Chapter 9

Shaft Design
Transmission shafts transmit torque from one location to another Spindles are short shafts Axles are non-rotating shafts Figure 9.1 is an example of a shaft with several features. It is a shaft for a Caterpillar tractor transmission 1 .

Figure 9.1: Example of a typical shaft design

1 From

Frederick E. Giesecke, Technical Drawing, Chapter 13.

1

pulleys/sheaves)∗ o * a pulley and a sheave are essentially the same thing Steady or Fluctuating Steady transverse-bending load ♦ fully reversing bending stress (fatigue failure) 9. sprockets) Keys.3 • • • • Shaft Materials Steel (low to medium-carbon steel) Cast iron Bronze or stainless steel Case hardened steel 2 .. sprockets. tapered pins Use generous radii to reduce stress concentrations Clamp collars Split collar Press fits and shrink fits Bearings may be located by the use of snap rings. sheaves.1 Shaft Loads • Torsion due to transmitted torque • Bending from transverse loads (gears. snap rings. disassembly. cross pins (shear pins).9. 2ed by Robert L. Prentice-Hall 2000 clamp collar key hub bearing press fit step axial clearance frame sprocket FIGURE 9-2 Various Methods to Attach Elements to Shafts snap ring taper pin shaft hub bearing step step step press fit frame gear sheave Figure 9.2: Example of a shaft with various attachments and details 9. and element phasing (e.2 Attachments and Stress Concentrations Steps and shoulders are used to locate attachment (gears.g. but only one bearing is fixed Issues .axial location. Norton. alignment of gear teeth for timing) MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach.

.6. 6. Approaches to Analysis Most general form .9. General low carbon steel is just as good as higher strength steels (since deflection is typical the design limiting issue).2) (9. To minimize both deflections and stresses. 3 .005 inches and the relative slope between the gears axes should be less than about 0.3) τalt τmean (9.03 degrees. mean and alternating components) Use the “Design Steps for Fluctuating Stresses” in Section 6.12. 5.1) 9.) 3. Try to locate stress-raisers away from regions of large bending moment if possible and minimize their effects with generous radii and relief.1 Shaft Power Power is the time rate of change of energy (work).5. so straddle mounting should be used unless a cantilever shaft is dictated by design constraints. If there are axial loads. A hollow shaft has a better stiffness/mass ratio (specific stiffness) and higher natural frequencies than a comparably stiff or strong solid shaft. the shaft length should be kept as short as possible and overhangs minimized.e.5 Shaft Stresses Ma c I Mm c = kf m I Bending Stress σalt σmean Torsional Shear Stress Ta r J Tm r = kf sm J = kf s = kf (9. 4.11 in combination with the multiaxial-stress issues addressed in Section 6. A cantilever beam will have a larger deflection than a simply supported (straddle mounted) one for the same length. they should be “taken to ground” as close to the load as possible.1 Shaft Design General Considerations 1.1 Shaft Failure in Combined Loading 9. in combination. 9.A fluctuating torque and a fluctuating moment.5) 9.4) (9. (Figure 9-2 shows a situation in which an overhung section is required for serviceability. work = Force * distance or Torque * angle.6 9.4 Shaft Loading. 2. and cross section. load. but will be more expensive and larger in diameter.3. Given knowledge of the moments and the torques (i. so Power = Torque * angular velocity P wr = T orq ∗ ω (9. Deflections at gears carried on the shaft should not exceed about 0.

4) τa Ses (b) Combined stress fatigue-test data for reversed bending combined with reversed torsion (from ref. ANSI/ASME Standard B106.1M-1985. 5) FIGURE 9-3 Results of Fatigue Tests of Steel Specimens Subjected to Combined Bending and Torsion (From Design of Transmission Shafting. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Prentice-Hall 2000 from ref. New York.3: Shaft failure in combined loading 4 . 2ed by Robert L. Norton. 3 2  τm   σa   S  +S  =1  e  ys  2  σa   τa   S  +S  =1  e  es  2 2 τm Sys (a) Combined stress fatigue-test data for reversed bending combined with static torsion (from ref. with permission) Figure 9.MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach. 2 from ref. 3 σa Se σa Se from ref.

5e and 9. Uses the elliptical curve of Figure 9-3. and 9-12 Figure 9. If non-self-aligning rolling element bearings are used.1M-1985. the shaft deflection across the bearing length should be less than the oil-film thickness in the bearing. Designing for Fully Reversed Bending and Steady Torsion ASME Method (ANSI/ASME Standard for Design of Transmission Shafting B106. 9.2 Shaft Deflection Deflection is often the more demanding constraint. If plain (sleeve) bearings are to be used. See Example 9. 8.6. and preferably much more. 9-11.4: Shaft with overhung gear Example -Homework Problem 9-2 5 . 9.. The first natural frequency of the shaft should be at least three times the highest forcing frequency expected in service.6a. Many shafts are well within specification for stress but would exhibit too much deflection to be appropriate. they should be taken to ground through a single thrust bearing per load direction. 10.pdf Shaft Design for Problems 9-6. Do not split axial loads between thrust bearings as thermal expansion of the shaft can overload the bearings. the shaft’s slope at the bearings should be kept to less than about 0.7.6 can be applied only for • constant torque • fully reversed moment.b. 9-9. Equations 9. • No axial load d= 3 32Saf etyF actor π (kf Ma 2 3 T m 2 ) + ( ) Sf 4 Sy (9.8. If axial thrust loads are present. 9. 9. (A factor of ten times or more is preferred.04 degrees.6. but this is often difficult to achieve).6) More general loading cases require Equation 9.3 Keys and Keyways P gear d T a b l FIGURE P9-3 bearings are self-aligning so act as simple supports P9-03.

a shaft of two inch diameter would have 0..2-1978 Definitions D – basic size of the hole d – basic size of the shaft δu – upper deviation δl – lower deviation δF – Fundamental deviation ∆D – tolerance grade for the hole ∆d – tolerance grade for the shaft Tolerance – the difference between the maximum and minimum size limits of the dimensions of a part Natural tolerance – a tolerance equal to ± three standard deviations from the mean Clearance – amount of space between an internal and external member Interference – the amount of overlap between an internal and external member International Tolerance Grade Numbers (IT) – designate groups of tolerances such that the tolerances for a particular IT number have the same relative level of accuracy. i.1 Terms related to Fits and Tolerances ANSI B4. US Customary Preferred Limits and Fits for Cylindrical Parts —ANSI B4. there is a formal approach Standards have been developed for these fits. 6 .g. IT 6 through IT 11 are used for preferred fits. page 1188. However. There are two methods used to assemble these components: • press fit • shrink (and/or expansion) fit The amount of interference is important The analysis of interference follows from the equations for pressure on thick-walled cylinders. IT 9 Smaller numbers mean tighter tolerances.5 Splines Interference Fits Components can be attached to a shaft without a key or spline by using an interference fit. For a 32 mm hole we might use 32H7 • The H establishes the fundamental deviation and the number 7 defines a tolerance grade of IT7. g. d. f.1-1967 9.e.. A rule of thumb that is used is one to two thousands of diametral interference per unit of shaft diameter.6.004 inches of interference with an attached gear hub. The grade number specifies a tolerance zone.9.7. For the mating shaft we might have 32g6 2 9. and h 2 Shigley Table E-11.2 Table of Tolerance Grades Lower and Upper Deviations • For shaft letter codes c.4 9.7. Metric Preferred Metric Limits and Fits — ANSI B4. e. Machinists use a simplified approach to this – 1/1000 of interference for each inch of diameter.6.2-1978.7 9.

290 0.185 0.027 0.025 0. by intention.058 0.011 0.s.220 0.8 Flywheel Design One of the biggest issues with regard to flywheels is balancing.025 0.036 IT7 0.039 0.115 0.016 0.140 IT6 0.081 0.060 0.025 0.100 0.160 0. 9. balancing them to remove eccentric loading and thus lower the loading on bearings and other components is very important.1: International Tolerance Grades Basic Sizes All values in mm A<d≤B 0-3 3-6 6-10 10-18 18-30 30-50 50-80 80-120 120-180 180-250 250-315 315-400 Tolerance Grades IT8 IT9 0.030 0.046 0.110 0.054 0. 9.062 0. n.070 0.090 0.009 0.084 0.013 0.029 0. Flywheels develop large stresses at their inter hub connection due to dynamic forces caused by the spinning.022 0.040 0.9 Critical Speeds There are three types of vibration that are encountered with shafts: 7 .230 IT11 0.008 0.3 provides a linguistic description for commonly used references to fit types.035 0.7.160 0.072 0. Capital letters always refer to the hole (or bore) and lowercase letters are used for the shaft.033 0.130 0.100 0.140 0.032 0.012 0.063 0.089 0.087 0.030 0. Careful design is required to avoid catastrophic failure.210 0.019 0.014 0.036 0.043 0.Table 9.3 Fundamental Deviations for Shafts – Metric Series These are related to the tolerance grades.052 0.074 0.320 0. See the table below. p .052 0. 9.4 Fit Types Table 9.190 0.046 0.022 0.018 0.075 0. Because they are. devices with large inertias.015 0. These stresses can lead to failure.048 0.021 0.130 0.057 IT10 0.360 – Upper deviation = fundamental deviation – Lower deviation = upper deviation – tolerance grade • For shaft letter codes k. and u – Lower deviation = fundamental deviation – Upper deviation = lower deviation + tolerance grade • Hole letter code is H – Lower deviation = 0 – Upper deviation = tolerance grade 9.010 0.120 0.018 0.006 0.250 0.040 0.7.

023 +0.031 +0.315 +0.120 -0.016 -0.035 +0.056 -0.144 +0.027 +0.280 -0.100 -0.033 +0.020 -0.041 +0.200 -0.210 -0.071 +0.060 -0.020 -0.023 +0.180 -0.037 +0.002 +0.170 -0.435 h 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 .009 -0.017 -0.005 -0.120 -0.026 +0.008 +0.Table 9.002 +0.130 -0.004 +0.017 +0.003 +0.170 +0.012 +0.190 -0.062 -0.080 -0.006 -0.034 +0.004 +0.031 +0.032 +0.004 +0.150 -0.027 +0.034 +0.006 -0.030 -0.062 +0.002 +0.009 -0.043 -0.003 +0.007 -0.015 +0.095 -0.158 +0.043 -0.026 +0.043 -0.053 +0.2: Fundamental Deviations for Shafts Metric Series basic dimension A<d≤B 0-3 3-6 6-10 10-14 14-18 18-24 24-30 30-40 40-50 50-65 65-80 80-100 100-120 120-140 140-160 160-180 180-200 200-225 225-250 250-280 280-315 315-355 355-400 Clearance Upper Deviation Letter c d f g -0.210 +0.013 -0.017 -0.050 -0.004 -0.048 +0.025 -0.022 +0.080 -0.100 +0.030 -0.012 +0.015 +0.020 +0.032 +0.004 +0.059 +0.028 +0.014 +0.108 +0.015 -0.050 -0.017 +0.014 -0.003 +0.003 +0.018 +0.035 +0.390 +0.122 +0.210 -0.020 +0.015 -0.012 +0.023 +0.060 +0.001 +0.023 +0.022 +0.080 -0.120 -0.037 +0.018 +0.040 -0.070 -0.036 -0.018 +0.124 +0.050 +0.010 -0.190 +0.095 -0.014 -0.062 +0.050 -0.110 -0.003 +0.145 -0.145 -0.087 +0.330 -0.092 +0.015 -0.400 -0.236 +0.050 -0.300 -0.050 +0.258 +0.140 -0.170 -0.043 +0.010 -0.260 -0.007 -0.002 +0.102 +0.043 +0.020 -0.065 -0.050 -0.002 -0.240 -0.070 +0.019 +0.028 +0.037 +0.006 +0.016 -0.043 +0.065 -0.033 +0.002 +0.018 -0.079 +0.170 +0.002 +0.043 +0.014 -0.100 -0.284 +0.004 +0.030 -0.015 +0.043 +0.110 -0.012 -0.208 +0.004 +0.037 +0.001 +0.230 -0.010 +0.056 -0.028 +0.140 +0.190 -0.004 +0.360 -0.056 +0.210 -0.012 -0.001 +0.027 +0.190 +0.130 +0.062 -0.031 +0.350 +0.145 -0.018 Transition Interference Lower-Deviation Letter k n p s u 0 +0.025 -0.170 -0.001 +0.010 -0.004 +0.050 +0.030 -0.170 -0.006 -0.056 +0.

Type of fit Clearance Transition Interference Table 9. 9. a compromise between clearance and interference Locational transitional fit For more accurate location where (wringing fit) greater interference is permissible Locational transitional fit For parts requiring rigidity and align(tight fit) ment with prime accuracy of location but without special bore pressure requirements Medium Drive Fit For ordinary steel parts or shrink fits on light sections. the tightest fit usable with cast iron Force Fit Suitable for parts which can be highly stressed or for shrink fits where the heavy pressing forces required are impractical Symbol H11/c11 H9/d9 H8/f8 H7/g6 H7/h6 H7/k6 H7/n6 H7/p6 H7/s6 H7/u6 • Lateral vibration • Shaft whirl • Torsional vibration 9.10 Couplings Many applications require us to connect one shaft to another axially. A recent inovation used with front wheel drive is the CV (constant velocity) joint. but must move and turn freely and locate accurately Locational clearance fit Provides snug fit for location of station(snug fit) ary parts.5. This is done with the use of couplings. or heavy journal pressures Close running fit For running on accurate machines and for accurate location at moderate speeds and journal pressures Sliding fit Where parts are not intended to run freely. Couplings come in many shapes. Note that the possibility of getting the two shafts perfectly aligned (linearly and angularly) is essentially zero. but can be freely assembled and disassembled Locational transitional fit For accurate location. sizes.3: Fit Types and their description Reference Description Loose running fit For wide commercial tolerances or allowances on external members Free running fit Not for use where accuracy is essential. see Figure 9. so couplings are typically designed to accomodate some misalignment. Almost all shafts are 9 .11 Summary While shafting can be purchased as a stock item. Another type used widely for connections to electric motors is a flexible coupling. and degrees of misalignment. but good for large temperature variations.6. most applications require some customization of the layout and dimensioning to accommodate the attachment of components and bearings. One type of coupling you might be familiar with is the universal joint. high running speeds. see Figure 9.

6: Small flexible couplings designed for high cycle fatigue (HCF). Many other factors come into play during the shaft design process.5: Typical automotive universal joint Figure 9. and are made of steel.6 & Equation 9.Figure 9.8) properly since specific requirements must be met to apply these equations. These may include: • keyways and keys • splines • couplings • shaft vibrations and balancing • flywheels 10 . since it has an fatigue limit. One is cautioned to applied the shaft diameter design equations presented in Norton (Equation 9.

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