rdk;+ydKjcif;avm

rdk;oD;ZGef
('Daqmif;yg;rSm t"duaqG;aEG;xm;wmuawmh urBmhb¾m a&;t=uyfqdkufr_ESifh
tm&SeJ@jrefrmjynfudkoufa&mufvmr,fhaemufqufwGJqdk;usKd;rsm;jzpfygw,f?)

1
urB m h o G i f w l j zpf p Of - Globalization- &J Πaumif ; arG / qd k ; arG

pum;csD ;
atmufwdkbm 13 &ufae@u OD;armifarmifoef; ( bDbDpD) eJ@ OD;armfoef;
(t+id r f ; pm;ygarmuQ pD ; yG m ;a&;wuU o d k v f / &ef u k e f w uU o d k v f ) wk d @
tifwmAsL;udk usaemf em;axmif&ygw,f/ OD;armifarmifoef;u urBmh
aiGa=u;*,uf[m jrefrmjynf udkb,fvdkoufa&mufr_&dSrvJ qdkwJh
tar;udk OD;armfoef;u yxrydkif;rSm xdawmh xdr,f? odyfrxdEkdifbl;vdk@
qdw
k ,f? 'kw,
d ar;cGe;f rSmawmh jrefrmjynfukd odyrf xdeid b
f ;l ol@bmom
jzpfaewJh jy\emawGa=umifhom jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;udk xdcdkufr,fvkd@ qdkyg
w,f? olb,fvdk pOf;pm;vJawmh rodbl;? usaemfawmh t}uD;tus,f
pdk;&drfrdygw,f?
usaemfhtjrifuawmh 'Dae@aiGa=u;t=uyfqdkufr_[m tm&SeJ@
jrefrmjynfudkvnf; xdcdkufedifr,fvdk/ jrifw,f/ rdk;òydtrsm; jzpfvmr,f/
a&$rdk;aiGrdk;&GmwHk;u udk,fubmrSmrcHpm;cJh&yJ rdk;òydvmrSudk,fcH&rJhudef;
udkqdkufaevkd@yg?

'Dae@urBm}uD;[m tjyeftvSef ul;vl;qufqHr_awG[m
ordkif;rSm b,fwHk;ueJ@rS rwlavmufatmifudk rsm;jym;vmw,f euf
±_id ;f vmw,f? tifwmeufu urBm}uD;xJuvlawG udyk ck ek ;f jcif;wdu
k rf d
atmifxad y;vdu
k w
f ,f? 1930 ckepfwek ;f uvnf; pawmhaps;uGuf ysuf
&mupvdkufwJh pD;yGm;ysufuyf[m om,m0wDe,frSm v,form;
olykefxr_}uD; bmvkd@jzpfcJhwmygvJ?
q&mpHu olpawmhcf&S,f&mawG aps;usukefvkd@ a'goxGuf
+yD;awmfveS af &; vkycf w
hJ mr[kwb
f ;l ? bma=umifv
h nf;qkad wmh pyg;aps;
usoGm;w,f? v,form;awG o\ar”tcGef (Tax) udk ray;edif=u
awmhb;l ? 'gutdru
f akd umufwhJ vlO;D a&ud=k unf+h yD; tcGeaf umufw,f?
v,form;u v,fysuw
f ,f? pyg;aps;uusw,f? 'Dawmh tcGerf ay;
edifawmhbl? tusKd;qufu v,fodrf;cH&w,f?
olwdk@[m e,l;a,mufòrdŒrSm pawmh&S,f&mwefzdk;awG
usqif;aewmudkod=urSm r[kwfygbl; 'gayrJh urBmpD;yGm;ysufuyf
qdkufr_u jrefrmv,form;ykefuefr_}uD;udk jzpfapcJhw,fvkd@ usaemf
wdk@ordkif;rSm oifcJh&w,f?
pma&;q&m}uD; *|epf wde;f bufuf (John Steinbeck) &JŒ “the
Grapes of Wrath” [m b¾ma&;t=uyf q d k u f r _ a =umif h urB m h
pD ; yG m ;a&;ysuf u d k jzpf a y:apcJ h w J h tajcaeud k a emuf c H x m;+yD ;
OuUvm[dk;rm;u v,ftodrf;cH&wJh tar&duef v,form;awG&JŒ
b0udk az: jycJhygw,f?
tvm;wlyJ 'D*,ufu *smr%DrSm [pfwvmudk tm%m&
apcJh+yD;? pydefrSmjynfwGif;ppfrD;udk awmufavmifapcJhwm urBmhpD;yGm;
ysufuyf&JŒ *,ufawGjzpfcJhw,f? tvm;wlyJ tm&SrSm w±kwfjynfrSm
&duQmjywfawmufr_awGjzpf+yD; aemufqHk;rSm csefau&dSwf&JŒtrsdK;om;
tpdk;&eJ@ uGefjrLepfawG=um; jyif;xefvSwJhwdkufyGJawG[m pD;yGm;
ysuu
f yf&ŒJ tusK;d qufawGtjzpfe@J &vdu
k w
f t
hJ arGq;kd awGjzpfcyhJ gw,f?

ed ' gef ;

ayguf y if b ma=umif h u d k i f ; &ovJ

“usaemfwoufrSm rñuHbl;wmudk ñuH&+yDayghAsm” aygvfc±kref; (2008
ckepf / pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&mEdkb,fqk&Sif)
'Dae@ tar&duef pawmhaps;uGufysuf&maepvdkufwJh urBmvHk;
qdkif&m pD;yGm;ysufr_ (Global Recession) eJ@/ ywfoufvdk/ urBmhb%f
OuUÏa[mif;vnf;jzpf pD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sifvnf;jzpfwJh pD;yGm;a&qdkif&m
Edkb,fqk&Sif*sdK;ZufpwD;uvpfu tar&duefb%f t&if;&SifawGvkyf
wJhtjypf[m tif'dkeD;&Sm;pawmhaps;uGufuvlawGeJ/ bmrSrqdkifbl;?
ckawmhrqdkifwJh olawGygcH&+yDbDbDpDeJ/ ar;ajzcef; rSmrSwfcsufcsygw,f?
'Dae@ urBmhpD;yGm;a&;ysufuyf (Global Recession) u edifiH
tm;vHk;udk xdcdkufvmr,fvkd@ usaemfajymcsifygw,f? jrefrmjynfvnf;
oufa&mufr_ &dSvmedifyg w,f?

'Dae@b¾ma&; t=uyfqu
kd rf }_ uD;jzpfapwJh ta=umif;&if;cH
awGeJ@ ywfoufvdk@ ynm&SifawGaxmufjywmuawmh
(1)avmifpm"gwfqDaps;E_ef; wufvmw,f?
(2)avmif p maps;E_ e f ; wuf v mwJ h t wG u f pm;ao=uf u k e f a wG
aps;wufvm&w,f?
(3)aiGa=u;azgifyGr_jzpfvmw,f? (inflation)
(4)aºuG;rSD t=uyf±kdufr_ (Credit Crisis) jzpfvmw,f?
(5)tdrf aºuG;jrD;t=uyfqdkufr_ (Mortgage Crisis)u b%fawGudk a'0g
vDcHr_jzpfay:vmapw,f? (&if;ESD;ðr‡yfESHr_ b%fwckjzpfwJh vDrif;nD
tudkb%fpwifa'0gvDcHzdk@ a=unmvdkufwJhtcgrSm a&m*gpwifazguf
vmawmhw,f?) 1930 rSma&m 2008 ckESpfrSma&m b%ft&if;&Sif}uD;

2
awG&JΠZmwfwlom;pm;wJh (Dog РEat- Dog) vkyf&yfawGu 'Dtajc
tae udkoufa&mufapcJhw,f?
(6)tvkyfvufrJ hjy\em udkrajz&Sif;edifcJhbl;?
(7)tmzef*ef eJ@ tD&wfrSm tar&duefjzpfaewJhppfu ppfp&dwfaxmif;
vmw,f?
'D t csuf a wG u urB m vH k ; qd k u f & mpD ; yG m ;ysuf v k ( Global
Recession)udk OD;wnfvmygawmhw,f? 'Djy\emawG&ŒJ [d;k zuftvGe?f
pD;yGm;ysufuyf&JΠrl&if; pmrsufESmuawmh Income Inequality omjzpf
ygw,f? rm;pf&JΠpum;eJ@ajym&&ifawmh t&if;cGJa0yHkrnDr#r_? 'gutepf
om&?
1930 ckepf urBmhpD;yGm;ysufuyf (Great Depression)eJ@ 2008 ckepf
urBmhpD;yGm;ysufvk (Global Recession ) E_dif;,SOfcsuf
1930 ckepf urBmhpD;yGm;ysufuyfjzpf+yD; 79 epft=umrSm 2008
epf b¾ma&;t=uyfqdkufr_[m tHh=op&maumif;avmufatmif wdkuf
qdik af eygw,f touf 80 t&G,&f w
Sd hJ tzd;k tzGm;awGq&kd if olw@kd b0rSm
'kwd,t}udrf urBmvHk;qdkif&m pD;yGm;ysufuyfudk xyfrHñuHawG&jcif;jzpf
ygw,f?
(1)1930 ck e pf pD ; yG m ;ysuf u yf / wd w d u susajym&if 1929ck e pf
atmufwdkbm 29 &uf (Black Thursday) uyJpwifw,f? ckvJ
atmufwdkbmvrSmyJ pwifvmyg w,f?
(2)1930wHk;uvnf; tar&duefuyJpwifcJhw,f? 2008 ckepfrSmvnf;
tar&duefuyJ pwifaejcif;jzpfygw,f?
(3)pawmhaps; awGxkd;usoGm;&u pwifcJhw,f? ckvnf;pawmh aps;E_ef;
usoGm;cJhygw,f? vlawGu b%fawGu acs;xm;wJhtaºuG;awGudk
jyefrqyfEikd =f ubl;? b%fawG u &if;ED;S ðr‡yEf w
HS o
hJ al wGukd t&rf;uma&m
aiGacs;xm;w,f? ckvJ tvm;wlyJjzpfygw,f
(4)xdktcsdef tar&dueftpdk;&u pD;yGm;a&;ysufuyfudk q,fwifzkd@
enf;vrf;wcktaeeJ@ Smoot- Hawly Tariff Act udk Oya'udkjyXmef;+yD;
oGif;ukefawGudk avsmhcscJhw,f? 'Dtcsufu pD;yGm;a&;udk ydkrdkysufqD;
oGm;apcJhw,fvdk@qdkw,f? ayghapvdkvkd@ a=umif±kyfxdk; aq;twGuf
av;jzpfcJhw,f?'DOya't& oGif;ukefawGudkuef@owfawmh wjcm;EkdifiH
awGuvnf; wkef@jyefwJhtaeeJ@ tar&duefydk@ukefawGudk uef@owfr_eJ@
&ifqdkif&w,f? 'Dae@ tar&dueftpdk;&awmh oGif;ukefawGtay:rSm
pnf;=uyf vmwmawGawmhrvkyfao;bl;?
(5)1930 pD;yGm;ysufuyfrjzpfrDrSm 1929 ckepfrSm tar&duef&JΠpdkufysdK;
a&;rSmtm;xm;&wJh jynfe,fawGrSm rdk;acgifa&&Sm;r_}uD;jzpfr_a=umifh
oD;ESHxGufE_ef;usqif;+yD; oD;ESHaps;awGw[kefxdk; xdk;wufvmcJhw,f?
2008 ckepfrSmvnf; tvm;wlyJ rESpfuwrBmvHk;rSm oD;ESHaps;awG
xdk;wufvmw,f? qefaps;awG t}uD;tus,f wufw,f &moDOwk/
ob0uyfab;eJ@ avmifpmtpm;xd;k oD;ESaH wGa=umifh aumufyo
J ;D EHaS ps;
awG xdk;wufvmjcif;jzpfw,f?
(6)1930 pD;yGm;ysufuyfjzpf+yD; wepft=umrSm 0,fvdktm;usqif;
vmwJhtwGuf aumufyJoD;ESHaps;awG w[kefxdk;usqif;vmjyefw,f?
tck aumufyo
J ;D EHaS ps;awG jyefvnfusqif;aewmudk pd;k &drpf &mawG@vm
&w,f?

(1930 u tar&duefrSm awmiftiwfjy\emudk ñuHcJhw,f? vlawGu
vlrz_ v
l akH &;toif;awGu aºuG;arG;wmudk wef;pDw;kd pm; cJ&h w,f? tpd;k &u 1932 ckepf
vlawGudk aºuG;arG;a&; tpDtpOfawGrvkyf edifao;bl;? Depression Cake
vkd@awmif ac:cJhw,f? udefrkef@rSm Edk@/ o=um;/ axmywf bmqdkbmrSrygbl;?)

(7)1930 pD;yGm;uysufuyfrSmtvkyfvufrJh 13 oef; &dScJhw,f?pufrl
xkwfukef 45 &mcdkifE_ef; oHk;epftwGif;usqif;cJhw,f? tdk;tdrfaqmuf
vkyfr_ 80 &mcdif;E_ef;cef@usqif;oGm;w,f? b%f 5000cef@ &yfqdkif;oGm;
w,f? 2008 ckepfudkawmh rod&ao;yg?
ukxHk;rsm; - Therapy
1930 uk x H k ; 1930 ck e pf u pD ; yG m ;ysuf u yf u d k orR w
z&ifhuvif±kpyJu (New Deal Policy) ulnDajz&Sif;ay;cJhw,f? aygvpD
New Deal Policy &J ΠtES p f o m&ub%f a wG e J @ aiG a =u;qd k i f & m
ðyjyifajymif;vJr_awG vkyfcJhw,f? v,form;awG udkaiGacs;iSm;ulnDcJh
w,f? tvkyfvufrJhjy\emudk ajz&Sif;cJh&w,f? vlr_zlvHka&; tpDtpOf
awGudk aqmif&GufcJh&w,f?
'Dvdkaqmif&Gufr_awG tpGrf;ukefvkyfcJhayrJh pD;yGm;ysufuyfu
wjznf;jznf;csif;om evHxlEkdif cJhygw,f? pD;yGm;ysufuyfu 1930
ckepfuae 1940 ckepftxd q,fepf eD;yg;=um;cJhw,f? New Deal
Policy a=umifh urBmp
h ;D yGm;a&;ysuu
f yfu jyefvnfacgi;f axmifvmw,f
qd k w mud k a wmh vuf r cH w J h o l a wG v nf ; &d S y gw,f ? 'D x J r S m
udef;ausmif;awmfom;awGtrsm;jym; yg0ifw,f pD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sif
*|efareyfudef;pf (John Maynard Keynes)* a,bl,s tvkyfoDtdk&D
(The General Theory of Employment) qdkwmudkaz: xkwfygw,f?
oloDtdk&Du ±kd;pif;w,f? pD;yGm;a&usae csdefqdk&if tpdk;&u aºuG;+rDudk
wm0ef,l/ vlawGudk tcsdefjynfhvkyfom zday;xm; (Full Employment)

* udef;u qdk&S,fvpfwa,mufawmhr[kwfbl;? t&if;&SifpepfudkajrjrKwfzdk@ olrpOf;pm;cJhygbl;? olu t&if;&Sifpepfudk u,fwifcJhwmyg?ol&J@ a,bk,stvkyf
oDtdk&D&J@tESpfom&uawmh aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepfu tcsdefjynfh tvkyfay;r_udktmrcHbl;? tpdk;&taeeJ@ 0ifa&mufpGyfzuf oifh&ifpGyfzuf(tm'rf;prpf&J@ aps;uGufudkrudkif;eJ@
v$wfxm;qdkwJh oDtdk&Dudkolu tjynfht0vufrcHcJhwJhoabm)jzpfw,f? -pma&;ol-

3
yk * ~ v d u awG u d k omacguf x m;/'D t csd e f r S m b,f o l r S wH c g;acguf
+yD ; aps;vmr0,f b l ; ? pD ; yG m ;a&;t&&if ; ES D ; ðr‡ y f E S H r _ t opf a wG u d k
rvkyf0Hhao;bl;? 'Dawmh vlxktusKd; ðy&if;ESD;r_awG (Socialize
Investment) ud k y d k v k y f v k d @ ol u t=uH a y;cJ h w ,f ? ±k p yJ tpd k ; &u
vk y f y gw,f ? 'gayrJ h rxd a &muf b l ; ? New Deal Policy rS m
b%f}uD;awGudk ydk+yD;toufqufay;cJhw,f? a&mrvltrsm;pku New
h yHrk &bl;? 'Dtcsuu
f kd *|ef pwde;f bufu&f ŒJ
Deal Policy &JŒokcudk cHpm;cJ&
Grape of Worth 0xWKvm eif;jym;v,form;}uD; wGef*ds'f wdk@rdom;pkvdk
v,form;awGuawmh 'DaxmufyHr_awGudk r&cJhwJholawG euf±_dif;wJh
ordkif;yHk&dyfawGtjzpf usef&pfapcJhvkd@ jzpfw,f?

usaemf a wmh r xif b l ; vk d @ qd k w ,f ? tar&d u ef z,f ' &,f b %f O uU Ï
bifemauuawmh tpdk;&&JŒaqmif&Gufcsufa=umifh tar&duef aiGa=u;
aps;uGuf[m jyefvnfemvHxvmr,f? pD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufvmr,fvdk@
tmrcHaomfjim;vnf; pepfuatmifjrifyghrvm;vdk@ r,Hkr&Jjzpfae
ygao;w,f?
bmjzpfvkd@vJ awmifa0S;vJawmh zdk;olawmfu xledifw,f?
zd;k olawmfv&J if b,fox
l rl vJqw
kd m ar;p&m&daS evdyk g? vlwa,mufu
ta&;ay:aiGvdkaew,f? b%fu acs;edifw,f? b%fu aiGvdkvmw,f?
tpdk;&uacs;w,f? tpdk;&awG&JŒt&HaiGawG jywfoGm;&ifb,foluae
pdkufxkwfay;awmhrSmvJqdkwJh tajctae[m ra&mufvmedifbl;vkd@
b,f o l u tmrcH e d i f y grvJ ? z,f ' &,f b %f y g aiG j ywf & if a wmh
tar&dueft&if;&Sifpepf ed*Hk;csKyf+yDvdk@awmif ajymedifr,fxif&JŒ?

ol w d k @ tm;vH k ; &J Πuk x H k ; awG u d k = unf h & if

(1930 epfu vlawGolwdk@tyfxm;wJh aiGawGtvum;ae&if wefzdk;us
qif ; oG m ;wmud k ñuH & w,f ? a':vm 100 tyf x m;&if aemuf w ES p f r S m 65
a':vmjzpfomG ;ygw,f?)

OH K zG - vl v J w m r[k w f b l ; acG ; vJ w m od k @ r[k w f
2008 ta&;ay: ukxHk; (Intensive Care )
tifrwef}uD;rm;wJh aiGyrm%udk tpdk;&awGu yHka=omoGef;
avmif;ae=uyHu
k kd =unfjh cif;tm;jzifh urBmv
h el m}uD;[m b¾mt&if;&Sif
awG&JŒ vufcsufeJ@ao avmufwJha&m*gudk &aew,fqdkwmudk !¸ef;jy
aeygw,f tar&d u ef ua':vmaiG bD v D , H 700 t*F v ef u
aygifpwmvif bDvD,H 500( a':vmoef; bDvD,Haygif; 1000cef@)/
Oa&my,leD,HwckvHk;taeeJ@ tpdk;&awGu 0ifa&mufulnDaiGaygif;[m
2'or 3 x&DvD,H (2300 bDvD,H) a':vm&dSygw,f?
tar&dueftpd;k &&JŒaiGukd tar&duefb%f}uD; 9 cku trsm;
qHk;&&dSrSmyg? a&Gref;wifarmifjyZmwfxJu “[Jh a*gwrDwdk@a&m vSnf;OD;
uygz&mh” qdo
k vdk tar&duefb%f/ a*syaD rmf*if/ 0Jvzf g*/kd *dv
k 'f if;qmcs/f
armf*efpwefav/ rm&D&,fvmcsfwdk@u a&SŒqHk;uae tpdk;&&JŒtulnDudk
&&dSrSmjzpfygw,f? 'DukxHk;awGu pD;yGm;a&; t=uyfqdkufr_udk oufom
aprSmvm;qdkwm óudb,folrS &J&J0Hh0hHtmrrcH=uao;ygbl;? &Dywfyvpf
uef t rwf *|ef a ygvf u awmh csuf j cif ; jyef v nf e mvH x l e d i f r ,f v k d @

(1)aiGa=u;pepfudk ðyjyifr,f (Reform Monetary System)?
(2)b%fawGupkd nf;rsO;f topf (Structure Adjustment)awGjy Xmef;r,f?
(3)vdktyfwJhae&mawGrSm tpdk;&u pdkufxkwfr,f qdkwmawGjzpfygw,f?
(4)td r f z d k ; ray;ed i f w J h tar&d u ef j ynf o l a wG / taemuf e d i f i H
aºuG ; ywf v nf 0 d k i f ; aewJ h jynf o l a wG u d k aºuG ; +rD ; awG a vsmh a y;a&;
tpDtpOfawGu 'DxJrSm avoHwcsufav; udkrS acgif;aqmifawGu
r[=uao;bl;? vlawGudk ,Hk=unfr_topfawG wckrSmrygvmao;bl;?
'gawGudk tjrefajymzdk@ vdkae+yD?
(5)'g[m urBmpD;yGm;a&;ysufuyfudk u,fwifedifygrvm; t&ifvdkyJ
b%ft&if;&Sif}uD;awG&JΠ(Dog РEat РDog Policy) udk jyefvnf
zgax;aewmvm; trsm;}uD; pOf;pm;p&mjzpfaeygw,f? tajctaeu
bmeJ@wlaeovJqdk&if tdkZHk;vGmaygufoGm;w,f? ykef;nufeJ@ zgovdkjzpf
&if tajctaeqdk;0g;oGm;edifygw,f? rufudef;uawmh rJqG,fyGJawGrSm
olomorwjzpfr,fqdk&if tcGefudkavsmhcsay;r,f? tvkyfudkifawGydk zef
wD;ay;r,f? &if;EDS;ðr‡yfESHr_ topfvkyfwJholawGudk tcGefavsmhay;r,f?
taºuG;ray;ediw
f o
hJ al wGqu
D taºuG;awGukd tpd;k &u0,fay;r,f vk@d qkd
w,f? bm;&uftdkbm;rm;uawmh a&me,f&D*if vufxufuae
bk&Sftpdk;& txd usifhoHk;vmwJh avqmzJay:vpDudk a0zefvdkufygw,f?
pD;yGm;a&;ay:vpDawG[m rGJjymykqdk;awGolu wcgvmvnf; vlcsrf;om
awGudkyJ tcGefavsmh pD;yGm;a&;jy\em}uD;wckvHk;udk OayuQmðyxm;
w,fvkd@ a0zefcJhw,f? olenf;uvnf; rufudef;eJ@odyfruGmvSygbl;?*
aiGbDvD,H 700 udkulnDzkd@ uGefu&ufrSmaqG;aEG;=uawmh
qDedwfwmawG[m tD&wfppfwHk;uvkd wdkufoifhrwdkufoifh tusKd;
qufu bmjzpfvmr,fqdkwm óudrcef@rSef;edif=uovdkyJ jzpfae=uw,f?

* http://www.independent.co.uk/new/race-for-whitehouse/obama-blames-financial-crisis-on-republican-policy-932002.html(Oct 13,2008)

4
ta&SŒtm&SpD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufr_[m ykHrSefob0 r[kwfbl;?
t&if ; rsm;vmw,f ? aps;ayg vk y f t m;awG a y: rl w nf a ew,f ?
tem*wfp;D yGm;a&; wd;k wufru
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- Capitalism)udk OD;wnfae=uwJt
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result of new and original economic models, but rather increased pdkufysdK;a&;zGH@òzd;r_rSm roHk;pGJyJ aysmufqHk;aew,f? v,fawGudkodrf;wm/
capital and labor inputs, which did not result in an increase in total ajrvGwa
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factor productivity. His prediction was that future economic growth
a=umifh òydvJoGm;wJh v,fajrawGudk jyefvnfrxlaxmifEkdifao;wJh
in East Asia would slow as it became more difficult to generate
twGuf pdkufysdK;a&;vkyfief;[m bkef;bkef;vJoGm;w,f? tcufcJ=um;xJ
economic growth from increasing inputs." *

tuJ j zwf c suf

* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Krugman

5
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opfudkzefwD;? udk,fhjynfwGif;aps;uGufawGudk oefrmatmif vkyf=uzkd@
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olu rajymao;ygbl;?)
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'D;,m;awG[m ppfyGJawGtoGif aqmifvmedifw,f?
um;vfrm;ufpf&JΠtjrif
um;vfrmhufpfuawmh 'Djy\emudk epfaygif;rsm;pGmuwnf;
u a[mudef;xkwfcJhygw,f? av;eufvSwJh ol&JŒoDtdk&DawGudk ckvdkem;
vnfvkd@&edifw,f? ol&JΠCapitalism rSm oluvkyftm;eJ@t&if;[m
t+rJwef;tm;òydifr_ &dSaew,f? tvkyform;u &Sifoefa&;twGuf
vkyt
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òydif qdkifrSm t±_H;eJ@xGufcGm? }uD;wJhukr`%DawGu i,fwJhukr`%Dudk 0g;òrd?
aemufqHk;rSm }uD;wJhaumifawGomusef&pf+yD; pD;yGm;a&;wckvHk; òydus

um;vfrm;ufpf

ed*Hk;csKyf
'Dae@urBm}uD;&JŒpD;yGm;a&;[m (Global Recession) udk0if
oGm;yg+yD? 'g+yD;&if (Depression) jzpfvmedifygw,f? tar&duefeJ@
Oa&myacgif;aqmifawGu Depression xJudk 0ifroGm;edifzkd@ twGuf
tpGrf;ukef óud;yef;aew,f? olwdk@enf;vrf;awG[m enf;vrf;a[mif;
awGomjzpfwJhtwGuf ,m,Dr#om oufomedifr,f? a&&Snf (2 - 3
ESpt
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usaemfwdk@ cHpm;vm&ovdkyJ a&m*gul;quf r_[mvnf; tvsiftjref

6
ysEH @HS vmrSm rvGjJ zpfw,f? pD;yGm;a&;ysuu
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ae&mr&dScJhaybl;? om"u aqmifyg&ap - ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm tvGeftrif;
pD;yGm;a&;uyf (Long Great Depression) qdkufaewJh tmz&du/ tm&S
(Long Great Depression) qd k u f a ewJ h tmz&d u / tm&S a wG r S m
pD;yGm;a&;zGH@òzd;r_tpDtpOfawGudk ukvor*~/ urBmhb%f/ tdkiftrftuf
(zf)awGrSm aumif;rGefwJhtpDtpOfawG r&Sdovdk tmz&dueJ@tm&S
tm%m& ediif aH &;orm;awG&ŒJ tusiyfh suv
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cH&+yD? rd;k òydvm+yDqrkd S wHcg;=um;xJ0ifyek ;f aevk@d rvGwEf idk f rd;k óud;ypfwmudk
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jrefrmjynfolawG uHaumif;=uygap?

rdk;oD;ZGef
yifqJvfaA;eD;,m; jynfe,f?
atmufwdkbm 14 &uf/ 2008?

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