [§)1.

press ~QJ~.The operations noted below cannot be performed in the BASE·N mode.5 (r) (Continuing) ~QJ~ ..927295218 {OJ I1.897114317 (y) IIOg% 1 =0. .999) r x y 42 . xl.sin2400 = O. dinates..92839019 (Continuing) ~QJ~ 1lillillr. Operation coordinates ------! P(x.5430803571 0. x 8) 40320.Rectangular y . 3r. Example Ifx=14andy=20. If x=7. what are rand (J rad? ~rn~ .. 12. (J can be calculated within a range of .72593931 (x) (y) What is the absolute value of the common logarithm of .2.O) Pol Rec / r 5~~ x _J__ 54.7.) 0..Calculation results are stored in variable memory I and variable memory J. Int.1249387366 If r=4. =40320 1lillill~1Il36£J42£J49 ITl~ Random number generation (pseudorandom number from 0.• Coordinate transformation • Your calculator lets you convert between rectangular coordinates and polar coor.5 and (J="37rrad.. "Iil" 1lillill~4.1249387366 21lillill~~D41lillill~~D 61lillill~~D81lillill~~~ 0. x-1.Other functions Example (r..whatare rand (J0? Operation Display Ilillill~~ (Ex.7ITl~ 55.. Ran #... what are x and y? 2 ~m~ .5 and y= -10.. To display contents of memory "3 1 1 4 = 12 8!( = 1 x 2 x 3 x .. Frac) Display 3. Abs. • With polar coordinates.. "I!J" 1lillill~251lillill056ITl~ (Continuing) ~QJ~ 13.. I Pol Rec J (J x X .0.000 to 0.y) . "I!J" 24.7660444431 40.180° < (J ~ 180°. x2. "I!J" 0[[)1 alIl~40ITl ~ITl~ Ilillill~~~ 0... .. "Iil" Ilillill§ill 7.25 (x) 3.J 55°55'42.792 ~m~ .2" (r) {OJ 01Il13 ~a5~ITlD0 1Il3 ~D4 ~ITl~ 17. e o J..97982259 20.51lillill01Il2D3 £J1lillill ITlITl~ rID (Continuing) ~QJ~ l? 4' -59- -58- ....65028154 2~D3~D4~D - P(r.. The calculation range is the same for radians and grads.5 1lillill0 1lillill[8)10ITl~ 12.. (Continuing) If r= 25 and ()= 56°.. 7660444431 = cos40° (Proof of cose~-J1'::sin2e) ~m~ .what are x and y? ~rn~ .The operations noted below cannot be performed in the BASE·N mode . Contents of variable memory I are displayed first.Polar coordinates y Y2 + Y5 = 3.65028154 ..98979792 1lillill§ill141lillill020..

99953 1~5@) • Fractions =Fractions are input and displayed in the following order: integer. -60- -61- .What is the integer part of 7800 ? 96 ..65 • Fractions can be converted back to fractions.25 What is the fraction part of 7800 ? 96 . IlE!ill~ITl7800096CD@) 0.5=0.J10_ What is the aliquot part of 251254913972141 ? 251254913902141@) IlE!ill~ITl25125491390 2141 CD@) 1173540. Example Operation Display 1 ~ITl1 ~301 ~4CD@) 5+3"4=3 2 1 13 20 (Conversion to decimal) ~ =3. • Fractional calculations can be performed in the numerator or denominator. numerator. denominator.25 2 'Calculations containing both fractions lated in decimal format. 1 2578 + 4572 x 10-4 1 = 6.. 1~2£11~301~4£1 0. the input fraction is automatically displayed in decimal format. 1~2£185@) and decimals are calcu- 0. by using parentheses to decimals.)(0.25 1 ~3£11lE!ill1Bl4~51:1 5~6@) -1. Press ~~ to convert to improper fraction. numerator. denominator and delimiter mark exceeds 10. and then converted 456 378=813 11 (Reduced) 3~456~78@) (Continuing) 1lE!ill~ • Fractions and improper fractions which can be reduced become reduced fractions when a calculation command key is pressed. including integer.11. 81.1.066202547 1 ~257801 ~4572@) 6_066202547 (NORM -04 1 mode) 'When the total number of characters. .

Sci) while the calculator is in the BASE-N mode.5. 1 0. 1.The total range of numbers handled in this mode is 0. or an error message will appear.The number system (2. 3. attach the corresponding designator (b. D. B.5. A. D.To distinguish the A.Binary. decimal and hexadecimal calculations can be handled up to 32 bits."b". @HI. 3.2. Number system Binary Octal Decimal Hexadecimal Number of digits displayed Up to 12 digits Up to 11 digits Up to 10 digits Up to 8 digits -- . 2.You cannot specify the unit of angular measurement (degrees. 0. I@or rnrn followed by Iilll. .9.1. Decimal.4. D. E and F used in the hexadecimal system from standard letters. Number system Binary Octal Decimal Hexadecimal Valid values 0. 4.Only integers can be handled in the BASE-N mode.6. octal. 8.3. • Number systems are specified for specific values by pressing @E!ffi. 5. decimal and hexadecimal calculations. 10. E.7. C. 1.9 0. 4. "0". Octal.8.A. radians. If a calculation produces a result that includes a decimal value. while binary can be handled up to 12 bits. C.Calculation range (in BASE-N mode) Binary Positive : 011111111111 ~x~O Negative: 111111111111~x~100000000000 Octal Decimal Hexadecimal Positive : 17777777777~x~0 Negative : 37777777777 ~ x ~ 20000000000 2147483647~x~ -2147483648 Positive : 7FFFFFFF~x~0 Negative : FFFFFFFF~x~80000000 . -62- -63- . E. B. the decimal portion is cut off . 6. • Octal. octal and hexadecimal are expressed as two's complements. 9. they appear as shown in the chart below . 8. . 2.4.6. "d" or "H" appears on the display. 7. 16) is set by respectively pressing~.2.Negative numbers in binary. B. 6. or h). . Key ~(= ~) (j[) (= El) (Il (= ~) 00l (= @) 00(= 00(= §]) [§J) Display fA 18 C II) E IF .3. 0. Hexadecimal Calculations • Binary.7. F. C. 8.1. Such specifications can only be made if you first exit the BASE-N mode. 7 0. If values not valid for the particular number system are used. grads) or the display format (Fix. conversions and logical operations are performed in the BASE-N mode (press ~a). d or h). A corresponding symbol . . then the number system designator (b. immediately followed by the value. 5.General function calculations cannot be performed in the BASE-N mode. F . d.

Binary. ~~~ "0" 0 872~ as a ~~~ "H" 37777777706 FFFFFFC6 H 83A~ -64- -65- .333333310 =5168 00000A68 00037AF4 H d ~@]123EJABC~ What are the octal values for 1516 and 11002? 00000000025 ~[[J1100~ o o 228084 d ~[]iJ1F2Da100~ 7881 H 00000000014 00001EC9 d What are the binary values for 3610 and 3B716? ~~ ~ "b" ~@]36~ ~[]iJ3B7~ 000000100100 001110110111 b b 1lE!ffi@]7654a12~ 334 00000000516 o 'Calculation results are displayed with the decimal portion cut off . "BASE-N" 101112+ 110102= 1100012 ~~~ "b" 10111011010~ ~@]274~ What are the hexadecimal values for 12310 and 10102? 188 00000078 0000000A d b 000000110001 H 64716.DF16=A6816 H H ~@]123~ ~[[J1010~ B47aDF~ 1238 x ABC 16= 37AF416 =22808410 1F2D 16-10010 = 788110 = 1EC916 7654871210 = 334..... hexadecimal conversions Example Operation values Display What are the decimal for 2A16 and 2748? ~a ~ "8ASE-N" ~~~ "d" IBasic arithmetic operations using binary.. octal. decimal. decimal and hexadecimal values Display Operation Example 42 d ~a . octal. multiplication sion are given priority over addition and subtraction. • Negative expressions Example Operation Display 123410+ 1EF 167248 =23528 = 125810 ~@]12340~[]iJ 1EFa24~ 00000002352 o d ~a How is 1100102 expressed a negative? How is 728 expressed negative? How is 3A16 expressed negative? as a as ~ "BASE-N" "b" 8110010~ ~~ and divi- 1258 ~~~ 111111001110 b 'For mixed basic arithmetic operations.

~(W@J). logical sums (or).. that represents the number of times the data is repeated. 54. !:x. pressing ~.Before beginning calculations.Multiple data of the same value can be input either by repeatedly pressing [Q!J or by entering the data. . 53.Standard Deviation o i=1 238 OR 618= 638 ~[@ --+ "0" 23§61~ 12016OR 110h=12D16 00000008063 I: (X_X)2 I n ffi!!J~ -+ "H" 01 ~ 00000120 n H l l Using all data from a finite population to determine the standard deviation for the population J J 120§@llil11 10102 AND (A16OR 716) = 10102 ~~---+ "b" ~1(Xi-X)2 n-1 b n Using sample data from a population to determine the standard deviation for the population 101 O~[I)@lliJA§ @lliJ7ITl~ IH!!J~---+ "H" 000000001818 ·Mean 00000886 2A16XNOR 5DI6=FFFFFF8816 ~~ ---+ "H" 2A@~5D~ Negation of 12348 @£i)~ H X i~1 I: Xi n I:x n n FFFFFF88 H 'The values for n. and negation of exclusive logical sums (xnor).Individual data are input using [Q!J. and then [Q!J.Standard deviation calculations are performed in the SD1 mode (~£t).e. negation (Not). the statistical memories are cleared by pressing [@j] followed by ~ and then @J. Statistical Calculations deviation . (Clears ---+ "0" §j]1234~ 37777776543 o Operation Display ~£J @~~ memory) Negation of 2FFFED 16 ~~---+"H" §j]2FFFED~ FFD88812 H 55@TI54@TI51@TI55@TI 53@TI@TI54@TI52@TI 'You can press the function keys to obtain results in any sequence.52 Data 55. 51. 53. and !:X2 are stored in memories W. Example Operation Display . V. . followed by [D. exclusive logic sums (xor).• Logical operations Logical operations are performed through logical products (and). "SD1" appears on the display.316956719 1 . 55. .Standard ~II ~~---+ ---+ "BASE-N" "H" 19~1A~ H 00000818 11102 AND 368=11102 ~~---+ "b" 1110~@@]36~ 000000001118 b . and U respectively. @~~ @~~ deviation an~1) 1. and can be obtained by pressing ~ followed by the memory name and then @J (i. Example 54. .407885953 -66- -67- . I (Standard (~tandard deviation an) 52.

and mean of the above data (Continuing) 1lH!ill§3~~ 55a1lH!illOO~ 54a1lH!illOO~ 51a1lH!illOO~ To calculate x and following data 1 2 3 4 5 Un-1 for the 1lH!ill~~ 1101lH!ill[I)10@!] 1301lH!ill[I)31@!] 1501lH!ill[I)24@!] 170@!]@!] 190@!]@!]@!] ~(W~ Class no.375 • Regression calculation .Estimated value X. (Sum total Ex) (Sum of squares Ex2) ~1Yl~ ~@)~ 8. and I:y2 are stored in memories W.375 To calculate the deviation of the unbiased variance. enter correct data after pressw ing 49@bl. @If 120~OJ301QI) was entered previously.2. 158. B·I:x .7142857 18. ~[2J is used. 711. . the tabulation memories are cleared by pressing I@I followed by ~ and then ~.982142857 1. Q and P respectively. This operation can also be performed by entering x data ~C!J y data ~OJ followed by a value representing the number of times the data is repeated. and then IQI). R. enter correct data after pressing rD. I:x2.625 . and to obtain estimated value -The correlation coefficient r for input data can be calculated using the following I:x. enter x data IQI) or x data @OJ followed by a value representing the total number of times the data is repeated. I:xy. and then IQI).I:y [n.I:y n ·I:x2 . enter ~C!J y data @l or @C!J y data ~OJ followed by a value representing the number of times the data is repeated. I:y. enter correct data after pressing @bl. 'Erroneous data clearing/correction II (correct data operation: 130~OJ31 @J) G) If 120~OJ is entered.42898069 • Regression Thefollowing are the formulas the unit uses to calculate constant term A and regression coefficient B for the regression formula y = A + Bx.I:x. @If 120~OJ301QI) is entered. "LR1" appears on the display. enter correct data after pressing @bl. ~(W~). and then IQI). U. and y based on the regression formula can be calculated using the following formulas: y=A+ Bx x= y-A B (To obtain the estimated value X. Constant term of regression formula A I:yn Regression coefficient of regression formula B n 'I:xy .If only x data is repeated (x data having the same value). the difference between each datum.e. 427. @If 491QI) as input a number of entries previously.Multiple data of the same value can be entered by repeatedly pressing IQI). 137.Regression calculations are performed in the LR1 mode (~G). I:x. .625 0. 198.I:x2-(I:xfJ y.If only y data is repeated (y data having the same value). @If 120~OJ31 is entered. enter correct data after pressing 120~OJ30@bl.I:y2_(I:y)2J 'The values for n. Value Frequency 110 130 150 170 190 10 31 24 2 3 1111.(Mean x) (Number of data n) IlH!illOO~ ~(W~ 53. @OO is used. 178. .(I:x)2 IlH!illOO~ 1lH!ill§3~ 'Erroneous data clearing/correction I (correct data operation: 511QI) G) If 501QI)is entered. 1 .) formula: r= n·I:xyJ[n.Before beginning calculations. enter correct data after pressing rD.Individual data are entered as x data ~C!J y data IQI). 138. and can be obtained by pressing ~ followed by the memory name and then ~ (i. . . -68- -69- . 22805. V.

9940139464 37.4 48. and Elnxoy respectively.304065093 4. Furthermore.56 0.91Q!] (Constant term A) 3. is @ If 11@E!ITJ[!J 1003@Ij was entered previously. and estimatedvalue x can be obtainedfor yi = 73.4 8.01Q!] lliJ1031@][D46.9826073689 1007. and to obtain estimated value X. Based on the regression formula. . * Erroneous data clearing/correction (correct data operation: 10@E!ITJ[!J 1003~) CD If 11@E!ITJ[!J1003 entered. is @If 11@E!ITJ[!J1003@Ij entered.61Q!] lliJ501@][D23. Based on the regression formula.770684624 -111. (§)xl@H2)@] is used. E(lnx)2.1541314 1@]0~ (Regression coefficient 8) I@][])~ (Correlation coefficient r) when xi~80) 1@]0~ lliJ801@][2J~ (x when yi~73) 731@]~~1@]~~~ -70- -71- . and the y data Inputs the same as that for linear regression.48 4.5 38. Ex.y) n-1 can also be calculated.912023005 4.• Linear regression Example -Relationship between temperature and the length of a steel bar Temperature 10°C 15°C 20°C 25°C 30°C Length 1003mm 1005mm 1010mm 1011mm 1014mm Operation Display . y@E!ITJOO@]@E!ITJ~~~ is used. enter correct data after pressing @. 28.94879482 224.0 46. 997. and y based on the regression formula can be calculated using the following formulas: (Clears memory) 101@][D10031Q!] 151@][D10051Q!] 201@][D10101Q!] 251@][D1011 IQ!] 301@][D10141Q!] (Constant term A) 1@]0~ (Regression coefficient 8) 18.9 Operation Display The data in the above table can be used to obtain the terms of the regression formula and the correlation coefficient. (y lliJ291@][D1. enter correct data after pressing mil. Enter the x data as the logarithm (In) of x.642857143 0.1283976 34. enter correct data after pressing 11@E!ITJ[!J1003@.36729583 3. 25.634728988 4.estimated value ji can beobtained for xi = 80.Logarithmic regression ~U I@]~~ . Ex2 and Exy are obtained by Elnx.51Q!] lliJ741@][D38.6 23.The regression form~la is y = A + Bolnx.A) - . Example xi 29 50 74 103 118 yi 1.41Q!] lliJ1181@][D48.The same operation as with linear regression can be used to obtain the regression coefficient and for making corrections. The critical coefficient (r2) and covariance c::xy-nox.Estimated values X.02014749 0. 38.9655172414 y=A+Bolnx x=expf. I@][])~ (Correlation coefficient r) 1@]0~ (Length at 18°C) 181@][2J~ (Temperature at 1000mm) (Clears memory) ~U I@]~~ 10001@]~~ (Critical coefficient) 1@]0~~ (Covariance) m@@(]]I:I@@~ElI@] OOElI@](1]rnUm@@~ 1:11rn~ 35. To obtain the estimated value y. 15. Thedata in the above table canbe used to obtain the termsof the regression formulaand the correlation coefficient. the estimated length of the steel bar at 18°C and the temperature when the bar is 1000 mm long can be calculated.

BilllCD!liJ12.Billl~~1iliJ (x when yi ~ 1000) !liJ1 000!l.9 12. Constant term A is obtained by @ill]~@ill]0~.26225659 -72- -73- . Based on the regression formula.• Exponential regression . and estimated value x can be obtained for yi = 1000.Billl0~ (x 16!l.7 12. E(lnxj2. Example xi 28 30 33 35 38 yi 2410 3033 3895 4491 5717 (Clears Operation Display ~GI !l. Ey2 and Exy are obtained by Elny.Correction is performed the same as in linear regression.Billl01iliJ (Regression coefficient B) 30. estimated value y can be obtained for xi = 40.771866148 0.49758742 . Enter both data x and y as logarithms (In).9 19. Example xi 6.9 12.555348061 3.1 yi 21.The regression formula is y = A·xB (Iny = InA + Blnx).Billl~~1iliJ when yi~20) !liJ20!l. Based on the regression formula. E(lny)2 and Ex·lny respectively.7!l. . Elny.87915739 8. and y based on the regression formula can be calculated using the following formulas: Iny-lnA y=A. E(lny)2 and Elnx.BilllCD!liJ8.BilllCD!liJ241 O@TI !liJ30 !l.1 @TI 26. estimated value y can be obtained for xi = 16.8 26.7 35.674743 The data in the above table can be used to obtain the terms of the regression formula and the correlation coefficient.Billl~1iliJ U when xi ~ 40) !liJ40~(2)1iliJ!l.Billl~1iliJ memory) 6.049203708 . ·Estimated values X. and estimated value x can be obtained for yi = 20.Billl ~1iliJ !l. estimated value y is obtained by x@ill](2)~[@Jtel ~~.Billl[[]1iliJ (Correlation coefficient r) !l.BilllCD!liJ4491 @TI !liJ38 !l.1 !l.574868046 !l.0.2@TI (Constant term A) !liJ 28 !l.BilllCD!liJ15.BilllCD!liJ5.9 19.2388010829 2.Billl~~1iliJ 20.lny respectively.2 (Clears r • Power regression .Billl~!l. and the x data the same as that for linear regression.0.Estimated values x. Ey2 and Exy are obtained by Elnx.Billl(2)1iliJ!l.BilllCD!liJ21.8!l.BilllCD!liJ3895@TI !liJ 35 !l.5 5.Billl01iliJ (Regression coefficient B) (Correlation coefficient r) !l.63758616 0.7 35.9!l. Enter the y dat~ as the logarithm of y(ln).1 . Ex2.9989062562 6587.8 26.Billl~1iliJ memory) 6.Billl[[]1iliJ !l.4 15. and estimated value x is obtained by lliJy@ill]OO~@E!l~~~.401197382 3.5@TI 35.1 8.4@TI 12.Billl~!l. estimated value y is obtained by lliJx@ill](2)~@E!l ~[§~. Ey.Billl01iliJ (y when xi~ 16) The data in the above table can be used to obtain the terms of the regression formula and the correlation coefficient. !l.The regression formula is y = A·eB•x (lny = InA + Bx).BilllCD!liJ5717@TI (Constant term A) 3. Constant term A is obtained by @ill]~@ill]0~.BilllCD!liJ3033@TI !liJ33 !l.496507561 3. !l.9!l. Ex.eBx x B ·Correction is performed the same as in linear regression.997247351 13.33220451 3. and estimated value x is obtained by lliJy@ill]OO~. Ey. and y based on the regression formula can be calculated using the following formulas: y=A·xB x=exp (InY-lnA) B A Operation Display ~GI !l.7@TI 19.

Graphing commands can be used alone (direct input) or within programs. In addition to using the built-in functions. the examples in this section show direct input graphing commands. you can also graph any function by simply inputting its formula. For the sake of simplicity. see page 137. For full details on using graphing commands within programs.• •• • Graphs 3-1 Built-in Function Graphs 3-2 User Generated Graphs 3-3 Some Graphing Examples 3-4 Single-Variable Statistical Graphs 3-5 Paired-Variable Statistical Graphs The innovative graphing function of this calculator employs a dot display that gives you detailed representation of mathematical functions and statistics. .

draw the graph for y = cosx without changing the existing range. ·eX IA~ ----q-V I~ Any time a built-in graph is executed. draw the graph for y = sin x. .nthe operation ~ ~function key] ~OO@].m -sln -sinh ~G_ra~p_h_s Built-in Function Graphs J ." ·x1 ·cos ·cosh . and any graph previously on the display is cleared. -77- .Overdrawing built-in function graphs TwOor more different built-in function graphs can be drawn together on the same display. Since the range for the first graph is automatically set. the ranges (see page 78) are automatically set to their optimum values. The first graph is produced by using the previously mentioned operation (~ [function key] @]). r~nge ~s unchanged and the next graph is produced without clearing the existmq display (see page 83). but certain graphs cannot be produced in these modes. 1 Next. Example 1 1 Sine curve ~D ~(ili)~ 1 Example 21 Y= ! I~ 1 graph ~~~ 1+ -76- (Note) Built-infunction graphs cannot be used in multistatements (see page 53) and cannot be written into programs. ~ample 1 The COMP mode of the RUN mode should be used when graphing functions.3" ·x2 -tan -tanh ·Iog -stnn' ·In ·cos-1 -cosh=' ·10x -tan' ·tanh-1 First. Some graphs can be produced in the SD and LR modes. By inputting @@OO after the funCtio. The BASE-N mode cannot be used for graphs. This unit contains a total of 20 built-in graphs making it possible to produce the graphs of basic functions. all s~bsequent graphSon the same display are produced ac~ordlng to t~e range of t~e first graph. the. subsequent graphs are produced using the variable X i.n key. ·sin-1 Overdraw the graph for y = cos x on the graph for y = sin x.

.. Unlike built-in functions. matically.. as well as their scales (distance between hash marks). ~ IXSCI? specifies 2 for Xscl. I I I I I I I After pressing the I5!J key.. • Range parameters xmax does not change. you should first specify range parameters to set the size of the graph. so simply press @I . 5 Xscl: 4. = Iymax? IYSCI? I... Yscl does not change. Enter the value you want to specify for the displayed parameter and then press @I.. -10.and y. Ymax specifies .. I Example I Change the range parameters on the left to those on the right... "". so graphs produced outside of the display range do not appear on the display. -79- .... Ymin: -10 -5 Ymax: 10 15 Yscl: 4.E!TI)[Blm I~~}~? IXmax? 5. Ymin @!ill(BJ[[]~ 10. mum values for each axis. 4. Range parameters consist of maximum and mini. -5 Xmax: 5. the range parameter setting screen appears on the display. 4.. Specifies 15 for Ymax.. 2 IXmin? -78- 0..• User Generated Graphs Built-in function graphs can also be used in combination with each other. so simply press ~.5 makes it possible to visually represent the solution. ·Specifying range parameters [I)[[]~ Whenever you press the ~ key (except in the BASE-N mode).5 for Ymin. 4 ~ Xmin: 0 .. ing a formula such as y = 2X2 + 3x .5 for Xmin. - specifies . 1~. OO@] • Range parameter types Range parameters consist of the following: Xmin Xmax Xscl Ymin Ymax Yscl minimum value of the x-axis maximum value of the x-axis scale of the x-axis minimum value of the y-axis maximum value of the y-axis scale of the y-axis .. you can look up and specify the range parameters for the x.. Before drawing a graph.coordinates. Graph. the ranges of user generated graphs are not set auto..

Press [ill] to scroll through the range parameter settings without changing them. while that for the x-axis is indicated on either the top or bottom edge.J J 'If the maximum and minimum values of an axis are equal. press !B or §) to display the place in the calculation that caused the error (Replay function) and make the necessary corrections. @Cample I Xmin: 5 Xmax: . to return to the display that was shown before entering the range display. (In both cases. When this happens.·Checking range parameters Press the ~ key and the range parameter setting screen appears on the dis. an error (Ma ERROR) will be generated when an attempt is made to produce a graph.5 (5) Ixmax? IXSCI? Iymin? IYmax? IYSCI? Press ~ 1+ ( . 'Whenrange values are changed (reset). the graph produced may not fit on the display. 'An Ma ERROR is generated when ranges are extremely narrow.9.999999999E+ 97. an error message appears on the display. 'Range settings may cause irregular scale spacing.5) -6J 16] 4. 'Points of deflection sometimes exceed the capabilities of the display with graphs that change drastically as they approach the point of deflection. graph ranges is . You can input range parameters as expressions (such as 2'1r)and these exprsssions are automatically converted to the values. 'If the range is set too wide. the graph display is cleared and the newly set axes only are displayed. 'When a range setting is used that does not allow display of the axes. the location of the scale is the edge which is closest to the origin (0. 'Inputting 0 for Xscl or Yscl does not set any scale. 'Inputting a maximum value that is less than the minimum value will reverse the respective axis. -80- -81- .999999999£ + 97 through r. 0)). 'The input range for 9.-J J 'If you enter a value that is outside the allowable range or if you try to perform some other illegal operation. play. the scale for the y-axis is indicated on either the left or right edge of the display.

which makes it easy to deter- mine intersection points and solutions that satisfy all the equations.2 First. The approximate coordinates for these two intersections can be found usingthe Zoom function and the Trace function described in the following section. let's try drawing a graph for y = 2X2 + 3x. clear the graph screen in preparation for the first graph. range setting is performed in the order from the beginning of the above format. I\Y' Up to six data items are programmed after the ~ command.8 Xscl Yscl during range • Function graph overdraw TWO or more function graphs can be overdrawn.User generated function graphs After performing range settings. 'Be sure to input variable X (~[!]) into the formula when using built-in graphs for overdraw. Ymax value. Yscl value OO@!)~ ~(]]~IXl~O []]~IXlI:I@]~ Next.2 2. Xmax value. .8 Ymax: Xmax: 3.4. Set the ranges to the values shown below. If variable X is not included in the second formula. the second graph is produced after clearing the first graph. Ymin value. ~(]]~IXl~O []]~lXlarn~ The result produces a visual representation of the formula. In this way it can be easily seen that there are two intersections for the two function graphs. -2. user generated graphs can be drawn simply by entering the function (formula) after pressing ~. ~ ~ Here.• Range reset Range values are reset to their initial values by pressing ~~ display. overdraw the graph for y = 2x + 3. -82- -83- . Here. Xmin : -5 Ymin : -10 Xmax: 5 Ymax: 10 Xscl : 2 Yscl: 4 Input the functional formula after pressing the ~ key. The initial values are as follows. Xscl value. When less than six items are programmed. Ymin Xmin : -3. < Reference> Range settings are performed within programs using the following format: ~ Xmin value. let's find the intersection points of the previously used y=2X2+3x-4 and y=2x+3.

If you use the Trace or Plot function to locate the pointer at a specific point on the graph..s_in_x_.6 Xscl : 180 Yscl : = sin x.Reducing a graph 'Example] ~ Xmin Xmax: Xscl: .0 on the y-axis.. graph y=. ing to t OOlzoomxfl After specifying the range parameters. i done . Use the following range parameters for the original graph. To return the grap 0I .~. . -360 360 180 Ymin : -1. the enlargement/reduction is performed using the pointer location as the center point. original graph. graph y Press ~~ screen.0 on the j-axrs.sinx by a factor of 1.. h t its original size press ~Iz. To return to the graph screen after g hanges try play c.- iYf8Ct? ~@!)I@ ~[!§~OOI@ Press I!illffi!l!!l for the factor specification screen. g the factor value. : \\1\ \ s . specified. for the factor specification '-----'-i~_v iXf8Ct? _J 2] J 0.olql. for .240 Ymin Xmax: 240 Ymax X cl· 180 Yscl parameters. =[!Donxfl to enlarge the graph accordpress ~ if d he factors you spec I te . take another look at the range Lets Xmin : ...6 Xmax: 360 Ymax: 1. : .: : . to chan e the factor value while a graph is displayed. SHIfT IZ-xfl a ain the graph is enlarged once more by the factors you If you press ~ g. -84- i -85- . Xmin : -360 Ymin : -1._.6 Yscl : After specifying the range parameters. I~-v \Xf8Ct? 2.6 Ymax: 1.5 on the x-axis and 2. the dis'Wheneveryouto the text screen au tomatically . press !HI or @].5 on the x-axrs To reduce the gra~h useYt~e following range parameters for the and 2. chongm -Enlarging a graph @I(Or~)~ I~ /1 1 I Example I To enlarge the graph for y = sinx by a factor of 1.and y-coordinates. -.Zoom function This function lets you enlarge or reduce the x.

=To specify the zoom factors within a program Use the following format to specify the zoom factors in a program. (Yfactor) -86- -87- . To return the graph to its original size. press 1!lill1z.xo 1 -3. Note that this point will be represented by a y-axis value of 0. press IHJ or @l. @[ill@!J~ • Whenever you try to change the factor value while a graph is displayed. • Using the trace function ~ ~ To use the Trace function in combination with the Zoom function to analyze the graph for y=x2-3.Trace function This function lets you move a pointer around a graph and display the x.-. Factor (Xfactor).-.2 Yscl : 1+ Use~ and IB to move the pointer along the graph.f_~--.and y~~ordinates. You enlarge or reduce the x.2 Ymax: 3.36842 1 Press @ill)llDoox141 to reduce the graph according to the factors you specified. Holding down either key moves the pointer at high speed.89473 1 If you press @ill)1z. so first press@ill)1B) change the coordinate display to to show the y-coordinate.) \f/'X- -~.k L_ .and yordinates of the current pointer location._~. @[illllOOllxYrI Let's take another look at the range parameters. To return to the graph screen after changing the factor value.-. Use the following range parameters for the original graph. You can display the coordinates using either seven digits or eleven digits (including negative sign) . ~(or @j)) ] 1 1. the graph is reduced once more by the factors you specified. the display changes to the text screen automatically.\1/.1Q1.__Y_f_8C_t_? 1 ~-.-:~_c_t ?_.x141 again. Move the pointer to the point where the graph intersects the x-axis.-_. Each press moves the cursor one point. §) - (Hold down. l§B~oo~arn~ Activate the Trace function._7'"'-'-::~_? I.-. graph y 3. --_J 0] J . Xmin -4 Xmax : 4 Xscl : 2 Ymin : -8 Ymax : 8 Yscl : 4 =x 2 - After specifying the range parameters. Xmin : -540 Xmax: 540 Xscl: 180 Ymin : -3.

Activate the Trace function and move the pointer again.

~@illj~

~
Now use the Zoom function to enlarge the graph. First specify a factor of2 on the x- and y-axes. Enlarge the graph again to check the location of the pointer.

I~t

~~O.16343

IXfact?

@illjIZoomxfl

2.J
done]
* Whenever you try to change the factor value while

Activate the Trace function and move the pointer again.

I~
1-~YO.016621 1-~~~.736B41
--~~,~-x=
-1.736842105

~@illj~
~ (Hold down)

View the x-coordinate value.

a graph is displayed, the display changes to the text screen automatically. To return to the graph screen after changing the factor value, press [HJ or @]. @) (or 1Hl)

Press l!E!ITI~

to display the x-coordinate.

@illj~

Now enlarge the graph according to the factors.

Press ~

again to exit the Trace function.

I~

-88-

-89-

As you can see above, the Trace and Zoom functions can be used to locate the pointer at an approximate point, and then 1!illIJ~ produces a readout of the coor, dinates. To return the graph to its original size, press I!illIJIZaoIiIklI.

.Plot function
The Plot function is used to mark a point on the screen of a graph display. The point can be moved left, right, up and down using the cursor keys, and the coordinates for the graph displayed can be read. Two points can also be connected by a straight line (see Line function, page 93). Press 1!illIJ®!iJ and specify the x- and y-coordinates after the "Plot" message. ~ample

=I,\+=f 1=.

(Important) . The pointer does not move at fixed intervals. It follows the dots on the display. Because of this, the values provided for coordinates are approximate. 'The Trace function can only be used immediately after a graph is drawn. This function cannot be used if other calculations or operations (except ~~ and (H) have been employed after a graph has been drawn . • The x-y coordinate values consist of a 11-digit (max.) mantissa or a 7-digit (max.) mantissa plus a 2-digit exponent. Negative values are one digit shorter because one digit is used for the negative sign. 'The Trace function cannot be written into a program. 'The Trace function can be used during a "1m" display. • When the format: "I§!!) formula ~ (§B formula ~" is executed and a graph is drawn by pressing ~ directly after executing the Trace function during halt status, the previous coordinate value remains on the display. After the Trace.function is executed and the text display is brought up using the (H) key, pressmg @l causes the next graph to appear and the coordinate value to clear. Examine the above using l§!!)~m~~[1)~2~mD5.

=J

I Plot a point at x = 2 and y = 2 on the axes created by the following
range values: Ymin : -10 Ymax: 10 Yscl 2

Xmin : -5 Xmax: 5 Xscl

I·_.·II ~o;~
x-coordinate

1?5263

1

value displayed

The blinking pointer is positioned at the specified coordinates. 'Due to limitations caused by the resolution of the display, the actual position of the pointer can only be approximate. The pointer can be moved left, right, up and down using the cursor keys. The current position of the pointer is always shown at the bottom of the display.

I'
To find the y-coordinate value:

'"-~'~~421052

~181

I..", ·!'·...
I· _'

+..:. ~ ~
·r·B1B1Bl 363636

1

-90-

-91-

When the pointer is at the location you want, press @] to plot a point. At this time, the pointer returns to the original point you specified (2, 2 in this example).

.Line function
The Line function makes it possible to connect two points (including the blinking pointer) created with the Plot function with a straight line. With this function, user generated lines can be added to graphs to make them easier to read. ~ample

@)
Now, inputting a new coordinate value causes the new pointer to blink without clearing the present pointer.

I

Draw perpendiculars from point (2,0) on the x-axis to its intersection with the graph for y = 3x. Then draw a line from the point of intersection to the y-axis. Ymin : -2 Ymax: 10 Yscl : 2

The range values for the graph are as follows: Xmin : -2 Xmax: 5 Xscl :

Iillffi~rnlillffi[!] 1]]8[[]@)
If x-y coordinates are not specified for the Plot function, the pointer appears at the center of the screen. Set the following range values: Xmin : -2 Xmax: 5 Xscl Ymin-2 Ymax: Yscl 10 2

Clear the graph display and draw the graph for y = 3x.

Iillffi@!l@) ~[]]@@OO@)
Next, use the Plot function to locate a point at (2,0).

I'_'~J
1·-,V~~~OS2B31 I

To find the y-coordinate value:

IillffirBJ
*Attempting to plot
* The x-

I_I,~, I,-,-k~
_J X=
y.

1.

sJ

Now plot a point at (2,0) again and use the cursor key (IQ)) to move the pointer up to the point on the graph (y=3x).

4.]

Iillffi ~rnlillffi[!]OO@) [Q)-[Q)

(Move the pointer up to the point on the graph for y = 3x.) Draw a line using the Line function.

a poin: outside of the preset range is disregarded.

and y-coordinates of the pointer used in the Plot function are respectively stored in the X memory and Y memory. * A blinking pointer becomes a fixed point (not blinking) when a new pointer is created.

1illffiW!!)@)

-92-

-93-

To scroll the graph on the display @xample [ To draw the graph for y=O. 1.Next. right. ~~026315 ] @!I@l@] I·J{~.. ] * The Line functon can only be used to draw lines between the blinking pointe: and I:ImlIlCJ ~@]GJOO[[]ITJ@!IDOOGlOOIII mOO@!IDOOGllIllIIITJOO@!IDOO ~m~OOaH::[)@] a fixed point created using the Plot function. . Xmin : -5 Xmax: 5 Xscl : Ymin : -8 Ymax: 8 Yscl : 2 (2x+ 1)(2x. First.('r" .Graph scroll function Immediately after you have drawn a graph. Use the cursor keys to scroll the graph left. -94- -95- . you can scroll it on the display._.25(x+2) then scroll it. This can be accomplished using Plot X.) 1·-}(_. -Press @illillIZoomIqI to return the graph to its original position after scroll operations. and ~~@!IDOO~0 ~[Y)@] 1 ~j{_. . a perpendicular will be drawn from the same point on the graph to the yaxis..Jl I~~ .5).. Y since t~e x-y COordinates of the point on the graph are stored in the X and Y memories. . up and down. plot the point on the graph and use the cursor key (IE) to move the pointer to the y-axis.~~ 05263] (B-(B (Move the pointer to the y-axis. y=2x-3.

You can expand . @Expand the memory in accordance with the number of bars (~8n@J). -Bar graphs and normal distribution curves can be produced as single-variable statistical graphs.up to a maximum of 19.EI' The following examples are presented to show you some ways that the graphing functions can be used effectively. Single-Variable Statistical Graphs 1 Example 11 To graph the function y=x3-9x2+27x+50 Ymin : -30 Ymax: 150 Yscl : 20 Use the following range parameters. _Graphs are drawn with the x-coordinate as the data range and the y-coordinate as the number of items (frequency) of each data. @Clear the statistical memories (1!illTII~@l). Xmin : -5 Xmax: 10 Xscl 2 ~@!)~ ~~oo~ma [[)~oo~O oom~ooooo[QJ~ 1Example 21 2 To graph the function y=x4 + 4x3. •Abs and V-cannot be used in the SD2 mode. the Unit automatically sets the number of memories as 19. ®Input data (Data @J). Rank No. 1 Example I Use the following data to draw a ranked graph. Rank Frequency 1 0 1 2 10 3 3 20 2 4 30 2 5 40 3 6 50 5 7 60 6 8 70 8 9 80 15 10 90 9 11 100 2 -96- -97- . @Set the range values (~).36x -160x+ termine its minimum and maximum Ymin : -600 Ymax: 600 Yscl : 200 Use the following range parameters.memories . Xmin : -10 Xmax: 10 Xscl 2 ~@!)~ ] 300 and der- _Single-variable statistical graphs are drawn in the SD2 mode (I!illTII~EJ). -The @J key is used for data input. ®Draw the graph. -The @Q key is used for data correction.Procedure statistical graphs ~~OO~[!)O [!)~OO~ma moo~oo~aOJoo[QJ ~ooom[QJ[QJ~ G)Specify the SD2 mode (I!illTII~EJ). so graphs of theoretical values and graphs of actual values can be overdrawn. -The maximum number of data items is identical to the number of memories. "SD2" appears on the display. -Bar graph 8@J -Norrnal distribution curve ~I!illTII[1ill!I1 @J 'Data input method in step 5 is the same as that for standard deviation calculations (see page 67). _Function graphs are also possible in the SD2 mode. • Drawing single-variable . If you specify a number greater than 19.

. (The general rule IS that the mlnimurn value should be equal to or greater than the minimum range value and the max. draw a bar graph. eXpand . graphing p~rposes the maximum value (Xmax) is set at 110.When a value that exceeds the preset ranges is input. the same range values cannot be used. . Xmin: .. Since the y-axis value is relatively small when compared with the bar graph. so here we set the x-axis ranges to 0 through 110).. and the points outside the range cannot be connected.Be sure to expand the memory in accordance with the number of bars.When more data than the preset y-axis range is input. . 100-109). the number of data divisions also changes. . ® Input Iiillffi~~ the data. . A Mem ERROR is generated if memory expansion is not performed .The following must be true in the case of range settings: Xmin < Xmax . -Next. •After a bar graph is executed. s= ___ 1 e _ (x_m)2 2(12 j2. Xmin: Xmax: Xscl . draw a normal distribution curve.20-29 memories by 11.10-19.0 Xmax: 110 Xscl : 10 Ymin: 0 Ymax: 20 Yscl : 2 . m is x.01 ~~[lli!][IJ1illI t Inputting the number 1 causes a normal distribution curve to be drawn. @Clear the statistical memory. • If the number of expanded memories is changed during data input. [~ -99- -98- . [Lnlh.The formula used for normal distribution curves is: @Sincethe number of bars is 11(0-9.•0 110 10 Ymin : 0 Ymax: 0. thus making it impossible to produce a proper graph. The highest value to be plotted on the x-axis is 100. imum value should be less than the maximum range value.Perform graph preparation in accordance with the following procedure: G)Specify the SD2 mode (@ill)~Et). but not into the graph memory.05 Yscl 0. @Set the range values. Ymax value is set to 20 tor the y-axis because the maximum frequency is 15. . it is input to the statistical memory.. "done" is displayed in the text display. the bar graph is drawn tothe upper limit of the display. Change the range values to those shown below. o 1Q!l10 1Q!l1Q!l1Q!l201Q!l1Q!l30 1Q!l1Q!l40 IQ!lIQ!lIQ!l 501iillffiOJ51Q!l601iillffiOJ61Q!l70~OJ81Q!l 80 IiillffiOJ 151Q!l9 0 IiillffiOJ91Q!l1 00 IQ!lIQ!l @First. but for. a •Keyboard designation of a is xo n.

Xmin : -10 Xmax: 10 Xscl : 2 Ymin : -5 Ymax: 15 Yscl : 5 x are: . (Point appears even when data is corrected by the @Q key) .Paired-variable graphs can be drawn as regression lines. .·f. • Drawing paired-variable ·Procedure statistical graphs @!ill800@!illCD@!ill8(]][Q!] @!ill800@!illCD@!ill81I1[Q!] @!ill800@!illCD(]][Q!] III@!illCDOO[Q!] @J@!illCDOO[Q!] 0@!illCDOO[Q!] I~. • The @Q key is used to edit data after input is complete. . ® Draw the graph (~~illMl11ill1) . •According to the general rule of the x-axis range values the values ~ -10~x< 10. but points that are produced on the display are not cleared. @Input data (x data ~[!] y data ~OJ frequency @)).. points are displayed immediately. ER~OR is generated when there is no data input and the following key operetton IS performed: ~~illMl11ill1. I Perform linear regression on the following data and draw a regres- 'When data is input that is outside of the preset range values a point does not appear.or ®Clear the statistical memories . @Set the range values (~).~. but the point is not displayed. @Clear the statistical memory (~~IillI). it is input to the statistical memory. and data is input to the statistical memory. • When a value that exceeds the preset range is input. . data distribution and regression line graphs can be overdrawn. @!ill~~ @)Input the data . -Atter data input in the LR2 mode. -2 -1 -9 -5 -3 1 4 7 2 3 5 8 -100- -101- .Paired-variable graphs are drawn in the LR2 mode (~~a). @Set the range values to those shown in the table. ' *An Ma. so theoretical graphs. Xi v. • Points on the display cannot be retrieved if the display is cleared (~~@)). . CDSpecify the LR2 mode (~§@a). *Th~ following must be true in the case of range settings: xmm « Xmax.:. sion line graph.Standard function graphs can also be 'drawn in the LR2 mode. "LR2" appears on the display.m Paired-Variable Statistical Graphs CDSpecify the LR2 mode (~§@a). I Example (page 69). •Data input method in step 4 is the same as that for Regression calculation ® Draw the graph. • Data is input using the@) key in the following format: x data ~[!] Y data ~QJ frequency @).

Deletion) 4-3 Program Debugging (Correcting Errors) 4-4 Counting the Number of Steps 4-5 Program Areas and Calculation Modes 4-6 Erasing Programs 4-7 Convenient Program Commands 4-8 Array-Type Memories 4-9 Displaying Alpha-Numeric Characters and Symbols 4-10 Using the Graph Function in Programs .•• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• 4-1 What is a Program? 4-2 Program Checking and Editing (Correction. Addition.

S and V for a regular are defined as: L___ Inputto memoryA S=2Y3N 02U3EJ~[A)~3 L Now the program is complete. ?-->A When "?" is displayed. Since programs are ended and their final results displayed matically. The command to request data input is "?". (DFormulas do not omit final procedure: will be used in the previously L_j LDisplay S presented ~(1)El~[A)OJ2EJ03EJ~[A)~~~ octahedron For a surface area S. " command calculation program commands execution and numeric values can be input and the latest area and volume of a regular octahedron when the length is given.unit.. and is used together with El as "~(1)El memory name". so it should make sense In the above example. The" . commands are required to request the input of data and to display results. To store a numeric value in memory A. r------------. This command IS used to mark positions in formulas where results are to b~ displa~ed.4". Therefore.program.--------Length of one side (A) 10cm Surface area (S) )cm2 ) ) Volume __ (V) )cm3 ) ) causes to stop temporarily formula re~ult or alphan~meric characters and symbols (see page 135) to be displayed. the operations performed for manual calculations can be used as Ell What I Example I Find the surface of one side they are In a . it will continue in order without ~topplng. omitted o Programming Creating a program based on calculation formulas is known as "programming". to store it in memory Numeric value A El~[KJ@l 2£f03£f~[KJ~@l 02U3£f~[KJ~3@l S V -104- -105- .! H I~p_ro~g~r_a_m__C_a_IC_U_la_t_io_n_s is a Program? feature that facilitates repeat calculations. while that to display results is ""'''. Once program execution starts.. However BASE-N mode is specified ". ~ With this . Programs will be discussed here with the aid of illustrative examples.------------. within 127 steps. The basis of a program is manual calculation. used for manual calculation. consider the operational method area (S): 2£103£1 Numeric value A~@l (V): 02U3£f Numeric value A~3@l numeric A before value A is used twice.. This command cannot be used independently.. this command can be omitted at the end of program. volume V and one side A. for example: This unit has a built-in program -r program feature is used for the consecutive execution of formulas in the same way as the "multistatement" feature is used in manual calculations. . The A wi~hin a program wi~1cau~e executio~ to stop temporarily and a "1" to appear on the display as the Unit waits for data input. the calculations. Surface Volume so first of all.. Here a program will be created based upon the formulas given above. Here these two commands for base conversion during a program. autoif the 7 15 * Fill in the parentheses.

(S when A = 10) (V when A= 10) ?~A:2xr3xA2_ WRT 011 471.@Program storage pressing WRT The storage of programs is performed in the WRT mode which is specified by ~rn. 691751216 I (S when A = 7) (V when A=7) -106- -107- . Then the number of remaining steps (see page 116) is indicated. Number of remaining stepS 2 ~r2-:-3xAxY 3 020 After these operations are complete. If no programs have been input and the number of memories equals 26 (the number of memories at initialization).990258) p ($n _34_6789 226 Here the previously mentioned program will be stored to program area PO(indi· cated by the blinking zero): I@(Start storage) WRT I··~·"." Number of steps used for program area PO. 741219"91 161.4045208)cm3 (161. To execute PO: ~O@] To execute P3: ~3@] To execute P8: ~8@] The program area to be Herethe sample program that has been stored will be executed. the system mode changes to the WRT mode. executed is specified using the ~ key.4228634) 2 Volume (V) (471. it indicates that there are no programs stored in areas POthrough P9. press ~ITJ to return to the RUN mode. Areas into which programs have already been stored are indicated by "i:" instead of numbers. the program is stored. the number of usable steps should equal 400. The number of remain: ing steps is decreased when programs are input or when memories are expand· ed. The surface (S) and volume (V) for the regular octahedron in the sample problem are calculated as: Length of one side (A) 10cm 7 15 Surface area (S) (346. WRT [D[QJI@ (Value of A) '-- 346. WRT ~rn @program execution Programs are executed in the RUN mode (~ITJ).41214521218 ~A:2xr3xA2~_ 012 illl@ (Value of A) 169.7409791 ) (779. When are pressed.6917506) (1590. If the letter "P" is followed by the numbers 0 through 9.4101615)cm (169. The larger figures located below indicate the program areas (see page 117). 'After the program is stored. 41 en 6 15 --=-__j lDl5ilndicates answer displayed by A . The blinking zero here indicates the current program area is PO.

it appears as follows: _ ~(f]El~iKJOJ03£J~iKJ~~~ 02a12£J~iKJ~3 S V -108- -109- .Program Checking and Editing (Correction. Length of one side (A) 10 cm 7. After specifying the desired program area using ~ or ~ in the WRT mode (~[]]). the Prog 0 command is stored by the replay function. the @) (or ~) key is used to advance the program one step at a time for verification. @Camplel Find the surface area and volume of a regular tetrahedron when the length of one side is given. Numeric value A El@!liKJ@l 03£J@!JiKJ~@l 02a12£J@!JiKJ~3@l When the above is formed into a program. the length of one side is stored in memory A and the program then constructed. Operation ~O@l 10@l @l @l 7@l @l (PO program execution) (Input 10 for A) (Display V when A = 10) (Reexecute) (Input 7 for A) (Display V when A = 7) Recalling a stored program can be performed in order to verify its contents. _9_9_0_2_5_8____J I:miI (S when A= 15) (V when A = 15) 'Program calculations are performed automatically with each press of@l when it is pressed after data is input or after the result is read.5 20 Surface area (S) ( ( ( Volume (V) ( ( ( )cm2 ) ) )cm3 ) ) CD Formulas For a surface area S. subsequent executions of the same program can be performed by simply pressing @l. Deletion) IIJ(]]~ (Value of A) 779. Here a new program will be created by checking and editing the previous sample program (the surface area and volume of a regular octahedron). Once the program is displayed. When the program has been improperly stored. volume V and one side A. editing can also be performed by adding to it or erasing portions. Addition.. S and V for a regular tetrahedron are defined as: S=-J3A2 @Programming As with the previous example._'_5_9_0_. the program contents will be displayed by pressing the@l key. Therefore.4228634 L. 'Directly after a program in POis executed by pressing ~O@l as in this example.

8511302)cm3 (49. Octahedron: ~(2)El~mOJ_gg_03£J~m~~W 020~£J~mI£l3 Tetrahedron: ~(2)El~mOJ03£J~m~~W 020 12£J~mI£l3 @Program execution Now this program will be executed.2050808 117.71844555) (942.-12fx~ Editing complete . 128456789 WRT 380 ? I 178. Locate cursor at ~ ~[QJ~ [L)[:J[[]~ ? 97. " I~.5 20 Surface area (S) (173. a comparison of the two programs would be helpful. ~ ~!i~J[IJrn r8xA2 ~r2". Return to the RUN .-12:8: WRT 015 ~[QJ~ Delete unnecessary 3. In actual practice.8090416 ~OOID ~x9 ?~A:~n8XA2~r2 times ~-----~-----..8090416) The octahedron program can be changed to a tetrahedron program by deleting the parts marked with wavy lines. Length of one side (A) 10 cm 7. -110- -111- . Press I!!i!ill!!!l to bring cursor to end. 015 rn[QJ~ ~ r8xA2 ~r2".820323) 2 Volume (V) (117.8511802 ~?~~A: 2xr8xA2~ ~~~~ ~----------." I p ~-----------..42785798 49. and changing those that are marked with straight lines. Insert two characters.820828 942. this would be performed as follows: WRT [§@ITJ ~[QJ~ ITJ[QJ~ I··~·".2050808)cm (97. WRT 004 position to be deleted. and delete two characters.42785793) (692.71844555 I? 692. WRT 000 Cursor located at beginning.@Program editing First.'~'''~'-------~ I mode.

g. @Ma ERROR (Mathematical error) Indicates the calculation result of a numeric expression exceeds 101 an illogical operation (e. or that the program area (see page 117) for the Prog command (see page 127) does not contain a program. division by zero). (DSyn ERROR (Syntax error) Indicates a mistake in the formula or a misuse of program commands. which gives an idea of the proper countermeasure to be taken . • Move the cursor to the position to be deleted. @Stk ERROR (Stack error) Indicates the calculation performed exceeds the capacity of the stack for numeric values or for commands (see page 31). @Ne ERROR (Nesting error) Indicates a subroutine nesting overflow by the Prog command (see page 127). • Error messages There are a total of seven error messages. -112- -113- . It also states the type of error. @Go ERROR (Jump error) Indicates a missing Lbl for the Goto command (see page 120). • Delete • Move the cursor to the position to be inserted into. ~§) ~§) ~§) @] After a program has been created and input. • Press desired keys. • Debugging when an error message is generated An error message is displayed as follows: Deletion I P1eJ Syn rl --------Type of error ERROR I Insertion ~§) I@IIffiID Program area where error was generated The error message informs the operator of the program area (PO to P9) in which the error was generated. °°. Such programming errors are referred to as "bugs". while correcting them is called "debugging" . This indicates that there is an error somewhere within the program that needs to be corrected. • Specify the insert mode. or it will produce unexpected results. it will sometimes generate error messages when it is executed. or the input of an argument that exceeds the input range of the function.<Summary} Operation Program check • • • • WRT mode specification Program area specification (Omitted if PO) Start verification Verification of contents Keys used ~§) @) ~rn Correction • Move the cursor to the position to be corrected. • Press correct keys.

Sci 10. -114- -115- . @Ma ERROR @Go ERROR Check to see that there is a corresponding Lbl n when Goto n is used. check to see that the numeric values in the memories do not exceed the range of the arguments. When using array-type memories (see page 130). Goto 11). @Ne ERROR Check to ensure that the Prog command is not used in the branched program area to return execution to the original program area. check to see that the subscripts are correct. This type of error often occurs with division by 0 or the calculation of negative square roots.® Mem ERROR (Memory error) Indicates the attempt to use a memory name such as Z [5) without haVing expanded memories. lB. With this operation. the RUN mode is maintained.9. The cursor is positioned at the location where the error was generated to allow modification of the program to eliminate the error. (2)Arg ERROR (Argument error) Indicates the argument of a command or specification in a program exceeds the input range (e. Pressing t!iJ cancels the error and new key input becomes possible. @Stk ERROR Check to see that the formula is not too long thus causing a stack overflow. Press t!iJ. or Prog commands are within 0-9. or §) to cancel the error.Checkpoints for each type of error The following are checkpoints for each type of error: CDSyn ERROR Verify again that there are no errors in the program. Also check whether values specified by Goto. Also ensure that memory expansion using §@8 (Defm) is performed within the remaining number of steps and that the value used for expansion is not negative. @Mem ERROR Check to see that memories were properly expanded using "~8n@l" (Defm). the formula should be divided into two or more parts. Further operation will become impossible when an error message is displayed. (flArg ERROR Check whether values specified by ~0 (Sci) or §@(!) (Fix) are within the range of 0 . For calculations that require use of the memories. Pressing lB or §) cancels the error and changes the system mode to the WRT mode. Lbl. Also check to see that the program in P n has been correctly input when Prog n is used. .g. If this is the case.

Henceforth. A. and regression calculations in a program. I Example I WRT • Program area and calculation mode specification WRT mode 000 in the '1. First the WRT mode is specified (~rn). etc. Each step can be verified by the movement of the cursor: I II Programs already WRT P . etc. octal. each press of a cursor key «(B or to the next sequential step.:. and then a calculation mode is specified. but there are some commands where one function requires two steps. the calculation mode is memorized in the program area. and the number of remaining steps will appear. when ~ is pressed. the program area is specified. 1. cos. At this time the status of the program areas can also be determined.. Only the numbers of the program areas that do not yet contain programs will be displayed. Specification of a program area is performed as follows: The program capacity of this unit consists of a total of 400 steps. @xamplel PO ~[QJ~ P8 I!@OO~ * In this mode. standard deviation calculations. RUN mode: Press any key from 0 through 9 after pressing the ~ Then press~. "i:" symbols indicate program areas which already contain programs. For example: EB) will cause the cursor to move Besides normal function calculations.). and it will decrease as programs are input. WRT is pressed. WRT mode: Use (B or EB to move the cursor under the program area to be specified and press ~. a calculation mode must be specified.)23456789 steps Basically. Prog 8. :. WRT ?~A:r -116- xA2~r2 6th step 006 -117- .. and 10 independent programs can be input. ·One function/two steps: Lbl 1. Program mode specification and program area specification are performed at the same time. 2. one function requires a single step. 3. decimal and hexadecimal calculations and conversions.. stored programs will be accompanied with the calculation mode. log. (. The number of remaining steps will also be decreased when steps are converted to memories.. the number of remaining steps will be displayed together with the number of memories. (See page 40.)67_9 23 __ T 292 stored in these program areas.III Counting the Number of Steps This unit contains a total of 10 program areas (PO through P9) for the storage of programs. [Example 3Bl-+-Number of remaining P . program execution begins when ~ key. B. The total number of steps available for storage in program areas POthrough P9 is 400 maximum. Next.. The number of steps indicates the amount of storage space available for programs.~A:r3xA2~r2 Present cursor position At this time. I Example I IM-26 8-381 @Specify the WRT mode (~rn). to perform binary.) There are two methods to determine the current number of remaining steps: (DWhen ~8~ are pressed in the RUN mode. and... Goto 2. tan. -One function/one step: sin.. These program areas are all utilized in the same manner. One main program (main routine) and a number of secondary programs (subroutines) can also be stored.:.

P _12.45678_ peL • Cautions concerning the calculation modes All key operations available in each calculation mode can be stored as programs.:... ·Among the program commands.. P I2llg'3456789 400 Specify mode..:Return to RUN mode._in_p_3_O_n_IY_. Failure to do so may result in a decimal display or an error. but..Among the program commands..-:-12_45678_ peL 302 PO. 302 As shown above... that nothing P I2llg~3456789 BASE-N WRT 400 Specify P2.." at the final result output to return to the previous cal... P8 and P9.. culation mode when a program execution is terminated. .:. the calculation mode will be memorized into a program area.. .I Example I ~OO Memorizing the BASE-N mode in P2 WRT P ~¢n23456789 WRT 400 Assuming is stored. • Erasing all programs To erase all programs stored in program areas 0 through 9..:. IExample I Erase the ~OO programs stored in PO.. certain commands of functions cannot be used.. LR2 mode ·Among the functions. BASE-N mode -Functlon calculations cannot be performed. specify the PCl mode and press the rD key after specifying the program area. tl1" -119- .. -Units of angular measurement cannot be specified.. 345 Number 3 appears after deletion. Isz. z . the BASE. P4.Among the functions. P_ 1E~~45678_ 1·:.. ---. > and < cannot be used. P3 and P9 already contain programs. > and be used.Erasing a single program To erase a program in a single program area... ·AII program commands can be used. Align cursor with P3. Dsz. ·Be sure to include a " . ~. ::5.. Abs and cannot be used. SD2 mode .. ~. PCL P .. SD1.. specify the PCl mode and press ~ and then ~. peL P _:.. Dsz. Abs and cannot be used.N §ample I Erase the program. =. depending on the calculation mode. v- r-------------.. v peL < cannot 400 P ~¢n23456789 -118- I·.:-123_567 __ 273 LR1.

.. -+. Y.A... X. or to repeat calculations from a point within a program. 2. Lbl. -+. ~ . Y. Jump commands are used to change the flow of program execution. -+... •Henceforth. insert a display command (. Goto. and add "Lbl 1" to the beginning of the program as the branch destination. see sections 4-1 and 4-2. tination after checking whether the value stored equals zero or not.. Programs are executed in the order that they are input (from the lowest step number first) until the end of the program is reached.3. A:. When program execution reaches the statement "Goto n" (where n is a number from 0 through 9). x. it will continue execution. 1.. The programs for this unit are made based upon manual calculations.?. 2. When there is no "Lbl n" to correspond to a "Goto n". conditional jumps that decide the branch destination by whether a certain condition is true or not.. Special progam commands. execution then jumps to "Lbl n" (n is the same value as Goto n). are available to allow the selection of the formula and repetitive execution of the same formula.. +. -120- -121- .. x.71844555 ? The length of the side=7.. After that. The previous program contained: ?. x. The unconditional jump is often used in simple programs to return execution to the beginning for repetitive calculations. 1 25 steps NoW let's try executing this program. Unconditional jumps are also used in combination with conditional and count jumps.:. . and count jumps that increase or decrease a specific memory by one and then decide the branch des-. B.?. Program ?.Jump commands Program Commands The complete program with the unconditional jump added should look like this: Lbl. 1. It is in these cases. ' Here. however. In this wayan unconditional jump is made in accordance with "Goto"and "Lbl".. If this is simply left the way it is. 2. the values for a and b are stored in memories A and B respectively. only the value for x can be changed. A. To prevent this situation. xY. There are three types of jump commands: a simple unconditional jump to a branch destination.A. branch destinations can be designated at any point within the program. +.. ~. xY.- The unconditional jump is composed of "Goto" and "Lbl".. 1. x.~) in front of the "Goto 1". the displays will only show calculation result output. The length of the side = 10 mc:J[]]~ @] @] 97.) will be used to separate steps for the sake of clarity.2050808 117. however. X. [Example I Calculate y = ax + b when the value for x changes each time. that the jump commands are very effective. +. 3.?. Goto.42785793 49.. the volume will not be displayed and execution will move immediately to the input of one side at the beginning. Y. B ~. :. Add "Goto 1" to the end of the program.x2. Besides the beginning of the program. some of these commands will be used to produce more convenient programs. 851 1302 ? Stored in PO. A.:. commas (. •For details on inputting programs and editing programs. 3 19 steps 'Hereinafter. • Unconditional jump I····· -..-+. I Example I The previously presented program to find the surface area and volume of a regular tetrahedron will be rewritten using "Goto 1" and "Lbl 1" to allow repeat calculations. while a and b can also change depending upon the calculation. A. 1 When this program is executed. however. A.:.5 Since the program is in an endless loop. -+. an error (Go ERROR) is generated.. 23 steps A. To terminate execution. x. ..Ill! Convenient .V. 2. press ~[D. 3. This system is not very convenient when there are repeat calculations to be performed or when it is desirable to transfer execution to another formula. ~[QJ~ m[QJ~ @] @] ? 173.:. 1. X2. and the flow of program execution is changed.:..

:. Goto. Goto 2 causes execution to jump to Lbl 2. 1 16 steps In this program. A. =. If the contents of memory A are less than zero. Left side = right side (left side equals right side) Left side ~ right side (left side does not equal right side) Left side 2: right side (left side is greater than or equal to right side) Left side ::5 right side (left side is less than or equal to right side) Left side> right side (left side is greater than right side) Left side < right side (left side is less than right side) The "~" is displayed when 1illITI§J are pressed. Next.Y. execution skips the state_ ment and continues following the next":" or "~". but here it can be omitted.?. execution advances to the statement following If the condition is not true. ~ (A=O) 0. and then it is tested to determine whether it is greater than. +. <. I Example I If an input Program Lbl. execution will skip the following statement to the next "~" and return to Lbl 1 by Goto 1. the statement follow_ ing the "~" is executed. program 0. Execution from Lbl 2 will display the sum that has been stored In memory B. A.Goto. :. the statement -122- -123- . A. calculate the square root of that value. ::5. If the input value is less than zero. -r+. If A = 0. 1. The following illustration shows the flow of the program: =. and if the condition is not true.) are used for "left side" and "right side". Conditional jumps take on the following form: Left side ~. If the contents of memory A are greater than or equal to 0 (not less than zero). the value input by "?-->A" is stored in memory A by "A=O~" and it is determined whether or not the value stored in memory A equals zero. ~ Calculate the sum of input numeric values.) or a program command (Goto. ~.~~~~~al Right side ~ Statement { ~ } . :. B. ~. :.Goto. A. 2:. (A~O) Lbl 1 : ?-->A (A=O) Left side . 2:. etc.Statement alculation formula) located between "~" and "~" will be executed. 31 steps In this program. If the condition is true. numeric value is greater than or equal to zero.:. etc. the statement following ~ is skipped and execution jumps to the statement following the next ":" or ". "Anyone can be used. -->. the total should be displayed. :. Goto 2 will be skipped and the command A + B-->B which follows" : " is executed.. 1. reinput another value.?. and then ~oto 1 returns execution to Lb11. D-E. and everything up to the next" : " or "~ " is regarded as one statement. If memory A does not equal 0.Conditional jumps The conditional jumps compa~e a numeric value in memory with a constant Or a numeric value in another memory.-----If Relational operator '------If true---Right side ~ Statement { ~ } Statement not true t A=O~Goto 11 2: A+B-->B: Goto 1 ----' A statement is a calculation formula (sin A x 5. One memory name (alphabetic character from A through Z). -->. 0. the display command "~" is inserted following B. the input numeric value is stored in memory A. etc. Prog. Lbl. . :. B. There are 6 types of relational operators: =. ~. >. :. A. If a 0 is input. equal to or less than zero. 1. If the condition is true. and then Goto 1 returns execution to Lbl 1. The relational operator is a comparison symbol.III1IIIII". Lbl. :. ~. 2. ++. B 2. A.). a 0 is first stored in memory B to clear it for calculation of the sum. B. Actually. constant numeric values or calculation formulas (A x 2.

" is executed. . :. :. Memory contents ~ 0 Isz Memory name: Statement Determine the altitude at one-second intervals of a ball thrown into the air at an initial velocity of Vm/sec and an angle of So. Dsz. first 10 is stored in memory A. and the altitude is displayed. x. Lbl. :. in place of the Isz command. +. 8. -->.0. V.. x2. In this case. .Count jumps The count jumps cause the value in a specified memory to be increased Or decreased by 1. Goto 1 is executed. it can also be used to simply increase values.:. Lbl.?. T. x. 0 In this program the unit of angular measurement is set and memory T is first initialized (cleared). ?. -. The "Isz" command is used to increase the value in memory by 1 and decide the subsequent execu_ tion. If the result equals 0. 9. Program 1. ---+-. S.. If the result does not equal 0.0. ---+-. and so first must be cleared by inputting a O.8.:.:. C.?. .. It should be noted that this program is endless. 1. the Isz command is used only for the purpose of increasing the value stored in memory T. calculation is performed accordinq to the formula. ---+-. sin. :.. Such commands are convenient ways of conserving memory space. Memory A is used as the "counter" and countdown is performed the specified number of times by the Dsz command. :. :.. :. 8. and 0 is stored in memory C. 1.:. ---+. the following statement.. and then the sum of the input values is stored in memory C by "8 + C-->C". If the value does equal 0. Lbl1 is used at the beginning of the repeat calculations. -->. -7. The Isz command can also be used in the same manner as seen with the Dsz command for jumps that require decisions. another method such as "T + 1--> is used. 32 steps In this program. Goto.The numeric value input in response to "?" is stored in memory 8. the effects of air resistance being disregarded. five steps are required instead of the two for the (Isz T) method T" shown here. A. Isz. Then the initial velocity and angle are input into memories V and S respectively.. so when the required value is obtained. Memory C is used to store the sum of the inputs. while the "Dsz" command is used to decrease the value by 1 and decide.:. T. Eachtime memory T is increased. with I {~ } {~ } Isz A Dsz 8 38 steps Statement Memory contents = 0 r Memory contents ~ 0 Dsz Memory name: Statement Statement I I Example I Memory contents = 0 t Increase memory A by one Decrease memory 8 by one I Example I Determine the average of 10 input numeric values. C. The numeric value stored in memory T is counted up (increased by 1) by Isz T. 2. C. T. but. x. :. A. . Goto.. and the subsequent jump does not depend upon any comparison or decision.. 0. -124- -125- . V. 1 with g=9. If. the following statement is skipped. program Deg. 8. -7. The statement Dsz A then decreases the value stored in memory A by 1. The formula is expressed as: h=vsinet-1gt2. . C. 1. the following Goto 1 is skipped and "C -710" is executed.. S.. and the statement following the next":" or " . T. 1. ~OJ are pressed to terminate the program. as can be seen here.

III. execution jumps to the statement following the next : or .Subroutines A program contained in a single program area is called a "main routine". Left and right sides are compared. If not true.. Statements include numeric expressions. They can be used to store formulas for repeat calculations as one block to be jumped to each time. I Example I Simultaneously execute the two previously presented programs to calculate the surface areas and volumes of a regular octahedron and tetrahedron.) The subroutine command is "Prog" followed by a number from indicates the program area. execution continues from the beginning of the program stored in the specified program area. z . etc. -c. and the first step is to input the specified number of decimal places (~1Ll3).(Summary) Command Unconditional jump Conditional jumps Formula Lbl n Goto n (n = natural number from through 9) Operation Performs unconditional jump to Lbl n corresponding to Goto n. Attempting to use Prog to jump to a program area in which there is no program stored will also result in an error (Go ERROR). the statement after => is executed. * A Goto n contained in a subroutine will jump to the corresponding Lbl n contained in that program area. >. the program returns to the statement following the Prog n command in the original program area. Express the result in three decimal places. a jump is performed to the statement following the next: or .III. ~. or to store often used formulas or operations for call up as required. Nesting can be performed to a maximum of 10 levels. and this procedure is known as "nesting". [Example ° through 9 which I Prog 0 Prog 2 Jump to program area 0 Jump to program area 2 After the jump is performed using the Prog command. If result equals 0.. and attempts to exceed this limit will cause an error (Ne ERROR) to be generated. -126- -127- . etc. Goto commands. Numeric value stored in memory is increased (Isz) or decreased (Dsz) by one. This example employs two previously explained programs. Subroutine Main routine ° Left side Relational operator Right side => Statement { ~ }statement (Relational operators: =. If the conditional expression is true. Statements include numeric expressions. Goto commands. etc. Often used program segments stored in other program areas are called "subroutines" . Al ]. . s) PO Count jumps Isz Memory name: Statement { ~ }statement Dsz Memory name: Statement { ~ }statement (Memory name consists of single character from A through Z. Jumps can be performed from one subroutine to another. After execution reaches the end of the subroutine. Subroutines can be used in a variety of ways to help make calculations easier.

+-. ->. xY. x2. 2. P9 P8 -F. PO Prog 9: Ansx2A P8 Prog 8 Y 2+-3xA xY3 P9 Fix 3: ?->A : Y3xAx2 P1 Prog 9A Prog 8 : Ans+-4 Y. A. Now the portions underlined by the straight line will be stored as an independent routine in P9 and those underlined with the wavy line will be stored in P8.Now let's review the two original programs. A. :. 3. the result of P9 needs no further modification and so is immediately displayed upon return to P1. +-. xY. A. Ans. Of course. execution jumps to program P9 at the beginning of programs PO and P1. 2. Y. calculation of the volumes is also peformed in a similar manner. x. the portions indicated by the wavy line are not identical as they stand. 9. +-. 4. A. A. 3. If these portions are incorporated into a common subroutine. 2. +-. 3. In the case of P1. the "Prog 9" and "Prog 8" must be added to jump to subroutines P9 and P8.:. 2. 3 X2 12 steps 8 steps By isolating the common portions of the two original programs and storing them in separate program areas. Y 3. A. Fix. x. A. Prog. x. 8. however. :. Prog. A. ->. execution returns to the main routines.?. 1. y. 8 Prog. the value for one side is entered. 3 22 steps Total: 45 steps If the two programs are compared. x. X2.2. the programs are simplified and the number of steps required is decreased. Regular octahedron PO Fix. 3. :. 4 9 steps 9 steps Total: 38 steps With this configuration. and that of the regular tetrahedron is stored in P1. In PO. :. A. steps are shortened and programs take on a clear configuration. so when execution returns to PO. but if P1 is modified to: y. xY.:. and the surface area of the tetrahedron is calculated. Y. x. A. "Ans x 2" is used to obtain the surface of the octahedron. 3 23 steps Regular tetrahedron P1 Fix. In P1. ->. Ans. Furthermore. the result calculated in P8 is divided by four to obtain the volume of the tetrahedron. the two portions become identical. 3. x. A. The expression "2 x " of the original octahedron formula was omitted in P9. the remainder of the regular octahedron formula is stored in PO. -128- -129- . A.the program ends after the volume of the octahedron is displayed. it is evident that the underlined portions are identical. +-. :. x. 3. 9. 2. A. three decimal places are specified. The following illustration shows the flow of the program just presented. PO P1 Prog. 3. +-.:. 3. steps can be shortened and programs become neat and easy to read. After the common segments have been removed.?. x. By using subroutines in this manner.?. After a jump is made to P8 for calculation. 2. x. A. 3. xY.

oiI. ~.:. ---+. =. ."". =. Z.. 1... A + 10. Z..F.. Z.~.... F.B. 6.0.J. =. <.. ++... a memory name (one alphabetic character from A through Z) is appended with a subscript such as [1] or [2]. 1 70 steps -130- -131- . +. . =. .. 4. s .. Isz. Z.. C 5.oiI.. B. H. Using standard memories 1. =.. :. What happens. ~.~. E. [.Z.. :. -+. Therefore.].oil. Z.1. ---+-..:. or Y.]..4.oil.. H...Z. [. When using the standard memories. Z. The relation is as follows: Proper utilization of subscripts shortens programs and makes them easier to use. Z.5. 7.. A. G. A.... .:.g..:... Lbl.3. Negative values used as subscripts are counted in relation to memory zero as shown above. 8.. Z. the input value is compared one by one with the value assigned to each memory (e.oiI.. Goto. Goto. A = 1.:. 6". 0. Z.~.. A[ 0 ] A[ 1 ] AI 2 ] A[ 3 ] A[ 4 ] A[ 5 ] A[ 6 ] B[ -1] B[ 0 ] B[ 1 ] B[ 2 ] B[ 3 ] B[ 4 ] B[ 5 ] C[ -2] C[ -1 ] C[ 0 ] C[ 1 ] C[ 2 ] C[ 3 ] C[ 4 ] 40 steps G[-6] GI-5] G[ -4] G[ -3] G[ -2] G[ -1] G[ 0] G[17] G[18] G[19] G[20] G[21] X[ 0 ] X[ 1 ] X[ 2 ] X[ 3 ] X[ 4 ] 26 steps Y[ -1] Y[ 0 ] Y[ 1 ] Y[ 2] Y[ 3] Z[ -2] ZI -1 ] Z[ 0 ] Z[ 1 ] Z[ 2 ] In the case of using standard memories. .. .1.). A.2.oiI. With the array-type memory introduced here. :.. 1 :. 1. 1 memories .. [111/110 I Example I 11///0 I I I I I L . ----.~.:.. .:. 9. betic characters such as A.oiI.. Z. the input value is immediately stored in the proper memory determined by "[Z -1]"..Z.~.oiI.2.. care must be taken to prevent overlap of memories. ----.0. :. ~. 8. =.6... X.D.?. -.:.oiI.oiI... Z.1.1.1. With the array-type memories. I. Standard memory A B C D E Array-type A[O] A[1] A[2] A[3] A[4] ICautions when using array-type memories When using array-type memories. . B. 1.. I I I I ~ .1. . G.. 3.E.) can even be used for the subscript.. .:. The difference is readily apparent.9. Formulas (Z -1.A. :.~. I... "Brackets are input by and ~rn gm. ---+.Z.. . 0. =. . ~. =.:. ·L A[23] A124] A[25] A[26] A[27] B[22] B[23] B[24] 8125] 8[26] C[21] C[22] C[23] C[24] C[25] Input the numbers 1 through 10 into memories A through J. inputting values into memories one by one is both inefficient and time consuming. Z. if we want to see a value stored in a specific memory? Using standard memories Lbl. 2... Goto. 16 steps up to this point all of the memories used have been referred to by single alPha. Z.ED Array-Type Memories • Using array-type memories --memory C[-2] C[-1] C[O] C[1] C[2] Using array-type Lbl. J Using array-type memories 0.~. etc.?.:.C. =. Z. =. 7..~. a subscript is appended to an alphabetic character that represents a standard memory from A through Z.

3.6. Dsz..]. Isz..bl. Lbl. 1.. A. but two types of memory names are used and the x and y data kept separate. Defm.~. A.. . :. . :. =*. . . . :. . C. :. . . A. Lbl. 3. 4. -+. Goto.:. and the y data are stored in memories C[16] (memory S) through C[30) (memory Z(7». Lbl....:. =*.. C.5. B. 1. C. =. B. When an x value is input. Example program 1 Memory A is used as the data control memory.?. A.. C. :.. t. =.0.?.?. :.. Goto. . . 3. Goto. A.. Goto.... =. :. A.. =*. 4.. A. :. A. :.The following shows a case in which array-type memori~s overlap with standard format memories. 2. 1. Goto.. 6. 2. C.:. A. [. :. C. A. 4. [. Goto.. C. =*. :. 1. +. [. I Example I Store data x and y in memories. In this case. . . ]. [. B. Lbl. Example program 2 The same memories are used as in Example 1.. the second displayed value (which should be 2) in A[2] is incor· rect. :. 5. :. A. :... [. Goto.. 3. :..... Goto. . 2. and memory C is used as a counter memory..1. 1.. 4. =.:. There will be a total of 15 pieces of data. A. [.. . . A. :. :.5 92 steps -132- -133- . Goto.5. :. . 1.:. 1. [. 5. 3. Lbl. ] 5 in memories All) 44 steps In this program.]. .. Goto. 4. [. :. [.. 3. memories are used as follows: 5. [. 1. . S C[24] Z(l) Y C[30) Z(7) C[27] Z(4) C[29] Z(6) • Application of the array-type memories It is sometimes required to treat two different types of data as a single group.. B. ?. Goto. :. A. Defm. :.:. gram is executed. A. R. 2.:. A. . . Goto. 5. 4. Goto. =. A. x data C[1) D C[9] L C[2) E C[10] M C[17] T C[25] Z(2) C[3] F C[11] N C[18] U C[26] Z(3) C[4] G C[12] 0 C[19] V C[5] H C[13) P C[20] W C[28) Z(5) C[6] I C[14) Q C[7] J C[15] C[8] K As can be seen. :. and memory B is used for ternorary storage of the x data. :..0. 2. A R C[22) C[23] Z B A[l] C A[2] D A[3] E A[4) F A[5] y data C[16) C[21] X The content of memory C (A[2)) is decreased from 5 to 0 in steps of 1... 1. the content of memory A[2] is displayed as O. 5.1. R. 2. . B. .5. I Example I Store the numeric values from 1 through through A[S] respectively.. . [. 1. +. Lbl. :. ]. :.. C. ].. 1. [. A. 2. :. Dsz.]. This situation should always be avoided.. [.. Goto.. A.. ).. memories for data processing and those for data storage should be kept separate. =. :. A. Therefore. the corresponding y value is displayed. Goto..].. :. When this pro. ]. :. The x data are stored in memories C[l) (memory ~) through C[15] (memory R). 2. [. the following results are obtained: ~[QJ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0. A. . 1... :. :. lsz. C. 98 steps Lbl. =*. A. ]. . 7. . .. This problem has occurred because memory A[2] is the same as memory c.1. Dsz. ?. . 5. B. . :. 1. ]. Lbl. :.]':. =*. C. A. . 2..5 In this program... ]. Lbl.:. :. ?. the values 1 through 5 are stored in the array-type memories A [1] through A [5]. Lbl. 7. A.

.?. The message -.?. C. 1. ). 0. S R(9) Z(1) R(2) T R(10) Z(2) R(3) U R(11) Z(3) R(6) R(7) R(8) Z . log. 9 (~~[[) •All of the above noted characters can be used in the same manner as the alphabetic characters.4. f. when pressed following ~: A. H. ID. "?. 1. calculation command in quotation symbols. • Other numbers. calculation commands. They are enclosed J C(15) R L y data R(1) 0 R(4) P R(5) ~[!). 0 18.. of 40 x. T. . L. k. X. <.. X. Y . numbers.. . 0. the number of memories by 14 to make a total sin.. n. B. symbols. Y.Alpha-numeric characters and symbols • Characters and symbols displayed [. the memory are restricted names can be changed. can be displayed as messages. Neg.3. r (~~[[). Y. I. G. =.2. z .7. s. the expanded (~8) can only be used as array-type memories. ". :. -134- -135- . R. >.8. P.5. ~.:.. Y. Not. 1. W. :. XO"n. E. -. In.?. '" Expand available. . :. IF. b. :. V R(12) Z(4) W R(13) Z(5) X R(14) Z(6) Y R(15) Z(7) However.Q...1. -e . V. G. -7-. or.9. . (@lill~0).X. . p. Lbl. =. :. d..). commands 0. K.. "?" does sage can be inserted Lbl. h. program 'The memory expansion command (Defm) can be used in a program. and. the prompt not give any information concerning the type of input expected. S. -s . o ==. XO"n-1. xor y. from to the letters A through Z. M. cos. N. m.6. into this program. IE. E. Y.4. X. +. "X =" and "Y =" will be inserted ---+-. space. marks etc. 1. U.Z since memory memories names In this way. -. F. y). :. A mesbefore the "?" to verify the type of data required for input.. X. J. ". (. I Example I Defm. tan. -. In the preceding example requiring an input of two types of data (x.1. ".Memories are used as follows: x data C(1) 0 G(9) C(2) E C(10) M C(3) C(4) G G(12) C(5) H C(13) F C(11) N C(6) I C(14) Q C(7) C(8) K Displaying Alpha-Numeric Characters and bois Alphabetic characters.

1. press @]. Goto. A. :. Xmin : -10 Xmax: 10 Xscl: 2 Ymin : -120 Ymax: 150 Yscl: 50 70 steps This program calculates the x power of 2. 0 -)0. 2. A ". ~. The following should appear on the display when the program is executed: 9.3. ". If messages are included as shown here. ".0".:...<III. 3. 2.5. ~.0. 8. A prompt of "N =?" appears for data input.0. * Always follow First. =. C.<III whenever a formula follows the message.'. B.5. X. ->. ~. The procedure outlined above can be used to produce a wide variety of graphs. -. =. [Example 1 1 Graphically determine the number of solutions (real roots) that satisfy both of the following two equations.:. . manual graph operations can be used in programs without modification. Range values can also be written into the program.?. the display "NO" appears and execution returns to the beginning for reinput. 1. All graph commands (except the trace function) can be included in programs.1.0 X2.~. Next. Goto. :. To continue execution to the next graph. ". 0.:. -. xY. C. A.Goto. X. 0 Total 49 steps Assuming that the program is stored in P2: ~rn@] m[[][[)OO@] @] @] OOlIlrnm@] @] [[]lIlrn~ ~ N=? X= Finally program the equation for the second graph. ---+. ". 4. press [IJ after input of the ranges and the first equation.1. 3. :. Messages are also convenient when displaying result in program calculations. the display is as follows: (Assuming that the program is sorted in P1) Using the Graph Function in Programs ~1Il@] 1Il[[]@] ~IX=?_J . xY. use [I](Disp) to divide the message -136- -137- . 2.2..0.Goto. The library of this manual includes a number of examples of graph programming. X. program the range setting. 0. (-). +. .0". (-). ''. Graph. Note that values are separated from each other by commas'" ". :. The display is capable of showing up to 12 alpha characters at one time. 1. When inputting this program. 0. Lbl.<III" can be input after the first equation to suspend execution after the first graph is produced. X.0 N=? N=? X= NO 12.:.0.y=? J Using the graph function within programs makes it possible to graphically represent long. Frac. Goto. C. +. +. :. y=~4_X3_24x2+4x+80 Y= 10x-30 3. Lbl.2. complex equations and to overwrite graphs repeatedly. Graph. 1. The range values are as follows. program the equation for the first graph. X. For messages that are longer than 12 characters. '.<III. -.1. C.0. I Example I Lbl. a message with a .2. A. Range. N. ". The result is displayed by pressing @] while "X =" is displayed: When an input data is not the x power of 2. .<III. :. -. N. Generally. 4. 4. Lbl. :. X. G.. :.1. lsz.'. =.

g. while the graph section shows whole displays.. S01) in a program..Prime factor analysis Definite integrals using Simpson's rule A. BASE-N. • The library is divided into two parts: a calculation section and a graph section. .. be sure to specify it after pressing ~OO (WRT mode). The calculation section shows only answers. Then start programming by pressing @J. transformation Y Minimum loss matching Cantilever under concentrated load Normal distribution Graph variation by parameters Hysteresis loop Regression curve Parade diagram < Prior to use> • Always check the number of remaining steps before attempting to store programs. • Press the ~ key whenever "Graph" appears within a program ("Graph Y =" indicated) . • If it is necessary to specify a calculation mode (e.

END 80) E :E e0 R S T '" E F 3607. mi= mi_.Store the program written on the next page. For l<m<1010 prime numbers are produced from the lowest value first. Goto] 145 A m...+1 J K L M N 379721.. d H I 0 V W X Y Z ~ ~ ~ ~ '" C B C D P Q l!l c 0 o rm.fin. ) to check for divisibility. . 12 13 14 15 ~ ~ ~ 1234567890 ~ END M? 3. 13.Execute the program as shown below in the RUN mode (~[j]).. 3. B Goto] 3 0 129 134 D . 3. 5. "END" is displayed at the end of the program. and division is repeated until . r 1 Line No. 17. 5. ( Overview) m is divided by 2 and by all successive odd numbers (d~3.. 17. i E N 15 Lbl 9 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 . (After 15) seconds ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 2.ld is assumed..A :+ 7 Lbl 3 B C 8 Lbl 4 0 => Goto] 6 9 B 2 10 Lbl 5 + A B 11 Lbl 6 Goto 5 12 B A 13 Lbl 7 Lbl 8 A 14 ..&d. ~ ~ ~ 987654321 ~ END M? 3883. . A A 'Goto 2 A 0 => iGoto 2 48 52 C => 62 '" Goto B 8 iFrac Goto! 4 A A 0 A B 77 84 96 x B i~ Goto 7 111 115 . (After seconds 16 17 18 19 20 Mi" 2 Lbl 0 2 A 3 Lbl 4 Goto 9 Frac A 5 Lbl 2 B 63 v. G u -140- -141- . + 1 .CASIO Program for Description PROGRAM SHEET I No.. 7. 17. Example (1 > 119=7x17 (2) 1234567890 = 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 x 3607 x 3803 (3) 987654321 =3x3x 17x 17 x 379721 Preparation and operation . Step Key operation Display Step Key operation Display 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 [§]O~ 119~ M? 11 7. 3. Where d is a prime factor. 9. 1 Notes Number of steps 2 15 => 30 33 Prime factor analysis ~rn Mel Program ? 2 Prime factors of arbitrary positive integersare produced. t l .

.~ D G + G G iPregi + p + x 2 :p 69 74 + iProg 0 2 89 97 104 (1) a=O.Y2m) Let f(X)~T Example A M ? ? G M A M " B ? B 20 27 ~ ~ 6 7 A Lbl Prog D M D p 2 B A 42 54 0 i 2 4 +1 8 1-9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 x G I 0 B D .the program written on the next page. Step Key operation Display Step Key operation Display 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 11 Total 136 steps 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (§)O~ O~ 1~ 10~ A? B? 2M? 8 _7853981535 A? B? 2M? 8.7853981537 o +1 0 .!!... 2m=20 1= ~5Tdx~o.)+2(Y2+Y4+ . 2 --= . i 0 i~ G x Getei Prog! 3 p l_" . +Y2m-2)+Y2m) ~ 3 P0 i Lbl i " 2 1 Mel h~ b-a 2m The right-hand portion of the above equation can be transformed as follows.~.<II 117 123 125 (2) a=2. h m I ~ a-1Yo+ .).Line 1 I-- r ~@ No.Store.2662526768 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Iilll 2~ 5~ 20~ A i!l c: Q) a b h-lL. (4Y2i-l + 2y. b=5. b=1. 2 Notes Number of steps 5 Program r px)dx~a-[Yo+4(Yl+Y'+'" h +Y2m-... 2m H B C D I J K L M 0 m (Number of repetitions) V W P Q C X Y Z 0 0 E Q) ::. e 0 R S E F G x 2m T N u -143- -142- .CASIO Program for Description l~ PROGRAM SHEET Definite integrals using Simpson's rule I No... 2m=10 1= rTdx~O.Execute the program as shown below in the RUN mode (E!!!JIIJ).2662526769 2 +1 Gete! P1 Preparation and operation ! G x G i+ P .

. +R2+R..R. .R. + R. R.'y.... (2) R.R. H R. e R S E :.~82 (0) and operation " " 4 5 6 F ? " + F __.Execute the program as shown below in the RUN mode (~rn).R.R.R. 120 129 138 G F G E ? ? x " E " " " Preparation + x E H 152 162 172 182 184 .·R2 R. R. Step Key operation Display Step Key operation Display 2 3 " ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ~O@] D--.+R2+R. R. + R. R.R. 3 --.R. "3 4 5 2 j~ R R R 2 3 B 4 5 6 - iGata " " C N '< ~ iGatai A B C x x x B C C D D D c c 2) Y__'A R. R..' ~ . D R.R. + R. + R.Store the program written on the next page.Y: .R. + R.Ro 0 P Q V W @] R2= @] 318..R. R. G H H H E F G __.Y: 1.33333333 4. Example + R R + - 8 9 10 " R 2 R R R x R R R ~ ~ ~ A B A ~ ~ ~ 81 93 105 108 111 11 Goto] 12 Lbll 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 A C Q) C 0 0 0 Q) !J) (1 > R. Line Program y 2 ? ? __. T U -144- -145- .R.978723484 @] R3= @] 788. R.1818182 B C D E F G J K L M N For judgement x y Z @] R6= @] 6.R.6666667 20 Golai 1@] R1 ~? 12@] R2~? 47@] R3=? 82@] R4= @] @] R5= @] 27. ~ 100 (0) Rs=150 (0) R. R. R. + R.D:2? 2@] R4=? 100@] R5=? 150@] R6=? 220@] R1= @] 466. __. R.R.~12 (0) R... D R.CASIO Program for PROGRAM SHEET Description 1) A__'Y R.. + R. . R2·R. R.Y transformation R. __. ~ ? N __. 3 Notes Number of steps 15 20 34 43 52 61 69 2 .+ R. R. 'y'.Y--'D: ? 1 2 11 12 13 14 15 @] D--. R. 16 17 18 19 20 R.~47 (0) R. R. ' y __. __. N R.Y--.1 I §@m Lbl " D : No. R3 1 No. R.+R2+R.+R2+R.~220 (0) 6 7 A ? __.R. R.

. R2 and Lmin for Zo = 500n and Zl = 200n... log V . F G T U -146- -147- .. • Execute the program as shown below in the RUN mode (~(jJ).. i ' 2 x ..) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 g 1 z z v y 0 1 ? ? Z R 0 T y Y Z A A S y x B R R L A . .. T 90 Minimum loss Lmtn 20 ~ log ( J¥ + J ~: - I) IdB] Example Calculate Preparation the values of Rl. which match Zoand Z...1988897 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 A Jl-~ k z. 4 Notes Number of steps 9 18 Line ~@ Program R. 4 -= I . B + ~ vi ( R S R'~ZoJI-Z' z.CASIO Program for Description Calculate PROGRAM SHEET Minimum loss matching to.. R2 Lmin @] LMIN= @] 8.~ 29 Z B 44 59 65 73 81 Z zo--:-=E-z. (Zo>Z. and operation . E CD Z ::. Step Key operation Display Step Key operation Display 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ~O@] Z0=? 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 SOO@] Z1 =? 200@] R1 = @] 387. with loss minimized.Store the program written on the next page... H 0 P Q V W X R. ZO R2~R 0 2 M N ..- No.2983346 @] R2= @] 258.. and R. .961393328 "' E E CD B C D E " e 0 0 J K L M N R S Y Zo Z. R..

2.2EI x 0x~a y~ t-8 x Gata! Lbl! S P J Pa 2 6EI x ... P x ~ ~ . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1Sl01§) 40001§) E=? I=? 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 @j 1§) x=? 32@j y= I§) I§) s= 1§) -10..2EI M ~ 0 (shearing load Ws~ 0) Example E ~ 4000 kg/mm2} I ~ 5 mma~30 mm P~2 kg Preparation and operation s~tan'[ :E'.Ex~cute the program as shown below in the RUN mode (~ill). Bending moment M Ikg. (x-2a)] (shearing load Ws~P) M~P (x-a) ~ x X " p x 3 X ix 113 2 2 x 2 E x E 129 139 A p 2 ~ X What are deflection.677083333 I§) s= 1§) . mm] rs rs x A =* Gata y ~ x A x 3 ( j( A )j ix i 2 2 x \ E x 2 67 78 !x CD ~ x A x2 f>x>a y~ Po' Po' 6EI . Lbl! t"J rg '10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 A '1De9: ~ P Deflection y [rnrn]. 5@j A=? 30 I§) p=? 2 I§) x=? 25 I§) y= I§) .2..505092867 @J M= -0. angle of deflection. __.CASID Program for Description PROGRAM SHEET load Cantilever under concentrated to 5 --..0.-"] Line em E A P X < Program ? \-+ ? ? 2 p ' 1 .2EI x E 2 y x ~ !tan '1 P !M 93 107 110 ~ ~ 0 ~ Po'] s=tan-' [.57657183 I§) M= @J Repeat from step 5..Store the program written on the next page.99 . bending moment and shearing load atx~25 mm and x~32 mm? S ~ jtan 11 X x M x x x X x 154 167 180 182 A A ~ :. 5 Notes ? Number of steps 15 30 34 45 52 E : Young's modulus Ikg/mm2] I : Geometrical moment of inertia [rnm-] ~' a : Distance of concentrated load from support [mm] P : Load Ikg] x : Distance of point of interest from the support [rnm] fS ? r-. . "D z0 E F G T -148- u -149- . Angle of deflection s 1°]. a H I 0 P P V W x y Z 0. Step Key operation Display Step Key operation Display 17 Goto. . E A X " No. '" E 21 c: 0 B C J K E L M N a R S x E (II :.

13 ~ 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 A 'E II> 'E Ul • Store the program written on the next page.330274429 10 " 11 x' 12 5 X Q(AT+BT D T 1 '3 Y T ix + xY 4 + E T i.operation (SJO@) x=? 1.0.7. 3 3 853 5 )1 0 7 3 P + C 3 8 8 3 5 2 0 "A 6 4 2 1 1 1.356563782 Example Calculate the values of 1> (x) at x~1.t~~. ~ .0 5f-.f2.7@) px= @) o ._ r C.~~:. 0 e D E F G R S T Z -150- u -151 ..r/:JI (cd+ C2t1 + c).4 +C5/5) 1--8 ( C3~ 1. Step Key operation Display Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Key . 6 Obtain normal distribution function 1> (x) (by Hastings' best approximation). ~ 0.CASIO Program for PROGRAM SHEET Normal distribution Description I No.e (! ( ) 1 x "2 1 x 9 2 _ Q 61 A B ~ Putt~~l_ l+Px ¢ (x) =:: P~0. ~ 1. 1>(x)~ -= --- 6 1~ 1 1>tdx _E 2 3 1--4 m~2~_-'---'-=--'---:-::. • Execute the program as shown below in the RUN mode (§[IJ).821255978 C.31938153 C.+~~iTll~~----=1==2~3~ ~~-'~~~==iJ~+~~0-+~~2~~3~~1~~6-t~4~~~9~~X~ t=~~ 2 )-T y 2x 38 1--)( 48 Line §@!§OD~E .18@) Px= @) 0.:-T-r---r-ri-t----=1~8CJ ~~~~x==~~"~~?~~-~~x~~~..2316419 1--6 ( ~ I-..880999696 Display 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 @) X=? 0.-r- Program Notes of steps Number 1 1 1 ( 7t X e" 1>t~ . xY 148 150 and x~0..J +C4/. 7580361368 H I 0 P Q <PI V W X y B C 0 0 J K L M N x E II> :.78147937 C4 ~ - )! 63782 793 72 7 559 4 4 2 C 8 - 76 89 7 9 _ E D 104 118 133 ~ I-..18 Preparation and Operation 1.

5 xo=2 Xo= -2 vo == 1 vo=0.2 n = 1.. 1'. -E-~ _ Vo - XoPz eP1t xOPI e P2t P1-Pz Pl-Pz rs (5 1-4 '7 rs " : E rz ~Radi Rangei 0 E 5 iH N 3 ? S " N X V ? " " ~ ? ? 0 N - ~ 3 E 31 39 48 57 64 71 A 8 (ii) 0= n (Critical damping) X= Ixo+ (vo+oxo)t ) e-o.5 n =0.2 (3) 0 = 0..5 i 16 Graph 17 18 X j e' X~l P A P 8 X io 176 183 186 189 19 Goto] 0 Preparation and operation .J£1_n2.2 n =0.rec.!!1 c .'!l c 0 o 8 xo Vo H I J K 0 V -0 C 0 E F G .. A .. Vo - P2.Store the program written on the next page. (J) E 0 i!- .18 Xo =2. 7 Noles Number of sleps 2 17 Program 5 L (i) e > n (Overdamping) PI= X= -E+.CASIO Program for Description Damped vibration PROGRAM SHEET Graph variation by parameters I [~ No 7 ~ r-Line I @lOO 2 P 0 0 N N N =} No.Jn2_£2 t+ ~'SinVn2-E? n2_£2 ( )i E E x tj ~1\ !\ VVV _D. ~ '8 i> iGoloi iGoloi 2 E E =} ix i( 2 x2 C ~ A C cos C C X (iii) 0 < n (Damping vibration) x=e-E'lxoCos.r W X y Z I R S T n U L M N x 20 Lbl i 2 i 21 Graph 22 E i X 23 Lbl i 0 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 A i+ 8i+ E A X i( 204 208 210 Total210 steps -152- -153- .6 vo == 1...x x 82 + 97 112 115 118 132 146 161 I i sin GOloi 0 Lbl i 1 )i E E 14 ( 15 ( + 8 vi vi A Q E E Q x2 x' - N N x' x' Q )t p ~p ~o P Example Draw a graph of the damping vibration that possesses the fOllowing parameters: (1) 0 = 0.ffI27 0 P PI--E+~ Q P2- :::.1 (2) 0 = 0..:.. /' V ~ ~ '12 13 11 (i 8 + A .

1 @§ 11 @§ EPSILON=? 0.2@§ 16 N=? 8 0.2@§ 17 X0=? 9 2@§ 18 10 0.6@§ p:=V0=? 19 20 -154- -155- .Program for Step Graph variation by parameters Key operation I No Display 7 Program for Step Graph variation by parameters Key operation I No Display 7 1 [§JO@§ EPSILON=? 2 0.18@§ X0=? 4 13 X0=? @!ffi1B2@§ 2.5@§ V0=? 5 1@§ 14 ~ 6 @§ 15 1.5@§ F V0=? EPSILON=? 7 0.2@§ N=? 3 1.5@§ 12 N=? 0.

5 6 7 Lbl (Magnetic .4 ·Within 20 data items.8 -0.5 20 21 10 11 -0.5 0 13 -0. .0 -1. represented field.13 9 0.3 1.86 3 2.4 0. "" E A N + D H B 0 0.CASIO Program for PROGRAM SHEET I No Hysteresis loop 8 is sustained becomes can be Line 2 3 4 §.22 8 0.15 16 -3.0 1..4 6 2. The specimen 5 Defmi 5 2 N the specimen B-H relationship 0 F iSPACE i D ? A 46 47 by a hysteresis curve.0 -0. 98 109 122 128 137 145 13 Plod F C C A + + C C Soft magnetic c c A + 16 • Number of data items: 17 of data items in the "" iUnei + B D D D (-) Z D 17 Lbl i 18 19 D D 160 163 169 178 183 H B 0.53 14 -1. 8 Notes Number of steps 15 27 31 Description B (Magnetic density) (-) : flux /7 !)H field) When a ferromagnetic in a magnetic magnetized.0 1.2 lr substance curve of soft magnetic 4 3. 26 27 0 V A E E en 0 Number of data items Number of data items in the main loop H I B C D E F G '" e o P Q R W X Y Z Z[I]-Z[20] B 28 29 30 31 J K L M F[I]-F[20] H N E :2 0 32 33 '" S T U 34 35 -156- -157- .@[]] Rangei (-) i4 0 0 7 5 4 Program 7 0 5 5 1 A T A No.0 1.0 -1.5 1.32 5 4.96 22 23 24 Memory 20x8=160 25 Preparation . i 9 M A N iSPACE: L 50 0 0 P SPACE N ? 65 67 ~ 8 B B ~U Example 1 Hysteresis 2 1.66 12 -0.33 17 -4..72 15 -2.0 0.1 J__ LJ Ferromagnetic -Number main loop: 12 f IT substance 9 10 > 0 B 2 C 0 => iGoto! 9 75 84 F 11 Lbl: 12 14 15 H ? :.0 1.? Z Z => iGoto i 0 c Une .0 1.31 material 7 1.0 -1..Store Total 343 steps and operation the program written on the next page..3 0.

4~ 8=? 5 O. Key operation Display Step 1 ~O~ NO..OF 2 DATA? LOOP N? 17~ MAIN 3 12~ H=? 4 .0~ O.. Hysteresis loop Key operation I No Display 8 - Step - program for I No..5~ 6 ~ + +END IDI!m 7 1. O.~ Program for ..86~ (Input dat? in order) + H=? IDI!m 8 9 ~ 10 IBl -158- -159- .

X H : 1 SPACE ? " : 29 32 40 ? E In H DT ~ ~ Y ? ~ ~ C X Y : : : In Y Y In + X : D ~ F In 48 D : F ) X : x2 E + 11 + H ~ G ~ + ( ~ X 63 78 93 98 103 105 G A~e iii Power regression curve Regression formula: y~A·XB B~ n l:(lnx·lny)-l:lnx·l: Iny n·l: (Inx)' . . W H x-1 ~ C x2 A ) : x-1 15 29 36 43 50 B . A C Q) A or InA B Elnx Elny XElny YElnx E(lnx·.. S For selectionof 1. -160- -161- . Preparation and operation ... " 2 C ....Iny) H I 0 P Q R Ey2 Ey Exy V W X Y Ex n x data y data '" e B C D E F G C 0 <> 0 Q) J K L M N E :::!.. . l: Inx n ) E(lnx)2 A~ • See page 162 for an example. Regression curve g I Line §@I]J No.. g Notes Number of steps 10 17 Program Description i Logarithmic regression curve Regression formula: y ~ A + Blnx B~ n·l:(y·lnx}-l:lnx·l:y n l: (Inx)' . COMP SPACE ~ 1 => => => D E ~ : : 2 SPACE P ~ 3 . " " C K .B ....(l: Inx)' l: Iny...3 Z T U Ex2 Y 12 X : 13 Goto] 1 14 15 p1i~ D 16 " L ~ 17 ~ S : 18 S = 1 : 19 S = 2 20 S = 3 21 " :: E N 22 23 P7iliilll ~ F 24 ( : 25 ~ B 26 Graph A + : 27 " A : 28 " B 29 30 31 : 32 33 34 35 .l:x) n \ ~ 1 P0 iliilll ~ 2 Sci : Cis 3 " iRange 0 4"AC : 5 Lbl i 1 " X 6 : 7"Y In X + 8 9 In Y + 10 In X x i ~ : ~ 0 ? Prog LR .(l: Inx)' l:y-B·l:lnx n A~ II -': ii Exponential regression curve Regression formula: y=A'eBx B~ nl: (xlny) -l:x·l:lny n·l:x'-(l:x)' (l:lnY-B.CASIO Program for PROGRAM SHEET No. ? 15 18 25 32 39 44 Prog 7 Prog 8 Prog 9 " iW i ~ ( ~ C Q In LR Q X A 2 ) ( C W ) B B " " .. .Store the program written on the next page.

6[28.I X A .9 137.I .1 9. 9 Notes Number of steps 15 9 line 2 3 4 Example Perform exponential regression of the following data: [xi [ yi 1 2.. 8 9 P9 illEi!!J i~ i GI ( iLR C D D X ...91129[10.2 1 5....I .2 [23..I .2 [ 4. and use the trace function to estimate the value for y 7 when x ~ 20.0 [ ~iB Graph i eX A D A X B eX B B 29 37 eX .0123.. H I J K L M N A C en 0 P Q 28 29 30 31 C '" 0 <.8118.I 5 6 " 45 52 "i B " Draw an exponential regression curve..> z0 E R S T U 32 33 ~ '" F G 34 35 -162- -163- . obtain the values of A and B of the regression formula..5[13.I H - C 1 x' A Range values: X min -: -10 X max : 50 X sci : 10 Y min : -10 Y max : 55 Y sci : 10 10 11 Graph: eX 12 13 w :x 15 x i 29 37 A x " " x' eX B B A .0 [17.2[ 29.I A B 45 52 Total 303 steps 14 15 16 17 18 it I" 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Preparation ......CASIO Program for PROGRAM SHEET Regression curve I I No No.6 [35. Also.I 2 :W B G W B C .. B C D E and operation 27 V W X y Z • Store the program written on the next page.8l 6.

Display g Step Step 1 ~O~ (Range setting check) Set range values LR2 Range OK? LR2 Xmi n? ImI!I 10 !Hl ~ . 2~ ~ ~x~ ImI!I -5.26315 3 LR2 Range LR2 X:? LR2 V:? LR2 ImI!I 13 ~ OK? 14 Move pointer to X = 20 §J- ~x~ ImI!I 4 ~ 20.8 11 ~1~ rD L~1 E~2 P~3? ImI!I 12 (Select exponential regression).6~ 16 LR2 ~ 2.2 17 ~ A: ImI!I 7 ~ (Input dat~ in order) LR2 X:? LR2 40. Display g Program for Regression curve Key operation I No.2~ ~~ ~~~. 15 5 2. ImI!I rD~ 2 ~1810~ 50~ 10~ ~1810~ 55~ 10 ~ ~O~ -3.061624605 ImI!I -164- -165- .0~ LR2 37.8 ImI!I 19 ~ LR2 -0.68214076 LR2 B: ImI!I 8 18 ~ ImI!I 9 4." Program for Regression curve Key operation to.~149 6 35.

Program for Regression Key operation curve I No Display 9 Program for Step Step Key operation Display LR2 20 ~ END 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 -166- -167- .

. CAS I0 Program for PROGRAM SHEET Parade diagram -1 No. The problem is quantitatively analyzed based on actual data concerning its extent.""!II!! . 10 Notes Number of steps 7 10 Line 2 3 ~[]] P0!(@) Sci Range 0 Lbl ~ Mcl 6 t3! ~ Defm !SD2 Program Description One example of a parade diagram application is problem solving in QC activities. Problem areas Frequency 105 65 35 20 15 10 E Others Preparation and operation . I No. i 6 0 2 0 2 21 24 4 1 Problem classification (Item 6 in this example) 5 6 7 8 100% 9 D X X Range Graph ~ A A T DT A ? X A 34 39 Vertical axis: (Right) Occupation ratio (Left) Problem extent in each classification + X :S 5 Problem frequency r': I/rh Classification (problem areas) A B C D w 0 S w i=> !Goto 0 52 64 66 71 75 78 Occupation ratio 1 Example Create a parade diagram using the data on the right... E ~ 0 R S T u 10 Plot 0 11 1 12 Lbl 2 13 Z 14 Plot S 15 S + 16 Graph W 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 S Z + S Z Line S:s Z 87 94 6! => !Goto 2 107 109 Memory 6x8-48 Total 157 steps -168- -169- ..Store the program written on the next page. A E 0 0 Ul Input data H I 0 P Q V W X Y Display count Z Sum of data Z[1]-Z[6] n Count of data s c: B C D E F G J K L M N ::!: . and the main points demanding Horizontal attention axis: are determined.

) 5 10~ (Bar graph display) L ~ mmI 6 (Parade diagram display) ~ 7 8 9 10 -170- .Program for Step Parade diagram Key operation I No Display 10 1 SD2 ~O~ 2 105~ DATA? SD2 DATA? SD2 DATA? 3 65~ Function Reference Error Message Table Input Ranges of Functions Specifications 4 (Input dat~ in order.

tanh...............~.......... Int............. Number of data (n) .. l!ffiilllliJ Binary ..... Not . 0'''] Function command input immediately before numeric value... Binary. B).. [X2..frequencyj @Q * Frequency can be omitted. tan-1.. etc.... 9..... Hexadecimal . (Bar graphs........... Data [.. l!ffiill@) Input numeric values are converted to binary and each bit is tested... Y........ l!ffiillOO@l Population standard deviation (xo») . l!ffiill(k] Octal ....... Numeric value enclosed in parentheses input immediately after function command... ~(]](~x)@l Sum of squares (~X2) ... log........ octal... To specify: Decimal . hexadecimal calculations @li:l Setting number system Number system specification Decimal .. ~!IJ(~x2)@l Mean (x) ........ logical operations.... e-. l!ffiill~@l J Standard deviation calculations @lEt Data clear Data input Data deletion Result display Paired variable functions Function command input between two numeric values...... l!ffiill@] Hexadecimal . Reverse of each bit and .. cos-l. cos.. Function Reference • Manual Calculations Mode specification COMP Mode (~(J) BASE~NMode (§@i:I) SD1 Mode (~Et) LR1 Mode (§@D) SD2 Mode (l!ffiill~Et) LR2 Mode (l!ffiill§@D) Functions Type A functions Type B functions Four arithmetic and function calculations............ J Immediately executed functions Displayed value changed with each press of a key.... Exclusive negative logical sum of each bit l!ffiill~@l Data [.. For production of single variable statistical graphs. Octal ........... 0 ' "j -172- -173- ........ <-<-[ENG.. 1Ox........... B V A (A to the 1/Bth power). ~@l ffi!!)@l ~@l @£!I@l Number system for the numeric value entered immediately after can be specified regardless of the currently set number system.......... tanh-1. and then displayed. Logical product of each bit or . V-.. Logical sum of each bit xor ............ Standard deviation calculations (1-variable statistical)..... Logical operations Binary..... B) *A and B are numeric values......... octal...... Frac.. ENG..... Exclusive logical sum of each bit xnor ... l!ffiill~@l Sample standard deviation (XO"n-l) ..... In. Rec (A..... 0.. sinh. x-1.. normal distribution curves) For production of paired variable statistical graphs..frequencyjl@ * Frequency can be omitted........ Abs..... cosh-l........... r.. (Regression lines) Function command input immediately after numeric value. Pol (A.. ~(]](n)@l Sum (~x) ... cosh..... Result is converted back to number system used for input.... sin-1...... [ A xY B (A to the Bth power)....... decimal. xl.. tan.... [Sin... sinh-l..... Regression calculations (paired variable statistical)..... hexadecimal conversions and calculations. decimal........ Binary ...

................. -The replay function is not cleared even when mil is pressed or when power is turned off................ ~~~ Estimated value of y Cy) . Number of data (n) ....... Replay Multistatement en ........ y data [...................... -After calculation results are obtained...................... ~[[)(Ey)~ Sum of squares of x (EX2) ........................ x data....... ~@E~ Sample standard deviation of y (Y<Jn-l) ..... ~(2)~ -174- -175- ..... ~rn(Ex)~ Sum of y(Ey) ..........................frequency] @) * Frequency can be omitted.................. Colons are used to join a series of statements or calculation formulas............................ ~OJ(EX2)~ Sum of squares of y (Ey2) . -If an error is generated. the calculation result to that pointis displayed... If joined using " ............... The number of memories can be expanded from the standard 26 ....... y data [............. ~~~ Constant term of regression formula (A) ................. Memory Sample standard deviation of X (X<Jn-l) ........... pressing either (B or ~ will cancel the error and the point where the error was generated will be indicated by a blinking cursor...... ~[§J(Exy)~ Mean of x (x) ... * Mantissa of numeric value is 10 digits............................. It is recalled by pressing ~....... ~~~ ~a Special functions Ans The latest result obtained in manual or program calculations is stored in memory.. ~c:::J number of memories~..."........... Memories can be expanded in units of one up to 50 (for a total of 76)..... ~[[]~ Correlation coefficient (r) ........Regression calculations Data clear Data input Data deletion Result display ~~~ x data................... ~~~ Population standard deviation of y (Y<Jn) .. the formula can be recalled by pressing either (B or~.. ~(]](n)~ Sum of x (Ex) ............ ~[!)~ Regression coefficient (8) ..... ~!1J~ Estimated value of x (x) ................ Eight steps are required for one memory.......... ~OO~ Mean of y ~IZJ~ Population standard deviation of X (X<Jn) ...@Q * Frequency can be omitted......frequency] ...... ~[!)(Ey2)~ Sum of products of x and y (Exy) ......

Minimum value of y Ymax . and iii is pressed. ~EI.. Maximum value of y Yscl ..... PCl Mode (~I]J) Cursor is moved to the desired program area name (PO through P9) using ~ and IB.... RUN Mode (~m) Execution starts with ~ program area name Trace Plot Line Factor Zoom ~. ~GI........ dance with the zoom factors Zoom x 't...... and ~ is pressed... and ~ is pressed.. ·Press @ID for deletions....Graph function Range Graph range settings Xmin .. Connects with a straight line two points created with plot function. Maximum value of x Xscl . Scale of Y-axis (space between points) Moves pointer on graph. Returns zoomed graph to original dimensions Scrolls screen to view parts of graphs that are off the display. Program area name: PO through P9 WRT Mode (~rn) Cursor is moved to the desired program area name (PO through P9) using ~ or IB..... Marks pointer (blinking dot) at any coordinate on the graph display..... • Program Calculations Program input Input mode Calculation mode Program area specification Program execution Execution mode Program area specification Program editing Input mode Program area specification Editing WRT Mode (~rn) Mode that conforms with program specified by: ~O... Cursor is moved to position to be edited using IB or~.. Zooms in on the graph in accor.. Zoom x f .... • Press 1!lITl(i@ to specify insert mode for insertion.. -Press correct key for corrections. Current coordinate location is displayed. Minimum value of x Xmax ... Defines factor for zoom in/zoom out..... Scale of X-axis (space between points) Ymin . ~a... .. Zooms out on the graph in accordance with the inverse of the zoom factors Zoom Org . Press ~~. Scroll Program delete Clear mode Deletes specific program Clears all programs -176- -177- .. Cursor is moved to the desired program area name (PO through P9) using ~ and IB..

After execution of the subroutine. ~.O Mer'nory name I CDCalculation result exceeds calculation range.O Mne~:o~y : CDNo corresponding Lbl CDCorrectly input a Lbl n to corn for Goto n. Statement operator Ma ERROR relational operator is: >. Count jumps The value in a memory is increased or decreased. If used. =Nestinq of subroutines by Prog n exceeds 10 levels. =Trace the subroutine jump destinations and ensure that no jumps are made back to the original program area. the next statement is executed. check that the numeric values stored in memories are correct. Countermeasure CDUse lB or §] to display the point where the error was generated and correct it. If the value does not equal 0. @lIlogical operation (division by zero. @Use lB or §] to display the point where the error was generated. delete the Prog n if not required. <. the statement after "~" is executed. CD: Formula ®: Relational aD: * The =. Increase Isz WhenGO". CD@@ Check the input numeric value and correct it. When using memories. delete any unnecessary Prog n. press r!iI and then correct the program in the WRT MOde. @Calculation is performed outside the input range of a function. @Formula in a program contains an error. program area P n @Store a program in program area which corresponds to P n to correspond to Prog n.. -178- -179- . or Prog n. If not true. If it is 0. etc. a jump is performed to the statement following the next" :" or " ~ ". respond to the Goto n. execution returns to the point following Prog n in the original program area. Cb{ ~} cp Ne ERROR WhenGO=O ®: GO: Statement Value in memory Subroutines Program execution jumps from main routine to subroutine indicated by Prog n (n = 0 through 9).Program commands Unconditional jump Conditional jumps Program execution jumps to the Lbl n which corresponds to Goto n. * n = 0 through 9 If conditional expression is true. A".) Go ERROR WhenGO=O Decrease Dsz WhenGO". z . Syn ERROR CDcfCD:cb{ ~ }cp True Not true CDCalculation formula contains an error. -Ensure that Prog n is not used to return from subroutines to main routine. Ensure that returns are made correctly. execution jumps to the statement following next":" or H • Error Message Table Message Meaning . or delete @No program stored in the Goto n ff not required. ::s.

-Use memories within the current number of memories. Ixl ~1 Ixl < 1 x 10100 " " Arg ERROR . when x=D. for tan x: Ixl ~90(2n+1):Deg Ixl ~ 1r12(2n+ 1): Rad Ixl ~100(2n+1):Gra Mem ERROR As a rule.9 input for n.Divide the formula into two or more parts. x~O Ixl <1 x10100 0~x~69 (x is an integer) \Ix x! " " I " " -180- -181- . etc. . Input Ranges of Functions Internal Accuracy digits Function sinx cosx tanx sin 1X cos+!x tan-1x sinhx coshx tanhx Input range Notes However.Re-enter argument correctly. Ex.2585092 " Ixl < 1 x 10100 " Note: For sinh and tanh. errors are cumulative and accuracy is affected at a certain point. .Execution of calculations that exceed the capacity of the stack for numeric values or stack for calculations.Memory expansion exceeds level remaining in program. Negative value input for Defm. -Attsmpt to use a memory such as Z[5] when no memory has been expanded. .Press §@8 (Defm) to expand memory to necessary level.Stk ERROR . value other than 1 . Ixl ~230.Simplify the formulas to keep stacks within 10 levels for the numeric values and 24 levels for the calculations. (Deg) Ixl <9 x 1090 12 accuracy is (Rad) Ixl <5x 1071rrad digits ± 1 at the (Gra) Ixl < 1 x 1010grad 10th digit. . -Arqumsnt input incorrectly. sinh 1X Ixl <5x1099 cosh-1x tanh v'» logx Inx 10< 1 ~x<5x1099 Ixl <1 1 x 10-99~X< 1 X 10100 " " " " -1x101OO<x<100 -1 x 101OO<x ~ 230.2585092 O~x< 1 X 10100 " " " eX " Vi x2 11x Ixl <1 x10s0 Ixl < 1 x 10100.

y) . for tan 0 : 101 ~90(2n+ 1):Oeg 101 ~ 1r/2(2n+ 1):Rad 11]1 ~100(2n+1):Gra 12 digits As a rule. 1 -1 x 101oo<-log Ixl <100 y y>O: -1 x y=O: y<O: x~O 1 10100 Iogy < 100 < x>O 1 x=2n+ 1. YUn 1 : n~O. positive) Hex: 80000000 ~x~ FFFFFFFF (negative) 0~x~7FFFFFFF (0. positive) Oct: 20000000000 ~ x ~ 37777777777 (negative) O~x~ 17777777777 (0. Vx sometimes affecting accuracy. Vy. 1 -1 x101OO<-loglyl <100 x 'Errors may be cumulative with internal continuous calculations such as xr.JX2+y2<1 x10100 - -- Function Input range -Results Total of integer.YUn. Notes -- Pol (x. B. 2n+1 (n is an integer) However. positive) xY BASE-N x- Vy n " " (n~O. l al . x!.1 x 10100 <ylogx< 100 x=O: y>O x<O: 1 y=-n. c<1x101OO O~b. b. numerator and denominator are less than 1 x 1010. n is an integer) However. <-0' " " " SO (LR) " n~O " Function " " Input range Values after variable within following range: Oec: -2147483648 ~x~2147483647 100000000000 ~ x Bin: ~ 111111111111 (negative) 0~x~011111111111 (0. accuracy is ± 1 at the 10th digit. 1 - Internal digits Accuracy 0~r<1 X 10100 (Oeg) 101 < 9 x 1090 Rec (r. -182- -183- . r: XUn 1.777777777 x 1096 Hexadecimal display: Ixl ~2777777.O) (Rad) 101 <5 x 1071rrad (Gra) 101 < 1 x 1010 grad 0' " able " " However. A. accuracy is ± 1 at the 10th digit. y. Ixl<1x105O lyl<1x105O Inl<1x10100 XUn.Function Input range Internal digits 12 digits Accuracy As a rule. c Ixl < 2. -Input Result displayed as a fraction for integer when integer.777 x>O: . numerator and denominator must be within 10 digits (includes division marks).X.

Specifications
Model: fx-6300G functions

Statistics:

I Graph

I
(20 types) sin, cos, tan, sin - \ cos -1, tan -1, sinh, cosh, tanh, sinh-1, cosh-1, tanh-1, log, In, 10x, ex, x2, Y,

Built-in function graphs: Types of graphs:

Standard deviation - number of data, sum, sum of squares, mean, standard deviation (two types). Linear regression - number of data, sum of x, sum of y, sum of squares of x, sum of squares of y, mean of x, mean of y, standard deviation of x (two types), standard deviation of y (two types), constant term, regression coefficient, correlation coefficient, estimated value of x, estimated value of y. Insert, delete, replay functions, substitution (=), multistatement (: and .;iI). 26 standard (maximum 76), Ans memory range: ±1 x 10-99- ±9.999999999 x 1099 and O. Internal operation uses 12-digit mantissa. Performed according to the specified number of significant digits or the number of specified decimal places. Norm 1-10-2>lxl, Norm 2 - 10-9> lxi, Ixl~10'0 Ixl ~ 10'0

x-'

<:

Special functions: Memories: Calculation Rounding: Exponential display:

User generated function graphs Rectangular coordinates Single-variable statistics: bar graphs, normal distribution curves Paired-variable statistics: regression lines Range specification, Overdraw, Trace, Zoom (x f, x 'It, factor, original (resume)), Plot, Line, Scroll

Graph functions:

I Calculations I
Basic calculation functions: Built-in scientific functions: Negative numbers, exponents, parenthetical addition/ subtraction / multiplication / division (with priority sequence judgement function - true algebraic logic). Trigonometric/inverse trigonometric functions (units of angular measurement: degrees, radians, grads), hyperbolic/ inverse hyperbolic functions, logarithmic/exponential functions, reciprocals, factorials, square roots, cube roots, powers, roots, squares, decimal-sexagesimal conversions, binary-octal-hexadecimal calculations, coordinate transformations, 7r, random numbers, absolute values, integers, fractions.

I Program

function

I
400 maximum Unconditional jump (Goto), 10 maximum Conditional jump (=, ~, >, -c, ~, ~) Count jumps (Isz, Dsz) 9 levels 10 maximum (PO to P9) Program checking, debugging, deletion, addition, insertion, etc.

Number of steps: Jump functions:

Subroutines: Number of stored programs: Check functions:

-184-

-185-

I General I
Power supply: Power consumption: Battery life: Auto power off: Ambient temperature Dimensions: Weight: Two lithium batteries (CR2032) 0.009 W Approximately 350 hours on CR2032 Power is automatically switched minutes after last operation. 0°C-40oC (32°F-104°F) off approximately 6

Index
Addition, 25 All clear (AC), 23 Alpha key, 16,22 Alpha lock, 22 And, 29,66 Angular measurement, 22, 54 Answer(Ans Function), 24, 49 Antilogarithm, 27, 56 Arithmetic calculations, 44, 65 Array memory, 41, 130, 132 Assignment key, 28, 105 Auto power off, 10 Clear memory, 23, 39 Clear program, 21, 119 Clear statistical memories, 28, 67,69 Clear text display, 23 COMP mode, 22, 32 Computer math, 22, 62, 118 Conditional jumps, 122 Contrast, 29 Coordinate conversion, 58 Correction, 37 Cosine, 28, 55 Count jumps, 124 Cube root, 29, 59 Cursor, 23

range:

9.9mmH x 73mmW x 141.5mmD (3/a"H x 27/a"W x 51/2"D) 84g (2.90z) including batteries

Bar graph, 97, 98 BASE-N mode, 22, 32,118 BASE-N mode calculations, 62 BASE-N, arithmetic operations, 65 BASE-N, conversions, 64 BASE-N, logical operations, 66 BASE-N, negative values, 64 Battery replacement, 8 Binary, 32, 62, 64, 65

m

Decimal, 32, 62, 64, 65 Decimal places, 16,21,47 Degrees, 16,21,22,54 Degrees-minutes-seconds(DMS), 27 Delete, 23, 37 Disp, 16,90 Display format, 18, 19,21 Division, 25 DT key, 29, 67, 69

Calculation mode, 21, 118 Calculation priority sequence, 30 Calculation steps, 35 CL key, 29, 68, 70 Clear graphic display, 26

Editing, 37 Engineering, 26

-186-

-187-

Index
Error messages, 31,34, 52, 81, 99,101,113,114,127,179 Error position display, 52 Execute, 24 Exponent, 18, 24, 33 Exponential display, 18,47 Exponential functions, 27, 56 Exponential regression, 72

m

Hexadecimal, 19, 27, 28, 32, 6~ 64,65 Hyperbolic functions, 16, 28, 57 Hyperbolic functions, inverse, 16,57

i routine, 127 Main
Mantissa, 18, 33 Manual calculations, 44, 172 Memory calculations, 46 Memory clear, 23, 39 Memory expansion, 40 Memory remaining, 22, 40, 98 Memory status check, 22 Memory steps, 35 Minus(-), 24 Mode key, 16, 21 Multiplication, 25, 30 Multistatements, 26, 53

m

Index

D

I]
Factor, 25, 84 Factorial, 27, 59 Fix, 16,21,47 Fractions, 19, 28, 60 Functions:Type A, 30 Functions:Type B, 30

m

m

Increasing memories, 40, 98 Initialize, 10, 32, 40, 82 Input ranges, 181 Input digits, 33 Insert, 38 Integer key, 26, 60

Jump commands, 120

m

Gradients/Grads, 16, 21, 22, 54, 55 Graph, range, 25, 78 Graph-Text key(G-T), 26, 36 Graphic display, 36 Graphing, 25, 76 Graphing built-in scientific functions, 76 Graphing examples, 96 Graphing manually entered functions, 82 Graphing, program, 137 Graphs, overdraw, 77, 83

13

Key marking, 14

I]
Line,23,93 Linear regression, 70 In, 27 logarithmic functions, 27, 56 logarithmic regression, 71 logarithm, common, 27, 56 logarithm, natural, 27, 56 logical operations, 66 lR mode, 22,25,32, 69,100, 118

Neg, 28, 64 Negation, 26, 66 Negative values, 24, 28, 64 Nesting, 127 Norm 1 (Norm 2) mode, 18, 21 Normal distribution curve, 97, 98 Not, 26, 66 Numeric key, 24

m

Paired-variable statistics, 69 Paired-variable statistical graphs, 100 Parenthesis, 28, 45 pel mode, 16,21,32,119 Pi, 24, 55, 80 Plot, point, 25, 91 Polar coordinates, 25, 58 Power regression, 73 Power supply, 8 Powers, 29 Program area, 117 Program commands, 120 Program steps, 17, 106, 116 Program, edit, 110 Program, erase, 21,119 Program, execute, 111 Program, graph, 137 Program, input, 106 Program, memory, 106 Programming, 104 Punctuation symbol ( " , - ) , 39, 135

Ii)
Radians/rads, 16, 21, 22, 54 Random number, 59 Range, 25, 78, 80, 82 Range parameter screen, 78, 80 Reciprocal, 27, 59 Rectangular coordinates, 25, 58

Octal, 32, 62, 64, 65 Off,23 On, 23 Or, 29, 66 Output digits, 33 Overflow, 34

-188-

-189-

87 Trigonometric functions. X1/f. 25 Tangent.95 Zoom.27 Trace function. 76 Single-variable statistics.55 Shift key. 106. Org). 67 Steps. 67.10 Root. 66 XHY.27. 55 Trigonometric functions. 84. 23. 22. 16. 120 WRT (Write) mode. single variable. 19. 16.32. 67 Single-variable statistical graphs.21. 17.inverse. 26.55 True algebraic logic. 21. 97. 3. 28.21 Significant digits. 16.32 MEMO D Sci. 55 Text display. 25. 32. 16. 59 Square root key.89 Zoom (xf. 67 Statistical calculations. 66 xor. 69. 100 Replay function. 26. 25. 95 SO mode. 26. 19. 55. 26. 59 Standard deviation. 21 . 28. 28. 184 Square key. factor. 118 Sexagesimal. 25. 31 Statistical calculations. 84. 135 Time calculation. 35. 36 Text messages.117 xnor. 47 Sine. 23. 51 Reset. 67. 106 Subroutines. 27. 28.Index Regression.21 Sci. 90. 28. 86 -190- . 127 Subtraction. 69 Statistical calculations. paired variables. 69 Scrolling graphs. 86. 30 t!l Unconditional jumps. 67 Stacks. 59 RUN mode. 97 Specifications.

MEMO .

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