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Put in Your APA Referencing Heading 2008
Note: this page is only an introduction to the APA (American Psychological Association) referencing system. For a comprehensive guide please refer to: American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington DC: APA. It is very important that you check the assignment guide for your Department or School as some details, e.g. punctuation, may vary from the guidelines on this page. You may be penalised for not conforming to your school's requirements.
What is Referencing?
Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations, facts and figures, as well as ideas and theories, from both published and unpublished works, must be referenced. There are many acceptable forms of referencing. This information sheet provides a brief guide to the APA referencing style for in-text citations and for creating the Reference List (examples are below). Within the text of the assignment the author’s name is given first, followed by the publication date. Include page numbers for direct quotations and also where it is useful to provide a page number. A reference list at the end of the assignment contains the full details of all the in-text citations.
Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations, and to enable readers to follow-up and read more fully the cited author’s arguments.
Steps Involved in Referencing
1. Note down the full bibliographic details of the source from which the information is taken. Include the relevant page number(s). In the case of a book, ‘bibliographical details’ refers to: author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. (Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable). In the case of a journal article the details required include: author of the article, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume and issue number of the journal, and page numbers. For all electronic information, in addition to the above you should note the date that you accessed the information, and the database name or web address (URL). 2. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document (see examples below). 3. Provide a reference list at the end of the document (see examples below).
Use the name of the author, followed by the year of publication when citing references within the text of an assignment. Where authors of different references have the same family name, include the author’s
In contrast.g. T. as shown in the examples below. When citing a book you need the following elements. (Brown 1991. and ordered in the reference list or bibliography alphabetically by the first significant word of the title. Smith 2003). When paraphrasing or referring to an idea from another source which is a book or lengthy text. & Schrecker. Page numbers should only be included in in-text citations when directly quoting from another source. Where an item has no author it is cited by its title. (Hamilton. L. They are presented alphabetically by author. Authors of article: Labonte. How to Create a Reference List A reference list only includes books. include the relevant page number. If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the same in-text citation. see the examples in the list below. When directly quoting from another source. What is a Reference/Citation? A reference or citation consists of the elements that allow the reader to trace the original book or article you have read or cited from. 2 . City of publication: Name of the publisher. Globalisation and social determinants of health. the relevant page number must be given and double quotation marks placed around the quote. C (2005). if you looked at a book with these elements: Author: Mack. a bibliography is a list of relevant sources for background or for further reading. For example. 1994) or C. Schrecker. The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. Hamilton (1994). articles etc that are cited in the text.initials in the in-text citation i. Title of journal volume number (issue number): Page numbers. to highlight the alphabetical order. The APA style requires the second and subsequent lines of the reference to be indented. 190-220. as it is useful to provide a page number for the reader. separated by a semicolone.e. For information on citing electronic journals. R. Charles Year of publication: 2005 Title: Looking at the Renaissance essays: toward a conceptual appreciation Publisher: Taylor & Francis Place of Publication: London Your citation would look like this: Mack. Year of publication: 2007 Tile of article: Globalisation and social determinants of health Title of Journal: Globalisation and Health Volume: 3 Issue: 7 Pages: 190-200 Your citation would look like this: Labonte. For a journal article. L. you need the following elements: Author(s) (year of publication): Title of article. T. London: Taylor & Francis. R.. C. (2007). Looking at the Renaissance: essays toward a conceptual appreciation. in this order: Author (year of publication): Book title. Globalisation and Health 3(7)..
Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Guerin. (2005). Williams. (2002).. p. and Willingham (2005. Morgan. L. F. Book No author (Employment the Professional Way. 4 or 5 authors Guerin. Robinson. Reesman. W. p. D. K. J. New York: Oxford University Press.Examples of Referencing: Books Single author The theory was first propounded in 1993 (Comfort. A.. T.. Guerin et al. Madden. R.. A handbook of critical approaches to literature. 58) OR Comfort (1997. 1996. A good age. L. C. Victoria: Australian Multicultural Foundation. (not italicized and with a fullstop after “al”) and the year. (2000). (1997). Book 3.. et al. R. London: Mitchell Beazley. (1997). (2005. P. The definition of disability in Australia: Moving towards national consistency.. p. Reesman. EndNote X1 (which reference type?) Book 2 authors Madden and Hogan (1997. 1997. L. p. Conway. & Hogan.. Morgan.. 2000) OR the book Employment the Professional Way (2000) Book 3 of 11 . Employment the professional way: A guide to understanding the Australian job search process for professionally qualified migrants.17)…. 45). & Willingham. Labor. p. Carlton. W. The way forward for Australian libraries. include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. 6) found … Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.. Franks.. 1997. 58) claimed that… In-Text Example Reference List Example Comfort. E. Smith.. J. OR “… to achieve consistency” (Madden & Hogan. 35) Rodgers. Perth: Wombat Press. p.. Book 6 or more authors (Rodgers et al. 6) found … In subsequent citations. p. Labor.
p. (1993).). 51) Book Encyclopedia or Dictionary Article or chapter in a book The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (1980. Order chronologically in the reference list. In C. Editor (Kastenbaum. Survival at sea. 51) Order alphabetically by title in the reference list. A. 1993.) [Brochure]. (1982). Encyclopedia of adult development. The effects of anchor on corals.85) defined it as… As discussed by Blaxter (1976)… Sadie. (Ed. Edited Book Book Section Article or chapter in a book – no author (“Solving the Y2K Problem. Brown. 1-20).. Rockhampton: Central Queensland University. 2) Research and Training Centre on Independent Living. S. 1982. Melbourne: Author. (1976). 120-135). Corals in the Capricorn group. The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (6th ed. (1997). Kastenbaum. 27). p. London: Macmillan. Book (put Author in Publisher) You will need to manually type [Brochure] after the title. (1980). Bowd (Ed. Rockhampton: Central Queensland University. A. Social class and health inequalities. Napier.). Vols. 1988) has indicated that… Brown.). (Ed. 1993. N. (1988). Milton: John Wiley & Sons. An edition number is placed after the title of the work this is not necessary for a first edition. Equalities and inequalities in health (pp. In D. Edited Book Different Editions (Renton.). Book Use a/b etc. Peel (Eds. Renton. (1993). Solving the Y2K problem. Technology today and tomorrow (p. P. M. (1993a).). London: Academic Press. Compendium of good writing (3rd ed. p. Blaxter. (1993b). P. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. to differentiate between works in same year. 2004. Phoenix: Oryx Press. Book Multiple works published in the same year by the same author In recent reports (Napier. Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed. R. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. (2004).” 1997) Book Section Brochure (Research and Training Centre. Fatal storm. 1993a.Multiple works by same author University research (Brown. Carter & J. p. The word ‘Author’ is used as the publisher when the author and publisher are the same. 1993b) … Napier. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. 4 of 11 .
89) Jones.) Thesis (Jones. British Medical Journal. 1997) OR As discussed by Cutler. 1997 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics in Conference Name. Frolich. from Curtin University of Technology Digital Theses. The great crash: The short life and sudden death of the Whitlam government. Retrieved December 21. Two-handed direct manipulation on the responsive workbench in Title. 2005. Journal Article 5 of 11 . ProQuest 5000 in Name of Database. 529-530. 1996. Frolich and Hanrahan (1997) Cutler. January 16 in Year of Conference. 2005. Melbourne: Scribe Publications. EndNote X1 (which reference type?) Journal Article Article – no author Anorexia nervosa. PhD Thesis. 8). Electronic Book (put September 28. p. (1996). Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership. 2000 in Access Date. Retrieved June 12. Health and safety in outdoor activity centres. January 16). from ProQuest 5000 database. p. p. Stanford. Curtin University of Technology. 2004 in the Date Accessed field. L. Stanford. 12(4). Book Print Journals Article In-Text Example As mentioned by Wharton (1996)… OR “… when abseiling” (Wharton. Global organizations. N. & Hanrahan.) Conference Proceeding (put 1997. Two-handed direct manipulation on the responsive workbench.. 2002. 2004. Paper presented at the 1997 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics.. (1969).) Thesis (put PhD Thesis in Thesis Type. Image in a book The poster “The 3 dark years” (Sexton. 45) Pettinger.E-book (Pettinger. Conference Proceeding (Cutler. (“Anorexia Nervosa. 8-9.” 1969)… Reference List Example Wharton. R. December 21. 1998. 1. CA in Conference Location. & Hanrahan. CA. (1998). (1997. 2005 in Access Date. P. NetLibrary in Name of Database. D. (2002). p.K. M. Curtin University of Technology Digital Theses in URL. F. It’s a growing problem in the U. June 12. Frolich. from NetLibrary database. The mechanism of Bayer residue flocculation. Oxford: Capstone Publishing. Retrieved September 28. B. (2005). 2000. 184) Sexton.
2002. 2004. March 1). 2002) OR As Madden (2002) states… Reference List Example Madden. 2002)… (“WA Packed.bizjournals. Retrieved October 16. Retrieved October 16. from ABI/INFORM Global database.com/austin/stories/2002/10/14/ smallb1. March 1 in the Year field. from ABI/INFORM Global database. Newspaper Article Newspaper article – no author Press release (“Rate Rise. 47.bizjournals. Retrieved October 16. Melbourne: BHP Limited. Press release in Report Number. 2004 in the Access Date field. Rate rise scares new home buyers away.html Electronic Article (put October 16. WA packed with overseas appeal. p. C. Internet economics and policy: an Australian perspective. EndNote X1 (which reference type?) Journal Article Full text from an electronic database – no author Full text newspaper. Internet economics and policy: an Australian perspective. G.) (Sopensky. 2000) Towers. Ice rink becomes hot business. (2000. (2002). Watersmith. Factiva in Name of Database. p. 3. BHP enters new era. (2002).) 6 of 11 . 2002. 78. E. 2002 in the Date Accessed field. http://www. p. The West Australian.” 2004) Journal Article Newspaper Article (put November 13. 35.html in Database.Newspaper article (Towers. Austin Business Journal. (2000. 343-58.” 2005) Newspaper Article (Watersmith. (2005. (2004.) Electronic Journals Full text from an electronic database In-Text Example (Madden. January 18). from http://www. 78. [Press release]. (2002). April 29). newswire or magazine from an electronic database – no author Full text from Internet The Internet has had a huge impact on the Australian economy (“Internet Economics”. 2002. 343-58. 2000) Report (put 2000. BHP Limited in Institution. Economic Record. 2002) Sopensky. K.com/austin/ stories/2002/10/14/smallb1. Economic Record. Doctor not at fault: Coroner. November 12). The Australian. Retrieved November 13. from Factiva database. Sydney Morning Herald.
2004) Bunn.Article from Curtin E-Reserve (Davidhizar & Dowd. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in Journal.d. July 19 in the Year field.) Article from a database in CDROM format (BPO) (La Rosa.au/ EndNote X1 (which reference type?) Web Page (use Access Date & URL fields for retrieved statement) Document on WWW – No author (Leafy Seadragons. 1992) La Rosa. use Access Date & URL fields for retrieved statement Web Page Type [Image] manually after the title. 1997) Davidhizar. Information Today.au/~jenny/seadragons/ Web Page (use Access Date & URL fields for retrieved statement) Web Page (put Royal Institute of British Architects in the Author field.curtin. World Wide Web Document on WWW In-Text Example “It’s essential you learn how to reference” (Dawson. Journal Article (put October 16. The art of giving an effective presentation.net/ Image on the web The image of the wasp (Wasps.edu.laters. inYear.) Cochrane Review (Bunn. M. Byrne. Document on WWW – No date (Royal Institute of British Architects. 2002 in the Access Date field. n. (2002).d. S.com/ insects/hornets. 2002. 2004(3). (1992).windspeed. (2004. Retrieved October 16. Smith.d. Health Care Supervisor. ‘S’ Trek 6: Referencing. Smith.lis. Telephone consultation and triage: Effects on health care use and patient satisfaction. (1997). Retrieved November 28. & Grey-Smith.. UMI Business Periodicals Ondisc in Name of Database. Journal Article (put October 16. 2005. S. 15(3). 2002 in the Access Date field.net. 2002.d.. from http://www. from http://www. (2001). 2001) Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons. Retrieved October 16. from UMI Business Periodicals Ondisc database. 9(3).careersinarchitecture. S.d. 25-31. R. Deubert & Grey-Smith. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Shaping the future: Careers in architecture. from http://studytrekk. 2005. Byrne & Kendall. Retrieved May 31. J. July 19). Retrieved November 13.) Wasps. from The Cochrane Library Database. n..htm 7 of 11 . S. Reference List Example Dawson. * This example was provided by APA Journals in September 2006.). not plagiarism.) Journal Article (put 2004.. Retrieved February 11. 2002). hornets and yellowjackets [Image] (n. hornets and yellowjackets.). Marketing slays the downsizing dragon. from http://www. Retrieved October 31. from Curtin University Library E-Reserve. F. 2005... G. & Kendall. 2002. K. B. Curtin University Library EReserve in Type of Article. n. Article CD004180. 58-59. L. Article CD004180 in Pages.) Royal Institute of British Architects (n. & Dowd. Deubert. 2002.
2002 in Access Date. Author in Institution. Census of population and housing: B01 selected characteristics (First release processing) postal area 6050. 1999) Australian Bureau of Statistics. 4430. ageing and carers: Summary of findings (No. Canberra.0).) If case is obtained from an electronic database. Set the list apart from the main body of the reference under the subheading 'Legislation'. October 14. add a retrieved statement as for electronic journal articles.0 in the Accession Number field. Essential elements: Short Title of Act Year (Jurisdiction) eg: Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth). from AusStats database. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 5. Retrieved November 20. 348 If legislation is obtained from an electronic database. 1999) Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2002. add a retrieved statement as for electronic journal articles. EndNote X1 (which reference type?) Enter in-text citation manually Case (The State of New South Wales v.. Canberra. If have used a section can do a pinpoint reference eg: Criminal Code (WA). 4430. Disability. (1999). Retrieved October 14.Government Publications Acts of Parliament (including bills) In-Text Example The Commonwealth’s Copyright Act 1974…. (2001). The word ‘Author’ is used as the publisher when the author and publisher are the same. AusStats in Name of Database) Census Information (Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Bureau of Statistics Bulletin (Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1915) Case (put 20 CLR 5 in the Abbreviated Case Name field) You will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear correctly Report (put No. s. The Commonwealth. ageing and carers: Summary of findings (No. 2002. 2001) Australian Bureau of Statistics. Report (use Access Date & Name of Database fields for retrieved statement) 8 of 11 . omit date) Reference List Example Legislation is included in a list of references only if it is important to an understanding of the work.4430.0 in the Accession Number field.0). Report (put No. Australian Bureau of Statistics from AusStats (Australian Bureau of Statistics. 4430. from AusStats database. Australian Capital Territory: Author. (1999). (In future references. Australian Capital Territory: Author. The State of New South Wales v. Disability.
S. (2002). 2002) OR “… origins of neuralgia” (Carini and Hogan. U. as cited in Thibodeau & Patton. Secondary Sources Book In Text Examples … including neuralgia (Carini and Hogan. 400. Patent No. p. (2002). Neuralgia and headaches. Retrieved January 10. EndNote X1 (which reference type?) Enter in-text citation manually. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. T. EndNote X1 (which reference type?) Book Carini and Hogan will need to be added manually in the in-text citation. Standard (Standards Australia. as cited in Patton. A. (Eds. 1991) Resource Assessment Commission. G. 2154) In-Text Example It was confirmed that an outbreak occurred in London (S. p. Standards Australia Online in Name of Database. Forest and timber enquiry: Draft report (No. H. 2006 in Access Date. A. 2002. January 10. (1991). & Patton. 2002.The human body in health and disease. Science. 1 in the Accession Number field. 4554399 (1985) Cookson. from Standards Australia Online database. St. Savieri. 2153-55. Report (put No. 45) OR Carini and Hogan’s study (as cited in Thibodeau & Patton.S. (1997). Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission system. Other Sources Personal communication. H. 1997) Standards Australia. (1985).S. Report (put AS 1182-1997 in the Accession Number field. p.).Underwear and outerwear (AS 1182-1997). April 24. Size coding scheme for infants' and children's clothing . 1). Record the book that you actually sourced. Journal article Carini and Hogan’s study (as cited in Patton. in Inventor.: Mosby. e-mail and discussion lists with no web archive Reference List Example Not included in reference list as they cannot be traced by the reader. Patton. K. Mo. 45) Reference List Examples Thibodeau. A. K. personal communication. 2006.Government Report (Resource Assessment Commission. 9 of 11 . 2002. Record the journal that you actually sourced Journal Article Carini and Hogan will need to be added manually in the in-text citation. U. Louis. 1999). T. Australian Government Publishing Service in Institution) Patent (put Cookson. Patent 4554399. Patent 4554399 in Patent Number) Patent U.
in the Director field. DC: Public Broadcasting Service. (1993. 2005. November 28). New York and Washington. Presenter in Alternative Title. & Lonergan. http://www. Writer/Director in Alternate Title. United States: Paramount Pictures. Sydney: ABC Radio National.30/helthrpt/ 10 of 11 . (Executive Producer). United States in Country.net. Motion picture in Medium. M. 2005 in Access Date. (Producer) & Swan. Film or Broadcast (put Scorsese. M and Lonergan. (Writer/Director).au/rn/talks/8. 2000) Scorsese. Television broadcast in Medium. Paramount Pictures in Distributor) You will need to edit the citation in your Word document to add (Producer) Film or Broadcast (put Crystal. Adult ADHD [Podcast radio programme]. B. Executive Producer in Alternate Title. November 28 in Year. You will need to edit the citation in your Word document to add (Producer) Television and radio programmes (Crystal. Sydney in Country.abc. You can count on me [Motion picture].abc.net. ABC Radio National in Distributor. October 11 in Date Released. N. Podcast radio programme in Medium. November 29. October 11).au/rn/talks/8. (2005. New York and Washington DC in Country. Podcast (Seega & Swan. The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour [Television broadcast]. 2005) Seega. L. from http://www. (Producer). Retrieved November 29. 2005.30/ helthrpt/ in URL. (2000). K in the Director field.Films and videorecordings (Scorsese & Lonergan. K. Public Broadcasting Service in Distributor) Film or Broadcast (put the producer and presenters’ names in Director. (Presenter). L. 1993) Crystal.
E. 1993) Miller. punctuation. CA: Psytek Services.) E-mail discussion list – web archive (Little. archived at http://www. Generic (put Rural goals 2000: Building programs that work in Secondary Title. (1993). In Rural goals 2000: Building programs that work [Microfiche]. T. Microfiche in the Type of Work field.. ED394765 in Publisher) Web Page (put 2002.html It is very important that you check the assignment guide for your Department or School as some details.Computer Software (Miller. M. E.askeric. R. P.org/VirtualListserv_Ar chives/ECPOLICY/2002/Apr_2002/Msg0 0003. (ERIC Document No. Computer software in Type) ERIC document (microfiche) Davis and Lombardi (1996) put forward the proposal that… Davis. Computer Program (put Miller.askeric. M. Message posted to ECPOLICY electronic mailing list. 4.html in Access Year.0) [Computer software]. archived at http://www. You may be penalised for not conforming to your school's requirements 11 of 11 . L. Message posted to ECPOLICY electronic mailing list. Two new policy briefs. April 16 in the Year field. ED394765). K. 2002) Little. e. Westminster. The interactive tester (Version 4.org/ Virtual Listserv_Archives/ECPOLICY/2002/Apr_2002/ Msg00003. in Programmer. ERIC Document No.g. may vary from the guidelines on this page.0 in Version. April 16). (2002. The quality of life of rural high school special education graduates. (1996). & Lombardi.
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