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# SAFE

™

DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0

December 2008

Copyright

Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

**Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
**

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.3 4.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.5.4 4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.1 4.6.6 5 Design for CSA A23.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.6.5.6.3-04 5.1 Design for Flexure 4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.2 3.1 Notations 5-1 ii .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.2 4.6.5.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.1 Design for Flexure 3.1 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.6.4 3.3 3.

Contents 5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.4 6.6.1 Design for Flexure 5.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.5.5.2 7.1 7.28 6.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.3 5.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.5.1 6.1 Design for Flexure 6.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.6.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.6.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.2 5.4 5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.2 6.5.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.5.3 6.

4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.3 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.3 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.5.1 Design for Flexure 8.5.1 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.4 7.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.1 Design for Flexure 7.6.1 8.5.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.5.2 8.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.2 9.5.4 9.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.1 Effects of Torsion 8.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.5.4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .6.6.4.5.

1 Notations 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.5.6.6.6.6 Slab Design 9.5.6.5.5 Beam Design 10.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.1 Design for Flexure 10.Contents 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .4 Partial Safety Factors 10.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.2 Design Load Combinations 10.1 Design for Flexure 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.5.6 Slab Design 10.

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This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. and it designs beam flexural. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. 1-1 . it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. Specifically. shear. and torsion reinforcement. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE.

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English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter. sq-in Notations 2-1 . For simplicity. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. sq-in Gross area of concrete. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. The code is based on inch-pound-second units. 2.

psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. in Width of web (flanged section). in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. in Width of section. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). psi 2-2 Notations . in Depth to neutral axis. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending.

lb Factored shear force at a section. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section. in Factored moment at a section. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 .Chapter 2 . lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. lb Factored axial load at a section. in Critical torsion capacity. (0. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. psi Overall depth of a section. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. in Height of the flange.

2D + 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9.2.2D + 1.6L + 0.2D + 1.2D + 1.4D 1.5S ± 1.1): 1.0L + 1. live load (L).3) (ACI 9.2.6L 1.1) (ACI 9.6 (0.1) (ACI 9.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0. and earthquake (E) loads.2. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations . if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).1) are the same. pattern live load (PL). and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2.6S 1.6W 0.2S ± 1.2D + 1.0E 1.2D + 1. For ACI 318-08.75 PL) 0.1) (ACI 9.0L ± 1.8W 1.0L ± 1.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.2. wind (W).2D + 1.9D ± 1.6W 1.0E (ACI 9.6.2D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.9D ± 1.5S 1. snow (S).0L + 0.2D + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs. degrees 2.1) (ACI 13.2.6W 1.7.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.6S ± 0.2.0E 1.0L + 0.

Chapter 2 . f' c . or if other types of loads are present.1. and other criteria described in this section. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength. The φ factors for flexure.3.2). are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. (ACI 9.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. torsion.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength. and torsion based on the beam moments. load combination factors. φ.3. caution is advised. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. fyt. shear forces. and torsion are as follows: φ = 0.2.5. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately. shear.1) (ACI 9. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 . shear.1). is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9.2. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. 2. however. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.3) 2. fy. 2. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.

Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design . the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.5. for a particular station. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.5. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. with the corresponding load factors.1. and torsion only.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. shear. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. 2.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.

1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10.3. which by default is 0.4).Chapter 2 .2) Beam Design 2-7 .3.2.3.90 (ACI 9.003. Furthermore.. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1). designing top or bottom reinforcement). or the strength of the concrete.2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.2. The maximum depth of the compression zone. 2. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. Mu (i. where. The design procedure used by SAFE. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.2.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10.85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.and T-beams). cmax. which is equal to 0.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.e. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0. is summarized in the text that follows. as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10.5). the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.1. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.5.3. fy .2). hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1) in the preceding and the following equations.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. the width. shear. and torsion only.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.

2. εcmax = 0. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.4).003 b A′ s Cs c 0.003 εsmin = 0.7.7.85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. amax.3.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.1) β1 = 0.005 (ACI 10.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10.2.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.3.3) (ACI 10.85 (ACI 10.85 − 0. is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.

Chapter 2 .85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10. or at the top if Mu is negative.3.2.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0. 10.3.2.2.7.85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.2. 10. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.2. If a > amax. where ( f 's − 0.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 .

as shown in Figure 2-2.10 Beam Design ..003 0. In that case. If the moment is negative. and vice versa if Mu is negative.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 . if the moment is positive. i.1. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.2.e. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam.5. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0.85 f ′ c 0. is assumed if the flange is under compression.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore. the flange comes under tension. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. and the flange is ignored. 2. a simplified stress block.

85 − 0.1. which by default is 0. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0. no flanged beam data is used.7. The maximum depth of the compression zone. i.7.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0.005 (ACI 10.2. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.e.3) Beam Design 2 .e.1) β1 = 0.3.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.2.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.85 (ACI 10.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.11 .Chapter 2 .2.2.3) (ACI 10..2.90 (ACI 9. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.1. Mu (i. amax.4): cmax = where..5. cmax.2. designing top reinforcement).2) where. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. which is equal to 0.Design for ACI 318-08 2.2.1) in the preceding and the following equations. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.2. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10.2) εcmax = 0.2.3.5. 2.3. ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10.003 εsmin = 0.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.

3. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. the balance of the moment.2. as shown in Figure 2-2.12 Beam Design .85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. 2 . Cf.90 by default. the value for φ is 0. Cf is given by: C f = 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . As1 = given by: (ACI 10. Mu .7. the calculation for As has two parts. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax.5).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f . However. Therefore. to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f . amax ) Therefore. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. If a > hf. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. Cw.

1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.2.2. 10.2.85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us . where ( f 's − 0.Chapter 2 .7.3. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 .13 .5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0.2.Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.3. 10.2.

and the total compression reinforcement is A's.2.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d . 2.3) An upper limit of 0. Determine the shear force. Vu. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5.5.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2. that can be resisted by the concrete. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. Vc. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10. bw d ⎟ As .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.5.4bw d ⎧0.1. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. for a particular load combination.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10. 2 .4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.14 Beam Design . In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.5. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

2.5.2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11.1.1. is 0.5.Chapter 2 .5.1. with the corresponding load combination factors. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.Design for ACI 318-08 2.6.3. φ. the strength reduction factor.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11.5.5φVc Av =0 s If 0. 2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11.7.3.1) For light-weight concrete.5.2.5. 11.1. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2.2.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition. fyt.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. Vc.9) Given Vu. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11. is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11.1. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value. 2.15 .3).1) Beam Design 2 .3. Vc. If Vu ≤ 0.75 (ACI 9. and Vmax.

Determine special section properties.7. 2.5.5. a failure condition is declared.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required. the equation given in ACI 11.5.7. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. 2.2) ⎛ 0.6.3 does not need to be satisfied independently.3 is not enforced (ACI 11.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw .9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.7.5. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in.16 Beam Design . and 0.5. 11.6. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.5. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. (ACI 11.5.5bw. (ACI 11. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.7. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.3) If Vu > φVmax. the concrete section should be increased in size. 2 .6.5.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11.6.1.1(c)). Tu.5hf.

Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity. However.75 inches. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu. 2. such as Aoh. and ph.3.Chapter 2 .5.6.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.17 .5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup.2. If redistribution is desired. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11.1). pcp. such as Acp. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.3. This is equivalent to 1.2). are calculated. special section properties. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Aoh. Ao. Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. 2.6. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.5. Ao. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. and ph. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 .2).

the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.1) where.1) (ACI 11.1) (ACI 11.1) (ACI 11.4).5.1. R11.6.1.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.3. With this assumption. h.3.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.3.1. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3.1.3. the section dimensions b. 2.1) (ACI11.3.6. 2.6.1(c)) 2 .6.1. 2. bw.3. hf. 2.6.6. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. Similarly.2. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0. 2.3. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.6. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13. Tcr.1.1.6. However.1) where the section dimensions bf.1.6.1. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.6.6.6(b)) (ACI 11.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11. 2. With this assumption.6(b)) (ACI 11.18 Beam Design .6.1) (ACI 11.1) (ACI 11. 2. 2. 2.3. h. R11.6.6.3. 2.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11. 2.6. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11.

fy.6.5.6. which is equal to 0.6) where.75 by default (ACI 9.3). Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength.3.6. Tcr. even if the material property is defined with a higher value. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11.3. In that case. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.3. 11.6.Chapter 2 .6).4) and the transverse reinforcement strength. fyt. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11.3.3. is limited to 60 ksi. longitudinal bars.7.6. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11. and compression diagonals (ACI R11.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.6).5.6.3.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit. 2. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11.3) In the preceding expressions. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. θ is taken as 45 degrees.1).2. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive). Beam Design 2 .3. At /s.19 . Tcr. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11.5.6. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion. However.6.

6. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.3. a failure message is declared. ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0.1) For rectangular sections.6.2) 2 . When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr). If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit. the concrete section should be increased in size.20 Beam Design . In that case.5.75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11.7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11. bw is replaced with b. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1.

2.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Slab Design 2 .21 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. In that case. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. To learn more about the design strips. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis.5. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.3 independently.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.6.Chapter 2 . The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. 2. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

This is the method used when drop panels are included.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As.1(c)) 0.1.12.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As. These two steps.6.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 . given the bending moment.1.22 Slab Design . In that case. described in the text that follows. 2. In some cases.min = (ACI 7. are repeated for every load combination.2. for each load combination.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1(b)) (ACI 7. 2.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.2.12. at a given design section in a design strip.6.1. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. Where openings occur. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.12.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7.12. is obtained and reported. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1(a)) (ACI 7. 2.2): As.min = 0. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.min = 0. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.2.

2. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 . The column location (i.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.6. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2).2. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. edge.3).e. interior.11. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.6.11.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.23 . Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.1.1.Chapter 2 . the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 2.

3. C-16) 2 .2 Eq.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates.2.2 Eq.2 Eq. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421.2 Eq.2 Eq. For interior columns. γvx = 0.6.4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421. C-13) (ACI 421.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu. C-15) (ACI 421. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421.24 Slab Design .2 For corner columns.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13.1) For flat plates. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13. C-12) For edge columns.2 Eq.3. C-11) (ACI 421. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0.5.5.

2.2.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2. (ACI 11. for edge columns. bo is the perimeter of the critical section. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes. respectively. x and y.1.25 .2. 2.Chapter 2 .Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11.6.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11.11.11.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. and for corner columns. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 .2.6. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section. ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns.1) where.

26 Slab Design .3.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow.11. 2 .1) (ACI 11. φ. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.6.11. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section. Vc.0. the strength reduction factor.5. where.11.2. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3). and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.6.1) 2.3.5.3). If this ratio exceeds 1. and Vmax.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.11.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.11. 2.3. is 0.75 (ACI 9.2) (ACI 11. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6. 2.

1. Slab Design 2 . 11. edge.11.Chapter 2 .11.3).7.e. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.4. Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax. 2.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. (ACI 11.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.3.4. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.3.. a failure condition is declared. the concrete section should be increased in size.27 . and corner column.7.3. i.6.

3. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. so.5. g.11. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. 2. The limits of so and the spacing.3) 2 .5. the distance.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11. for corner.11.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0. edge.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Height.2) ⎧0. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.11. 1/2-. and 3/4-inch diameters.5d (ACI 11.2) (ACI 11.5. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7.28 Slab Design . 6. and interior columns respectively. Therefore. When specifying shear studs. s.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. 5/8-.6. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. and 8.5d. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-.

The design is based on user-specified load combinations. mm Notations 3-1 .1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. 3. For simplicity. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.

mm Depth of compression block. mm Mean value of do. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Width of member. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Depth to neutral axis. MPa 2 3-2 Notations . MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Overall depth of a section. mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement.

Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. mm Factored shear force at a section.max Vu. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. N-mm Factored axial load at section. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face. N Shear force resisted by concrete. max εs Notations 3-3 . to the effective depth. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu. (0. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. MPa Torsional modulus.Chapter 3 .Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy.max Tus T* ut V* Vu. N-mm Factored moment at section. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section.

0-02.0E 1. other appropriate load combinations should be used.4L + 1.0S 0. 4. 4.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.0-02.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0-02.3. For AS 3600-01.2D + 0.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.0W 1.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. pattern live load (PL).0-02.2. wind (W). 4. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3.0W 1.2.4L ± 1. 4.2.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.5L 1. live load (L).4L ± 1. 4. and earthquake (E) loads.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.9D ± 1.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear.0D + 0. 4.1): 1.2D + 0.2(f)) Note that the 0. 3-4 Design Load Combinations . degrees 3. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0-02.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.75 PL) 1.0-02.0D ± 1. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used.35D 1.0-02. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.2D ± 1.2. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0W 1.2D + 1.2. snow (S).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion.5(0.0-02.2.2D + 1. 4.2.0E (AS/NZS 1170. 4.0-02.

5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. Table 6.3: φ = 0. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. for all framing type (AS 6.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. and other criteria described in the text that follows. respectively. 3.2.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6.Chapter 3 . The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.1. load combination factors. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6.1.1.1. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits. Limits on Material Strength 3-5 . shear forces.2.3(c)) (AS 2.3(c). shear. (AS 2.1) (AS 6.2.1). caution is advised. and torsion based on the beam moments.2.1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.1. Table 2. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1.1. 6. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6. 19.3(c)) 3. however. torsion.1.1.1.1).Design for AS 3600-01 3. is defined as given in AS 2. φ.1(b)).

In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5.1. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design . shear. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. and torsion only.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. for a particular station. 3. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3.1.

The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. (AS 8. is limited to 500MPa (AS 6. is given by amax = γk u d where.1).1. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned. shear.1. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.3) γ = [0.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.1a).003. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.2.1. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections.2). amax. as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.2).007( f 'c −28)] 0.Chapter 3 .2. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. the width.2. fy .2) Beam Design 3-7 .and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections. (AS 8. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0.1.7. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber. or the strength of the concrete.85 ku = 0. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. and torsion only.15N ) (AS 10.85 − 0. A uniform compressive stress of 0.2.

80 (AS 2. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.5.4). the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).. where.1. designing top or bottom reinforcement).1.2.003 b Cs c 0. ε = 0. M (i. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design .e.3) in the preceding and following equations.85 f 'c φb (AS 8.85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.2) where. which by default is 0.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.

1.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8.e. where ( f 's − 0. If a > amax. 6.1.1.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 .3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0.1.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.Chapter 3 .2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore.2. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus ..2.2. or at the top * if M is negative. ku > 0.85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8.4. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8. i.

and vice versa if M is negative. i.2.e. ε = 0. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above. designing top reinforcement). M (i.85 f ′ c 0. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8.10 Beam Design . If the moment is negative. a simplified stress block... is assumed if the flange is under compression.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.e.003 bf Ds * 0.3). 3. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam.5.1. as shown in Figure 3-2.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 .2. no flanged beam data is used.1.. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive. In that case.1.e. if the moment is positive.5.2. and the flange is ignored. the flange comes under tension. i. 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore.

1.Chapter 3 .1. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds .3) If a ≤ Ds.4. the balance of the moment. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 .2. the calculation for Ast has two parts. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.80 by default (AS 2.4 (AS 8. as shown in Figure 3-2.3) in the preceding and the following equations. which is 0.2. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. the width of the beam is taken as bf. ku = 0. Cw.Design for AS 3600-01 3. amax. As1 = given by: (AS 8. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2.11 .2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds .1. is given by: a max = γk u d where. in that case.5.85 f 'c φb f where. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. Cf is given by: C f = 0. However.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. If a > Ds. the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0. amax ) Therefore. Cf.

2.003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 .85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. where ′ − 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax. the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus .85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.1.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore.1. If a1 > amax.12 Beam Design . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.2. 6.2.

min = 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast . and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.04bw d ⎧0. 3.5.Chapter 3 .1) f 'cf = 0.1.1.04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 . Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.2) An upper limit of 0.04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.4. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.1.6 f 'c (AS 6.13 .1.

2. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where.7.6 − β2 = 1.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2. Vuc.7.1) β1 = 1. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. that can be resisted by the concrete. 13 (AS 8.1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8. * 3.5. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. Vuc. 3.1⎜1. with the corresponding load combination factors. for a particular load combination. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.7.5. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 .14 Beam Design .5. V .2.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension. Determine the shear force.1) (AS 8. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.2.2.

min < V * ≤ φVu.2.min . min = Vuc + 0.6bv d o Vu .3). f do cot θ v and greater than Asv.9) (AS 8.min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu. φ. and Vu.35 w ⎜ s f sy.min shall be provided.10) Asv. defined as: ( ) (AS 8. whichever is greater (AS 8. ⎟ ⎠ 3. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv. s otherwise Asv.max .6 by default (AS 2.15 . is 0.5).Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression. (AS 8. = s fsy.5(c)(i)). the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2.2. the strength reduction factor.2.Chapter 3 . If φVu. max = 0. V * − φVuc Asv . Vuc.min.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8. min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0.max.2. Asv = 0 .2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu . where.6) Given V .5. f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8. if D < bw /2 or 250 mm.2.2. Asv = 0.8) Beam Design 3 .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.

If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.

*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.

*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

**3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

**3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At

ut

=

=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,

0.4Σx y

2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c

b

c bw − 2c bw bw

Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

**3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

**T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
**

* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:

*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At

where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

**⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
**

The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

**⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
**

* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

**T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
**

where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))

* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.

*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

Slab Design 3 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.21 . Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 3. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete. as described in the following sections. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. 3. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. To learn more about the design strips. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.Chapter 3 .

1.1. are repeated for every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. 3 .3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9. This is the method used when drop panels are included. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. given the bending moment.6. In some cases. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. 3.22 Slab Design . The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. Where openings occur.1(b)) In addition. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9. which are described in the following subsections. at a given design section in a design strip. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. for each load combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9. 3.6.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers.1(a)) As ≥ 0.1. In that case.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).04 times the gross cross-sectional area. is obtained and reported. 3.1.1): As ≥ 0.6.

6. edge.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.2. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.23 .1.1). d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 .. interior. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. The column location (i.e.2.2.3). 3.Design for AS 3600-01 3.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Chapter 3 .

3σ cp ≤ 0.2. when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.2.2.4(a)) 3.3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.2. is given as (AS 9. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. Vu .2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9.2.3(a)): a.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided.2.0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.3(b)) (AS 9.3σ cp ) b. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE. 3 .2.6.4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9.6.24 Slab Design . is given as (AS 9.2.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section. Vuo .3(a)) where.5 f c' + 0.

1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. and Vu. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.2. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.4(a).7. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm. is the strength reduction factor. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8.25 .2. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links.2.6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu.Design for AS 3600-01 3.4. 3.max.2. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9.3. Vu. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. where.6.Chapter 3 .Given V*.6.3 or 9. 3.4. φ.min = 3*Vu (AS 92.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001.3.1). V * − φVu Asv = .10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 .

4.4).4) If V > φVmax.. the concrete section should be increased in size. edge. 3. a failure condition is declared.7.3) (NZS 12. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.26 Slab Design . the minimum number of 3 . Therefore. and corner column. * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.3. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.4. i.3.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.e.7.7. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.

and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The limits of so and the spacing. for corner. 3. and 8.4) (NZS 12.6. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. the distance. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.7.4. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. and interior columns respectively.5d.7.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.27 .Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.4.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.4) (NZS 12.4) Slab Design 3 .Chapter 3 . g. 6. Height.5d s ≤ 0. edge. s. so. When specifying shear studs. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.7.4.3.

.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. mm 2 Notations 4-1 . all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For light-weight concrete and torsion. For simplicity. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985].Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. 4.

mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. assumed as 200. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm 4-2 Notations . mm Torsional constant.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. mm /mm Depth of compression block.

mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. taken bd 2 f cu as 0.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . MPa Neutral axis depth. [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section.Chapter 4 . MPa Torsional shear stress. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. mm Normalized design moment. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load.

6S 1.4W 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section.4.3).2L + 1.4.2D + 1.4.2S ± 1.4D ± 1.1. snow (S).4D + 1.4W 1. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain. and considering that wind forces are reversible.2W 1.4D + 1.4.4.6L + 1.6L 1. mm Lever arm.2L ± 1.3) (BS 2.0D ± 1.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2. For BS 8110-1997. live load (L).4D 1. 1.4D + 1.3).2S ± 1. pattern live load (PL). 0.2W (BS 2.4.6(0. and wind (W) loads. γf (BS 2.3) (BS 2.2W 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2D + 1.0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.2D + 1.3) (BS 2.75PL) 1.

The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. 4. this value should be overwritten as necessary.4.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. Note that the automatic combination. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.2 (BS 2. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.2).Chapter 4 .1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. Note that for reinforcement. the default factor of 1. other appropriate load combinations should be used.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 .3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used. If other grades are used. 4.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.1. should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations.15 1.50 1. fcu. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.4. γm.7. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary. as taken from BS Table 2. including pattern live load.

1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. shear.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.1. and torsion only. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. and other criteria described below. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. load combination factors. for a particular station. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. shear forces. torsion. the 4-6 Beam Design .5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and torsion based on the beam moments.5. shear. with the corresponding load factors. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. In such cases.

. x/d ≤ 0.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.4.4. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. is first calculated for a section. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3.1. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than.4.1fcu Ag) (BS 3. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. less than.4.4. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. Msingle.4) Beam Design 4-7 .5.156 2 (BS 3. See Figure 4-1.4). βb ≥ 0.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. In addition.5.4. In such cases. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. shear. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. the width. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1. and torsion only. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.4.5.Chapter 4 . the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.4).4).9) (BS 3.4.e. 4. 4. or equal to Msingle.4. or the strength of the concrete. Furthermore. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.4. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. Msingle = K'fcu bd . The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. The design procedure used by SAFE. where K' = 0.1). it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.

25 − ⎜ 0.87 f y z (BS 3.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.95d z = d ⎜ 0. the area of tension reinforcement.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle. As.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4. is then given by: As = M .4.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design .4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3. where 0. or at the top if M is negative.5 + 0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.4.4.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0. If M > Msingle.4.

5.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.2. no flanged beam data is used..4.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.25 − ⎜ 0.5.5.Chapter 4 .87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3. Based on this assumption. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.. i.4.4.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. 2.87 f y d − d ' ( ) . Fig 2. Beam Design 4-9 .4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0.2.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3.e.5.3. designing top reinforcement).4.4. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.4.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.1.e. 4.5 + 0.2.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0.3. where (BS 3.777d z = d ⎜ 0.1.1.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3.4.5. M (i.1. 2.1. and ' f ' s = 0. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.4.4) In designing for a factored negative moment. Fig 2.4.2.

67 fcu/gm 0.4.45 (BS 3.4. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.10 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. See Figure 4-2.4.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.0035 0.4.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.9 ⎭ (BS 3. e = 0.5 + 0.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 .67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.95d 0.4.4.

4. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. where 0.Chapter 4 .9x (BS 3.4.4) If a ≤ hf. Cf.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.4. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.11 .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.4).5) β f = 0.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3.45d then.4.4.87 f y (d − 0.4. 2 As = M + 0.4.45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0.4) If Kw ≤ 0.4. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0. However. In that case.87 f y z Beam Design 4 . as shown in Figure 4-2.4. As = 0.1 f cu bd (0. the width of the beam is taken as bf. in that case. If a > hf. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. where (BS 3.156 (BS 3.4.45d − h f ) 0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. Cw.87 f y (d − 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.4.5h f ) .Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.

5.4.87 f f (0. 4 .3.4. 2.4.5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.4) where.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.87 f y (d − 0.12.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.1.4.1.25 (BS 3.5. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.4.4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0. 2.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.5 + 0.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.5.4.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.12 Beam Design .5.95d ⎜ 0. and ' f ' s = 0. Fig 2.777d ) 0.1.3.4.4).4. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.2. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0. Fig 2.

or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0. which is taken from BS Table 3.20 As' bh Web in tension T.40 100 0.36 0.20 An upper limit of 0.32 0.18 100 0.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.3).24 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.1): Beam Design 4 .13 .4 bf ⎯ 100 0.5.12.48 0.6. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.24 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement. if it is required.25 (BS 3.Chapter 4 .12.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.

63 fcu . 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5. 4. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.04bw d ⎧0.2. that can be resisted by the concrete.5.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3.4.8 fcu . The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.4. vc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0. 5 MPa) (BS 3. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. v.5. Determine the shear stress. with the corresponding load combination factors.2) For light-weight concrete.5. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress. for a particular load combination.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4.14 Beam Design .4) 4 .

4. vc.5.3): Beam Design 4 .1) However.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. 4. Table 3.5.4.4.4.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3. the following limitations also apply: 0. vc.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.4. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3.4. Table 3.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.4.5.5.2.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.8) (BS 2.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .4.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement. and vmax. is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0.5.5. BS 3.Chapter 4 .25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.Design for BS 8110-97 4. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.5. Table 3.5.12) 0.4.4.4) (BS 3.5.4.15 .4. Table 3.4.2.5.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.4.5. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.8) (BS 3.8.4.

4.87 f yv If (v’c + 0.3.5.7) (BS 3.5.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3. obtained from each load combination.4bw = sv 0. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985. (BS 3.2) (BS 3. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. a failure condition is declared.4) Asv 0.5.3. In the preceding expressions.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Determine special section properties.4.5.4. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Determine critical torsion stress.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.87 f yv If v > vmax. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. Table 3. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4. vt. 4.5. 4 . Table 3.16 Beam Design .

13). If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. The torsional shear stress. vt. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.Design for BS 8110-97 4. In typical framed construction.4. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.4. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.1) For flanged sections.4. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.8 f cu .5. vt. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.5. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2.3. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.4.17 .Chapter 4 .4. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.5) Beam Design 4 .4. with the corresponding load combination factors.

4. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.5.87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.3. vt.5) 4. vt.6).4N/mm 2 x 0.3. In that case. vt. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5.t /sv.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. If vt > vt.5. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .7) In the preceding expressions. Asv.min = min 0. vt is less than the threshold limit.min = min 0. if vt exceeds the threshold limit. For lightweight concrete.067 fcu .min.4.0. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.min is defined as: vt .3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.min.18 Beam Design .4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. vt.min. is calculated as: Asv .8 x1 y1 (0.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. 4 .6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.0. However.t sv = T 0.6).t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.4.4.067 fcu .

t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. a failure message is declared. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. In that case.4) If the combination of shear stress.63 fcu . v and torsional shear stress. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. the concrete section should be increased in size. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.Chapter 4 .19 .8 fcu . Beam Design 4 .5) For light-weight concrete. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5.4.Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. vt exceeds this limit. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.

1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. 4. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. To learn more about the design strips.6. 4. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. for each load combination. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.20 Slab Design . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. is obtained and reported. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. 4 . the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.

For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .6. BS Table 3.12.12. 4.5.21 .4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1.7. given the bending moment.6).6.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1).3.6. Where openings occur.6.12. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.Chapter 4 .6. In that case.5d from the face of the support (BS 3. In some cases. 4. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. 4. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).3) In addition.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3.5.0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0. at a given design section in a design strip.Design for BS 8110-97 4.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3. This is the method used when drop panels are included.7.6.1.2. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3.0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections.7.

1.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.4.5.4.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.7. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.e.4.5.2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.5d 1.. interior.7. The column location (i.4.1).7. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.8) 4 .5d Interior Column 1.7.7. Table 3.5d 1.7.5d 1. 3. edge.22 Slab Design .6.6): 1 1 0.2.

4.4.7.5.4.7.7. 5MPa) (BS 3.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3. Table 3.5.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.4) v ≤ min(0. 3.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.5.6. the nominal design shear stress.Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .8 f cu .6.7.4) For light-weight concrete.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.63 fcu .3) 1.8) (BS 3.2.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.4) (BS 3.4.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.Chapter 4 . 4.6. v. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .4. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.7.5.4.5.4. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.23 .3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 .25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3. Table 3. where (BS 3.2.5M ⎛ y 1.6.2) However. the following limitations also apply: 0.

00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. 4 .3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.7.24 Slab Design . 4.6.6.25 ⎪1.3. 3.6.7. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.2.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.7. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 4.5).7.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

**4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

**4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
**

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

gx x

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

Free edge

Iy

gx

gy

s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

**Critical section centroid
**

y Ix

Free edge

y

Ix

x

Critical section centroid

Free edge

Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

**4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
**

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

9D + 1.3-04.4W 0.5S 0.5S ± 0.9D + 1. Table C.75 PL) 1.25D + 1.5(0. pattern live load (PL).5S 0. live load (L).25D + 1. degrees Shear strength factor 5.9D + 1.5L + 0.25D + 1.25D + 1.2.5L 0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.3.9D + 1.5S ± 0.5L 1. Table C.25D + 1. wind (W).5L + 0.2.5L 0.8.1 Case 2) (CSA 13. snow (S).3) (CSA 8.5L ± 0. Table C.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.5S + 0.4D 1.5S 1.2.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.3.4W (CSA 8. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).9D + 1.1) 1.4W 1.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations .4W 0. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.5L 1.3.9D + 1. and earthquake (E) loads.5S 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.4.2. Table C.3.5S + 0. For CSA A23.25D + 1.5L ± 0.25D + 1.3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.

2.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.25D + 0.5L + 0.1).2) (CSA 8.3-04 1.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.0D ± 1.0E 1.5.Chapter 5 . (CSA 8. (CSA 8.1 Case 4) (CSA 8.4W 1.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .25S ± 1.5L ± 1.0E (CSA 8.1).9D ± 1.4W 1.0E 1.4.2.0D + 0. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. respectively.3.6.1.9D + 0. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. for all framing types (CSA 8. other appropriate load combinations should be used. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.5L ± 1.65 for concrete φs = 0.5S ± 1.4W 0.0E 1.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8.0D + 0.Design for CSA A23.5L ± 1.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.0D + 0.25S ± 1.4W 0.4.25D ± 1.5S ± 1. caution is advised.4W 0.3-04 code is used.1.25D + 0.4W 1. Table C.1) 5. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. however. φ. 5. Table C.6.3. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.9D + 0.

SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.5. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design . The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. with the corresponding load factors. load combination factors. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. shear forces. and torsion based on the beam moments. torsion. shear.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5.5.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. shear. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. for a particular station. and torsion only. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5.

4).. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10.1. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.1) Beam Design 5-7 . the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.Chapter 5 . the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.2. 5.1.Design for CSA A23. or the strength of the concrete. designing top or bottom reinforcement).1.3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement. 5. Mf (i. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1).2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.7). and torsion only. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. In such cases. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5. The design procedure used by SAFE. Furthermore.1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.5. where. shear.e. the width. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10.

65 (CSA 8. β1.0015f'c ≥ 0. The parameters α1.1. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design . β1 = 0.67 cb = (CSA 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.1.7) (CSA 10.0025f'c ≥ 0.4.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.2).5.85 – 0.7) (CSA 10.0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.1.97 – 0.67.2) in the preceding and the following equations.5.

3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive.1.3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 .0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10.2). or at the top if Mf is negative.Chapter 5 .2. where f ′ = 0.5. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10. If a > ab (CSA 10. 10.1.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .Design for CSA A23.1.

and the total compression reinforcement is A's. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.5. the total tension reinforcement. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.4.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore.1. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive. the value of φc is 0.5. 5.7) (CSA 10..1. no flanged beam data is used.0025 f' c ≥ 0.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment..5. β1.2.2 5.7) 5 . 5.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0.1.4.67 β1 = 0. As = As1 + As2.85 – 0. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10.7) (CSA 10.1.2.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.2. designing top reinforcement).10.e.1.97 – 0.e.1) where.5.2) in the preceding and the following equations. i.65 (CSA 8.67 cb = (CSA 10. and vice versa if Mf is negative.2.1. Mf (i. The parameters α1.2.0015 f' c ≥ 0.10 Beam Design .

7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 .11 . ab ) c ε = 0. If a > hs. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab.0035 bf hs (CSA 10. the balance of the moment. However. As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . Cw as shown in Figure 5-2.3-04 If a ≤ hs.1.Chapter 5 . Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . Cf. ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. calculation for As has two parts. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.Design for CSA A23.

the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10.1. and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.2).1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.2).12 Beam Design . for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10.7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore. If a1 > ab (CSA 10.5. where 5 .5. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ .

3) In addition.5.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .1.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.Chapter 5 .2. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0.1. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. 10.1.5.5.1.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.1) An upper limit of 0.1.Design for CSA A23.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10. 5. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.5.3.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.13 .

By default it is taken as 0. with the corresponding load combination factors.5. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11. for a particular loading combination.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2. Determine the shear force. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.4. 5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete.3. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.04bw d ⎧0.2).5. Vc.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. 5.65 (CSA 8.2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. Vc. that can be resisted by the concrete. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5.14 Beam Design .5. 5 . The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. Vf. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.

3. The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.3).3.6. It is taken as the greater of 0. if applicable. as follows (CSA 11.75. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete. For flanged beams. The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method. It is determined according to CSA 11.4). For rectangular beams. (CSA 8. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply.5): ⎧1. ⎪0. it is the width of the beam.4.2).3. it is the width of the web of the beam.6. If the overall beam depth. the general method is used (CSA 11.1 and 0.6. d v is the effective shear depth. h.21 (CSA 11.Design for CSA A23.85.6. and the tensile force is negligible. Its value is normally between 0.3.6.00. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand.15 . and described further in the following sections. β is taken as 0. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement. When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. For concrete using lower density aggregate.6.6.5).3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2.6.3): Beam Design 5 .2).9d or 0. the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa.Chapter 5 . For normal density concrete.2). for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand. bw is the effective web width. ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0.3.3.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. which is taken by the program as the default value. its value is 1 (CSA 8.72h. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force.6.

3.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement. the crack spacing parameter. ag.18 (CSA 11. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate.18 (CSA 11. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11.3.18.3.3. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm. and ag < 20mm.3.3 c) where. β = 0. β is taken as 0. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters.3.6. or 5 . β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. and ag ≥ 20mm. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 . sze. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ . sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv. However. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.6. In summary. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11.6. s ze = 35s z ≥ 0.6. ⎪ 0.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11.16 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement.6.3a). shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement.c) In the preceding expression. for simplified cases.

11.6.4(a)) (CSA 2. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.3. 11.6. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0.3.1. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11.4): β= 0.3.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. (CSA 11.Chapter 5 .4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa.6.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11.4).3.Design for CSA A23. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations.6.6. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa.85Sz otherwise.40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11.17 . The longitudinal strain.3.3. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.6. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv.6. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.3. and linearly interpolated between these values.4(a)) (CSA 11.3-04 tension is not negligible.3. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.6.3(b)). Nf is taken as positive for tension. Beam Design 5 .6.3. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method. if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.3.6. the equivalent crack spacing parameter.3.4) In the preceding expression.

3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr .4(d)). taken as half of the total area.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11.5. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf.max = 0.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0. To check this condition.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11.3.3.5.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods.6. and Vr.4(e)).3.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section. Vc. the shear strength of the section due to concrete. For sections closer than dv from the face of the support.6.003 (CSA 11. 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative.3.1) 5 .6.6.2. In the first pass.max.3. it is recalculated with the following equation. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. the program performs the design in two passes. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11. εx = M f d v + V f + 0.18 Beam Design .

6. (CSA 11. 11. Similar to the β factor.max . The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees.1.6.2.2).3.5. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2.2. Beam Design 5 . or by calculation.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11. It is determined according to CSA 11. a failure condition is declared. which was described previously.19 .3.3. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.3).Design for CSA A23.3.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr .4).3.3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.3).3. The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11.2) In the preceding equations. the term θ is used.6. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11. h. If the overall beam depth.6.8. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0.3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11. whenever applicable.25Tcr.8.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.3.3.3.2.Chapter 5 .1) (CSA 11.6.8.

f y > 400 MPa. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Determine critical torsion capacity. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11.3.3).3.3) If the axial force is tensile.3. f y ≤ 400 MPa. 5.6. θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 . θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 .6.4). The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 5 . the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa.3.4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa.6. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections.20 Beam Design . Determine special section properties.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.6. Tf. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.

With this assumption. and ph are calculated. such as Aoh. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11.5. Ao. Aoh.5. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2.Design for CSA A23. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. With this assumption.3. However. However. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. pc.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.3-04 5.2). the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf. with the corresponding load combination factors. Ao. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 . 5. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. special section properties.9. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. If redistribution is desired. such as Ac.2.3).21 .Chapter 5 . In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. and ph. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.

3) (CSA 11.1) (CSA 11. Similarly.4) where.3) (CSA 11.9.2.10.3) (CSA 11.10. and c are shown in Figure 5-3.3.4).3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.3.3) (CSA 11.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11.10.1) (CSA 11.4) where the section dimensions bf.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.1) (CSA 11.65.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0.1) (CSA 11. h.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11. Tcr. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.3. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.3. bw.3. 5. 5 .9.2. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete. h. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.9.3.10. the section dimensions b.3.3. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.2.9. hf. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.2.9.5. which is equal to 0.2.22 Beam Design .10.

1). At /s.45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 . the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.5 N f + (V f − 0.3).Design for CSA A23.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit.5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0.3. Tcr. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11. torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.2.3) Mf Al = dv + 0. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr.5. In that case. However.3-04 5.9. Tcr.10. is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit.3.23 .Chapter 5 .

A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit. 11. the concrete section should be increased in size. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.10. bw is replaced with b. 5 .3.4) For rectangular sections.24 Beam Design .3.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11.3.8. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.6. In that case.10.3.9) In the preceding expressions.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1. θ is computed as previously described for shear.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0. If the general method is being used.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr).2.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11.10. a failure message is declared. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition.

The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.3-04 5. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.Chapter 5 .304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. is obtained and reported. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Slab Design 5 . To learn more about the design strips.Design for CSA A23. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.6. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. 5.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.25 . along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.

6. 5 . is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.6. 5.8.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. at a given design section in a design strip.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13.1.1) In addition. In that case.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.6. given the bending moment. 5.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. for each load combination. 5.1. In some cases. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.10. Where openings occur.002 bh (CSA 7.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.1): As ≥ 0.26 Slab Design . The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.

6.3.3.Chapter 5 .3.e. interior.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13.. edge.2).3.3.6.Design for CSA A23.1 and CSA 13.2. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5. The column location (i.27 .3).2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.3.2. where Slab Design 5 .3-04 5. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.

19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13.2. and (CSA 13.4. 5. 5 .6.3. βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span.5. exceeds 300 mm.1) where.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .10.3).38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13.3. and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2) If the effective depth. and ⎪for corner columns.3. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.3. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums. d. ⎩ The value of (CSA 13.4. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section. (CSA 13.19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13.4.28 Slab Design .3.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.

Chapter 5 . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.29 . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13.3-04 5.3.2. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE..1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0.6.8. vc. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.6.3) 5.Design for CSA A23.6.2.6. and vf. where.1). Slab Design 5 .3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.3.3.3.75λφ c (CSA 13.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f .max.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.max = 0. 5. 5. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.8. is the strength reduction factor.28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13.2) Given vf. φs.

4d.8. Therefore. a failure condition is declared. edge.3.8.3. for corner. (CSA 13. 5.. i.3. and corner column.e.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0. 5 .max.30 Slab Design . the concrete section should be increased in size. and interior columns respectively. Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. 6.6. and 8.max. edge. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.5) If vf > vf. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.

Chapter 5 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. The limits of so and the spacing. so.31 . Height.56λφc f 'c v f > 0.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0. the distance.3. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4d. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.6) (CSA 13.6) Slab Design 5 .50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0.8.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.Design for CSA A23.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13.3.3-04 5. When specifying shear studs. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7.3. s.4 d ⎧ 0. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.8.6.

.

a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. However. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code. 6. mm 2 Notations 6-1 . For simplicity.

mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa 6-2 Notations . mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days.

mm Lever arm.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. N Shear force at ultimate design load. mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 . N-mm Normalized design moment.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis.Chapter 6 . N-mm Torsional cracking moment. mm Flange thickness. mm Design moment at a section. mm Torsion at ultimate design load. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. N Depth of neutral axis. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section.max u VRdc VRd.

1Qk .10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs.1 + ∑ γ Q .1 + ∑ γ Q .i Qk .iψ 0. wind (W).10a) ∑ξ γ j G. j + γ P P + γ Q .2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. and earthquake (E) loads. pattern live load (PL). 6. MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6. 6.iψ 0.12b. j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2. j Gk .1Qk . 6. and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations .1ψ 0.10b.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).1 + ∑ γ Q .12b) For this code. j Gk . j Gk .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete. j + γ P P + γ Q .10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. 6.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq.10a and 6.i Qk . ∑γ j ≥1 G. 6.i Qk . 6. j + γ P P + γ Q .iψ 0. ∑G j ≥1 k.i Qk . snow (S). live load (L).1Qk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq. 6.

12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs.i ψ0.i W + γQ.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0. 6.sup D γGj.sup D + γQ.0E D ± 1.0E + ψ2.1 W + γQ.75)γQ.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.sup D ξ γGj.1 L + γQ.supD + (0.i S (EC0 Eq. 6.1 ψ0. 6.1 PL ξ γGj.1 L γGj.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.1 W γGj.1 W (EC0 Eq.i S γGj.1 W γGj.1 W + γQ.i L γGj.75)γQ.1 S ± γQ. 6.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 L + γQ. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.supD + γQ. 6. 6.i W γGj.3): γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq.10a) (EC0 Eq.75)γQ.supD + (0.0E + ψ2.i L D ± 1. 6.i S γGj.sup D + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq.10b) (EC0 Eq.10b) (EC0 Eq. 6.supD + γQ.i L + γQ.i ψ0.inf D ± γQ.10a and 6. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .i ψ0.i ψ0. 6.1 ψ0.i L γGj.10b.i W γGj.i ψ0.sup D + γQ. 6.i L D ± 1.sup D γGj.sup D ± γQ.sup D ± γQ. 6. 6. 6.inf D ± γQ.i L + ψ2.i S ± γQ.1 ψ0.sup D + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq. γGj.i W γGj.i ψ0.4.1 S ± γQ. 6.1 PL γGj.1 L ± γQ.i ψ0.1 L γGj. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 PL γGj. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.supD + γQ.1 L ξ γGj.i S γGj.Chapter 6 .1 S + γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0.supD + (0.10) (EC0 Eq.1 W + γQ.

the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows.10b) (EC0 Eq.i L + ψ2.1 W + γQ.sup D ± γQ. 6.1 ψ0.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.i L γGj.i ψ0.inf = 1.sup D + γQ.i L γGj.i ψ0.i ψ0.5 = 1.sup D + γQ.1 W ξ γGj.i L D ± 1. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.1 ψ0.i L γGj.1 W + γQ.i S D ± 1.i L γGj.1 L ± γQ.i ψ0.35 γGj.00 γQ.sup = 1.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 S + γQ.1 W + γQ.1 ψ0.1 ψ0.sup D + γQ. 6.1 W γGj.sup D + γQ.inf D ± γQ.1 L ± γQ.85 (EC0 Table A1.i W ξ γGj. γGj.5 (snow load.1 L + γQ.sup D + γQ.i W ξ γGj.7 (live load.10b) (EC0 Eq.inf D ± γQ.1 S + γQ.1 ψ0.i ψ0.inf D ± γQ.sup D + γQ.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.sup D ± γQ.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 W γGj.1) (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ.1 ψ0.1 ψ0. 6.i ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 L + γQ.i ψ0.1) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.i S γGj.0E + ψ2.i ξ = 1.10b) (EC0 Eq.i S ξ γGj.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.i ψ0.1 γQ.0E D ± 1.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .i W γGj.i S γGj.1 S ± γQ.5 = 0.12b) For both sets of load combinations.0E + ψ2.i ψ0.1 W + γQ.i W ξ γGj.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.1 S ± γQ. assumed not to be storage) = 0.sup D + γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1.10a) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0. 6.i ψ0.i S (EC0 Eq. 6.6 (wind load) = 0.i ψ0.

should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3. αcc is taken as 1.1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. other appropriate load combinations should be used. γs and γc as shown here.7(2)) (EC2 3.6(1)). fyk.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength. f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3.1) (EC0 Table A1.3 (live.2.2(2)). The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength.2.6(1)) (EC2 3.Chapter 6 .2.1.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors.1.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3. 6. 6.i ψ2.i = 0. fck. respectively (EC2 3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow. should be 400 and 600 MPa. Limits on Material Strength 6-7 .1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied.2(3)).

4. shear.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design . shear forces. For accidental and earthquake situations. shear. The user should consider those separately. load combination factors. γc = 1.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. 6.5.4).2. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. γs = 1. caution is advised. and torsion only.4(1).1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement. for a particular station. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6. These values can be overwritten.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2. and torsion based on the beam moments.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2. torsion. however. Table 2. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.2.

In such cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis.7(3).2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1. or the strength of the concrete.1.7(3)). Fig 3. Fig 3.1. In such cases. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1.7(3).Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 . 6.5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5) (EC2 3. with the corresponding load factors. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3. the width.Chapter 6 .1.

for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.44 k2 = k4 = 1.7(3)) (EC2 3.6 + 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1.54 (EC 5.7(3)) λ = 0. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.5(4)). it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.10 Beam Design .5(4)) (EC 5. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5.1.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0. the following values are used: k1 = 0.1. 6 .5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa.25(0. δ.7(3)) (EC2 3. The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth.8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore. ( x d )lim .0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3.1.5(4)) (EC2 5.5(4)) (EC 5.8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0. is summarized in the subsections that follow.and T-beams).

Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6. mlim.Chapter 6 . m. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.2.5. m.1. the normalized moment. The normalized design moment. less than. is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 .1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam. mlim.11 . are obtained first. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than. or equal to mlim.

both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement.12 Beam Design . The area of compression and tension reinforcement. A's and As. f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement. ωlim. If m > mlim. a singly reinforced beam is designed. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. or at the top if MEd is negative. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. and is given by: 6 . As.

7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5..Chapter 6 .8) 6. additional calculation is required.1. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 .5. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. i. If the stress block extends beyond the flange. 3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.13 . is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6.1.1.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω. m. no flanged beam data is used. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.1. 3. Initially.2.5(4). designing top reinforcement). the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.5.2.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.2.2. 6.e. 3.1. MEd (i.1. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.2. See Figure 6-2.5. Fig 3.7(4). Based on this assumption.e.1.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.. The normalized design moment.

M1 = M − M2. is determined as follows: 6 . the calculation for As has two parts.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. in that case.14 Beam Design . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. the width of the beam is taken as bf. As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web. However. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression. as shown in Figure 6-2. If a > hf. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.

Beam Design 6 .8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim. Fig 3.2. f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.Chapter 6 .15 . 3. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.7(4). ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim.1. ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.

1) f ctm = 2. the following steps are involved (EC2 6.1.2.1(1)) As .12.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.1.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.min = 0. 6.c.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6. Table 3. for a particular load combination.2): Determine the factored shear force.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.min = 0. that can be resisted by the concrete. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.16 Beam Design .2.12.0013bd (EC2 9. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1) (EC2 3. Determine the shear reinforcement required.12. Table 3. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. VEd.1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.1. VRd.1(3)). 6 .26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9. Table 3.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5.5.2.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0. Determine the shear force.

17 . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6.15 Beam Design 6 .0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. 6. and k1 are taken as: C Rd .2.02 bw d (EC2 6. is calculated as: 13 VRd .2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.2. vmin.2(1)) (EC2 6.2. VRd.2.c = 0.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2(1)) (EC2 6. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .c.2.2.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.c.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. 6.5.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.18 γ c ν min = 0.5.c = ⎡C Rd .Chapter 6 .

min s = 0.6⎜1 − z = 0.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values.18 Beam Design .2.3(3)) (EC2 6. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0.2.3(3)) Asw.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9.2(6)) (EC2 6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw. VRd.2.max. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6.3(3)) (EC2 6. a failure condition is declared.3(1)) (EC2 6.3(3)) (EC2 6. Asw Asw.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd.2. VRdc.max.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd . The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6. 6 .2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.2.5.2.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd . obtained from each load combination.2.2.

3.19 . These properties are described in the following (EC2 6. 6. TEd. u. tef. special section properties. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6.1(2)). 6.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. If redistribution is desired.5.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.3.5.3.5. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. Beam Design 6 . 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Determine critical torsion capacity.3.Chapter 6 .2). uk. such as Ak. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. However. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. and zi are calculated. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd. Determine special section properties.

2(3)) where.3.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. such as Ak. With this assumption. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.3.3. However. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties. the section dimensions b.2(3)) 6 . and uk. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. and c are shown in Figure 2-3. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i.3. h. Similarly. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness.3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6.3.2(1)) (EC2 6. With this assumption.20 Beam Design .3. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.

3. bw.2.3.2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required.3.Chapter 6 . followed by the required stirrup area.05 / γ c (EC2 6.c is the torsional cracking moment.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf.c is as defined in the previous section and TRd. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6.21 . calculated as: TRd .c (EC2 6. 6.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0.5.c VRd .2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6.2(1)) 6. is first calculated. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3.1.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied. longitudinal bars. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.3.5. and compression diagonals.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 . h. hf.3. if the equation is not satisfied.0 TRd . Vt.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required. In that case.2(5)) where VRd.2. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.3. the shear due to this torsion. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. However.

8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6.max (EC2 6. as previously defined for beam shear.3(2)). while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees. The code allows any value between 21.2(4)) 6 . In the preceding expressions.3.3.max.22 Beam Design .2. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts.3.max + VEd ≤ 1.0 VRd . θ is taken as 45 degrees.max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.2(4)) where TRd.

6.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 6 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. a failure message is declared. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.6. 6. Slab Design 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. the concrete section should be increased in size. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.23 . Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. In that case. To learn more about the design strips. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.

0013bd (EC2 9. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.24 Slab Design . 6. In that case. are repeated for every load combination.min = 0.1. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. described in the subsections that follow.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.3. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1.1.1.6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1.6.2.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 . at a given design section in a design strip.1): As .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. In some cases.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1(1)) As . for each load combination. is obtained and reported. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.min = 0. Where openings occur. 6.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. given the bending moment. 6. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). These two steps.2.6.1.

30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2.4.1. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.2.1(3)). Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1) fctm = 2..25 .1) (EC2 Table 3. edge.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 6. interior.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized.12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.6.Chapter 6 .6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.1) (EC2 Table 3.4. The column location (i.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0. Slab Design 6 .e. 6.2(1)).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2.

26 Slab Design .4.4.2.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.c = ⎡C Rd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.4.4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .6.4(1)) 6 .2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.

4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.c = 0.4. and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.15 6.4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .4.27 .4(1)) (EC2 6.Chapter 6 .035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.4.02 (EC2 6. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.4(1)) ν min = 0.4.0 d (EC2 6.2. is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ . conservatively taken as zeros.4.4.6.4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively. conservatively taken as zeros.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0. vEd.18 γ c (EC2 6.4.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear. C Rd .4(1)) (EC2 6. the nominal design shear stress.

max. 6. (EC2 6.c.ef If vEd > vRd.4.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. and vRd. the concrete section should be increased in size.5 f ywd . 6. a failure condition is declared.c ) = u1 sr 1.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm. Given vEd.6. vRd. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.max. 6 .max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams.6.6.28 Slab Design .3. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.4.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.75v Rd . 6. Asw (v Ed − 0.5).

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d.3(1)). for corner.e. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. 6.3.4. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Height.3. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 .Chapter 6 . and 8. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.29 . 6.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9. and interior columns respectively.. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.6. i.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. edge. edge. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. Therefore. and corner column.6.

4.3(1)) (EC2 9.3(1)) 6 . at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. 14-.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9.4. s. When specifying shear studs. so. The limits of so and the spacing. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0. 12-.75d g ≤ 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4.30 Slab Design . The spacing between adjacent shear studs.4. and 20-millimeter diameter.3d.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0.3(1)) (EC2 9. g. 16-.4.3(1)) (EC2 9. the distance.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.4. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm

2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm

4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum

2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

**Design Load Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

**Limits on Material Strength
**

The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

**Partial Safety Factors
**

The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

**7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
**

The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4(b)). ⎧0.2. where εc. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.9) (CP 6. or the strength of the concrete. 7. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0. the width.5. βb ≥ 0. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0.5.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design . with the corresponding load factors.4(a)).4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6.2. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1.max is defined as: ε c .1.0035 − 0. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.2..1.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. In such cases. In such cases.e.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.

094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.4(c)) ⎧0.1. is obtained from: As = M .1. See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6. less than.156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.4(a).4(b)).1. 7.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.1. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. where 2 (CP 6. shear.4(a)).2.2. where 0.4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 .87 f y z (CP 6.2. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.2. As. Msingle = K'fcu bd . Msingle. hence.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0. In addition. or equal to Msingle. is obtained first for a section. and torsion only.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.1fcuAg) (CP 6. Fig 6.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.2.1. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.2.5.Chapter 7 . The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than.

25 − ⎜ 0.4(c)) (CP 6.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.5 + 0.2. If M > Msingle. or at the top if M is negative.1.1.95d z = d ⎜ 0.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.2.1. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.2.

2.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. Fig. i. Beam Design 7-9 .40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. 3.e.95d 0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.87 f y z + 0.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5.2.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.4(a). Fig 6.2. for ⎪ ⎪d − z . for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.2. Based on this assumption.36 ..5. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.1.1. no flanged beam data is used. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.1.1.2. M (i.1.2. 7. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.e..2.6.2.2. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.Chapter 7 .1.4(c).4(c)) 7.1. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. designing top reinforcement). 3.5.87 f y .45 .4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.5 + 0.

Fig 6. See Figure 7-2.36 . for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ .1.2.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.4(c)) (CP 6.1) If a ≤ hf. Fig 6. However.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.1.95d.4(c).1. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. the normalized moment is given by: K= M .25 − ⎬ ≤ 0. in that case. the width of the beam is taken as bf. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 . 0. for ⎪ 0.5 + 0. If a > hf .4(a).1.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.2.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.2.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.45 .2.10 Beam Design .

33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.Chapter 7 .67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.4. Cw.11 . the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.5h f ) .4d then.5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0. x ≤ 0.9 x − h f ) 0.87 f y (d − 0.4.4.67 fcu/gm 0.5h f ) bf hf ec 0.5) β f = 0. x ≤ 0. as shown in Figure 7-2.4.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 . x ≤ 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. In that case. ⎪0.1 f cu bd (0. Cf. where (BS 3.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 .45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 .225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.

1.2. where (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.045 for ⎩ ⎧0.87 f y ( d − 0.1.4(d)) ⎧0.32 ⎪ ⎪0.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.12 Beam Design .4(c)).24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.2. 7 .1.2.5h f ) ) .45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.

where 0.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.6.1. Fig 3. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.2.5 + 0.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.2.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.95d ⎜ 0.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where. 3. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.4(c).95d ⎜ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 . and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y (d − 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.5 + 0.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .13 .Chapter 7 .9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K.

32 0.20 0.2.13 100 0.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7. which is taken from CP Table 9.2.1).1(CP 9.26 ⎯ 100 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.3): 7 . Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.1.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.1.48 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0.14 Beam Design .1.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.36 0.2.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.5.24 0. if it is required.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.40 0.1 (CP 9.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.2.4 bf bw ≥ 0.2. which is taken from CP Table 9.

2. v. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2. vc.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9.2. that can be resisted by the concrete.2.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0.2. 7 MPa) (CP 6.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. the following steps are involved (CP 6.1. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.Chapter 7 .15 .04bw d ⎧0.1. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.1.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.1.5): Determine the shear stress.5.3) 7. for a particular load combination. vc.8 fcu .2. Determine the shear stress.5(a)) 7.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. with the corresponding load combination factors. 7. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.

5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. bd 1 4 (CP 6.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6.3) (CP 6.1.5(g)) (CP 6.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6. vc.67 1.2. Table 6.5(c).1. Table 6.2.1.2. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.5(c).2.5(k)) 0.1. vr.1.3) ≥ 0.2.5(k)) 7.5(c). Table 6.2.2.2.25 However. Table 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0.16 Beam Design . Table 6.5.5(c).1.00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.1.5(c). CP 6. as: 7 .15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.1.2. and vmax.2.1. the following limitations also apply: 0.

5(b). The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.1. 7.1.5. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.2.2.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.Chapter 7 . a failure condition is declared.87 f yv If v > vmax.5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values. sv 0.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = . Beam Design 7 .4 40 ⎩ (CP 6.2. vt. (CP 6. Table 6. (CP 6.1. obtained from each load combination.17 . Determine special section properties.1.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0.5(b)) (CP 6.2.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.

17 7 . further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6.3.3. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.3.1). calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6. 7.18 Beam Design . If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6. vt.4. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. Table 6. vt.3.5.8 f cu .3(a)) For flanged sections. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. with the corresponding load combination factors. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.3.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. The torsional shear stress. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. In typical framed construction.

19 .3. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt.min. vt.5).2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.t /sv. vt. vt is less than the threshold limit. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6.3. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. Asv. However.Chapter 7 . for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .3.min.6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.min = min 0.067 fcu .min.4.3.5). Table 6.5.3. In that case.0.5.min. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 . vt. 7.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.

In that case. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. a failure message is declared.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv .3. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 7.3. the concrete section should be increased in size.8 fcu .t sv = T 0. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis.6) In the preceding expressions. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link.20 Slab Design .8 x1 y1 (0.87 f yv ) (CP 6.3. To learn more about the design strips. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. 7 . the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.

The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. 7.6. for each load combination. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. In that case.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6. 7. given the bending moment.21 .1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. is obtained and reported. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 . at a given design section in a design strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1. In some cases.Chapter 7 . These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.6. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.

7.6.1.7).3.3).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. Where openings occur. edge. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. interior. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1.5d from the face of the support (CP 6. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.3.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.1.1(a)) In addition. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.6.e. The column location (i.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9.22 Slab Design .2.7(d)). For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.2. 7. 7 .1..1.6.5.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0. 7.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.

5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7.2.5(c).Chapter 7 .7(d)) (CP 6.5d 1.23 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.5. Table 6.2.3): 0.1.5. Table 6.5d 1.5.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 .79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6.1.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.7(d).5d Interior Column 1.5d 1. Table 6.1.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.2.1.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.5(g).6. 6.7(d).1.

3) ≥ 0. x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending. Table 6.24 Slab Design . Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection. the nominal design shear stress.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1.5 x ⎬ .3. Table 6. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2.5.2. Table 2.6(b).2) 0.1.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.6.5(c). v ≤ min(0.67 1.1. 7 .2. v. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.1. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .2.5. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.8 f cu . 7 MPa) (CP 6.5(c).4.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7.1.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.1.7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section.2. where (CP 6.7(b)) (CP Table 6.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.25 However.5. bd 1 4 (CP 6. 6.5 + 1.1.00 As = area of tension reinforcement.

and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.3.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6.6(b).6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.25 . If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.7(e)).5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force.1.5. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.5. 7.25 ⎪1.3. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6.7(e)) Slab Design 7 .1. 7. 7. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.1.6. 6.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.Chapter 7 .1.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.

7(f)).. and interior columns respectively.1.5.7(e)). ≥ s 0. and corner column. a failure condition is declared. i.5. and 8.6vc 0. 7. (CP 6. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. edge.4ud = ≥ .87 f yv s If v > vmax. 0. Therefore.7v − vc ) ud 0. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. 6.5.1.1.3.6.5.87 f yv If 1.e.1. and vmax. 7 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v.1. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the concrete section should be increased in size.5.7(e)) (CP 6.26 Slab Design .7(e)) Av 5 ( 0.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.87 f yv 0.0vc (CP 6.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. edge. for corner. vc.87 f yv 0. If v ≤ 1.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.6vc ≤ v < 2.

g.7(f)) (CP 6.5d (CP 6. Height.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. 16-.27 .5d. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. so. When specifying shear studs.5. 14-. 12-.1.1.5d.7(f)) Slab Design 7 .Chapter 7 . at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. and 20-millimeter diameter. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.3.2.75d g ≤ 1.5. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. s. The limits of so and the spacing.7(f)) (CP 6.6.1.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5.5d s ≤ 0. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. the distance.

.

For simplicity. a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. mm Notations 8-1 .Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance. 8.

assumed as 200. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab. N-mm 8-2 Notations . mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc.

and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. N Depth of neutral axis. mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N-mm Factored shear force at a section. N-mm Normalized design moment. N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load.max Notations 8.Chapter 8 .0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section. mm Lever arm.3 . N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects.

2W 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36. pattern live load (PL).3) (IS 36.9D ± 1. MPa 8.5D + 1.2L ± 1.5(0.4.1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .2D + 1.1) (IS 36.2E 1.5W 0. snow (S).5D + 1.5D + 1.2D + 1.4.5D + 1.5D 1.4.0E (IS 36. live load (L). if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc.5L ± 1.0W 1.5L 1.5L ± 1.5D + 1.5W 1.4.1) (IS 31.2. Table 18): 1.5E 1. For IS 456-2000.5.5D ± 1.9D ± 1.2L ± 1. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. wind (W).5E 0. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section.1) (IS 36.5S 1. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete.75 PL) 1.4. and earthquake (E) loads.5D ± 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.

8.5 .4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. however.2S ± 1.4.2D + 1. and torsion only. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. However.2L + 1.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2E (IS 36.4.2.2S ± 1. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.2S ± 1.2.2E 1.2L + 1.4. 14.4. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456. γc = 1. γm.2W 1. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. and torsion based on the beam moments.2S ± 1. γs = 1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.Design for IS 456-2000 1.5L + 1.Chapter 8 . The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8. 8. shear.5D + 1.2W 1.1) (IS 36.2D + 1. shear.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.5S 1. shear forces. These values can be overwritten.2D + 1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. load combination factors. beams must be designed for torsion.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. torsion.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. 8. caution is advised.5 (IS 36.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium.2D + 1.

4. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Rather. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. 8-6 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed.4. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. If redistribution is desired. In such cases. In such cases. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately. 8. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. However.1. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion.1. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

If Mt exceeds Mu. Effectively. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. respectively.1) 8. with the corresponding load factors. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam.2. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.4.7 .1.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2) (IS 41.4.Design for IS 456-2000 8. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign.4. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations. In such cases. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt.Chapter 8 . The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41. where (IS 41.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.4.4. Beam Design 8. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1) 8-8 Beam Design . The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber. c.2.1) 8. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station. 8. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. with the corresponding load combination factors. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.3.1) (IS 38. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. When a torsional moment is to be included.1).4.4. or the strength of the concrete. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. a. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web. The area of the stress block. the width.4. (IS 41.

1) (IS 38. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.0035 b f′ s 0. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.Chapter 8 .48 0. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table.36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.9 .Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0.46 Beam Design 8. The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values. Furthermore.1).1).53 0. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.42 (IS 38.67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0.max /d 0.1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.36 β = 0.

Msingle = α xu.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1. and torsion only.max = 0.53 ⎪ ⎪0.max d xu.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0. shear.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.max.2. is given by 8 . It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.max d ⎧0. m.48 − 0.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis. the limiting depth of the neutral axis. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. are obtained first. or equal to Msingle.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.0035 (IS 38. xu. xu .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam.4. 8. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than.10 Beam Design .53 − 0.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. Msingle. less than.

or at the top if Mu is negative.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ .Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c . the area of compression reinforcement. where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1. Beam Design 8.max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1. and vice versa if Mu is negative. is obtained from As = Mu .2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u. is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.Chapter 8 . A's. As.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1. where (IS G-1.1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') .11 .max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu .1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. − If Mu > Msingle.

8..SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. See Figure 8-2.3. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.4.2. no flanged beam data is used. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange..12 Beam Design .2. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange.4. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. Mu (i.2.4. designing top reinforcement)..1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.3. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. On the basis of this assumption. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.e. i. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 .e. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.

and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. However.15 xu + 0. Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle. m. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0. the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2.65D f if D f > 0.1). The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0.Chapter 8 . Cw.13 .2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0. Cf. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment.2 d ⎩ (IS G-2.2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf. as shown in Figure 8-2. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8. If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ .

53 − 0.single.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0.53 ⎪ ⎪0.48 − 0.46 (IS 38.single. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.single ⎛ 0. the area of compression reinforcement. As = (f y γ s )(d − 0.1) xu .1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw.max ⎡ x u.single = αfckbwd 2 x u. and 8 .max d ⎧0.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w.max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw.14 Beam Design . A's. where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z .

5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.1.85 bd fy (IS 26.5.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1. at a particular station.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1) An upper limit of 0.5. the following steps are involved (IS 40.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.1.5. for a particular load combination.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.4.1): As ≥ 0.Chapter 8 .3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.1.15 .5.1.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8.4.2.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c.2) 8.1) (IS 26.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.04bw d ⎧0.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.1.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0.5.

Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress.2.2) 8 . as: τcd = kδτc.0 τc. τc.3.4.max (IS 40.1 M30 3.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress.8 M25 3.1. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40. τc.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d .1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section.max (MPa) (IS 40. where bd (IS 40. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth.5 M20 2.7 M40 4. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases.3. d. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows.2. τc. τv ≤ τc.5 M35 3. (IS 40. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2.16 Beam Design .3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8.max.

1.2.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0. Table 19) (IS 40.2.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40.1. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.5.1) (IS 40.1. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0.4 Asv 0.1. The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table. 26. Under Tension (IS 40.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .max (IS 40. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36.1).4 < τv ≤ τc.87 f y If τcd + 0.Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.4. 0.2.Chapter 8 .87 f y (IS 40.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.2.3.2.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40.4 b ≥ sv 0. and if Pu > 0 . Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .4(a)) Beam Design 8. taken as 1.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1.2.17 .

is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3) τve ≤ τc.6) If τve ≥τcd. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. (IS 40.1.87 f y (IS 41.max.4 b ≥ sv 0. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40.87 f y ) 2.3) (IS 41.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0. 26.2. provide 2-legged closed stirrups.4. a failure condition is declared.max The maximum nominal shear stress.5.2.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0.4.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values. obtained from each load combination.1) (IS 40.4) 8.87 f y (IS 41.3.5d1 (0.max is determined as defined in the last section. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0. τc.3. 8 . a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40.18 Beam Design .4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc.

Slab Design 8.19 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.Chapter 8 . along with the corresponding controlling load combination. These two steps. for each load combination. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. 8. 8. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. is obtained and reported.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1. described in the subsections that follow.5. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. To learn more about the design strips. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.5. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.Design for IS 456-2000 8. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. are repeated for every load combination.

5.e. Where openings occur.5.5.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26. In some cases.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31.6. 8 . at a given design section in a design strip. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1).5. In that case.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. given the bending moment.1.20 Slab Design . 8. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. The column location (i.2): ⎧0.1).5.5..0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).2. edge. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1.1). 8. 8. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.5.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. interior.1) In addition.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.2.1.

5.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.Chapter 8 .2). 8.2.21 .3.2.2.6. where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.5.

5 + βc ≤ 1. 8.5 τ c bod (IS 31.3.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.1) τc = 0.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1.6. 8.6.2) 8 .0 (IS 31.3. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.1) (IS 31.3. but limited to: vc ≤ 1.6.3.1) (IS 31. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.5.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.5.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.2) 8.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0.6.2.5.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3.5τ c (IS 31.22 Slab Design . 8.3.6.

3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. edge.5Vc ) 0.6. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax.3.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu. Slab Design 8. and corner column. and Vmax. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face.2.87 f y (IS 31. 8. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31. a failure condition is declared.3) (IS 31. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.2) If Vu > Vmax. 41. the concrete section should be increased in size.5. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.6. Av = (Vu − 0.Chapter 8 . Vc..2).6.3.4.3. i.e.23 .3.

so.5d. g. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.24 Slab Design . When specifying shear studs.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. edge. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. the distance. Therefore.5. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. 6. The limits of so and the spacing. 8. and 8. and interior columns respectively.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. Height. 5d s ≤ 0. for corner. s.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For simplicity. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. 9. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein. sq-mm Notations 9-1 . Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress.

sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. mm Width of member. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis.000 MPa 9-2 Notations . assumed as 200. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm Width of web (flanged section). sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending.

mm Thickness of slab or flange. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 . mm Factored design torsion at a section. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length. N Average design shear stress at a section. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. MPa Overall depth of sections. MPa Shear stress due to torsion. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. N Factored shear force at a section. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. mm Perimeter of area Ao. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.Chapter 9 . MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. mm Shear force resisted by concrete.

2.0E 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170.2.0.5L 1.4L ± 1.0.0.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.9D ± 1.0. 4.2.2D + 1.0W 1.2D + 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0. pattern live load (PL).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc. 4.0D ± 1.2.4L ± 1. wind (W).0.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations .2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0D + 0.2D ± 1.0.0.0S 1. 4.2D + 0. For NZS 3101-06. 4.4L + 1. 4. (0.35D 1.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2): 1.5(0. 4.2.0E (AS/NZS 1170. live load (L).2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.0W 0. 4. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). 4.2D + 0. 4.0.2.75 PL) 1. 4. and earthquake (E) loads.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9.0.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.0W 1.2. snow (S).2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2.

fyt. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.2. shear. however. 9. (NZS 2.3. other appropriate load combinations should be used. fy. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present.2.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 . The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement.2) (NZS 2.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5. 9.2.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. The φ factors for flexure.1).Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits. φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.3.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement.3. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5.85 for flexure φs = 0.3).Chapter 9 . provided special study is conducted (NZS 5. caution is advised.3. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.2.3).

with the corresponding load factors.5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9.1.5. shear. In such cases. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the 9-6 Beam Design . load combination factors. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. and torsion only. torsion. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. and torsion based on the beam moments.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. for a particular station. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9. shear. shear forces. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.

4.7). The beams are designed for major direction flexure. M (i.85 (NZS 2.85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 . 9. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7.8.2. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. or the strength of the concrete.5. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1). for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The design procedure used by SAFE.4. where.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.2.2) where the default value of φb is 0.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7.Chapter 9 .2) in the preceding and following equations. shear. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. designing top or bottom reinforcement).1.5.e. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. 9.7): α1 = 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.1). Furthermore.2.4. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7..1.2. and torsion only. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the width.3.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive.3. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0.

1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9.008( f ′ − 30).8.4.85 − 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design .75β1cb (NZS 7. amax.8) β1 = 0.7) (NZS 7.7) (NZS 7.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0. 0.7.85 − 0.85 for f ′ ≤ 30.1). is given by: amax = 0.8.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0. c (NZS 7.85 β1 = 0.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.4.3.4.2.3.4.2.2.2.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa. 9.

1).8.9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 . compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7. or at the top * if M is negative.4.Chapter 9 .2.4.2.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7.2. If a > amax (NZS 9. where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.3. 7.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s .2.2.4.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4.

i. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.5. * 9.10 Beam Design . is given by: amax = 0.1. 9.75β1cb (NZS 7. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.2. the total tension reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. 9.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. and vice versa if M is negative.2. as shown in Figure 9-2.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.e. M (i.1) If a ≤ hf.5.3. If a > hf. Cw. calculation for As has two parts.e. designing top reinforcement). However.5.8.2. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. no flanged beam data is used. amax. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7.. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive. As = As1 + As2.2.4.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. 9 . Cf.1.4. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2.1..

for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7. the balance of the moment.4.2 ) Beam Design 9 . As1 = given by: (NZS 7.4.11 .2. M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.Chapter 9 .003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore.Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0.7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore.

4.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.4. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.3.1). the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw .4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.12 Beam Design .7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore.8.8.4. 7. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s .1).3.2.2.2.2. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7. If a1 > amax (NZS 9.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb

Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

**9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
**

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

**9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .

*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

**9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
**

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

**9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb

The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣

f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c

0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

**9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:

*

V ν = bw d

*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s

If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,

*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16

*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)

Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

**If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
**

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

*

**9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the

9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

**9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

bw.1) where.18 Beam Design .1) (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0.1.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. Similarly. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 . and c are shown in Figure 9-3.7).1) (NZS 7. h.75 Ao/po 0.6. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) where the section dimensions bf. hf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7. h. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3. the section dimensions b.1) (NZS 7.

6. In that case.6.4.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.4. Tcr. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. At /s. However. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7.5.3) 9.1. Tcr.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.19 . and meets the torsion stress limit.6. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength.1.1). is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.5.3.1.6.6. The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion. is less than the threshold limit.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0. T . it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7. if T exceeds the threshold limit.3.6) Beam Design 9 .6.Chapter 9 .2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.4. the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.1). defined as: T* ≤ 0.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7.6.2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met.

where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. In that case.2. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. To learn more about the design strips.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7.8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied.3).5. 9 .2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7.20 Slab Design . If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit. At Al 1.6. provided it is fully developed. 7.2) * * For rectangular sections. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.1. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. a failure message is declared. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7.6. the concrete section should be increased in size. bw is replaced with b. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6. 9. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.2 f 'c .

21 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. at a given design section in a design strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. In that case. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.1. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. 9.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.6. 9. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 .6.1.Chapter 9 . Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. is obtained and reported. are repeated for every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. These two steps. given the bending moment. In some cases. for each load combination. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6. described in the subsections that follow.

Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.5. 8.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0. edge.6. 2.5.8.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6. 9..6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.4 ): ⎧ 0 . 9.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12.2. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.4.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12. 9 .22 Slab Design .7. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. 9. Where openings occur. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.1(b)).1.e.1) In addition. 8.1(b)).6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following.6.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12. interior. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control.7. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.8.2. The column location (i.

3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M .23 .Chapter 9 .7. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.2.1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.7.6. 9.6.2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12.7.7.Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.

12. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.2) where. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3.1. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.4.2.7. 9. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.2.7.1) 70 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12.1). βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5.3. 9 . b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.7.24 Slab Design .7. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12.2(a)).3. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.6.6.

5) 9. 9.7. Slab Design 9 . The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. vc.3.Chapter 9 . is the strength reduction factor.4. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.4.4) Given vn.6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12.7. the concrete section should be increased in size.3. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12.25 .3.5 f ′ c (NZS 12.7. where.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3) (NZS 12.6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.3. φ.7. and vmax.4) If vn > φvmax.7. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12.3. a failure condition is declared.

and 8.26 Slab Design .3.4). i. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. and interior columns respectively. for corner.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9.4. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and corner column. 6. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. Therefore. edge.e.6.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. edge.7. 9 . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column..

4.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.4) (NZS 12. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. the distance.4.3. Height.4.27 .5d s ≤ 0. The limits of so and the spacing.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.6. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.7. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. g. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.7. so.5d.7.4) (NZS 12.4) Slab Design 9 . The spacing between adjacent shear studs. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. s.Chapter 9 . When specifying shear studs.

.

Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99]. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For simplicity.1 . a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. is selected. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Notations 10 . The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.

mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis.2 Notations . MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Torsional constant. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. mm Flange thickness. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section. mm 10 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. assumed as 200. mm Width or effective width of flange.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.

mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section.3 . N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. MPa Torsional shear stress. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 . mm Lever arm. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. MPa Neutral axis depth.Chapter 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment.

The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. Note that the automatic combination.4D + 1.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.0D ± 1. including pattern live load.6(0.3) (CP 2. should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3.4.4W 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.2). If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4.4. and considering that wind forces are reversible. other appropriate load combinations should be used.1. 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.2W (CP 2. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2.2L ± 1.4D 1. 10 . It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. pattern live load (PL). If a structures is subjected to dead load (D). live load (L).4W 1.4.3). 1.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used. fcu.3) (CP 2. and wind (W) loads.6L 1.3).75PL) 1.4.2D + 1.4D + 1. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.4D ± 1.7.4 Design Load Combinations .1. γf (CP 2.

4.Chapter 10 .4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.50 1.2 (CP 2. but can be overwritten. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 .25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code. shear forces. shear. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. and torsion based on the beam moments.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. The values of γm used in the program are listed below. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. which are taken from CP Table 2. and torsion only. and other criteria described below. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.4.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.5 . load combination factors. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. 10. γm.15 1. shear. torsion.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10.

1.2) 10 . the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.5.4.6 Beam Design .5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5.1. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.4).5.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0.4. or the strength of the concrete.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. for a particular station. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0. BC 2. In such cases. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.3. 10.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. with the corresponding load factors. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the width. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. In such cases.

1.4. ⎧0. Msingle = K'fcu bd . is summarized in the subsections that follow.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore. In addition. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3.4. less than. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.4.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3.1).5.4. BC 2..4) Beam Design 10 . The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than.2) The design procedure used by SAFE.7 .1fcuAg) (CP 3.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. Msingle. and torsion only.4. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. BC 2.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.4.4.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2. is first calculated for a section.Chapter 10 .4). shear. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.4.9) (CP 3. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.4).9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. hence.4. all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure.e.4.4. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.and T-beams). or equal to Msingle.4. where 2 (CP 3. βb ≥ 0.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4. See Figure 10-1. 10. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.

4.4) 10 .156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.4.95d z = d ⎜ 0.25 − ⎜ 0.8 Beam Design .4. the area of tension reinforcement.094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution. is then given by: As = M .67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0. where 0.4.4.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.5 + 0. As.87 f y z (CP 3.4) (CP 3. If M ≤ Msingle.4.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.

Beam Design 10 .e.9 . Fig 2.e. no flanged beam data is used.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.5.3.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.25 − ⎜ 0.4.5 + 0.Chapter 10 . 2.4..4.4.95d z = d ⎜ 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10. 2.4.2. Fig 2.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3.. M (i. i. If M > Msingle.1. where (CP 3.5.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle .4. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4.2.2.4.4.3.5.1. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.87 f y z + 0.1.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10. and f ′ =0.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3. or at the top if M is negative.4.4) In designing for a factored negative moment. designing top reinforcement).5.

the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.2.67 fcu γ m 0. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 .1. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.4. εc 0. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3.4.67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.5.2. See Figure 10-2. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. On the basis of this assumption.10 Beam Design .

11 .4. 2 As = M + 0.45d − h f ) 0.5h f ) .2.45 .1 f cu bd (0. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3.3) If a ≤ hf.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.4.4.5) β f = 0. BC 2. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.Chapter 10 .3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0. Cf. In that case. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.4.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.9 ⎭ (CP 3.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0. Cw. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.36 .4.15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. Fig 2.4.4.4. where (BS 3. Fig 2. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.4.4. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. BC 2. If a > hf .95d 0.2. However. as shown in Figure 10-2.87 f y (d − 0.4.45d then.5 + 0.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 .4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.

5h f ) ) .5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.4.2) 10 .87 f y ( d − 0.2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.32 ⎪ ⎪0.4.054 for ⎩ ⎧0.4.30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4. BC 2.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.4. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3. where (CP 3.5.4.12 Beam Design .4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.2) ⎧0.6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.

4.4.4).5 + 0.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.4.3.4.4. 2.95d ⎜ 0.4. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.4.4.3. Fig 2. and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.2) If Kw ≤ 0.156 (CP 3.87 f y (d − 0.4. where 0. As = 0. Fig 2.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.4.Chapter 10 .4).5h f ) Mf + Mw .67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3.4.4. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.13 .25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.4.5. BC 2.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5. 2.5.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 .4.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3.

14 Beam Design .12.24 0.48 0. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.26 100 0.1.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.12.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table. 10 .20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.18 100 0.5.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.5 + 0.95d ⎜ 0.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.13 100 0.27 (CP 3.27 (CP 3.5.4 bf bw ≥ 0.36 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength. if it is required.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.5.32 0.3).

15 . v.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.2).6. Determine the shear stress.Chapter 10 .5.12. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.4.12. BC 2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.3. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. for a particular load combination. An upper limit of 0. the following steps are involved (CP 3. 10. vc.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T.5.40 0. 10.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa.20 0.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3.1). the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.5.5): Determine the shear stress.2. the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3.

1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. Table 3. the following limitations also apply: 0.4.4.6 (CP 3. Table 3.5.5. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3. with the corresponding load combination factors.4.4.4.25 1 1 3 However.5.8) (CP 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3.16 Beam Design .5. (CP 3.63 fcu .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases.4.4. vc.4) 10.4. 7 MPa).4.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.4. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .12) 0. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4) (CP 2. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3.5.5.5.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.8 fcu .1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .4.2) For light-weight concrete.9) 10 .5. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete.2.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.

2.3. CP 3.4. Table 3.8) As vr b = .5. and vmax.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.5.5.17 .3.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.5.8. Table 3.4. v’c. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0.Chapter 10 .5.5.9) (CP 3. Table 3. vr.5.4. Table 3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.4.5. Table 3.87 f yv If v > vmax.2) In the preceding expressions.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement. sv 0.8) (CP 3.4. (CP 3.5.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.4.4.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10. Table 3.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3.4.4.4. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 .4.5.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr. a failure condition is declared.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.3. (CP 3.

15). the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In typical framed construction. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2.4. The torsional shear stress. 10. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. Determine special section properties. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. obtained from each load combination.4. vt.3.5.5. vt. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. 10.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.5.18 Beam Design . further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3. Determine critical torsion stress.

a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0. For lightweight concrete. vt.4. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2.5.min is defined as: vt .1) For flanged sections. vt.0.7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.4.3.067 f cu .0. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.8 (CP Part 2 5. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.5) Beam Design 10 .2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.min = min 0. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .Chapter 10 . vt.min.8 f cu .4.min = min 0.4.067 f cu .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.19 .4.4.6 N / mm 2 x 0.5) 10.6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.

10 .4. If vt > vt.t /sv. the concrete section should be increased in size.min. vt. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.5.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. vt.min. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. In that case.4.t sv = T 0. is less than the threshold limit.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . However. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.8 f cu .7) In the preceding expressions. Asv.4.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.min. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. is calculated as: Asv . vt.4.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2. a failure message is declared.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2.3. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.6).t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. In that case.4.20 Beam Design .6).7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2.8 x1 y1 (0.

To learn more about the design strips.Chapter 10 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.6.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10. Slab Design 10 . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.21 . the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. 10. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.

The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. for each load combination. given the bending moment. In some cases.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3.6.5.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. In that case.22 Slab Design . These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination. 10. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.3. CP Table 3.1. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. Where openings occur.6. is obtained and reported. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. at a given design section in a design strip.12.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1. 10. 10.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 . the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.

edge.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0.7.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3.7.5d from the face of the support (CP 3.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. In addition.23 .7.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3. interior.5. 10.6.7. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.6. Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1).1). 10. 3.Chapter 10 .12. Slab Design 10 .. The column location (i.12.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm . the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) .e.6. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.7.6).2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.7.4.

the following limitations also apply: 10 .9) (CP 3.7.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.5.5d 1.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.7.2) However.4.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.4.5d 1.4. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.4.2. Table 3.4.4.5.24 Slab Design . 3.4.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.5d 1.5.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.7.6): 0.5.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3. Table 3.5d Interior Column 1.7.6.

6.5.2.4.25 .7. 10.8 fcu . 3.4.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3.4) (CP 3.7.63 v ≤ min (0.5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.7.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 . Table 3. v.4.6.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.6.4.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement. the nominal design shear stress.2. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.5 M y 1 .Chapter 10 .4. Table 3.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.7.9) For light-weight concrete. Table 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .9) (CP 3. 4 MPa) f cu . where (CP 3. (CP 3.5.5. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4.2.5. Table 3.3) 1 .4.

1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.7.25 ⎩ for interior columns.5).6.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.7.6.7. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. vc. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 10. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.6.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v. for edge columns.3. 10.7. 10 .3.2. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3.6.7. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. (CP 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. 3.26 Slab Design .25 ⎪1. 10.5).7. and for corner columns.6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.7. and vmax.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3.

(CP 3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.87 f yv 0.7. edge.87 f yv If 1. 0.7. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. 10.5) 0.27 . Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 .0vc. a failure condition is declared. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.7.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.6vc ≤ v < 2.7.7.6vc.87 f yv If v > vmax.3. the concrete section should be increased in size. and corner column.7.e. i. ≥ s 0..6. ≥ s 0.5) (CP 3.4ud Av 5 ( 0.87 f yv 0. (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .7v − vc ) ud = .Chapter 10 .

6.6). 12-. so. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. The limits of so and the spacing.5d. Height.7.7. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.5d.5d (CP 3. 10.6) (CP 3.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3.5d s ≤ 0.28 Slab Design .7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. and 8.7. edge.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. 14-.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. for corner. When specifying shear studs. and interior columns respectively. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3. 16-.6) 10 . and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. 6. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.7. s. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.7. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. and 20-millimeter diameter.3.75d g ≤ 1.7. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.7. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. Therefore. g. the distance.6) (CP 3.

Part 1. 2007. American Concrete Institute. Michigan. Sydney. NSW 2001. 2008. London. 2001. BC 2:2008.2R-07). Michigan. ACI. American Concrete Institute. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). February 2008. Structural Use of Concrete. P. Singapore. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. 38800 Country Club Drive. GPO Box 5420. Farmington Hills. 2008. BSI. UK. Australia. 2.O. British Standards Institution.References ACI. AS. 2. Box 9094. BC. Farmington Hills. TM R-1 . and 3. 2005. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. 1997.1 and Amendment No. Building and Construction Authority. Standards Australia International Ltd. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. 1.

Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). 1985. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. 1. UK. 2000. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. Brussels. incorporating Amendments Nos. Bureau of Indian Standards. Private Bag 2439. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. Part 2. Part 1-1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. India. 2004. European Committee for Standardization. Belgium. Kowloon. Wellington. Canada. 2005. 2004. March 2000. Mongkok. Manak Bhavan. CP 65:Part 1:1999. Belgium. R-2 . New Delhi 110002. British Standards Institution. Hong Kong. 2. 750 Nathan Road. Structural Use of Concrete. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. Rexdale. EN 1992-1-1. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. Brussels. New Zealand. Standards New Zealand. CP. CSA. 1999. Twentieth Reprint.3-04. 2006. Canadian Standards Association. EN 1990:2002. Design of Concrete Structures. and 3. 1. A23. Ontario. Singapore. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. Buildings Department. Third Edition. IS. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. European Committee for Standardization. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. September 2000. Concrete Structures Standard. NZS. HK CP. 2004. London.