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Improving Sand Control Methods

Presentation Outlines:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Problem Statements Objective Scope of Study Methodology and Literature Review Resin Injection Resin Coated Gravel without Screens Gravel Packing Other Improved Sand Control Methods 6. Discussion Comparison 7. Conclusion 8. References
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[13] Introduction
One of the oldest problem in oil and gas industry When wellbore pressure becomes lower than reservoir pressure, drag forces are applied to the formation sands If formations restraining forces are exceeded sand will be drawn into the wellbore and plug the well Controlling formation sand is costly and usually involves either slowing the production rate or using gravel packing or sand consolidation techniques
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Why do sand problems occur?[13]


Fluid flow Geographic and geologic factors Production rate Natural consolidation (intergranular bonds) Multiphase flow

Problem

[13] Statement

Surface equipment sand carried at velocities sufficient to erode surface equipment, such as valves and chokes Tubular damage slumping of the overlying casing bearing formations can subject the entire casing string to abnormal loads Productivity loss sand bridge form in the production tubing. Happens when fluid velocity is insufficient to suspend the produced sand completely and flow it from the well. Sand can fill the production tubing and block the flow
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Objective
1. To discuss the main types of sand control methods commonly applied in the industry 2. To discuss improved sand control methods

Scope of Study
1. Resin Injection 2. Resin Coated Gravel Without Screen 3. Gravel Packing 4. Other Improved Sand Control Methods
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Resin Injection

Resin Injection

Resin Injection

Resin Injection

perforation

Injected resin

Figure 1: Resin application in perforation


(Source:www.petrolcarbon.com/en/images/stories/tecnologiagekengineering.com/Downloads/Free.../Sand_Control_Over view.pdfs/line3/.../fiber24.pdf 8

Resin Injection

Descriptions
Alternative procedure: artificial consolidation of sand [1] Sand grains cemented through perforations and then flushed through catalyst [1] Eliminate need for screens or liners [1]

Resin Injection

Descriptions
Consideration when used: Clay stabiliser used in preflush as high clay concentration can hinder consolidation process [1] High quantity of resin used in situations of high residual water [1] Chemical injection must be even and exposed sand properly coated. [1] Final polymer must be chemically inert [2].

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Resin Injection

Important Requirements
Viscosity of resin not excessive [2] Resin must wet the formation solids [2] Resin possess sufficient tensile and compressive strength [2] Polymerisation time must be controlled [2] Final polymer must be chemically inert [2]

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Resin Injection

Mechanism
1. Preflush Job (diesel oil) [2] Create desired wettability Remove compounds present in zone 2. Resin Placement [2] Interval to be treated must be isolated 3. Overflush Process [2] Overflush of high concentrated resin injected to control both permeability and compressive strength

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Resin Injection

Case Study
A new 3 step sand consolidation process[4] 1.Inject epoxy resin 2.Follow resin by diesel oil 3.Inject activator flush Applied in Gulf Coast with 80% success rate where 50% of permeability retained and compressive strength ranged from 3000 12000 psi [4]

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Resin Injection

Advantages & Disadvantages


Advantages [3]
Leaves wellbore open Relatively low cost Eliminates necessity for screens and liners

Disadvantages[3]
Limited zone height Longevity limited Temperature sensitivity < 250 F Very difficult to evenly apply Reduces permeability by 10%- 60%

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Resin Injection

Summary
This method represents only 10% of overall sand treatment methods used. [1] Main purpose is to increase formation strength and maintain permeability at the same time [1] Cheap but comes with many disadvantages compared to other methods [1]

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Resin Coated Gravel without Screens

Resin Coated Gravel without Screens

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Resin Coated Gravel without Screens

Resin Coated Gravel without Screens


General Idea :

Placement of a gravel medium between the sand face and the wellbore to restrict the invasion of formation material into the producing conduit. [5]

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Resin Coated Gravel without Screens

Descriptions
1) Resin coated gravel is high permeability gravel pack sand coated with a thin layer of resin. [1] 2) The use of resin coated gravel as a sand control technique involves pumping the gravel into the well to completely fill the perforations and casing. [1] 3) The bottom hole temperature of the well or injection of steam causes the resin to cure into a consolidated pack. [1]

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Resin Coated Gravel without Screens

Descriptions
4) The remaining consolidated gravel in the perforations acts as a permeable filter to prevent the production of formation sand.[1] 5) Resin, attached to the sand grain contacts, hardens to form a consolidated mass having a compressive strength on the order of 25003500 psi. [1] 6) Simple in concept but complex in operation.
[1]

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Resin Coated Gravel without Screens

Mechanism
Pre-Job 1) Well Preparation (Clean Perforation)  Perforation tunnel resulting from jet charge is filled charge debris, casing debris, the cement sheath and formation sand. [5]
 Necessary to remove these materials to allow the slurry to effectively enter all perforations . [5]

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Resin Coated Gravel without Screens

Mechanism
Treatment Procedure 1)Formation sand sieve analysis.
[7]

2)Sufficient gravel must be available to fill the casing above the perforations. [7] 3)Slurry pumping rate is kept low to avoid fracturing the formation. [7] 4)After curing, the consolidated slurry remaining below the casing are drill out. [7]

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Resin Coated Gravel without Screens

Mechanism
Type of resin commonly use [7]: i. Epoxy ii. Furan iii. Phenolic

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Resin Coated Gravel without Screens

Advantages & Disadvantages


Advantages
Do not need special hardware Screen [5] Mainly for low cost onshore markets [5] Leave wellbore obstruction free [5] Applicable to zone that are shaly [6]

Disadvantages
Applicable for intervals not longer than 20ft (6m) is difficult to be achieve [5] Gravel must be packed outside all perforations for a durable producing completion
[6]

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Resin Coated Gravel without Screens

Case Study
1) Gulf of Mexico Amoco Canada Petroleum Co. Ltd. - Potential savings of $10 million to $15 million annually [5]

2) California and Indonesia - Before (12 BOPD) to After (105 BOPD) [6]

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Resin Coated Gravel without Screens

Summary
Sand problem occur in almost all field that produce from unconsolidated sandstone reservoirs
[6]

Increase the strength of the formation uniformly through the completion zone without excessive reduction in permeability [6] This method represent about 5% of sand control treatment [1]

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Gravel Packing

Gravel Packing

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Gravel Packing

Descriptions
Figure 2: Typical well completion with gravel pack with screen in open and cased hole
(Source: ExproBase, gravel Pack. 26-06-2009 http://www.exprobas e.com/Default.aspx? page=476)

Figure 3: Gravel Pack (Source: Reference 1)


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Gravel Packing

Mechanism
Gravel to hold formation sand in place (with a screen to retain the gravel)

Design the gravel Pack 1.Gravel size 2.Completion type 3.Screen size 4.Transportation of the gravel
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Gravel Packing

Advantages & Disadvantages


Advantages [12]
 Gravel packing offers an economical method of controlling sand  Gravel packs covering long intervals up to 500 ft

Disadvantages[12]
 While initial installation is economical, a remedial treatment to replace a failed screen may involve an expensive fishing job  Cause pressure drop

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Gravel Packing

Case Study
Brunei Shell Petroleum has successfully installed twenty-one horizontal open-hole gravel packs with lengths ranging from 100 m to over 1000 m.
[14]

Current production from the wells completed with open-hole gravel packs accounts for some 18% of Brunei Shell s total oil production[14]

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Gravel Packing

Summary
Gravel pack has been used in industry since 1930s, Today it s the most widely used on sand control treatment. Gravel packing account for three quarters of the sand control treatments

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Other Improved Sand Control Methods

Other Improved Sand Control Methods

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Other Improved Sand Control Methods

Other Improved Sand Control Methods


Shape memory polymers (SMP)[9]
SMP is manufactured to a desired shape and size, placed on the outside of base pipe[9] When exposed to bottomhole temperatures and a catalyst, it expands to its original shape to fully contact the borehole wall[9] It provides a positive stress on the formation to stabilize the near wellbore region and control sand migration[9]

Figure 4: Baker Hughes GeoFORM conformable sand management system using Morphic shape-memory polymer (SMP) technology
(Source:Reference 9)

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Other Improved Sand Control Methods

Other Improved Sand Control Methods


Expandable sand-screen systems (ESS) [10]
ESS is contacting the formation directly, preventing sand movement and reducing skin development

Figure 5: Weatherfords expandable sand screens (Source:Reference 10)

Nanoparticle technology

[11]

Baker Hughes nanoparticle fines migration control additive. The inogranic nanocrystals are capable of fixating formation fines, such as colloidal silica, charged and non-charged particles and expandable and non-expandable clays onto proppant particles. [11]

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Comparison
Criteria Gravel Pack Resin Coated Gravel without Screens 2500-3500 psi < 250 F 5% Resin Injection Up to 3300psi < 250 F 10%

Pressure Temperature Overall percentage sand control treatments

>1000 psi > 150 F 75%

Conclusion
Conventional sand control methods consist of installation of screen, gravel packing and resin injection More improved sand control techniques are being researched and developed for new and more challenging environments

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References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Jon Carlson, Derrel Gurley, George King. et al, Sand Control: Why and How? , Oilfield Review, 1992, Completion/Stimulation Robert S.Schechter 1992, Oil Well Stimulation, Prentice Hall, New Jersey gekengineering.com/Downloads/Free.../Sand_Control_Overview .pdf P.Harold Parker Studies of a New Process to Consolidate Oil Sands with Plastics University of California V.G Constien, M.H Mayer, What! No screen? Gravel Packing with water-carried resin coated gravel , 3rd Symposium on Formation Damage of the SPE of AIME in Louisiana, 1978. J.L Durrett, W.T Golbin, J.W.Murray et al, Seeking a Solution to Sand Control , Journal of Petroleum Technology, SPE 6210, 1976. W.L. Penberthy Jr, C.M Shaughnessy, Sand Control, Chapter 14 Resin-Coated Gravel Packs , SPE Series on Special Topic Volume 1, Henry L. Doherty Series, 1992. Schlumberger, http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/Display.cfm? Term=sandout, 22nd June 2011.
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6. 7.

8.

References
9. 10. Baker Hughes, http://www.bakerhughes.com/products-andservices/completions/well-completions/sand-control-pumpingtools-and-services/geoform-conformable-sand-managementsystem# , 28th June 2011. Drilling Contractor, http://www.drillingcontractor.org/openhole-applications-testing-multi-zone-completions-expandabletools-to-new-limits-6413 , 28th June 2011. Drilling Contractor, http://www.drillingcontractor.org/sandcontrol-case-histories-shape-memory-polymers-resins-shunttubes-8793 , 28th June 2011. Well Production Practical Handbook (New Edition Expanded) Edited by: Cholet, Henri 2008 Editions Technip W.L. Penberthy and C.M. Shaughnessy. 2002, Sand Control, Texas, Society Of Petroleum Engineers. Horizontal Openhole Gravel Packs Boost Oil Production in Brunei J.P.M. van Vliet, SPE,2001.
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Q&A