# electric field, an electric property

associated with each point in space when charge is present in any form. defined as being present in any region where a charged object experiences an electric force. The magnitude and direction of the electric field are expressed by the value of E, called electric field strength or electric field intensity or simply the electric field.

Electric and Magnetic Constants y In the equations describing electric and magnetic fields and their propagation, three constants are normally used. One is the speed of light c, and the other two are the electric permittivity of free space 0 and the magnetic permeability of free space, 0. The magnetic permeability of free space is taken to have the exact value.

This contains the force unit N for Newton and the unit A is the Ampere, the unit of electric current.

Electric Field with Examples Electric Field y A charged particle exerts a force on particles around it. We can call the influence of this force on surroundings as electric field. It can be also stated as electrical force per charge. Electric field is represented with E and Newton per coulomb is the unit of it.

Electric field is a vector quantity. And it decreases with the increasing distance.k=9.109Nm2/C2

y Electric field cannot be seen, but you can

observe the effects of it on charged particles inside electric field. y To find the electric field vector of a charge at one point, we assume that as if there is a +1 unit of charge there. y If you want to find the total electric field of the charges more than one, you should find them one by one and add them using vector quantities.

Electric field lines
y Motion path of the + charge in an electric field is called electric field line. Intensity of the lines shows the intensity of the electric field. Pictures given below show the drawings of field line of the positive charge and negative charge. 

Are perpendicular to the surfaces  Never intercept  If the electric field lines are parallel to each other, we

call this regular electric field and it can be possible between two oppositely charged plates. E is constant within this plates and zero outside the plates.

y We can find the E in these plates by connecting a

power supply having potential difference V using following formula;

y Example: If the electric field at point A is zero, find the charge at point D in terms of q.

y There are two kinds of fields... y 1. Scalar Fields: magnitude but no direction y Example 1: Heat field from a fire: If you stand by a campfire, y you can measure the magnitude (temperature) of the field with a thermometer; if you are y close to the fire you will measure a stronger field (higher temperature), but if you move y away the field strength decreases (lower temperature). You would not be saying y anything about a direction, like 25oC South . y y 2. Vector Fields: magnitude and direction y Example 2: A gravity field is a measure of the acceleration towards the centre of an y object.

Measuring Electric Fields
y According to Coulomb s Law, the force exerted on the test charge must y y y y y y y y y y y y y

be directly proportional to its own charge and the charge on the other object. Fe q1 q2 substitute the test charge in this relation... Fe q' q2 If you divide the force by the charge on the test charge, you get a new formula. E= Fe q' E = electric field (N/C) (Arrow above E in formula shows this is a vector; it isn t energy which is a scalar) F = force (N) q' = charge on test charge (C)

y Example 3: I place a 3.7 C test charge 2.7m to the right

y y y y y y y

of another charge. If there is an attractive force of 2.45N acting on the test charge, determine the field strength of the main charge at that location. We don t need the distance to figure this question out. It is important to know that the test charge is to the right of the other charge, since we need to give a direction. E= Fe q ' =2.45 3.7 =0.66N /C [left] 10/21/