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Group behavior Ringelmann effect One particular feature of group versus individual performance is the concept of social loafing

and the Ringelmann effect , which is the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working as a member of a group than as an individual. McKenna and Maister The job of the group leader is to encourage people to earn the trust of others in their group and then show them how it can translate into greater commitment, greater creativity, greater professional satisfaction, and better performance

Literature Review Bennis & Nanus on transformative leadership, The capacity to translate intenetion into reality and sustain it Kurt Lewins 3 stage model that describes the process of change John Kotter identified 8 steps to tansformation

Literature Review Drucker it is the correct design of structure which is of most significance in determining
organizational performance. One hears a great deal today about the end of the hierarchy. This is blatant nonsense. In any institution there has to be a final authority, that is, a boss someone who can make the final decisions and who can expect them to be obeyed. Good organization structure does not by itself produce good performance. But a poor organization structure makes good performance impossible, no matter how good the individual managers may be. To improve organization structure will therefore always improve performance

Chris Argyris the strongest critics of the formal organization He claims that the formal,
bureaucratic organization restricts Individual growth and self-fulfillment and, in the psychologically healthy person, causes a feeling of failure, frustration and conflict Holtzhausen (2002) and states that improved supervisor employee communication is achievable through improved information flow and face-to-face communication.

Rensis Likert linking pin structure

Literature Review Deal & Kennedys model of culture considering external forces. Risk & feedback dimensions. Peter & Waterman 1982 suggested that strong cultures or those with widely accepted beliefs within the organization performed better than those with a lack of shared values. Borgatti (1996) strong culture is internally consistent, widely shared and makes it clear what appropriate behavior is, resulting in a vision that everyone understands.