Freedom Struggle in India


In the previous lesson. you have learnt about colonialism and its impact on Indian polity. economy. society and culture. Sooner or later. all the scctidns of the Indian people experienced colonial burden and realised its ill impacts. It brought forth a new consciousness - J ndian nationalism. In course of time, they joined hand s in the formation . of a grand alliance for the struggle for freedom from the colonial rule. Let us see how it materialised and how India got tndependence.

After reading this lesson, you will be able to: • • .• • • recall the l st "!'ar of Independence; trace the birth of the

Indian National Congress programme

and its role in the Indian Freedom made by the moderates Civil Disobedience and and

compare the ideology. extremists; and contribution

describe the role of Mahatma Quit India Movement; and

Gandhi in Non-Cooperation.

analyse the role played by Netaji and the Indian National Army in freedom struggle.

British Government exploited Indian economy. East India company utilised Indian . economic surplus and drained it into .their mother land. They charged higher prices for· their finished goods and paid bare minimum for the raw material: They. therefore ended the traditional village life of autonomy and self-rule. 'This policy led to the new classot Zamindars who repressed the poor people. This resulted in decline of agriculture. A major part of Indian revenue was spent on military and the British personnel. Lord Macaulay introduced English not only for communication but for Christianisation of Indiahs also. The British policy of annexation deprived Indian rulers of tl.eir Kiegdoms, Social and religious leaders like Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1774-1833), Swami Daya Nand, Sir Syed 497



~. there was dlscrimlnation in services including defence services. Tantia Tope.. under the control and direction of the Secretary of the State for India who was a· member of the British Govt He was assisted by a Council of 15 members.R.e. As a result of the revolt of 1857. Rani Jhansi Laxami Bai.' . INTEXT·Q~S'tIONS~36. Nana Sahib. a failure because of the absence of common purpose. The paper covering of the bullets had to be bitten off before use. Mrs. . Barreily. In addition to the above factors.1 ----------Choose . made the people conscious of their rich culture and civilisation. Lucknow and other parts of the country. Kanpur. unity and co'"Ofdination among the different sections of the people and non~availability of modern techniques and we~ns with the Sepoys and rebels. Swami Vivekanand (1861-92) etc.the correct 1. 'Ibis made Indians angry with the British Govt. Pt.last Mughal Emperor> Bahadur Shah Zafar and soldiers with a common objective of throwing the Britishers from our country and thus it was a challenge posed by Indians for the British government. a nominee of the Crown who represented the British Queen in India. the Governor-general became the Viceroy. dignity and honour" . But it was a wide-spread struggle launched by some princes and the . Bahadur Shah Zafar and other revolutionary leaders fought the battle valiantly but were crushed by the British. answer ~ of 1857 fti'SI: started at: ~Meerut 498 . the Act of 1858 was passed in the British Parliament. 85 soldiers were tried in Meerut by the their colleagues British and were sentenced to ten years' Imprisonment. please the Indi&ttPnnces by asSUring them their "rights. Ranta Krishna Paramhans.Political Science Ahmed Khan. of India' has described this revolt as our 'First War of Independence'. Britishers du6bed it as 'Mutiny' a mere sepoy rebellion i. This revolt was. The Indian sepoys were paid less wages as compared to their British counterparts and were treated badly. He was to. Govind the administration in India. There was a strong protest from Because of the above factors and the attitude of the East 'India Company. Annie Besant. . By virtue of this Act. and they killed many British officials.evolt _(a) (b) (c) • Dethi . Both Hindu and Muslim sepoys refused to use them because of religious reasons. Jawahar Lal Nehru in his book 'Discovery Although in the famous 'Declaration of Queen Victoria o~ 1858.over by the British Govt. TIley alsO'tQed to eradicate the social evils prevalent in the soctety. The Government of India was pUced. 1857 at Meerut and soon spread to Agra. there was a revolt in 1857 against East India Company.ih this declaration but the princes too were disappointed with their behaviOur. The East India Company was dissolved and the Indian administration was takeR. the 'Ibis revolt came as a shock to the British as they thought that Indians were quite satisfied with the administration of the East India Company and Were fully reconciled to their rule over India. It began on 10th May. The spirit of nationalism in the society was influenced by the socto-religious reforms propagated by them.'The British Government also tried to. It was' said that the fat of cows and pigs was used for greasing these bullets. a revolt by a small section of the soldiers. The Britishers introduced the new Entield Rifle. it was proclaimed that Indians would be appointed to the higher posts without any racial discrimination but it was not implemented at alI. Because of their refusal.

1858: .N. after] 857. Jhansi of November. the most important nationalist organisation was the Indian f'ssOCiation founded undec the leadership of Surendra Nath Banerjee in 1876.Freedom Struggle in India (d) 2. The Arms Act which required every Indian to obtain licence for keeping anus made people i angry with them. I. There was discrimination in services also. They maltreated Indians. The objective . Even Indian women were publicly insulted.the Arms Act. introduction of western education brought the people close to each other. The educated people decided to oppose the 'policies like the Press Act.4 iNDIAN' NATIONAL CONGRESS 'The failure of the Ist War of Independence did not succeed in extinguishing the urge for freedom. The proclamation of Queen of JR5X. the Indian started forming Associations to fight against the Government unitedly. 36. the Britishers were spending lavishly by holding'Darbars'. The Vernacular Press Act was passed 10 curb the freedom of Indians.In addition to above associations. showed a new spirit of racialism and arrogance. They became pioneers of the agitation.not help the people even in famines. The Britishers. the East Indian Association was formed by Dadabhai Naoroji in England to elicit favourable public opinion. As such in order to give resistance to their action. Who bas described the revolt of ) 857 as 'First War of Independence' 'Discovery of India'? (a) Lala Lajpat Rai. They-made the Indians economically crippled hy drawing out the Indian wealth to Britain -and burdened Indians with taxes. 'This caused despair among the Indians who turned against the British Govt.s. The Indian Civil Service examination was deliberately made difficult tor the Indians by conducting the examination in England and fixing a lower entrance age. voicing the public grievances against the gov~ent . They did . It taught a lesson to freedom fighters. Following are the factors responsible for" the growth of' political consciousness after 18~7 leading to the birth of Indian National Congress. (b) (c) allowed Indian Judges to try whites transferred power from East India Company to the British Crown (d) created a bl-camberal Jegislature. The development of means of communication and transport provided facilities and. (b) lawahar LaI Nehru (c) (d) Bipin Chandra Pal Subhash Chandra Bose. On the other hand when starving people were dying.Thesl. In the year 1866. Shri S. did not satisfy them. "[be British did not try to feelthepulse of the people and failed to analyse the causes of rev oil of 1857. This made the people angry. During the Viceroyalty of Lord Lytton.d. Justice Govind Ranade organised the Poona Sarvajanik Sahha in 1870 followed by formation ofNationa) League in Bengal and the Madras Mahajan Sabha. and the exclusion of Indians from the I. the British had taken a repressive policy. The Queens's 'Proclamation (a) pardoned all those who' revolted against the Britishers.': assoctanons maned. 3.QO . in IDSbook .e.. Banerjee & Aurobindo Ghosh were not given jobs. They felt the need for a commonplatfonn for opposing the Britishers for their repressive Policies.

rise of women's status etc. . 1hey wanted the' annulment ofPrev. The Indian National Congress was in favour at indus1rialisation. it was renamed as the Indian National Congress. fie organised a conference of political workers under the auspices of Indian National Union at Bombay on December 25. ' the country •. Banerjee opened its branches in various parts of the country and started the idea of collective efforts for the welfare of the people but this organisation could not become a truly representative national body. government's decision of reducing the age for sitting in the civil service examination from 21 to 19. liberal organisation. the President of the first conference of the Congress. Madan Mohan Malviya. A.G. Gopal Krishan Gokbale. The Congress was the forum to encourage the educated Indian to point but to the government about its shortcomings and its . scrapping of tax on salt. O. Banerjee. expenses on military. Hume. Its leaders believed in the progressive policies of the British Government. They were also in favour of redticing the government expenditure. The Congress was dominated by leaders such as Phiroze Shah Metha~ Dada Bhai Nauroji. the Congress was a refonnist. the Theosophical Society' organised 'Workers' Conference' in Adyar. Its objective was not autonomy or independence of the country. The }elders of the Indian National Congress were equally in favour of givIng liberty to Indians. literacy amongst masses.ian trade aDd pa1rooage of Indian goods. His efforts were a step towards uniting all political assopianons. 1bey demanded increased number of Courts including High Courts in order to ~te die pending cases.N. Programme of the Indian National Congress During the initial period. ' and ihe judiciarJ should be separated from the Executive. promotion of fild.O. Surendra Nath Banerjee. freedom of the Press and lifting of restrictions on the 'VernaCular Press'. The Indian National Congress from 1885 tin the Independence laid emphasis upon social·reforms such as equality of castes. According to Shri W. 1885: This meeting was presided by Womesh CbandraBanerjee. Mr. Ranade etc. who were described as Moderates. It passed soo . He addressed a letter to the graduates of Calcutta University calling them to render services to the nation. 1883. This association protested against the. Pt. Shri S. He was of the opinion that the Indian Political leaders should assemble once in a year and discuss social problems. . The credit for formation of the Indian National Congress goes to A. reduction of land revenue etc. 1bey demanded that The Congress was in favour of increasing pa]1icipation of Indians in the administration of there should be Indians in Governor General's Council. This association sponsored an All India National Conference in Calcutta in December. Madras.Political Science of this Association was to represent and safegaurd the interests of the educated middle class. • 1. the aim "was to unite the important politicians of India once in a year with the objective of deliberating on the main social problems facing the country". 'i'be CongreSs spent . They wanted more in the legislative bodies and in government jobs. M. ' It was resolved to convene a conference of political workers and leaders to form a national level organisation.entive Detention Act and stopping of inhuman treatment towards Inmans. Hume a retired civil servant convinced the British officials and Indians about the utility of formation of such an organisation. On the suggestion of Dada Bhai Nauroji.C. In 1885.about representation of Indi~ 20 years in advocating the above reforms. He is called the founder of the Indian National Congress.policies relating to the exploitation of masses. They wanted that the government's policy should be liberal.

. 6.stitutional me-ans.. iii) The initial period of 20 years of the Indian National Congress is regarded as the period of: a) b) Gandhism Socialism Liberalism Fascism. This period is known as the period of 'Uberalissm' or moderate nationalism ._ 501: In the beginning of 20th century.. The Extremists -------.. B. The language used was of appeal and prayer. TIle Congress co-operated with the Government.. It believed that the efficient administration would bring peace and prosperity in the country. the young people started doubting.the effectiveness of the moderate constitutional means of the Congress. They were of the opinion that people should have tile idea of self-reliance and independence 'for"putting pressure on the .. who was regarded as 'Moderate'? a) b) Lala Lajpat Rai Lokmanya Tilak Bipin Chandra Pal Gopal Krishna Gokhale c) d) ii) 'Theosophical Society organised workers' conference in: a) b) c) d) Madras Bombay Calcutta Lucknow. the Congress had faith in the honesty... 2.-----------.Freedom Struggle in India resolutions at its conferences in the form of appeals tothe British goveniment for redressal of grievances and sufferings of the Indian people. Introduction of western education brought the people --- The age for entrance examination in Indian Civil service was lowered from _~~~ to _ The Indian Association was established in the year 1876 under the leadership of 4:....-----------..2 --------.. 3.-----Fill in the blanks with appropriate words : A. INTEXT QUESTIONS 36.. c) d) 2. The Indian National Congress was founded in the year The first session by _ was presided over of the Indian National Congress The English man associated with the establishment of the Congress was Choose the correct answer: i) In the Indian National Congress.:-~ _o. . . Atthat time.-----. In case of necessity: it used to fiend deputations of leading Indians to Britain to propagate the Indian views... justice and integrity of the Britishers and adopted peaceful and con. I.. 5..._-~j...

They_ were against western education . Programmes and Policies of the Extremists Extremists opposed the liberal policies oflhe moderates. Bal Gangadhar Tilak.Phiroz Shah Mehta and S. At the end of 19th Century. gave boost to the Indian industry. Common people also particfpated and laid emphasis on the following : i) launching Swadeshi movement with boycott of foreign goods and use of indigenous things. The people made bonnres of foreign goods arid thus. Lord Curzon's policy on 'Bengal partition' added fuel to the youths' anger. Moderate leaders like Dada Bhal Nauroji. In the Congress session held at 1906 at Calcutta. Eitre~sts were of two Non-violent extremists wanted to adopt 'non-violent means for awakening the national consciousness. the government removed the tariff on clothes manufactured at Lancashire but imposed taxes on Indian cloth. They were forself-respect and believed that they had the capacity to run lhe government . encouragement boycott of titles given by the British government. The differences with extremists put the situation beyond the control of moderates. consisting of eastern Bengal and Assam. U) ill) iv) boycott of government jobs. Bal Gangadhar Tilak of Maharashtra. The government did-not care for improving Indian economy. .. Lala Lajpat Rai of Punjab. About two crore people were affected by it. the country faced Several famines and epidemics such as Plague and cbotera. Instead-of help. . Agitations were held to protest against this action.on the basis of self government or Home Rule.N. use of indigenous goods and struggle against the Britishers. popularly known as 'Lal Bal Pa1.. were the originators of this movement. 1hey gave-a call for boycott offoreign goods. The following factors made die extremists to oppose the refonnist movement of the Congress : i) The British Government did not give importance to the resolution passed by the Congress for the above demands from time to time. The measures adoptedby the government were inadequate. boycott of government schools and colleges . They were in favour of using force. They were against the ideaS_like charity or mercy in policies. They were against the appeasement groups-non-violent and violent. This call attracted the people in large number. A petition againstthis partition was sent to the Secretary of the State but to no avail. extremists placed the resolution of boycott of foreign goods and use of indigenous goods. Lala Lajpat Rai.Political Science govemment. International events like defeat of Russians at the hands of a small country Hke Japan in 1905 and defeat of Italians by Ethiopians in 1896 roused the morale of Indian youth and thus encouraged the revolutionary ideas. Bipin Chandra Pal of Bengal. Bal Gangadhar Tilak raised bis voice against the misdeeds of "the government in his daily newspaper 'Kesari" and aroused the patriotic feelings of the people. the government started repressive measures. Bipin Chandra Pal belong to this grtlup-known as leaders of 'Garam Dal'. Banerjee did not agree with this resolution. policy of the Hindu dominated region of Bengal and the other Muslim majority region. The extremists gave a can for boycott of foreign goods and use of indigenous goods. For instance. ii) iii) iv) v) 3. They were of the opinion that sacrifice is essential for freedom as the Britishers would not leave the country voluntarily. He wanted to partition Bengal into two parts .

.. Name.. Who were-known as Lal. Lala Lajpat Rai was 'defeated in the election for President of the Congress...... The government adopted the repressive measures with the extremists like Lokmanya Tilak.4 ~.. Kanhai Lal of Bengal...... the prominent leader with whose efforlS both groups of the Indian NationaJ Congress-Moderate and Extremist·united in the year 19161 ••• ' •• ~•• ~ ~t •• ~•••••• ~ t. boycott of foreign goods and imparting of national education 'Extremist' .. I .... 2. ~ •• ~ •• ......... This cultivated the feeling .... t+ t ~••••••••• .... t •• ~.... .. Because of the difference in approach the Congress was split in the year 1907 at its Surat session.Freedom and laid emphasis on national and vocational education. Bhai Parmanand.... There was a difference both groups on the election of the President of the Congress. • •• 1 'Io~ •••• ~ .... tI... ...... Dina Nath and Master Amir Chand of Delhi. 'II t . It included Vir Savarkar. '6.............. tI ~~ . Strugg]e in India The other group of extremists believed in violent means.......---------Answer the following questions briefly : l.....•• +1 ~ .. INTEXT QUESTIONS 36... .. ~ ... Bal.. * •• * ". / ... . tt t t •• ~. Extremists were in favour of making Lala Lajpat Rai as the President while the other group sponsored the candidature of Ras Bihari Bose......Khudiram Bose... Write on two important policies of the extremists.. Lala Hardayal of Punjab... t •••• ~•••••• ~ . t- ~..... s. Lala Lajpat Rai ap<! Bipin Chandra Pal and they were arrested.. •• t -i.. •• t+ •• IiI ••• 'I t •• II~.... Who was. ~ ~ . They did not believe in passive resistance. ~••• .... . t ••• I ~ t tI iI .... Shyamji Krishna verma.' t... ~ ~ ~ ... til t •••• t oft . Pal ? ..3 ---..the two leaders who were regarded.'11 • ~ ••• oIt ~t 'II tt it.. They adopted the method of bombing and assassinating the British Officers.. Name the two groups of the extremists ....... Sardar Ajit Singh. Moderates became prepared for a change in their programme and agreed to include the concept of Swudeshi.. 1 .... Extremists were expelled trorn Ihe party for opposition of moderates....... ~iI + ... ... 3... of patriotism and a sense of sacrifice among Indians.. the With the efforts of Annie Besant and Others both the groups of rhe Congiess-moderates and ex tremi sts-united in 1916 and tbe Congress became a force in the national movement again... ...... in Because of majority of moderates Intbe Congress.. Awadh Behan. .... When did the Indian National Congress split and in which session? 4... t ..... t tt p+ '11 _ 'II ..... +'11 t'll It 4 . ~ ~•• I t t ~ 1. •••• ~~ ..

:. help tothem in the w. are called Rowlatt Bills: One bill empowered the government to lock up any body without a trial. They wanted to deal with the people whb were against with stem hand.resulting into Jallianwala massacre. The bill was passed on March 17. 1920.e Council opposed the bill this would harass the political workers. 1bere was no appeal allowed against it.N. Moderates 'under the leadership of S.S·ROLE OF MAHATMA GANDHI IN NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT Mahatma Gandhi arrived in India in January. It caused a split in the Congress. Country wide agitation started against this bill. He offered his co-operation to the British in the First World War which was going on at that time. However. as . Both Hindus and Muslims were agitated over this.: in 36. Banerjee' whole-heartedlyaccepted the reforms while the Indian National Congress in its session held in December. Bagh After first World War. 1919 lnspite of ptotests. The attitude of the Congress however changed after a lapse of 9 months. the Congress had the attitude of co-operation with the hope of having responsible government in near future. Indian members in u. them a 1\\'0 bills were introduced in the Imperiai Legislative Council in February. 1919 termed it as "inadequate. 1915 from South Africa after success his agitational method in' South Africa. Gandhi was initially an admirer of the British traditions and culture. Gopal Krishan Gokhale persuaded him to return to India and take part in public lite. 1919. it adopted the non "cooperation programme and decided to boycott the reformed councils and adopted the concept of Swadeshi.Political Science 36.. J I'I1ul118 mph oJ Muuaunu Gaudh« The reforms introduced in the Act of 1919 had a mixed reaction. The following events were responsible for the change of attitude of the Congress : RowlattAct and Khilafat Movement . the Government of India wanted to arm itself with extraordinary powers as it felt that the for"Ceof nationalism had intensified. which . TIlak had termed the reforms as "unsatisfactory and disappointing .A sunless Dawn". He was awarded the 'Kaiser-i-Hlnd' gold medal for hi. unsatisfactory and disappointing". In its special session held at Calcutta 10 September.

.1921 about 2S. and handweaving. of untouchabiJity.the Rowlatt Act In the Jallianwaia Bagh in Amritsar. and of rent etc. to the reformed councils. b) c) d) e) f) g) courts by lawyers and litigants. 1.: . . General Dyer declared this meeting illegal and started: machine gun fire on the innocent and disarmed people.decided 'for the following positive points : I) ii) iii) iv)' advocacy for the establishment establishment popularisation hindu-Muslim .000 strong crowd peacefully assembled in the public meeting on April 13. On the day of arrival . boycott of official functions. resignation from the local bodies and nominated of children tram government seats. 'The Indian National .withdrawal boycott of run school and aided schools. of private arbitration courts for settlement of the Swadeshi cloth and revival of band-spinning unity and removal .OOO. of the Prince to India.) and honourary offices. Das. Rai Bahadur. Mahatma the attainment of 'Swaraj'. 1931 decided to boycott the \velcome of the Prince. darbar etc.and boycotted the foreign goods. 505 of Wales to India because of the repressive policy of the government. They iIdopted the concept of Swadeshi .people 1ncluding our leaders. 1919 and to obServe itas a day of mourning. Programme In 3) their non-cooperation movement. the Congress decided for the following aspects: surrender of' titles (Sir. about 50. By December • .Nehru. The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi adopted resolution for the first time during the 35)'ears since its inception in 1885 for the direct action against the government.Ccngress in its session held in 1920 passed a resolution for non co-operation with the government. Gandhi declared that Truth or Satya as supreme strategy would be adopted for Non-violence or Ahimsa was to be dominating principle of the whole movement. This movement got ~ support of the people from the veri beginning. hartal was observed in Bombay and there were clasheS between the police and people.Freedom SbUggle in IDdia Mahatma Gandhi gave a call for hartal on 6th April. Special session of the Congress was convened to review the situation. Rai Sahib. Knight-hood etc. The Congress and the khilafat volunteers organisation were declared as unlawful but people did not care.'This was reaffirmed later by an overwhelming majority at the regular session of the Congress. boycott of election non-payment h) In addition to above the Indian N ational Congress also . held in 1920 at Nagpur. of national schools and colleges.C.R. Maulana Azad and·others were arrested. on which no business was to be transacted by way of popular demonstration agairistthe high-handed action of the Government in enacting. Moti Lal. boycott of foreign goods. 1919 to protest against the arrest of their leaders and Rowlatt Act. All India Congress Committee in July. There was resentment against this action of the British government.' Thousands of people were killed as they could not escape because of the existence of one narrow passage for exit Marshal law was imposed.and v) replacement of English by Hindi. of cases.

every year. 2. 1949. He was greeted"all the way.l.L. again declai-~ .t Nehru Ufla Lajpat Rai. Because of this. and repression. 1930 was celebrated as Fitst Independence day. Congress was. agitated mob burned 21 policemen and a sub-inspector alive in a police station O(Cba:i. courted aiTest.of the firirig by the Police on the Congress procession: Mahatma. 1922. 1929 under the presidentship of J. Civil Disobedience Movement The government was unwilling to accept the Nehru Report which was for a full dominion status.. tltey were about to drive out tI¢ Britishers. bonfires offoreign goods: .unlawful . Although Coristituent Assembly adopted our Constitution on 26th November. But before the expirY of notice period. The people started Civil Disobedience Movement because of economic depression . .Many Indian Gpvemmem servants abstained from duty. Gaadhi felt horrified with the violence that he ordered the suspension of movement at onee. ~ahalma Gandhi violated salt laws and. Before starting civil movement. the entire movement was mass-based am it helped the cause of failure. . on foot from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi (Known as 'Dandi March') in 24 days. Nduu and other leaders were arrested More than 60. sO This action of violence was bitterly criticised by the rank andfi1e of the Congress.PuliticaI ScieDce. Nehru at Labore adopted a resolution for complete independence. 26th January. People picketed wine shops and made. The Congress leaders .like the action of Gandhi 'at such a critical stage whel!. the Congress Worki~ Committee declared on 11th February. 1930 to start Civil Disobedience Movement and authorised Mahatma Gandhi to start this movement He wrote a letter to' the Viceroy intimating of starting of this movement but government did not respond positively. Mahatma Gandhi' alongwith marchers covered the journey 'of 200 miles. The Congress in its session held 'on 31st December. 1950 to commorate the importance of the day in the national movement.. M.utChaura in Gorakbpur Districtof Uttar Pradesh on February~. Seeing the stiff attitude of the ~overnment. The Congress decided to have 'Pooma Swarajya'. his folloWCII'SIDade at many places in saIt the COUDtry.part in the struggle.-1930 by a march to Dandi alongwith 79 followers to break the salt-law as it was an offence to prepare it even from the sea water. Nebru. MlhatmaGandbi started his second Civil Disobedience. Inspite or. . The Indian'miDs bad good b~.C. Seeing the popularity of this movement. import of foreign g~ was affected. . it was enforced on 26th January.L. ML.' Lawyers stopped co. Das. decided to intensify the struggle and start qvil Disobedience Movement.--------------~--------5~06~--------------~--------------~~· .ta. As a result of such criticism. 'The government was not willing to give dominion status as per Nehru report.ahatQlaG~'s popuJarlty was affected. ----------_. B~ Da:ember of ~ repressive measures~ tile COngress in its session beld toWards tbeead of 1921. Mahatma Gandhi wrote a letter to Lord Readingfoi' stopping the repression within 7 days. This aroused ruitional' feeliJigs.000 peOple .R. It was ck':cided to observe 26th January as a day of independence . Alibrotbers·and others did not.operating wttlrthe govemmen~ This was a non-violent civil disobemcnre movement by a deliberate breach of law tecbniGally. Movement on 12th March. It had beep made costlier by double taxation in 1923 and affected the poor people. . 'Red Shirts·~·under the l~pof Khan AbUt Gbaffar Kban known as 'Frontier Gandhi" took a leadiDg part in this movetnMt.king·. This happenedbecause.. GovernJl)ent resorted to merclless repres$ioa Mahatma GaJxibi and J .

and demanded aseperate state. Its offices were raided andits funds were frozen. crushed the "People's Revoltof 1942".XlSe.' of . Later on. Leaders of bothpartles wanted to nave more powers.. The Government suddeniy withdrew the proposals on April 11.) b) the correct answer : . 1942. Churchil. in a resolution passed in . individual his article July. fell seriously ill in the Jail..allowing Indian judges to try non-Indians d) . . Firing took place at many places which was resented by the people by observing Hartal. .. This movement Gandhi Irwin Pact. On August 9.granted special rights to Europeans. the country had no leader to lead the movement. Dr.s which had been withdrawn by them earlier in 1942. INTEXT QUESTIONS 36. However on june. At that time. 1945. . The Government released him on 6th May. 13th April. Muslim League did not support this movement. 1. ] 942 resolution on August It was a mass struggle. Quit India Movement In Cripps proposal. The stem repressive policy of Lord Lirilithgo with the backing of British Prime Minister. Choose <:I.le in IDdia organisation. the-British Governments put up Cripps proposals again before the Congress leader. 1942 without having further negotiations . promotion of communal arresting Indians without trial . . He declared that it was a decision 'to do or die'. Option of the Indian states to remain out the Union was rejected by both the Congress as well as the Muslim League.4 ----------A. was called off on 5th Marcb. Non-violence was the basis of the movement. taking out processions and holding meetings. Bagh mass~ 1918 1919 occurred on . He evolved the idea of "Quit India'tin in "The Harijan". Mahatma Gandhi. . Mahatma Gandhi feIt that satyagrah could not serve the J>Ul1.Freedom: Strug. 'me public damaged the government property at many places. there was a provision for full dominion status after the Second World War. Ram Manohar Lohia and Mrs. 1942. 1944 lest he might die in prison and there would be law and order problem in the country. 17th March. Mahatma Gandhi and other members of the Congress Working Committee were arrested throughout the country. at Wardha demanded the withdraw3J of the British from India. Mahatma Gandhi termed this movement as the last struggle of his life to win the freedom of India. The Congress Working Committee. Jallianwala a) b) c) 15th February. The socialist party leaders like 1ai Prakash Narain. 3. 2. c) . Again Congress was dec lured an unlawful association. 1919 . ' This withdrawal was a shock to the Congress. this was passed by the All India Congress Committee at its meeting held at Bombay 8. Aruna Asaf Ali went underground and organised a violent underground movement to dislodge the Government. harmony Rowlatt Act aimed at. 1931 after· thesigoing of the .

. ...••• .... . 1922. 11 . When was:first Independence day celeberated during the freedom struggle? . tt": ..•.. 3. ltt •• -11 •••• 11"' + 4. 11 _t It . When did Mahatma Gandhi start his_ second Civil Disobedience Movement '1 36.....Political Science d) 3....... Chauri Chama Surat Meenn c) d) 4...... This . .. '....••••• .......... •••• .p....." .~ •• -~ . •• .. !!i..... . 1. ' 0. ••• .. " .. Mahatma Gandhi ordered suspension of Civil Movement because he felt horrified with the violence that occurred at the Congress Session held at: a) b) Jallianwala Bagh.........••••• ....... "' 1 ••• 1111 ' + •••• .. "''" ••• . ••• .. N~ the two socialist party leaders who organised a violent underground movement during 'Quit India Movement' ... .. Answerthe following : What did Gandhiji terms as the 'Quit India Movement? .+t· 1"' ........1 ' lit .+ •••••••••••• ...."" " .""' •• •• • ....... there was a group which was· influenced by the socialistic idea.6 ROLE OF NETAJI SUBHASH CHANDRA BOSE IN THE FREEDOM MOVEMENT In the (:ongress. ••.+..... ~ . 2..... Zakir Hussain Abdul Gaffar Khan. What was the dominating principle of the National Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi? .. Nagpur in 1931 5~ Who is known is 'Frontier Gandhi'? a) b) Mohammad Ali Jinhah Abdul Kalam Azad c) d) B..... Dr... ......... t t ••• f 0.. Sth February... . ..*+ +t+t."'1 ""' .. 0"0_" •• _ ~... ~' a. iI 110 . 'Puran Swaraj' (complete Independence) was demanded at the Congress Session held at: a) b) c) Lucknow in 1916 Calcutta in 1928 Lahore in 1929 d)".

. As such the 'govemmcnt did not dare to execute' them.. -11 . Governor-General. The action of the Indian National Anny awakened the national feelings and had it impact s on all sections of the people..A. Narain. his dream 'oi' liberating the motherland was not fulfiUed due to shortage of food... When: did Netaji Subhasb. Dr... Nehru.. f It . The slogan 'Jai Hind' influenced the people greatly. : Congress who were Name the two leaders of the Indian National influenced by the socialistic.wers. ' INTEXT QUESTIONS 36....) was also formed under the captaincy of Laxmi Swami nathan. Shah Nawaz..There was resentment among people against this decision. He organised 'AzadHind Fauz' though a stop in this direction had already been taken up by Captain Mohan Singh.Io!.S. The people were prepared to make any sacrifice tor the country.Freedom Stnlggle group had young elements such as Subhash Cbauder Bose. Inspire of his determination. He planned to march 6y declaring 'Delhi Chalo' (March to Delhi). toeotogtcatly 2...govcrnment to free the country ill the earliest..Q. He established a provincial government of' Azad Hmdustan' with H.. The Congress leaders defended these patriotic sons of IRdia. Achaiya Narendra Dev. Iack of forces. " . . .L. It is sad to say that N~l8:ii was reported to be killed in an air-crash.f t • .P. What was the slogan of Subhash • 1111 Cbander Bose for Independence'l .. iI. 3. set them rrp! hy using his special pc.Q."••• . and its aiJies and made Burma as H. ammunition and onset of monsoon. be escaped from the-custody of the government and reached Germany and Japan via Kabul... ~ avery mysterious way. He-declared war against the U. Dhillon and Sehgal who had deserted Indian Army to join JNA of Netaji Subhash Bose were tried before a 'Court Martial in Red Fort.. Indian National' Anny? 11 . 4. The Indian 'National Army penetrated into the Indian soil and took possessionof some area of Manipur Aishavpnr. at Singapore on October 21. tot - 1+ •• . J. Again there was a division in this group. establish a prov~al government of 'Azad HindUstan' 509 . .g struggle. awarded death penalty for !-'~'Htion.._.. . Ram ManobM Lohia as its workers... His dreams came true and India became free on 15th August. a I. They worked In mobilising the working class and the peasant for the national movement and radicalising the Congress.- + •• ~ .5 -. India " The contribution of Netaji and members of Indian National Army is significant. ideas. He was Supreme Commander of the Azad HindFauj. 1947 after a . Some members fornled Forward Block with Subhash C~ Bose as its member.t .. His government was given recognition by many nations.. J... 'Hemade Indian National Army out of the Indian prisoners in Japan. He launched an Uncompromising struggle against the British imperialism· after the outbreak of Second World War. Who was 1he founder of .--------Answer the following 1.. They aroused national fee1i~gs. Subhash Chander Bose was also arrested but. He came to Singapore via Japan. A woman's regiment (Rani Jhansi. Netaji did not agree with Gandhiji on peaceful agitation. He called upon the people to give him their blood and he would give them independence... Delhi... ...++" '" . 1be government banned this organisation and arrested almost "all its important leaders. ••• "' ~ . The Court Martial convicted them and.Their action forced the British . Itt ••• .. 1943.

. Independenc~ from the British rule. young members of Indian National Congress became opponents of liberal policies of the Moderates. ~"! . 1be people felt the need fora common platfonn to oppose the Britishers and they started fOnning associations in order to fight the Government unitedly. . Wbo~gave us the slogan of 'lai Hind'? WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT 'I'be Britishers exploited our economy. .----~--~----------------------------------------~~----------------~-------and where? .a mere 'sepoy rebellion. Mahatma Gandhi caine back from South Africa. Because of the difference of opinion the Congress was splitted in the year 1907 its Sural session. the at In 1915. 1929 adopted a resolution for complete indepe~nce and ~ded to observe 26th January every year as 'independence day' till the country gets lildepe~ With the out-break of second world war and BritiSbers 'not taking the Congress into confidence· for war. introduction of western education brought dle people closer to each other and they decided to dislodge the British Government. Communication and transport. In the beginning of 20th century. 5. Congress undet" leadership of Mahatma CJandbi decided to launch 'Quit India Movement'. with the efforts of Annie Besant and other leaders. It was in 1885 that the Indian National Congress came into existence.. However. The feelings Of Indian people were suppressed-resulting ~n 'JallianwaJa Bagb massacre'. Congress became agitated with the abov€<massacre and with other events In the country and decided to launch non--cooperation movement under the leadership of~a1ma Gandhi. In this movement.institutions and made bonfires of foreign goods.. After the passage of Rawlatt Act which aimed at arresting 1lDYIndian without trial. It • _ ~ .Political Scicmce ' . the Congress was reformist and liberal organisation. Finally it was in 1947 that Inida got .During the first 20 years of its inception. became the nus SlO .But this movement was also crusbed with a heavy band. Congressmen agitated. Mahatma Gandhi suspended this movement because of violence in Chlurl Cbaura (Gorakbpur). religious and economic factors awakened the national feelings among the people of India. • I Ihma Company because of exploitation Social.ofIndependence' whereas Britishers dubbed it as 'Mutiny" . 'They devised the policy of 'divide and rule' and aroused communal feelings in our society: In 1857. He termedtbis as the last stmggl~ ofbis life to win the freedom. Our leaders termed it as 'First Wa. 1be Congress in its Labore session held on 31 st December. was a decision to 'do or d4e'. 1bey used our economic surplus for their own gain and drained our wealth to their inotherland. a inas$ struqle based on non-vfoleoce. mo-vement ag~ Mahatma Gandhi launched civil disObedience in 1930 by a march to DANDI to break the salt-law. got united in the year 1916 and the Congress started the struggle for freedom unitedly. where he successfully opposed policy of racial discrimination of the South-Afiican government with non-violent mearis. there was a protest all over the country. the Civil Disobedience (1930) and the Quit India (1947) Movements proved milestones in the subsequent period. Allhough it failed because of the absence of common purpose. there was a revolt and other factors.' However. and non-availabilty of modern weapons and against the regi_meofEast . Noncorporation (1920-22). both groups. unity aDd co-ordination. It was.. people boycotted foreign goods and goyt ..

programme and role of Moderates and Extremists in the freedom struggle. 5. . 9. of the Indian National Congress during the first Compare the ideology. j. 1947 after a long freedom struggle. Give two reasons tor the revolt of 1857.SI I . He aroused national feelings among the people. Analyse the role of Netaii Subhash Chandra Bose and his Indian National Army in the freedom -struggle.n India's freedom struggle. Netaji and other freedom fighter's dream became true and India got independence August. . Quit India Movement.Gandhi Write short notes on: a) h) c) Non-Cooperation Civil Disobedience Movement of 1920. . He declared war against the British. 2. of English language communication affect our National movement'! and modem means of transport and . Movement. How did the introduction. 8. 7. 1942. Describe the role of Mahatma. What were the main causes of the failure of the revolt of 18S??' 3. on 15th TERMINAL EXERCISES 1.Netaji Subhasb Chaodfa Bose witb his IDdlan National Army played a significant role in the achievement of freedom. .Ust the main factors that were responsible for national awakening in India. 20 years? What was the policy and programme . 4. 6.

.3 i) (d) ii). . 26th January.3. In (he year 1907 in its. Bal Gangadhar 2 (c) (d) (c) Tilak. On 21st October.36. Banerjee 4. . Subhash Chand Bose. 9. 3.2 . 8. Annie Besant. b) 36. Refer to section No. S. 36. Non-violent and violent groups. Dr. TERMINAL EXERCISES 1.2 1. 36.5. 'Do or die' 2. (Any two) 2.2 c) 36. "Give me your bJoodand 4. (b) 5 B.4. Mrs. (b) 2. Refer to section a) 36. Hume.4. B. (b) A.1 and 36. boycott of foreign goods and use of indigenous goods. 36.t!'0. (c) 3. 1 . 36. 21 to 19 3. '36.1 36.each other 2.2. Ram . 1. Lokmanya Tilak (any two) 2.5.Political SciellCe KEY orO 'INTEXT QUESTIONS 36. 36. 12th March. 1930 4.4 A. Refer to section 2.N. 36. 1943 at Singapore " 5. Ram Manohar Lohia. 36. 4.5. . 6: Lala 4 Lajpat Rai. 512 .4. 36.5. 2. Sur~t Session.Refer to section. 5. Manohar Lorna. close to . Refer to section No. 1930. 1.O. 4.4. Refer to SectiOD.41hChandra Bose. Bipin Chandra Pal 3 (b) Last struggle of his lite for freedom. Refer to section No. Jawahar.5 1. 36. I will give you independence". Bipin Chandra Pal. A.5. Subha. Lala Lajpat Rai. Mrs Aruna Asaf Ali (Any two) 3. Subhash Chandra Bose 3. 1885 5. Womesh Chandra Banerjee 6. 3. Lal Nehru. Non-violance 5.3.No.3.3 Refer to section No.4. Jai Parkash Narain. Refer to section No. S. Dr. (c) 4.. Jai Prakash Narain. (a) 1. 1.1. 6.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful