2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 9. 2. 4.

Contents. Preface. Tuning Cons.iderations Cleaning Making a Cylinder cleaning tool Cylinder. Transfer Port. 'Pistons.

Spring Selection. Mainspring. Spring Guide. Fly Shooting. Following Through. Gun Parts Photograph Break Barrell. Tap Loaders. Tap Alignment. Lubricating Instructions. Pellets. Trouble Shooting. Lubricating Washer Velocity Loss Graph Energy of Pellet Lubricants Notes

6. 8.


25. 26.
28. 32.

35. .
36. 37.







has more tnan a couple of guns in stock. This is so that you can hold the differentmo,dels, to se~ewhi'ch ~gl:Jn .suits your style of sh'o:otin,g the most. If' the shop owner i-s a ksen B:irgu,n shooter then he may be, a-ble to offer some helpfu_1 advice, If Ort ttte other hand he s-ays "the ai':rguns-, are on the raek over there" ,and then says Utat they are all the same it is unlikely 1hat he win be of much help!'" l_r~i this case it G:ould pa-y to g,o 10 all airgu,n club to .g-'et some advic-e and to geJt somejdea of tne different t,Y'pe-s o,f ai_rguns mat are now available.
Whi,le soma may be ade~,quatelylubed -at the fact'ory, for ge~f1e:ralairgun use, . they m'ay often be improved by careful tuni~n~gnd lubrication~, a Bead this book caretully betore you aeoli~de ho'w 1'8Jt'you want to ~o with your tuninq then you willk--no'N what, parts you, n-eed to bl1_Y". What you can do, as a private owner of a sprinmsir rifle, is to spend mote lov-ing care and attention on it than the manutacmrer.

New Air Gun Shooters 1_1 ou have, not already purehased ,our gun' y

then go to

a QUl'1shop that


your airgun?

There are three basic conslderattcns: 1. You ca-n im·prQve on the standard (medleere) lubricatlo'n. 2. It mayalso be possible to improve 011 the matertals used ln ce-rtain components, such as piston neads.spnnqs, &s'pring guid'e~s, by e'x,changin,g them tor high'er-tec lterns. 3.~ You could also pay an expert to chance some o:f the ·ae~signed charaetertstlcs such as piston strokes, or transfer port shapes.

'The nrst opti-on is th"e 'le:8'51- expensive and you could achieve i,mproy.,ed I~ubrlc-alio,n wit.h th;e help 01 a spring compressor ~anda few common tools. You ca-nnot safely mQ:na~'ew'ithout a s'pr:ing ccrnpresser. As an anernanve tel p,aying someone else to wo,tk on y'o-ur rifle for you, you have the choice of buying s,pecians~d tools whieh would enable you totaeklesome €)t the work (such 'as tne transfer port). T-hls book is gene-rally lntended for most ai-rguns,_ butcertain des,igns need sornethlnq more speclnc ,de-pe·nding Ion tnelr de-cs'ign:.


Ab,Q:okof di"sman~tling and assembly of the most popular airgu_fls, will be

avanaole shortly,.



is hard to answer, as even when new sorne alrquns may be O.K. for ccasional shooting, but for serious use, most willi benefit from proper 9 or lubric.ating., but think about it first as stripping your 'gunl down

ost likely invalidate your guarantee-,.

ccaslonauy I've stripped a few new guns and found the piston to be

9 rusty', although this is, quite rare', it can be a vvo-rrying t,hought.
ot strip your gun just to see how it works. Most airguns willi work tor many years with very' little attention, SOl if the gun is performing it is sometimes wise to leave alone. I't you are sure there is room for ovement then this manual can help you Iget the best performance.

uning it your s-eJf,it is up to you' how much time you- spend on it, and it performs. Most ot the hintsln this manual have been proved' over y years: of, tuning alrquns.
eoless to

say, that if you are 'after the absolute ultimate performance,
is required. This is because each gun is

en some experimenting

lvidual, erefore if your BSA Mercury, for example, likes two 1/1 ern slip rings with spring of 3.0 coils of type A" which gives 11.9ft.Jbs, then you do exactly e same with an apparently identical Mercury, u'sing spring type A.J it is ry unlikely that it will produce the same enerqy, It may give 10ft Ibs or en '13'ft Ibs,. lis is due, to machlnlnq tolerances of all tne lrxnvidua! parts, and how ey fi't together. Whlen Mark 2 Airsporters 'were still avallable in the ops, I remember having a. really good exarrptethat was very powertol d extremely accurate. So I bought another one and it was useless. All e tuning I could do would not bring it anywhere near the good one. ventually I bought another two Mk2 Airsporters, for experiment. These so left a lot to be cestred when compared to my nrst one.

s.ellul:olsethi'n. traces of grease and oH removed.ut use w:ith' care 1n anopen space and d.d'will d. which you are happy to Work with. .ould be f'ittedin. 1. towels' can be th'Bt w:~lll. a cheap 'gra'de can be purcnaseo.h ar-e hiQh'ly"i~nflamma.. 4 . CLEANING m. thecheape. .is~solve "ma"ny ptasncs.$f one.f-i_f. It was iu. Especially when usee . n M_ake\sure all traces of . We Generally use thinners.n. ~P'aper kjtoh:en.greaser.d quite cheaplY. and if· purchased tram a ear paint suppli.1 ocrnponents ~ S:'Q~if.cent.Se1e fig.b:le a. The plastic paper to'wel' :hol'der. Mindyeu I cUd not have thefaciUtie·s I_ now 'e'njoy.oil and grea's'e are removsc.:ers. I triecf int'erc'hanging¥aroos parts from the two Airsporters [No.ghly cleaned. B'. but Eventually I sold that first Air8~rter I've regretted seHing it ever since. a wooden 'dow'el'. wit'h.o not breathe t-he fumes wtliiC.stgrade of stanoard cellulossthtnners win be IO.s are :v'ery cheap arno c. I wasn't "going:tJa tou~chth~e.LJsl. for a bit over the gOing rate.s~t not possible to approach the JlK'Wief of the first one.De th'oro'u. th:e workshop if '¥ou intQtn'd til do mere than the occasiQnalairgun. T'Me inte:'rn' are nottarnutar with'us'ing c.and are very handy for degreasjng airguns. w'ithall._tlil:8' lt was '" use an 'altern~ative de.K. bettom of the cyli~n"d:er. even tn'ttl's cornersat ttle.

I I I ... .... WOODEN D... j I I I I I .I I l : t' I .• "!'" . ".. .. . .. fl· ... T SLOT THSAW..ING A CYLINDER CLEANING TOOL Fig.. •• I '!! ••• II • ~ •• •• •• .~....' . ••• .OWEl~ I t I WHEN FOLDED. .TUCK FOLDED PART INTO SLOT. II LENGTH TO SUIT D. . . 110. 4' • ..--. ESPECIALLY WHEN EXTRACTING FROM CVLINDER.. It· ." .. • . II II ... KITCHEN .1 . I!." . • .. ....""" 5 ... ~ I" .... t' . • .. t I I PLACECENTRIE OF' FOLDED"PAPER T'OWEL IN GROOVE .... -'!_ . -~ .. IF IT IS KEPT TURNrNG WHILE PUSHING TO THE BOTTOM OF THE CYLINDER. i ~)o.PAPER TO-WEL. ...... s • _ I 1.. .. I I I I t I I .DER. III • •• i i' ..... THIS WILL RETAIN PAPER TOWEL IN PLACE. ~~ • ). . ...... s.-" . -~.... II . -. I I I I I I t f 'I .• _"_ . .JOt._... ~... '':~..- : ... '" ~ .. . -l.'_ .1/2 • l ... • .'.. _" .:l -"!. 1.. .: :_. .EPTH OF C¥LIN. . ..!! • 1'1 _• 1.. MAKE SURE IT IS KEPT' ROTATING. • ..1 I ---.:: ....

the' bottom 0. g .) ~.'ht causey-au trgLJfJle w'Men r:emo:y. Feel tor 'Gln'~ tJ~lh1spots.AUerremoving 5pti'flQ and end tJlDGk.ylinder ex-ee_'sively'. This C3.e. 1'h.ot of theair on tbepiston allowing the piston to strike the end of the c.v'al cylinde-r is often round to be 'o'. Honing the cylinder will help tcremove any bigh spDts.rlY tignt spots.jne result be:ing a tapered c'ylineer. has A .r:ougtl t.n. 'fi~g.n cause jarrln-g r1eaoil and s. undesirable.e'o thequn ls cocked.e mig. you can then pull piston back butttnsttme block the exit siEte of transter port. A gao(d remedy is to dl'egrea:s.h evenly a.(2 stronqer grade of Loctoit. This is Gb'. This is' because lt ts di'ff'icult to .o':me guns do net perform as well cylinder should be as straight and as para lI:aI as possible. check for fit in cylinder by p. bounce back if iit is nat too ti~lht. Leese stock screws can cause lnaceuracy and the stccx to'bin~ down to. 222 . The trouble than ls that wh...llallo:w air' to escape wtleo the gun IS fired.1 the cylind.Io.des mBkillQ the threads IQ.Q: twanQ. pull piston back at a steasy rate to 5. and plston s.e"wasHe'r ts sUghtJy smauer than the 'c:~li'n'der.e of the reasons whys.sing power.Se~e.~2'g the screws Iater. Theretote a tapered or :o.99 if the c~~llnde~r a.ousry.We cto not recomrnenc 'poHs-hing inside the cyunder as this dees not gUiar-antee to make it any more parallel but In 99Gk of cases will make it much worse.p:rin.1 the transter port end. wnere the plston washer cernes to rest: after firin'g~. air leak.ThlS' wi:ll size the washer to ttte smaller dlameter. 1:irin'g stroke. Besides .Me. Tn1is snould trap air ion front of ptston. w:t1'iohwi. .s reduce Ute cushioning effe.ctly.i.very.WhenyolJ have fitted the piston washer corre. at theerro of' tne piston stroke. the threads an'd Some gu ns tend to' ratt.OSl!.locine No. be"s'i.howls.le' the stock screws tocse. ~fte'r makings:ure piston travels smoothly th.

.. slight effect and a v'ery smooth finish to assist the air flow.. See fig 3 e exit side should be left square. gives a.. trnpertecttons disrupt the very high speed air stream . thus aUowing you to e the spring energy (for a given power) which wHI reduce the recoil... Ii._... 'd a-void dr_illing 'the transfer port to a larger size. . ' ..-. I I I I . ' ~".... i· .W... Il . I 7 . because the st irnpenecttons will cause a loss of power...rvt.TRANSFER PORT gun has a I:arge swept vol-ume like the H..' I··'·-'~-·.BO/a5 or -FWB and the er port is not too long say 1/2" to 5/8" in length then increasing the I er port diameter can help to' increase power... Do not be tempted edqe to take the ott as this tends to lose lots of power.... 2 • ._.' .. . Reaming the r port from inside witn a special tapered rea-mer. ~ __ .. TAPERED CYLINDER Fig..

SH_O.. ~..'C~L:U.N~SFER . G'G::E.A rrsp·LAN·NE.P:O.'09'T V.--=--- . - ~ .NC'~E:A"S"-6S T:H.I'VE A 'VERY 'S·'MOCr'H FIINISH.A"L}. ' _. .RTE". - .BEC-HA"M-_F-E·.: : \"0 • I .N.OU~l[)J:-U'ST 'STA_RTT-O R'E. . - " I '." .O'\I'E METAL ON.NG ON GUN . RlT " - 8'ARRE'l --~-"-{'I:' SlOE.EN~.' - ..R:IL-L .R'E:D.Y-iIJO.4 M'O'ST LIf(. "f-. ST A. 0 TH.AN." 'i . .fA. :--~-.E "T'RAN~SFE~. " .HE E )1( .-.E~.S"FE-=R P. 8 ..AND' S.R"T.A-Y 1/2 T.E I'N.L'V" 1'18 .ErFI·CI.~ . CYLI.O'L.NE.1'8"'. .NGS.TE OF T'U"NI"Ni'G.R:ATED.rjL . .' " - ' -.'ND'"I.AN_D.1:: '1" ~ I. I E~X.O FO'R' C'L~"A Y.AIS "T'H'I:S .H.E l-E:F 'T S:QU.. f '.:E' W-'T'H5DE.RT AIREN'TR'y SfDE-:.:GR"':E.UME A'N.T S._ I .. " ! -.N:O-A'RD·SI'ZE NO'-"'A-M:'AL. . IN_ PRJI\ rC:TI'CETHJS'I s ONL Y A F'E W:IHOU -D.- i lR..R.D : MA:.EAM 'T'RA-NSF'ER P'...D.OFlH. ~ ~ ) 'i J l' '. 0: o NO T :0 . '~ ..ARI." I.TA.'WJL. ..EL SID-..(' N-OT BE B.v •" -- .~EXI T SID ." _' .. .'.T' : IS . MOlD'IF-:I::C:A.A·N·DMU"5T NOT.ER 19. B: : I I· 1 : ••' 'DO NOT'-ALTE:R T'R..BAR.OEA.ELY LOSE POWER.'F'E-'R..(FOR CL-._ I! : _'_'.~T'HIS RE'AM.EP'E.:S'IVE R.I :. .N.ARE.TYJ C'f-I!AM.'.' .lO.. I 'I AFTER T~RA.M-. " .ORTI:'F I.ios.E':A_ME~'R TO Ga.E L.QRTFROM PI-STON_ SlD.RPO.E S HO U LDB. 1 I - ' - '.05.

S.PISTONS Pistons So when lubricating the spring don't put too much lubricant on. T e ptston cocking slipper should be checked by placing in the piston slot a Id sliding along its full travel to make sure there are no tight spots.6 p11 . as it may find it's way through this slot and get 'behind the piston washer. This lnitlal recof must e controueo by follo.1 piston.g to the piston washer. Piston sk-irts or rear bearings should t have a sharp trailing edge. Make sure all aces of wet and dry are removed.spots.lf you have titted a lonlger siprin"g guide this may prevent the n f-rom cocklnq.ingarm. If there is enough room between the spring and inside 0. ey will also plaee the sporing under more compression. HW80.g. provided Piston Weight 'ei!ghted pistons c-an be benenctal if balanced against spring power. This itS before the air pressure has overcome 1he peUet then when the gun is tired" the :high compres-sion and heat created will cause dieseHng. and the pellet has not started to move. If yours is sharp or square. S·ee:1ig. Tne lubricant will then be wiped on the cylinder walls when the gun is cocked.wing thr10ugh the shot" but piston weights are also rust beannos. Some guns have 'a slot j'n the ptston for the cock. to isolate the piston slot. This will prevent lubricant from g-etti'n. A piston sleeve will not prevent oil escapinq if gun ts aver tubncated. P'is. 85 & Original 45) yours may not.See fi. -MS2 is the correct viscosity for this. 9 ..g.4 p10 the lubricant Is not too thin. which allow the spring to unwlnc when tne gun is fired . but it ust be remembered' that the recoil from the piston is felt as soon as the ~gger is pulled. Remember that the weights could also touch the spri. it is normally e 'eficial to give it a slight radius and then a light polish.S p11 The ouble can then be that the spring wUj become coilbound if you try to fit o many thrust bearings or piston weights whlle also usi. emove anv tight soots with 600 w-et and dry paperuntit the supper . it can be beneficial to fit a piston sleeve.n Sleeve' Some gun-s already have sleeves ( a spring with e full amount of coils".will ide smoothly with no tight . This can break the malnsprinq or damage the gu n.

TAB. V~.S AR'E TO RET ~IN PISTO.. ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~. PISTON. W:'RAP AR'O'UND 5P-RING'"MAKE S'.L. 10 . e BEND TASSAf W I.EES.H!ICK.OT. PISTO'N SllEEV'E. E L P' I 9 T 0-' N '& H 'I"-M _.IDE D P II E R S .R.ANT ESCAPI'ING.T. B A C KIN G WAS hi E. 4.N..E S T E. T' 'S.AP FACES A W A ¥ FR'.URE SHIM G.OM P"IST'ON S. MADE 'FROM SH:~tM STOCK" AI IHlN MET-.T H'F LA. g) DE-GR.~·_ 3 1·0' 5~ ~TH-OU. T 0' M A K.".PISTON SHIM Fig. P'R~E"VENT TO' ST'EEL -e- SH'IM . . IP I S rON' t t -S LOT t .AL FOI'L..SHI~-INSI:CE' LUBRIC.

. ...:'-! ...~~~~-~---~ -_..:.__+ REAR BEARING.. t .+ ct"._... .·V-ENT~GUN -FROM COCKING. PI S1 ONWEt'G. -AND P~RE..:~'~.UN._.----. ' .._...'<~"l'"' PISTOIN SLIP WEIGHTS. .'_ _.... . .:""".~~:::J:~:~<... IF REAR iBEARING HAS A SHARP EDGE._.~~~<y~..~ . .--.'.~..&6. - - PISTON • ROD ..:.TOR. C_ROSS SECTION. _ _ t un. ... ~~~'-~~~~'. • I . THIS .. ~. ~s RI P NI G G U IDE . .SHORT SPRI_NG lO·CA.PERRING AND TAKING OFF lUBRICANT WHEN GUN IS B'E ING COC!KED.6. n~~~-~~~'~~~-~"--.-~~.."~._ ..ITH M...!.·' ·ti'..'. / PISTON RO_D. ~ ~ t •• : •• . ' :: :: .__ -~ -~ - .~~~-~...~'-:"-:~~:~-... '..::~ ~~~~._...~-~'~~ ..:~~::~:.~. WITH 600 WiET AND DRY.HTSINCO·RPORATE ·A . COATED W.OR RINGS. "· :~~:O:>"}~~~">~:::~:~~'5!"~~:::j::~~~~~:.. \ ~~... . .THIS WILL AVOID IT ACTING AS A SCRA. . '" .~~ ..._ _ _ _. FIG._..•• . -. ~•••._ . "~"'... :1 ~ ~ . 2.*'. THI·S 'SHOULD BE JUST RO...'-~.•"t.'~. 1111 ~ :...~ •• ~-:.~.... ...~iI'....... _ _.. ._ _ _ t. _ _.•.:'. -.. ·4·.~ •• ~._. 5. •••~. i'j"'t.-.PISTON Figs.~'" '.... .D OFF.DE. . MUST NOT BE TOO' LONG ORIT MAY CLASH WITH SPRING GUIDE...'~-'-~.S. .iI.•• ~~~~~~::~~~~:.. PIST'ON.1 t ...~~.. .....

t8'" Q·~..e known "to be.ith teather plstcn washers .utre·mov·ing the plstcn.uQ".e must not be too aeep for the above rsascns. as th'i's can cause over expansion on firing" forcing a . thecan . thus slowing it down. 'pr.g. .plastic ptston washers.ediately firing is.ry h'itJll friction and very low power. If your ptstonwasner is retained by a screw throuq h the washer. make sure ft does not go tOQ deep 1111t9 the washer .caneasnv be u_nco'c~oe"d·). that when reassembled.ood sn·ug: ttt tn the wI.o"c_k.e washers. Qroovesin ttl1's washer and not to rg etting the recess of the piston retaining screw.K~ y the . ".h'is i's veryotten overlooked .er 'P':[S:tDI1 wasners have '8 flbre.ri\-iSfJd'e . then pgah' the piston bra. Lubricating wlth ().. but also becauselt fncreases the lost volume..e. I 1 1. washer to grip the sises. (urness .(d [J.n but s'till keef)s test volume to a minimum . Th. rhi's is because it-· ·wiTI' takea JO"ng time tosettle m(l\~lnto' lt's optlmum a.a.h the middile. Some airgunners with agufl nicel! becdde. cll1a.- -~-- ! I Gen. Tills Helps to eUminate· di. Wh·e~nan aitg'un' ls ~oin:g very '· suspect the s·prlng has weakened ·b'ut~ ' it 1s semetlrnes bestto leave it undisturbed..r giving very good pertormance. ck ctu.O:8S not 'we~11q and ma. v. backing washer fitted behind the main plstcon washer to suttpQrt U.ctin.e. nnd after distutbirtg the ptsten was'her and spring. This groov.l<Dft. :l.unb.gun .n:'Q:El ths sptln:g w'ltno':. a·rally.euch a 'a's the transfer port. andthe ptston i.. happy wlth.g :thro. -r . A tlrrn close fttting fibre Of spe'eiaU~ made meel backing washer wul prevent this.1 .r t t.ery well. with ccnststent pg'wer that you are.a_h.prG)"p.orew head should ideaHy be about four thsusandscf an inch below the trent Qf tbe the power has dropped. withQut a. lose ~Yle·r.h·eendot the plstonstrake that cannot becompreseed. leatner washers m'ust not betoo 60'ft·.~vlo'us:ly _IUjfjri:cat. I would 'not reeomm.a..grQo~ed to preduce a feathered and forth wlt..isallQw's' tor tne washer Is b:ed i.·:sJn:. squtrt a couple Qf drops mto the transrsr '~.. IMO'6'1 I:eath.wlth. Then the tri:ck leta [e·:av'.' .'(lr at 'JerS"S. Lo~s"t v-eJum·e. The retaining -screw shoold also. The most. me a g. not much use and could s be d. is the wasted space 0. lide Ind imm. reducing powerand increasing recall.eth9~Gils tm'. but Dri-sfide can be used to lnerease RBrformance w.aJI~y cocklnq. to synthelf.h G.ri.sthe g.eseUng.Q arm or D'lers:l.. thesbeve trick d.a:maglng'1~o:')tQLJ'r gun.rrel upwards 1. which ma~ have been deeply .erl)!:.ln. 'If 'iObJ:r gu. bas a plastle washer.'.st1:er to prevent :arl~fc trom I':ealfi'n.'D'O NOt LEAVE O'O'Ct<E-[)... ean atao andwiU ustJilHy lmprove power but should not f5ettgne too etten.eneifoi'claJm.t 24 hours (a week IS beUer) to lat the: llquld evaporate. Thes.n. l. This prevents the washer fror:nbeing dragged back beUtleoo the frant ot the piston anlii thecylmder w'alL The result would be 'iJe.

' WA:SHER .!."2'\.'::-.NDS THIS GAP SHOULD BE IDEALLY 4 TO 5 OF AN. Ii . ....1 G N SCREW-. ~".:·">"~r Y'h ~~~"')..~~1:~"'. ' : ~._~. '\'. WASHER.. I.. ----------- r ~ II I I..LOS T v O· L U.:....k. "~. WASHER.:. ... 13 .~> :' .THIS ........~.LOST VOLUME Fig.'.. INCH.... I r ~-~ BACKING .... t I I WILL ALLOW FOR BEDDING IN .....'t." .:.......\>k. ~t.. 'J .."'''\~'ii ._-~' ~. MAIN' PISTON !r ~. 7.0":"... ME.. ..UME TO A MINIMUM..:'. <-".. '6 ~ .'-.. THOUSA.. R E· T.A I N .WHILE STIL:L KEEPING THE LOST VOL..._ PISTON... '.~":si '.Jf..... ' .'.'~:"~ .:':'t~ '...'.

t Weight of Piston Pell:et size and weight Plus many other teeters If the batance of.ah seal leaks Tap leaks ( accuracy' could sutter..'SPRING SELECTION The str:ength of spring.n re. So even if yCJ'u Increase power. the Q:ptim. l 14 .um ps'wQ.l and us'wally less power. QfspringfHted is influenced b.Q will cause an tHe-reese j.- - Design of alr gun Swept vQlume Piston washer leaks Br'se. if"'r-ecoll ts excessive.' sp:rirlg power is. correct. Better alrtlow . ma-ny things.r should result. F-ilting asp:rin'g that is tao .stfon.giye~s ~moothie'r feoall and' more power.vers onlN) 11_- Transfer port dlmenstona and shape Pis'ton washer an--d Pl's:tQn -fi.

QUIRED IF YOU INTEND TO CHECK SPAC"ES BETWEEN THE SPRINGr GO·ILS.tzs dlameter wire. Fitti'ng a much stronger main spring than standard imposes gre. 3.96 inches of solid height.give a thouqht to the trigger mechanism and i'f it is a bit strain on the trig_gar rnechanlsrn. EXT-REME CARE IS RE.128 = 3_96 inches of solid spring height. the sp'ring is coil bound. So long as the solid sprinlg heig. 15 ..OI€ is assuming that there was not an excessive amount ot space between the coils 'when the gun was cocked using the old is not more than this f:igure Le.ood enough. _ The new one should be. then the gLJ'n should stnl cock before. ~ NEVER CHECK S'PRINIG S'TRENGTH B-YTRYING TO BEND OR COM-PRESS THE SPRING BY HAND.g has a:1 coils of . Example: 31 times . approxlmately the same.D SET UP STRESSES IN THE SPRII-NG AND LEAD TO EA. . because a flot of airguns rely on a b. POOR SPRING G'UID-ES. DRY FIRING AN~D Ol'ESELING CAN' ALSO LEAD TO EARLY SPRINiG FAILURE. to make sure there is approximately the same amount of coils and that the wire diameter is the Example:. So if y'QU are conternptatinq fitting -a high power mains~pring. AS THIS COUL.MAINSPRING Whe1n you remove the old: spring count the [number of coils of the old spring and cernpare it with the new one. Fitting a sprlnq that will just anow the piston rod sear to reach the trigger sear is not always Q. perhaps you should think about worki[ng on a better gun.RL Y BREAKAGE. But this is a good indicator on whether the gun is under or over sprung. of over travel to trip the trigger intoe-ngagement. same.

g 'and .zing.ig. T~~is. preferabty with only a few thousands of an rflth clearance.e. the s:p.p17.ri~nQ Qui'd'e.r. #it "Q'n.$ expenslve. The large part of the guide·xp'andirlQ on cQckin. Although. This happens when the piston rod fouls the end bl'o:ek·" mstead of slidi'ng into thelh~ole.loufd be a good fft in the cylinder.n..1 te be a ti~ghtisb..nwill pertorm.but . then the resuitantsmoettmess ano reduc .e"e.8 .n' o. .d.if the redappears to b'e central then check the rear piston beari:ng lit. if you intend to do agQod job.f' the ~~is. -The' less f'ri~c·ti'ofl you have.As exeesslvs wear o'n the back of the piston be. in the :c:ylin.It ls pernlis. II 1"1"ts posslble to have .rubbing on the mslde o'f' pfsto.bbing on the inrsi:de· 0. If this ls severs.caused by the excessive trtctlon created b'y the' ·spri:ng'i'n. frictio n may be wo·rth it. l ff too large a spring outside diameter is fitted a great deal of power will be . A si'g. as intend'e.p17'.s ls. Thi. the rnore effi'cientl'y the gu. THis ensurestne piston . ....a brass Of bronze bu:s'h made.tay'in~g central i'S ai..e.sibJe far tt1:e s. not s.8.d. iU prevent exc"es'sive' blJC~lin_Q of s"pring ~w'f1'lch. ed .d: S. slight resistance Just before trl~l1er en.·aring."'d ls kept central whe-n the 'Q1Jn i:s coeked.' I'lstQ'..rll prevent outside w w aia-meter of sprlngfro.m. or brazed to the plston bearing to oure thls ptoblsrn but it . and silve'rsolde·re. m.g .Se:8 f.gagement.will allow the whole plston to move upwards to the scope rails. lost even though the spring mar be very powerful..fQ"nroo.fne plstcn rod mayneed c~entran.


i . i 11you cannot Q'6t eat t8 sneet fen: awhile.e square 'fe'et.errwe'qwentl'y I nad .awa'Y with some pellets. flie. Then lit about tWle'lv'e feet' . .- S~flootingf]ies is .~. 'C. wan. Then justin front ptace a small amount of old cat toed or slrnilar.0'. This need only be abaut thcre. at suotr close rangeJ"but st-il'l try '1.a1e ra..n. I. toed. 1 .ood praetce and keeps these pe:!s.shooting A 11< 'you need i·s: 18 low p. H:e seemed this practia.e" until' he med ft. artd walt tor the t:lies to fly-in tn 9.8 Jo':b"to get the gUA back. Ma'n-y years ago a keen shoot_'irlQ'fri'e-ntl carne round. :it can be 'good saf-e nm so I.w'ers'd atr ri.85 proper s. theA yau OO]. Ptace the blanksts tn front of a brick.c'ed the.lld try .8 .a-f'ety I I I I procedures are followed.S s.FLY SHOOT"ING - .t m'8'y sound -silty but I can assure you.hit them in tn's head I'? -. Ob~lo~tls'lyopen sights are.oting tlles a's·s area 'where ¥:ou have WQ. s.fle' and a sate backstop Ilk·..ts dmwn.o.ho.ean old mattress or old 'blankets to stop any pos:sibi-li:tyofa neochet.

This can be especially true when hunting.subconsciously start to move the g:u'nprematurely 'when you think the shot has gone. owinlg to the fact that you can .n the next rabbit appeared. and most hunters are keen to see if they have hoi! the quarry.i'tthe. I held the sight on him for a little. It was a go'od day when I happened to get a couple of shots at some rabbits tl1at were well within range. 19 . bit longer and was rewarded' with a clean kill. I shot at the rock and hit it.1missed the rabbit.. This happened to me a long time ago when I was shooting rabbits. That was a Iiongitime ago and I now get more pleasure from plinking. This happened before 'I re-alised that I needed to follow through. Wheat occurred puzzled me because after . target.FOLLOWING THROUGH I feel it is worth poinlting out the importance squeezlnq the trigger~ of following through after The idea is to maintain the sights on tarqet mornentarlly after the pellet has h. The trouble was that 'missed the first few that I shot at. I checked the gun and ammunition. whlcn had been sittinlg bya rock. a few times Whe.

....~ ..~. I I • 4' ~_'. . 20 " . . ...G PART RE . . " .

~." .' .-' '..'~'i • . ' 21 .

An01ner cause 'is fiI barrei bent dOWr1WQrds.hs:IDI will normally cure a. Also check for thesileocer (if nUed' QoBttuef.Q. it o£)uld pa'y to.-at a r~egula'r' intervat wit~ 8.(:eaeh seal ls cau":slnlQ barrel droop. Slamm'ing the barrel shut should bea~oidedcOrn1pletely.. This can be cal.r.vEJ bei'ng worn near the transter port taee.Thls can happ.Io-e'k' could have irs sharp e'dge's Just taken Dff with aft oil stone. Bent .lJsed by G:lu m:sy"er to &Ilmlrla..nt w:ith breeea seat removed. This Is nO'rm. on thisguEI e$peCtalrr~ because it wm fend te make the lock detective.e"ch seal too thick.. ..oUe·ks up.gnme.te' 1"15 p€) w'he.Q breach the pellet slight. (This can be due faincomptrUbl.e'n if thesfl.tJJItI' barrel slightly. IJ the barreldetent is nice and posmve. Ctle·ck barrel aJi.n08'r Is not aceurately f'i'l(. 'Tfli"s reduees the riSitE of causlnq S_ deep groo." firing. then a new barrel. 2__:8re.rtt aIIQ'w"in~llrp'res:lure ttl O'ip.d. just check barreJ ali:g'nm"e"nt wlt'h breacn seal I[ removed.etJ t:.onnaHy caused by the barrel not 1:0cking in the correct position. Tbls weuld point barrel down momentarily8A_ accu:(soy generally w0utd -suffer.cke'.) To check -if a 'thick b. If I'h-e"gun .~'.l0tha1thQ barrel will lu. The HW3i ba.s:Q chec:k for. th-i·ck. tnat wittt aU the scepe adjustms'flt . Test wltheut s..t AI.Q. breech sesl is too. Barrel Droop sta¥ in Q'n:y position when ttre gun is ~o.BREAK BARREL BarrelfUnge BoU Ttre Darrel: hinge bait should be tightened: just luffi'Ut'fltl. leakln.Ba_r-re. the gun is sUIl shQoting low. and breecn mattn'g.rll.rrel .shootlh"g' too low with a scopenttee.a weak barrel dele.lub_ricate the pIvot peints Qnl.m'9 reasons wh:y aoun suffe'~s trom oarrel droop» 1.all-y th'e nu-mber one probiem w'tle<n a gLtn is: .Gk. little MS. 3. 'su rtacss.2 to Jlre~e'nt setsure.Another cause could be lftlry lew pDwe.lBarrel droop i~ n.'n tIle gun 'is f'ired~.e Barrel and cylindermatlpQ surtaoes or Ttnscan be due 1'0 ino'omJ:)atible' bar!rel 'bl.l_s used a IE)'t.

ki'ng hand. The momentum "rom this will easily bend the barrel upwards so it pays to take great care when cocking any air gun. 23 . whe·n Much greater care is needed when using pistols because it is not always . So never let your gun point at-anything that could be harmed if it went off. If the gun shootstoo high and will not zero with scope adjustments fully down.. pointinlg . the safety catch and trigger should never be reli-e'd on. If the trigger is suspect. The result is that the barrel flies upwards from the coc. then the most common cause is a bent barrel upwards. obvious where the gun muzzle is.Break Barrel Cont. This' practice should be followed at all times. . or the trigger is not posmve m action and does not lengage fully. The cause beinm that when cockinlg the gun" the barrel accidentally slips from the hand when 'the gun is nearly cocked.11never let his gun_ point atanyone unloaded.. An experienced shooter wi. Thls is: quite common on guns that have been' abused. But no matter how reliable your gun is. get it rectltted ·straigh't away. ALWAYS TREAT THE GUN AS IF IT WERE LOADED. or used by ine_xperienced shooters. A taulty triglger is not uncommon but certain guns are more prone to the fault. even when the gun is unloaded. but soon comes to a quick stop when the breach slams shut from the spring pressure.


sible to lap in. enter the parallel hole. cock the gun and open the tap.TAP OADERS Leaking Taps Some tap-loading guns can be uncoeked without firing. This trick cannot be done on later airsporters or guns with parallel taps. needed to ensure the pellet chamber is exactly in line with the rif'ling or bore.WATCH OUT. forward under 5. as though you are about to insert a pellet. You must be already holding back the full spiring tension. This is because if the tap is plated and ts then a couple of thousands of an inch larger. If tapis found to leak excessively. and squeeze the trigger . Pa. to bulld up the tap bo.n washer are 100% air tiglht.a couple of 'thousands of an inch.. The chances ot the tap and ptston washer being '1 000/0 air tight is almost unheard of.ickel plated by . Especially if the sprling has any strength.dy.grease" probably after only ten shots. it is possible to have tne tap hard n. the airtrapped should not be able to escape easily. If the tap teaksexcesslvejy but is tapered Uke the old Weble:y Mark 3 and' Mark 1 & 2 Airsporters. So if tap and pisto. the 'enlarged tap would not. Uncocking the gun caretuny. unless the gun ls very weak. Maintain full pressure on the' underlever. the piston would be held back from the end of the cylinder on the cushion of trapped air. the answer ts not so Simple as changing the breach washer.. Great care is. the airw'ill be heard to' rush out. So when tap is closed stowiy. making it impos..cking with grease is of no use as the hiigh pressure would soon blow out the . when closed. Then the plated tap can be lapped back into it's seatlnq. but as the tapis in the. This is the reason why you cannot lapin the tap without nickel plating.ut after you have uncooked the glun. 25 .. To check a suspect loading tap. but in practtce. loading posmon. allows the piston to move.pring pressure. before all tne trapped air has escaped the pertermance should not be too adversely affected. with the tap still open. you can count to 4 or ·5 seconds.

t nose fir:st into the muzzle. i. Measure a brass cleaninq fod toensure pelle:t will jtJS"t reaen the tap.aion" until it is known ex>a. Ttren the roef and pellet test trleda'g.ctly what is requirec .wea. 'Or as' i"s moslli. If it is tound to catch.08. has allowed the tap to move over (b¥ light' tap' !s. there.p. Push throu.llettap 26 .s'another dtmen'sion you can cneck tor an-d that is':-~" Tap closed 'location. R<od.TA. i .g too much.. then a tlne tester g:·aug'e': . chamber. terce) out 01 nrre.kely-. new tap toea-tor ptate made.P AliGNMENT Isl'lgnmecnt te.8'nd p1e.rin:g. IJ a tap is suspected 'of then a. (Tlhis is qulte rare however).at-ching. i'f 'a new Orne does. not cure the can be checked when the gun is dismaotled by' pushing a trorn the muzzle and the J~le'~I"et should enter the tap chamber easily with no G.n be inserted between tap locator plate and tap stop.


If the gun is sUit dieseJing after tw:enty shots. This is why the piston should be: dry except for the I.kesuddenly starts appearing from barrel :-2. on how to strlp your pa-rtJaul. Gu.I have not found any-oil that wll·1not cause dleseling in a high powered spring air g:u__.denly drops 3. as shown i'fl the lubrlc:atin_g diaqram.8. PI'ow.s up and down (inconsistent power) -4.i.e sure gun is uncooked before dismantling it Remember the spring is stil. Once 'th'.• 8:0 you know where each part goes' on reassembly. Aecuracy ls lo'st oS.n.alone tJII' the' next overhaul. Make a note as to "wh':a. -even with the gun uncockec.• Q. leave w'e. it is likely that it has been wrongly lubrioated and the lubricant isgeUing to the front of the piston. -So don't be too worried [f the' 'gu-n smokes a. cock ..Gw':n tor . Mak. Gu:-nbecomes rou'g-h to. 28 . S'lprin'Q' ccltapses 7_. Foreign matter has entered rnecnantsrn Lubr'icating correctly Is velry important..'ctly. Smo.a high' powersdalr rifle to diesel even when lubricated correctly.d' . s's. Power goa.eairgun ls I.:(l\fte:rfnitial clearing shots) 1. Itttle when tirst put t(lgettle'r~ This is acceptable if it soon clears. Unless semetruro "has obv"jQUs'.l!.Q'es w-here w'h1en .Q your time to get it right.I~ gon 9 wrong for e.1under tension. arger back bearing which is 'in contact with the cylinder. g.antling. S'O it rs worth takln. i:t Is nof u-n"k.t part g.'xam'ple.uflsmith to h'e:lp yo'u.. lt you have any' do~ubts. This should navel a h-ign pressure lubrlcant like M-'S'2.Even after re-assemblv..k~yo:-u'r n.n starts -m'akfn'g unusual sound l 9.ub:'ri£atedc~orre.pring t1r'ea'kag.

All oils may diesel if they get into the alrqun compression chamber. 29 .. this is the ti-me to fit the cocki'ng arm).ismantled degrease all parts.nd MSI as requires.See l'ig.e more of this to eti'minat·e all firing noise (except muzzle crack). Apply spring damper MS3 on the 'fear part of the sprirlg.12 p.o not overthm Msz for this high pressure purpose. pieces of lead etc 'which may be at the bottom of cylinder. The more darnpenlnq you use.n'y foreign. to prevent spring noise and twang. where the scope rails are. Power limit) you can use more damper and/cr grind a spring con ott to reduce powe r. Rub in a light coating of MS2 inside the cylinder" mostly at the top. ICoat spring a-nd gu-ide with your desired mix of MS. I usually like approximately a teaspoonfut. After fitting washer (with a drop of Loctite on the fiixing" screwj place plston ln cyltnder 'with the last third exposed See fig. This is where thepiston is being pushed hard. in the cocking too much lubrlcant in some guns may 'still result in dieseling! i·f the lubes get to the front of the piston. a. 4 p10.s in cleaning section See fig10 p27.D.2 a. the more dra~ and less power will result.-th most guns. about an inch or two from the rear. push piston further into cyflnder (w. particles. Making a piston sleeve from shim or whatever can prevent lubes trom reaching the front of the piston to cylinder walls. This bearing or contact area is coated with M'S2. With the"gun d. Tnls also means that if y-our gun goes over "12ft Ibs (British.31. Then remove a. You can us. When you are happy with this.Lubricating Instructions Cont. Push piston to bottom of cylinder. but a slight addltlon 0-1 MSI or my oil thinner is acceptabte. Reme-mb-er . USi.


'-... _".1 !>~... .~.. I--(Y) ...!' ~ -'1... .-........ .~ • ~.- en c~ Q.... :... ...- o::E -wz: 1--'c -.! .. . ~-# 1 •• .. ~~ ..•.:..f ::': ~ .~ • I ~.C ... _: ~- .'" • .. .: ~=-" ". ~ ..LUBRICATI G STRUCTIONS Fig......... . 12._ ~~... "':..J ....... ~ ..... •~ e :~ .~::~ =!~~~~ ... ~:.. I..'....~ '.~ _"' . ~~-~.':....".-..:' 00 >U .-: ").._ .... "U . -£ ~. •+:-".-.... . 0< LL .~ .._ ... ~fl:: ---cn • ::::)w Z a..~ !~ 'I' • z w:E ZLL -._":....... s . -.~ ".. i _.. ~. W.--:_. w C ~(I) ~~ 0 c. .... .. ~ .# ...0:. ._. 0:.••• • I...:* ... •• ~ ~ e ~.......

ot. The draw'i'ng in ti.not norrnalty good' enouch.If you feel competent enouqh to qive the chamber a sligh"t radius .th therrnnimum of trictlon. This j:s because the front shown lnthe .ram tnis can arso pay dividends but great caution is'~:r yo.this is not practicai as barrel-s.For optimum power the 'p.< once this.some spare barrets to expenrnent with. ttmi-'ng of pelle-t movement can g.are very' expensive. Just pushing pellets through a-die. Once you have found the best pellet for a speoinc gun.o~o'. may even start I'D pertorm better w'i'th. in relation to .14 .hat lt -wi'llaJiwa'ysremain the best. can easily be overdone. it is possibie for it to change and then it may get to like a differ-'ent pellet as it settles dQ.w'-n. rnetat Is removed it cannot be I The sure wayto find the opttmurn eharreer shape tor your partcutar 'Q'u.Siz'ln.r rfl.orthwrf1ire ga'in in performance can ba obtameo from 1-ifl'd'ingth:e best petlet tor your !gun.diag.Petlet tit and.2 .n i.geo'e:raI "jd'e-aincase you have.ive a~surprlslnq increase 0:1 power with 10''''' recoil.QP1ellet.t can ride fhrou'gh_ wi.. We rely on the rear tail of the pellet to seat the high air pressure from escaplnq. where the front of the penet srzes to the same as the rea-r is.pa4_~i. Similarly' i't tne penetmoves too.inst the ritllfng. .tne penet rnoves tOQ. .g. before full compression j's attainec then power wI'll be 1-0st. se that i.dsh. 3. then power witl be lost. it should not be takentor granted_t. and :t ls not always re'allsed" that a.a'Ki'ng it' relati'\iely alr tig'ht . Experimenting with the Hobtiaojustabte pellet slzer can pay dividends when you are trying to get gr0up size down. chamber shape is very Important.w get when you were pretty sure it was a shown' to giveyo'u the .a prevlousty u'nprom. replaoed. late. accompanteo b'y mlnlmurn piston 'bau nee. :pi9t:IDn travel ~ If.. This is help. the. experiment with several barrels.:e'netshould iust start to move at trre precise moment. but tor the nome tuner .s to. because it.g pettets can hel~l eliminate the o-dd f.isln. sarly.~.e:d by the high air pressure terclnq the thin tail aga.a_n'd shoulc be a good !i't in tne rifling:-. Thl:s fs because as the gun beds m..

These are always worth trying if you are after the maximum performance. THIS WILL PREVENT \P~IST STRIKING COCKING ARM WHEN ON THE GUN IS FIRE:D.. I I I I . PLSTQN H-EAD M-UST TOUCH PISTON. . L AS'E NOTE. A T 90 DEGRE'E'S.EFOR'E MODIFICATION TO PISTON. FIG·.S.1 I .A. -33 .egularly.I NEW HOLE P SITJON.RE THERE WILL BE A SUFFICIENT GAP lEFT BETWEEN COCKING AR~M AND PISTON SLOT AFTER MODIFICATION. B. STROKE MODIFICATION FOR B. The accuracy must be checked r. MODIFICATION FORB. Not just by shooting tin cans but by proper grouping on a target. If you study the velocity loss chart on page 37 An indication of the gun's maxi-mum range can be estimated.-SA AIRSPORTEIR I MERCURY. 13. AIRSPORTERIMERCURY Fig..13. ORIGINAL HOLE. IE_NSU.Pellets Cont. Measure an exact distance and fire five shot groups till the best pellet is found. There may even be a new peuet on the market. NEW HOLE POSITION. f COCKING ARM. .

1. \" •.. I.. I Q '. ~ .. \ -. . III . 1 ..I I• ' I ~ .\ '. . _ _-I . ~.I '\ ~~. 11 - I' t' . 11. I. "I .G) 'J: o ~ '.I'm~ ~..~ ~ . .' \-"~. -'Z o » o - r . . . ~" ..~ I = " .» CD' OJ· rn .-~ l'l V I --. .• l' " ~ ' • *' . 1.1 \ \ . --)::I! r • . - --_\ J .'m 'f' --ur ~ m I 1 I' I I e:-.II f f-' I ... 1 ~~ ..JJ lJ m m I CJl o -m . I .

.. ' . Straightern or replace Pi'. Gun does not cock? Back on adjustment Broken Malnspring Replace .I.. ~ Replac..~...... Tap leaks (underlevers) _ lnconslstent s'pring '.....' Faulty 'barrel lor crowntnq... .. ' "'... Try different pellets Dirty' barrel or fouling _... p ••• ~ •• ~'... .nge gun IC... Tighten or replace mounts S..... Tighten and maybe Loctne lnconststent trigger pull Adjustor see gun smith Over lubricated Barrel hinge bait loose -. l1li .I....... •• '• "'" •• '.... ••••••. II . • • • • • • •• 1 •••••• 35 ......m bent ......' Try d....ston rod broken IReplace Piston You may have fitted a spri:flg with too many coils or fitted a spring made ot thicker wire....... Clean Barrel lock up deteenve . . I ••••••• .. Gun has low power? Breach seal leaking Barrel' lock up defective Spring broke n or weak Piston washer leaki.. ........eaks (underllevers) Poor quality rifli'ng Poor pellet to match gun.. . Also malke sure Total thickness of piston weights ooes not make spring coil bound or tOUGhspring guide before the sear engages.. "....rel or gu n Gun has poor accuracy? Relube Tighten Re'pla~ce Repair Repair or change gun Change for better quality Repair Poor pelle't m...•. . I •••.. .........hange bar...ifferent pellets Replace Repair or chance gun Re. .Re-Iubricate Re..... II..•• ~ ••••••••• . Repair Scope rnovlnq -l1li-"'.e Sear worn or broken IR~place eocking ar.... Broken spring guide Replace with a better one Trigger sear spring bra ken Replace Trigger sprlnq broken ~... .. " • •• l1li ••• 1•••• I•• '••••• "' • .._..Iubricatea Tap I.."'. Breech seal leaks Piston washe r leaks ... "' _..-Iubricate Repair or Rept ace Over lubricated Under ... _.TRO Trigger over adjusted ~ SHOOTING 00. II •••• scre·ws' loose ..atch.. ...



.. {}1 . I I • en ~. " 1 '-J_ <..»W ~ (.1.) • -o G) • . · • I . § ~8 ·A - "oJ T. o.. II ' ..~ ~ o :AJ z m r:--\ ~.C d1. • " z . -._. • 2 Z Xl .. I --l .. r ~ I I I I .. ... __ .EERGY' OF PELLET EN E'R(3'Y IN FT LBS . m~ ..- r .. ~ • ... . './ ) I . t •.£1} ./: ·. · · r I .2 :D ..7 mo • f l- .FiJ ~. ::: - Z tf"A \0. . . ~ .. t.....:0 G. " i '. 1I' t I..z' • :AJ 38 .~ m . .. 'O.~ e3 83.~r ~ ~ Oib.

39 .

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