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factor
Supervised by,
Dr. Hazem
Written by,
Alkhatha’ami, Mohammad
Content
Preface
1.0 Porosity
1.1 Classification of Porosity
1.2 Classification of Porosity based on their time of deposition
1.3 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity
1.4 Porosity ranges
2.0 Permeability
2.1 Classification of permeability
2.2 Laboratory Measurement of Permeability
3.0 Relation between Porosity and permeability
4.0 Skin Factor
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Description of Damage and Stimulation
4.3 Radial Composite Model for Damage and Stimulation
4.4 A Lumped Model for Damage and Stimulation: Skin Effect
4.5 Skin as a Dimensionless Pressure
4.6 Inflow Equation Including Skin
4.7 Range of Skin Values
4.8 Effect of Skin on Rate
4.9 Flow Efficiency
4.10 Apparent well bore Radius
References
Preface
This assignment deals with the properties which are considered to be fundamental
in petroleum engineering. The properties discussed are the porosity a measure of avoid
space in a rock; the permeabilitya measure of the fluid transmissivity of a rock and I will
talk about the skin factor its meaning and effect.
I know that it’s difficult to discuss those important and fundamental topics in limit
pages but, I will do my best to make it clearly and nicely assignment with some graphs
and charts.
Alkhatha’ami, Mohammad
Riyadh
732005
1.0 Porosity
Porosity is the ratio of the pore volume to the bulk volume of the reservoir rock
on percentage basis. That is
Percentage porosity =
bulkvolume
porevolume
×100
Bulk volume = the total volume of the rock
Pore volume = the volume of the pores between the grains
The measurement of porosity is important to the petroleum engineer since the
porosity determines the storage capacity of the reservoir for oil and gas. It is necessary to
distinguish between the (1) absolute porosity of a porous medium and its (1) effective
porosity. In porous rocks there will always be a number of blind or unconnected pores.
Absolute porosity includes these pores as well as those open to the flow of fluids whereas
the effective porosity measures only that part of the pore space that is available to fluid
flow(as discussed later). The figure below shows the arrangement of pores in a piece of
rock.
Fig.1
If the shape of the rock is uniform the bulk volume may be computed from measurements
of the dimensions of the rock.
1.1 Classification of Porosity
Pores are classified based on their morphological viewpoint as:
Catenary or inter connected pore: This type of pore has more than one throat
connected with other pores and extraction of hydrocarbon is relatively easy from such
pore, as shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2: Interconnected pore
Culdesac or connected or dead end: This type of pore has one throat connected with
other pores. It may yield some of the hydrocarbon by expansion as reservoir pressure
drops as shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3: Dead end pore
Closed or isolated pore: This type of pore is closed. It does not have throat and cannot
connect with other pore. It is unable to yield hydrocarbons in normal process as shown in
Fig. 4.
Fig.4
Effective porosity
The ratio of the volume of interconnected pore to the total volume of reservoir rock is
called effective porosity.
Ineffective porosity
The ratio of the total volume of closed pore to the bulk volume is termed as ineffective
porosity.
Thus the absolute or total porosity = effective porosity + ineffective porosity
Interconnected and connected pores constitute effective porosity because hydrocarbons
can move out from them. In the case of interconnected porosity, oil and gas flowing
through the pore space can be flushed out by a natural or artificial water drive. Connected
porosity is unaffected by flushing but may yield some oil or gas by expansion, as
reservoir pressure drops. Reservoirs with isolated porosity are unable to yield
hydrocarbons. Any oil or gas contained entered the pore spaces before they were closed
by compaction or cementation. Thus, isolated porosity contributes to the total porosity of
rock but not to the effective porosity.
1.2 Classification of Porosity based on their time of deposition
Reservoir Pores are found as two distinct general types in sedimentary rocks based on
their time of formation. These are: (1) Primary, or Intergranular or Depositional Porosity
and (2) Secondary, or Intermediate or Postdepositional Porosity.
Each type of the pore has subdivisions, which can be summarized in Table 1 below:
Table 1: Classification of different type of formation
Main type (Time of
formation)
Subtype Origin
Intergranular, or
Interparticle
Itragranular, or
intraparticle
Sedimentation Primary or Depositional
Intercrystalline
Fenestral
Cementation
Vuggy
Modic
Solution
Secondary or Post
depositional
Fracture Tectonics,
Compaction,
Dehydration,
Diagenesis
*
Primary Porosity
Primary porosity is divisible into two types: intergranular or interparticle porosity, which
occurs between the grains of a sediment (Fig. 5) and intragranular or intraparticle
porosity
Fig. 5
*
Diagenesis: The changes that take place in a sediment as a result of increased temperatures and pressures, causing
solid rock to form, for example, as sand becomes sandstone
This actually occurs within the sediment grains them selves (Fig. 6)
Fig. 6
Intergranular porosity is more typical of sandstones. It is also generally found within
newlydeposited lime sand. However, in lime sands it is seldom preserved because of
porosity loss by cementation.
With intergranular porosity, the pore spaces are connected, one to another, by throat
passages (Fig. 5). Unless there is extensive later cementation, reservoirs with
intergranular porosity generally have both good interconnected porosity and good
permeability. Effective porosity in these reservoirs is equivalent to total porosity.
Intragranular porosity is more typical of newlydeposited skeletal lime sands. Fig. 6 is a
sketch of a thin section of a limestone reservoir showing pore spaces within skeletal
grains. It is unusual for such pores to be preserved. They are generally infilled during
early burial by cementation but, in some cases, the cement may be leached out to leave
the original intraparticle pore.
Secondary Porosity
Secondary porosity is porosity formed within a reservoir after deposition. The major
types of secondary porosity are:
Fenestral;
Intercrystalline
Solution (moldic and vuggy);
Fracture
Fenestral porosity is developed where there is a gap in the rock framework larger than the
normal grainsupported pore spaces. Fenestral porosity is characteristic of lagoonal
pelmicrites in which dehydration has caused shrinkage and buckling of the laminae. This
type of porosity is less frequently encountered.
Intercrystalline porosity occurs between crystals and is the type of porosity found in
several important oil and gas fields. In recrystallized limestones, intercrystalline porosity
is negligible. However, crystalline dolomites often possess high intercrystalline porosity.
Fig. 7 is a sketch of a thin section of a crystalline dolomite reservoir. These reservoirs are
usually composed of secondary dolomite formed by "dolomitization", the process
whereby a preexisting calcium carbonate deposit is replaced by dolomite.
Fig. 7
It is this type of intercrystalline porosity that gives secondary dolomites their
characteristic saccaroidal (sugary) texture, and can make them such good reservoirs.
Several types of secondary porosity can be caused by solution. This is a critical process in
developing porosity in carbonates, but it can develop secondary porosity in sandstones as
well. There are several ways the solution process actually occurs.
Figure 8 shows secondary solution pores developed in a limestone.
Fig. 8
Some of the pores are round. These are where pellets of lime mud have been leached out.
This type of fabricselective porosity is referred to as moldic, and these pore, therefore, as
pelmoldic. Some irregular pore spaces which crosscut the original fabric of rock should
also be noted. These pores are known as vugs and the porosity is referred to as vuggy.
If limestone has undergone extensive solution, the vugs may become very large, or
cavernous. With solution porosity the adjacent pore spaces may not be connected; there
fore, the effective porosity may be much lower than the total porosity, and the
permeability may also be low. Cavernous pores up to five meters high are found in the
Fusselman limestone of the Dollarhide field of Texas (Stormont, 1949) and in the Arab D
Jurassic limestone of the Abqaiq field, Saudi Arabia (McConnell, 1951).
The last significant type of secondary porosity is fracture porosity. Fractured reservoirs
can occur in any brittle rock that breaks by fracturing rather than by plastic deformation.
Thus, there are fractured reservoirs in shales, hardcemented quartzitic sandstones,
limestones, dolomites and, of course, basement rocks such as granites and metamorphics.
As shown in Fig. 9, fractures may develop from tectonic forces associated with folding
and faulting.
Fig. 9
They may also develop from overburden unloading and weathering immediately under
unconformities. Shrinkage from cooling of igneous rocks and dehydrating of shales also
causes fracturing.
Fractures are generally vertical to sub vertical with widths varying from paper thin to
about 6 mm (Fig. 10). When this type of porosity is developed, the reservoir may have an
extremely high permeability, although the actual porosity may not be very high.
Fig. 10
One must be able to distinguish between fracture porosity and porosity which occurs
within the rock itself. Very often fractures are an important part of storage capacity, and
sometimes only oil or gas from the fracture pore space itself is actually produced.
Fracture porosity can result in high production rates during initial testing of a well,
followed by a rapid decline in production thereafter. When a rock has been fractured, the
fractures do not necessarily remain open. They may be in filled by later cementation by
silica, calcite or dolomite (Fig. 11).
Fig. 11
Fig.12 shows the relation between porosity and reservoir frequency.
Fig.12
Any porosity less than five percent is very seldom commercial, and any porosity over
thirtyfive percent is extremely unusual. Porosity can be measured in the laboratory from
cores and down the borehole using well logs, especially the sonic, density and neutron
logs. Occasionally, it can be estimated from seismic data (as I will discuss later).
Development of Secondary porosity
Secondary porosity is caused by the action of the formation fluids or tectonic forces on
the rock matrix after deposition.
For instance, slightly acidic percolating fluid may create and enlarge the pore spaces
while moving through the interconnecting channels in the limestone formation by
dissolving its materials and create vugs (small caves), moldic or cavernous pore.
Secondary porosity is, however, usually resulted from and/or modified by
Solution
Fractures and joints
Recrystallization and dolomitization
Cementation and compaction
1.3 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity
Bulk volume is first determined by displacement of liquid, or by accurately
measuring a shaped sample and computing its volume.
Then any of the following methods are used to measure either the pore volume or grain
volume.
1. Summation of Pore Fluids – involves independent determination of gas, oil and pore
water volumes from a fresh core sample. The pore volume is determined by adding up the
three independent volumes.
2. WashburnBunting Method – measures pore volume by vacuum extraction and
collection of the gas (usually air) contained in the pores.
3. Liquid Resaturation – pores of a prepared sample are filled with a liquid of known
density and the weight increase of the sample is divided by the liquid density.
4. Boyle’s Law Method – involves the compression of a gas into the pores or the
expansion of gas from the pores of a prepared sample. Either pore volume or grain
volume may be determined depending upon the porosimeter and procedure used.
5. Grain Density – measures total porosity. After the dry weight and bulk volume of the
sample are determined, the sample is reduced to grain size and the grain volume is
determined and subtracted from the bulk volume.
Another method of porosity determination is by petrographic analysis of thin sections of
a rock sample. This is done by point counting of pores under a microscope. Impregnation
of the sample in a vacuum with dyed resin facilitates pore identification.
A common source of porosity data are the well logs. Porosity may be calculated from the
sonic, density, and neutron logs. These three logs are usually referred to as porosity logs.
Porosity may also be obtained from the resistivity logs.
Fig.13 below shows some devices used to determining porosity.
Fig.13
1.4 Porosity ranges
Fig.14 shows how porosity ranges in rocks.
Fig.14
2.0 Permeability
Permeability: is a measure of a rock's ability to conduct fluids.
Figu.15 shows how the permeability of a rock sample can be measured.
Fig.15: Permeability measurement
A fluid of known viscosity is pumped through a rock sample of known crosssectional
area and length. The pressure drop across the sample is measured through pressure
gauges.
The unit of permeability is the Darcy. A rock having a permeability of one Darcy allows
a fluid of one centipoises (CP) viscosity to flow at a velocity of one centimeter per
second for a pressure drop of one atmosphere per centimeter. The formula for Darcy's
Law as formulated by Muskat and Botset is as follows:
Where:
q = rate of flow
k = permeability
(P1  P2) = pressure drop across the sample
A = crosssectional area of sample
= viscosity of fluid
L = length of the sample
Since most reservoirs have permeabilities that are much less than a Darcy, the millidarcy
(one thousandth of a Darcy) is commonly used for measurement. Permeability is
generally referred to by the letter k.
In the form shown above, Darcy's law is only valid when there is no chemical reaction
between the fluid and rock, and when there is only one fluid phase present completely
filling the pores. The situation is far more complex for mixed oil or gas phases, although
we can apply a modified Darcytype equation. Average permeabilities in reservoirs
commonly range from 5 to 500 millidarcies. Some reservoirs, however, have extremely
high permeabilities. Some of the Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs of the Burgan field in
Kuwait, for example, have permeabilities of 4,000 millidarcies (Greig, 1958).
Since flow rate depends on the ratio of permeability to viscosity, gas reservoirs may be
able to flow at commercial rates with permeabilities of only a few millidarcies. However,
oil reservoirs generally need permeabilities in the order of tens of millidarcies to be
commercial. Fanall, you must note that the permeability is a property of a rock not of the
fluid.
2.1 Classification of permeability
Absolute Permeability (k):
Permeability of a rock to a fluid when the rock is 100% saturated with that fluid.
Effective Permeability (k
e
):
It has been found that in sand containing more one fluid the presence of one materially
impedes the flow of the other. This has given rise to the use of the term effective
permeability impedes, which may be defined as the apparent permeability to a particular
phase (oil, gas or water) or saturation with more than one phase. The amount that flow is
impeded depends upon the saturation of the fluids in the sand. The lower the saturation of
a particular fluid in the sand, the less readily that fluid flows; or, stated in another way,
the lower the saturation of particular fluid in sand, the lower is the effective permeability
to that fluid.
Relative Permeability (k
r
):
Relative permeability is another term used in reservoir calculation. Relative permeability
is the ratio of the effective permeability to a particular phase to the normal (absolute)
permeability of the sand. The unit of effective permeability is the Darcy while the relative
permeability is being a ratio, has no unit.
2.2 Laboratory Measurement of Permeability
Laboratory measurement of permeability usually uses air as the flow fluid and thus the
value obtained is permeability to air (K
air
). Common device that may used to determining
(k) is shown below.
Fig.15
Permeability values may also be obtained from results of the following flow test
1RFT – repeat formation test.
2 DST – drill stem test.
New methods of quantification of permeability using well logs are also being developed:
1 Resistivity Gradient.
2 Porosity and Water Saturation.
3.0 Relation between Porosity and permeability
Many investigators have attempted to correlate permeability to porosity, grain size and
shape, and packing. The most frequently used relation was developed by Kozeny as
follows:
k = Φ
3
/ (5×Sv× (1Φ)
2
)
k = permeability, cm
2
(= 1.013 x 10
8
Darcies)
Φ = effective porosity
Sv = total grain surface/unit volume of reservoir, cm
2
/cm
3
The following figures show the relationship of grain size (Fig.16) and sorting (Fig.17a) &
(Fig.17b) to porosity and permeability.
(Fig.16) porosity, permeability and grain size. Porosity is not affected by grain size but
permeability increases with increase in grain size.
(Fig.17a) & (Fig.17b) Porosity and permeability are affected by sorting, both increases
with better sorting.
Fig.16
Fig.17a
Fig.17b
4.0 Skin Factor
4.1 Introduction
The well skin effect is a composite variable. In general, any phenomenon that causes a
distortion of the flow lines from the perfectly normal to the well direction or a restriction
to flow (which could be viewed as a distortion at the porethroat scale) would result in a
positive value of the skin effect.
Positive skin effects can be created by “mechanical” causes such as partial completion
(i.e., a perforated height that is less that is less than reservoir height) and inadequate
number of perforations (again , causing a distortion of flow lines), by phase changes
(relative permeability reduction to the main fluid) , turbulence,and,of course, by damage
to the natural reservoir permeability.
A negative skin effect denotes that the pressure drop in the nearwell bore zone is less
than would have been from the normal, undisturbed, reservoir flow mechanisms. Such a
negative skin effect, or a negative contribution to the total skin effect, may be the result
of matrix stimulation (the nearwell bore permeability exceeds the normal value),
hydraulic fracturing, or a highly inclined well bore.Finally,note that while the skin effect
is dimensionless, the associated damage zone is not .
4.2 Description of Damage and Stimulation
The processes of drilling, completing and producing an oil or gas well include many
mechanical, hydraulic, and chemical processes. Many wells are drilled overbalanced, so
that drilling fluids migrate into the nearwell area. The fine particles in the muds may
plug pore throats, or the filtrate may react chemically with clays in the formation – either
of these processes can reduce the nearwell permeability dramatically. Completions may
further reduce the productive capacity of the well: the well may be cased and perforated
(reducing the inflow area compared to an openhole completion), partially penetrating
(reduced thickness for inflow), or internal gravelpacked (pressure loss through
perforations, gravel, and screen). On the other hand, the pressuredrop in the nearwell
area can sometimes be increased. This could be accomplished by fracture treatments or
acid treatments. Attempts to lower the pressure drop in the nearwell area are often called
“stimulation.”
I will present some sketches of these situations in this assignment.
4.3 Radial Composite Model for Damage and Stimulation
The simplest model for well bore alteration
is a radial composite model. The
permeability is assumed to be altered from
the formation permeability, k , to the
“altered” or “skin” permeability,
s
k , in a
region
s w
r r r ≤ ≤ (Fig. 18). For situations
with k
s
< k (damage), this results in an
increased pressure drop,
s
p ∆ . Note that
s
p ∆ is NOT the pressure drop across the
skin region! It is the change in pressure drop
for the composite model (the model with
altered permeability) compared with the
model with no altered permeability region.
For damage,
s
p ∆ is positive whereas
s
p ∆ is
negative for stimulation. I guarantee some
students will confuse
s
p ∆ with ( )
w s
r p r p − ) ( .
Look at Fig.18, and make certain that you
understand the difference!
We can now write expressions for the pressure drops using our knowledge of the radial
flow equation and series flow. The pressure drop across the skin region is
[ ]


¹

\

= −
w
s
s
s w s
r
r
h k
B q
r p r p ln
2
) ( ) (
π
µ
…………. (1)
Fig.18 – From the centerline (CL), the
wellbore extends to rw. A region of altered
permeability, ks, extends rw to the skin radius,
rs. The unaltered permeability, k, then
extends to the outer radius, re. From Horne.
Note that this pressure drop increases as r
s
increases and k
s
decreases: this makes senses,
because thicker, lower permeability skin zones cause more pressure drop, and more
damage. If the permeability had not been altered, the pressure drop would be
[ ]


¹

\

= −
w
s
w s
r
r
kh
B q
r p r p ln
2
) ( ) (
0
π
µ
…………… (2)
Combining Eqns. (1) and (2), we get an equation for
s
p ∆ :
[ ] [ ]
−


¹

\

=
−


¹

\

=
− − − = ∆
1 ln
2
1 1
ln
2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0
s w
s
s w
s
w s s w s s
k
k
r
r
kh
B q
k k r
r
h
B q
r p r p r p r p p
π
µ
π
µ
........ (3)
Examine the term
−1
s
k
k
. Note that
s
p ∆ will be positive when k>k
s
, and negative when
k<k
s
. If the well is much damaged, and k k
s
<< , then this term will be positive, and
s
p ∆ will tend to be large (and could approach infinity). If the well is stimulated, k k
s
>> ,
and the and
−1
s
k
k
can be no smaller than 1. This is an important point: the amount of
damage is theoretically unlimited, but the maximum possible stimulation is limited. The
pressure drop ( )
w s
r p r p − ) ( will always be positive for a producing well,
s
p ∆ can be
negative (for stimulation) or positive (for damage). The magnitude of the pressure drop
also increases as the dimensionless skin radius


¹

\

w
s
r
r
increases due to the term


¹

\

w
s
r
r
ln .
This makes sense: thicker skin, more effect. Finally, the pressure drop is scaled by the
group
kh
B q
π
µ
2
. Thus, for example, higher flow rates imply higher
s
p ∆ .
Let’s examine this group,
kh
B q
π
µ
2
, more closely. Because the left hand side (LHS) of Eqn.
(3) is a pressure, and the terms


¹

\

w
s
r
r
ln and
−1
s
k
k
are dimensionless, the dimensions of
kh
B q
π
µ
2
must be pressure. That is,
kh
B q
π
µ
2
scales the dimensionless groups


¹

\

w
s
r
r
ln ×
−1
s
k
k
.
The pressure drop is proportional to this group; increasing q has the same effect as
decreasing h or k by the same factor. We will use this scaling later in the discussion of
skin below: it is the basis of dimensionless pressure for radial flow.
4.4 A Lumped Model for Damage and Stimulation: Skin Effect
As it turns out, well test analysis allows us to estimate
s
p ∆ but it does not allow us to
estimate either k
s
or r
s
. These would be nice to know, it is just that the time scales and
physical limitations of well tests usually prevent their estimation. For this reason, instead
of the product


¹

\

w
s
r
r
ln ×
−1
s
k
k
reservoir engineers usually must work with another
variable called skin and represented as s. Rewriting Eqn. (3),
s
kh
B q
k
k
r
r
kh
B q
p
s w
s
s
π
µ
π
µ
2
1 ln
2
=
−


¹

\

= ∆
(4)
The definition of skin in terms of the composite radial model is
−


¹

\

= 1 ln
s w
s
k
k
r
r
s (5)
and in terms of pressure drop s is
s
p
B q
kh
s ∆ =
µ
π 2
(6a)
in consistent units, or
s
p
B q
kh
s ∆ =
µ
00708 . 0
(6b)
in field units.
We can use Eqn. (5) to obtain a skin value if we have a model for the radial distribution
of permeability, whereas we will use Eqn. (6) to estimate s from
s
p ∆ , which can be
inferred from a well test.
4.5 Skin as a Dimensionless Pressure
The skin factor s is dimensionless. In fact, it can be thought of as the dimensionless
pressure drop due to nearwell permeability alteration. In radial flow, the dimensionless
pressure and dimensional pressure are related by
p
B q
kh
p
D
∆ =
µ
π 2
(7a)
in consistent units, or
p
B q
kh
p
D
∆ =
µ
00708 . 0
(7b)
in field units. We will use these definitions extensively in well test design and analysis.
4.6 Inflow Equation Including Skin
We know the steadystate radial flow of incompressible liquids can be expressed as


¹

\

−
=
w
w
r
r
p p
B
kh
q
ln
) ( 2
µ
π
Solving for ), (
w
p p −


¹

\

= −
w
w
r
r
kh
B q
p p ln
2
) (
π
µ
Using the concept of
s
p ∆
+


¹

\

−
=
+


¹

\

= −
+


¹

\

= −
∆ +


¹

\

= −
s
r
r
B
p p kh
q
s
r
r
kh
B q
p p
s
kh
B q
r
r
kh
B q
p p
p
r
r
kh
B q
p p
w
w
w
w
w
w
s
w
w
ln
) ( 2
ln
2
) (
2
ln
2
) (
ln
2
) (
µ
π
π
µ
π
µ
π
µ
π
µ
(8)
Skin is simply added to the log term in the denominator of the inflow equation. So we can
“visualize” s as a sort of additional distance that the fluid must flow. Of course, it is
actually dimensionless.
4.7 Range of Skin Values
Skin values can easily be computed using Eqn. (5). Such a plot is shown in Fig.19. The
most important thing to note is how very large the positive (damage) skins can be; the
absolute value of the stimulated skins is very small in comparison (for the same
permeability ratio k k
s
/ and radius ration r r
s
/ .
1.1
1.2
1.4
2
4
8
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
25
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
Skin
Radius Ration
Permeability Ratio
200225
175200
150175
125150
100125
75100
5075
2550
025
250
Fig.19 – Skin as a function of size and permeability of altered zone.
This behavior is easy to understand if we consider the pressure profiles. Rather than
looking at the profiles in r (Fig. 18), it is easier to plot them in ) ln(r (Fig.20). Note that
the profiles take a different form if we assume constant rate versus constant pressure
drop.
4.8 Effect of Skin on Rate
If we examine the radial inflow equation with skin [Eqn. (8)], we can see flow rate for a
given available pressure drop is inversely related to
+


¹

\

s
r
r
w
ln . For typical well
spacings, 2000 / ≈
w e
r r so than the logarithm will have a value of about 8 (note that our
analysis isn’t very sensitive to the ratio because we are taking its log). This means that a
skin value of 8 roughly cuts the flow rate in half, or of 4 will roughly double the flow
rate. Keep in mind that this simple analysis does not consider tubing pressure drops.
Skin
Reservoir
stimulated
damaged
Constant q
Skin
Reservoir
stimulated
damaged
Constant Dp
Fig.20 Radial pressure profiles. The vertical axis is pressure, the horizontal
axis is the log of radius. The left side of the figure is the well, the right side is
the outer boundary. The hatched region has altered permeability.
4.9 Flow Efficiency
The flow efficiency of a well is simply the ratio of its unaltered flow capacity to it actual
flow capacity. This is [from Eqn. (8)],
s
r
r
r
r
s q
s q
F
w
e
w
e
E
+


¹

\



¹

\

=
=
=
ln
ln
) 0 (
) (
(9)
Eqn. (9) applies to steadystate systems only. As noted by Horne, F
E
is harder to
interpret in general (for example, for transient systems). It is usually more consistent to
use s, but flow efficiency can be a useful and simpletoexplain quantification of rate
change due to damage or stimulation.
4.10 Apparent well bore Radius
We can also express the effect of skin as an equivalent well bore radius, using the radial
inflow equation with skin [Eqn. (8)]:


¹

\

∆
=
+


¹

\

∆
e
a w
e
e
r
r
p kh
s
r
r
p kh
ln
2
ln
2 π π
Rearranging,
s
w a w
w
e s
wa
e
w
e
wa
e
w
e
wa
e
e r r
r
r
e
r
r
s
r
r
r
r
s
r
r
r
r
−
=


¹

\

=
+


¹

\

=
+


¹

\

=


¹

\

ln exp
ln ln
(10)
Positive skins cause an additional resistance; this effect is similar to reducing the well
bore radius. Conversely, negative skins are analogous to increasing the well bore radius.
References
1. Amyx, Petroleum reservoir engineering
2. Milton, et al:Relative permeability mesurement
3. Feitosa, G., Chu, L., Thompson, L. and Reynolds, A.: “Determination
of Fermeabiiity Distributions From. W~liT=t
4. Data Part I  Drawdown Analysis and Stabilized Inflow
Performance Relations,” TUPREP Researrh Report 9; Voltime
(May 1993) 1380.
5. Feitosa, G., Chu, L., Thompson, L. and Reynolds, A.: “Determination
of Permeability DwAributions From WellTest
Data: Part 11 Buildup Analysis,” TUPREP Research Report
Volume J (May 1993) 81105.
6. Feitosa, G., Chu, L., Thompson, L. and Reynolds, A.: “Determination
of Permeability Ihstriiiuhons Froml Wdi’I’eSt
7. Pressure Data? paper SPE 26047, presented at the 1993
8. SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anchorage May 2628.
9. Feitosa, G., Chu, L., Thompsor+ L. and Reynolds, A.: “Determination
of Permeability DAribntions From Pressure
10. Buildup Data,” aper SPE 26457, presented at the 1993
11. SPE Annual Tec nical Conference and Exhibition, Houston,
Olive!, D. S.: “The Avera ing Process in Permeability Es
timatlon From WellTest at a,” SPEFE (Sept. 1990) 319
12. Warren, J. E. and Price, H.S.: “Flow in Heterogeneous
Porous Media: SPEJ (Sept. 1961) 153169.
13. Hawkins, M.F. Jr.: “A Note on the Skin Effect: Trans.
AIME (1956) 356357.
14. Chu, L. and Reynolds, A.: “Wellbore Storage and Skin”
15. www.pete.org
Content
Preface
1.0 Porosity 1.1 Classification of Porosity 1.2 Classification of Porosity based on their time of deposition 1.3 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity 1.4 Porosity ranges 2.0 Permeability 2.1 Classification of permeability 2.2 Laboratory Measurement of Permeability 3.0 Relation between Porosity and permeability 4.0 Skin Factor 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Description of Damage and Stimulation 4.3 Radial Composite Model for Damage and Stimulation 4.4 A Lumped Model for Damage and Stimulation: Skin Effect 4.5 Skin as a Dimensionless Pressure 4.6 Inflow Equation Including Skin 4.7 Range of Skin Values 4.8 Effect of Skin on Rate 4.9 Flow Efficiency 4.10 Apparent well bore Radius
References
Alkhatha’ami. the permeabilitya measure of the fluid transmissivity of a rock and I will talk about the skin factor its meaning and effect. Mohammad Riyadh 732005 . I will do my best to make it clearly and nicely assignment with some graphs and charts. I know that it’s difficult to discuss those important and fundamental topics in limit pages but.Preface This assignment deals with the properties which are considered to be fundamental in petroleum engineering. The properties discussed are the porosity a measure of avoid space in a rock.
Absolute porosity includes these pores as well as those open to the flow of fluids whereas the effective porosity measures only that part of the pore space that is available to fluid flow(as discussed later).1 If the shape of the rock is uniform the bulk volume may be computed from measurements of the dimensions of the rock. In porous rocks there will always be a number of blind or unconnected pores.0 Porosity Porosity is the ratio of the pore volume to the bulk volume of the reservoir rock on percentage basis. The figure below shows the arrangement of pores in a piece of rock. .1. It is necessary to distinguish between the (1) absolute porosity of a porous medium and its (1) effective porosity. That is Percentage porosity = porevolume ×100 bulkvolume Bulk volume = the total volume of the rock Pore volume = the volume of the pores between the grains The measurement of porosity is important to the petroleum engineer since the porosity determines the storage capacity of the reservoir for oil and gas. Fig.
It may yield some of the hydrocarbon by expansion as reservoir pressure drops as shown in Fig. It does not have throat and cannot connect with other pore. 3. 4. Fig. 2: Interconnected pore Culdesac or connected or dead end: This type of pore has one throat connected with other pores.1 Classification of Porosity Pores are classified based on their morphological viewpoint as: Catenary or inter connected pore: This type of pore has more than one throat connected with other pores and extraction of hydrocarbon is relatively easy from such pore. 2. It is unable to yield hydrocarbons in normal process as shown in Fig.1. 3: Dead end pore Closed or isolated pore: This type of pore is closed. Fig. . as shown in Fig.
4 Effective porosity The ratio of the volume of interconnected pore to the total volume of reservoir rock is called effective porosity. Reservoirs with isolated porosity are unable to yield hydrocarbons.Fig. isolated porosity contributes to the total porosity of rock but not to the effective porosity. as reservoir pressure drops. or Intergranular or Depositional Porosity and (2) Secondary. Thus.2 Classification of Porosity based on their time of deposition Reservoir Pores are found as two distinct general types in sedimentary rocks based on their time of formation. In the case of interconnected porosity. These are: (1) Primary. 1. Thus the absolute or total porosity = effective porosity + ineffective porosity Interconnected and connected pores constitute effective porosity because hydrocarbons can move out from them. . Any oil or gas contained entered the pore spaces before they were closed by compaction or cementation. or Intermediate or Postdepositional Porosity. Connected porosity is unaffected by flushing but may yield some oil or gas by expansion. Ineffective porosity The ratio of the total volume of closed pore to the bulk volume is termed as ineffective porosity. oil and gas flowing through the pore space can be flushed out by a natural or artificial water drive.
or Interparticle Itragranular. which can be summarized in Table 1 below: Table 1: Classification of different type of formation Main type (Time of formation) Primary or Depositional Subtype Intergranular. causing solid rock to form. Compaction. for example. 5 * Diagenesis: The changes that take place in a sediment as a result of increased temperatures and pressures. or intraparticle Intercrystalline Fenestral Vuggy Modic Fracture Origin Sedimentation Cementation Solution Tectonics.Each type of the pore has subdivisions. which occurs between the grains of a sediment (Fig. 5) and intragranular or intraparticle porosity Fig. Diagenesis* Secondary or Postdepositional Primary Porosity Primary porosity is divisible into two types: intergranular or interparticle porosity. Dehydration. as sand becomes sandstone .
Intercrystalline Solution (moldic and vuggy). 6 Intergranular porosity is more typical of sandstones. It is also generally found within newlydeposited lime sand. Fenestral porosity is characteristic of lagoonal pelmicrites in which dehydration has caused shrinkage and buckling of the laminae. Intragranular porosity is more typical of newlydeposited skeletal lime sands. Fig. Fracture Fenestral porosity is developed where there is a gap in the rock framework larger than the normal grainsupported pore spaces. crystalline dolomites often possess high intercrystalline porosity. However. Effective porosity in these reservoirs is equivalent to total porosity. Secondary Porosity Secondary porosity is porosity formed within a reservoir after deposition.This actually occurs within the sediment grains them selves (Fig. Unless there is extensive later cementation. the cement may be leached out to leave the original intraparticle pore. intercrystalline porosity is negligible. by throat passages (Fig. in some cases. They are generally infilled during early burial by cementation but. . 6) Fig. It is unusual for such pores to be preserved. In recrystallized limestones. in lime sands it is seldom preserved because of porosity loss by cementation. reservoirs with intergranular porosity generally have both good interconnected porosity and good permeability. Intercrystalline porosity occurs between crystals and is the type of porosity found in several important oil and gas fields. the pore spaces are connected. This type of porosity is less frequently encountered. With intergranular porosity. However. 5). 6 is a sketch of a thin section of a limestone reservoir showing pore spaces within skeletal grains. one to another. The major types of secondary porosity are: Fenestral.
8 Some of the pores are round. There are several ways the solution process actually occurs. and can make them such good reservoirs. Fig. This type of fabricselective porosity is referred to as moldic. If limestone has undergone extensive solution.Fig. there . the vugs may become very large. as pelmoldic. the process whereby a preexisting calcium carbonate deposit is replaced by dolomite. and these pore. but it can develop secondary porosity in sandstones as well. Several types of secondary porosity can be caused by solution. Some irregular pore spaces which crosscut the original fabric of rock should also be noted. 7 It is this type of intercrystalline porosity that gives secondary dolomites their characteristic saccaroidal (sugary) texture. These are where pellets of lime mud have been leached out. 7 is a sketch of a thin section of a crystalline dolomite reservoir. Figure 8 shows secondary solution pores developed in a limestone. therefore. Fig. This is a critical process in developing porosity in carbonates. or cavernous. With solution porosity the adjacent pore spaces may not be connected. These pores are known as vugs and the porosity is referred to as vuggy. These reservoirs are usually composed of secondary dolomite formed by "dolomitization".
hardcemented quartzitic sandstones. The last significant type of secondary porosity is fracture porosity. the reservoir may have an extremely high permeability. Shrinkage from cooling of igneous rocks and dehydrating of shales also causes fracturing. 9. Fractured reservoirs can occur in any brittle rock that breaks by fracturing rather than by plastic deformation. fractures may develop from tectonic forces associated with folding and faulting. Cavernous pores up to five meters high are found in the Fusselman limestone of the Dollarhide field of Texas (Stormont. of course. As shown in Fig.fore. dolomites and. there are fractured reservoirs in shales. Fractures are generally vertical to sub vertical with widths varying from paper thin to about 6 mm (Fig. Thus. Fig. limestones. although the actual porosity may not be very high. 1951). basement rocks such as granites and metamorphics. the effective porosity may be much lower than the total porosity. 10 . 1949) and in the Arab D Jurassic limestone of the Abqaiq field. and the permeability may also be low. Saudi Arabia (McConnell. When this type of porosity is developed. Fig. 10). 9 They may also develop from overburden unloading and weathering immediately under unconformities.
the fractures do not necessarily remain open. calcite or dolomite (Fig. 11 Fig.12 . Very often fractures are an important part of storage capacity.One must be able to distinguish between fracture porosity and porosity which occurs within the rock itself.12 shows the relation between porosity and reservoir frequency. They may be in filled by later cementation by silica. When a rock has been fractured. Fig. Fracture porosity can result in high production rates during initial testing of a well. Fig. and sometimes only oil or gas from the fracture pore space itself is actually produced. followed by a rapid decline in production thereafter. 11).
Grain Density – measures total porosity. or by accurately measuring a shaped sample and computing its volume. Another method of porosity determination is by petrographic analysis of thin sections of a rock sample. Occasionally. Summation of Pore Fluids – involves independent determination of gas. however. After the dry weight and bulk volume of the sample are determined.Any porosity less than five percent is very seldom commercial. The pore volume is determined by adding up the three independent volumes. the sample is reduced to grain size and the grain volume is determined and subtracted from the bulk volume. Either pore volume or grain volume may be determined depending upon the porosimeter and procedure used. For instance. 2. Impregnation of the sample in a vacuum with dyed resin facilitates pore identification. Then any of the following methods are used to measure either the pore volume or grain volume. usually resulted from and/or modified by Solution Fractures and joints Recrystallization and dolomitization Cementation and compaction 1. Development of Secondary porosity Secondary porosity is caused by the action of the formation fluids or tectonic forces on the rock matrix after deposition. This is done by point counting of pores under a microscope. density and neutron logs. slightly acidic percolating fluid may create and enlarge the pore spaces while moving through the interconnecting channels in the limestone formation by dissolving its materials and create vugs (small caves). 4.3 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity Bulk volume is first determined by displacement of liquid. Liquid Resaturation – pores of a prepared sample are filled with a liquid of known density and the weight increase of the sample is divided by the liquid density. moldic or cavernous pore. oil and pore water volumes from a fresh core sample. 5. especially the sonic. WashburnBunting Method – measures pore volume by vacuum extraction and collection of the gas (usually air) contained in the pores. . 3. Secondary porosity is. it can be estimated from seismic data (as I will discuss later). Boyle’s Law Method – involves the compression of a gas into the pores or the expansion of gas from the pores of a prepared sample. 1. Porosity can be measured in the laboratory from cores and down the borehole using well logs. and any porosity over thirtyfive percent is extremely unusual.
13 below shows some devices used to determining porosity. density. Fig. These three logs are usually referred to as porosity logs. Fig. and neutron logs.13 . Porosity may be calculated from the sonic. Porosity may also be obtained from the resistivity logs.A common source of porosity data are the well logs.
Fig.14 .4 Porosity ranges Fig.14 shows how porosity ranges in rocks.1.
. Darcy's law is only valid when there is no chemical reaction between the fluid and rock. Fanall. Permeability is generally referred to by the letter k. have permeabilities of 4. Fig.000 millidarcies (Greig. for example. In the form shown above.15 shows how the permeability of a rock sample can be measured. however. gas reservoirs may be able to flow at commercial rates with permeabilities of only a few millidarcies. oil reservoirs generally need permeabilities in the order of tens of millidarcies to be commercial. The situation is far more complex for mixed oil or gas phases. A rock having a permeability of one Darcy allows a fluid of one centipoises (CP) viscosity to flow at a velocity of one centimeter per second for a pressure drop of one atmosphere per centimeter.P2) = pressure drop across the sample A = crosssectional area of sample = viscosity of fluid L = length of the sample Since most reservoirs have permeabilities that are much less than a Darcy. have extremely high permeabilities. Figu. Since flow rate depends on the ratio of permeability to viscosity. However.0 Permeability Permeability: is a measure of a rock's ability to conduct fluids.15: Permeability measurement A fluid of known viscosity is pumped through a rock sample of known crosssectional area and length. although we can apply a modified Darcytype equation.2. Some of the Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs of the Burgan field in Kuwait. 1958). The formula for Darcy's Law as formulated by Muskat and Botset is as follows: Where: q = rate of flow k = permeability (P1 . you must note that the permeability is a property of a rock not of the fluid. Some reservoirs. The pressure drop across the sample is measured through pressure gauges. the millidarcy (one thousandth of a Darcy) is commonly used for measurement. and when there is only one fluid phase present completely filling the pores. The unit of permeability is the Darcy. Average permeabilities in reservoirs commonly range from 5 to 500 millidarcies.
2. The amount that flow is impeded depends upon the saturation of the fluids in the sand.2 Laboratory Measurement of Permeability Laboratory measurement of permeability usually uses air as the flow fluid and thus the value obtained is permeability to air (Kair). the lower the saturation of particular fluid in sand. Relative Permeability (kr): Relative permeability is another term used in reservoir calculation. .1 Classification of permeability Absolute Permeability (k): Permeability of a rock to a fluid when the rock is 100% saturated with that fluid. gas or water) or saturation with more than one phase. the less readily that fluid flows. which may be defined as the apparent permeability to a particular phase (oil. The unit of effective permeability is the Darcy while the relative permeability is being a ratio. Common device that may used to determining (k) is shown below. or. has no unit. 2. The lower the saturation of a particular fluid in the sand. Effective Permeability (ke): It has been found that in sand containing more one fluid the presence of one materially impedes the flow of the other. stated in another way. This has given rise to the use of the term effective permeability impedes. Relative permeability is the ratio of the effective permeability to a particular phase to the normal (absolute) permeability of the sand. the lower is the effective permeability to that fluid.
17b) to porosity and permeability.0 Relation between Porosity and permeability Many investigators have attempted to correlate permeability to porosity.16) and sorting (Fig. permeability and grain size. 2.17a) & (Fig.013 x 108 Darcies) Φ = effective porosity Sv = total grain surface/unit volume of reservoir. New methods of quantification of permeability using well logs are also being developed: 1. (Fig. Porosity is not affected by grain size but permeability increases with increase in grain size.17b) Porosity and permeability are affected by sorting. cm2 (= 1.Resistivity Gradient.DST – drill stem test.Porosity and Water Saturation. 3. both increases with better sorting.Fig. and packing. The most frequently used relation was developed by Kozeny as follows: k = Φ3/ (5×Sv× (1Φ) 2) k = permeability. .15 Permeability values may also be obtained from results of the following flow test 1RFT – repeat formation test. grain size and shape.17a) & (Fig.16) porosity. (Fig. 2. cm2/cm3 The following figures show the relationship of grain size (Fig.
16 Fig.Fig.17a .
causing a distortion of flow lines). hydraulic fracturing. undisturbed.note that while the skin effect is dimensionless. . by phase changes (relative permeability reduction to the main fluid) . turbulence. or a negative contribution to the total skin effect. may be the result of matrix stimulation (the nearwell bore permeability exceeds the normal value). any phenomenon that causes a distortion of the flow lines from the perfectly normal to the well direction or a restriction to flow (which could be viewed as a distortion at the porethroat scale) would result in a positive value of the skin effect.and. reservoir flow mechanisms.e. Positive skin effects can be created by “mechanical” causes such as partial completion (i. the associated damage zone is not .1 Introduction The well skin effect is a composite variable.Finally.of course. a perforated height that is less that is less than reservoir height) and inadequate number of perforations (again . Such a negative skin effect. by damage to the natural reservoir permeability.0 Skin Factor 4.Fig. In general. or a highly inclined well bore.17b 4.. A negative skin effect denotes that the pressure drop in the nearwell bore zone is less than would have been from the normal.
This could be accomplished by fracture treatments or acid treatments. completing and producing an oil or gas well include many mechanical. in a region rw ≤ r ≤ rs (Fig. and screen). ∆p s is positive whereas ∆p s is negative for stimulation. A region of altered permeability. The permeability is assumed to be altered from the formation permeability. Completions may further reduce the productive capacity of the well: the well may be cased and perforated (reducing the inflow area compared to an openhole completion). rs.2 Description of Damage and Stimulation The processes of drilling. hydraulic. ks. or internal gravelpacked (pressure loss through perforations. understand the difference! We can now write expressions for the pressure drops using our knowledge of the radial flow equation and series flow. partially penetrating (reduced thickness for inflow). On the other hand. gravel. The pressure drop across the skin region is [ p(rs ) − p(rw )]s = qµB ln rs …………. k. I guarantee some students will confuse ∆p s with p (rs ) − p (rw ) . and make certain that you Fig.4.3 Radial Composite Model for Damage and Stimulation The simplest model for well bore alteration is a radial composite model. so that drilling fluids migrate into the nearwell area. the pressuredrop in the nearwell area can sometimes be increased. the wellbore extends to rw.18. The fine particles in the muds may plug pore throats. For damage. or the filtrate may react chemically with clays in the formation – either of these processes can reduce the nearwell permeability dramatically. Attempts to lower the pressure drop in the nearwell area are often called “stimulation. (1) 2πk s h rw . For situations with ks < k (damage). and chemical processes.” I will present some sketches of these situations in this assignment. Note that ∆p s is NOT the pressure drop across the skin region! It is the change in pressure drop for the composite model (the model with altered permeability) compared with the model with no altered permeability region. re. 4. 18). ∆p s . k s . k . Look at Fig. then extends to the outer radius. From Horne. to the “altered” or “skin” permeability.18 – From the centerline (CL). this results in an increased pressure drop. extends rw to the skin radius. Many wells are drilled overbalanced. The unaltered permeability.
r r w w This makes sense: thicker skin. 2πkh Let’s examine this group. we get an equation for ∆p s : ∆p s = [ p( rs ) − p (rw )]s − [ p( rs ) − p (rw )]0 = = qµB rs ln 2πh rw qµB rs ln 2πkh rw 1 1 − k s k k − 1 k s .. higher flow rates imply higher ∆p s .. r 2πkh 2πkh w ks The pressure drop is proportional to this group. k s >> k . Finally. and k s << k . the pressure drop is scaled by the qµB group . (1) and (2). the pressure drop would be [ p(rs ) − p(rw )]0 = qµB ln rs …………… (2) 2πkh rw Combining Eqns. and more damage. because thicker. The magnitude of the pressure drop r r also increases as the dimensionless skin radius s increases due to the term ln s .. the dimensions of r w ks r k qµB qµB must be pressure.. and negative when ks k<ks. The pressure drop p (rs ) − p (rw ) will always be positive for a producing well. That is.. (3) k Examine the term −1 . more effect.. Note that ∆p s will be positive when k>ks.Note that this pressure drop increases as rs increases and ks decreases: this makes senses. Thus. scales the dimensionless groups ln s × −1 . Because the left hand side (LHS) of Eqn. more closely. If the permeability had not been altered. If the well is much damaged. If the well is stimulated. We will use this scaling later in the discussion of skin below: it is the basis of dimensionless pressure for radial flow. k and the and −1 can be no smaller than 1. and the terms ln s and −1 are dimensionless. . then this term will be positive. but the maximum possible stimulation is limited. for example. This is an important point: the amount of ks damage is theoretically unlimited. lower permeability skin zones cause more pressure drop. 2πkh k r (3) is a pressure. and ∆p s will tend to be large (and could approach infinity). increasing q has the same effect as decreasing h or k by the same factor. ∆p s can be negative (for stimulation) or positive (for damage).. qµB .
4. qµB rs k ∆p s = ln − 1 r k 2πkh w s (4) qµB = s 2πkh The definition of skin in terms of the composite radial model is r k s = ln s − 1 (5) r k w s and in terms of pressure drop s is 2πkh s= ∆p s (6a) qµ B in consistent units. Rewriting Eqn. or 0. which can be inferred from a well test. (3). We will use these definitions extensively in well test design and analysis.00708kh pD = ∆p (7b) qµB in field units. In radial flow. (5) to obtain a skin value if we have a model for the radial distribution of permeability. These would be nice to know. well test analysis allows us to estimate ∆p s but it does not allow us to estimate either ks or rs. (6) to estimate s from ∆p s . it is just that the time scales and physical limitations of well tests usually prevent their estimation. the dimensionless pressure and dimensional pressure are related by 2πkh pD = ∆p (7a) qµB in consistent units. it can be thought of as the dimensionless pressure drop due to nearwell permeability alteration. . We can use Eqn.00708kh s= ∆p s (6b) qµ B in field units. For this reason. instead r k of the product ln s × −1 reservoir engineers usually must work with another r w ks variable called skin and represented as s. or 0.5 Skin as a Dimensionless Pressure The skin factor s is dimensionless.4. whereas we will use Eqn.4 A Lumped Model for Damage and Stimulation: Skin Effect As it turns out. In fact.
Of course.4. .7 Range of Skin Values Skin values can easily be computed using Eqn. µB ln r rw 4.19. it is actually dimensionless. The most important thing to note is how very large the positive (damage) skins can be. the absolute value of the stimulated skins is very small in comparison (for the same permeability ratio k s / k and radius ration rs / r . Such a plot is shown in Fig. ( p − pw ) = qµB r ln 2πkh rw qµB r ln 2πkh rw qµB r ln 2πkh rw + ∆p s qµB + 2πkh s + s (8) Using the concept of ∆p s ( p − pw ) = ( p − pw ) = ( p − pw ) = q= qµB r ln 2πkh rw 2πkh( p − p w ) + s Skin is simply added to the log term in the denominator of the inflow equation. (5).6 Inflow Equation Including Skin We know the steadystate radial flow of incompressible liquids can be expressed as 2πkh ( p − p w ) q= µB r ln r w Solving for ( p − p w ). So we can “visualize” s as a sort of additional distance that the fluid must flow.
225 200 200225 175 175200 150175 150 125 Skin 100 75 50 25 0 0.1 100 1 Permeability Ratio 2 Radius Ration 0. This behavior is easy to understand if we consider the pressure profiles. we can see flow rate for a r given available pressure drop is inversely related to ln + s .8 Effect of Skin on Rate If we examine the radial inflow equation with skin [Eqn. This means that a skin value of 8 roughly cuts the flow rate in half. .4 1. re / rw ≈ 2000 so than the logarithm will have a value of about 8 (note that our analysis isn’t very sensitive to the ratio because we are taking its log).1 25 8 4 10 1. Note that the profiles take a different form if we assume constant rate versus constant pressure drop.01 125150 100125 75100 5075 2550 025 250 Fig. For typical well rw spacings. Rather than looking at the profiles in r (Fig.20). Keep in mind that this simple analysis does not consider tubing pressure drops. 4. (8)]. 18).19 – Skin as a function of size and permeability of altered zone.2 1. it is easier to plot them in ln(r ) (Fig. or of 4 will roughly double the flow rate.
The hatched region has altered permeability.20 Radial pressure profiles. . the horizontal axis is the log of radius. The left side of the figure is the well.stimulated damaged Constant q Reservoir Constant Dp Skin damaged stimulated Skin Reservoir Fig. the right side is the outer boundary. The vertical axis is pressure.
This is [from Eqn.10 Apparent well bore Radius We can also express the effect of skin as an equivalent well bore radius. FE is harder to interpret in general (for example. r ln e r wa r = ln e + s r w r re = exp ln e + s rwa rw r re = es e r rwa w (10) rw a = rw e − s Positive skins cause an additional resistance. As noted by Horne. q(s ) FE = q ( s = 0) r ln e (9) r w = r ln e + s r w Eqn. 4. Conversely. using the radial inflow equation with skin [Eqn.9 Flow Efficiency The flow efficiency of a well is simply the ratio of its unaltered flow capacity to it actual flow capacity. negative skins are analogous to increasing the well bore radius. (8)]. (9) applies to steadystate systems only. It is usually more consistent to use s.4. . but flow efficiency can be a useful and simpletoexplain quantification of rate change due to damage or stimulation. for transient systems). (8)]: 2π kh ∆ p 2π kh ∆ p = r r ln e + s ln w a r r e e Rearranging. this effect is similar to reducing the well bore radius.
Petroleum reservoir engineering 2. 13. L. L.S. Chu. Thompson. H. et al:Relative permeability mesurement 3. J. and Reynolds. Chu. AIME (1956) 356357. A. M.. Thompsor+ L. G.. G. Feitosa. Hawkins.” TUPREP Research Report Volume J (May 1993) 81105.Buildup Analysis. Houston.. Thompson. Buildup Data.: “Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media: SPEJ (Sept.: “Wellbore Storage and Skin” 15.: “Determination of Fermeabiiity Distributions From. E. Feitosa. 14..pete. www. 1990) 31912.: “The Avera ing Process in Permeability Estimatlon From WellTest at a. Jr. presented at the 1993 11. L.: “Determination of Permeability Ihstriiiuhons Froml Wdi’I’eSt 7.. Voltime (May 1993) 1380. A. D. and Reynolds. Olive!. Data Part I . L. Anchorage May 2628. L.” aper SPE 26457.: “Determination of Permeability DwAributions From WellTest Data: Part 11. and Price. 5. Chu. Amyx. SPE Annual Tec nical Conference and Exhibition. L. Feitosa. and Reynolds. A.: “A Note on the Skin Effect: Trans. L. G. and Reynolds.Drawdown Analysis and Stabilized Inflow Performance Relations. Milton.” TUPREP Researrh Report 9. S.. G.. L. A. Chu. 9. Chu. Pressure Data? paper SPE 26047.org .References 1. and Reynolds. W~liT=t 4.” SPEFE (Sept.. presented at the 1993 8. Thompson.F. Warren.: “Determination of Permeability DAribntions From Pressure 10. SPE Western Regional Meeting. A. Feitosa. 1961) 153169. 6.
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