P. 1
Copyright for Librarians

Copyright for Librarians

|Views: 86|Likes:
Published by EIFL
The goal of the project is to provide librarians in developing and transitional countries information concerning copyright law. More specifically, it aspires to inform librarians concerning: copyright law in general, the aspects of copyright law that most affect libraries, and how librarians in the future could most effectively participate in the processes by which copyright law is interpreted and shaped.
The goal of the project is to provide librarians in developing and transitional countries information concerning copyright law. More specifically, it aspires to inform librarians concerning: copyright law in general, the aspects of copyright law that most affect libraries, and how librarians in the future could most effectively participate in the processes by which copyright law is interpreted and shaped.

More info:

Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: EIFL on Aug 08, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Copyright for Librarians

Collection Editor: Berkman Center for Internet & Society

Copyright for Librarians

Collection Editor: Berkman Center for Internet & Society Authors: Berkman Center for Internet & Society Emily Cox Melanie Dulong de Rosnay William Fisher Inge Osman David Scott Dmitriy Tishyevich Petroula Vantsiouri

Online: < http://cnx.org/content/col11329/1.2/ >

Rice University, Houston, Texas

This selection and arrangement of content as a collection is copyrighted by Berkman Center for Internet & Society. It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). Collection structure revised: June 15, 2011 PDF generated: June 15, 2011 For copyright and attribution information for the modules contained in this collection, see p. 117.

Table of Contents
1 About Copyright for Librarians F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F I 2 Copyright and the public domain: an introduction F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F S 3 The international framework F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F II 4 The Scope of Copyright Law F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F PS 5 Rights, Exceptions, and Limitations F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F FF F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F QS 6 Managing Rights F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F RW 7 Creative approaches and alternatives F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F TI 8 Enforcement F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F TW 9 Traditional Knowledge F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F UU 10 Activism F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IHI Index F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IIQ Attributions F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F FIIU


Chapter 1
About Copyright for Librarians

1.1 Objectives
gopyright for vi˜r—ri—ns is — joint proje™t of the ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety2 —nd ispvD — ™onsortium of li˜r—ries from SH ™ountries in efri™—D esi— —nd iuropeF „he go—l of the proje™t is to provide li˜r—ri—ns in developing —nd tr—nsition—l ™ountries inform—tion ™on™erning ™opyright l—wF wore spe™i(™—llyD it —spires to inform li˜r—ri—ns ™on™erningX

• ™opyright l—w in gener—l • the —spe™ts of ™opyright l—w th—t most —'e™t li˜r—ries • how li˜r—ri—ns in the future ™ould most e'e™tively p—rti™ip—te in the pro™esses ˜y whi™h ™opyright l—w is interpreted —nd sh—pedF

1.2 How to Use this Course
„he ™ourse m—teri—ls ™—n ˜e used in three di'erent w—ysF pirstD they ™—n provide the ˜—sis for — selfEt—ught ™ourseF e li˜r—ri—n ™—n re—d the modules in sequen™e or fo™us on the modules th—t —ddress issues th—t interest him or herF ƒe™ondD the ™ourse m—teri—ls ™—n ˜e used in — tr—dition—l ™l—ssroomE˜—sed ™ourseF sn su™h — settingD the instru™tor will determine the p—™e —t whi™h the m—teri—ls —re re—d —nd will sele™t topi™s for dis™ussionF „he instru™tor m—y (nd useful the essignments we h—ve in™luded in the modulesD ˜ut will likely pose —ddition—l questions —s wellF „hird —nd (n—llyD the m—teri—ls ™—n ˜e used in — dist—n™eEle—rning ™ourseF en instru™tor will guide the inquiryD ˜ut the li˜r—ri—ns t—king the ™ourse will p—rti™ip—te remotely through their ™omputersF „o —ssist the instru™tors in su™h settingsD we h—ve in™luded — dis™ussion toolD origin—lly developed —t the ferkm—n genterD known —s the ‚otisserieF e m—nu—l expl—ining to instru™tors how they might use the ‚otisserie is —v—ilE —˜le here3 F snstru™tions expl—ining to students how to sign up for —nd use the ‚otisserie —re —v—il—˜le here4 F „his system ™—n ˜e used to f—™ilit—te ™onvers—tions —mong the students ™on™erning the essignments we h—ve in™luded in e—™h moduleF eltern—tivelyD —n instru™tor ™ould identify di'erent questions for dis™ussionF
1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m17478/1.5/>. 2 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/ 3 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/How_to_prepare_a_Rotisserie_session 4 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Information_about_the_Rotisserie_Session





1.3 1.4 Levels
xot —ll users will h—ve the time or interest to re—d —ll of the m—teri—ls ™ont—ined in this ™urri™ulumF ‚e™ogE nizing thisD we h—ve —rr—nged —nd m—rked the m—teri—ls in w—ys th—t should —ssist instru™tors —nd users in de™iding how deeply to explore this su˜je™tF ƒpe™i(™—llyD the m—teri—ls —re org—nized into (ve levelsX

• vevel I @—ppropri—te for users who w—nt — ˜—si™ knowledge of how ™opyright l—w —'e™ts the work of li˜r—ri—ns in developing —nd tr—nsition—l ™ountriesAX ‚e—d modules ID QEUF @sn other wordsD skip the sntrodu™tion —nd modules PD VD —nd WFA • vevel P @—ppropri—te for users who —re —lso interested in the theory underlying ™opyright l—w —nd in the intern—tion—l dimensions of ™opyright l—wAX ‚e—d the sntrodu™tion —nd —ll of the modulesF • vevel Q @—ppropri—te for use in — oneEsemester undergr—du—te ™ourse in this su˜je™t or for users who wish to o˜t—in —n inEdepth underst—nding of the (eld —nd to see how legisl—tures —nd ™ourts —re struggling to re(ne —nd —pply ™opyright l—wAX ‚e—d —ll of the modules —ndD in —dditionD —ll of the do™uments m—rked with red linksF • vevel R @—ppropri—te for use in — gr—du—teElevel ™ourse in this su˜je™tAX ‚e—d —ll of the modules —ndD in —dditionD —ll of the do™uments m—rked with red —nd green linksF • vevel S @—ppropri—te for — f—™ulty mem˜er prep—ring to te—™h this su˜je™tAX ‚e—d —ll of the modules —ndD in —dditionD —ll of the do™uments m—rked with redD greenD —nd ˜lue linksF

1.5 O-Line Usage
ƒome users will (nd it more ™onvenient to use these m—teri—ls o'ElineF „hey —re provided for o'Eline use in two form—tsF pirstD the m—teri—ls h—ve ˜een p—™k—ged —s — sƒy5 th—t ™—n ˜e written to — ghE‚yw6 —nd viewed with —ny ˜rowser @su™h —s ghrome7 D pirefox8 D snternet ixplorer9 D yper—10 D ƒ—f—ri11 D et™AF ƒe™ondD the m—teri—ls h—ve —lso ˜een p—™k—ged —s — €hp12 do™ument th—t ™—n ˜e viewed —nd printed13 with —ny €hp viewer @su™h —s edo˜e e™ro˜—t14 D ivin™e15 D qhostƒ™ript16 D €review17 D et™AF en e'ort h—s ˜een m—de to in™lude —ll links to relev—nt m—teri—l in ˜oth the ghE‚yw —nd print—˜le versionsF roweverD in order to —™™ess ™ontent th—t is extern—l to the ™ourse m—teri—ls ™ont—ined on this siteD —n internet ™onne™tion is ne™ess—ryF

1.6 1.7 Permissions
„he ™ourse m—teri—ls prep—red ˜y the proje™t —re li™en™ed under — gre—tive gommons ettri˜ution li™ense18 F vi˜r—ri—ns —nd the pu˜li™ —t l—rge —re en™our—ged to useD distri˜uteD tr—nsl—teD modifyD —nd ˜uild upon these
5 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Oine_ISO 6 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Oine_ISO 7 http://www.google.com/chrome 8 http://www.mozilla.com/refox/ 9 http://www.microsoft.com/windows/internet-explorer/default.aspx 10 http://www.opera.com/ 11 http://www.apple.com/safari/download/ 12 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Oine_PDF 13 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Oine_PDF 14 http://get.adobe.com/reader/ 15 http://gnome.org/projects/evince/ 16 http://www.ghostscript.com/ 17 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preview_(software) 18 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Q m—teri—lsD provided th—t they give ispv —nd the ferkm—n genter —ppropri—te ™reditF

1.8 Disclaimer
„his ™ourse does not o'er leg—l —dvi™eF st provides gener—l inform—tion ™on™erning the prin™iples th—t underlie the ™opyright systemD —nd it indi™—tes how v—rious ™on™rete pro˜lems —re resolved in most ™ountriesF st ™—nnotD howeverD provide reli—˜le guid—n™e ™on™erning how — ™ourt in — spe™i(™ ™ountry would respond to — spe™i(™ set of f—™tsF „husD if you (nd yourself ™oming ™lose to —ny of the leg—l ˜ound—ries des™ri˜ed in these m—teri—lsD you should ™onsult — l—wyer in your own jurisdi™tionF

1.9 Help Us Improve the Course
‡e hope to upd—te —nd re(ne these m—teri—ls periodi™—llyF „o do soD we need help from usersF €le—se let us know if — pie™e of inform—tion ™ont—ined in — module is in™orre™t or out of d—teF sf you h—ve suggestions ™on™erning either the ™ontent of the modules or the w—y in whi™h the ™ontent is presentedD we —re e—ger to he—r themF pin—llyD li˜r—ri—ns —re strongly en™our—ged to let us know how the issues —ddressed in the modules —re h—ndled in their home ™ountriesY we will try to in™lude th—t inform—tion in future versionsF ‰ou ™—n m—ke these suggestions in either of two w—ysF pirstD if you would like your suggestion to ˜e —v—il—˜le to the pu˜li™D ple—se ™li™k on the 4his™ussion4 t—˜ —t the top of the module p—ge to whi™h your suggestion is relev—ntF ƒe™ondD you ™—n simply em—il us —t ™)Efeed˜—™kd™y˜erFl—wFh—rv—rdFedu19 F ‡e look forw—rd to your ™ontri˜utionsF „he ispv —nd ferkm—n te—ms

19 c-feedback@cyber.law.harvard.edu




Chapter 2
Copyright and the public domain: an introduction

2.1 Module 1: Copyright and the Public Domain 2.2 Learning objective
„his module explores the ˜—si™ ™on™epts of ™opyright l—wF st provides — gener—l introdu™tion to the elements of ™opyright import—nt to li˜r—ri—nsF yther modules will dis™uss these topi™s in det—ilF

2.3 Case study 
I want to build a course pack for my students. What material may I include?

engel—D — musi™ professorD is visiting her s™hool9s li˜r—ry to ™olle™t m—teri—l to ˜uild — ™ourse p—™k for her studentsF ƒhe would like to in™lude ex™erpts from ˜ooksD ele™troni™ resour™es —nd musi™ s™oresF ƒhe —lso w—nts to post sele™ted musi™ —nd video ™lips online with her ™omment—ryF x—di—D the li˜r—ri—nD will expl—in to engel— wh—t she m—y —nd m—y not do under ™opyright l—wF

2.4 Lesson 2.5 What Is Copyright?
es we s—w in the sntrodu™tionD there —re sever—l views ™on™erning the purposes of ™opyright l—wF yne view is th—t ™opyright l—w en™our—ges ™re—tivity ˜y —llowing ™re—tors to pro(t from their workF „his go—l of ™opyright is re)e™ted in the wording of m—ny ™opyright l—wsF por ex—mpleD the 4gopyright gl—use42 of the …nited ƒt—tes gonstitution st—tes th—t gongress m—y gr—nt —uthors ™opyright prote™tion for their works for — limited time in order to 4promote the progress of s™ien™e —nd useful —rtsF4 @…ƒ gonstitutionD erti™le ID ƒe™tion VD gl—use VFA ƒimil—rlyD the st—ted purpose of the ƒt—tute of enne3 D the (rst ™opyright st—tute in ingl—ndD w—s to 4en™our—ge le—rningF4 @V enne gh—pter IW @IUIHAFA enother view is th—t ™opyright l—w ensures th—t —uthors —re p—id f—irly for their e'ortF e third view is th—t — ™re—tive work is —n expression of the person—lity of its ™re—torD —nd thus should ˜e prote™ted from ˜eing used without the ™re—tor9s permissionF
1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m22652/1.4/>. 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright_Clause 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statute_of_Anne





elthough ™opyright l—w gr—nts —uthors m—ny rights in their worksD it —lso limits these rights in m—ny import—nt w—ysF wost of these limit—tions —re quite spe™i(™D ˜ut — few —re ˜ro—dF ƒever—lD —s we will seeD en—˜le li˜r—ri—ns to use or dissemin—te ™opyrighted m—teri—ls more freely th—n they otherwise ™ouldF

2.6 What Is The Public Domain?
es —n illustr—tionD suppose the (™tion—l ™ountry of fooktoni— h—s — ™opyright term of PH ye—rsF sf — ˜ook w—s written in IWVHD the ™opyright prote™tion for the ˜ook in fooktoni— would h—ve ended PH ye—rs l—terD in PHHHF yn™e the ™opyright in — work expiresD the work is s—id to 4f—ll into4 the pu˜li™ dom—inF yn™e — work is in the pu˜li™ dom—inD the restri™tions of ™opyright l—w no longer —pplyD —nd —nyone m—y ™opyD reuseD or sh—re the work —s they wishF „he pu˜li™ dom—in fun™tions —s — pool of ™re—tive m—teri—l from whi™h —nyone m—y dr—wF st provides —uthors the r—w m—teri—ls from whi™h the next gener—tion of ˜ooksD moviesD songsD —nd knowledge ™—n ˜e ˜uiltF es the IRth ™entury inglish poet gh—u™er @whose work is now in the pu˜li™ dom—inA wrote4 D 4por out of the old (eldsD —s men s—yD gomes —ll this new ™ornD from ye—r to ye—rY end out of old ˜ooksD in good f—ithD gomes —ll this new s™ien™e th—t men le—rnF4

2.7 Who Makes Copyright Law?
ƒever—l intern—tion—l tre—ties5 set st—nd—rds th—t —ll p—rti™ip—ting ™ountries must follow when —dopting or ™h—nging their ™opyright l—wsF roweverD within those limitsD e—™h n—tion sets its own l—wsF „hose l—ws determine who ™—n —™quire — ™opyrightD wh—t rights the ™opyright holder enjoysD —nd how long the ™opyright l—stsF es — resultD ™opyright l—w v—ries signi(™—ntly from one ™ountry to —notherF sn —ll ™ountriesD ™opyright l—w is sh—ped in p—rt ˜y legisl—turesD whi™h —dopt —nd often modify ™opyright st—tutesD —nd ™ourtsD whi™h —djust —nd ™l—rify the provisions of the st—tutes when —pplying them to p—rti™ul—r ™—sesF sn soE™—lled common law ™ountriesD ™ourts pl—y somewh—t more import—nt roles th—n they do in soE™—lled civil law ™ountriesD ˜ut the di'eren™e is not l—rgeF sn some ™ountriesD religious legal systems —lso —'e™t ™opyright rulesF e dis™ussion of the three m—in types of leg—l systemD —s well —s lists of the leg—l systems of di'erent ™ountries m—y ˜e found here6 F xo m—tter wh—t the leg—l systemD howeverD ™opyright l—w is ™onst—ntly ™h—nigng to meet new ™re—tiveD te™hnologi™—lD —nd so™i—l ™h—llengesF yften those ™h—nges —re driven ˜y interest groups th—t seek to ˜ene(t their mem˜ersF „he li˜r—ry ™ommunity h—s often pl—yed import—nt roles in the sh—ping of ™opyright l—w in the p—st ! —nd ™ould pl—y even more import—nt roles in the futureF

2.8 What Does Copyright Law Cover?
gopyright l—w gener—lly ™overs —ll origin—l works of —uthorshipF ƒu™h origin—l works ™ome in m—ny formsF por ex—mpleD in —lmost —ll ™ountriesD —ll of the following —re prote™ted ˜y ™opyright l—wX

• • • • • • •

liter—ry works @˜ooksD —rti™lesD lettersD et™FAY musi™—l worksY dr—m—ti™ works @oper—sD pl—ysAY gr—phi™ —rts @photogr—phsD s™ulpturesD p—intingsD et™FAY motion pi™tures —nd —udiovisu—l works @moviesD videosD television progr—msD et™FAY —r™hite™tur—l worksY —nd ™omputer softw—reF

4 http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/English/Fowls.htm 5 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework 6 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legal_systems_of_the_world

U sn some ™ountriesD sound re™ordings —re —lso ™overed ˜y ™opyright l—wF sn other ™ountriesD sound re™ordings —re prote™ted ˜y — sep—r—teD rel—ted set of rules known —s neigh˜oring rightsF sn some ™ountriesD government works ! su™h —s m—psD o0™i—l reportsD —nd judi™i—l opinions ! —re prote™ted ˜y ™opyright l—wY in othersD they —re ™onsidered p—rt of the pu˜li™ dom—inF st is import—nt to remem˜er th—t copyright never applies to ideas or factsF st only ™overs  original expression ! in other wordsD the distin™tive w—y in whi™h ide—s —re ™onveyedF ƒoD for ex—mpleD the inform—tion ™ont—ined in — s™ien™e text˜ook is not prote™ted ˜y ™opyright l—wF ‰ou —re freeD —fter re—ding — text˜ookD to write —nd pu˜lish — new ˜ook ™onveying the s—me inform—tion in di'erent wordsF ƒimil—rlyD you —re freeD —fter re—ding — work of historyD to write — novel in™orpor—ting the histori™—l f—™tsF e few ™ountries @most not—˜lyD the …nited ƒt—tesA require the origin—l expression to ˜e (xed in — tangible mediumD like p—per or — digit—l re™ording form—tD in order to ˜e prote™ted ˜y ™opyright l—wF sn those ™ountriesD improvis—tion—l perform—n™es ! for ex—mpleD of j—zz or d—n™e ! —re not prote™ted unless their —uthors re™ord themF gopyright l—w ™overs works th—t h—ve not ˜een pu˜lished or even m—de pu˜li™F ƒoD for ex—mpleD priv—te lettersD di—riesD —nd em—il mess—ges —re —ll prote™ted ˜y ™opyright l—wF ƒome ™ountries used to require pu˜lished works to ˜e registered with — ™entr—l o0™e or to ™—rry — ™opyright noti™e with the n—me of the —uthor —nd the ye—r of pu˜li™—tion in order to ˜e prote™ted ˜y ™opyright l—wF ƒu™h formalities —re no longer ne™ess—ry for — work to ˜e ™overed ˜y ™opyright l—wF roweverD registering — ™opyright m—y help prove —uthorship or identify who must ˜e ™ont—™ted for permission ˜efore — work ™—n ˜e reusedF sn some ™ountriesD registr—tion of — work is ne™ess—ry ˜efore the —uthor is permitted to sue someone for ™opyright infringementF @poreign —uthorsD howeverD —re exempted from this requirementFA sn —dditionD some ™ountries ™ontinue to require pu˜lishers to deposit one ™opy of every new work in — design—ted o0™eD su™h —s — n—tion—l li˜r—ryF

2.9 Who Gets A Copyright?
e ™opyright is ordin—rily o˜t—ined ˜y the ™re—tor of — workF sf you write — novelD p—int — p—intingD or ™ompose — songD you will gener—lly —™quire the ™opyright in your ™re—tionF „he situ—tion is more ™ompli™—ted if you —re —n employee ™re—ting the work —s p—rt of your employmentF gountries v—ry — gre—t de—l in how they de—l with su™h situ—tionsF „ypi™—llyD in ™ountries th—t follow the ™ommon l—w tr—ditionD the ™opyright in — work prep—red ˜y —n employee within the s™ope of employment goes to the employerF fy ™ontr—stD in ™ountries th—t follow the ™ivil l—w tr—ditionD the ™opyright typi™—lly goes to the employeeF roweverD in ™ivilEl—w ™ountriesD employment ™ontr—™ts or even ™opyright l—w often give employers rights over their employees9 ™re—tions simil—r @though not identi™—lA to the ™opyrights enjoyed ˜y employers in ™ommonEl—w ™ountriesF pin—llyD in the …nited ƒt—tes —nd some other ™ountriesD when spe™i(™ types of works —re ™re—ted in spe™i(™ ™ir™umst—n™es ˜y independent ™ontr—™torsD the ™ontr—™tors —nd the org—niz—tions ™ommissioning the works m—y —gree in writing th—t the ™ommissioning org—niz—tions sh—ll ˜e —w—rded the ™opyrightsF

2.10 What Rights Come With Copyright?
„he rights ™re—ted ˜y ™opyright l—w f—ll into two ™—tegoriesX e™onomi™ rights —nd mor—l rightsF Economic rights —re intended to give —uthors the opportunity to use their works to m—ke moneyF „hese —re things th—t typi™—lly only the owner of the ™opyright m—y do unless the owner gr—nts permission to othersF @smport—nt ex™eptions to the requirement to o˜t—in the ™opyright holder9s permissionD su™h —s f—ir use —nd ™ompulsory li™ensesD —re dis™ussed ˜elowFA „he prim—ry e™onomi™ rights —reX

• • • •

the the the the

right right right right

to to to to

reprodu™e the work ! in other wordsD to m—ke ™opies of itY ™re—te deriv—tive works ! su™h —s tr—nsl—tionsD —˜ridgmentsD or —d—pt—tionsY distri˜ute the work ! for ex—mpleD ˜y selling or renting ™opies of itY perform or displ—y the work pu˜li™lyF

Moral rights



—re designed to prote™t —uthors9 none™onomi™ interests in their ™re—tionsF wor—l rights do not exist in —ll ™ountriesF qener—lly spe—kingD they —re re™ognized more widely —nd —re enfor™ed more (rmly in ™ivilEl—w ™ountries th—n in ™ommonEl—w ™ountriesF „he prim—ry mor—l rights —reX

• the right of integrity ! for ex—mpleD the right to prevent the destru™tion or def—™ement of — p—inting or s™ulptureY • the right of —ttri˜ution ! in other wordsD the right to ˜e given —ppropri—te ™redit for one9s ™re—tionsD —nd not to ˜e ˜l—med for things one did not ™re—teY • the right of dis™losure ! the right to determine when —nd if — work sh—ll ˜e m—de pu˜li™Y • the right of withdr—w—l ! the right @in ™ert—in limited ™ir™umst—n™esA to remove from pu˜li™ ™ir™ul—tion ™opies of — work one h—s ™ome to regretF
Neighboring rightsD sometimes ™—lled rel—ted rightsD —re ™lose ™ousins of ™opyrightF „he oldest —nd ˜est known neigh˜oring rights —re e™onomi™ rights gr—nted to persons who —re not —uthors of — work ˜ut who ™ontri˜ute to its ™re—tion ! su™h —s performersD produ™ersD —nd ˜ro—d™—sting —sso™i—tionsF ƒome ™ountries —lso h—ve priv—™y —nd pu˜li™ity rights th—t ™omplement ™opyrightF por ex—mpleD some ™ountries prevent the pu˜li™ distri˜ution of works th—t ™ont—in person—lly identi(—˜le inform—tionD unless permission is gr—nted ˜y th—t personF

2.11 The Limits of Copyright
„he rights des™ri˜ed —˜ove —re su˜je™t to import—nt limit—tionsF pirstD —s mentioned —˜oveD m—ny older ˜ooksD —rti™lesD re™ordingsD —nd other works —re p—rt of the public domainF „hese m—teri—ls m—y ˜e used ˜y —nyone for —ny purposeF …nfortun—telyD it is not —lw—ys e—sy to (gure out when — p—rti™ul—r work h—s f—llen into the pu˜li™ dom—inF „his dire™tory7 ™ont—ins some helpful inform—tion on how long the term of ™opyright l—sts in di'erent ™ountries —round the worldF st —lso h—s useful tips on when — work enters the pu˜li™ dom—inF ƒometimesD — ™opyright holder will dedi™—te — work to the pu˜li™ dom—in ˜efore the ™opyright expiresD mu™h like — l—ndholder will sometimes don—te property to — town so it m—y ˜e™ome — p—rkF sn these inst—n™esD the work ˜e™omes free to use immedi—telyF sn —dditionD the ™opyright l—ws of every ™ountry in™lude exceptions and limitations to ™opyrightF „hese identify —™tivities th—t users ™—n do without fe—r of viol—ting ™opyrightF ‡hile these ex™eptions v—ry ˜y ™ountryD some ™ommon ex—mples in™lude ™opying for person—l useD quoting short p—ss—ges of liter—ry works for the purposes of ™riti™ismY photo™opying for —r™hiv—l purposes ˜y li˜r—riesY —nd ™onverting works into form—ts —™™essi˜le ˜y h—ndi™—pped personsF yther ex™eptions —re ˜ro—der —nd less well de(nedD su™h —s the fair-use doctrine of the …nited ƒt—tes —nd the fair dealing do™trines employed in some efri™—n ™ountriesF pin—llyD most ™ountries h—ve compulsory licensing systems for ™ert—in types of worksF …nder — ™omE pulsory li™ensing systemD ™opyright holders —re required to permit ™ert—in uses of their works —s long —s the user p—ys — fee set ˜y — government —gen™y or ™ourtsF ƒu™h regimes —re ˜e™oming in™re—singly ™ommonF

2.12 Copyright Licenses
sf none of these ex™eptions or limit—tions —pplyD it m—y still ˜e possi˜le to m—ke use of — ™opyrighted workF sn order to do soD the user must o˜t—in — license from the ™opyright holder th—t gives the user permission to use the ™ontent in — p—rti™ul—r w—yF „he ™opyright holder m—y dem—nd — fee for su™h useD or m—y —llow the use for freeF „he li™ense should ˜e spe™i(™ —nd in writing in order to —void ™onfusionF st is not —lw—ys ne™ess—ry to ™ont—™t the ™opyright holder dire™tly to o˜t—in — li™ense to use their worksF w—ny ™ountries h—ve collecting societies @—lso known —s ™olle™tive —dministr—tion org—niz—tionsA th—t —™t —s —gents for l—rge num˜ers of ™opyright holdersF ƒu™h org—niz—tions now —dminister li™enses pert—ining to —
7 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Copyright_situations_by_country

W wide v—riety of uses of ™opyrighted m—teri—lsF ix—mples in™lude ˜ro—d™—sts of musi™—l ™omposition —nd the use of v—rious modern te™hnologies to reprodu™e gr—phi™s works or liter—ry worksF enother set of org—niz—tions —ssist —nd en™our—ge those ™opyright holders who —re willing to give —w—y some of their rights for freeF „he most f—mous of these —re gre—tive gommons8 —nd the pree ƒoftw—re pound—tion9 D ˜ut others —re emergingF

2.13 Back to the case study
x—di— @the li˜r—ri—nA should help engel— @the professorA org—nize the set of m—teri—ls she h—s g—thered ˜y —sking — series of questionsX

• ere —ny of the m—teri—ls in the pu˜li™ dom—inc • ere —ny of the rem—ining m—teri—ls li™ensed under — gre—tive gommons li™ense or — simil—r set of terms th—t —llow their usec • ere —ny of the rem—ining m—teri—ls freed for use ˜y —ny of the st—tutory ex™eptions ™ont—ined in their n—tion9s ™opyright st—tutec • hoes the li˜r—ry —lre—dy own — li™ense to use the m—teri—ls in the w—y engel— proposesc
sf the m—teri—ls —re in the pu˜li™ dom—inD —re li™ensed freely under — gre—tive gommons li™enseD —re ™overed ˜y — st—tutory exemptionD or —re in™luded in existing li™ensesD they m—y ˜e usedF sf notD engel— will need to o˜t—in permission from the ™opyright holder or — ™olle™tive rights org—niz—tionF

2.14 Additional resources
e ™omprehensive dis™ussion of the —spe™ts of ™opyright l—w th—t —'e™t li˜r—ri—ns ! —ndD in p—rti™ul—rD li˜r—ri—ns in developing ™ountries ! m—y ˜e found in the espv r—nd˜ook on gopyright —nd ‚el—ted sssues for vi˜r—ries10 F g—rol gF rendersonD vi˜r—ries —s gre—tures of gopyrightX ‡hy vi˜r—ri—ns g—re —˜out sntelle™tu—l €ropE erty v—w —nd €oli™y11 D IWWVF „he former ixe™utive hire™tor of the ‡—shington y0™e emeri™—n vi˜r—ry esso™i—tion dis™usses the roles pl—yed ˜y li˜r—ri—ns in m—int—ining ™opyright ˜—l—n™eF e short de˜—te ˜etween €rofessors ‡illi—m pisher —nd tustin rughes12 D org—nized in w—y PHHW ˜y the i™onomist m—g—zineD ex—mines the merits —nd demerits of the ™opyright systemF „he ‚ese—r™h genter for the veg—l ƒystem of sntelle™tu—l €roperty @‚gvs€A13 D in ™ooper—tion with the genter for edv—n™ed ƒtudy 8 ‚ese—r™h on sntelle™tu—l €roperty @geƒ‚s€A14 of the …niversity of ‡—shington ƒ™hool of v—wD is ˜uilding — ™omprehensive d—t—˜—se of ™ourt de™isions15 involving intelle™tu—l property @in™luding ™opyright l—wA in every ™ountry throughout the worldF „he d—t—˜—se is not yet ™ompleteD ˜ut —lre—dy ™onstitutes — highly v—lu—˜le rese—r™h toolD p—rti™ul—rly for esi—n ™ountriesF e m—pD prep—red ˜y ‡illi—m pisherD des™ri˜ing the m—in fe—tures of ™opyright l—w in the …nited ƒt—tes —ndD to — limited extentD other ™ountriesD is —v—il—˜le here16 F e p—ir@yA …se „—le17  is — PHHV short movie on ™opyright —nd f—ir use in the …ƒF e™™ording to the synopsisD professor iri™ p—den of fu™knell …niversity ™re—ted this humorousD yet inform—tiveD review of
8 http://creativecommons.org/ 9 http://www.fsf.org/ 10 http://www.ei.net/cps/sections/services/ei-ip/issues/handbook/handbook-e 11 http://www.ala.org/ala/issuesadvocacy/copyright/copyrightarticle/librariescreatures.cfm 12 http://www.economist.com/debate/overview/144 13 http://www.21coe-win-cls.org/rclip/e_index.html 14 http://www.law.washington.edu/casrip 15 http://www.21coe-win-cls.org/rclip/db/search_form.php 16 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/tsher/IP/IP%20Maps.htm 17 http://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/documentary-lm-program/lm/a-fair-y-use-tale




™opyright prin™iples delivered through the words of the very folks we ™—n th—nk for ne—rly endless ™opyright termsF „he do™ument—riesD ƒte—l „his pilm €—rt s18 @PHHTA —nd ƒte—l „his pilm €—rt ss19 @PHHUAD produ™ed ˜y „he ve—gue of xo˜le €eersD o'er entert—ining —nd highly ™riti™—l views of the re™ent trend tow—rd strengthening the rights of ™opyright ownersD p—rti™ul—rly with respe™t to the un—uthorized sh—ring of musi™ —nd moviesF e helpful guide to determining whi™h works h—ve f—llen into the pu˜li™ dom—in in the …nited ƒt—tes20 h—s ˜een provided ˜y wi™h—el frewer —nd the emeri™—n vi˜r—ry esso™i—tion y0™e for snform—tion „e™hnology €oli™yF e vi˜r—ri—n9s PFH w—nifesto21 o'ers — provo™—tive ™on™eption of the responsi˜ilities of li˜r—ri—nsD p—rti™E ul—rly in —n environment ™h—r—™terized ˜y r—pid te™hnologi™—l ™h—ngeF

2.15 Cases
„he following judi™i—l opinion explores —nd —pplies some of the prin™iples dis™ussed in this moduleX „elegr—ph qroupD vtdF vF eshdownD €—rt IH g—se IQ @gourt of eppe—lD ingl—nd 8 ‡—lesD PHHIA22 @the rel—tionships —mong freedom of expressionD the pu˜li™ interestD —nd intelle™tu—l property rightsA

2.16 Assignment and discussion questions

2.16.1 Assignment
enswer one of the following questionsX IF ixpl—in ˜rie)y wh—t ™opyright l—w —ttempts to prote™tD —s well —s wh—t freedoms —re reserved for or —v—il—˜le to the pu˜li™F PF ‡hi™h @if —nyA of the justi(™—tions for ™opyright l—w m—ke sense to youc

2.16.2 Discussion Question(s)
ƒele™t one of the —nswers th—t your ™olle—gues provided to the essignment questionsD —nd ™omment on itF ixpl—in why you —gree or dis—greeF ho not hesit—te to give ex—mples you h—ve f—™ed —s —n —uthorD —s — mem˜er of the pu˜li™D or —s — li˜r—ri—nF

2.17 Contributors
„his module w—s ™re—ted ˜y wel—nie hulong de ‚osn—y23 F st w—s then edited ˜y — te—m in™luding ƒe˜—sti—n hi—z24 D ‡illi—m pisher25 D …rs q—sser26 D ed—m roll—nd27 D uim˜erley ss˜ell28 D €eter t—szi29 D golin w—™l—y30 D endrew woshirni—31 D —nd ghris €eterson32 F
18 http://www.stealthislm.com/Part1/ 19 http://www.stealthislm.com/Part2/ 20 http://www.librarycopyright.net/digitalslider/ 21 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZblrRs3fkSU 22 http://www.ipsofactoj.com/international/2001/Part10/int2001%2810%29-013.htm 23 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#rosnay 24 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#diaz 25 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#sher 26 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#gasser 27 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#holland 28 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#isbell 29 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#jaszi 30 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#maclay 31 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#moshirnia 32 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#peterson

Chapter 3
The international framework

3.1 Module 2: The International Framework 3.2 Learning objective
„his module expl—ins how intern—tion—l ™opyright l—w worksD how it —'e™ts developing ™ountriesD —nd how developing ™ountries ™—n —'e™t itF

3.3 Case study
Angela is troubled by the restrictions that copyright law places upon her ability to assemble and distribute course materials. She is considering writing a short article, arguing that her nation's copyright law should be reformed to give teachers and students more latitude. However, she has heard that international agreements may restrict the freedom that each country enjoys to dene its own copyright laws. Before drafting her article, she asks Nadia's help in determining which, if any, international agreements are applicable in their own countryF

3.4 Lesson 3.5 The Rationale for the International System
es we s—w in wodule IX gopyright —nd the €u˜li™ hom—in2 D e—™h ™ountry in the world h—s its own set of ™opyright l—wsF roweverD the )exi˜ility th—t most ™ountries enjoy in —djusting —nd enfor™ing their own l—ws is limited ˜y — set of intern—tion—l tre—tiesF ‡hy do we need —ny intern—tion—l m—n—gement of this (eldc „here —re two tr—dition—l —nswers to this questionF pirstD without some intern—tion—l st—nd—rdiz—tionD n—tions might en—™t legisl—tion th—t prote™ts their own ™itizens while le—ving foreigners vulner—˜leF ƒu™h dis™rimin—tion w—s ™ommon prior to intern—tion—l regul—tionF es ™opyright owners ˜e™ome in™re—singly interested in glo˜—l prote™tion for their ™re—tionD mutu—l re™ognition on f—ir terms of rights —™ross ˜orders ˜e™omes ever more import—ntF ƒe™ondD some ™opyright holders ˜elieve th—t developing n—tions would not —dopt —dequ—te ™opyright prote™tions unless for™ed to do so ˜y tre—tyF ‚epresent—tives of developing n—tions strongly dispute this —rgumentF
1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m22658/1.4/>. 2 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_1:_Copyright_and_the_Public_Domain





3.6 International Instruments
„he simplest w—y to —™hieve these go—ls would ˜e — single tre—ty signed ˜y —ll ™ountriesF …nfortun—telyD the ™urrent situ—tion is more ™omplexF snste—d of one tre—tyD we now h—ve six m—jor multilateral —greementsD e—™h with — di'erent set of mem˜er ™ountriesF i—™h of the six —greements w—s negoti—ted within E —nd is now —dministered ˜y E —n intern—tion—l org—E niz—tionF pour of the six —re m—n—ged ˜y the ‡orld sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tion @‡s€yAY one ˜y the …nited x—tions idu™—tion—lD ƒ™ienti(™ —nd gultur—l yrg—niz—tion @…xiƒgyAY —nd one ˜y the ‡orld „r—de yrg—niz—tion @‡„yAF „he six —greements h—ve ˜een ™re—ted —nd implemented in simil—rD though not identi™—lD w—ysF „ypiE ™—llyD the pro™ess ˜egins when represent—tives of ™ountries think th—t there should ˜e intern—tion—l st—nd—rds governing — set of issuesF „hey enter into negotiationsD whi™h ™—n l—st sever—l ye—rsF huring the negoti—E tionsD dr—ft provisions —re presented to the deleg—tions of e—™h ™ountryD whi™h then dis™uss them —nd m—y propose —mendments to their ™ontent in order to re—™h — ™onsensusF „his 4™onsensus4 m—y re)e™t genuine —greement —mong —ll of the p—rti™ip—ting ™ountries th—t the proposed tre—ty is desir—˜leD or it m—y result from pressure exerted ˜y more powerful ™ountries upon less powerful ™ountriesF yn™e ™onsensus h—s ˜een re—™hedD the ™ountries ™on™lude the tre—ty ˜y signing itF „here—fterD the governments of the p—rti™ip—ting ™ountries ratify the tre—tyD whereupon it enters into forceF gountries th—t did not sign the tre—ty when it w—s initi—lly ™on™luded m—y join the tre—ty l—ter ˜y accessionF sn m—ny ™ountries ! espe™i—lly those th—t follow the ™ivilEl—w tr—dition ! tre—ties —re reg—rded —s 4selfE exe™utingF4 sn other wordsD on™e they —re r—ti(edD priv—te p—rties ™—n rely on them —ndD if ne™ess—ryD ˜ring l—wsuits —g—inst other priv—te p—rties for viol—tions of the tre—ties9 provisionsF roweverD sn other ™ountries ! espe™i—lly those in)uen™ed ˜y the fritish or ƒ™—ndin—vi—n ™onstitution—l tr—ditions ! tre—ties l—™k this selfE exe™uting —uthorityF snste—dD the n—tion—l legisl—tures must —dopt st—tutes implementing themD —fter whi™h priv—te p—rties rely on the terms of the implementing legisl—tionD r—ther th—n on the terms of the tre—ties themselvesF xone of the six tre—ties pert—ining to ™opyright l—w ™ont—ins — ™omprehensive set of rules or st—nd—rds for — ™opyright systemF ‚—therD e—™h one requires mem˜er ™ountries to de—l with p—rti™ul—r issues in p—rti™ul—r w—ysD ˜ut le—ves to the mem˜er ™ountries ™onsider—˜le dis™retion in implementing its requirementsF gli™k here for more on the st—ges of —n intern—tion—l —greement3 F ƒet forth ˜elow —re ˜rief des™riptions of the six m—jor tre—tiesD with spe™i—l —ttention to their imp—™ts on developing ™ountriesF

3.6.1 Berne Convention
sn IVVT ten iurope—n st—tes signed the ferne gonvention for the €rote™tion of viter—ry —nd ertisti™ ‡orks @referred to here—fter —s the 4ferne gonvention4A in order to redu™e ™onfusion —˜out intern—tion—l ™opyright l—wF ƒin™e thenD — tot—l of ITR ™ountries h—ve joined the ferne gonventionF roweverD there h—ve ˜een sever—l revisions of the ferne gonventionD —nd not —ll ™ountries h—ve r—ti(ed the most re™ent versionF eny n—tion is permitted to joinF ‰ou ™—n ™he™k to see if your ™ountry is — mem˜er of the ferne gonvention ˜y ™onsulting this link4 F felow is — m—p showing whi™h ™ountries —re ™urrently mem˜ersF
3 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Stages_of_an_international_agreement 4 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ShowResults.jsp?lang=en&treaty_id=15


Figure 3.1

„he ferne gonvention est—˜lished three fund—ment—l prin™iplesF „he (rst —nd most f—mous is the prin™iE ple of n—tion—l tre—tmentD whi™h requires mem˜er ™ountries to give the residents of other mem˜er ™ountries the s—me rights under the ™opyright l—ws th—t they give to their own residentsF ƒoD for ex—mpleD — novel written in folivi— ˜y — folivi—n ™itizen enjoys the s—me prote™tion in qh—n— —s — novel written in qh—n— ˜y —n qh—ni—n ™itizenF „he se™ond is the prin™iple of independen™e of prote™tionF st provides th—t e—™h mem˜er ™ountry must give foreign works the s—me prote™tions they give domesti™ worksD even when the foreign works would not ˜e shielded under the ™opyright l—ws of the ™ountries where they origin—tedF por ex—mpleD even if — novel written in folivi— ˜y — folivi—n n—tion—l were not prote™ted under folivi—n l—wD it would still ˜e prote™ted in qh—n— if it ful(lled the requirements for prote™tion under qh—ni—n l—wF „he third is the prin™iple of —utom—ti™ prote™tionF „his prin™iple for˜ids mem˜er ™ountries from requiring persons from other ferne gonvention mem˜er ™ountries with leg—l form—lities —s — prerequisite for ™opyright prote™tionF @„hey m—y impose su™h requirements on their own ™itizensD ˜ut usu—lly do notFA „he e'e™t of this prin™iple is th—t the folivi—n —uthor of — novel doesn9t h—ve to register or de™l—re her novel in qh—n—D sndi—D sndonesi— or —ny other mem˜er st—te of the ferne gonventionY her novel will ˜e —utom—ti™—lly prote™ted in —ll of these ™ountries from the moment it is writtenF sn —ddition to these ˜—si™ prin™iplesD the ferne gonvention —lso imposes on mem˜er ™ountries — num˜er of more spe™i(™ requirementsF por inst—n™eD they must enfor™e ™opyrights for — minimum period of timeF „he minimum ™opyright term for ™ountries th—t h—ve r—ti(ed the most re™ent version of the ferne gonvention is




the life of the —uthor plus SH ye—rs for —ll works ex™ept photogr—phs —nd ™inem—F „he ferne gonvention —lso requires its mem˜ers to re™ognize —nd enfor™e — limited su˜set of the mor—l rights dis™ussed in wodule I5 F „he ferne gonvention sets forth — fr—mework for mem˜er ™ountries to —dopt ex™eptions to the m—nd—ted ™opyright prote™tionsF „he soE™—lled 4threeEstep test4 ™ont—ined in erti™le W@PA @dis™ussed in more det—il ˜elow6 A de(nes the freedom of mem˜er ™ountries to ™re—te ex™eptions or limit—tions to —uthors9 rights to ™ontrol reprodu™tions of their worksF yther provisions of the ferne gonvention give mem˜er ™ountries dis™retion to ™re—te more spe™i(™ ex™eptionsF ‡hen the ferne gonvention w—s revised most re™ently in €—ris in IWUID the sign—tory ™ountries —dded —n eppendix7 D whi™h ™ont—ins spe™i—l provisions ™on™erning developing ™ountriesF sn p—rti™ul—rD developE ing ™ountries m—yD for ™ert—in works —nd under ™ert—in ™onditionsD dep—rt from the minimum st—nd—rds of prote™tion with reg—rd to the right of tr—nsl—tion —nd the right of reprodu™tion of ™opyrighted worksF wore spe™i(™—llyD the eppendix permits developing ™ountries to gr—nt nonEex™lusive —nd nonEtr—nsfer—˜le ™ompulE sory li™enses to tr—nsl—te works for the purpose of te—™hingD s™hol—rship or rese—r™hD —nd to reprodu™e works for use in ™onne™tion with system—ti™ instru™tion—l —™tivitiesF ‡hile the ferne gonvention outlines ˜ro—d st—nd—rds for ™opyright prote™tionD it m—nd—tes few spe™i(™ rulesF es — resultD the legisl—ture in e—™h mem˜er ™ountry enjoys ™onsider—˜le )exi˜ility in implementing its requirementsF por ex—mpleD in the ferne gonvention smplement—tion e™t of IWVVD the …FƒF gongress —dopted — minim—list —ppro—™h to implement—tionD m—king only those ™h—nges to ™opyright l—w th—t were —˜solutely ne™ess—ry to qu—lify for mem˜ershipF „he ferne gonvention does not ™ont—in —n enfor™ement me™h—nismF „his me—ns th—t mem˜er st—tes h—ve little power to punish —nother st—te th—t does not ™omply with the ferne gonvention9s guidelinesF es we will see l—terD this situ—tion p—rti—lly ™h—nged for the mem˜ers of the ferne gonvention th—t —lso joined the ‡„yF „o le—rn more —˜out the gonvention you m—y re—d its text8 or ™onsult — ˜rief dis™ussion of the history of the ferne gonvention9 F

3.6.2 Universal Copyright Convention
„he Universal Copyright Convention @or UCCA w—s developed ˜y UNESCO —nd —dopted in IWSPF st w—s ™re—ted —s —n —ltern—tive to the ferne gonventionF „he …gg —ddressed the desire of sever—l ™ountries @in™luding the …nited ƒt—tes —nd the ƒoviet …nionA to enjoy some multil—ter—l ™opyright prote™tion without joining the ferne gonventionF „he …gg9s provisions —re more )exi˜le th—n those of the ferne gonventionF „his in™re—sed )exi˜ility w—s intended to —™™ommod—te ™ountries —t di'erent st—ges of development —nd ™ountries with di'erent e™onomi™ —nd so™i—l systemsF vike the ferne gonventionD the …gg in™orpor—tes the prin™iple of n—tion—l tre—tment —nd prohi˜its —ny dis™rimin—tion —g—inst foreign —uthorsD ˜ut it ™ont—ins fewer requirements th—t mem˜er ™ountries must ™omply withF „he …gg h—s de™re—sed in import—n™e —s most ™ountries —re now p—rty to the ferne gonvention or —re mem˜ers of the ‡„y @or ˜othAF „he ™opyright o˜lig—tions of mem˜ers of the ‡„y —re governed ˜y the egreement on „r—deE‚el—ted espe™ts of sntelle™tu—l €roperty ‚ights @„‚s€ƒAD dis™ussed ˜elowF ‰ou m—y ™he™k if your ™ountry is — mem˜er of the …gg ˜y reviewing this list10 F por more inform—tion —˜out the …gg you m—y re—d its text11 or ™onsult the ix—min—tion of the …gg12 F

5 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_1:_Copyright_and_the_Public_Domain#What_Rights_Come_With_Copyr 6 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework#The_Three-Step_Test 7 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/trtdocs_wo001.html#P410_75777 8 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/trtdocs_wo001.html 9 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Berne_Convention 10 http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/les/7816/11642786761conv_71_e.pdf/conv_71_e.pdf 11 http://www.ia.org/documents/infopol/copyright/ucc.txt 12 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Examination_of_the_UCC


3.6.3 Rome Convention (1961)
fy IWTID te™hnology h—d progressed signi(™—ntly sin™e the ferne gonvention w—s signedF ƒome inventionsD su™h —s t—pe re™ordersD h—d m—de it e—sier to ™opy re™orded worksF „he ferne gonvention only —pplied to printed works —nd thus did not help ™opyright holders defend —g—inst the new te™hnologiesF „o —ddress the per™eived need for strong legisl—tive prote™tion for re™orded worksD the ‚ome gonvention for the €rote™tion of €erformersD €rodu™ers of €honogr—ms —nd fro—d™—sting yrg—niz—tions w—s ™on™luded ˜y mem˜ers of ‡s€y on y™to˜er PTD IWTIF st extended ™opyright prote™tion from the —uthor of — work to the ™re—tors —nd produ™ers of p—rti™ul—rD physi™—l em˜odiments of the workF „hese 4(x—tions4 in™lude medi— su™h —s —udio™—ssettesD ghsD —nd h†hsF „he ‚ome gonvention requires mem˜er ™ountries to gr—nt prote™tion to the works of performersD produ™E ers of phonogr—phsD —nd ˜ro—d™—sting org—niz—tionsF roweverD it —lso permits mem˜er ™ountries to ™re—te ex™eptions to th—t prote™tion ! for ex—mpleD to permit un—uthorized uses of — re™ording for the purpose of te—™hing or s™ienti(™ rese—r™hF VV ™ountries h—ve signed the ‚ome gonvention13 F felow is — m—p of the mem˜er st—tesX

Figure 3.2

13 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ShowResults.jsp?lang=en&treaty_id=17




wem˜ership in the ‚ome gonvention is open only to ™ountries th—t —re —lre—dy p—rties to the ferne gonvention or to the …nivers—l gopyright gonventionF vike m—ny intern—tion—l tre—tiesD joining the ‚ome gonvention h—s —n un™ert—in e'e™t on domesti™ l—wF gountries th—t join the ™onvention m—y 4reserve4 their rights with reg—rds to ™ert—in provisions of the tre—tyF sn pr—™ti™eD this h—s en—˜led ™ountries to —void the —ppli™—tion of rules th—t would require import—nt ™h—nges to their n—tion—l l—wsF por more inform—tion on the ‚ome gonvention you m—y re—d its text14 or re—d more —˜out the ‚ome gonvention provisions15 F

3.6.4 WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT)
„he w—y th—t ™opyright owners reprodu™eD distri˜uteD —nd m—rket their works h—s ™h—nged in the digit—l —geF ƒound re™ordingsD —rti™lesD photogr—phsD —nd ˜ooks —re ™ommonly stored in ele™troni™ form—tsD ™ir™ul—ted vi— the snternetD —nd ™ompiled in d—t—˜—sesF …nfortun—telyD the s—me te™hnologies th—t en—˜le more e0™ient stor—ge —nd distri˜ution h—ve —lso f—™ilit—ted widespre—d ™opying of ™opyrighted worksF gon™erned —˜out the e'e™ts of these new te™hnologiesD the governments of developed ™ountries —dvo™—ted for —nd ultim—tely se™ured two tre—tiesX the ‡s€y gopyright „re—ty —nd the ‡s€y €erform—n™e —nd €honogr—ms „re—tyF „he ‡s€y gopyright „re—ty @‡g„A is — spe™i—l —greement under the ferne gonvention th—t entered into for™e on w—r™h TD PHHPF st is the (rst intern—tion—l tre—ty th—t requires ™ountries to provide ™opyright prote™tion to ™omputer progr—ms —nd to d—t—˜—ses @™ompil—tions of d—t— or other m—teri—lAF „he ‡g„ —lso requires mem˜ers to prohi˜it the ™ir™umvention of te™hnologies set ˜y rightsholders to prevent the ™opying —nd distri˜ution of their worksF „hese te™hnologies in™lude en™ryption or rights m—nE —gement inform—tion @d—t— th—t identify works or their —uthorsD —nd th—t —re ne™ess—ry for the m—n—gement of their rightsAF VV ™ountries —re now p—rties to the ‡g„16 F por more —˜out the ‡g„ re—d its text17 or re—d the ix—min—tion of the ‡g„18 F

3.6.5 WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT)
„he ‡s€y €erform—n™es —nd €honogr—ms „re—ty @‡€€„A w—s signed ˜y the mem˜er st—tes of ‡s€y on he™em˜er PHD IWWTF „he ‡€€„ enh—n™es the intelle™tu—l property rights of performers —nd of produ™ers of phonogramsF €honogr—ms in™lude vinyl re™ordsD t—pesD ™omp—™t dis™sD digit—l —udiot—pesD w€QsD —nd other medi— for storing sound re™ordingsF „he ‡€€„ gr—nts performers e™onomi™ rights in their perform—n™es th—t h—ve ˜een (xed in phonogr—msF st —lso gr—nts performers mor—l rights over these perform—n™esF fy ™ontr—stD the produ™ers of phonogr—ms —re only gr—nted e™onomi™ rights in themF VT ™ountries —re p—rty to the ‡€€„19 F por more —˜out the ‡€€„ re—d its text20 or ™onsult the ix—min—tion of the ‡€€„21 F

3.6.6 The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
„he „‚s€ƒ is —n intern—tion—l —greement —dministered ˜y the ‡„yF e m—p showing the ™urrent mem˜ership of the ‡„y is —v—il—˜le here22 F „he „‚s€ƒ —greement w—s negoti—ted —nd ™on™luded in IWWRF „‚s€ƒ
14 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/rome/trtdocs_wo024.html 15 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Rome_Convention_provisions 16 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ShowResults.jsp?lang=en&treaty_id=16 17 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/wct/trtdocs_wo033.html 18 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Examination_of_the_WCT 19 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ShowResults.jsp?country_id=ALL&start_year=ANY&end_year=ANY&search_what=C&treaty_id=20 20 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/wppt/trtdocs_wo034.html 21 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Examination_of_the_WPPT 22 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Trade_Organization_accession_and_membership

IU est—˜lishes minimum st—nd—rds for m—ny forms of intelle™tu—l property prote™tion in mem˜er ™ountries of the ‡„yD in™luding ™opyrightF „he su˜st—ntive provisions of „‚s€ƒ do not di'er dr—sti™—lly from the ferne gonventionF „he m—jor di'eren™e is th—t „‚s€ƒ requires mem˜er ™ountries to gr—nt ™opyright prote™tion to ™omputer progr—ms —nd d—t— ™ompil—tionsF roweverD „‚s€ƒ does not require the prote™tion of —uthors9 mor—l rightsD whi™h the ferne gonvention requiresF „he most import—nt innov—tions of „‚s€ƒ —re the remedies it requiresF …nlike the ferne gonventionD „‚s€ƒ requires mem˜er ™ountries to provide e'e™tive s—n™tions for viol—tions of ™opyrightsF sn —dditionD it ™re—tes — dispute resolution me™h—nism ˜y whi™h ‡„y mem˜er ™ountries ™—n for™e other mem˜ers to ™omply with their tre—ty o˜lig—tionsF st is sometimes s—id th—tD unlike the ferne ™onventionD „‚s€ƒ h—s 4teethF4 „‚s€ƒ —llows for some )exi˜ility in its implement—tionF „his )exi˜ility is intended to permit developing n—tions to ˜—l—n™e the in™orpor—tion of the gener—l prin™iples of „‚s€ƒ with development ™on™ernsF ‰ou ™—n study —ddition—l snform—tion ™on™erning the )exi˜ilities23 of „‚s€ƒ for developing n—tionsF „he text of the „‚s€ƒ egreement is —v—il—˜le here24 F

3.6.7 The proposed Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA)
„he six multil—ter—l tre—ties des™ri˜ed —˜ove m—y soon ˜e joined ˜y — seventhF sn y™to˜er PHHUD the …nited ƒt—tesD the iurope—n gommunityD ƒwitzerl—ndD —nd t—p—n simult—neously —nnoun™ed th—t they would negoti—te — new intelle™tu—l property enfor™ement tre—tyD the entiEgounterfeiting „r—de egreement @eg„eAF eustr—li—D the ‚epu˜li™ of uore—D xew e—l—ndD —nd wexi™o h—ve sin™e joined the negoti—tionsF ƒever—l rounds of negoti—tions h—ve o™™urredF „he p—rti™ip—nts h—ve st—ted pu˜li™ly th—t they expe™t to (nish negoti—tions in PHIHF emong other issuesD eg„e will ™ont—in provisions to —ddress 4snternet distri˜ution —nd inform—tion te™hnologyD4 su™h —s —uthorizing o0™i—ls to se—r™h for illeg—lly downlo—ded musi™ on person—l devi™es —t —irportsD or for™ing snternet ƒervi™e €roviders to provide inform—tion —˜out possi˜le ™opyright infringers without — w—rr—ntF

3.6.8 Regional Agreements
„he multil—ter—l —greements we h—ve just des™ri˜ed ™ont—in the prim—ry provisions th—t limit the freedom of e—™h ™ountry in sh—ping its own ™opyright l—wsF fut some ™ountries —lso ˜elong to region—l org—niz—tions th—t h—ve the power to in)uen™e the ™opyright l—ws of their mem˜ersF „he most import—nt su™h region—l org—niz—tion is the European UnionD ™ommonly known —s the EUF @e m—p showing the ™urrent mem˜ership of the i…D —s well —s the ™—ndid—tes for —dmission to the i…D is —v—il—˜le here25 FA feginning in IWWID the i… h—s —dopted sever—l dire™tives rel—ting to ™opyright l—wF @e dire™tive o˜liges the mem˜er ™ountries to ˜ring their l—ws into ™onformity with its requirements ˜y — p—rti™ul—r d—teD ˜ut le—ves to e—™h ™ountry9s dis™retion some )exi˜ility in —™hieving th—t go—lFA por ex—mpleD the ƒoftw—re hire™tive required mem˜er ™ountries to gr—nt ™opyright prote™tion to the —uthors of softw—re progr—msD reg—rdless of how ™re—tive those progr—ms —reF „he ‚ent—l ‚ights hire™tive26 required mem˜er ™ountries to re™ognize 4— right to —uthorize or prohi˜it the rent—l —nd lending of origin—ls —nd ™opies of ™opyright worksFFFF4 @„he ˜—™kground of this innov—tion —nd its signi(™—n™e for li˜r—ri—ns will ˜e dis™ussed in wodule R27 AF „he gopyright hur—tion hire™tive28 required mem˜er ™ountries to extend ™opyright prote™tion to the life of the —uthor plus UH ye—rs @PH ye—rs more th—n the term required ˜y the ferne
23 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Information_concerning_the_exibilities 24 http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/t_agm0_e.htm 25 http://www.ezilon.com/european_maps.htm 26 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rental_Directive 27 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_4:_Rights%2C_Exceptions%2C_and_Limitations 28 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright_Duration_Directive_(93/98/EEC)




gonventionAF „he ™ontroversi—l snform—tion ƒo™iety hire™tive29 @—lso sometimes known —s the gopyright hire™tiveA w—s —dopted in PHHI to implement the ‡g„D dis™ussed —˜oveF @„he m—in provisions of the snform—tion ƒo™iety hire™tive will ˜e dis™ussed in su˜sequent modulesFA end the ‚es—le ‚ights hire™tive30 o˜liges mem˜er ™ountries to gr—nt the ™re—tors of origin—l works of —rt — right to remuner—tion when those works —re resoldF iqu—lly import—nt for m—ny efri™—n ™ountries is the revised f—ngui egreement31 @exe™uted in IWWWY e'e™tive in PHHPAD whi™h governs the mem˜er ™ountries of the efri™—n sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tion @ye€sA32 @Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central Africa, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Chad, and TogoAF erti™les V —nd IH of ennex †ss of the egreement set forth —n espe™i—lly generous list of mor—l rights @re)e™ting its origins in pren™h ™opyright l—wAD while erti™le W sets forth — simil—rly generous list of e™onomi™ rightsD in™luding the rent—l rightF erti™les II through PI then ™—rve out of those rights — long list of ex™eptions —nd limit—tions @to whi™h we will return in wodules R33 —nd S34 AF The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)D whi™h w—s entered into ˜y Canada, the United States, and Mexico in IWWRD limits the dis™retion of those three ™ountries in de(ning their intelle™tu—lEproperty l—wsF roweverD with respe™t to ™opyright l—ws in p—rti™ul—rD xep„e ™losely p—r—llels the „‚s€ƒ egreementD dis™ussed —˜oveD —nd thus h—s rel—tively little independent signi(™—n™eF yther region—l org—niz—tions th—t ™ould in)uen™e their mem˜er ™ountries9 ™opyright systems ! ˜ut th—t h—ve not yetD for the most p—rtD done so ! in™lude „he ende—n gommunity35 @Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and PeruAD wer™osur36 @Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, —nd @perh—ps soonA VenezuelaAD —nd the efri™—n ‚egion—l sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tion @e‚s€yA37 @Botswana,
the Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and ZimbabweAF

3.6.9 3.6.10 Free Trade Agreements and Bilateral Investment Treaties
wultil—ter—l tre—ties su™h —s „‚s€ƒ ™—n provide powerful glo˜—l prote™tion for ™opyright holders ˜e™—use they est—˜lish minimum st—nd—rds for prote™tion of ™opyrights th—t —re ˜inding on l—rge num˜ers of ™ountriesF roweverD ™opyright holders sometimes try to o˜t—in even stronger prote™tions through ˜il—ter—l tre—ties ˜eE tween ™ountries or org—niz—tions of ™ountriesF fil—ter—l tre—ties on ™opyright l—w often —ddress spe™i(™ issues ˜etween the the two p—rtiesF ƒu™h —greements —re ™ommonly known —s free trade agreements @p„esA or Bilateral Investment Treaties @fs„sAF „ypi™—llyD su™h ˜il—ter—l —greements either n—rrow the )exi˜ilities th—t — developing ™ountry would enjoy under „‚s€ƒ or impose more stringent st—nd—rds for ™opyright prote™tionF por ex—mpleD the …FƒF government h—s in™luded —ntiE™ir™umvention o˜lig—tions in its ˜il—ter—l p„es with tord—nD ƒing—poreD ghileD woro™™oD f—hr—in —nd ym—nF ƒimil—rlyD the iurope—n …nion h—s re™ently negoti—ted p„es with developing ™ountries th—t signi(™—ntly limit the dis™retion of those ™ountries in —djusting their ™opyright l—wsF p„es —nd fs„s —re highly ™ontroversi—lF w—ny s™hol—rs —nd represent—tives of developing ™ountries reg—rd them —s —˜uses of the power of developed ™ountriesF ypponents of proposed p„es or fs„s h—ve sometimes ˜een —˜le to prevent their —doption or modify themF gli™k here for more snform—tion on p„es38 F

29 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Directive_on_the_harmonisation_of_certain_aspects_of_copyright_and_related_rights_in_the_informatio 30 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resale_Rights_Directive 31 http://www.oapi.wipo.net/doc/en/bangui_agreement.pdf 32 http://www.oapi.wipo.net/fr/OAPI/index.htm 33 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_4:_Rights%2C_Exceptions%2C_and_Limitations 34 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_5:_Managing_Rights 35 http://www.comunidadandina.org/index.htm 36 http://www.mercosur.int/msweb/Portal%20Intermediario/ 37 http://www.aripo.org/ 38 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Information_on_FTAs


3.6.11 The Three-Step Test
wost of the m—jor multil—ter—lD region—lD —nd ˜il—ter—l —greements use — tool th—t h—s ™ome to ˜e known —s the threeEstep test to de(ne the freedom of mem˜er ™ountries to ™re—te ex™eptions —nd limit—tions to ™opyrightsF „he threeEstep test w—s (rst ™re—ted in the IWTU revision of the ferne gonventionF st providesX
"It shall be a matter for legislation in the countries of the Union to permit the reproduction of such works [a] in certain special cases, provided that [b] such reproduction does not conict with a normal exploitation of the work and [c] does not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author."

wost intern—tion—l ™opyright —greements sin™e then h—ve in™orpor—ted versions of this testF por ex—mpleD versions of the test m—y ˜e found in the „‚s€ƒ egreement @erti™le IQAD the ‡g„ @erti™le IHAD sever—l of the i… ™opyright dire™tivesD —nd sever—l ˜il—ter—l —greementsF sndeedD threeEstep tests m—y now ˜e found in the n—tion—l legisl—tion of m—ny ™ountriesD in™luding pr—n™eD €ortug—lD ghin—D —nd eustr—li—F iven when n—tion—l legisl—tion does not expli™itly in™orpor—te the testD judges sometimes rely upon it when ™onstruing —nd —pplying their n—tion9s ™opyright l—wsF „he ™over—ge of the di'erent versions of the test v—ries somewh—tF por ex—mpleD where—s the ferne gonvention threeEstep test only —pplies to ex™eptions —nd limit—tions to the right of reprodu™tionD the threeE step test ™ont—ined in erti™le IQ of the „‚s€ƒ egreement —pplies to ex™eptions —nd limit—tions to —ny of the ex™lusive rights —sso™i—ted with ™opyrightF sn —dditionD the l—ngu—ge used in the di'erent versions v—riesF por ex—mpleD where—s the third step of the ferne gonvention test @quoted —˜oveA requires th—t —n ex™eption or limit—tion not unre—son—˜ly prejudi™e the legitim—te interests of the —uthorD the third step of the „‚s€ƒ test requires th—t —n ex™eption or limit—tion not unre—son—˜ly prejudi™e the legitim—te interests of the right holder ! — ™h—nge th—t shifts —ttention —w—y from the interests of ™re—tors tow—rd the e™onomi™ interests of the ™omp—nies th—t —™quire ™opyrights from the origin—l ™re—torsF qiven the prev—len™e of the threeEstep test —nd the long period of time in whi™h it h—s existedD you might expe™t th—t the me—ning of the test would ˜y now ˜e ™le—rF xot soF „he version of the test ™ont—ined in the ferne gonvention h—s never ˜een interpreted o0™i—llyF „he version ™ont—ined in erti™le IQ of the „‚s€ƒ egreement h—s only ˜een o0™i—lly interpreted on™e ˜y — dispute resolution p—nelD —nd how f—r th—t interpret—tion should ™ontrol other ™ountries in the future is not ™le—rF end the ™ourts in di'erent iurope—n ™ountries h—ve ™onstrued the test in in™onsistent w—ys in fun™tion—lly identi™—l ™—sesF qiven this un™ert—intyD ™omment—tors —nd lo˜˜yists dis—gree sh—rply —˜out how restri™tive the threeEstep test re—lly isF et one extremeD some ™l—im th—t the f—irEuse do™trine in the …nited ƒt—tes @whi™h we will dis™uss in wodule R39 A viol—tes the test ! —nd thus th—t the …nited ƒt—tes should repe—l the f—irEuse do™trine —nd th—t developing ™ountries m—y not —dopt simil—r do™trinesF es ‡illi—m €—try h—s demonstr—ted40 D this interpret—tion is highly impl—usi˜le ! —s shown most ™le—rly ˜y the f—ilure of —ny of the ™ountries involved in the negoti—tion of the „‚s€ƒ egreement or the —™™ession ˜y the …nited ƒt—tes to the ferne gonvention to o˜je™t to the f—irEuse do™trine in the …nited ƒt—tesF et the opposite extremeD — group of prominent —nd in)uenti—l ™opyright s™hol—rs h—ve re™ently proE posed 4e f—l—n™ed snterpret—tion of the „hreeEƒtep „est in gopyright v—w441 F „hey —rgue th—t —n exE ™eption or limit—tion th—t f—ils to s—tisfy one of the three steps should not ne™ess—rily ˜e deemed to viol—te the testF ‚—therD —ll three ™omponents of the test should ˜e ™onsidered together in — 4™omprehensive over—ll —ssessment4 th—t t—kes into —™™ount the thre—ts th—t ex™essive levels of ™opyright prote™tion pose to 4huE m—n rights —nd fund—ment—l freedomsD4 4interests in ™ompetitionD4 —nd 4other pu˜li™ interestsD not—˜ly in s™ienti(™ progress —nd ™ultur—lD so™i—lD or e™onomi™ development4 ! in —ddition to the import—nt interests of ™opyright holders in f—ir ™ompens—tionF „his propos—l h—s two strengthsF pirstD it (ts well the underlying purpose of the ™opyright system —s — wholeD whi™hD —s we h—ve seenD seeks to ˜—l—n™e the interests of ™re—tors with the interests of so™iety —t l—rge in m—ximizing —™™ess to ide—s —nd inform—tionF ƒe™ondD it derives
39 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_4:_Rights%2C_Exceptions%2C_and_Limitations 40 http://williampatry.blogspot.com/2008/04/fair-use-three-step-test-and-european.html 41 http://www.ip.mpg.de/ww/de/pub/aktuelles/declaration_on_the_three_step_.cfm




support from the referen™e in —ll versions of the test to the 4legitim—te4 interests of either —uthors or right holdersF st doesD howeverD h—ve one we—knessX virtu—lly —ll ™ourts —nd tri˜un—ls th—t h—ve ™onsidered the test to d—te h—ve ™on™luded th—t —ll three of its 4steps4 must ˜e s—tis(edF enother interpret—tion th—t does not su'er from this we—kness ˜ut th—t preserves the strengths of the proposed 4f—l—n™ed snterpret—tion4 h—s ˜een o'ered re™ently ˜y €rofessors rugenholtz —nd ykediji42 X 4vimE it—tions —nd ex™eptions th—t @IA —re not overly ˜ro—dD @PA do not ro˜ right holders of — re—l or potenti—l sour™e of in™ome th—t is su˜st—ntiveD —nd @QA do not do disproportion—l h—rm to the right holdersD will p—ss the testF4 „his propos—l is grounded in — long —nd det—iled dis™ussion of the evolution of the threeEstep test —nd deserves ™—reful ™onsider—tionF en import—nt gener—l lesson m—y ˜e derived from this situ—tionX „he me—ning of ™opyright l—ws of —ll sorts ! in™luding intern—tion—l ™opyright —greements ! is often less ™le—r th—n (rst —ppe—rsF w—ny rules h—ve not yet ˜een interpreted —uthorit—tivelyF „his ™re—tes opportunities for li˜r—ri—ns or other represent—tives of developing ™ountries to —rgue for —nd —™t upon interpret—tions th—t give them more freedom when sh—ping their own l—wsF sn su˜sequent modulesD we will ™ome —™ross sever—l su™h opportunitiesF

3.7 Perspectives For Developing Countries

3.7.1 The Benets and Drawbacks of Copyright Law for Developing Countries
ƒome o˜servers ˜elieve th—t governments should upgr—de —nd h—rmonize ™opyright l—w glo˜—lly ˜e™—use it promotes the —rts —nd rew—rds ™re—torsF „hey —rgue th—t gr—nting —n ex™lusive right in ™re—tive expression provides — ne™ess—ry in™entive for ™opyright holders to invest in the ™re—tion —nd distri˜ution of expressive worksF „his stimul—tes ™ultur—l expression —nd ˜ene(ts ™itizensF ƒuppression of ™ompetition from 4pir—tesD4 they —rgueD is ne™ess—ry to —llow lo™—l ™re—tive industries to )ourishF roweverD others —rgue th—t implementing the s—me ™opyright l—w in —ll ™ountries h—s — disproportion—te —nd neg—tive e'e™t on developing ™ountriesF wost developed n—tions h—ve powerful —nd lu™r—tive enterE t—inmentD edu™—tion—lD —nd rese—r™h industries th—t export ™opyrighted worksD —nd thus ˜ene(t from strong ™opyright l—wF heveloping ™ountriesD on the other h—ndD typi™—lly import ™opyrighted worksF „husD it is —rguedD the residents of developing ™ountries h—ve to p—y more roy—lties —nd fees —s — result of enh—n™ed ™opyright prote™tionF st is —lso —rgued th—t restri™tive ™opyright l—ws prevent m—ny governments from —dE dressing import—nt so™i—l needs ! su™h —s providing their ™itizens with good edu™—tions ! ˜e™—use ™riti™—l inform—tion is lo™ked up ˜y the l—wF „he l—tter set of —rguments h—ve prompted — growing num˜er of groups in developing ™ountries to resist the imposition of the minimum st—nd—rds of ™opyright prote™tion set ˜y the „‚s€ƒ egreement —nd the even h—rsher duties th—t —re imposed on developing ™ountries ˜y p„esF „hey ™—ll for — ˜etter ˜—l—n™e ˜etweenD on one h—ndD providing in™entives to ™re—tors —nd rew—rding their ™re—tive —™tivities —ndD on the other h—ndD promoting —™™ess to knowledge —nd rese—r™hD in order to spur e™onomi™ growth —nd foster innov—tion in the developing ™ountriesF

3.7.2 3.7.3 WIPO Development Agenda
„he ‡„y h—s entered into —n —greement with WIPO to provide —dvi™e to developing ™ountries on the implement—tion of „‚s€ƒF ƒome in developing ™ountries ™onsider the —dvi™e provided ˜y ‡s€y to ˜e too weighted in f—vor of the interests of ™opyright holdersF sn PHHRD fr—zil —nd ergentin— su˜mitted to the WIPO General Assembly — propos—l for — development —gend—F „he propos—l43 ™—lled on ‡s€y to p—y gre—ter —ttention to the imp—™t of intelle™tu—l property prote™tion on e™onomi™ —nd so™i—l developmentD the need to s—fegu—rd )exi˜ilities designed to prote™t the pu˜li™ interestD —nd the import—n™e of promoting development
42 http://www.ivir.nl/publicaties/hugenholtz/nalreport2008.pdf 43 http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/govbody/en/wo_ga_31/wo_ga_31_11.pdf

PI oriented te™hni™—l ™ooper—tion —nd —ssist—n™eF eddition—l propos—ls in support of — ‡s€y hevelopment egend— were su˜mitted ˜y other mem˜er ™ountries —nd org—niz—tionsD su™h —s ghileD the qroup of priends of hevelopmentD —nd the efri™— qroupF „his initi—tive h—s m—de ™onsider—˜le progressF „he PHHR ‡s€y qener—l essem˜ly —greed to hold — series of intergovernment—l meetings to ex—mine the propos—ls for — development —gend—F ƒu˜st—ntive reform propos—ls to est—˜lish — development —gend— for ‡s€y p—ssed during the PHHU ‡s€y qener—l essem˜lyF „he ™urrent ‡s€y hevelopment egend—44 ™ont—ins RS re™ommend—tions for the qener—l essem˜ly to pursueF yrg—niz—tions representing li˜r—ri—ns h—ve h—d — signi(™—nt voi™e in the negoti—tions of the ‡s€y heE velopment egend—F toint st—tements of the sntern—tion—l peder—tion of vi˜r—ry esso™i—tions @spveAD the vi˜r—ry gopyright elli—n™e @vgeAD —nd ile™troni™ snform—tion for vi˜r—ries @espvA —re —v—il—˜le here45 F

3.7.4 The Proposed Access to Knowledge (A2K) Treaty
„he ergentin—Efr—zil propos—l for — development —gend— prompted — de˜—te on whether ‡s€y should work to ensure e'e™tive te™hnology tr—nsfer from developed to developing ™ountriesF xongovernment—l org—niz—tions @xqysAD —™—demi™sD —nd rese—r™hers sh—red the ™on™erns expressed ˜y developing ™ountries th—t —spe™ts of the ™opyright system were impeding innov—tion —nd ™re—ting dis—dv—nt—ges for developing ™ountriesF „his re—™tion to ‡s€y9s ™urrent poli™ies took the form of — movement ™—lling for equ—lity —mong ™itizens from developed —nd developing ™ountries —s reg—rds —™™ess to knowledgeY it h—s ™ome to ˜e known —s the —™™ess to knowledge or  A2K movementF vi˜r—ri—ns9 org—niz—tionsD su™h —s espvD were pioneers in the —dvo™—™y of — right to knowledge —nd h—ve ™—lled upon ‡s€y to est—˜lish minimum ex™eptions —nd limit—tions to ™opyright prote™tionF yne outgrowth of the movement h—s ˜een — propos—l for — …nited x—tions tre—ty46 F „he proposed tre—ty intends to prote™t —nd enh—n™e —™™ess to knowledgeD —nd to f—™ilit—te the tr—nsfer of te™hnology to developing ™ountriesF st in™ludes — list of ™ir™umst—n™es under whi™h ™opyright holders m—y not prevent the free use of their ™ontentD in™ludingX

• „he use of works for purposes of li˜r—ry or —r™hiv—l preserv—tionD or to migr—te ™ontent to — new form—tF • „he e'orts of li˜r—riesD —r™hivistsD or edu™—tion—l institutions to m—ke ™opies of works th—t —re not ™urrently the su˜je™t of ™ommer™i—l exploit—tionD for purposes of preserv—tionD edu™—tionD or rese—r™hF • „he use of ex™erptsD sele™tionsD —nd quot—tions from ™opyrighted works for purposes of expl—n—tion —nd illustr—tion in ™onne™tion with notEforEpro(t te—™hing —nd s™hol—rshipF • „he use of ™opyrighted works ˜y edu™—tion—l institutions —s prim—ry instru™tion—l m—teri—lsD if those m—teri—ls —re not m—de re—dily —v—il—˜le ˜y ™opyright holders —t re—son—˜le pri™esF
sn —dditionD the proposed tre—ty would est—˜lish — First Sale Doctrine for Library UseD st—ting th—t — work th—t h—s ˜een l—wfully —™quired ˜y — li˜r—ry m—y ˜e lent to others without further tr—ns—™tion fees to ˜e p—id ˜y the li˜r—ryF pin—llyD the ePu tre—ty propos—l introdu™es provisions in support of dist—n™e edu™—tionD —s well —s provisions —™™ommod—ting the rights of persons with dis—˜ilitiesF vi˜r—ri—ns —nd li˜r—ry p—trons —ren9t the only p—rties who ™ould ˜ene(t from the ePu tre—tyF „he propos—l in™ludes rules prote™ting Internet Service Providers from ™opyright li—˜ilityD —nd —lso mitig—tes the stri™t prohi˜itions on ™ir™umvention of en™ryption ™ont—ined in sever—l intern—tion—l ™opyright tre—tiesF …nder the proposed tre—tyD nonoriginal —nd orphan works @those works for whi™h — ™opyright holder ™—nnot ˜e identi(ed upon re—son—˜le se—r™hA would ˜e left in the public domainF „he tre—ty would —lso gu—r—ntee —™™ess to pu˜li™ly funded rese—r™h worksD government worksD —nd —r™hives of pu˜li™ ˜ro—d™—stingF pin—llyD the ePu tre—ty propos—l —lso in™ludes provisions on p—tent prote™tionD —nti™ompetitive pr—™ti™esD —nd tr—nsfer of te™hnology to developing ™ountriesF
44 http://www.wipo.int/ip-development/en/agenda/recommendations.html 45 http://www.ei.net/cps/sections/services/ei-ip/issues/wipo-development-agenda 46 http://www.cptech.org/a2k/a2k_treaty_may9.pdf




3.8 Back to the Case Study
„o —dvise engel—D x—di— should review the lists of the mem˜er ™ountries of —ll of the intern—tion—l —greements dis™ussed in this lesson to —s™ert—in whether their ™ountry h—s joined —ny of those —greementsF ƒhe should then review the terms of —ny —ppli™—˜le —greements to determine whether they prevent exp—nsion of the rights of te—™hers —nd students to use ™opyrighted m—teri—ls without permissionF „h—t inquiry will likely require x—di— to ™onsider whi™h of the v—rious interpret—tions of the threeEstep test is most sensi˜leD —nd the extent to whi™h th—t test limits — ™ountry9s dis™retion in re™ognizing ex™eptions —nd limit—tions for edu™—tion—l purposesF „h—t —n—lysis will ˜e di0™ult —nd m—y require x—di— to ™onsult with fellow li˜r—ri—nsF

3.9 Additional resources
e thorough dis™ussion of intern—tion—l ™opyright l—w m—y ˜e found in €—ul idw—rd qellerD edFD International @P volumesD w—tthew fenderAD —lthough its ™over—ge of developing —nd tr—nE sition—l ™ountries is thinF @st is —lso prohi˜itively expensive47 AF yther useful p—per tre—tises in™lude €—ul qoldsteinD International Copyright: Principles, Law, and Practice @yxford …niversity €ressA —nd ƒilke von vewinskiD sntern—tion—l gopyright v—w —nd €oli™y48 @yxford …niversity €ress PHHVAF en online ™ourse on sntern—tion—l gopyright v—wD dire™ted —t li˜r—ri—nsD m—y ˜e found here49 D ˜ut it is —lso expensiveF en ex™ellent ™ompendium of the ™opyright l—ws in over IHH ™ountries h—s ˜een —ssem˜led ˜y …xiƒgyX golle™tion of x—tion—l gopyright v—ws50 F es indi™—ted —˜oveD —n espe™i—lly import—nt ™omponent of most intern—tion—l ™opyright —greements is the threeEstep testF „he most ™omprehensive —nd —™™essi˜le ex—min—tion of the history —nd me—ning of th—t test m—y ˜e found in €F fernt rugenholtz 8 ‚uth vF ykedijiD gon™eiving —n sntern—tion—l snstrument on vimit—tions —nd ix™eptions to gopyrightX pin—l ‚eportD w—r™h HTD PHHV51 F yther good —n—lyses of the threeEstep test —v—il—˜le in print ˜ut not online in™lude w—rtin ƒenftle˜enD Copyright, Limitations and the Three-Step Test @uluwer v—w snt9l PHHRAY —nd t—ne gF qins˜urgD 4„ow—rd ƒupr—n—tion—l gopyright v—wc „he ‡„y €—nel he™ision —nd the 4„hree ƒtep „est4 for gopyright ixemptionsD4 IVU ‚evue intern—tion—le hu hroit h9euteur QD RW @PHHIAF e thorough review of the prin™ip—l ex™eptions —nd limit—tions to ™opyrights re™ognized ˜y the m—in multil—ter—l —greements ! ™om˜ined with — —rgument for the ™l—ri(™—tion —nd exp—nsion of those ex™eptions —nd limit—tionsD emph—sizing 4the import—n™e of —™™ess to ™re—tive works for developing ™ountries4 ! m—y ˜e found in ‚uth vF ykedijiD 4„he sntern—tion—l gopyright ƒystemX vimit—tionsD ix™eptions —nd €u˜li™ snterest gonsider—tions for heveloping gountriesD sntern—tion—l gentre for „r—de —nd ƒust—in—˜le hevelopment —nd …nited x—tions gonferen™e on „r—de —nd hevelopmentD4 sssue €—per xoF IS @PHHTA52 F sn™luded in ykediji9s ess—y is —n ex™ellent dis™ussion of the ferne gonvention eppendixF por — ‡s€y study more skepti™—l of the v—lue of those ex™eptions —nd limit—tionsD see ‡s€y ƒt—nding gommittee on gopyright —nd ‚el—ted ‚ightsD ‡s€y ƒtudy on vimit—tions —nd ix™eptions of gopyright —nd ‚el—ted ‚ights in the higit—l invironmentD Wth ƒessionD tune PQEPUD PHHQD ‡s€y ho™F ƒgg‚GWGU @epril SD PHHQA53 F en ex™ellent study of the pro™ess of implementing the „‚s€ƒ egreement @in™luding — det—iled dis™ussion of the ™omplex pro™esses th—t led to the revised f—ngui egreement —mong the ye€s ™ountriesA ™—n ˜e found in g—rolyn heereD The Implementation Game: The TRIPS Agreement and the Global Politics of Intellectual Property Reform in Developing Countries @yxford …€ PHHWAF „he sntrodu™tionD whi™h sket™hes the —rgument
Copyright Law and Practive

47 http://www.lexisnexis.com/store/catalog/productdetail.jsp?prodId=10440 48 http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199207206.do 49 http://sla.learn.com/learncenter.asp?page=258 50 http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=14076&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html 51 http://www.ivir.nl/publicaties/hugenholtz/nalreport2008.pdf 52 http://www.iprsonline.org/unctadictsd/docs/ruth%202405.pdf 53 http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/copyright/en/sccr_9/sccr_9_7.pdf

PQ of the ˜ookD is —v—il—˜le online here54 F por upEtoEd—te inform—tion ™on™erning the implement—tion of the i… snform—tion ƒo™iety hire™tive ˜y individu—l ™ountriesD in™luding — good ˜i˜liogr—phy of s™hol—rly studies of the implement—tion pro™essD see snstituut voor snfom—tiere™ht @s†s‚AD ‚eport on the smplement—tion of the snform—tion ƒo™iety hire™tive55 @PHHVAF

3.9.1 Cases
„he following judi™i—l opinion —nd summ—ries of rulings issued in ‡„y dispute resolution pro™eedings explore —nd —pply some of the prin™iples dis™ussed in this moduleX toined g—ses gEWPGWP —nd gEQPTGWPD €hil gollins v smtr—t r—ndelsgesells™h—ft m˜rY €—tri™i— smEund ixport †erw—ltungsgesells™h—ft m˜r —nd enother v iws ile™trol— qm˜r @IWWQA56 @eppli™—˜ility of the iig „re—ty to s€ rightsA ƒ—r—h iF renryD 4„he pirst sntern—tion—l gh—llenge to …FƒF gopyright v—wX ‡h—t hoes the ‡„y en—lysis of IU …FƒFgF ŸIIH@SA we—n to the puture of sntern—tion—l r—rmoniz—tion of gopyright v—ws …nder the „‚s€ƒ egreementcD4 PH €enn ƒt—te sntern—tion—l v—w ‚eview QHI @PHHIA57 F58 @i… vsF …ƒA t—n foh—nes 8 edri—n im™hD 4‡„y €—nel ‚eport on ghin— s€‚X e wixed ‚esultD4 ghin— v—w 8 €r—™ti™eD ppF IWEPHD w—r™h PHHW59 @…ƒ vsF ghin—A

3.10 Assignment and discussion questions

3.10.1 Assignment
IF ‡hi™h intern—tion—l tre—ties governing ™opyright l—w h—s your ™ountry signedD r—ti(edD —nd implementedc PF sf your ™ountry is — mem˜er of the ferne gonventionD m—y your n—tion—l legisl—ture set the ™opyright term to either —A IPH ye—rs or ˜A PS ye—rsc ‡hy or why notc QF sm—gine th—t your ™ountry is — mem˜er of the ferne gonventionD ˜ut not of the ‡„yF „husD your ™ountry is not ˜ound ˜y „‚s€ƒF w—y your n—tion—l legisl—ture require foreign ™opyright holders to register their works with your ™ountry in order to re™eive ™opyright prote™tionc sf your legisl—ture did require registr—tionD ™ould other mem˜ers of the ferne gonvention t—ke —™tion —g—inst your ™ountryc row would your —nswer ˜e di'erent if your ™ountry were —lso — mem˜er of the ‡„yc RF ƒuppose th—t the (™tion—l ™ountry of etl—ntis h—s re™ently signed —nd r—ti(ed the ‡g„F sts n—tion—l legisl—ture w—nts to implement the tre—tyF etl—ntis only imports softw—re from other ™ountries —nd it h—s never ˜efore prote™ted them under ™opyright l—wF „he legisl—ture ˜elieves th—t it is in the interest of etl—nte—ns to extend —s little ™opyright prote™tion to ™omputer progr—ms —s possi˜leF ‡h—t provisions of the ‡„g would —llow etl—nte—ns to freely use ™omputer progr—msc SF ho you think th—t ˜oth developed —nd developing ™ountries should h—ve the s—me rules for ™opyright prote™tionc ‡hy or why notc TF ‚e—d —rti™le QEI of the dr—ft text of the ePu tre—ty60 F gomment on the import—n™e of one or two provisions for the missions you perform —s — li˜r—ri—nF
54 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Papers.cfm?abstract_id=1405224 55 http://www.ivir.nl/les/implementation_2001_29_EC/index_eng.html 56 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:61992J0092:EN:HTML 57 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/tsher/IP/Henry%202001.pdf 58 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/tsher/IP/Henry%202001.pdf 59 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1516907 60 http://www.cptech.org/a2k/a2k_treaty_may9.pdf




3.10.2 Discussion Question(s)
€le—se re—d the ™omments on the ePu tre—ty propos—ls th—t your ™olle—gues provided to question TD —˜oveD —nd ™omment on one @or moreA of themF ‰ou m—y give more ex—mples ˜—sed on situ—tions you h—ve f—™ed —t workD or proje™ts you ™ould developF

3.11 Contributors
„his module w—s ™re—ted ˜y €etroul— †—ntsiouri61 F st w—s then edited ˜y — te—m in™luding ƒe˜—sti—n hi—z62 D ‡illi—m pisher63 D …rs q—sser64 D ed—m roll—nd65 D uim˜erley ss˜ell66 D €eter t—szi67 D golin w—™l—y68 D endrew woshirni—69 D —nd ghris €eterson70 F

61 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#vantsiouri 62 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#diaz 63 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#sher 64 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#gasser 65 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#holland 66 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#isbell 67 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#jaszi 68 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#maclay 69 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#moshirnia 70 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#peterson

Chapter 4
The Scope of Copyright Law

4.1 Module 3: The Scope of Copyright Law 4.2 Learning objective
„his module dis™usses the kinds of ™re—tions —nd the kinds of —™tivities th—t ™opyright l—w does —nd does not ™overF

4.3 Case Study
Angela is considering tape recording her lectures, depositing the tapes in the library, and perhaps selling copies of the recordings to an online publisher. During some of her lectures, Angela plans to perform some traditional folk music. She asks Nadia for advice concerning her rights and obligations.

4.4 Lesson 4.5 What Does Copyright Law Protect?

4.5.1 The Denition of a Literary or Artistic Work
gopyright l—w regul—tes the m—king of ™opies of liter—ry or —rtisti™ worksF erti™le PD ƒe™tion I of the ferne gonvention2 de(nes liter—ry —nd —rtisti™ works —s followsX
The expression "literary and artistic works" shall include every production in the literary, scientic and artistic domain, whatever may be the mode or form of its expression, such as books, pamphlets and other writings; lectures, addresses, sermons and other works of the same nature; dramatic or musical works; choreographic works and entertainments in dumb show; musical compositions with or without words; cinematographic works to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to cinematography; works of drawing, painting, architecture, sculpture, engraving and lithography; photographic works to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to photography; works of applied art; illustrations, maps, plans, sketches and three-dimensional works relative to geography, topography, architecture or science.

1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m22659/1.4/>. 2 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework#Berne_Convention





„o ˜e entitled to prote™tionD — work f—lling into this ˜ro—d ™—tegory must s—tisfy two ˜—si™ requireE mentsX originality —nd xationF

4.5.2 The Concept of Originality
xeither the ferne gonvention3 nor the „‚s€ƒ egreement4 expressly requires origin—lity for — work to ˜e prote™ted ˜y ™opyrightF roweverD —lmost —ll ™ountries require some level of origin—lity for — work to qu—lify for ™opyright prote™tionF …nfortun—telyD there is no st—nd—rd intern—tion—l minimum of origin—lityF i—™h ™ountry independently sets the origin—lity st—nd—rd th—t — work must meetF sn some ™ountriesD su™h —s the …nited ƒt—tes —nd g—n—d—D origin—lity requires only 4independent ™on™eption4 —nd — 4˜—re minimum4 of ™re—tivityF sn other ™ountriesD su™h —s pr—n™eD ƒp—in —nd developing ™ountries in)uen™ed ˜y the ™ivilEl—w tr—ditionD origin—lity is de(ned —s the imprint of the —uthor9s person—lity on the workF sn most ™ountriesD the work of —uthorship need not ˜e novelD ingeniousD or h—ve —estheti™ merit in order to s—tisfy the origin—lity requirementF por ex—mpleD the …FƒF ƒupreme gourt in Feist Pulbications v. Rural Telephone Service Co.D RWW …FƒF QRH @IWWIAD de(ned origin—lity —s requiring only th—t the work ˜e independently ™re—ted ˜y the —uthor —nd th—t it possess —t le—st some minim—l degree of ™re—tivityF e™™ording to the gourtD the requisite level of ™re—tivity is extremely low —nd — work need only possess some ™re—tive sp—rk no m—tter how ™rudeD hum˜le or o˜vious it might ˜eF

4.5.3 4.5.4 Fixation
„he ferne gonvention —llows mem˜er ™ountries to de™ide whether ™re—tive works must ˜e (xed to enjoy ™opyrightF erti™le PD ƒe™tion P of the ferne gonvention st—tesX st sh—ll ˜e — m—tter for legisl—tion in the ™ountries of the …nion to pres™ri˜e th—t works in gener—l or —ny spe™i(ed ™—tegories of works sh—ll not ˜e prote™ted unless they h—ve ˜een (xed in some m—teri—l formF w—ny ™ountries do not require th—t — work ˜e produ™ed in — p—rti™ul—r form to o˜t—in ™opyright prote™tionF por inst—n™eD ƒp—inD pr—n™eD —nd eustr—li— do not require (x—tion for ™opyright prote™tionF „he …nited ƒt—tes —nd g—n—d—D on the other h—ndD require th—t the work ˜e (xed in — t—ngi˜le medium of expression to o˜t—in ™opyright prote™tionF …FƒF l—w requires th—t the (x—tion ˜e st—˜le —nd perm—nent enough to ˜e per™eivedD reprodu™ed or ™ommuni™—ted for — period of more th—n tr—nsitory dur—tionF ƒimil—rlyD g—n—di—n ™ourts ™onsider (x—tion to require th—t the work ˜e expressed to some extent —t le—st in some m—teri—l formD ™—p—˜le of identi(™—tion —nd h—ving — more or less perm—nent endur—n™eF „he de(nition of (x—tion in the …nited ƒt—tes ex™ludes purely ev—nes™ent or tr—nsient reprodu™tions su™h —s those proje™ted ˜rie)y on — s™reenD shown ele™troni™—lly on — television or other ™—thode r—y tu˜eD or ™—ptured moment—rily in the –memory9 of — ™omputerF w—ny ™ourtsD in™luding those in the …nited ƒt—tesD h—ve deemed ™omputer progr—ms (xed when stored on — sili™on ™hipF „he —udiovisu—l e'e™ts of ™omputer g—mes —re ™ommonly ™onsidered to ˜e (xed ˜e™—use their repetitiveness m—kes them su0™iently perm—nent —nd st—˜leF „he requirement of (x—tion m—y ˜e™ome pro˜lem—ti™ when —pplied to live perform—n™esF por inst—n™eD …FƒF l—w spe™i(es th—t — work must ˜e (xed ˜y or under the —uthority of the —uthorF „his l—w produ™es some surprising resultsF sf — ™horeogr—pher hires someone to videot—pe — perform—n™eD the ™horeogr—phy of th—t perform—n™e will ˜e prote™ted ˜y ™opyrightF fut if ™opies of — live perform—n™e —re re™orded —nd distri˜uted without the permission of the ™horeogr—pherD the ™horeogr—phy would not re™eive ™opyright prote™tion ˜e™—use th—t perform—n™e w—s not (xed under her —uthorityF gountries th—t gr—nt ™opyright for works reg—rdless of (x—tion do not h—ve simil—r pro˜lemsF „he egreement on „r—de ‚el—ted espe™ts of sntelle™tu—l €roperty ‚ights @„‚s€ƒA requires —ll mem˜ers of the ‡orld „r—de yrg—niz—tion @‡„yA to prote™t live musi™—l perform—n™esF „his me—ns th—t even ™ountries with (x—tion requirements must en—™t st—tutes to ensure the prote™tion of musi™—l perform—n™es without

3 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework#Berne_Convention 4 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework#The_Agreement_on_Trade_Related_Asp

PU (x—tionF „he …nited ƒt—tesD for inst—n™eD en—™ted — spe™i—l provision prohi˜iting the (x—tion or tr—nsmission of — live musi™—l perform—n™e without the ™onsent of the performersD —nd prohi˜iting the reprodu™tion of ™opies or phonore™ords of —n un—uthorized (x—tion of — live musi™—l perform—n™eF xoti™eD howeverD th—t this provision is limited to musi™—l perform—n™es —nd does not —pply to other types of perform—n™esF

4.5.5 The Exclusion of Ideas from Copyright Protection
es dis™ussed in wodule I5 D ™opyright l—w does not prote™t ide—s or f—™tsF snste—dD ™opyright l—w only prote™ts the expression of those ide—s or f—™tsF „he …FƒF ™opyright st—tute is — typi™—l ex—mpleF st re—dsX  sn no ™—se does ™opyright prote™tion for —n origin—l work of —uthorship extend to —ny ide—D pro™edureD pro™essD systemD method of oper—tionD ™on™eptD prin™ipleD or dis™overyD reg—rdless of the form in whi™h it is des™ri˜edD expl—inedD illustr—ted or em˜odied in su™h workF @IU …FƒFgF ƒe™tion IHP@˜AA „he s—me prin™iple ™—n ˜e found in the m—jor ™opyright tre—tiesF „he ferne gonventionD for ex—mpleD st—tes th—t prote™tion sh—ll not —pply to news of the d—y or to mis™ell—neous f—™ts h—ving the ™h—r—™ter of mere items of press inform—tionF foth the „‚s€ƒ egreement —nd the ‡s€y gopyright „re—ty @‡g„A st—te th—tD while expressions —re ™opyright—˜leD ide—sD pro™eduresD methods of oper—tion or m—them—ti™—l ™on™epts —s su™h —re notF ix™luding f—™ts —nd ide—s from prote™tion helps to promote the pu˜li™ interest in freedom of spee™hF ixtending ™opyright prote™tion to ide—s or f—™ts would inhi˜it pu˜li™ de˜—te ˜y —llowing ™opyright holders to ™ontrol uses of the ™on™epts or inform—tion ™ont—ined in their worksF foth politi™—l freedom —nd the progress of knowledge would su'erF sn —dditionD ex™luding f—™ts —nd the fund—ment—l ˜uilding ˜lo™ks of inform—tion @su™h —s the 4news of the d—y4A from prote™tion ensures th—t the ˜—si™ pro™esses of ™ultur—l produ™tion —re not imp—iredF yn o™™—sionD —n ide— —nd its expression m—y ˜e™ome indistinguish—˜leF sf there is only one w—y of expressing — p—rti™ul—r ide—D the ide— —nd the expression of th—t ide— —re s—id to  merge. „he merger do™trine in ™opyright l—w w—s developed to de—l with su™h ™—sesD removing from the s™ope of ™opyright prote™tion those expressions th—t ™onstitute the only w—y of ™ommuni™—ting —n ide—F ‡h—t —˜out situ—tions in whi™h —n ide— ™—n only ˜e expressed in — limited num˜er of w—ysc „he ™ourts in some ™ountries de—l with su™h situ—tions ˜y gr—nting limited or thin ™opyright prote™tion to those expressions ! in other wordsD prohi˜iting only ver˜—tim or virtu—lly identi™—l ™opyingF


4.6.1 Owning a Copy vs. Owning a Copyright
ywnership of — physi™—l ™opy of — work is sep—r—te from ™opyright ownership in the workF tust ˜e™—use you own — ™opy of — ˜ook doesn9t me—n you —re free to ™opy itF yrdin—rilyD when the ™re—tor of — work sells or tr—nsfers — ™opy of it to —nother personD she does not surrender her ™opyright unless she expressly —grees to do soF ƒoD for ex—mpleD the writer of — letter or —n em—il mess—ge ret—ins the ™opyright in the letter even —fter he h—s sent it to the re™ipientF iven though the owner of — physi™—l ™opy of — ™opyrighted work m—y not ˜e entitled to ™opy it without permissionD he or she is usu—lly free to sell or rent it to other peopleF „he rule th—t ™re—tes this privilege is known —s the 4(rstEs—le4 do™trineF es we will seeD it is su˜je™t to ™ert—in ex™eptions involving ™ommer™i—l rent—l of some types of m—teri—lF por the most p—rtD the l—wful owner of — ™opy of — ™opyrighted work is —lso free to destroy or mutil—te itF roweverD some tre—ties —nd n—tion—l leg—l systems re™ognize mor—l rights th—t set limits on the freedom of the owner to —™t in these w—ysF „he ferne gonventionD for ex—mpleD spe™i(es th—tX4sndependently of the —uthor9s e™onomi™ rightsD —nd even —fter tr—nsfer of the s—id rightsD the —uthor sh—ll h—ve the right to ™l—im —uthorship of the work —nd to o˜je™t to —ny distortionD mutil—tion or other modi(™—tion ofD or other derog—tory —™tion in rel—tion toD the s—id workD whi™h would ˜e prejudi™i—l to his honor or reput—tionF4
5 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_1:_Copyright_and_the_Public_Domain




4.7 What is an Author?

4.7.1 Rights Ownership Rules: How to Determine the Original Rights Holder
„he ferne gonvention gives mem˜er ™ountries ˜ro—d )exi˜ility in determining who is ™onsidered —n —uthor @—nd therefore the origin—l ™opyright holderA of — liter—ry or —rtisti™ workF erti™le IS@IA of the gonvention providesXsn order th—t the —uthor of — liter—ry or —rtisti™ work prote™ted ˜y this gonvention sh—llD in the —˜sen™e of proof to the ™ontr—ryD ˜e reg—rded —s su™hD —nd ™onsequently ˜e entitled to institute infringement pro™eedings in the ™ountries of the …nionD it sh—ll ˜e su0™ient for his n—me to —ppe—r on the work in the usu—l m—nnerF „his p—r—gr—ph sh—ll ˜e —ppli™—˜le even if this n—me is — pseudonymD where the pseudonym —dopted ˜y the —uthor le—ves no dou˜t —s to his identityF  „he m—jority of civil law ™ountries stipul—te th—t only persons in the ordin—ry sense ™—n qu—lify —s —uthorsF ƒp—nish ™opyright l—wD for ex—mpleD spe™i(es the n—tur—l person who ™re—tes —ny liter—ryD —rtisti™D or s™ienti(™ work sh—ll ˜e ™onsidered the —uthor thereofF ƒimil—rlyD pren™h ™opyright l—w st—tes th—t —uthorship sh—ll ˜elongD unless proved otherwiseD to the person or persons under whose n—me the work h—s ˜een dis™losedF gommonEl—w ™ountriesD ˜y ™ontr—stD more often permit org—niz—tions ! in™luding ™orpor—tions ! to qu—lify —s —uthorsF „he author is often de(ned —s the person who ™on™eives of —nd gives expression to —n ide—F roweverD in some ™—sesD this determin—tion ˜e™omes more ™ompli™—tedF st m—y depend on who —ssists in the produ™tion of the work or who oversees —nd dire™ts the —rr—ngement of the det—ils of the workF sn su™h ™—sesD the determin—tion of —uthorship will depend on the f—™ts of the spe™i(™ ™—seF

4.7.2 Works by Multiple Authors: Rules for Joint Authorship and Collaborations
toint —uthorship exists when two or more persons ™re—te — ™opyrighted workF „he ™opyright l—w in most ™ountries gr—nts e—™h ™ontri˜utor —n undivided sh—re of the ™opyright in the workF „he ferne gonvention re™ognizes th—t joint —uthorship exists ˜ut does not spe™ify the requirements for joint —uthorshipD ™re—ting — signi(™—nt v—ri—n™e —mong n—tionsF gountries in ™ontinent—l iurope typi™—lly stipul—te th—t joint —uthorship does not require th—t e—™h —uthor ™ontri˜ute the s—me —mount to the workF snste—dD it only requires th—t e—™h —uthor9s ™ontri˜ution displ—ys the minim—l —mount of ™re—tivity or origin—lity ne™ess—ry in the jurisdi™tion to merit ™opyright prote™tion in its own rightF epplying this —ppro—™hD the hut™h ƒupreme gourt de™ision Kluwer v. LamothD ITW ‚FsFhFeF IPW @IWWTAD gr—nted — stylist ™oE—uthorship st—tus for ™re—tively re—rr—nging needleworks for — photogr—phF sn some ™ountriesD joint —uthorship only —rises when e—™h —uthor9s ™ontri˜ution ™—nnot ˜e sep—r—ted —nd ™ommer™i—lly exploited independently of the work —s — wholeF por inst—n™eD t—p—nese legisl—tion de(nes joint works —s works th—t —re ™re—ted ˜y two or more persons in whi™h the ™ontri˜ution of e—™h person ™—nnot ˜e sep—r—tely exploitedF sf the works ™—n ˜e sep—r—ted ! for inst—n™eD when one —uthor ™ontri˜utes the musi™ —nd —nother the lyri™s for — song ! e—™h ™ontri˜utor is typi™—lly given —n independent ™opyright in his or her ™ontri˜utionF sn other ™ountriesD like the …nited ƒt—tesD it is ne™ess—ry th—t e—™h of the ™ontri˜utors intend th—t the others should ˜e™ome joint —uthorsF sn shortD the rules on this issue v—ry su˜st—nti—lly ˜y ™ountryF sn —ll ™ountriesD howeverD it is possi˜le for two or more people to sh—re — ™opyrightF

4.7.3 Derivative Works
heriv—tive works ™onsist of —d—pt—tions or modi(™—tions of preexisting worksF gommon ex—mples in™lude —˜ridgments or motionEpi™ture —d—pt—tions of novelsF „he ferne gonvention does not expli™itly refer to deriv—tive worksF snste—dD it lists ™ert—in uses of ™opyrighted works for whi™h mem˜er ™ountries must provide ™opyright prote™tionF ƒpe™i(™—llyD the ferne gonvention erti™le PD ƒe™tion Q st—tesX Translations, adaptations, arrangements of music and other alterations of a literary or artistic work shall be protected as original

PW „his provision is in™orpor—ted into the „‚s€ƒ egreementF elthough this st—nd—rd prote™ts spe™i(™ types of deriv—tive worksD it does not spe™ify how di'erent — deriv—tive work must ˜e from the origin—l in order to merit ™opyright prote™tionF es — resultD it is often un™le—r how mu™h origin—lity is required to o˜t—in — new ™opyrightF ƒupposeD for ex—mpleD — s™ulptor ™re—tes — s™—le model of ‚odin9s f—mous 4„inker4 ! whi™hD ˜e™—use of its —ge ! h—s f—llen into the pu˜li™ dom—inF row mu™h di'erent from the origin—l s™ulpture must the s™—le model ˜e in order to se™ure ™opyright prote™tionc gourts struggle with this issue ! —nd h—ve produ™ed in™onsistent de™isionsF ‡h—t if the origin—l work from used to deriv—tive work h—s not f—llen into the pu˜li™ dom—inD —nd the m—ker of the deriv—tive works f—ils to get — li™ense from the holder of the ™opyright in the origin—lc sn some ™ountriesD like the …nited ƒt—tesD the un—uthorized deriv—tive work does not get —ny ™opyright prote™tionF sn other ™ountriesD like the xetherl—nds —nd pr—n™eD the un—uthorized deriv—tive work is prote™tedF „his does not me—n th—t the ™re—tor of the deriv—tive work is free to m—ke —nd sell ™opies of his ™re—tionF ‚—therD it me—ns th—t other people @in™luding the owner of the ™opyright in the origin—l workA must o˜t—in the permission of the ™re—tor of the deriv—tive work ˜efore m—king or distri˜uting ™opies of the deriv—tive workF
works without prejudice to the copyright of the original work.

4.7.4 Collective Works and Compilations
gompil—tions —re —nother ex—mple where — ™opyright m—y ˜e o˜t—ined through the use —nd m—nipul—tion of preexisting worksF gompil—tions —re works formed ˜y —ssem˜lingD sele™tingD or re—rr—nging preexisting works su™h th—t the result ˜e™omes —n origin—l work ˜y the ™ompilerF golle™tive works represent — spe™i(™ type of ™ompil—tion in whi™h — num˜er of sep—r—te —nd independent ™ontri˜utions —re —ssem˜led into one workF e ™olle™tive workD thenD is — work ˜y two or more —uthors th—t is not ™ohesive enough to qu—lify —s — joint work on its ownF erti™le PD ƒe™tion S of the ferne gonvention only requires the prote™tion of ™olle™tive worksX  golle™tions of liter—ry or —rtisti™ works su™h —s en™y™lopedi—s —nd —nthologies whi™hD ˜y re—son of the sele™tion —nd —rr—ngement of their ™ontentsD ™onstitute intelle™tu—l ™re—tions sh—ll ˜e prote™ted —s su™hD without prejudi™e to the ™opyright in e—™h of the works forming p—rt of su™h ™olle™tionsF  erti™le IHD ƒe™tion P of the „‚s€ƒ egreementD on the other h—ndD requires mem˜er ™ountries of the ‡„y to extend ™opyright prote™tion to —ll ™ompil—tionsX  gompil—tions of d—t— or other m—teri—lD whether in m—™hine re—d—˜le or other formD whi™h ˜y re—son of the sele™tion or —rr—ngement of their ™ontents ™onstitute intelle™tu—l ™re—tions sh—ll ˜e prote™ted —s su™hF ƒu™h prote™tionD whi™h sh—ll not extend to the d—t— or m—teri—l itselfD sh—ll ˜e without prejudi™e to —ny ™opyright su˜sisting in the d—t— or m—teri—l itselfF „he l—st senten™e of this provision should ˜e emph—sizedF …nless — d—t—˜—se is ™re—ted in — mem˜er ™ountry of the iurope—n …nion @the only —re— th—t h—s ™re—ted — sui generis system of prote™tions for d—t—˜—sesAD other people —re free to extr—™t —nd ™opy the ™ontents of the d—t—˜—seF „he only thing they m—y not do is reprodu™e the origin—l w—y in whi™h those ™ontents —re sele™ted —nd —rr—ngedF

4.7.5 Employees and Works for Hire
imployees —re often hired to ™re—te liter—ry or —rtisti™ works for their employerF „his rel—tionship sometimes ™onfuses the —llo™—tion of —uthorship rightsF fy def—ultD ™ivil l—w ™ountries vest —uthorship —nd its —ttend—nt rights in the employeeD not the employerF „his —ppro—™h requires th—t employers ™ontr—™t with employees to o˜t—in the ™opyrights to the ™re—tive worksF por inst—n™eD the pren™h sntelle™tu—l €roperty gode stipul—tes th—t ™opyright vests in the work9s —™tu—l —uthor —nd not his employerF „here is —n ex™eption in the pren™h gode for some ™—tegories of workD su™h —s softw—reD where rights —re immedi—tely —ssigned to the employerF yn the other h—ndD some ™ivil l—w ™ountriesD in™luding qerm—nyD —utom—ti™—lly —ssign ™opyright from the employee to the employerF gommonEl—w ™ountriesD su™h —s the …nited ƒt—tesD g—n—d—D —nd the …nited uingdomD ˜y def—ult —w—rd the ™opyright for —n employee9s invention to her employerF por inst—n™eD g—n—di—n ™opyright l—w st—tes th—t if — work is ™re—ted within the s™ope of employmentD the person ˜y whom the —uthor w—s employed sh—llD in the —˜sen™e of —greement to the ™ontr—ryD ˜e the (rst holder of the ™opyrightF …nder the fritish gopyrightD hesigns —nd €—tents e™t of IWVVD if — ™opyrighted work is m—de ˜y —n employee in the ™ourse of




th—t employmentD the ™opyright is —utom—ti™—lly owned ˜y the employer —s — 4work for hireF4 „he …nited ƒt—tes h—s — simil—r ruleD ˜ut —lso provides th—t — work m—y ˜e™ome — 4work for hire4 even if it is ™re—ted ˜y —n independent ™ontr—™tor @r—ther th—n —n employee —™ting within the s™ope of employmentA so long —s the work @—A f—lls within — limited list of eligi˜le types of works —nd @˜A the p—rties —gree in writing th—t it sh—ll ˜e ™l—ssi(ed —s — work for hireF

4.7.6 Civil Servants, Researchers and Professors
sn some ™ountriesD ™ollege —nd university f—™ulty mem˜ers h—ve ˜een exempted from the "work for hire" do™trineF sn some ™ountriesD works m—de in the s™ope of the employment of ™ivil serv—nts —re —lso ex™luded from the work for hire do™trineD ˜e™—use they —re denied ™opyright prote™tion —ltogetherF sn other ™ountriesD this is not trueF por inst—n™eD ™opyright l—w in the gze™h ‚epu˜li™ ™ont—ins — presumption th—t — work ™re—ted ˜y — ™ivil serv—nt is — work for hireD —nd the ™opyright —nd —uthorship rights —re gr—nted to the employerF

4.8 The Relationship Between Copyright Infringement and Other Unauthorized Activities
Copyright infringement is the un—uthorized use of — ™opyrighted work in — m—nner th—t viol—tes one of the ™opyright holder9s ex™lusive rights —nd does not f—ll into —ny of the ex™eptions to or limit—tions on the holder9s rightsF ‡e will ex—mine those rights —nd ex™eptions in det—il in wodule RX ‚ightsD ix™eptionsD —nd vimit—tions6 F st should ˜e emph—sized th—t ™opyright infringement ™overs only — su˜set of the w—ys in whi™h ™opyrighted works m—y ˜e used without permissionF ƒome uses of ™opyrighted works m—y not infringe ™opyright ˜ut m—y viol—te other leg—l rulesF ythers m—y viol—te nonleg—l so™i—l normsF ƒtill others m—y ˜e l—wful uses th—t —re so™i—lly —pprovedF „his ™omplex p—ttern of norms (nds expression in — v—riety of terms th—t —re frequently ™onfusedF ‡e expl—in some of them ˜elowY they will ˜e studied further in wodule UX infor™ement7 F "Plagiarism" is the use of someone else9s ide—s or words without properly ™rediting the sour™eF st is entirely sep—r—te from ™opyright l—wF €l—gi—rism is not — viol—tion of leg—l rulesD ˜ut inste—d of so™i—l normsF gommon so™i—l s—n™tions for pl—gi—rism —re expulsion or suspension from s™hoolD dis™h—rge from — jo˜D —nd so™i—l dis—pprov—lF gustoms —nd —ttitudes pert—ining to pl—gi—rism v—ry somewh—t ˜y ™ountryF por ex—mpleD re™ently — young qerm—n novelist w—s found to h—ve ™opied without permission or —ttri˜ution signi(™—nt p—ss—ges from other novelsF ƒhe h—s ˜een tre—ted mu™h more leniently8 th—n — young emeri™—n —uthor who — few ye—rs —go eng—ged in very simil—r ˜eh—viorF9 ettitudes tow—rd pl—gi—rism even v—ry somewh—t ˜etween —™—demi™ dis™iplinesF por ex—mpleD the de(nition of pl—gi—rism —dopted ˜y the emeri™—n ristori™—l esso™i—tion10 is not ex—™tly the s—me —s the st—nd—rd —dopted ˜y the wodern v—ngu—ge esso™i—tion11 F pin—llyD pl—gi—rism ˜y ™orpor—te exe™utives12 is often tre—ted —s mu™h less serious th—n pl—gi—rism ˜y novelistsD —™—demi™sD or journ—listsF Piracy h—s no stri™t de(nition within @or outside ofA ™opyright l—wF sn re™ent ye—rsD the term h—s ˜e™ome — ™ommon w—y for some to refer to un—uthorized —nd unex™used reprodu™tions of —udio —nd video re™ordingsF roweverD the ™opyright l—ws do not themselves refer to pir—™yF ƒin™e the term is —sso™i—ted with the violen™e th—t —™™omp—nies the seizure of ships on the high se—sD m—ny —rgue th—t it is misle—ding when used in ™onne™tion with un—uthorized uses of ™re—tive worksF
6 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_4:_Rights%2C_Exceptions%2C_and_Limitations 7 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_7:_Enforcement 8 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/12/world/europe/12germany.html 9 http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/28/books/28author.html?_r=1 10 http://www.historians.org/pubs/free/professionalstandards.cfm#Plagiarism 11 http://www.english.udel.edu/kharbot/write/mlaandpla.html 12 http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/03/business/media/03leonhardt.html

Counterfeiting is de(ned in v—rious w—ysF wost oftenD the term refers to the ™re—tion or distri˜ution of imit—tions of genuine works with the intent to de™eive the pu˜li™ —˜out their —uthenti™ityF gounterfeiting in this sense is governed prim—rily ˜y tr—dem—rk l—w —nd the l—w of unf—ir ™ompetitionD not ˜y ™opyright l—wF roweverD the proposed entiEgounterfeiting „r—de egreement @eg„eA13 D ™urrently under negoti—tion @—s dis™ussed in wodule PX „he sntern—tion—l pr—mework14 AD m—yD when (nishedD require mem˜er ™ountries to exp—nd the ™over—ge of ™opyright l—w in this —re—F

4.9 Copyright Duration
„he ferne gonvention requires — minimum ™opyright term of the life of the —uthor plus —n —ddition—l SH ye—rs —fter her de—th for —ll works ex™ept photogr—phs —nd ™inem—ti™ worksF wem˜er ™ountries —re freeD howeverD to —dopt longer termsD su˜je™t to one limit—tionX  sn —ny ™—seD the term sh—ll ˜e governed ˜y the legisl—tion of the ™ountry where prote™tion is ™l—imedY howeverD unless the legisl—tion of th—t ™ountry otherwise providesD the term sh—ll not ex™eed the term (xed in the ™ountry of origin of the workF  w—ny ™ountries h—ve exer™ised the dis™retion left to them ˜y the ferne gonventionF „he result is th—t the dur—tion of ™opyright v—ries su˜st—nti—lly ˜y ™ountryD ™re—ting — ™ompli™—ted intern—tion—l p—t™hwork of ™opyright dur—tion terms determined ˜y the ™—tegory of workD the n—ture of the work9s —uthorshipD —nd the d—te of ™re—tion or pu˜li™—tion of the workF „he gze™h ‚epu˜li™ —nd the xetherl—ndsD for inst—n™eD gr—nt ™opyright prote™tion for the life of the —uthor plus UH ye—rs for liter—ry works gener—llyD ˜ut ™ompute the ™opyright9s dur—tion from the de—th of the longest living joint —uthor @plus —n —ddition—l UH ye—rsA for jointly —uthored worksF „his ™onstru™tion is de™eptively simpleD ˜e™—use it —pplies only to works ™re—ted on or —fter epril UD PHHH —nd he™em˜er PWD IWWSD respe™tivelyF ‡orks ™re—ted ˜efore those d—tes —re su˜je™t to di'erent —nd more ™ompli™—ted ™opyright dur—tion termsF ƒimil—rlyD most liter—ry —nd —rtisti™ works —re su˜je™t to — minimum ™opyright dur—tion of life of the —uthor plus SH ye—rs under the „‚s€ƒ egreementF sn ™ontr—stD „‚s€ƒ only m—nd—tes th—t the ™opyright in sound re™ordings ˜e re™ognized for — minimum of SH ye—rs —fter (x—tonF „husD for ex—mpleD the term of prote™tion for sound re™ordings in the …nited ƒt—tes is life of the —uthor plus UH ye—rs for works (xed on or —fter t—nu—ry ID IWUVF sn eustr—li—D ™opyright prote™tion for sound re™ordings extends for UH ye—rs —fter (x—tionD if (x—tion o™™urred —fter PHHRF sn fr—zilD —ll sound re™ordings (xed —fter IWWV —re prote™ted under neigh˜oring rights for UH ye—rs ˜eginning in the ye—r —fter the work is (rst (xedF sn ghin—D sound re™ordings —re prote™ted under neigh˜oring rights for SH ye—rs ˜eginning —t the end of the ye—r in whi™h the work is (xedF por further re—ding on the su˜je™tD you m—y ™onsult the g—se of the g—n—di—n ynline ‚epositories of €u˜li™ hom—in15 —nd ‚e™ent „erm ixtensions gontroversies @ildred vF esh™roftA16 F

4.10 4.11 Extensions of the Scope of Copyright Protection
sn re™ent ye—rs ™opyright l—w h—s exp—nded to en™omp—ss more types of worksD l—st for — longer period of timeD —nd to provide gre—ter prote™tions for ™opyrighted worksF es we s—w in wodule PX „he sntern—tion—l pr—mework17 D the ferne gonventionD the „‚s€ƒ egreementD —nd the ‡s€y gopyright „re—ty —ll set minimum st—nd—rds of prote™tion th—t ™ountries must meetD —nd together exp—nd ™opyright prote™tion in —ll ™ountriesF por ex—mpleD ™opyright l—w @or the ™losely rel—ted set of neigh˜oring rightsA h—s ˜een extended to
13 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework#The_proposed_AntiCounterfeiting_Trade_Agreement_.28ACTA.29 14 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework 15 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Case_of_the_Canadian_Online_Repositories_of_Public_Domain 16 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Recent_Term_Extensions_Controversies_%28Eldred_v._Ashcroft%29 17 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework




™over —udio re™ordingsD —r™hite™tur—l worksD —nd ™omputer progr—msF „he dur—tion of ™opyright h—s exp—nded over the ye—rsD from IR ye—rs under the ƒt—tute of enne to the ™urrent minimum of life of the —uthor plus SH ye—rs for most worksF ‚e™ent tre—ties h—ve —lso in™luded provisions prohi˜iting the ™ir™umvention of me™h—nisms to ™ontrol reprodu™tion or distri˜ution of ™opyrighted worksF ƒome of these extensions —rgu—˜ly stimul—te —ddition—l ™re—tivity ˜y in™entivizing itF roweverD the extension of ™opyright to more kinds of works —nd for — gre—ter length of time h—s resulted in the redu™tion of the —mount of m—teri—l in the pu˜li™ dom—inF es — resultD m—teri—ls th—t otherwise ™ould h—ve ˜een used in the ™re—tion of new —rtisti™ or liter—ry works ™—n no longer ˜e usedF es ™opyright l—w h—s exp—nded it h—s —lso fr—gmentedF sn other wordsD spe™i—l rules h—ve ˜een devised to de—l with p—rti™ul—r kinds of worksF ƒome of those spe™i—l rules —re des™ri˜ed ˜elowF

4.11.1 4.11.2 Audiovisual/Cinematographic Works
eudiovisu—l or ™inem—togr—phi™ works —re ™olle™tive proje™ts th—t often involve the ™ontri˜utions of sever—l individu—l —uthorsF qiven the l—rge num˜er of people th—t —re involved in their ™re—tionD tre—ting e—™h ™ontri˜utor —s — joint —uthor of the work would give rise to pr—™ti™—l pro˜lemsF por inst—n™eD e—™h ™ontri˜utor would ˜e free to li™ense use of the work to —nyone they ™hoseD potenti—lly resulting in use of the work in — m—nner th—t other ™ontri˜utors found o˜je™tion—˜leF hi'erent ™ountries h—ve tried to over™ome this pro˜lem in di'erent w—ysF „he pren™h sntelle™tu—l €roperty gode tre—ts ™ontri˜utors to (lms —s ™oE—uthors ˜ut in™ludes in the —uthorEprodu™er rel—tionship — tr—nsfer of the exploit—tion rights of the m—teri—l to the produ™erF gountries su™h —s the …nited uingdom —nd the …nited ƒt—tesD ˜y ™ontr—stD vest the —uthorship —nd ™opyright ownership of these works in — single person or org—niz—tionF por inst—n™eD the IWVV gopyrightD hesigns —nd €—tent e™t in the …nited uingdom typi™—lly vests exploit—tion rights in the produ™erF fy ™ontr—stD —s w—s suggested —˜oveD the …FƒF gopyright e™t tre—ts the ™ontri˜utions to — —udiovisu—l or ™inem—togr—phi™ work —s works for hireD there˜y vesting —uthorship —nd ™opyright ownership in one entityD —g—in typi™—lly the produ™erF „he ferne gonvention re™ognizes —nd respe™ts the di'eren™es —mong ™ountries in the —llo™—tion of rights in —udiovisu—l —nd ™inem—togr—phi™ worksF „his phenomenon is des™ri˜ed further in the ‚ights ywnership —nd ‡orks for rire topi™ in wodule RX ‚ightsD ix™eptionsD —nd vimit—tions18 F

4.11.3 Computer Programs
gomputer progr—ms ™onstitute —nother spe™i—l ™—tegory of worksF elthough the ferne gonvention does not —ddress ™omputer progr—msD the „‚s€ƒ egreement requires ‡„y mem˜er ™ountries to prote™t ™omputer progr—ms —s liter—ry worksF vike —udiovisu—l worksD ™omputer progr—ms —re often the produ™ts of the e'orts of m—ny individu—lsF rere tooD ™ountries v—ry in the w—y they h—ndle —llo™—tion of —uthorship rightsF qerm—n ™opyright l—wD for ex—mpleD ™ont—ins — presumption giving ex™lusive rights in ™omputer softw—re to the employerF

4.11.4 Broadcast, Recording, Interpretation
„he ferne gonvention requires th—t the —uthor of — ™opyrighted work ˜e given the ex™lusive right to —uthorize

• the ˜ro—d™—sting of her work or its ™ommuni™—tion to the pu˜li™ ˜y —ny me—ns of wireless di'usion of signsD sounds or im—gesY
18 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_4:_Rights%2C_Exceptions%2C_and_Limitations


• further ™ommuni™—tion to the pu˜li™ ˜y wire or ˜y re˜ro—d™—sting of the origin—l ˜ro—d™—st of the workD when this ™ommuni™—tion is m—de ˜y —n org—niz—tion other th—n the origin—l ˜ro—d™—sterY • the pu˜li™ ™ommuni™—tion ˜y loudspe—ker or —ny other —n—logous instrument tr—nsmittingD ˜y signsD sounds or im—gesD the ˜ro—d™—st of the workF
„he ferne gonvention permits individu—l ™ountries to determine whi™h of these rights m—y ˜e exer™ised —nd in wh—t ™ir™umst—n™esF roweverD it requires th—t they should not ˜e —pplied in — w—y th—t would neg—tively —'e™t —n —uthor9s mor—l rightsF

4.12 Back to the case study
x—di— should (rst tell engel— th—t until she re™ords the le™tures @or writes them downA she does not h—ve —ny ™opyrights in their ™ontentsF es soon —s she re™ords themD howeverD she owns the ™opyright in themD even if she h—s not —pplied ™opyright noti™es to the t—pesF x—di— should next tell engel— th—t the musi™—l ™ompositions she is ™onsidering performing —re pro˜—˜ly su0™iently old th—t they —re no longer ™overed ˜y ™opyrightF @x—di— should ™he™k her lo™—l ™opyright st—tute —nd the d—tes the ™ompositions were (rst pu˜lished to ˜e sureFA roweverD it is possi˜le th—t those ™ompositions —re su˜je™t to spe™i—l rules governing folklore —nd tr—dition—l knowledgeF x—di— might volunteer to rese—r™h this issue furtherD —dvising engel— to w—it until she h—s done so ˜efore m—king the re™ordings ! —nd ™ert—inly ˜efore m—king them pu˜li™ly —v—il—˜leF es to whether engel— should ™h—rge other musi™ professors —nd students for —™™ess to her re™ordingsD x—di— suggests they postpone dis™ussing th—t issueF @purther relev—nt inform—tion will ˜e presented in wodule TX gre—tive eppro—™hes —nd eltern—tives19 AF

4.13 Additional Resources
w—jor tre—tises th—t in™lude extensive dis™ussion of the ™over—ge of ™opyright l—w in™lude ximmer on gopyE right20 @—uthorit—tiveD ˜ut —stronomi™—lly expensiveA —nd qoldstein on gopyright21 @more ™on™iseD —nd somewh—t less expensiveAF e mu™h shorter dis™ussion of how the s™ope of ™opyright l—w h—s in™re—sed over time m—y ˜e found in ‡illi—m pisherD 4qeistiges iigentum E ein —usufernder ‚e™hts˜erei™hX hie qes™hi™hte des sdeens™hutzes in den †ereinigten ƒt——tenD4 in iigentum im intern—tion—len †erglei™h @†—ndenhoe™k 8 ‚upre™htD IWWWAD PTSE WI @inglish version —v—il—˜le —sX „he qrowth of sntelle™tu—l €ropertyX e ristory of the ywnership of sde—s in the …nited ƒt—tes22 AF e more re™ent —nd more extended dis™ussion of the s—me topi™ is t—mes foyleD „he €u˜li™ hom—inX in™losing the gommons of the wind23 @‰—le …niversity €ress PHHVA @—v—il—˜le for free onlineAF „he ˜est ™omment—ry on ™opyright l—w in gener—l —nd its s™ope in p—rti™ul—r rem—ins — ˜ook pu˜lished in IWTU ˜y fenj—min u—pl—nX en …nhurried †iew of gopyright24 F ƒ—dlyD it is only —v—il—˜le in printF e good dis™ussion of the ™on™ept of origin—lity in ™opyright l—wD juxt—posing the versions of the ™on™ept used in the …ƒ —nd in the i…D ™—n ˜e found in ƒoftw—re preedom v—w genterD yrigin—lity ‚equirements under …FƒF —nd iF…F gopyright v—w25 e thorough dis™ussion of the genesis of the 4work for hire4 do™trine ™—n ˜e found in €eter t—sziD 4„ow—rd — „heory of gopyrightX „he wet—morphoses of 9euthorshipD94 IWWI huke vFtF RSSF
19 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_6:_Creative_Approaches_and_Alternatives 20 http://www.lexisnexis.com/store/catalog/productdetail.jsp?prodId=10441 21 http://www.amazon.com/Goldstein-Copyright-Paul/dp/0735544859 22 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/tsher/iphistory.pdf 23 http://www.thepublicdomain.org/ 24 http://www.lexisnexis.com/store/catalog/productdetail.jsp?prodId=57038 25 http://www.softwarefreedom.org/resources/2007/originality-requirements.html




4.14 4.15 Cases
„he following judi™i—l opinions explore —nd —pply some of the prin™iples dis™ussed in this moduleX peist €u˜li™—tionsD sn™FD vF ‚ur—l „elephone ƒervi™e goFD RWW …FƒF QRH @IWWIA26 @origin—lityA fe™kingh—m vF rodgensD righ gourt of tusti™e @givil hivisionAD P tuly PHHP27 @joint —uthorshipA gommunity for gre—tive xonE†iolen™e vF ‚eidD RWH …FƒF UQH @IWVWA @employment rel—tionshipsA28 g—se gEPRHGHUD ƒony wusi™ intert—inment @qerm—nyA qm˜r vF p—l™on xeue wedien †ertrie˜ qm˜r @PHHUA29 ildred vF esh™roftD SQU …FƒF IVT @PHHQA30 @dur—tionA gomputer esso™i—tes vF elt—iD WVP pFPd TWQ @Pnd girF IWWPA31 @™omputer softw—reA

4.16 Assignment and discussion questions

4.16.1 Assignment
IF ‡h—t is the ™opyright term in your ™ountryc vist some of the —uthors whose work will f—ll in the pu˜li™ dom—in in your ™ountry on t—nu—ry I of the ™oming ye—rF PF row do you think ™opyright l—w should —pply to situ—tions in whi™h m—ny people ™ontri˜ute sm—ll —mounts to —n online resour™ec por ex—mpleD suppose th—t ‡ikipedi—32 h—d not —dopted — form—l ™opyright poli™yF row should ™ontri˜utions to it ˜e tre—tedc

4.16.2 Discussion Question(s)
gomment on the —nswers of your ™olle—gues

4.17 Contributors
„his module w—s ™re—ted ˜y snge ysm—n33 F st w—s then edited ˜y — te—m in™luding ƒe˜—sti—n hi—z34 D ‡illi—m pisher35 D …rs q—sser36 D ed—m roll—nd37 D uim˜erley ss˜ell38 D €eter t—szi39 D golin w—™l—y40 D endrew woshirni—41 D —nd ghris €eterson42 F

26 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/tsher/1991%20Feist.pdf 27 http://www.hmcourts-service.gov.uk/judgmentsles/j1577/hodgens_v_beckingham.htm 28 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/tsher/IP/1989%20CCNV.pdf 29 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:62007J0240:EN:HTML 30 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/tsher/2003%20ELDRED%20V.%20ASHCROFT%20Abridged.html 31 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/tsher/IP/1992%20Altai.pdf 32 http://www.wikipedia.com/ 33 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#osman 34 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#diaz 35 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#sher 36 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#gasser 37 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#holland 38 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#isbell 39 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#jaszi 40 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#maclay 41 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#moshirnia 42 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#peterson

Chapter 5
Rights, Exceptions, and Limitations

5.1 Module 4: Rights, Exceptions, and Limitations 5.2 Learning objective
„his module will te—™h you —˜out the rights of — ™opyright holder —nd —˜out the ex™eptions to —nd limit—tions on those rightsF

5.3 Case study
w—ri—D engel—9s —untD is — ™olle™tor of sheet musi™F w—ny of the do™uments in her ™olle™tion —re h—ndwrittenY some —re uniqueF ƒhe h—s just de™ided to don—te the entire ™olle™tion to the university li˜r—ryF engel— meets with x—di— to dis™uss how the li˜r—ry might ˜est m—ke use of the ™olle™tionF sn p—rti™ul—rD engel— —sks x—di— to m—ke digit—l ™opies of —ll of the ™ompositions in w—ri—9s ™olle™tion —nd to m—ke those ™opies —v—il—˜le to the world on the li˜r—ry9s serversF

5.4 Lesson 5.5 Economic Rights

5.5.1 Rights Relating to Reproduction and Distribution of a Work
„he he—rt of ™opyright l—w is the right to m—ke ™opies of — prote™ted workF „his is ™—lled the "right of reproduction." „he ™opyright holder h—s the ex™lusive right to m—ke or —uthorize su™h ™opiesF gre—ting — ™opy without the —uthoriz—tion of the holder infringes upon the ™opyrightD unless permitted ˜y —n ex™eption to or limit—tion on the reprodu™tion rightF es we s—w in wodule PX „he sntern—tion—l pr—mework2 D the right of reprodu™tion is widely —™knowledged ˜y intern—tion—l —greementsF es we will soon dis™ussD howeverD those s—me —greements —lso empower mem˜er ™ountries to ™re—te ex™eptions —nd limit—tions to this @—nd otherA rightsF „he ™opyright st—tutes of virtu—lly —ll ™ountries re™ognize the right of reprodu™tionF ‡h—t does 4reprodu™tion4 me—nc wost o˜viouslyD it in™ludes m—king — ™opy in the liter—l sense ! for ex—mpleD ˜y photo™opying — ˜ook or —rti™leF st —lso in™ludes ™onverting — ™opyrighted work into — new form—t ! su™h —s using — t—pe re™order to ™opy — vinyl —l˜umF vess o˜viouslyD it in™ludes m—king — new work th—t is 4su˜st—nti—lly simil—r4 to —n existing workD while h—ving th—t existing work in mindF ƒoD for ex—mpleD —n —rt student who st—nds in front of — p—inting —nd p—ints — f—ithful repli™— of it would viol—te the
1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m22656/1.4/>. 2 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework





origin—l p—inter9s right of reprodu™tion @unless the student ™ould invoke one of the ex™eptions or limit—tions dis™ussed previouslyAF es one might im—gineD the question of how ™lose one work must ˜e to —nother to ˜e 4su˜st—nti—lly simil—r4 is highly ™ontroversi—l —nd is often litig—tedF glosely rel—ted to the right of reprodu™tion is the right of adaptationD whi™h provides ™opyright holders with the right to —d—pt — ™opyrighted work from one form of expression to —notherD or to —uthorize —nother to do soF ix—mples of —d—pt—tions in™lude tr—nsforming — ˜ook into — movie or — song into — musi™—lF „he right of —d—pt—tion is —lso found in virtu—lly —ll ™opyright systemsF por ex—mpleD erti™le IP of the ferne gonvention3 requires mem˜er ™ountries to gr—nt —uthors the right to —uthorize —d—pt—tionsD —rr—ngementsD —nd other —lter—tions of ™opyrighted worksF „he right of —d—pt—tion —lso en™omp—sses the right to tr—nsl—te — work into other l—ngu—gesF erti™le V of the ferne gonvention4 requires mem˜er ™ountries to re™ognize this right of tr—nsl—tionF sn some leg—l systemsD the right of —d—pt—tion is expressed —s the right to m—ke deriv—tive worksD whi™h use the origin—l work —s — st—rting point ˜ut —re not dire™t ™opies of the origin—l workF sn most ™ountriesD the reprodu™tion right —nd the —d—pt—tion right —re ™losely —lignedF sn other wordsD the m—jority of —™tivities th—t viol—te the —d—pt—tion right —lso viol—te the reprodu™tion rightF roweverD there —re ex™eptionsF por ex—mpleD ™utting up — photogr—ph to in™lude it in — ™oll—ge m—y viol—te the —d—pt—tion right @unless of ™ourse th—t ˜eh—vior is ex™used ˜y one of the ex™eptions or limit—tionsAF futD ˜e™—use th—t —™tivity did not ent—il m—king — new ™opyD it would not viol—te the right of reprodu™tionF roweverD the degree of overl—p ˜etween these two rights v—ries somewh—t ˜y ™ountryF ‡hi™h of the two rights is impli™—ted ˜y — p—rti™ul—r ™—se will sometimes m—ke — di'eren™e ! for ex—mpleD if the ™opyright owner h—s gr—nted — li™ense for one of the rights ˜ut not the otherF row f—r do these rights re—™hc ‚e™—ll from wodule QX „he ƒ™ope of gopyright v—w5 th—t ™opyright only prote™ts the expression of ide—sD not the ide—s or f—™ts themselvesF „husD — work th—t is inspired ˜y the ide—s ™ont—ined in —nother work ˜ut does not use —ny of the prote™ted expression from the initi—l work is neither — reprodu™tion nor —n —d—pt—tionD —nd will not viol—te the ™opyright holder9s rightsF elsoD note th—t erti™le P@QA of the ferne gonvention6 provides th—t —uthorized —d—pt—tions —re prote™ted ˜y their ownD sep—r—te ™opyrightD in —ddition to the ™opyright prote™tion given to the origin—l workF pin—llyD — ™opyright holder —lso h—s the ex™lusive right to distribute his or her workD —nd the right to import ™opies of the work su˜je™t to ™ert—in ex™eptionsF „he right to distri˜ute en™omp—sses the right to sell or —uthorize the initi—l s—le of — ™opy of the workF

5.5.2 Rights Relating to Communication of a Work to the Public
enother import—nt e™onomi™ right of — ™opyright holder is the right to ™ommuni™—te the work to the pu˜li™F sn m—ny ™ountriesD this right is expressed —s the right of public performance and public displayF „he right of pu˜li™ perform—n™e rel—tes to showings of pl—ysD moviesD —nd musi™F „he right of pu˜li™ displ—y rel—tes to the displ—y of —rtwork su™h —s p—intings —nd s™ulpturesF erti™le II of the ferne gonvention7 requires mem˜er ™ountries to gr—nt the holders of ™opyrights in dr—m—ti™ —nd musi™—l works the right to ™ontrol pu˜li™ perform—n™es of those works ˜y —ny me—ns or pro™ess @in™ludingD for ex—mpleD — live perform—n™e or pl—ying — re™ording of — perform—n™eAF erti™le II —lso extends the right of pu˜li™ perform—n™e to tr—nsl—tions of — ™opyrighted workF st —lso requires th—t ™opyright holders ˜e given the right to —uthorize the ˜ro—d™—sting or pu˜li™ ™ommuni™—tion of the ™opyrighted work ˜y wireD loudspe—kerD or —ny —n—logous instrument tr—nsmittingD ˜y signsD soundsD or im—gesF es their l—˜els indi™—teD the rights of pu˜li™ displ—y —nd pu˜li™ perform—n™e only ™ontrol —™tivities th—t —re pu˜li™F „husD persons who own —uthorized ™opies of ™opyrighted works m—y displ—y or ˜ro—d™—st the works in nonEpu˜li™ settings without risk of infringementF por ex—mpleD — person who owns — ™opy of — movie m—y pl—y the movie in her home to — group of so™i—l guests without infringing the right of pu˜li™ perform—n™eF
3 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/trtdocs_wo001.html#P168_31376 4 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/trtdocs_wo001.html#P138_25087 5 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_3:_The_Scope_of_Copyright_Law 6 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/trtdocs_wo001.html#P85_10661 7 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/trtdocs_wo001.html#P151_28262

QU ƒimil—rlyD — person who owns — p—inting or s™ulpture m—y displ—y the work in her home without infringing the right of pu˜li™ displ—yF „he ™opyright holder9s right to ™ontrol the pu˜li™ perform—n™e of her work extends to m—ny ™ommuni™—E tions th—t might not initi—lly seem like perform—n™esF por ex—mpleD —s indi™—ted —˜oveD it gr—nts — ™opyright holder the right to —uthorize ˜ro—d™—sts of her workF „his in™ludes television ˜ro—d™—stingD ™—˜le distri˜utionD s—tellite distri˜utionD —nd reE˜ro—d™—sts of — workF st ™—n —lso en™omp—ss onEdem—nd digit—l tr—nsmissions —nd p—yEperEview ˜ro—d™—stsF et le—st in some ™ountriesD the right —lso extends to perform—n™es in settings th—t don9t seem espe™i—lly 4pu˜li™4 in the ordin—ry sense ! for ex—mpleD in s™hoolsD nursing homesD —nd prisonsF „he ‡s€y gopyright „re—ty @‡g„A —nd ‡s€y €erformers —nd €honogr—ms „re—ty @‡€€„AD dis™ussed in wodule P8 D —ltered this set of rules su˜tly ! —nd in w—ys th—t h—ve not yet ˜een fully resolvedF erti™le V of the ‡g„ —nd erti™les IH —nd IP of the ‡€€„ require mem˜er ™ountries to re™ognize — right to m—ke — ™opyrighted work 4—v—il—˜le4 to the pu˜li™F „he …nited ƒt—tes h—s t—ken the position th—t these tre—ty provisions do not require —ny ™h—nge in the w—y th—t the …ƒ h—s formul—ted —nd enfor™ed the right of pu˜li™ perform—n™eF xot —ll ™ountries —greeF „he i…D for ex—mpleD h—s t—ken the position th—t the 4m—king —v—il—˜le4 right —dds something newF „he prin™ip—l ™ir™umst—n™e in whi™h this dis—greement might m—ke — di'eren™e is when someone posts — ™opyrighted do™ument on — we˜siteD ˜ut no one h—s yet downlo—ded itF „he tre—tment of su™h ™—ses m—y v—ry ˜y ™ountryF

5.6 Moral Rights
w—ny ™ountries provide —uthors moral rights in —ddition to economic rights. …nlike e™onomi™ rightsD mor—l rights usu—lly ™—nnot ˜e tr—nsferred to other personsD —lthough m—ny ™ountries —llow them to ˜e w—ived ! either —ltogether @for ex—mpleD in the …nited ƒt—tesA or in ™onjun™tion with spe™i(™ li™enses of e™onomi™ rights @for ex—mpleD in pr—n™eAF „he limits on tr—nsfers of mor—l rights re)e™ts the r—tion—le th—t underlie them ! n—melyD th—t the works produ™ed ˜y —n —uthor —re —n extension of his or her self —nd ˜e—r the —n imprint of his or her person—lityF e™™ordinglyD mor—l rights prote™t ™ert—in ™opyrighted works from destru™tion or mutil—tionD p—rti—lly to prote™t the —uthor9s expression of her person—lityD —nd p—rti—lly to prote™t the —uthor9s reput—tion from h—rmF wor—l rights —re re™ognized espe™i—lly ˜ro—dly in ™ountries with ™ivil l—w tr—ditionsF ‚e™ognition of — limited su˜set of mor—l rights is m—nd—ted ˜y erti™le T˜is of the ferne gonvention9 F erti™le T˜is requires th—t the —uthor of — work ˜e given —t le—st two types of mor—l rightsF „he (rst is ™ommonly know —s the "right of attribution." st en™omp—sses not only the right of —n —uthor to h—ve her n—me —sso™i—ted with her worksD ˜ut —lso the right to not h—ve her n—me —sso™i—ted with works th—t —re not hersF „he right of —ttri˜ution —lso gives —n —uthor the right to pu˜lish — work under — pseudonymF „he se™ond mor—l right required ˜y erti™le T˜is is the —uthor9s right to o˜je™t to the destru™tion or modi(™—tion of her work in — w—y th—t would h—rm her honor or reput—tionF „his is ™ommonly known —s the "right of

elthough erti™le T˜is re™ommends th—t these mor—l rights extend —fter the —uthor9s de—thD —t le—st until the e™onomi™ rights expireD it —lso —llows mem˜er ™ountries to limit mor—l rights to the life of the —uthorF roweverD the prote™tions of erti™le T˜is —re not —s strong —s they m—y seemD ˜e™—use it is the only provision in the ferne gonvention th—t is not in™orpor—ted ˜y the „‚s€ƒ egreementF „hus the teeth provided ˜y the ‡„y dispute resolution system —re not —v—il—˜le to ™ompel mem˜er ™ountries to re™ognize mor—l rightsF sn —ddition to the right of —ttri˜ution —nd the right of integrityD m—ny ™ountries —lso re™ognize — right of dis™losure —nd — right of withdr—w—lF „he former gives —n —uthor the ex™lusive right to determine when she will rele—se — work to the pu˜li™F „his right t—kes pre™eden™e even over — ™ontr—™tu—l ™ommitment ˜y the —uthor to tr—nsfer the work to — ™lient or p—tronF „he l—tter permits —n —uthor to withdr—w works from pu˜li™—tion or ™ir™ul—tion if she determines th—t she no longer w—nts to ˜e represented ˜y or —sso™i—ted with those p—rti™ul—r worksF „his right is mu™h less powerful in pr—™ti™e th—n it (rst —ppe—rsD ˜oth ˜e™—use the
8 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework 9 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/trtdocs_wo001.html#P123_20726




—uthor would h—ve to p—y the people from who the ™opies —re withdr—wn —nd ˜e™—use the right of withdr—w—l is trumped ˜y the right of — pur™h—ser to keep goods he or she h—s pur™h—sedF es — resultD it is —lmost never invokedF st is import—nt to ™he™k your ™ountry9s st—tutory provisions rel—ting to mor—l rightsF x—tions v—ry ™onsider—˜ly on the rights they re™ognizeD the dur—tion of those rightsD whether they m—y ˜e w—ivedD —nd so forthF por ex—mpleD in ƒp—inD seven mor—l rights —re re™ognizedX the right of dis™losureD the right to pu˜lish under the —uthor9s re—l n—me or — pseudonymD the right to ˜e —™knowledged —s the —uthor of the workD the right to the integrity of the work @whi™h in™ludes the right to prevent distortion or modi(™—tion of the workAD the right to modify the work @limited ˜y other st—tutory provisionsAD the right to withdr—w the workD —nd the right of —™™ess to — single or r—re ™opy of the workD even if th—t ™opy is owned ˜y — third p—rty @though the —uthor9s exer™ise of this right is limited ˜y ™ert—in ™onsider—tions for the holder of the ™opyAF

5.7 Neighboring and "Sui Generis" Rights 
Neighboring rights

@—lso ™—lled related rightsA ™onsist of the rights of those who —ssist the —uthor of — ™opyrighted workD ˜ut who do not qu—lify for — ™opyright in the workF „hey in™lude the rights of ˜ro—d™—sters —nd ˜ro—d™—sting org—niz—tions in their tr—nsmissions of progr—ms @—s opposed to the ™opyrights in the progr—ms themselvesAD the right of —n —rtist in her perform—n™e of — pie™e @—s distinguished from the ™opyright in the underlying work itselfAD —nd the right of the produ™er of — re™ord @—s opposed to the ™opyright in the musi™—l ™ompositions th—t the re™ord em˜odiesAF st is import—nt to keep these neigh˜oring rights in mindD in —ddition to the rights of the ™opyright holderD when ™onsidering wh—t uses of — given work —re permissi˜leF sn —ddition to the neigh˜oring rights —tt—™hed to perform—n™esD some ™ountries re™ently h—ve re™ognized rights in d—t—˜—sesD semi™ondu™tor ™hip designsD ˜o—tEhull designsD —nd so forthF „hese rights —re ™ommonly known —s sui generis rights ! —lthough the distin™tion ˜etween 4neigh˜oring rights4 —nd 4sui generis4 rights is l—rgely —r˜itr—ryF yf these new rightsD the only one th—t might signi(™—ntly —'e™t the —™tivities of li˜r—ri—ns is the prote™tion of d—t—˜—sesF es indi™—ted —˜oveD most ™ountries use ordin—ry ™opyright l—w to prote™t origin—l w—ys in whi™h the d—t— in — d—t—˜—se is sele™ted or —rr—ngedF futD so f—rD only in the iurope—n …nion —re the contents of the d—t—˜—se prote™tedF „he i…9s d—t—˜—se prote™tion system is highly ™ontroversi—lF griti™s ™ontend th—t it is unne™ess—ry to provide in™entives for the ™re—tion of d—t—˜—ses —nd merely impedes the )ow of f—™tu—l inform—tionF roweverD e'orts to test this ™riti™ism empiri™—lly ˜y ™omp—ring the r—tes of d—t—˜—se innov—tion in ™ountries with —nd without d—t—˜—se prote™tion rules h—ve thus f—r ˜een in™on™lusiveF …ntil the dispute is resolvedD d—t—˜—se prote™tion is unlikely to spre—d to developing ™ountriesF

5.8 Rental and Lending Rights
sn —ddition to the rights des™ri˜ed —˜oveD in some ™ountries the holders of ™opyrights in some kinds of works h—ve ˜een given rights of v—rious sorts in situ—tions where their works —re tempor—rily m—de —v—il—˜le to other personsF „wo quite di'erent rights must ˜e distinguishedF e rental right governs situ—tions in whi™h — ™opy of — ™opyrighted work is rented to someone for ™ommer™i—l —dv—nt—geF e public lending right governs situ—tions in whi™h — ™opy of — ™opyrighted work is provided tempor—rily ˜y —n institution to — p—tron for freeF „he lending pr—™ti™es of —lmost —ll pu˜li™ —nd —™—demi™ li˜r—ries would f—ll under the se™ond he—dingF foth rights —re rel—tively new —nd rem—in highly ™ontroversi—lF „he „‚s€ƒ egreement @in erti™le IIAD the ‡g„ @in erti™le UAD —nd the ‡€€„ @in erti™les W —nd IQA now —ll require mem˜er ™ountries to re™ognize rent—l rights ! ˜ut only with respe™t to three n—rrow ™—tegories of worksX ™omputer progr—msD moviesD —nd phonogr—msF xone of these —greements ! —nd no other multil—ter—l tre—ty ! requires mem˜er ™ountries to re™ognize pu˜li™ lending rightsF „hus f—rD only one region—l —greement requires mem˜er ™ountries to est—˜lish pu˜li™ lending rightsX the IWWP ‚ent—l —nd vending ‚ights hire™tive of the i…10 F erti™les I —nd P of th—t
10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rental_Directive

QW dire™tive require mem˜ers to extend ˜oth rent—l —nd lending rightsD not just to performersD phonogr—m produ™ersD —nd (lm produ™ersD ˜ut —lso to 4—uthorsF4 erti™le S of the dire™tive permits mem˜er ™ountries to limit the lending rightD ˜ut only if —uthors —re ™ompens—tedD or to exempt ™—tegories of institutions from its ™over—geD ˜ut only if they do not there˜y e'e™tively exempt —ll institutionsF „he dire™tive proved extremely ™ontroversi—lD —nd form—l pro™eedings were ne™ess—ry to for™e sever—l i… mem˜ers to ™onform to itF qiven the highly in™omplete ™over—ge of rent—l —nd pu˜li™ lending rights in the supr—n—tion—l —greementsD it is not surprising th—t m—ny ™ountries ™urrently do not re™ognize themF yf p—rti™ul—r import—n™e to li˜r—riesD ™urrently only PW ™ountries11 h—ve est—˜lished pu˜li™ lending rights systemsF wost of those ™ountries —re in iuropeF „he …nited ƒt—tes does not h—ve oneD nor does —ny ™ountry in v—tin emeri™—D efri™—D or esi—F vi˜r—ri—ns in developing ™ountries m—y soon ˜e ™—lled upon to p—rti™ip—te in dis™ussions ™on™erning whether their ™ountries should —dopt — pu˜li™ lending right systemF ‡h—t position should they t—kec „he sntern—tion—l peder—tion of vi˜r—ry esso™i—tions —nd snstitutions @spveA12 o'ers two sensi˜le re™ommenE d—tions13 F pirstD li˜r—ri—ns should not —™™ept —ny legisl—tive propos—ls th—t would require the li˜r—ries themselves to p—y fees to —uthorsD performersD —nd produ™ersF „he only w—ys th—t li˜r—ries ™ould m—ke su™h p—yments would ˜e either to ™h—rge users or to withdr—w s™—r™e resour™es from other progr—msF iither str—tegy would fund—ment—lly imp—ir the li˜r—ries9 ™ore missionF sn shortD the only —™™ept—˜le version of — pu˜li™ lending system would ˜e one in whi™h the governmentD not the li˜r—riesD p—id the fees ! —s o™™urs in most iurope—n ™ountriesF ƒe™ondD the spve —rgues th—t even — system in whi™h the government p—id the fees would ˜e unwise in developing ™ountriesD ˜e™—use it would redu™e the money the government ™ould spend on even more essenti—l so™i—l or ™ultur—l fun™tions ! su™h —s providing its ™itizens —dequ—te he—lth ™—re or ˜—si™ edu™—tionsF „his issue will —lmost ™ert—inly require li˜r—ri—ns9 ™lose —ttention in the ne—r futureF

5.9 Exceptions and Limitations
es w—s shown in wodule PX „he sntern—tion—l pr—mework14 D —ll of the intern—tion—l ™opyright —greements permit ™ountries to m—ke ™ert—in ex™eptions to the rights we h—ve des™ri˜ed thus f—rF ivery ™ountry h—s indeed m—de su™h ex™eptionsF „he purposes of these ex™eptions v—ryF ƒome —re justi(ed ˜y the need to respe™t freedom of expression or priv—™yF ythers —re intended to prevent ™opyright l—w from frustr—ting r—ther th—n fostering ™re—tivityF ƒtill others re™ognize the impossi˜ility of monitoring —nd ™h—rging for some usesF „he list of ex™eptions is very longF sn gener—lD the ex™eptions should ˜e ™onsidered just —s import—nt —s the rights they qu—lifyF „ogetherD they —re intended to strike — ˜—l—n™e ˜etween the interests of —uthors —nd the interests of users —nd the pu˜li™ —t l—rgeF por this re—sonD it is sometimes s—id th—t the ex™eptions ™re—te 4user rightsF4 „he ex™eptions t—ke one of two formsF ix™eptions of the (rst type identify spe™i(™ permissi˜le —™tivitiesF en in)uenti—l ex—mple of this —ppro—™h is erti™le S of the i… gopyright hire™tive15 F ƒe™tion P of th—t —rti™le —uthorizes i… mem˜er ™ountries to provide for the following ex™eptions to the right of reprodu™tionX
(a) in respect of reproductions on paper or any similar medium, eected by the use of any kind of photographic technique or by some other process having similar eects, with the exception of sheet music, provided that the rightholders receive fair compensation;

(b) in respect of reproductions on any medium made by a natural person for private use and for ends that are neither directly nor indirectly commercial, on condition that the rightholders receive fair compensation which takes account of the application or non-application of technological measures referred to in Article 6 to the work or subject-matter concerned;

11 http://www.plrinternational.com/established/established.htm 12 http://www.ia.org/en/about 13 http://www.ia.org/en/publications/the-ia-position-on-public-lending-right 14 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework 15 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=32001L0029&model=guichett




(c) in respect of specic acts of reproduction made by publicly accessible libraries, educational establishments or museums, or by archives, which are not for direct or indirect economic or commercial advantage;

(d) in respect of ephemeral recordings of works made by broadcasting organisations by means of their own facilities and for their own broadcasts; the preservation of these recordings in ocial archives may, on the grounds of their exceptional documentary character, be permitted;

(e) in respect of reproductions of broadcasts made by social institutions pursuing non-commercial purposes, such as hospitals or prisons, on condition that the rightholders receive fair compensation.

ƒe™tion Q then —uthorizes mem˜er st—tes to ™re—te —ny of the following ex™eptions ˜oth to the right of reprodu™tion —nd to the right to ™ommuni™—te or m—ke works —v—il—˜le to the pu˜li™X
(a) use for the sole purpose of illustration for teaching or scientic research, as long as the source, including the author's name, is indicated, unless this turns out to be impossible and to the extent justied by the non-commercial purpose to be achieved;

(b) uses, for the benet of people with a disability, which are directly related to the disability and of a non-commercial nature, to the extent required by the specic disability;

(c) reproduction by the press, communication to the public or making available of published articles on current economic, political or religious topics or of broadcast works or other subjectmatter of the same character, in cases where such use is not expressly reserved, and as long as the source, including the author's name, is indicated, or use of works or other subject-matter in connection with the reporting of current events, to the extent justied by the informatory purpose and as long as the source, including the author's name, is indicated, unless this turns out to be impossible;

(d) quotations for purposes such as criticism or review, provided that they relate to a work or other subject-matter which has already been lawfully made available to the public, that, unless this turns out to be impossible, the source, including the author's name, is indicated, and that their use is in accordance with fair practice, and to the extent required by the specic purpose;

(e) use for the purposes of public security or to ensure the proper performance or reporting of administrative, parliamentary or judicial proceedings;

(f ) use of political speeches as well as extracts of public lectures or similar works or subject-matter to the extent justied by the informatory purpose and provided that the source, including the author's name, is indicated, except where this turns out to be impossible;

(g) use during religious celebrations or ocial celebrations organised by a public authority;

(h) use of works, such as works of architecture or sculpture, made to be located permanently in public places;

(i) incidental inclusion of a work or other subject-matter in other material;

(j) use for the purpose of advertising the public exhibition or sale of artistic works, to the extent necessary to promote the event, excluding any other commercial use;

(k) use for the purpose of caricature, parody or pastiche;

(l) use in connection with the demonstration or repair of equipment;

(m) use of an artistic work in the form of a building or a drawing or plan of a building for the purposes of reconstructing the building;

(n) use by communication or making available, for the purpose of research or private study, to individual members of the public by dedicated terminals on the premises of establishments referred to in paragraph 2(c) of works and other subject-matter not subject to purchase or licensing terms which are contained in their collections;

(o) use in certain other cases of minor importance where exceptions or limitations already exist under national law, provided that they only concern analogue uses and do not aect the free circulation of goods and services within the Community, without prejudice to the other exceptions and limitations contained in this Article.

w—ny of these ex™eptions pl—inly ˜ene(t the li˜r—ries @—nd their usersA in the i… ™ountries th—t h—ve re™ognized themF ispe™i—lly noteworthy —re the ex™eptions for 4spe™i(™ —™ts of reprodu™tion m—de ˜y pu˜li™ly —™™essi˜le li˜r—ries4 so long —s they —re not for 4e™onomi™ or ™ommer™i—l —dv—nt—ge4 —nd 4uses for the ˜ene(t of people with — dis—˜ilityF4 „h—t s—idD the set of ex™eptions ™ont—ined in erti™le S of the i… gopyright hire™tive is surely not the only ex—mple of the enumer—tedElist —ppro—™hF „he threeEstep testD dis™ussed in wodule P16 D gives individu—l ™ountries ™onsider—˜ly more l—titude in sele™ting ex™eptions —nd limit—tions th—n the i… h—s exer™isedF ƒome ™ountries h—ve gone — good de—l furtherF „he se™ond gener—l —ppro—™h is to st—te some gener—l guidelines for permissi˜le uses —nd then deleg—te to the ™ourts responsi˜ility for —pplying those f—™tors to individu—l ™—sesF „he premier ex—mple of this —ppro—™h is the f—ir use do™trine in the …nited ƒt—tesD whi™h is em˜odied in se™tion IHU of the …FƒF gopyright e™tX
Notwithstanding the [statutory provisions granting copyright holders exclusive rights], the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specied by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprot educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the eect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a nding of fair use if such nding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.

16 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework




gourts in the …nited ƒt—tes h—ve relied on this provision to re™ognize ex™eptions for — wide r—nge of —™tivitiesD in™luding the m—king of — p—rody of — ™opyrighted workD reprodu™ing — portion of — ™opyrighted work for the purpose of s™hol—rshipD —nd using — video™—ssette re™order to re™ord — television progr—m or movie for viewing —t — l—ter timeF sn ˜etween these two gener—l —ppro—™hes is — str—tegy sometimes known —s 4f—ir de—lingF4 e good ex—mple is the system used in eustr—li—F „he eustr—li—n gopyright e™t @—s —mended in PHHTA identi(es some ˜ro—d ™ir™umst—n™es in whi™h —n un—uthorized use of — ™opyrighted work might ˜e ™onsidered f—irX rese—r™hD ™riti™ism or reviewD news reportingD leg—l —dvi™eD —nd p—rody or s—tireF werely f—lling into one of these ˜oxes does not me—nD howeverD th—t — p—rti™ul—r —™tivity will ˜e deemed f—irF ‚—therD the ™ourts ™onsider individu—l ™—ses ˜y ™onsulting — set of f—™tors th—t loosely p—r—llel the f—™tors used in the …ƒ systemF sn gener—lD the ™ourts will ex™use ™ondu™t within these ˜oxes if they deem it —ppropri—te 4judged ˜y the ™riterion of — f—ir minded —nd honest personF4 „he eustr—li—n —ppro—™h is gener—lly thought to ˜e less unpredi™t—˜le ! ˜ut —lso less )exi˜le ! th—n the …ƒ —ppro—™hF e sep—r—te —nd ne—rly univers—l ex™eption to the rights of — ™opyright holder is the rst sale doctrine. „he (rst s—le do™trine s—ys th—t on™e — ™onsumer h—s l—wfully pur™h—sed — ™opy of — ™opyrighted workD the ™opyright holder no longer h—s the —˜ility to ™ontrol th—t p—rti™ul—r ™opyF por this re—sonD res—leD lendingD or rent—l of — l—wfully pur™h—sed ™opyrighted work is gener—lly permissi˜leF roweverD ™ountries ™—n impose ™ert—in limit—tions on these rightsF „hey m—y restri™t or require ™ompulsory li™enses for ™ert—in uses of ™opyrighted worksF por ex—mpleD —s indi™—ted —˜oveD — n—tion m—y prohi˜it the rent—l of goods th—t —re e—sily —nd frequently ™opiedD su™h —s softw—re or phonore™ordsF eddition—llyD — n—tion m—y require th—t the —uthor of the work ˜e p—id — ™ert—in fee upon res—le of — ™opy of — ™opyrighted workF @„his soE™—lled 4droit de suite4 only exists in — few jurisdi™tionsD —nd even there only —pplies to unique works of (ne —rtFA „he oper—tion of the (rst s—le do™trine is less intuitive with digit—l worksF „his is ˜e™—use wh—t m—y seem like norm—l use from — ™onsumer9s perspe™tive m—y —™tu—lly involve the m—king of —ddition—l digit—l ™opiesF „his in turn ™ould ˜e prohi˜ited ˜y the —uthor9s ex™lusive right of reprodu™tionF por ex—mpleD if — ™onsumer pur™h—ses — ghD she ™—n listen to it on —ny gh pl—yer without worrying —˜out infringing the —uthor9s ™opyrightF ƒhe ™—n —lsoD ˜e™—use of the (rst s—le do™trineD lend th—t gh to — friend who ™—n listen to it on — gh pl—yer —nd then give it ˜—™kD without worrying —˜out infringing the —uthor9s rightsF roweverD if th—t s—me ™onsumer pur™h—ses — sound re™ording onlineD listens to itD —nd then em—ils — ™opy to — friendD she will h—ve viol—ted the ™opyright l—w @even if she deletes her origin—l ™opyA ˜e™—use the origin—l re™ording h—s ˜een reprodu™edF „here rem—ins — serious poli™y question —s to whether the (rst s—le do™trine to govern su™h ™—sesD ˜ut —s yet th—t h—s not o™™urredF

5.10 Library Exceptions
v—st ˜ut not le—stD the ™opyright l—ws of m—ny ™ountries ™ont—in ex™eptions or limit—tions designed to en—˜le li˜r—ri—ns to use ™opyrighted m—teri—ls in w—ys th—t —dv—n™e their missionsF „hese provisions v—ry widely ˜y ™ountryF por — thorough review of the li˜r—ry ex™eptions in limit—tions in IPV ™ountriesD you should ™onsult uenneth grews9s ƒtudy on gopyright vimit—tions —nd ix™eptions for vi˜r—ries —nd er™hives17 F ƒet forth ˜elow —re des™riptions of some ™ommon situ—tions in whi™h li˜r—ri—ns need )exi˜ility in using ™opyrighted m—teri—lsD plus summ—ries of the w—ys in whi™h m—ny ™ountries de—l with those situ—tionsF

5.10.1 Allowing Library Patrons to Use the Library's Copy Machines or Other Copy Equipment
€—trons frequently wish the p—tron is ™opying is the ™opying ex™eeds the ™opyright infringementF to m—ke ™opies of ex™erpts of li˜r—ryEowned m—teri—lsF …nless the ˜ook or —rti™le in pu˜li™ dom—inD su™h ™opying is regul—ted ˜y the ™ountry9s ™opyright st—tuteF sf m—ximum set ˜y other ex™eptions —nd limit—tionsD the p—tron m—y ˜e ™ommitting sn some situ—tionsD —˜sent — st—tutory or other s—fe h—r˜orD the li˜r—ry ™ould ˜e

17 http://www.wipo.int/meetings/en/doc_details.jsp?doc_id=109192/

RQ held se™ond—rily or indire™tly li—˜le for —llowing the infringement to t—ke pl—™e ˜y providing the equipmentF @„he ™on™epts of se™ond—ry —nd indire™t li—˜ility will ˜e dis™ussed in more det—il inwodule U18 FA portun—telyD m—ny ™ountries h—ve en—™ted spe™i(™ st—tutory provisions th—t shield li˜r—ri—ns —nd li˜r—ries from li—˜ility for ™opyright infringement ™ommitted ˜y p—trons who use photo™opiers or other equipment the li˜r—ry providesF „o qu—lify for the st—tutory exemptionD li˜r—ries typi™—lly must post — noti™e —nd — dis™l—imerD st—ting th—t the m—king of photo™opies or other reprodu™tions is governed ˜y ™opyright l—wD —nd th—t the person using the equipment is li—˜le for —ny infringementF

5.10.2 Making Copyrighted Materials Available on the Library's Computers
vi˜r—ries sometimes m—ke m—teri—ls —v—il—˜le to the pu˜li™ on ™omputersF por ex—mpleD they sometimes oper—te we˜sites —nd post on those we˜sites m—teri—ls th—t the pu˜li™ —t l—rge ™—n re—™h vi— the snternetF sf those m—teri—ls —re su˜je™t to ™opyrightD —nd if the li˜r—ry f—ils to o˜t—in permission for displ—ying themD it m—y ˜e su˜je™t to li—˜ilityF roweverD m—ny ™ountries h—ve en—™ted soE™—lled s—fe h—r˜or ex™eptions to limit the li—˜ility of online servi™e providersF „o the extent th—t universities —nd li˜r—ries m—y ˜e ™onsidered su™h providersD they —re shielded from li—˜ilityD —s long —s they ™omply with the pro™edures set forth in e—™h ™ountry9s l—wsF

5.10.3 Making Copies for Library Patrons
vi˜r—ry p—trons often —sk li˜r—ri—ns to m—ke ™opies of ™opyrighted m—teri—ls for their person—l useF w—ny ™ountries provide st—tutory ex™eptions th—t permit li˜r—ri—ns to m—ke limited ™opies for this purposeF ƒome —llow su™h reprodu™tions only for ™ert—in spe™i(ed ™l—sses of works su™h —s periodi™—lsD while others m—ke no su™h distin™tionsF purtherD some ™ountries only permit ™opying for purposes su™h —s rese—r™hD while others do not h—ve this limit—tionF fy w—y of ex—mpleD the …nited uingdom —llows li˜r—ri—ns to m—ke ™opies of —rti™les in periodi™—lsD ˜ut limits su™h ™opying to — single —rti™le per issueD —nd requires the p—tron to prove th—t the ™opy is for priv—te non™ommer™i—l rese—r™h or studyF g—n—d—D on the other h—ndD does not h—ve the singleE—rti™le restri™tionD ˜ut does limit the reprodu™tion ex™eption to —rti™les pu˜lished in s™hol—rlyD s™ienti(™D or te™hni™—l journ—lsF g—n—d— —lso ex™ludes works of (™tionD poetryD et™F from the ™l—ss of works th—t m—y ˜e ™opiedF

5.10.4 Making Digital Copies for Preservation and Replacement
vi˜r—ri—ns —re permittedD in ™ert—in ™ir™umst—n™esD to m—ke ™opies of li˜r—ry m—teri—ls for their preserv—tion or repl—™ementF „hese ™ir™umst—n™es —re typi™—lly tightly regul—ted ˜y lo™—l ™opyright st—tutesF w—ny ™ountries permit ™opying —s long —sX

• the li˜r—ry owns the origin—l work • the work is pu˜li™ly —™™essi˜le • the origin—l is —t risk for d—m—ge or deterior—tionD is in o˜solete form—tD or ™—nnot ˜e viewed ˜e™—use of the ™onditions in whi™h it must ˜e keptF
„he permitted reprodu™tion is often limited to — sm—ll num˜er of ™opiesF sf —n —ppropri—te ™opy is ™ommerE ™i—lly —v—il—˜leD the right to reprodu™e for preserv—tion or repl—™ement is typi™—lly limitedF purtherD ™opying is often limited to p—per reprodu™tionD —nd ™opies m—de in digit—l form—t typi™—lly m—y not ˜e m—de —v—il—˜le to the pu˜li™ outside of the li˜r—ry premisesF

5.10.5 Creating Course Packs for Students
…niversity li˜r—ri—ns —re sometimes —sked to ™re—te ™ourse p—™ksF gourse p—™ks —re typi™—lly — ™olle™tion of ex™erpts from journ—lsD —rti™lesD ˜ook ™h—ptersD —nd so forth th—t — te—™her —ssigns for students enrolled in — p—rti™ul—r ™ourseF
18 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_7:_Enforcement




sn the …nited ƒt—tesD m—ny universities used to —ssem˜le ™ourse p—™ks without o˜t—ining permission from the ™opyright holders of the individu—l —rti™lesD ˜elieving th—t su™h ™opying qu—li(ed for the f—ir use ex™eption for —™—demi™ purposesF roweverD ™ourt de™isions in the IWWHs held th—t the prep—r—tion —nd s—le of su™h ™ourse p—™ks ˜y ™ommer™i—l 4™opy shops4 did not ™onstitute f—ir useF st is not ™ert—in th—t those de™isions would —pply to universitiesD ˜ut the l—wyers —dvising most universities h—ve t—ken — ™—utious —ppro—™hF et their urgingD most …ƒ universities h—ve now —dopted systems for o˜t—ining li™enses to —ll m—teri—ls in™luded in ™ourse p—™ksF st is possi˜le th—t — ™ountry th—tD unlike the …nited ƒt—tesD relies upon — list of spe™i(™ ex™eptions —nd limit—tionsD r—ther th—n — gener—l f—ir use do™trineD to set the limits of ™opyright prote™tion m—y h—ve — spe™i(™ provision th—t —uthorizes the ™re—tion of ™ourse p—™ksF sf notD li˜r—ri—ns in su™h — ™ountry must o˜t—in — written li™ense from the ™opyright holders in order to ™re—te ™ourse p—™ksF „o redu™e the —dministr—tive ˜urden of seeking permission from m—ny di'erent ™opyright holdersD li˜r—ri—ns m—y wish to ™ontr—™t with ™olle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tions like those des™ri˜ed in wodule S19 F „hese priv—te servi™es who enter into —0li—tions with —™—demi™ pu˜lishers —nd o˜t—in ˜l—nket ™le—r—n™e li™enses for the pu˜lisher9s entire ™—t—logD or enter into —greements with — ™olle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tion representing pu˜lishersF

5.10.6 Adapting Materials for the Blind, Visually Impaired and other Reading Disabled Persons
sn most ™ountriesD spe™i(™ exemptions —llow li˜r—ri—ns to provide modi(ed ™opies of works to serve the needs of visu—lly imp—ired p—tronsF e more det—iled dis™ussion of the ™opyright ex™eption for visu—lly imp—ired persons ™—n ˜e found in tudith ƒulliv—n9s report of the pifteenth ƒession of the ‡s€y ƒt—nding gommittee on gopyright —nd ‚el—ted ‚ightsD whi™h is —v—il—˜le here20 F „his situ—tion m—y ™h—nge soon if — tre—ty ™urrently ˜eing ™onsidered ˜y ‡s€y is —doptedF

5.10.7 Inter-Library Loans
„he ™opyright st—tutes of some ™ountries ™ont—in ex™eptions for interEli˜r—ry lo—nsF „his en—˜les — li˜r—ry to m—ke — ™opy of — work for the purpose of lending it to — p—tron of —nother li˜r—ryF ƒometimes the st—tutory ex™eption for interEli˜r—ry lo—n will require the li˜r—ry to p—y — li™ensing fee in order to m—ke the reprodu™tionD the —mount of whi™h is typi™—lly determined ˜y the government or — ™olle™ting so™ietyF sn ™ert—in ™ountriesD su™h —s eustr—li—D xew e—l—ndD —nd ƒing—poreD — li˜r—ri—n must determine th—t the —rti™le or work is not ™ommer™i—lly —v—il—˜le ˜efore the interEli˜r—ry lo—n ex™eption ™—n ˜e invokedF ƒimil—r to interEli˜r—ry lo—n st—tutes —re soE™—lled supply st—tutesD whi™h —llow — li˜r—ry to m—ke — ™opy of — work for —nother li˜r—ryD ˜ut do not require th—t the purpose of the ™opy ˜e for the priv—te use of — p—tronF ƒupply st—tutes v—ry —mong jurisdi™tionsF ƒome ™ountries @for ex—mpleD pijiA require th—t the li˜r—ri—n (rst —ttempt to pur™h—se the work —t m—rket v—lueF ythers @for ex—mpleD entigu—A —llow su™h ™opying only when it is not pr—™ti™—˜le to pur™h—se — ™opyF ƒtill others @for ex—mpleD srel—ndA only —llow su™h ™opying if it would not ˜e re—son—˜le to —sk the ™opyright holder9s permissionF sn some ™—sesD — ™ountry m—y not h—ve — spe™i(™ st—tutory li˜r—ry ex™eptionF ‰et li˜r—ries m—y still ˜e entitled to eng—ge in m—ny of the —™tivities des™ri˜ed —˜oveD if those ™ountries h—ve — ˜ro—der provision th—t would permit —ny ™itizenD whi™h would in™lude li˜r—ri—ns —nd li˜r—ry p—tronsD to undert—ke these —™tivitiesF „his is trueD for ex—mpleD in sr—q —nd x—mi˜i—F ƒome ™ountries limit their ex™eptions to — list of design—ted li˜r—riesY in other ™ountriesD the ex™eptions —re —v—il—˜le to —ll li˜r—ries th—t meet ™ert—in requirementsD su™h —s ˜eing open to the pu˜li™ —nd —™ting for nonE™ommer™i—l purposesF
19 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_5:_Managing_Rights 20 http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/copyright/en/sccr_15/sccr_15_7.html#P421_37845/


5.11 Compulsory Licenses
sn —ddition to the ex™eptions —nd limit—tions surveyed —˜oveD m—ny ™ountries limit the rights of ™opyright holders with soE™—lled 4™ompulsory li™ensesF4 gompulsory li™enses —re often seen —s ™ompromises ˜etween the e™onomi™ interests of ™opyright holders —nd the pu˜li™9s interest in using ™opyrighted m—teri—lF por ex—mpleD erti™le IQ of the ferne gonvention21 gives ™ountries the —uthority to impose ™ompulsory li™enses for the use of musi™—l ™ompositionsF ix—mples of ™ompulsory li™enses existing in some ™ountries in™lude the right of pu˜li™ lending ˜y li˜r—riesD —nd the right of priv—te ™oping of —udio re™ordings in ex™h—nge for — t—x on ˜l—nk ghsF „his will ˜e further dis™ussed in wodule SX w—n—ging ‚ights22 F

5.12 5.13 Back to the case study
…nfortun—telyD unless the ™ompositions in engel—9s ™olle™tion h—ve f—llen into the pu˜li™ dom—inD there is no simple —nswer to engel—9s questionF x—di— would ˜e o˜liged to review the det—ils of the p—rti™ul—r system of ex™eptions —nd limit—tions ™ont—ined in her ™ountry9s ™opyright l—w to —s™ert—inD (rstD whether she would ˜e permitted to m—ke — digit—l ™opy of e—™h pie™e of sheet musi™ —ndD se™ondD whether the li˜r—ry would ˜e permitted to post the digit—l ™opy of it on the li˜r—ry9s serversF st is more likely th—t the (rst of these —™tivities would ˜e permitted th—n th—t the se™ond —™tivity would ˜e permittedD ˜ut neither issue ™ould ˜e de(nitively resolved without ™onsulting the ™ountry9s l—wsF

5.14 Additional Resources
sn PHHID ƒiv— †—idhy—n—th—n pu˜lished Copyrights and Copywrongs: the Rise of Intellectual Property and How It Threatens CreativityF „he thesis of this highly —™™essi˜le ˜ook is well ™—ptured ˜y its titleF por —n interview with †—idhy—n—th—nD in whi™h he summ—rizes his —rgumentD see gopyrights —nd gopywrongs23 F por — simil—rly —™™essi˜le study th—t t—kes — mu™h more f—vor—˜le view of the evolution of the rights —nd ex™eptions —sso™i—ted with ™opyrightD see €—ul qoldsteinD Copyright's Highway: From Gutenberg to the 24 or vi— —udio downlo—d25 F Celestial Jukebox @PHHQA ! —v—il—˜le only in print „he most ™omprehensive ex—min—tion of the provisions of e—™h ™ountry9s ™opyright l—ws th—t provide )exi˜ility to li˜r—ri—ns is uenneth grewsD ƒtudy on gopyright vimit—tions —nd ix™eptions for vi˜r—ries —nd er™hives26 F enother highly useful study is sntern—tion—l peder—tion of vi˜r—ry esso™i—tions —nd snstitutionsD vimit—E tions —nd ix™eptions to gopyright —nd xeigh˜ouring ‚ights in the higit—l invironmentX en sntern—tion—l vi˜r—ry €erspe™tive27 F „wo helpful ‡s€y studies —re ‡s€y ƒtudy on gopyright vimit—tions —nd ix™eptions for the †isu—lly smp—ired28 —nd ‡s€y ƒtudy on vimit—tions —nd ix™eptions of gopyright —nd ‚el—ted ‚ights in the higit—l invironment29 F gopyright ix™eptions in the …u30 is just wh—t it s—ysF
21 http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/trtdocs_wo001.html#P170_31589 22 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_5:_Managing_Rights 23 http://www.stayfreemagazine.org/archives/20/siva_vaidhyanathan.html 24 http://www.amazon.com/Copyrights-Highway-Gutenberg-Celestial-Jukebox/dp/0804747482 25 http://www.learnoutloud.com/Catalog/Business/Entrepreneurship/Copyrights-Highway/1365 26 http://www.wipo.int/meetings/en/doc_details.jsp?doc_id=109192 27 http://www.ia.org/III/clm/p1/ilp.htm 28 http://www.wipo.int/meetings/en/doc_details.jsp?doc_id=75696 29 http://www.wipo.int/meetings/en/doc_details.jsp?doc_id=16805 30 http://www.ipit-update.com/copy36.htm




por — highly —™™essi˜le study of l—titude th—t (lmm—kers @p—rti™ul—rly in the …nited ƒt—tesA enjoy when quoting ™opyrighted m—teri—lD see €—t eufderheide —nd €eter t—sziD ‚e™utD ‚efr—meD ‚e™y™le31 @genter for ƒo™i—l wedi— PHHVAF

5.15 Cases
„he following judi™i—l opinions explore —nd —pply some of the prin™iples dis™ussed in this moduleX v—rrikin wusi™ vF wen —t ‡ork32 @eustr—li— PHIHA @right of reprodu™tionA g—se gESGHVD snfop—q sntern—tion—l eGƒ vF h—nske h—g˜l—des porening33 @right of reprodu™tionA qilh—m vF ‚D gourt of eppe—l of ingl—nd —nd ‡—les @gourt of eppe—l of ingl—nd —nd ‡—lesAD PHHW34 @right of reprodu™tionA tFuF ‚owling vF ‚h‚ fooksD SUS pFƒuppFPd SIQ @PHHWA35 @deriv—tive worksA g—se gEQHTGHSD ƒo™ied—d qener—l de eutores y iditores de isp—ñ— @ƒqeiA vF ‚—f—el roteles ƒe36 @we—ning of gommuni™—tion to the €u˜li™A g—se gERUWGHRD v—serdisken epƒ vF uulturministeriet37 @ixh—ustionA g—se gEPRSGHHD ƒti™hting ter ixploit—tie v—n x—˜urige ‚e™hten @ƒixeA vF xederl—ndse ymroep ƒti™hting @xyƒA38 @‚ent—l ‚ights ! iquit—˜le ‚emuner—tionA gour de ™—ss—tion @Ire ™hF ™ivFAD PV février PHHTD ƒtudio g—n—lD …nivers—l €i™tures video pr—n™e et ƒi† ™G ƒF €erquin et …f™ que ghoisi39 r40 @€riv—te gopies ! „e™hnologi™—l €rote™tionsA ƒwedenX f IQQHIEHTD IU epril PHHW @€ir—te f—y g—seA41 @we—ning of w—king ev—il—˜leA fu'et vF persigD tudgment of w—y QHD IWTPD gour d9—ppelD €—risD IWTP ‚e™ueil h—lloz ‘hF turF“ SUH @des™ri˜ed in werrym—nD „he ‚efriger—tor of fern—rd fu'et42 D PU r—stings vFtF IHPQ @IWUTAA @mor—l rightsA g—mp˜ell vF e™u' ‚ose wusi™D sn™FD SIH …FƒF STW @IWWRA43 @f—ir useA qerm—nyX fundesverf—ssungsgeri™htD …rteil vom IUF pe˜ru—r IWWVD E I fvp IGWU44 @‚ight to ƒhort ‚eportingA

5.16 Assignment and discussion questions

5.16.1 Assignment
IF ere the restri™tions th—t ™opyright l—w pl—™es on li˜r—ri—ns in your ™ountry too stri™tD too loose or the right ˜—l—n™ec …se the referen™es in the list of eddition—l ‚esour™es @˜elowA to lo™—te the list of li˜r—ry ex™eptions —ppli™—˜le in your own ™ountryF ƒumm—rize the prin™ip—l ex™eptionsF PF sm—gine —nd des™ri˜e — proje™t th—t you would like to develop —t your li˜r—ry ˜ut th—t would not ˜e permitted ˜y the ™opyright l—ws in your ™ountryF hr—ft —n —mendment to your n—tion—l ™opyright st—tute th—t would ™over this useF
31 http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/les/pdf/CSM_Recut_Reframe_Recycle_report.pdf 32 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/8497433.stm 33 http://curia.europa.eu/jurisp/cgi-bin/gettext.pl?lang=en&num=79909283C19080005&doc=T&ouvert=T&seance=ARRET 34 http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Crim/2009/2293.html 35 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warner_Bros._and_JK_Rowling_vs._RDR_Books 36 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:62005J0306:EN:HTML 37 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:62004J0479:EN:HTML 38 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:62000J0245:EN:HTML 39 http://merlin.obs.coe.int/iris/2006/4/article20.en.html 40 http://merlin.obs.coe.int/iris/2006/4/article20.en.html 41 http://www.wired.com/images_blogs/threatlevel/2009/04/piratebayverdicts.pdf 42 http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/hastlj27&div=45&id=&page= 43 http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/92-1292.ZO.html 44 http://merlin.obs.coe.int/iris/1998/3/article10.en.html


5.16.2 Discussion Question(s)
gomment upon some of the —mendment propos—ls of your ™olle—guesF

5.17 Contributors
„his module w—s ™re—ted ˜y imily gox45 F st w—s then edited ˜y — te—m in™luding ƒe˜—sti—n hi—z46 D ‡illi—m pisher47 D …rs q—sser48 D ed—m roll—nd49 D uim˜erley ss˜ell50 D €eter t—szi51 D golin w—™l—y52 D endrew woshirni—53 D —nd ghris €eterson54 F

45 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#cox 46 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#diaz 47 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#sher 48 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#gasser 49 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#holland 50 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#isbell 51 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#jaszi 52 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#maclay 53 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#moshirnia 54 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#peterson




Chapter 6
Managing Rights

6.1 Module 5: Managing Rights 6.2 Learning objective
„his module des™ri˜es the leg—l rules th—t —'e™t the —˜ility of ™opyright holders to ™olle™t revenue from users of their works ! —nd how li˜r—ri—ns ™—n either use those rules to their ˜est —dv—nt—ge or seek to ™h—nge themF

6.3 Case study
x—di— previously helped engel— identify sever—l items th—t engel— is permitted to in™lude without permission in the p—™ket of ™ourse m—teri—ls she is prep—ring for her studentsF engel— now w—nts x—di—9s help in o˜t—ining permissions for the rem—ining m—teri—lsF ƒpe™i(™—llyD she —sks x—di—X

• ‡h—t —™tivities m—y ˜e ™overed ˜y li™enses the li˜r—ry h—s —lre—dy o˜t—ined from pu˜lishers or ™olle™ting so™ietiesc • por the —™tivities th—t require — sep—r—te li™enseD wh—t ™l—uses should s negoti—tec • row should s h—ndle those m—teri—ls whose —uthors ™—nnot ˜e identi(ed or lo™—tedc

6.4 Lesson 6.5 Individual management

6.5.1 Licenses and Assignments
‚emem˜er th—t — ™opyright gives the ™opyright holder sever—l ex™lusive rights with respe™t to the ™opyrighted workF gopyright holders ™ommonly use licenses to —uthorize other people to eng—ge in the —™tivities ™overed ˜y those rightsF yftenD though not —lw—ysD the ™opyright owner will dem—nd — fee in return for gr—nting su™h — li™enseF e typi™—l li™ense will spe™ify the followingX

• • • •

the —uthorized use @eFgFD reprodu™tionD the prep—r—tion of deriv—tive worksD pu˜li™ perform—n™esAY the dur—tion of the —uthoriz—tion @eFgF one ye—rAY the n—ture of the —uthoriz—tion @eFgF ex™lusive or nonEex™lusiveAY the fee rel—ted to the tr—ns—™tion @eFgF — )—t fee or — fee proportion—l to the num˜er of ™opies or of usesAY

1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m22655/1.4/>.





• the form—t or medi— type @eFgF print only or —lso digit—lY text only or —lso in —nother medi—D su™h —s — re™ording or — (lmAY • the —udien™e —nd lo™—tion @eFgF — p—rti™ul—r ™ountryD the premises of the li˜r—ryD the ™l—ssroomD — dist—n™e le—rning ™ourseAF
ƒometimes the ™opyright holder —nd the prospe™tive li™ensee negoti—te the li™ense dire™tlyF et other timesD — li™ense m—y ˜e o'ered ˜y the ™opyright holder in — st—nd—rd form to —ll potenti—l usersF sn su™h ™ir™umst—n™esD individu—l users m—y h—ve little or no power to negoti—te modi(™—tions of the li™ense termsF ƒome li™enses —re ex™lusiveF sn other wordsD the li™ensor —grees not to permit —ny other p—rty to eng—ge in the —™tivities ™overed ˜y the li™enseF ythers —re nonEex™lusiveD me—ning th—t the li™ensor rem—ins free to permit other p—rties to eng—ge in the s—me —™tivitiesF en assignment o™™urs when — ™opyright holder perm—nently tr—nsfers some or —ll of his ex™lusive rights to —nother p—rtyF por ex—mpleD histori™—lly pu˜lishing ™ontr—™ts for ˜ooks —nd —rti™les h—ve often required the —uthor to —ssign —ll rights to the pu˜lisherF @wore re™entlyD m—ny —uthors h—ve resisted —ssigning the ™opyrights in their works —s p—rt of — pu˜lishing —greementF „he ƒ™hol—rly €u˜lishing 8 e™—demi™ ‚esour™es go—lition @ƒ€e‚gA h—s ™re—ted — model —ddendum for pu˜lishing ™ontr—™ts th—t —llows —uthors to ret—in the ™opyrights to their worksD while li™ensing pu˜lishers to m—ke spe™i(™ uses of those worksF wore inform—tion —˜out the ƒ€e‚g euthor eddendum ™—n ˜e found here2 FA e few ™ountries —llow the —uthors of ™ert—in types of works to 4re™—pture4 the rights —sso™i—ted with — ™opyright th—t h—s ˜een —ssigned or li™ensed —fter — set period of timeD su˜je™t to ™ert—in limit—tionsF „o re™—pture the ™opyrightD the —uthor or her heirs must ™omply with form—l noti™e requirementsF por ex—mpleD …FƒF l—w ™ont—ins two provisions —ddressing the re™—pture of ™opyrightsF @IU …FƒFgF se™tions PHQD QHRFA ‡hen —nd how — ™opyright ™—n ˜e re™—ptured depends upon — num˜er of f—™torsD in™luding when the work w—s ™re—tedD who signed the —greement li™ensing or —ssigning the workD when the —greement w—s signedD —nd whether the work h—s ˜een pu˜lishedF gre—tive gommons h—s ™re—ted — tool3 to help —uthors —nd their heirs determine when or if — ™opyright ™—n ˜e re™—pturedF g—n—d— —nd eustr—li— h—ve re™—pture systems th—t di'er su˜st—nti—lly in their det—ils ˜ut em˜ody the s—me gener—l prin™ipleF felgium —nd ƒweden use — di'erent —ppro—™hY in those ™ountriesD ™ert—in kinds of —ssignments l—pse if the rights th—t h—ve ˜een gr—nted —re not exer™isedF gopyright holders —re gener—lly permitted to divide —nd li™ense the rights to di'erent uses of their work —s they ple—seF roweverD the ™opyright l—ws in some ™ountries limit the freedom of ™ontr—™ting for ™opyrighted works or ™ont—in spe™i(™ provisions regul—ting tr—ns—™tions involving ™opyrighted worksF por inst—n™eD some ™ountries require li™enses or —ssignments to ˜e in writing —nd to des™ri˜e the terms of use spe™i(™—llyD or else the li™ense or —ssignment will ˜e inv—lidF „he degree to whi™h the terms of — li™ense —re negoti—˜le depends on the type of work —t issue —nd the ˜—rg—ining power of the li™ensor —nd li™enseeF €otenti—l li™ensees ™—n sometimes in™re—se their ˜—rg—ining power ˜y —™ting ™olle™tivelyF por ex—mpleD — ™onsortium su™h —s espvFnetD ˜y pooling the resour™es of m—ny li˜r—riesD h—s mu™h more power th—n its individu—l mem˜ersF gli™k here to le—rn more —˜out espvFnet wodel li™enses4 F

6.5.2 Licenses in the Digital Environment
w—ny online —nd ele™troni™ resour™es —re now su˜je™t to ele™troni™ li™ensesF yne ™ommon form of ele™troni™ li™ense is ™—lled — unilateral or shrinkwrap li™ense ˜e™—use it ™omes with pres™ri˜ed terms —nd is r—rely su˜je™t to modi(™—tionF …nil—ter—l li™enses —re most often used ˜y li™ensors of softw—re produ™tsF @„he term 4shrinkwr—p4 ™omes from the pl—sti™ wr—pping often found on softw—re ˜oxesY the origin—l shrinkwr—p li™enses provided th—t removing the wr—pping ™onstituted —™™ept—n™e of the terms of the li™ense printed on the ˜ox or ™ont—ined within itFA „he enfor™e—˜ility of these li™enses will ˜e dis™ussed in more det—il in wodule
2 http://www.arl.org/sparc/author/addendum.shtml 3 http://labs.creativecommons.org/demos/termination/ 4 http://www.ei.net/faq/ei-licensing

SI W5 F enother ™ommon form is ™—lled —n endEuser li™ense —greement @i…veA or browsewrap li™enseF i…ves —re frequently used ˜y the li™ensors of online ™ontentF i…ves —llow prospe™tive li™ensees to re—d the terms of the li™ense on the li™ensor9s we˜siteF sf they de™ide they w—nt to use the li™ensor9s produ™t or servi™eD they enter into the li™ense ˜y ™li™king on — ˜utton st—ting s egreeF ƒome li™enses do not even require — ™li™k @the ele™troni™ m—nifest—tion of — sign—tureAD ˜ut inste—d presume th—t use of the li™ensor9s we˜site is su0™ient to demonstr—te — t—™it —™™ept—n™e —nd thus form — li™enseF ƒhrinkwr—p li™enses —nd i…ves —re often limited to the spe™i(™ user of the m—teri—lD —nd do not extend to —n org—niz—tion of whi™h the user m—y ˜e — mem˜erF foth shrinkwr—p li™enses —nd i…ves ™ont—in preEset termsD —nd —re —lmost —lw—ys nonEnegoti—˜leF ‡hile m—ny leg—l systems h—ve not fully —ddressed the e'e™t of these types of li™ensesD ™ourts in some ™ountries h—ve ruled th—t — v—lid ™onsentD giving rise to — ˜inding ™ontr—™tsD ™—n ˜e formed in these f—shionsF sn most ™ountriesD howeverD the terms of su™h —greements will ˜e su˜je™t to ™onsumer prote™tion l—ws —nd other limit—tions on un™ons™ion—˜le provisionsF

6.5.3 Content of a Typical License: The Example Of an Online Database
vet9s now ex—mine the terms of li™ense more ™loselyF sm—gine th—t you —re — li˜r—ri—n negoti—ting the terms of — li™ense ! for ex—mpleD to —n online d—t—˜—seF ‡h—t issues will or should the li™ense —ddressc Identication of the Parties to the Agreement

st is import—nt not only to identify the p—rties to —n —greementD ˜ut —lso to ™on(rm th—t the persons negoti—ting —™tu—lly h—ve the leg—l —uthority to m—ke —greements on ˜eh—lf of their org—niz—tionF sf — li˜r—ry is p—rt of —n edu™—tion—l institution or is funded ˜y the lo™—l governmentD for ex—mpleD not every li˜r—ri—n m—y h—ve this —uthorityF e li™ensor might w—nt proof th—t the person ™l—iming to negoti—te on ˜eh—lf of the li™ensee is in f—™t permitted to ˜ind the li™ensee ˜y ™ontr—™tF „he li˜r—ri—n might w—nt to m—ke sure the s—me is true of the person negoti—ting on ˜eh—lf of the li™ensorD —nd th—t the li™ensor is entitled to exer™ise the rights of the ™opyright holderF „his should ˜e ™le—rly —ddressed —nd in™luded in the —greementF Denition of Terms That Will Be Used in the Agreement

fe™—use li˜r—ries often o˜t—in li™enses from ™opyright holders from other ™ountries —nd from v—rious indusE triesD simil—r terms ™—n h—ve di'erent me—nings to the negoti—ting p—rtiesF por ex—mpleD one import—nt term in li™ensing —greements is material breach. e m—teri—l ˜re—™h is —n —™tion ˜y one of the p—rties to — li™ensing —greement th—t permits the other p—rty to termin—te the ™ontr—™tu—l rel—tionshipF fe™—use of the import—n™e —nd —m˜iguity of this termD the li˜r—ri—n should spe™ify in the —greement wh—t —™tions ˜y — e—™h p—rty would —mount to — m—teri—l ˜re—™hF por inst—n™eD suppose the li˜r—ry were to negoti—te — li™ense to —™™ess m—teri—ls from —n online d—t—˜—seF sn this ™—seD it might ˜e — m—teri—l ˜re—™h if the d—t—˜—se is in—™™essi˜le for long periods of timeF vikewiseD the st—' should ™onsider wh—t potenti—l f—ilures ˜y the li˜r—ry to live up to its end of — li™ensing —greement might legitim—tely ˜e ™onsidered m—teri—l ˜re—™hesF Subject of Agreement

€—rties to —n —greement should ˜e very spe™i(™ —˜out wh—t ™opyrighted work is ˜eing li™ensedF sf it9s —n online rese—r™h d—t—˜—seD for ex—mpleD — li™ensee should m—ke sure th—t the li™ense entitles p—trons to view the full text of —rti™lesD r—ther th—n just —˜str—™ts or summ—riesF sf the resour™e is something th—t should ™ont—in — t—˜le of ™ontentsD index or im—gesD the li™ensee should ensure th—t these —re in™luded in the li™ense —s wellF sf there —re im—gesD one might even w—nt to determine whether they will ˜e view—˜le —ndGor print—˜le in ˜l—™k —nd white or ™olorF
5 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_9:_Activism

SP Use Rights in the Agreement



vi™ensing —greements often ™ont—in ™l—uses th—t reserve to the li™ensor the ex™lusive right to —ll uses of ™opyrighted works th—t —re not spe™i(™—lly mentioned in the —greementF e li™ensee should therefore think of —ll possi˜le uses th—t it might w—nt to m—ke of — ™opyrighted work ˜efore it eng—ges in negoti—tionsF „hese use rights provisions —re the most import—nt p—rt of — li™ensing —greement ˜e™—use they ™ontrol wh—t the —greement —™tu—lly —llows the li™ensee to doF ‡here —n ele™troni™ resour™e is ™on™ernedD some ˜—si™ use rights might in™ludeX se—r™hing or ˜rowsing the d—t—˜—seD viewing —nd downlo—ding m—teri—lD forw—rding —rti™les to othersD printing m—teri—lsD —nd in™luding — listing of the works —nd possi˜ly their —˜str—™ts in the li˜r—ry9s own ™—t—logueF e li˜r—ry th—t is —0li—ted with —n edu™—tion—l institution m—y —lso w—nt to m—ke sure th—t — li™ense —llows f—™ulty —nd st—' to pl—™e m—teri—ls in ele™troni™ reservesD in™lude them in ™ourse p—™ksD —nd distri˜ute —ndGor displ—y portions of the m—teri—ls in le™tures or other spe—king eng—gementsF purtherD while the pr—™ti™e of lo—ning m—teri—ls to other li˜r—ries or sh—ring — re—son—˜le —mount of m—teri—ls with ™olle—gues for s™hol—rly purposes is implied in some jurisdi™tions ˜y l—wD — li™ensee ™—nnot norm—lly sh—re ™opyrighted m—teri—ls for ™ommer™i—l purposesF sf — li™ensee wishes to do soD it will h—ve to negoti—te for the right —nd in™lude it in the —greementF sf modifying — work in order to —˜ide ˜y lo™—l norms is ne™ess—ryD — li˜r—ry should m—ke sure th—t the modi(™—tion does not ™on)i™t with the —uthor9s mor—l rightsF yn one (n—l issueD the li™ensee should ˜e espe™i—lly ™—refulF w—ny li™ense —greements h—ve the e'e™t of displ—™ing the gener—l set of ex™eptions —nd limit—tions @dis™ussed —t length in wodule R6 A pert—ining to the works ™overed ˜y the li™enseF „husD the li™ensee should not —ssume th—t it will ™ontinue to enjoy the use rights ™re—ted ˜y those ex™eptions —nd limit—tionsF sf the li™ense wishes to ret—in themD it must insist upon in™lusion in the li™ense —greement of — provision preserving those rightsF Other Conditions on Licensed Uses

e li™ensor might w—nt to limit ™ert—in uses ˜y lo™—tion or frequen™y of —™™essF sn return for the right to unlimited printing of the ™opyrighted m—teri—lD for ex—mpleD — li™ensor might w—nt —ddition—l ™ompens—tionF sn this eventD — li™ensee ™—n negoti—te for the right to ™h—rge its p—trons fees to re™over ™opying or printing ™ostsF e li˜r—ry should —lso determine who its users —re going to ˜e —nd where they will ˜e —˜le to —™™ess — given resour™eF por ex—mpleD it m—y wish its users to ˜e —˜le to —™™ess the ™opyrighted m—teri—l from —ny ™omputer or only from ™omputers lo™—ted in the li˜r—ryF st should —lso de™ide whether —™™ess to the ™opyrighted m—teri—l or ™ert—in uses of it will require — p—ssword or will ˜e open to —ny mem˜er of the pu˜li™F Licensor Obligations

vi™ensor o˜lig—tions —re the duties — li™ensor h—s to her li™enseeF „his ™l—use is p—rti™ul—rly import—nt for ele™troni™ resour™esF por inst—n™eD it is re—son—˜le for — su˜s™ri˜er to —n online journ—lD d—t—˜—se or other resour™e to expe™t th—t the m—teri—l will ˜e —™™essi˜le very ™lose to PR hours — d—yD every d—yF ‡here — li˜r—ry h—s — softw—re li™enseD it might w—nt to negoti—te for the right to m—int—in — ˜—™kEup ™opy of the progr—mF sn either ™—seD li™ensing —greements for ele™troni™ m—teri—ls typi™—lly in™lude some o˜lig—tion on the p—rt of the li™ensor to provide the li™ensee with te™hni™—l supportF fe™—use — li™ensor —nd its te™hni™—l support st—' might ˜e lo™—ted in —nother ™ountryD — li™ensee should m—ke sure th—t te™hni™—l support will ˜e —v—il—˜le during the li˜r—ry9s pe—k hoursF yn — rel—ted noteD most online resour™es h—ve periods of downtime during whi™h the li™ensor9s te™hni™—l st—' will upd—te the online m—teri—lsF e li™ensee might w—nt to ensure th—t this is not norm—lly done during the li˜r—ry9s pe—k hoursF ‡hen —n online servi™e or other ele™troni™ resour™e is un—v—il—˜le for — signi(™—nt period of timeD li™ensing —greements typi™—lly in™lude — pen—lty ™l—use th—t requires the li™ensor to p—rti—lly refund the li™ensee9s su˜s™ription feeF
6 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_4:_Rights,_Exceptions,_and_Limitations

SQ yften li™ensors —re o˜lig—ted to provide the li™ensee periodi™—lly with —n 4—udit of useF4 en —udit of use is — report th—t gives the li™ensee det—ils —˜out how its p—trons —re using the li™ensor9s progr—m or d—t—˜—seF ƒu™h use —udits ™—n help li˜r—ry st—' mem˜ers in future li™ensing negoti—tionsD en—˜ling them to determine ˜etter whi™h fe—tures —nd uses of li™ensed m—teri—ls —re most v—lu—˜le to the li˜r—ry p—tronsF ‡here use —udits —re performedD the p—rties might —lso w—nt to in™lude refunds to the li™ensee for periods of underuse —nd —ddition—l fees to the li™ensor for periods of overuseF v—stlyD — li™ensee should m—ke sure th—t the li™ense ™ont—ins — warranty —nd —n indemnity clause. „he e'e™t of these ™l—uses is th—t the li™ensor gu—r—ntees th—t it h—s the —uthority to gr—nt the rights ™ont—ined in the li™ense —nd —™™epts li—˜ility for —ny ™l—ims m—de ˜y persons or org—niz—tions th—t l—ter ™l—im to h—ve in™onsistent rightsF Term, Termination and Renewal of a License

xegoti—ting p—rties should spe™ify how long they intend the li™ense to l—stF sf the li˜r—ry wishes to h—ve —™™ess — d—t—˜—se perpetu—llyD for ex—mpleD it should ˜e sure to insert su™h — term in the li™ense —greementF es dis™ussed e—rlierD the p—rties should —lso list —ll of the ™onditions th—t would le—d to — termin—tion of the li™ensing rel—tionshipF „his might require the p—rties to ™re—te —n endEofEterm —greementD whi™h spe™i(es the pro™edures th—t will ˜e followed in the event of termin—tionD in™luding the ™osts th—t m—y ˜e re™overed ˜y either p—rtyF sf —n —greement is termin—ted ˜e™—use of the li™ensor9s f—ilure to m—ke the li™ensed m—teri—l —v—il—˜le to the li™enseeD for ex—mpleD the p—rties will w—nt to ™re—te — formul— to ™ompens—te the li™enseeF ‡hile most li™ensing —greements ™ont—in — provision th—t provides for —utom—ti™ renew—l of the li™ensing rel—tionshipD m—ny do not gu—r—ntee th—t the s—me terms will ˜e —v—il—˜le for the following su˜s™ription periodF e li™ensee should m—ke sure th—tD if the terms of the previous su˜s™ription period —re su˜je™t to ™h—ngeD the renew—l ™l—use in™ludes —n o˜lig—tion on the p—rt of the li™ensor to notify the li™ensee of these ™h—nges in —dv—n™e of the new su˜s™ription periodF pin—llyD it is ™ru™i—l to dis™uss the li˜r—ry9s rights if the li™ense is not renewedF por ex—mpleD if the li™ense pert—ins to — ™olle™tion of —™—demi™ journ—lsD will the li˜r—ry ™ontinue to h—ve —™™ess to ˜—™k issues of the journ—lsD or will —ll —™™ess to those journ—ls ˜e ™ut o'c sf the l—tter ! —nd if the li™ensor refuses to ˜udge on this issue ! the li˜r—ry might seriously ™onsider ™ontinuing to —™quire p—per versions of the journ—ls inste—d of @orD ™on™eiv—˜lyD in —ddition toA su˜s™ri˜ing to the online versionF Fees

pees for su˜s™riptions to journ—lsD online d—t—˜—ses or other resour™es —re typi™—lly p—id on —n —nnu—l or monthly ˜—sisF ‡hen works —re ˜eing li™ensed to li˜r—ries or other l—rge edu™—tion—l institutionsD li™ensors typi™—lly t—ke into —™™ount the size of the institutionD the num˜er of usersD —nd the num˜er of p—ges th—t —re downlo—ded when determining the —ppropri—te su˜s™ription feeF vi™ensors of online journ—ls —nd ele™troni™ d—t—˜—ses v—ry widely in their )exi˜ility reg—rding fee —rE r—ngementsF ƒome li™ensors —re willing to negoti—te feesD others o'er v—rious p—™k—gesD —nd others o'er only one —rr—ngementF e su˜s™ription fee ™ould in™lude unlimited use of the li™ensor9s m—teri—lsD limited use for p—rti™ul—r purposeD — p—yEperEuse —rr—ngementD or — ™om˜in—tion of theseF €—yEperEuse —rr—ngements might set — fee for e—™h logEon —™™essD e—™h time — user se—r™hes for ™ontentD or might —llow unlimited —™™ess ˜ut ™h—rge users or su˜s™ri˜ing institutions for e—™h downlo—dF …niversities often pur™h—se wh—t is ™—lled — site licenseD whi™h gives —ll the mem˜ers of the university ™ommunity —™™ess to the m—teri—l for — set feeF

6.6 Collective Management

6.6.1 Purpose and Functions of Collective Management Organizations
„he system of individu—l li™enses des™ri˜ed in the previous se™tion is str—ightforw—rdX the ™opyright holder —uthorizes the use of the work ˜y — spe™i(™ li™ensee under spe™i(ed ™onditionsF roweverD ˜e™—use ™opyright li™ensing often involves widely distri˜uted worksD individu—l li™ensing ™—n ˜e™ome ˜oth very di0™ult —nd




prohi˜itively expensiveF st would not ˜e pr—™ti™—lD for ex—mpleD for the holder of the ™opyright to — popul—r song to —ttempt to respond to thous—nds of li™ensing requests from r—dio st—tions —ll over the worldF es — resultD ™opyright holders frequently —llow collective management organizations @—lso known —s ™olle™ting so™ietiesA to gr—nt li™ensesD monitor uses of ™opyrighted m—teri—lD —nd ™olle™t —nd sh—re ™omE pens—tion from li™ensees on their ˜eh—lfF „his —llows ™opyright holders to exer™ise their rights —s e0™iently —s possi˜leD —s they ™—n gr—nt m—ny more li™enses th—n they would ˜e —˜le to under — dire™t li™ensing sysE temF „hey —lso ˜ene(t from the ˜—rg—ining power of —n org—niz—tion th—t negoti—tes p—yments on ˜eh—lf of them —nd m—ny other —uthorsD —nd ™—n ˜ring infringement suits —g—inst persons or org—niz—tions th—t use ™opyrighted works without permissionF vi™ensees ™—n —lso ˜ene(t from the use of ™olle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tions ˜e™—use those org—niz—tions provide users with ™onvenient —™™ess to l—rge ™olle™tions of m—teri—lsF e r—dio st—tion w—nting to ˜ro—d™—st musi™ from —round the world on — d—ily ˜—sis would not ˜e —˜le to do so if it h—d to seek out —nd —™quire rights from the ™opyright —nd neigh˜oring rights holders of e—™h songD ˜ut ™—n e—sily enter into li™enses with — sm—ll num˜er of ™olle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tionsF roweverD li™ensees should ˜e—r in mind th—t most su™h org—niz—tions —™t —s —gents for ™opyright holdersY their prim—ry o˜je™tive is to m—ximize the ™opyright holders9 revenuesF „hey should thus not ˜e thought of —s neutr—l —r˜itersF e ™opyright holder th—t uses — ™olle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tion for someD ˜ut not —llD of her rights is eng—ged in p—rti—l ™olle™tive m—n—gementF eg—inD — ™opyright holder9s ex™lusive rights in — work me—ns th—t he or she —lone is —˜le to de™ide whether to —uthorize or prohi˜it —ny use ™overed ˜y th—t ™opyrightF sn prin™ipleD this gives — ™opyright holder )exi˜ility in de™idingD if he ™hooses to use ™olle™tive m—n—gement —t —llD ex—™tly whi™h fun™tions — ™olle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tion will perform on his ˜eh—lfF sn pr—™ti™eD howeverD some ™olle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tions require — p—rti™ip—ting ™opyright holder to —ssign —ll of his rights in — ™opyrighted work to the org—niz—tionF sn these situ—tionsD the —uthor will not ˜e —˜le to li™ense others to use the ™opyrighted workD ex™ept through the ™olle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tionF golle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tions m—y —lso provide so™i—l welf—re ˜ene(ts to their mem˜ers in —ddition to their roy—lty p—ymentsD su™h —s medi™—l insur—n™e —nd retirement p—™k—gesF „hey m—y —lso use p—rt of the roy—lties they ™olle™t to fund dr—m— festiv—lsD musi™ ™ompetitionsD or the produ™tion or export of n—tion—l worksF

6.6.2 Compulsory Collective Management
gompulsory ™olle™tive m—n—gement systems ensure th—t the ˜ene(ts of ™olle™tive m—n—gement —re —™tu—lly re—lizedF sf — ™olle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tion does not h—ve the rights to — signi(™—nt num˜er of works within its p—rti™ul—r (eldD then it no longer serves the so™i—lly v—lu—˜le purpose of ˜eing —˜le to li™ense — l—rge repertoire in — single —greementF es — resultD some ™ountries ™hoose to m—ke ™olle™tive m—n—gement for ™ert—in types of works m—nd—toryF „his often h—ppens where — use serves —n import—nt pu˜li™ purpose or where works of th—t type —re used prim—rily for nonE™ommer™i—l purposesF sn su™h situ—tionsD roy—lties —re usu—lly g—thered either through — t—x on ™opying equipmentD or through — predetermined fee to ˜e p—id ˜y users @su™h —s ™omp—niesD li˜r—riesD or universitiesA to the ™olle™ting so™ietyF „hose roy—lties —re then divided —mong the ™opyright holders —™™ording to how frequently e—™h work is usedF golle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tions ! —nd ™ompulsory ™olle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tions in p—rti™ul—r ! —re sometimes ™riti™ized for the ™omplexity —nd l—™k of tr—nsp—ren™y of the rules they employ for ™olle™ting —nd distri˜uting roy—ltiesF „he —re—s in whi™h ™ompulsory ™olle™tive m—n—gement is most ™ommon —reX

• neigh˜oring rights for pu˜li™ perform—n™eD ˜ro—d™—stingD —nd ™—˜le tr—nsmission of sound re™ordingsF • pu˜li™ lending rights • reprogr—phi™ reprodu™tion rights for liter—ry worksF
„he se™ond —nd third of these ™ontexts —re espe™i—lly import—nt for li˜r—riesF €u˜li™ lending rights were dis™ussed —t length in wodule R7 F es w—s des™ri˜ed thereD pu˜li™ lending rights —re ™urrently re™ognized in
7 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_4:_Rights%2C_Exceptions%2C_and_Limitations

SS very few ™ountries outside iuropeD —nd they pose d—ngers to the ™entr—l mission of li˜r—ries in developing ™ountriesF golle™tive m—n—gement of su™h rightsD p—rti™ul—rly if the li™ense fees —re p—id ˜y the governmentD redu™e those d—ngersD ˜ut it is pro˜—˜ly ˜est if pu˜li™ lending rights —re not extended to developing ™ountries —t —llF ‚eprodu™tion rightsD ˜y ™ontr—stD —re re™ognized in —ll ™ountriesF golle™tive m—n—gement of those rights ™—n ˜e ˜ene(™i—lD espe™i—lly for li˜r—riesD whi™h would (nd it di0™ult to negoti—te individu—l li™enses for —ll of the ™ir™umst—n™es in whi™h they would like to reprodu™e m—teri—ls in their ™olle™tions ! —nd —re not —˜le to invoke one of the ex™eptions or limit—tions dis™ussed in wodule R8 F „he org—niz—tions th—t ful(ll this fun™tion —re ™ommonly ™—lled ‚eprodu™tion ‚ights yrg—niz—tions @‚‚ysAF „heir —™tivities —re dis™ussed in det—il in the r—nd˜ook on gopyright —nd ‚el—ted sssues for vi˜r—ries prep—red ˜y espv9 F ƒome reformers h—ve proposed using ™ompulsory ™olle™tive m—n—gement to de—l with the distri˜ution of works on the snternet through peerEtoEpeer networksD —rguing th—t su™h — system would ˜ene(t ˜oth users @˜y leg—lizing (leEsh—ring of ™opyrighted m—teri—l ‘™urrently unl—wful in most ™ountries“A —nd ™re—tors @˜y providing them with — reli—˜le sour™e of revenueAF en import—nt —nd often —ttr—™tive v—ri—tion on the ™ompulsoryE™olle™tiveEm—n—gement model is known —s 4extended ™olle™tive m—n—gementF4 e system of this sort —llows —n org—niz—tion to li™ense the works of —ll ™opyright holders for — ™ert—in ™re—tive ™l—ss on™e it represents — l—rge per™ent—ge of the mem˜ers of th—t ™l—ssF „his gener—lly in™ludes foreign —nd nonEmem˜er ™opyright holdersF golle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tions often enter into —greements with their sister org—niz—tions in other ™ountries in order to represent their repertoiresF ƒometimes su™h org—niz—tions —re —lso org—nized into interE n—tion—l networksF ix—mples in™lude the sntern—tion—l gonfeder—tion of ƒo™ieties of euthors —nd gomposers @gsƒegA —nd the sntern—tion—l peder—tion of ‚eprogr—phi™ ‚eprodu™tion yrg—nis—tions @sp‚‚yAF „hese networks typi™—lly p—rti™ip—te —™tively in negoti—tion of new ™opyright legisl—tion —t the intern—tion—l —nd n—tion—l levelsF

6.7 Technological Protection Measures
sn re™ent ye—rsD the holders of the ™opyrights in works th—t —re distri˜uted in digit—l form—t ! su™h —s softw—reD digit—l sound re™ordingsD digit—l video re™ordingsD —nd ele™troni™ ˜ooks ! h—ve ˜e™ome in™re—singly diss—tis(ed with the rights th—t ™opyright l—w gives them —nd h—ve sought to enh—n™e those rights with Technological Protection MeasuresD or „€wsF e simple form of „€w is — ™opy ™ontrol ! — te™hnologyD often ™om˜ining h—rdw—re —nd softw—reD th—t prevents the possessor of — ™opy of the work from reprodu™ing itF e more ™omplex form is — region ™ontrol ! for ex—mpleD — me™h—nism th—t restri™ts the p—rts of the world in whi™h — p—rti™ul—r h†h ™—n ˜e pl—yedF wu™h more el—˜or—te forms of „€ws h—ve ˜een developed re™entlyF „he invention of „€ws enh—n™ed the rights of ™opyright holders signi(™—ntlyF fut soon they found th—t users employed other te™hnologies to ™ir™umvent the „€wsD rendering them uselessF „o ™ur˜ su™h ™ir™umE ventionsD they turned on™e —g—in to the leg—l systemF sn the IWWT ‡g„D they o˜t—ined —n import—nt we—ponX — requirement th—t —ll mem˜er ™ountries —dopt prohi˜itions on „€w ™ir™umventionF „he requirement h—s sin™e ˜een reinfor™ed ˜y region—l —greementsF por ex—mpleD ˜oth the PHHI i… snform—tion ƒo™iety hire™tive —nd the revised f—ngui egreement @ennex †ssD „itle sD €—rt piveAD whi™h governs IS fr—n™ophone ™ountries in efri™—D ™ont—in —ntiE™ir™umvention requirementsF w—ny ™ountries th—t —re ˜ound ˜y one or —nother of these —greements h—ve now in™orpor—ted into their n—tion—l l—ws prohi˜itions on ™ir™umvention of „€wsF „he terms of those provisions v—ry widely ! espe™i—lly with reg—rd to the pen—lties they impose on viol—tors —nd with reg—rd to ex™eptions they re™ognizeF gurE rentlyD PT ™ountries h—ve provisions spe™i(™—lly exempting li˜r—ries from li—˜ility if they ™ir™umvent „€ws in spe™i(ed ™ir™umst—n™esF sn other ™ountriesD li˜r—ri—ns —re for™ed to rely upon more gener—l exemptionsF „€wƒ —nd the —ntiE™ir™umvention rules th—t reinfor™e them h—ve m—ny dis—dv—nt—gesD ˜oth from the st—ndpoint of li˜r—ries —nd from the st—ndpoint of so™iety —t l—rgeX
8 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_4:_Rights%2C_Exceptions%2C_and_Limitations 9 http://www.ei.net/cps/sections/services/ei-ip/issues/handbook/handbook-e/#crm




• „hey prevent m—ny —™tivities th—t ™opyright l—w would permitF es — resultD they frustr—te the import—nt so™i—l poli™ies th—t lie ˜ehind the ex™eptions —nd limit—tions dis™ussed in wodule R10 • fe™—use „€ws —re often propriet—ryD they impede the interoper—˜ility of ™re—tive works —nd ™onsumer ele™troni™ produ™ts o˜t—ined from di'erent sour™es • ‡hen the te™hnologies in whi™h they —re em˜edded ˜e™ome o˜soleteD they frustr—te users9 —˜ility to g—in —™™ess to the prote™ted works
wore extensive dis™ussion of „€ws —nd the h—z—rds they pose to li˜r—ries m—y ˜e found in the espv r—nd˜ook on gopyright —nd ‚el—ted sssues for vi˜r—ries11 F

6.8 Orphan Works
ƒometimes — li™ensee would like to o˜t—in — li™ense to — p—rti™ul—r work ˜ut ™—nnot lo™—te the ™opyright holderF „his m—y o™™ur for v—rious re—sonsF „he n—me of the —uthor m—y ˜e missing from the do™umentF „he do™ument m—y h—ve ˜een pu˜lished —nonymouslyF „he —uthor m—y h—ve died —nd the person who inherited his or her rights m—y ˜e unknownF yr the —uthor m—y h—ve —ssigned his or her rights to — pu˜lisherD whi™h l—ter went out of ˜usiness without — ™le—r su™™essorF sn su™h situ—tionsD the work is s—id to ˜e —n orphan work. e sm—ll num˜er of ™ountries h—ve implemented systems th—t m—ke it possi˜le to m—ke use of orph—n worksF por ex—mpleD in g—n—d—D those who wish to use su™h works must —pply to the gopyright fo—rd for — li™enseF ƒu™h —ppli™—nts must (rst show th—t — re—son—˜le e'ort to lo™—te the ™opyright holder h—s ˜een fruitlessF sf the work h—d previously ˜een pu˜lishedD the gopyright fo—rd will then gr—nt the —ppli™—nt — nonEex™lusive li™ense @e'e™tive only within g—n—d—A to use the workF „he li™ense is limited to p—rti™ul—r types of usesD —nd requires the —ppli™—nt to p—y — design—ted roy—lty feeF „his roy—lty ™—n ˜e ™l—imed ˜y the ™opyright holder for up to (ve ye—rs —fter the tr—ns—™tionD in the event th—t she l—ter ™omes forthF „he xordi™ ™ountries of henm—rkD pinl—ndD s™el—ndD xorw—yD —nd ƒweden h—ve —lso en—™ted st—tutes governing the li™ensing of orph—n worksF sn henm—rkD for ex—mpleD the li™ensing of orph—n works is —rr—nged through — ™olle™tive m—n—gement org—niz—tionF „he h—nish gopyright e™t provides th—t —n individu—l interested in using —n orph—n work m—y —rr—nge to p—y — rights m—n—gement org—niz—tion for th—t useD provided th—t the org—niz—tion represents — su˜st—nti—l num˜er of h—nish ™opyright holdersF „he roy—lties p—id to these org—niz—tions m—y ˜e ™l—imed ˜y — ™opyright holder for up to (ve ye—rsD —nd un™l—imed roy—lties for orph—n works —re don—ted to pu˜li™ works progr—msF enother ™ountry th—t implements — li™ensing regime for the use of orph—n works is t—p—nD whi™h oper—tes — ™ompulsory li™ensing system for orph—n works ™odi(ed in ƒe™tion VD erti™le TU of its ™opyright l—wsF t—p—n requires th—t — prospe™tive user perform due diligen™e in —ttempting to lo™—te the ™opyright holderD ˜ut does not expl—in wh—t qu—li(es —s due diligen™eF vike g—n—d—D t—p—n requires th—t the work h—ve ˜een previously pu˜lishedD —nd —llows the government to gr—nt — li™ense to the user upon p—yment of — roy—ltyF ‚oy—lties —re pl—™ed in — fund from whi™h ™opyright holders m—y re™eive ™ompens—tion if they l—ter dis™over —nd o˜je™t to the use of their worksF xot—˜lyD the holder m—y petition the government for —n in™re—se in the roy—lty r—te within three months of the issu—n™e of the li™ense if she le—rns of the use —nd ˜elieves the initi—l r—te to ˜e uns—tisf—™toryF yther ™ountries do not ™urrently h—ve st—tutory provisions de—ling with orph—n worksD ˜ut m—y en—™t su™h provisions in the ne—r futureF emeri™—n legisl—tion12 de—ling with orph—n works is ™urrently ˜eing ™onsidered ˜y the …FƒF gongressF „he propos—l would limit remedies in ™ivil suits over the use of ™opyrighted worksD —s long —sX @IA the user h—d m—de re—son—˜leD ˜ut unsu™™essfulD e'orts to lo™—te —nd identify the holderD —nd @PA the work w—s —ttri˜uted to the holder @if identi(ed ˜ut not lo™—tedAF „he propos—l h—s ˜een ™riti™ized ˜y m—ny s™hol—rs13 —nd is opposed ˜y represent—tives of photogr—phersF €—rtly —s — resultD it is unlikely to ˜e —dopted soonF
10 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_4:_Rights%2C_Exceptions%2C_and_Limitations 11 http://www.ei.net/cps/sections/services/ei-ip/issues/handbook/handbook-e/#tpm 12 http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s110-2913 13 http://lessig.org/blog/2007/02/copyright_policy_orphan_works.html

SU sn epril PHHVD the iurope—n gommission9s righ vevel ixpert qroup pu˜lished — report on higit—l €reserv—tionD yrph—n ‡orksD —nd yutEofE€rint ‡orks14 D whi™h re™ommended ™ourses of —™tion for mem˜er st—tes of the iurope—n …nion to est—˜lish li™ensing systems th—t would de—l with the pro˜lem of orph—n worksF et the s—me timeD numerous rights holders —nd represent—tives of li˜r—ries —nd —r™hives signed — wemor—ndum of …nderst—nding on orph—n works15 whi™h expressed the ™ommitment of these org—niz—tions to f—™ilit—te —nd en™our—ge the li™ensing of orph—n works for ™ert—in purposesF „he wemor—ndum of …nderst—nding —nd the iurope—n gommission9s report —re not l—w —nd —re therefore not ˜indingF vi˜r—ri—ns in the m—jority of ™ountries th—t ™urrently l—™k — system for m—n—ging orph—n works h—ve — strong interest in ™oll—˜or—ting with other st—keholders to ™re—te su™h — systemF „his is espe™i—lly true of li˜r—ri—ns who wish to initi—te digitiz—tion proje™ts for the preserv—tion —nd distri˜ution of older works in deterior—tingD nonEdigit—l form—tsF elthough the ex™eptions —nd limit—tions dis™ussed in wodule R16 m—y permit li˜r—ries to undert—ke su™h digitiz—tion proje™ts purely for preserv—tion purposesD they typi™—lly do not permit the li˜r—ries to m—ke the digitized works —v—il—˜le to the pu˜li™F por th—tD the li˜r—ries usu—lly need li™ensesD whi™h —re impossi˜le to o˜t—in for orph—n worksF pinding — work—˜le —nd f—ir solution is thus imper—tiveF por — dis™ussion of this issueD —nd the positions th—t v—rious li˜r—ry org—niz—tions h—ve —lre—dy t—ken on itD see the espv r—nd˜ook on gopyright —nd ‚el—ted sssues for vi˜r—ries17 F

6.9 Back to the case study
x—di— —nd engel— h—ve identi(ed works th—t engel— wishes to use th—t —re ™opyrighted —nd not in the pu˜li™ dom—inF „hey need to get permission from the rightsholders for uses th—t —re not ™overed ˜y ex™eptions —nd limit—tionsF pirstD they h—ve to identify the ™opyright holdersF yrigin—l —uthors m—y h—ve li™ensed or tr—nsferred rights to — pu˜lisher or — ™olle™ting so™ietyD or the ™re—tion m—y ˜e — workEforEhireF por the re—sons explored in wodule Q18 D other persons9 rights m—y —lso ˜e involvedD su™h —s musi™ performersD or persons depi™ted in photogr—phs @who —re prote™ted ˜y the right of pu˜li™ity —g—inst ™ert—in uses of their im—geAD in —ddition to the photogr—pher or entity who owns the ™opyrightF ‡hen the ™ont—™t inform—tion for the ™opyright holder is not —v—il—˜le on the workD it might ˜e possi˜le to lo™—te the holder though n—tion—l ™opyright o0™es or ™olle™tive rights org—niz—tionsF yn™e they h—ve identi(ed —nd lo™—ted the rightsholdersD x—di— —nd engel— will request permission to use the worksF ‡hile — (rst ™ont—™t ˜y em—il or phone ™—n ˜e useful to expl—in the use they —re ™onsideringD they will likely ˜e required to follow up with — request in writing th—t des™ri˜es —™™ur—tely the ™opyrighted work @titleD —uthorD ™opyright holderD …‚vAD the purpose of the use @— des™ription of the use in the ™ourse p—™kAD —nd the ™onditions of the permission th—t h—ve ˜een dis™ussed @for — sm—ll feeD for freeD et™FAF sf the de™ide to seek — ˜ro—d li™ense to — d—t—˜—se ™ont—ining the works —t issueD they should ™—refully review the guidelines for the negoti—tion of su™h li™enses set forth in this moduleF pin—llyD if they —re un—˜le to identify the owners of the ™opyrights in some of the m—teri—lsD they should ™onsult their ™ountry9s ™opyright l—w to —s™ert—in whether it ™ont—ins — provision de—ling with 4orph—n worksF4

6.10 Additional Resources
e ˜rief overview of ™olle™tive li™ensing systems ˜y ‡s€y ™—n ˜e found in golle™tive w—n—gement of gopyE rights —nd ‚el—ted ‚ights 19 F
14 http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/digital_libraries/experts/hleg/index_en.htm 15 http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/digital_libraries/doc/hleg/orphan/mou.pdf 16 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_4:_Rights%2C_Exceptions%2C_and_Limitations 17 http://www.ei.net/cps/sections/services/ei-ip/issues/handbook/handbook-e/#orphan 18 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_3:_The_Scope_of_Copyright_Law 19 http://www.wipo.int/freepublications/en/copyright/450/wipo_pub_l450cm.pdf




e mu™h more inEdepth —n—lysis of volunt—ry ™olle™tive rights org—niz—tions m—y ˜e found in ‚o˜ert wergesD 4gontr—™ting snto vi—˜ility ‚ulesX sntelle™tu—l €roperty ‚ights —nd golle™tive ‚ights yrg—niz—E tions20 D4 VR g—lifF vF ‚evFIPWQ @IWWTAF e thorough ex—min—tion of ™olle™tive li™ensing org—niz—tions in iurope is uie ƒtudyE golle™tive w—nE —gement of ‚ights in iuropeX e uest for i0™ien™y21 @PHHTAF p—vor—˜le dis™ussions of ™ompulsory ™olle™tive li™ensingD p—rti™ul—rly —s — solution to the pro˜lem of peerEtoEpeer (lesh—ring of ™opyrighted worksD m—y ˜e found in xeil xet—nelD 4smpose — xon™ommer™i—l …se vevy to ellow pree €eerEtoE€eer pile ƒh—ringD422 IU r—rv—rd tourn—l of v—w 8 „e™hnology I @PHHQAD —nd ‡illi—m pisherD €romises to ueepX „e™hnologyD v—wD —nd the puture of intert—inment23 @PHHRAF wu™h more skepti™—l views —re expressed in ‚o˜ert wergesD 4gompulsory vi™ensing vsF the „hree 4qolden yldies4 €roperty ‚ightsD gontr—™tsD —nd w—rkets424 @g—to €oli™y en—lysis xoF SHVD t—nF ISD PHHRAF e thoughtful —n—lysis of the —dv—nt—ges —nd dis—dv—nt—ges of ™olle™tive li™ensing systems in t—p—n is ƒ—lil uF wehr—D 4„he i€od „—xX ‡hy the higit—l gopyright ƒystem of emeri™—n v—w €rofessors9 hre—ms p—iled in t—p—nD425 UW …F goloF vF ‚evF RPI @PHHVAF e ™ru™i—l guide for li˜r—ri—ns seeking to n—vig—te these w—ters is im—nuell— qi—v—rr—D 4vi™ensing higit—l ‚esour™esX row to evoid the veg—l €itf—llsF26

6.11 Cases
„he following judi™i—l opinions explore —nd —pply some of the prin™iples dis™ussed in this moduleX …uX qris˜rook vF wqx vimitedD righ gourt gh—n™ery hivision @righ gourt gh—n™ery hivisionA27 @smplied li™ensesA g—se gEITWGHSD …r—dex ƒg‚v vF …nion €rofessionnelle de l— ‚—dio —nd de l— „élédistri˜ution @‚„hA —nd ƒo™iété snter™ommun—le pour l— hi'usion de l— „élévision @f‚…„iviA28 @golle™ting ƒo™ieties ! xeigh˜oring ‚ightsA pr—n™eX he™ision of the pren™h gonstitution—l goun™il noF PHHTESRH hg of PU tuly PHHT29 @higit—l ‚ights w—n—gementA h—vidson vF tungD RPP pFQd TQH @Vth girF PHHSA30 @„e™hnologi™—l €rote™tion we—suresA …uX qilh—m vF ‚D gourt of eppe—l of ingl—nd —nd ‡—les @gourt of eppe—l of ingl—nd —nd ‡—lesAD PHHW31 @„e™hnologi™—l €rote™tion we—suresA g—se gEPUSGHTD €rodu™tores de wúsi™— de isp—ñ— @€romusi™—eA vF „elefóni™— de isp—ñ— ƒe…32 @o˜liE g—tions of servi™e providersA

6.12 Assignment and discussion questions

6.12.1 Assignment
IF …nderst—nd — li™ense
collective-management-rights-en.pdf 22 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=468180 23 http://www.tsher.org/PTK.htm 24 http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-508es.html 25 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Papers.cfm?abstract_id=1010246 26 http://www.ei.net/cps/sections/docs/ip_docs/licensing-digital 27 http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/Ch/2009/2520.html 28 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:62005J0169:EN:HTML 29 http://www.ecln.net/documents/Decisons-France/cc_2006-07-27_no_2006-540_dc_information_english.pdf 30 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/tsher/2005%20Blizzard%20Abridged.pdf 31 http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Crim/2009/2293.html 32 http://curia.europa.eu/jurisp/cgi-bin/gettext.pl?where=&lang=en&num=79919870C19060275&doc=T&ouvert=T&seance=ARRET
20 https://www.law.berkeley.edu/institutes/bclt/pubs/merges/contract.htm 21 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2004_2009/documents/dv/study-collective-management-rights-/study-

SW ƒele™t — li™ense governing —™™ess to ele™troni™ resour™es in your li˜r—ry or (nd the st—nd—rd terms of — pu˜lisher onlineF ‚e—d the use rights des™ri˜ed in the li™enseD —nd expl—in whetherD to wh—t extentD —nd under whi™h ™onditions it ™overs the following —™tionsX

• • • • • • • •

reprodu™tion ˜y the p—tronsY reprodu™tion ˜y the li˜r—ri—nsY downlo—ding ˜y the p—tronsY interli˜r—ry lo—n of — printed ™opyY interli˜r—ry lo—n of — digit—l versionY pu˜li™—tion in —n ele™troni™ reserve or — ™ourse p—™kY rights when reusing resour™esX tr—nsl—tionD ™ompil—tionD indexingD —˜str—™tD d—t—EminingD et™FY —nd other uses th—t you m—y de(neF

PF golle™ting so™ieties ‡h—t ™olle™ting so™ietiesD ™opyright ™le—ring housesD ™opyright o0™esD or other entities ™olle™tively m—nE —ging rights —re oper—ting in your ™ountryc por e—™h of themD provide the n—me of the so™ietyD the we˜site if —nyD —nd the type of medi— or works ™overedF ‚e—d the —ppli™—˜le st—tutes or ˜yl—wsF ixpl—in wh—t rights —re m—n—gedD if mem˜ers must tr—nsfer —ll of their rights to the org—niz—tion or m—y only li™ense some of themD —nd if it is — volunt—ry or — ™ompulsory systemF QF yrph—n works ‡hi™h of the systems ™urrently used ˜y — few ™ountries to f—™ilit—te use of orph—n works is ˜estc ‡h—t system would ˜e even ˜etterc

6.12.2 Discussion Question(s)
gomment on the —nswers of your ™olle—gues to question ID —nd sele™t the most f—vor—˜le terms —nd li™enses —mong those whi™h h—ve ˜een —n—lyzedF

6.13 Contributors
„his module w—s ™re—ted ˜y h—vid ƒ™ott33 —nd imily gox34 F st w—s then edited ˜y — te—m in™luding ƒe˜—sE ti—n hi—z35 D ‡illi—m pisher36 D …rs q—sser37 D ed—m roll—nd38 D uim˜erley ss˜ell39 D €eter t—szi40 D golin w—™l—y41 D endrew woshirni—42 D —nd ghris €eterson43 F

33 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#scott 34 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#cox 35 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#diaz 36 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#sher 37 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#gasser 38 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#holland 39 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#isbell 40 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#jaszi 41 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#maclay 42 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#moshirnia 43 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#peterson




Chapter 7
Creative approaches and alternatives

7.1 Module 6: Creative Approaches and Alternatives 7.2 Learning objective
„r—dition—l rights m—n—gement often involves —n ex™lusive —ssignment of —ll of the rights —sso™i—ted with — ™opyright from the —uthor to — pu˜lisherF „he pu˜lisher then m—kes ™opies —nd distri˜utes the work to the pu˜li™ for — feeF fy ™ontr—stD free, libre —nd open access models dissemin—te works —t no ™ost to the userF „his module des™ri˜es these —ltern—tive —ppro—™hesD fo™using on gre—tive gommons li™ensing —nd ypen e™™ess poli™y for s™ienti(™ pu˜li™—tionsF

7.3 Case study
engel— writes x—di— the following em—ilX e professor —t our university is the —uthor of one of the —rti™les s w—nt to in™lude in the ™ourse p—™kF roweverD when s ™ont—™ted him to request his permissionD he —nswered th—t he h—d —lre—dy tr—nsferred —ll his rights to — pu˜lisher —nd thus w—sn9t —˜le to —llow me to ™opy his workF row ™—n it ˜e possi˜le th—t someone ™—n9t even —uthorize use of his own workc ‡h—t ™ould ˜e done to —void this situ—tion in the futurec row should x—di— respondc

7.4 Lesson 7.5 Introduction: Physical and Digital Commons
€hysi™—l o˜je™ts —re often scarce —nd rivalrous. „his me—ns th—t there —re — limited num˜er of su™h o˜je™tsD —nd using one de™re—ses the tot—l —mount th—t ™—n ˜e ™onsumedF por ex—mpleD —n —pple ™—n ˜e e—ten ˜y only one personD —nd when it is e—tenD fewer —pples —re —v—il—˜le to ˜e ™onsumed ˜y other peopleF fy ™ontr—stD the intelle™tu—l produ™ts governed ˜y ™opyright l—w typi™—lly —re nonrivalrousF e novelD for ex—mpleD m—y ˜e re—d —nd enjoyed ˜y —n unlimited num˜er of peopleF higit—l te™hnology h—s sh—rply redu™ed the ™ost of m—king ™opies of em˜odiments of intelle™tu—l produ™ts —nd thus h—s highlighted the nonriv—lrous ™h—r—™ter of those produ™tsF sf the novel @to ™ontinue our ex—mpleA is in —n ele™troni™ form—tD —n unlimited num˜er of ™opies of it ™—n ˜e m—de —nd distri˜uted very ™he—plyF
1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m22653/1.4/>.





„he wide distri˜ution of intelle™tu—l produ™ts is so™i—lly ˜ene(™i—lF sf th—t widespre—d distri˜ution ™—n ˜e —™™omplished very inexpensivelyD why doesn9t the l—w permit itc es we s—w in wodule I2 D the ™onvention—l —nswer is th—t prohi˜itions on ™opying —re ne™ess—ry to preserve in™entives for novelists to write novels in the (rst inst—n™eF sn — growing num˜er of ™ontextsD reformers —re ™h—llenging th—t —nswerF euthors of some works ! or some kinds of works ! m—y not need —ll of the rights th—t ™opyright l—w gives them in order to rem—in motiv—ted to produ™e ™re—tive worksF sn su™h settingsD ™opyright l—w m—y do more h—rm th—n goodF „o de—l with situ—tions of this sortD the reformers h—ve developed v—rious systems to f—™ilit—te more widespre—d use of ™re—tive works th—n the ™opyright system ™ontempl—tesF „his module des™ri˜es those systemsF

7.6 Free Software Licenses
wost ™ommer™i—l softw—re progr—ms —re distri˜uted under restri™tive terms of useF woreoverD their sour™e ™ode ! the ™ode th—t m—kes the progr—m run ! is closed. es — resultD developers ™—nnot study the ™ode to underst—nd how it worksD to (x ˜ugsD or to ™ustomize it to their needsF e r—di™—lly di'erent —ppro—™h to softw—re w—s (rst developed ˜y ‚i™h—rd ƒt—llm—nD when he w—s — rese—r™her —t the w—ss—™husetts snstitute of „e™hnologyF ƒt—llm—n ˜e™—me —ngry when he ™ould not modify the softw—re for — printer in his o0™e th—t w—s not working properlyF €rovoked ˜y this —nd other experien™esD ƒt—llm—n ™re—ted the qx…Eq€vD whi™h st—nds for 4qx… is not …nix4 qener—l €u˜li™ vi™enseF @…nix w—s the n—me of — popul—r 4™losed4 oper—ting systemFA „he qx…Eq€v —llows users to runD ™opyD distri˜uteD studyD ™h—ngeD —nd improve the softw—re to whi™h it is —ppliedF wore spe™i(™—llyD the qx…Eq€v gr—nts users four kinds of freedoms3 X

• „he freedom to run the progr—m for —ny purpose @freedom HAF • „he freedom to study how the progr—m worksD —nd to —d—pt it to your needs @freedom IAF e™™ess to the sour™e ™ode is — pre™ondition for thisF • „he freedom to redistri˜ute ™opies so you ™—n help your neigh˜or @freedom PAF • „he freedom to improve the progr—mD —nd rele—se your improvements @—nd modi(ed versions in gener—lA to the pu˜li™D so th—t the whole ™ommunity ˜ene(ts @freedom QAF e™™ess to the sour™e ™ode is — pre™ondition for thisD —nd modi(™—tions must ˜e sh—red with the s—me degree of freedomF
sn wh—t senseD ex—™tlyD is softw—re li™ensed on these termsD 4free4c ƒt—llm—n suggested th—t —n—lyti™—l ™l—rity ™ould ˜e enh—n™ed ˜y di'erenti—ting two me—nings of 4free4 ! one th—t —ppe—rs in the phr—seD free spee™hY the other th—t —ppe—rs in the phr—seD free ˜eerF yther ™omment—tors distinguish these ™on™epts ˜y using the pren™h termsD libre @me—ning freedomA —nd gratis @me—ning no ™ostAF ‚elying on this distin™tionD ƒt—llm—n —rgued th—t free softw—re w—s 4free4 in the (rst senseD ˜ut not ne™ess—rily in the se™ond senseF sn other wordsD some 4free softw—re4 is sold for — feeF „h—t s—idD in pr—™ti™e most free softw—re ™urrently is 4free4 in ˜oth senses ! in other wordsD ˜oth li˜re exh gr—tisF „here —re m—ny in™entives th—t drive the ™re—tion of free softw—reF e developer might (nd it entert—ining to do soF ƒhe might ˜e driven ˜y — desire to ™ontri˜ute to the pu˜li™ dom—inF ƒhe might w—nt to ˜uild her reput—tion —s — progr—mmerF ƒhe might distri˜ute the softw—re for free ˜ut ™h—rge users for help in ™ustomizing it to their needsF i™onomists ™ontinue to dis™uss whether in™entives of these v—rious sorts —re su0™ient to sust—in — vi—˜le ˜usinessF we—nwhileD ˜usinesses relying on this —ppro—™h —re )ourishingF
2 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_1:_Copyright_and_the_Public_Domain 3 http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html


7.7 Creative Commons

7.7.1 Introduction
gre—tive gommons is — nonEpro(t org—niz—tion ™re—ted in PHHI ˜y — group of s™hol—rs —nd —™tivistsF st w—s founded —nd led for — long time ˜y renowned ™y˜erl—w s™hol—r v—wren™e vessig4 F gre—tive gommons provides —uthors ™onvenient w—ys to —uthorize spe™i(™ uses of their worksD while ret—ining ™ontrol over other usesF sn other wordsD it —llows them e—sily to ™re—te their own li™ensesD minimize the orph—n works pro˜lemD —nd ™ontri˜ute to ™ulture —nd free expressionF

7.7.2 The license options
gre—tive gommons o'ers — set of six li™enses from whi™h —uthors —nd —rtists ™—n ™hoose online5 F „he gg li™enses —re ™om˜in—tions of oneD two or three of the following four elementsX

• ettri˜ution @f‰AX ‰ou let others use your work ˜ut only if they give ™redit the w—y you requestF ettri˜ution is required for —ll gre—tive gommons li™ensesF • xonEgommer™i—l @xgAX ‰ou let others use your work ˜ut for non™ommer™i—l purposes onlyF „his does not me—n th—t works ™—nnot ˜e used for ™ommer™i—l purposesD ˜ut th—t — sep—r—te li™ense must ˜e o˜t—ined ˜y — user who wishes to use the work ™ommer™i—llysF • xon heriv—tive @xhAX ‰ou let others ™opyD distri˜uteD displ—yD —nd perform only ver˜—tim ™opies of your workD not deriv—tive works ˜—sed upon itF „he right to m—ke —d—pt—tions ™—n ˜e li™ensed under — sep—r—te —greementF • ƒh—re elike @ƒeAX ‰ou —llow others to m—ke deriv—tives from your origin—l work ˜ut they —re permitted to distri˜ute deriv—tive works only under the s—me terms —s the li™ense th—t governs your workD or — li™ense th—t is ™omp—ti˜le with those termsF ƒe is used to prevent people from t—king something from the ™ommons —nd then lo™king it up ˜y using — more restri™tive li™enseF
„he li™ense termsD xon heriv—tive —nd ƒh—re elikeD —re not ™omp—ti˜le —nd ™—nnot ˜e found in the s—me li™enseF „his is ˜e™—use it doesn9t m—ke sense to tell people they should in™orpor—te your work —nd sh—re it —like while —lso telling them they m—y not m—ke deriv—tive ™opies of itF ell of the li™enses —re nonEex™lusiveF sn other wordsD —uthors —re free to enter into other —greements with spe™i(™ usersF por ex—mpleD it is possi˜le for ™opyright holders who h—ve issued gg li™enses to enter into feeE˜e—ring li™enses for rights to eng—ge in —™tivities not ™overed ˜y the gg li™ense in questionF sn this w—y — songwriter might rele—se her musi™ for free on the snternet —nd still ™h—rge — ™omp—ny for using it in — ™ommer™i—lF gre—tive gommons li™enses do not —ddress —n —uthor9s mor—l rights in —ny ™ountry ex™ept g—n—d—F e™™ordinglyD — work th—t is governed ˜y even the most li˜er—l gre—tive gommons li™ense m—y still ˜e su˜je™t to ™ert—in restri™tions on useD in —™™ord—n™e with your ™ountry9s provisions on mor—l rightsF gre—tive gommonsD like the ™opyright regime —s — wholeD h—s no registr—tion systemY it merely provides inform—tion for —uthors who wish to li™ense their works on nontr—dition—l termsF „he gre—tive gommons we˜site provides — simple quiz —sking ™re—tors wh—t freedoms they9d like to —llow with their workF st then gives the ™re—tor — ™hoi™e of —ppropri—te li™enses from whi™h to ™hooseF „he quiz —lso —llows the —uthor to spe™ify whi™h ™ountry9s l—ws will govern the li™enseF gurrentlyD the gre—tive gommons li™ense h—s ˜een tr—nsl—ted or 4ported4 to the l—ws of SP ™ountriesD —nd m—ny more ™ountries —re ™urrently under developmentF yn™e — ™re—tor h—s sele™ted — li™enseD she —tt—™hes this li™ense to ™opies of her workD thus —lerting users to wh—t they ™—n —nd ™—nnot doF sf the work is @or is o'ered throughA — we˜siteD the —uthor ™—n do this ˜y —dding to the site — pie™e of r„wv ™ode th—t gener—tes — ˜utton with the gre—tive gommons logo ™ont—ining — link to the li™ense —t issueF
4 http://lessig.org/ 5 http://creativecommons.org/license/




7.7.3 Creative Commons Licenses Formats
i—™h of the gg li™enses is —v—il—˜le in three form—ts suit—˜le for online useX

• e m—™hineEre—d—˜le versionD or digit—l ™odeD whi™h is em˜edded in the gre—tive gommons logo —nd informs other ™omputers of the li™enseF • „he hum—n re—d—˜le ™odeD or ™ommon deed @— summ—ry expl—ining the m—in rights —nd freedomsD with i™ons ™orresponding to the elements whi™h h—ve ˜een sele™tedAD —v—il—˜le from the link em˜edded in the logoF • „he leg—l ™ode @— li™ense of sever—l p—ges written in leg—l l—ngu—geD det—iling the ™l—usesD whi™h —re represented ˜y the i™onsAD —v—il—˜le from — link —t the end of the hum—n re—d—˜le ™odeF
gre—tive gommons li™enses ™—n ˜e used for works m—de —nd distri˜uted o1ine —s wellF por inst—n™eD — work ™re—ted in the physi™—l world might h—ve — physi™—l li™ense —tt—™hed th—t re—dsX "This work is licensed
under the Creative Commons BY-SA License. To view a copy of this license, visit the Creative Commons

…nfortun—telyD o1ine works ™—nnot ˜e in™luded in the gre—tive gommons se—r™h engine th—t ™—t—logs freely —v—il—˜le works on the we˜siteF „here is —n extended expl—n—tion of how to —tt—™h gre—tive gommons li™enses to works on the gre—tive gommons we˜site6 F

7.7.4 The Scope of the License
e gre—tive gommons li™ense only —pplies to m—teri—l to whi™h the li™ensor h—s rightsF st does not —pply to m—teri—l the li™ensor h—s —™quired from other sour™es —nd to whi™h he does not h—ve rightsF ƒupposeD for ex—mpleD th—t — te—™her prep—res — €owerpoint slide present—tionD whi™h he pl—ns to use for ™l—ssroom te—™hingF re downlo—ds some photogr—phs illustr—ting his —rguments from the snternet —nd inserts them into the present—tion ! ˜elievingD pl—usi˜lyD th—t the use of the photos for te—™hing f—lls within one of the ex™eptions —nd limit—tions ™ont—ined in the ™opyright l—w of his ™ountryF re —tt—™hes — simple 4ettri˜ution4 gre—tive gommons li™ense to e—™h of his slidesF sn other wordsD he gr—nts —nyone permission to use the slides for —ny purposeD provided th—t they give him ™reditF yne of the students in the ™l—ss o˜t—ins — digit—l ™opy of the slide present—tion —nd em—ils it to — friend working in — forEpro(t ™omp—nyF „he friend (nds the slides helpful —nd distri˜utes ™opies of them —t — ™ommer™i—l s—les meetingF wost likelyD the friend will h—ve viol—ted the n—tion9s ™opyright l—wF ‡hyc fe™—use the gre—tive gommons li™ense does not —pply to the photosD —nd the reprodu™tion of them for ™ommer™i—l purposes pro˜—˜ly does not f—ll into —ny of the ex™eptions —nd limit—tionsF „his prin™iple is not widely understoodD —nd even the form—l version of the gre—tive gommons li™ense is not ™ryst—l ™le—r on this pointF „o —void ™onfusionD it is ˜est for li™ensors using gre—tive gommons li™enses to spe™ify wh—t those li™enses do —nd do not ™overF

7.7.5 Other Creative Commons Projects Creative Commons International

„he gre—tive gommons sntern—tion—l7 @ggiA te—m ™oordin—tes the pro™ess of tr—nsl—ting the gre—tive gommons li™enses into other l—ngu—ges —nd —d—pting them to other leg—l systemsF „his is — ™omplex —nd ™h—llenging pro™essF ggi —lso provides te—ms to work with lo™—l user ™ommunities —nd governments in order to in™re—se underst—nding —nd use of gg li™ensesF „he lo™—l te—ms —lso work ™losely with gg st—' to improve the li™ense ™l—uses —nd m—teri—lF
6 http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Marking 7 http://creativecommons.org/international/

TS Educational and Science Commons

„wo other divisions of gre—tive gommons —lso eng—ge in spe™i—lized workX ™™ve—rn8 for open edu™—tion—l resour™es —nd ƒ™ien™e gommons9 for open —™™ess to s™ien™eF New Creative Commons Protocols

sn —ddition to the six li™ensesD gre—tive gommons h—s re™ently developed two new proto™olsX ggC —nd ggHF ggC10 @gg €lusA is not — li™enseD ˜ut — te™hnology for o'ering users rights ˜eyond the gg li™ense gr—nt ! for inst—n™e ™ommer™i—l rightsD or —ddition—l w—rr—ntiesF ggH11 @gg eroA is — univers—l w—iver of ™opyrightD neigh˜oring —nd rel—ted rightsD —nd sui generis rightsF ggH thus en—˜les —uthors to pl—™e their works in the pu˜li™ dom—inF ggH is sometimes known —s the no rights reserved optionF …nder the l—ws of ™ert—in ™ountriesD howeverD it is not possi˜le for —n —uthor to gr—nt — ˜l—nket w—iver of his or her mor—l rightsF xor ™—n —n —uthor w—ive the rights th—t others m—y h—ve rel—ting to the use of — work @for ex—mpleD the pu˜li™ity rights th—t the su˜je™t of — photogr—ph m—y h—veAF e possi˜le implement—tion model for digit—l li˜r—ries would ˜e to propose — ™om˜in—tion ofX

• gg li™enses for works ™re—ted ˜y li˜r—ri—nsX —˜str—™tsD ™ommentsD photogr—phsD m—psD other ™opyE right—˜le elements of the editori—l stru™tureY • gg li™enses for works ™re—ted ˜y p—tronsX ™ommentsD —˜str—™tsD ™riti™sD ˜log postsY • ggH li™enses for d—t—˜—ses of pu˜li™ dom—in works to whi™h the li˜r—ries h—ve —dded potenti—lly ™opyE right—˜le m—teri—lF Implications for Authors and for Users

euthors ™onsidering —pplying gre—tive gommons li™enses to their ™re—tions should ™onsider the following issuesX „he li™enses —re ˜—sed on ™opyright l—wD —nd —re thus —ppli™—˜le only to ™opyright—˜le worksF sn m—ny ™ountriesD ™olle™ting so™ieties require their mem˜ers to —ssign —ll of their rights in present —nd future works to the so™ietiesF „husD mem˜ers ™—nnot use gre—tive gommons li™ensesD even for some of their works or some of their rightsF w—ny —uthors do not underst—nd why the two systems —re not ™omp—ti˜leD espe™i—lly in the musi™ industryF „hey would like to li™ense their nonE™ommer™i—l rights for free under — gre—tive gommons li™enseD —nd —ssign the m—n—gement of their ™ommer™i—l rights to — ™olle™ting so™ietyF „his model is possi˜le for some ™olle™ting so™ieties in some ™ountriesD su™h —s the …nited ƒt—tesD the xetherl—nds or henm—rkF fut other ™olle™ting so™ieties do not use the s—me leg—l ™—tegories —s gre—tive gommonsF por inst—n™eD they m—y not re™ognize the distin™tion ˜etween ™ommer™i—l —nd nonE™ommer™i—l usesF sn those ™ountriesD —uthors —re ™urrently for™ed to ™hoose one system or the otherF gre—tive gommons st—' —nd intern—tion—l —0li—tes h—ve ˜een working with ™olle™ting so™ieties in hopes of resolving this in™omp—ti˜ilityF …nfortun—telyD some ™olle™ting so™ieties —nd other ™opyright st—keholders —re skepti™—l of gre—tive gommons li™enses —nd —re thus relu™t—nt to move forw—rdF „heir ™riti™isms of the gre—tive gommons model in™ludeX

• „he gre—tive gommons system does not provide ™re—tors — w—y to ™olle™t moneyY ™re—tors thus must org—nize for themselves — w—y to ™h—rge for —™tivities th—t f—ll outside the gg li™ense termsF • gre—tive gommons does not tr—™k infringements —nd is not —uthorized to represent li™ensors in l—wsuits or help them enfor™e the li™ensesF
8 http://learn.creativecommons.org/ 9 http://sciencecommons.org/ 10 http://wiki.creativecommons.org/CCPlus 11 http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/




• gre—tive gommons li™enses —re nonErevo™—˜leD —nd the li™ense gr—nt is perpetu—lF euthors who employ gg li™enses thus ™—nnot l—ter ™h—nge their mindsF „hey ™—nD of ™ourseD ™e—se distri˜uting the works or distri˜ute them under di'erent ™onditionsD ˜ut this will not —'e™t the rights —sso™i—ted with the ™opies th—t —re —lre—dy in ™ir™ul—tionF • hetermining wh—t does —nd does not ™onstitute — ™ommer™i—l use is — di0™ult questionD —nd —nswers m—y v—ry —mong individu—ls —nd user ™ommunitiesF • st is question—˜le whether jurisdi™tionEspe™i(™ li™ensesD whi™h h—ve ˜een —d—pted to n—tion—l leg—l systemsD —re re—lly ™omp—ti˜le with e—™h otherF por inst—n™eD some versions of the gg li™enses in™lude mor—l rights or d—t—˜—se rightsY others do notF

7.8 The Open Access movement
„he ypen e™™ess @yeA movement seeks to in™re—se the pu˜li™ —v—il—˜ility of works of s™hol—rshipF st w—s provoked ˜y — r—pid rise in the pri™e of s™ienti(™ journ—lsD for™ing m—ny li˜r—ries to ™—n™el journ—l su˜s™ripE tionsF „he movement ™l—ims th—t —uthors should ˜e —˜le to —™™ess freely their ™olle—gues9 rese—r™h for the ˜ene(t of s™ien™e —nd the gener—l pu˜li™F ye journ—ls o'er —rti™les to the pu˜li™ online for freeF „hey often use very open online li™ensesD su™h —s the gre—tive gommons ettri˜ution li™enseF „his str—tegy is sometimes known —s qold ypen e™™essF fe™—use they forgo tr—dition—l sour™es of revenueD ye journ—ls must devise —ltern—tive ˜usiness modelsF ƒome ™h—rge —uthors for pu˜li™—tion of their workF ythers rely entirely the work of volunteersF ƒome journ—ls —re not ye journ—lsD ˜ut —uthorize the —uthors of the —rti™les they pu˜lish to —r™hive versions of their —rti™les in institution—l repositories set up ˜y their universitiesF „his str—tegy is sometimes ™—lled qreen ypen e™™essF ƒome qreen ypen e™™ess journ—ls —lso —llow —uthors to uplo—d their work to freeD dis™iplineEspe™i(™ pu˜li™ repositoriesD like the ƒo™i—l ƒ™ien™e ‚ese—r™h xetwork12 F tourn—l ™opyright poli™ies reg—rding selfE—r™hiving —re —n—lyzed ˜y the proje™t ƒherp— ‚owiy13 F wore th—n SH7 of p—yEjourn—l poli™ies —llow their —uthors to —r™hive their preEprint —rti™les in open —™™ess repositoriesF ƒome journ—ls do not gener—lly —llow —uthors to host openE™opies of their —rti™les on their own we˜sitesF sn these situ—tionsD —uthors m—y form—lly request th—t the pu˜lishing ™ontr—™t —llow them to do soF ƒever—l —ddendum models —re —v—il—˜leF 4ƒgeiD4 the ƒ™ien™e gommons ƒ™hol—rs9 gopyright eddendum ingine14 gener—tes one su™h formF punding institutions ™—n f—™ilit—te or ™ompel the use of one or more of these str—tegies ! ˜y en™our—ging or requiring gr—nt re™ipients to m—ke the fruits of their proje™ts pu˜li™ly —v—il—˜leF gurrentlyD the x—tion—l snstitutes of re—lth in the …nited ƒt—tesD the iurope—n ‚ese—r™h goun™ilD —nd the ‡ell™ome „rust in the …nited uingdom require their gr—ntees to m—ke their work pu˜li™ly —™™essi˜leF …niversities ™—n —lso helpF r—rv—rd …niversity h—s led the w—y on this issueF ƒt—rting in PHHVD some s™hools within r—rv—rd h—ve required f—™ulty mem˜ers to provide the university with — nonEex™lusiveD irrevo™—˜leD worldwide li™ense to distri˜ute their s™hol—rly —rti™les for nonE™ommer™i—l usesF roweverD — f—™ulty mem˜er m—y override this def—ult rule ˜y o˜t—ining — w—iver for — spe™i(™ —rti™leF

7.9 Back to the case study
engel— ™ompl—ins to x—di— th—t she ™—nnot in™lude in her ™ourse p—™k the —rti™le from — ™olle—gue ˜e™—use he tr—nsferred his rights to the pu˜lisherF x—di— informs engel— th—t some pu˜lishers h—ve very stri™t poli™iesD ˜ut th—t sometimes pu˜lishing ™ontr—™ts —re in f—™t less restri™tive th—n some —uthors m—y thinkF „ogetherD they will se—r™h for the journ—l poli™y to see whether the —rti™le ™ould ˜e in™ludedF „ogetherD they will ˜rowse ƒherp— ‚owiy15 ˜e™—use it provides — listing of pu˜lishers9 ™opyright ™onditions —s they rel—te to —uthors —r™hiving their work onElineF
12 http://www.ssrn.com/ 13 http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/ 14 http://sciencecommons.org/projects/publishing/scae/ 15 http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/

TU pin—llyD x—di— will suggest to engel— th—tD togetherD they provide the ™olle—gue inform—tion ™on™erning gre—tive gommonsD ypen e™™essD —nd other systems th—t h—ve ˜een developed re™ently th—t might en—˜le the ™olle—gue in the future to ensure th—t —™™ess to his s™hol—rship is more openF

7.10 Additional resources
en extensive set of te—™hing m—teri—ls on pree —nd ypen ƒour™e ƒoftw—re ™—n ˜e found —t the ™ourse we˜site for „he snternetX sssues —t the prontier16 F yther v—lu—˜le resour™es on free softw—re in™ludeX

• • • • •

toseph peller et —lFD €erspe™tives on pree —nd ypen ƒour™e ƒoftw—re @PHHUA17 tosh verner —nd te—n „iroleD 4„he ƒimple i™onomi™s of ypen ƒour™e4 @PHHHA18 i˜en woglenD p—™ulty €resent—tion on ypen ƒour™eD ƒeptem˜er IID PHHV19 ghristopher ueltyD „wo fitsX „he gultur—l ƒigni(™—n™e of pree ƒoftw—re @PHHV20 A ‡endy ƒeltzerD ypen ƒour™e —s ypen v—w21 @€owerpoint €resent—tionA

„he m—in we˜site for gre—tive gommons is httpXGG™re—tive™ommonsForgG22 e l—rge repository of photogr—phs —v—il—˜le under gre—tive gommons li™enses is —v—il—˜le through pli™kr23 e thorough dis™ussionD prep—red in PHHU ˜y €eter ƒu˜erD of the v—rious dimensions of the ypen e™™ess wovement ™—n ˜e found —t the ypen e™™ess yverview24 „he most import—nt do™ument in the ye wovement is the fud—pest ypen e™™ess sniti—tiveF sts history —nd imp—™t —re dis™ussed on the we˜site of the ƒoros pound—tion25 e hire™tory of ypen e™™ess tourn—ls @hyetA ™—n ˜e found here26 e s—mpler of ypen e™™ess tourn—ls in the re—lth ƒ™ien™esX

• • • • • • • • •

„he ypen hentistry tourn—l27 sntern—tion—l tourn—l of hentistry28 €voƒ wedi™ine29 fiowed ye wedi™—l tourn—ls30 fiovine sntern—tion—l ye tourn—ls31 ypen e™™ess wedi™—l tourn—ls32 ypen e™™ess imergen™y wedi™ine tourn—l33 ƒouth efri™—n p—mily €r—™ti™e34 efri™—n tourn—l of €rim—ry re—lth g—re —nd p—mily wedi™ine35

5tUD8K5tZuQFhNL6BTV_z_8LgQ 22 http://creativecommons.org/ 23 http://www.ickr.com/creativecommons/ 24 http://www.earlham.edu/∼peters/fos/overview.htm 25 http://www.soros.org/openaccess/index.shtml 26 http://www.doaj.org/ 27 http://www.bentham.org/open/todentj/ 28 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/ 29 http://www.plosmedicine.org/ 30 http://www.biomedcentral.com/browse/journals/ 31 http://www.bioline.org.br/journals 32 http://www.la-press.com/ 33 http://www.dovepress.com/open-access-emergency-medicine-journal 34 http://www.safpj.co.za/index.php/safpj 35 http://www.phcfm.org/index.php/phcfm/about

16 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/iif/Encouraging_the_Intellectual_Commons 17 http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2&tid=11216&mode=toc 18 http://www.people.hbs.edu/jlerner/simple.pdf 19 http://moglen.law.columbia.edu/911/ 20 http://twobits.net/pub/Kelty-TwoBits.pdf 21 http://www.google.com/url?sa=U&start=1&q=http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/∼wseltzer/openlaw.ppt&ei=bvqMSemGB9WDtweirqWqCw&u




7.11 Cases
„he following judi™i—l opinions explore —nd —pply some of the prin™iples dis™ussed in this moduleX gurry vF ‡eekend @histri™t gourt of emsterd—mD w—r™h WD PHHTA36 @gre—tive gommons li™enseA q€vE†iol—tionsForg vF hEvink @histri™t gourt of pr—nkfurt PHHTA37 t—™o˜sen vF u—tzerD SQS pFQd IQUQ @gepg PHHVA38 @ypen ƒour™e vi™ensesA

7.12 Assignment and discussion questions

7.12.1 Assignment
ghoose one of the followingX uestion IF gre—tive gommons ™urrently supports the li™ensing of ™re—tive works in SP ™ountriesF sf your ™ountry is one of theseD use se—r™h engines —nd other dire™tories to lo™—te some do™uments —v—il—˜le under gg li™enses th—t you ™ould help promote —nd reEdistri˜uteF uestion PF hetermine if there —re —ny ye journ—ls pu˜lished in your ™ountryF w—ke — list suit—˜le for distri˜ution to your p—tronsF uestion QF €rep—re slides or — oneEp—ge h—ndout th—t you ™ould use to edu™—te li˜r—ri—ns —nd —™—demi™s ™on™erning the gre—tive gommons system —nd ye optionsF €u˜lish your do™ument online with the gre—tive gommons li™ense of your ™hoi™e —nd send the link to the groupF sf your li˜r—ry doesn9t h—ve — we˜siteD you m—y use ƒlideƒh—re39 F uestion RF row would you design —nd implement —n ye poli™y in your ™ountryc

7.12.2 Discussion Question(s)
gomment on str—tegies proposed ˜y your ™olle—gues in response to ‚ound I question RF

7.13 Contributors
„his module w—s ™re—ted ˜y wel—nie hulong de ‚osn—y40 F st w—s then edited ˜y — te—m in™luding ƒe˜—sti—n hi—z41 D ‡illi—m pisher42 D …rs q—sser43 D ed—m roll—nd44 D uim˜erley ss˜ell45 D €eter t—szi46 D golin w—™l—y47 D endrew woshirni—48 D —nd ghris €eterson49 F

%20Westlaw.pdf 39 http://www.slideshare.net/ 40 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#rosnay 41 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#diaz 42 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#sher 43 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#gasser 44 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#holland 45 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#isbell 46 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#jaszi 47 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#maclay 48 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#moshirnia 49 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#peterson

36 http://creativecommons.org/press-releases/entry/5822 37 http://gpl-violations.org/news/20060922-dlink-judgement_frankfurt.html 38 http://www.law.berkeley.edu/institutes/bclt/students/2009_spring_intro_ip/Jacobsen%20v%20Katzer%20-

Chapter 8

8.1 Module 7: Enforcement 8.2 Learning objective
„his module will provide — gener—l overview of wh—t it me—ns to infringe —nother9s ™opyright —nd expl—in the v—rious w—ys in whi™h infringement m—y o™™urF st will —lso provide — des™ription of some of the issues th—t ™ommonly —rise when — ™opyright holder de™ides to ˜ring — ™opyright infringement l—wsuitD —nd how su™h ™—ses typi™—lly pro™eed —nd ™on™ludeF st will review some st—tutory provisions dis™ussed in previous modules th—t provide li—˜ility exemptions for servi™e providersD in™luding li˜r—riesF pin—llyD the module will ™onsider the —ppropri—te roles of li˜r—ri—ns with reg—rd to ™opyright —nd ™opyright enfor™ementF

8.3 Case Study
engel— le—ves x—di— —n urgent phone mess—geX s re™eived — ™e—se —nd desist letter from — pu˜lisher ™omE pl—ining th—tD ˜y in™luding some of his works in one of my ™ourse p—™ksD s —m infringing his ™opyrightF ‡h—t should s doc row should x—di— respondc

8.4 Lesson 8.5 What Infringes Copyright?

8.5.1 Acts That May Infringe Copyright
es we h—ve seenD the un—uthorized exer™ise of —n ex™lusive right of the ™opyright holder infringes ™opyright unless the use is ™overed ˜y one of the ex™eptions or limit—tions dis™ussed in wodule R2 F por ex—mpleD m—king — ™opy of — ˜ook or re™ord impli™—tes the ex™lusive right of reprodu™tionD —ndD if done without permission in — m—nner not ™overed ˜y one of the ex™eptionsD would infringe the rightsholder9s ™opyrightF snfringement m—y —lso o™™ur when one viol—tes —ny of the mor—l rights re™ognized ˜y the p—rti™ul—r ™ountry9s ™opyright l—wsF „hese m—y in™lude the right of —n —uthor to prevent distortion or mutil—tion of his or her workD the right to ˜e —ttri˜uted —s the —uthor of — work or not to h—ve —uthorship f—lsely —ttri˜utedF
1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m22654/1.5/>. 2 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_4:_Rights%2C_Exceptions%2C_and_Limitations





8.5.2 Direct and Indirect Infringement
gopyright l—w typi™—lly distinguishes ˜etween two di'erent kinds of infringementF hire™t infringement o™™urs when one exer™ises one of the ™opyright holder9s ex™lusive rights without —uthoriz—tion or leg—l justi(™—tionF es st—ted in the previous se™tionD this would in™lude ™opying — ˜ook or re™ord without permissionF roweverD m—ny ™opyright regimes —lso re™ognize forms of indire™t or 4se™ond—ry4 infringementF …nder ™ert—in ™ir™umst—n™esD one ™—n ˜e found li—˜le for the —™ts of —notherF por ex—mpleD in the …nited ƒt—tesD one m—y ˜e li—˜le for ™ontri˜utory infringement if he or she knows —˜out the infringing —™tivity of —nother —nd does something to indu™eD ™—useD or m—teri—lly ™ontri˜ute to th—t infringementF yne m—y ˜e li—˜le for vi™—rious infringement ˜—sed on the —™tions of —nother personD even without —™tu—l knowledge of the infringementD if she h—s the right —nd —˜ility to ™ontrol the other person9s —™ts —nd ˜ene(ts dire™tly from the infringementF werely providing — devi™e ™—p—˜le of ™ommitting dire™t infringement is usu—lly not enough to in™ur li—E ˜ility for ™ontri˜utory or vi™—rious infringementF qener—lly spe—kingD if the devi™e is ™—p—˜le of substantial non-infringing uses E like — ™opy m—™hine or — ™omputer E then the m—ker of th—t devi™e will ordin—rily not ˜e li—˜le for the —™tions of the devi™e9s usersF roweverD under ™ert—in ™ir™umst—n™es the m—ker of — devi™e used ˜y others to ™ommit infringement ™—n ˜e li—˜le for 4indu™ement4 of ™opyright infringementF sn wetroEqoldwynEw—yer ƒtudios sn™F vF qroksterD vtdFD the …ƒ ƒupreme gourt held th—t the distri˜utor of (le sh—ring softw—re ™ould ˜e li—˜le for ™opyright infringement if the distri˜utor intended to promote the softw—re9s use for infringing purposes —nd took 4—0rm—tive steps4 to —™hieve th—t go—lF yther ™ountries —lso impose se™ond—ry li—˜ility for ™opyright infringementF sn —ddition to punishing dire™t infringementD for ex—mpleD the …nited uingdom —lso imposes li—˜ility for providing — me—ns of ™re—ting un—uthorized ™opiesD or supplying sound re™ordings or (lms for —n infringing perform—n™eF ƒimil—rlyD under ƒouth efri™—n l—wD infringement m—y o™™ur when one either exer™ises one of the ex™lusive rights of the ™opyright holder without li™ense @or other leg—l justi(™—tionAD or ™—uses —nother person to do soF

8.5.3 The Liability of Online Service Providers
w—ny ™ountries h—ve en—™ted s—fe h—r˜or st—tutes th—t prote™t online servi™e providers su™h —s se—r™h enginesD internet servi™e providersD li˜r—ries or universities from li—˜ility for ™opyright infringement ™ommitted ˜y their usersF sn order to ˜e eligi˜le for these exemptionsD the servi™e provider must ™omply with ™ert—in rulesF ƒome ™ountries require online servi™e providers to ™omply with soE™—lled notice and takedown proviE sions to ˜e prote™ted ˜y — s—fe h—r˜orF por ex—mpleD in the …nited ƒt—tesD if — ™opyright holder ˜elieves th—t — (le hosted ˜y — servi™e provider infringes her ™opyrightD the ™opyright holder m—y su˜mit — noti™e to the provider to request th—t the (le ˜e removedF „he noti™e must typi™—lly in™lude the n—me of the ™ompl—ining p—rty —nd list —ny infringing m—teri—lsD in™luding the URLF st must —lso ™ont—in — goodEf—ith st—tement ˜y the ™opyright holder th—t the m—teri—ls infringe on her ™opyrightF st must ™on™lude with — sworn st—tement of the —™™ur—™y of the noti™e —nd the noti™e provider9s —uthoriz—tion to —™t on ˜eh—lf of the rightsholderF …pon re™eipt of — t—keEdown noti™eD the servi™e provider must qui™kly remove the infringing m—teri—l or dis—˜le —™™ess to itF st must —lso notify the individu—l responsi˜le for the infringing m—teri—l of its remov—lF st is not ne™ess—ry for the ™opyright holder to o˜t—in — judi™i—l de™ision th—t the m—teri—l isD in f—™tD infringing in order to send — t—keEdown noti™eF „he s—fe h—r˜or provisions —llow the individu—l responsi˜le for the ™ontent to (le wh—t9s ™—lled acounter-notice to ™h—llenge — t—keEdown noti™eF sf the poster su˜mits — ™ounterEnoti™e —sserting th—t the m—teri—l removed w—s not infringingD the servi™e provider must notify the ™opyright holderF sf the ™opyright holder does not (le — l—wsuit within two weeksD the servi™e provider must then restore —™™ess to the m—teri—lF „he st—tute exempts servi™e providers for li—˜ility for its goodEf—ith remov—l of m—teri—ls pursu—nt to — t—keEdown noti™eD even if the m—teri—l is ultim—tely determined not to ˜e infringingF „he iurope—n …nion h—s ™re—ted — simil—rD though more openEendedD t—keEdown system in hire™tive

UI PHHHGQIGig @hire™tive on ile™troni™ gommer™eA ‘dis™ussed in wodule P3 “F „his hire™tive ™ont—ins di'erent rules for di'erent kinds of servi™e providersF were ™onduitsD or servi™es th—t only route —nd ™—™he online tr—0™D —re exempted from li—˜ility entirelyF €roviders th—t —™tu—lly host d—t—D howeverD —re exempted only if they h—ve no —™tu—l knowledge or —w—reness of illeg—l —™tivitiesD —nd if they —™t qui™kly to remove or dis—˜le —™™ess to the infringing m—teri—ls on™e they h—ve ˜een noti(edF roweverD the question of wh—t ™onstitutes —™tu—l knowledge of hosting infringing m—teri—ls h—s ˜een left l—rgely un—nsweredF „his ™re—tes serious pro˜lemsF st is un™le—r whether — servi™e provider who re™eives — noti™e from — ™opyright holder th—t it m—y ˜e hosting infringing m—teri—ls will ˜e deemed to h—ve 4—™tu—l knowledge4 of hosting the m—teri—lsF vikewiseD it is un™ert—in wh—tD if —nyD eviden™e su™h noti™es must in™ludeD whether the person sending it is required to identify himself —nd in™lude — goodEf—ith st—tement of ˜elief of infringementD —nd under wh—t ™ir™umst—n™es the servi™e provider is o˜lig—ted to remove the ™ontent in order to t—ke —dv—nt—ge of the s—feEh—r˜or provisionsF „he —w—reness of illeg—l —™tivities ™riterion is simil—rly v—gueD —nd it is f—r from ™le—r how rigorously providers must selfEregul—te —nd monitor the d—t— they host or provide —™™ess to in order to ™ome within the s—fe h—r˜or provisionsF „he iurope—n …nion dire™tive is ˜ro—der th—n the …ƒ —ppro—™h in th—t it does not provide — ™le—rly —rti™ul—tedD multiEstep —ppro—™h for initi—ting —nd responding to t—keEdown noti™esF fe™—use of this l—™k of ™l—rityD servi™e providers h—ve in™entives to respond —ggressively to t—keEdown noti™esF purtherD under the hire™tiveD there does not —ppe—r to ˜e — set pro™edure in pl—™e for — user to o˜je™t to remov—l of the m—teri—lD nor —re providers required to notify — user when m—teri—l is removed or m—de in—™™essi˜leF „he —ppro—™hes t—ken ˜y other ™ountries to the exemption of online servi™e providers from li—˜ility for infringement ™ommitted ˜y their users m—y di'er su˜st—nti—llyF eustr—li—n l—wD for ex—mpleD ™ont—ins —n exemption th—t is simil—r to th—t ™odi(ed in the …nited ƒt—tesF roweverD it does not require servi™e providers to notify the person who posted the m—teri—l th—t h—s ˜een removedF ssr—el likewise h—s — noti™e —nd t—keE down pro™edure —s p—rt of its s—fe h—r˜or st—tuteF …nlike the …nited ƒt—tesD thoughD it does not require the servi™e provider to remove the m—teri—l qui™kly upon the re™eipt of — ™ompl—intF snste—dD it —llows users three d—ys to respond to the ™ompl—int ˜efore the m—teri—l will ˜e removedF ƒome ™ountries E su™h —s sndi— E do not re™ognize s—fe h—r˜or provisions for snternet servi™e providersD —nd m—y hold them li—˜le for ™opyright infringement ™ommitted ˜y their users even if the provider h—s no —™tive or dire™t involvement in th—t infringementF ƒurprisingly enoughD these rules m—y —'e™t some li˜r—ries in developing ™ountriesF „he re—son is th—t some li˜r—ries m—y —ssist in running or m—n—ging the networks in universities with whi™h the li˜r—ries —re —0li—tedF sn su™h ™ir™umst—n™esD it is possi˜le th—t some of the li˜r—ries9 —™tivities m—y qu—lify for prote™tion under — s—feEh—r˜or provisionF sf soD li˜r—ri—ns should p—y ™lose —ttention to the det—ils of the noti™eE—ndEt—kedown systems @if —nyA ™ont—ined in their ™ountries9 ™opyright l—wsF

8.6 Procedures and Penalties

8.6.1 Legal Procedures and Remedies
e ™opyright holder m—y de™ide to (le — ™opyright infringement l—wsuit if she ˜elieves th—t infringement of one of her ex™lusive rights h—s o™™urredF „ypi™—llyD only the holder of the ex™lusive right th—t w—s infringed or — ˜ene(™i—l holder of th—t right m—y ˜ring — ™opyright infringement ™l—imF „he ™opyright holder m—y ™hoose to sue the person or persons who ™ommitted dire™t infringementD —nd G or —nyone else who m—y ˜e found to ˜e li—˜le under the sever—l theories of se™ond—ry or indire™t infringement des™ri˜ed —˜oveF sn m—ny ™ountriesD the ™opyright holder must ˜ring the ™l—im within — ™ert—in period of time —fter the —™t of ™opyright infringement o™™ursD or it will ˜e ˜—rred ˜y the st—tute of limit—tionsF „he length of the st—tute of limit—tions v—ries ˜y ™ountryF por ex—mpleD the st—tute of limit—tions for ™opyright infringement —™tions is Q ye—rs in the …nited ƒt—tesD —nd six ye—rs in eustr—li—F @IU …FƒFgF se™tion SHU@˜AY ƒe™tion IQR@IA of the eustr—li—n gopyright e™tFA
3 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework




et the outset of litig—tionD the defend—nt ! who ™ould ˜e —n individu—l userD — li˜r—ri—nD or — li˜r—ry ! should ™onsider whether settlement is — ˜etter —ltern—tive th—n pro™eeding tow—rd full tri—lF fe™—use the (ner points of ™opyright infringement litig—tion —re often ™omplexD defending —g—inst —n —lleg—tion of ™opyright infringement ™—n ˜e very expensiveF purtherD ˜e™—use some ™ountries —llow — pl—inti' who su™™eeds in his ™opyright infringement l—wsuit to ™olle™t d—m—ges —s set ˜y st—tuteD inste—d of h—ving to prove —™tu—l d—m—gesD the (n—l —w—rds in ™opyright infringement —™tions ™—n ˜e l—rgeF pin—llyD st—tutes or ™ourts m—y even —w—rd —ttorney9s fees —nd other ™osts to the pl—inti' if he prev—ils in his litig—tionF sn light of these ™onsider—tionsD the defend—nt m—y de™ide th—t settling with the pl—inti' is — ˜etter option th—n f—™ing the un™ert—inty —nd potenti—l expense of litig—tionF sn — settlement pro™edureD on™e the p—rties h—ve —greed to — set of terms —nd on™e the defend—nt h—s ™omplied with those termsD the pl—inti' will dismiss his l—wsuitF „he terms of settlement ™—n v—ry signi(™—ntlyF sn some inst—n™esD the pl—inti' m—y ˜e ™ontent with the defend—nt simply removing the m—teri—ls from her we˜ siteF sn other ™—sesD the pl—inti' m—y dem—nd th—t the defend—nt p—y some —mount of money in —ddition to removing the infringing m—teri—lF prequentlyD —s p—rt of — settlementD the p—rties will —gree to — perm—nent injun™tion th—t prohi˜its the defend—nt from eng—ging in the s—me ˜eh—vior in the futureF et other timesD howeverD the defend—nt m—y de™ide th—t settlement is not —ppropri—teD —nd thus will pro™eed with the litig—tionF sn order to prev—il in — ™opyright infringement l—wsuitD the ™opyright holder must proveX

• • • • •

th—t the work is ™opyright—˜le th—t she is the holder of the ™opyright th—t the defend—nt used the pl—inti'9s work th—t un—uthorized exer™ise of one or more of the ex™lusive rights o™™urredF i—™h of these requirements is dis™ussed in depth in e—rlier modulesY we review them here ˜rie)yF

…n—uthorized ™opying —nd reprodu™tion is the most ™ommon form of ™opyright infringementF gopying m—y ˜e demonstr—ted ˜y dire™t proofD ˜ut su™h eviden™e is often un—v—il—˜leF gopying m—y —lso ˜y demonstr—ted indire™tlyD ˜y presenting eviden™e of — su˜st—nti—l simil—rity ˜etween the origin—l work —nd the ™opied workD —nd ˜y demonstr—ting th—t the defend—nt h—d —™™ess to the ™opyright holder9s workF e™™ess m—y ˜e proven ˜y f—™ts showing spe™i(™—lly how the defend—nt ™ould h—ve o˜t—ined the ™opyrighted workF eltern—tivelyD it m—y ˜e shown ˜y the f—™t th—t the ™opyrighted work w—s gener—lly —v—il—˜le —nd widely distri˜utedF „he su˜st—nti—lEsimil—rity requirement —nd the —™™ess requirement —re inter™onne™ted in th—t the more simil—r the two works —reD the less eviden™e the pl—inti' needs to introdu™e reg—rding —™™ess to the workF sn defending —g—inst — ™l—im of ™opyright infringementD the defend—nt m—y ™l—im sever—l defenses —nd ex™eptionsD su™h —s f—ir useD st—tute of limit—tionsD un™opyright—˜ility of the origin—l workD pu˜li™ dom—inD (rst s—le do™trineD s—feEh—r˜or provisionsD independent ™re—tionD —nd other st—tutory exemptionsF ‡e ex—mined those ix™eptions —nd vimit—tions in det—il in wodule R4 F wost ™ountries9 ™opyright regimes provide — ˜ro—d r—nge of remedies for ™opyright infringementF „his is required ˜y sever—l of intern—tion—l —greements dis™ussed in wodule P5 F „he ™opyright holder ™—n typi™—lly seek tempor—ry or perm—nent injun™tive reliefD —™tu—l d—m—ges su'ered —s the result of the infringementD —w—rd of tri—l ™osts —nd —ttorney feesF pin—llyD in extremely r—re ™ir™umst—n™es involving ˜l—t—nt ™opyright infringementD the infringing p—rty m—y ˜e found to ˜e ™rimin—lly li—˜leD —nd s—n™tioned with (nes —nd imprisonmentF st should ˜e emph—sized th—t su™™essful ™opyright infringement suits —re unusu—lF „he l—rge m—jority of ™opyright holders —re ™ontent with settlements in whi™h defend—nts —gree to ™e—se their ˜eh—vior —nd perh—ps p—y modest d—m—ge —w—rdsF vi˜r—ries —re espe™i—lly unlikely to ˜e t—rgets of su™™essful ™opyright infringement suitsF „here —re very few reported judi™i—l opinions in —ny ™ountry in whi™h — pu˜li™ or —™—demi™ li˜r—ry h—s ˜een found li—˜le for viol—ting the ™opyright l—wsF „husD it is import—nt th—t li˜r—ri—ns ˜e —w—re of the potenti—l s—n™tions for ™opyright infringementD p—rti™ul—rly so th—t they ™—n give reli—˜le —dvi™e to
4 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_4:_Rights%2C_Exceptions%2C_and_Limitations 5 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework

UQ their v—rious ™onstituen™iesF fut the li˜r—ries themselves should not ˜e unduly worried —˜out the prospe™t of ˜eing suedF

8.6.2 Cross-border Infringement, Extraterritoriality, Conict of Laws and Jurisdictional Limitations
hespite —ttempts to ™re—te some uniformity in intern—tion—l ™opyright l—wsD domesti™ leg—l pro™eduresD ˜urE dens of proofD —nd the —v—il—˜ility —nd —mount of d—m—ges v—ry ™onsider—˜ly —™ross ™ountriesF fe™—use of these di'eren™esD the pl—inti'9s ™hoi™e of whi™h ™ountry —nd ™ourt to ˜ring her suit in ˜e™omes import—ntF roweverD whether — p—rti™ul—r forum is —v—il—˜le is likely to ˜e limited ˜y the su˜st—ntive l—w of ™opyright —nd the do™trines of extr—territori—lityD ™hoi™e of l—wD —nd ™on)i™t of l—wsF por inst—n™eD — ™opyright holder ™—nnot usu—lly sue in one ™ountry for —™ts of ™opyright infringement th—t o™™urred in — di'erent ™ountryF „his is ˜e™—useD with — few ex™eptionsD the do™trine of extr—territori—lity me—ns th—t — ™ountry9s l—ws only —pply within the geogr—phi™ ˜orders of th—t ™ountryF epplying this do™trineD ™ourts in the …nited ƒt—tes h—ve —lmost uniformly reje™ted —ttempts to —pply …FƒF ™opyright l—w to ™ondu™t outside of the …nited ƒt—tesF wost other ™ountries h—ve t—ken the s—me positionF „he do™trine of extr—territori—lity h—s ˜een ™ompli™—tedD howeverD ˜y digit—l te™hnologies —nd the rise of the snternetF ‡ith physi™—l goodsD it is usu—lly e—sy to identify 4where4 —n —™t of ™opyright infringement o™™urredF roweverD infringement in the digit—l environment m—y involve sever—l steps th—t o™™ur in di'erent ™ountries governed ˜y di'erent ™opyright regimesF „his muddles the question of where —n —™tu—l infringement took pl—™eF sn the …nited ƒt—tesD ™ourts ™onfronted with su™h pro˜lems h—ve gener—lly held th—t …ƒ l—ws —pply only when the defend—nt h—s eng—ged in some ™on™rete —™t on …FƒF soilF fut most ™ountries h—ve yet to ˜e ™onfronted with ™—ses of this sortF row the ™ourts in those ™ountries will respond rem—ins un™ert—inF sf — p—rti™ul—r infringement is —lleged to h—ve o™™urred —t le—st in p—rt in more th—n one ™ountryD — ™ourt will eng—ge in — ™on)i™t of l—ws —n—lysis to determine whi™h ™ountry9s l—w will govern the infringement —™tionF fe™—use the s—me —™t of infringement m—y o™™ur in sever—l di'erent ™ountriesD it is possi˜le th—t ™ourts in di'erent ™ountries might —pply di'erent ™ountries9 l—ws to the s—me —™tionF ƒometimesD — ™ourt will rule th—t the —ppli™—˜le l—w is the l—w of the ™ountry in whi™h the infringement o™™urredF es su™hD th—t l—w will govern —ll elements of the —™tion without reg—rd to the n—tion—lity of the —uthorD the ™ountry of origin of the ™opyrighted workD or the pl—™e of (rst pu˜li™—tion of the ™opyrighted workF roweverD this view h—s ˜een ™riti™ized ˜y some ™omment—tors ˜e™—use its —ppli™—tion would result in the —ppli™—tion of di'erent l—ws every time the work ™rosses — n—tion—l ˜orderF en —ltern—tive —ppro—™h is to —pply di'erent l—ws to the issues of origin—lityD ownershipD —nd infringement ! the di'erent elements of the infringement —™tionF …nder this viewD — …FƒF ™ourt would h—ve to —pply …FƒF l—w to resolve issues of origin—lity if the work is (rst pu˜lished in the …FƒF „he l—w —ppli™—˜le to ownership is likely to ˜e the l—w of the ™ountry th—t h—s the most signi(™—nt rel—tionship to the ™opyrighted work —nd to the p—rties involvedF pin—llyD under the gener—l prin™iple of lex loci delicti @the pl—™e of wrongAD the l—w —ppli™—˜le to the —™tu—l infringement is likely to ˜e th—t of the ™ountry in whi™h the —™tu—l infringement o™™urredF „he domin—nt view seems to ˜e th—t ™ourts should —pply the l—w of the pl—™e where the infringement —™tu—lly o™™urredF „his view is ™onsistent with the territori—l limit—tions of ™opyright l—wD —s well —s the gener—l ™onsensus th—t the prote™tions gr—nted ˜y ™opyright —re l—rgely domesti™F st is —lso ™onsistent with erti™le S@PA of the ferne gonventionD whi™h provides th—t ™opyright prote™tion is to ˜e governed ex™lusively ˜y the l—ws of the ™ountry where prote™tion is ™l—imedF et the s—me timeD —ppli™—tion of this view to digit—l —™ts of infringement m—y ™re—te signi(™—nt enfor™ement di0™ulties —nd gre—tly in™re—se the ™omplexity of the ™—seD —s digit—l distri˜ution —nd reprodu™tion m—ke it e—sy to dissemin—te ™opyrighted works to persons in di'erent ™ountries with di'erent ™opyright regimesF sn shortD it is ™urrently un™ert—in whi™h l—ws govern whi™h —spe™ts of ™opyright disputes th—t involve more th—n one ™ountryF ƒu™h disputes —re ˜e™oming in™re—singly ™ommonF qre—ter —ttention to this m—tter is inevit—˜leF yne hopes th—t su™h —ttention will le—d to gre—ter ™l—rityF




8.7 The Complex Responsibilities of Librarians
vi˜r—ries —re m—jor pur™h—sers of ™opyrighted works —nd m—ke these works —v—il—˜le to the pu˜li™F elthough li˜r—ri—ns typi™—lly seek to prevent ™opyright infringement of li˜r—ry m—teri—lsD the ultim—te responsi˜ility of li˜r—ri—ns is to provide —™™ess to m—teri—ls —nd inform—tion servi™esD not to enfor™e ™opyright l—wF ƒever—l li˜r—ry org—niz—tions h—ve —ttempted to provide guid—n™e —s to the —ppropri—te ˜—l—n™e ˜etween prote™ting the rights of —uthors —nd serving the needs of li˜r—ry p—tronsF por ex—mpleD the emeri™—n vi˜r—ry esso™i—tion gode of ithi™s notes th—t re™ognition —nd respe™t for intelle™tu—l property rights is one of the prin™iples th—t should guide li˜r—ri—ns9 ethi™—l de™isionEm—kingF roweverD the gode —lso emph—sizes th—t the eve is ™ommitted to upholding the prin™iples of intelle™tu—l freedom —nd resisting e'orts to ™ensor li˜r—ry resour™esF „he …nited uingdom9s gh—rtered snstitute of vi˜r—ry —nd snform—tion €rofession—ls @gsvs€A supports simil—r v—lues in its gode of €rofession—l €r—™ti™eF sts ™ode requires mem˜ers to defend the legitim—te needs —nd interests of inform—tion usersD while upholding the mor—l —nd leg—l rights of the ™re—tors —nd distri˜utors of intelle™tu—l propertyF pin—llyD the sntern—tion—l peder—tion of vi˜r—ry esso™i—tions —nd snstitutions @spveA h—s rele—sed — st—tement setting forth its position on ™opyrightF „he spve h—s —™knowledged th—t li˜r—ri—ns h—ve — longE st—nding role in informing —nd edu™—ting users —˜out the import—n™e of ™opyright l—w —nd ™ompli—n™e with itF roweverD it —lso emph—sizes th—t overprote™tion of ™opyright le—ds to unre—son—˜le restri™tions to —™™ess —nd knowledgeF st h—s suggested th—t ™opyright l—w should est—˜lish ™le—r limit—tions on li—˜ility of third p—rtiesD su™h —s li˜r—ri—nsD in inst—n™es where ™ompli—n™e ™—nnot pr—™ti™—lly or re—son—˜ly ˜e enfor™edF

8.8 Back to the case study
x—di— —nd engel— should (rst —s™ert—in whether there is —ny merit to the pu˜lisher9s ™ompl—intF por ex—mpleD they should ™he™k to determine whether the ™opyright on the work h—s expired or whether the in™lusion of — ™opy of the work in the p—™ket of ™ourse m—teri—ls is prote™ted ˜y —ny of the ex™eptions —nd limit—tions in their n—tion9s ™opyright l—wsF sf they h—ve —ny dou˜ts on this s™oreD they should ™onsult — l—wyerF „he l—wyer will provide them —dvi™e not just ™on™erning the permissi˜ility of their ˜eh—viorD ˜ut —lso ™on™erning the s—n™tions they might f—™e if they —re un—˜le to resolve the dispute with the pu˜lisher —mi™—˜lyF ‡ith the l—wyer9s —idD they should then de™ide whether to remove the m—teri—l —t issue from the ™ourse m—teri—lsF

8.9 Additional resources
sn 4ƒe™ond—ry vi—˜ility for gopyright snfringement in the …ƒ46 @PHHTAD €rofessor t—ne qins˜urg provides — good review of the l—w governing ™ontri˜utory —nd vi™—rious ™opyright infringementF „he ƒt—nford „e™hnology v—w ‚eview ex—mines the s—me su˜je™t in 4snterpreting qroksterX vimits on the ƒ™ope of ƒe™ond—ry vi—˜ility for gopyright snfringement47 @PHHTAF enother good tre—tment of the s—me su˜je™t is t—y hr—tlerD 4e „heory of ƒe™ond—ry vi—˜ility for gopyE right snfringement48 @PHHSAF e shrewdD forw—rdElooking study of se™ond—ry li—˜ility do™trines with spe™i(™ referen™e to (lesh—ring is quy €ess—™hD 4en sntern—tion—lEgomp—r—tive €erspe™tive on €eerEtoE€eer pileEƒh—ring —nd „hird €—rty vi—˜ility in gopyright v—wX pr—ming the €—stD €resentD —nd xext qener—tions9 uestionsD49 RH †—nder˜ilt tourn—l of „r—nsn—tion—l v—w VU @PHHUAF e thoughtful re™ent st—tement ˜y the spve ™on™erning the ™opyright system —nd its imp—™t on li˜r—ries ™—n ˜e found rere10 F
6 http://www.law.columbia.edu/law_school/communications/reports/winter06/facforum1 7 http://stlr.stanford.edu/pdf/CDT-grokster.pdf 8 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=872903 9 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Papers.cfm?abstract_id=924527 10 http://www.ia.org/en/publications/statement-by-ia-at-the-inter-sessional-intergovernmental-meeting-on-a-development-


8.10 Cases
„he following judi™i—l opinions explore —nd —pply some of the prin™iples dis™ussed in this moduleX ƒony gorpor—tion of emeri™— vF …nivers—l gity ƒtudiosD sn™FD RTR …FƒF RIU @IWVRA11 @se™ond—ry li—˜ilityA gfƒ ƒongs vimited 8 ythers vF emstr—d gonsumer ile™troni™s €l™ —nd enorFD rouse of vordsD IP w—y IWVV12 @se™ond—ry li—˜ilityA

8.11 Assignment and discussion questions

8.11.1 Assignment
IF hoes your ™ountry h—ve — s—fe h—r˜or limiting servi™e providers9 li—˜ilityc sf yesD ple—se des™ri˜e the me™h—nismF PF ƒele™t one —™tivity of your li˜r—ryD des™ri˜e it —nd el—˜or—te ˜est pr—™ti™es to —void ™opyright infringeE mentF por ex—mpleD you might dr—ft — set of guidelines for professors who prep—re ™ourse p—™ks or — noti™e to ˜e displ—yed next to the printing m—™hine or the ™omputers —v—il—˜le to p—tronsF

8.11.2 Discussion Question(s)
IF €le—se review the s—fe h—r˜or poli™ies —v—il—˜le in the ™ountries of your ™olle—guesF ‡hi™h ones o'er the most f—vor—˜le ™onditions for li˜r—ries —nd for wh—t re—sonsc PF €le—se ™omment on — few noti™es of your ™olle—guesF „hese should ˜e ™le—r —nd in™lusiveD ˜ut not over˜ro—dF

8.12 Contributors
„his module w—s ™re—ted ˜y hmitriy „ishyevi™h13 F st w—s then edited ˜y — te—m in™luding ƒe˜—sti—n hi—z14 D ‡illi—m pisher15 D …rs q—sser16 D ed—m roll—nd17 D uim˜erley ss˜ell18 D €eter t—szi19 D golin w—™l—y20 D endrew woshirni—21 D —nd ghris €eterson22 F


11 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/tsher/1984%20Sony%20Abridged.pdf 12 http://www.ipo.gov.uk/ipcass/ipcass-legislation/ipcass-legislation-copyact-1956/ipcass-cbs.htm 13 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#tishyevich 14 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#diaz 15 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#sher 16 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#gasser 17 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#holland 18 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#isbell 19 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#jaszi 20 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#maclay 21 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#moshirnia 22 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#peterson




Chapter 9
Traditional Knowledge

9.1 Module 8: Traditional Knowledge 9.2 Learning objective
yne of the most ™omplex re™ent extensions of ™opyright l—w involves tr—dition—l knowledgeF „his module (rst des™ri˜es the intri™—te —nd r—pidly ™h—nging set of leg—l rules pert—ining to tr—dition—l knowledgeD —nd then explores the (er™e ™ontinuing de˜—te ™on™erning the —ppropri—te s™ope of prote™tion for this novel topi™F

9.3 Case Study
engel— is — mem˜er of —n indigenous ™ommunity th—t h—s — unique tr—dition of d—n™eF €erform—n™es of these d—n™es —ttr—™t mem˜ers of other indigenous ™ommunities —nd touristsF engel— ™—lls x—di— when she sees elements of one of the d—n™es in — re™ently rele—sed musi™ video ˜y the emeri™—n singerD w—donn—F engle— —sks whether she h—s —ny leg—l re™ourse either to stop the use of the d—n™e or to o˜t—in ™ompens—tion for herself or for her ™ommunityF

9.4 Lesson

9.4.1 What Is Traditional Knowledge?
„hough di0™ult to de(neD traditional knowledge (TK) is gener—lly understood to en™omp—ss four types of ™re—tive worksX verbal expressions @storiesD epi™sD legendsD folk t—lesD poetryD riddlesD et™FAD musical expressions @folk songs —nd instrument—l musi™AD expressions by action @d—n™esD pl—ysD ™eremoniesD ritu—ls —nd other perform—n™esA —nd tangible expressions th—t must ˜e (xed on — perm—nent m—teri—l @dr—wingsD designsD p—intings @in™luding ˜odyEp—intingsAD ™—rvingsD s™ulpturesD potteryD mos—i™sD jewelryD ˜—sket workD textilesD ™—rpetsD ™ostumesD musi™—l instrumentsD et™FA wore det—iled de(nitions ™—n ˜e found in the ‡orld sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tion @‡s€yA2 —nd …nited x—tions idu™—tion—lD ƒ™ienti(™ —nd gultur—l yrE g—niz—tion @…xiƒgyA3 wodel €rovisionsF „u is used inter™h—nge—˜ly with the term traditional cultural expressions (TCEs)Y ˜oth refer to musi™D —rtD designsD n—mesD signs —nd sym˜olsD perform—n™esD —r™hite™E tur—l formsD h—ndi™r—fts —nd n—rr—tivesF „gis —re integr—l to the ™ultur—l —nd so™i—l identities of indigenous —nd lo™—l ™ommunitiesF „hey em˜ody knowledge —nd skillsD —nd they tr—nsmit ™ore v—lues —nd ˜eliefsF
1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m38519/1.2/>. 2 http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/tk/en/wipo_grtkf_ic_7/wipo_grtkf_ic_7_3.pdf 3 http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=34325&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html





9.4.2 What is the Debate About?
ƒever—l ™om˜ined for™es h—ve re™ently led to ™ommer™i—liz—tion of „gis on — glo˜—l s™—le without due respe™t ˜eing given to the ™ultur—l or e™onomi™ interests of the ™ommunities from whi™h they origin—teF „he snternet provides perv—sive —™™ess to „gisF „he dem—nd of western ™onsumers for wh—t is sometimes @disrespe™tfullyA ™—lled 4primitive —rt4 h—s in™re—sedF pin—llyD tourism in developing ™ountries h—s exposed more potenti—l ™onsumers to m—nifest—tions of folklore th—t ™—n ˜e found thereF es — resultD indigenous groups —re seeking prote™tion for their „gis —nd their responses h—ve —'e™ted legisl—tion —t n—tion—lD region—l —nd intern—tion—l levelsF

9.4.3 What types of Traditional Knowledge are Most Frequently Used?
ixploit—tion of „u o™™urs in di'erent formsF ix—mples in™lude the un—uthorized produ™tion of indigenous ™r—ft o˜je™ts in the souvenir m—rket4 D the un—uthorized use of indigenous im—gery on ™lothing5 D food produ™ts6 D or toys7 D the un—uthorized use of indigenous n—mes or phr—ses —s tr—dem—rks8 D the un—uthorized in™orpor—tion of tr—dition—l d—n™e into ™ommer™i—l perform—n™es9 D —nd the un—uthorized use of tr—dition—l musi™ in ™ommer™i—l musi™—l produ™tions10 F

9.4.4 What Kind of Legal Liability Governs?
‡h—t kinds of leg—l rules @if —nyA should govern use of tr—dition—l knowledge ˜y people who —re not mem˜ers of ™ommunities from whi™h the „u origin—tesc „his issue is ˜eing —ddressed on n—tion—lD region—l —nd intern—tion—l levelsF „u might ˜e prote™ted through ™onvention—l s€ l—w ! for ex—mpleD through the use of gopyright l—wD €—tent l—wD qeogr—phi™—l sndi™—torsD or gerti(™—tion „r—dem—rksF roweverD m—ny regions —nd ™ountries h—ve found it di0™ult to (t „u into tr—dition—l s€ prote™tion s™hemesF es — resultD some h—ve —dopted sui generis l—ws th—t —pply spe™i(™—lly to „uF ix—mples of these di'erent —ppro—™hes —re dis™ussed ˜elowF

9.5 How Individual Nations deal with Traditional Knowledge

9.5.1 Countries Whose Traditional IP Laws Do Not Cover Traditional Knowledge
ƒever—l n—tions h—ve ™opyright l—ws th—t expressly ex™lude folklore from the list of works eligi˜le for ™opyE right prote™tionF „hese in™ludeX Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Slovenia, The Ukraine, Uzbekistan —nd YemenF „hese ™ountries tend to ™l—ssify tr—dition—l knowledge —s within the 4pu˜li™ dom—in4 —nd thus do not restri™t use of or —™™ess to „uF por inst—n™eD erti™le W11 of the PHHP gopyright

e™t of Bosnia and Herzegovina st—tes th—t 4the use of folk liter—ture —nd —rt ™re—tions for the purpose of — liter—ryD —rtisti™ or s™ienti(™ —rr—ngement sh—ll ˜e freeF4

9.5.2 Countries Whose Traditional IP Laws Cover Traditional Knowledge Protection Despite No Explicit Reference to TCE

„he tr—dition—l s€ st—tutes in some n—tions ™ont—in no expli™it referen™es to folkloreD ˜ut „gis m—y still ˜e prote™ted in those n—tions under ™opyright l—wD other tr—dition—l intelle™tu—l property do™trinesD or through
4 http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/tk/en/studies/cultural/minding-culture/studies/carpetscase-main.pdf 5 http://www.wipo.int/tk/en//studies/cultural/minding-culture/studies/rockart.pdf 6 http://cita.chattanooga.org/chml.html 7 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacic/1627209.stm 8 http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/tk/en/studies/cultural/minding-culture/studies/trademarks.pdf 9 http://www.villagevoice.com/2004-04-13/news/rap-rage-redvolution/ 10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiwanese_aborigines 11 http://www.ohr.int/ohr-dept/legal/oth-legist/doc/BH-LAW-ON-COPYRIGHT-AND-RELATED-RIGHTS.doc

UW spe™i—l st—tutesF por ex—mpleD most ™ountries in iurope h—ve ™opyright legisl—tion th—t m—y ˜e used to ™over tr—dition—l knowledgeD ˜ut do not h—ve —ny provisions expli™itly mentioning „gisF „hese in™ludeX Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark,Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, —nd SwitzerlandF ƒever—l other 4m—jor inE dustri—lized ™ountries4 l—™k expli™it „gi referen™es —s wellF „hese in™ludeX Australia, Canada, Japan, —nd the United StatesF eddition—llyD sever—l ™ountries with re™entlyEen—™ted ™opyright legisl—tion h—ve

not expressly in™luded „gis within its s™opeF sn™luded in this group —re sever—l esi—n ™ountries @su™h —s India, Malaysia, Philippines, —nd ThailandA —nd sever—l g—ri˜˜e—n —nd ƒouth emeri™—n ™ounE tries @su™h —s Barbados, El Salvador, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, —nd VenezuelaAF ƒilen™e in these st—tutesD howeverD does not me—n th—t tr—dition—l knowledge is unproE te™tedF ‚—therD in these ™ountries „gis —re prote™ted on the ˜—sis of tr—dition—l s€D ™ustom—ryD region—l or intern—tion—l l—ws or through sui generis legisl—tionF sn AustraliaD „gis —re prote™ted through tr—dition—l ™opyright l—wF por ex—mpleD in wilpurrurru vF sndofurn €ly vtdF12 D —˜origin—l eustr—li—n —rtists sued to prevent the import—tion ˜y — €erthE˜—sed ™omp—ny of ™—rpets m—nuf—™tured in †ietn—mD upon whi™h were reprodu™ed the designs of sever—l prominent —˜origin—l —rtists without their permissionF „he designs h—d ˜een ™opied from — portfolio of —rtworks produ™ed ˜y the eustr—li—n x—tion—l q—lleryF „he feder—l ™ourt —w—rded the —˜origin—l —rtists su˜st—nti—l d—m—ges for ™opyright infringement —nd gr—nted —n injun™tion —g—inst —ny further infringementF „he ™ourt pointed out th—t the un—uthorized use of the —rtwork involved the pir—ting of ™ultur—l herit—ge —nd th—t su™h ˜eh—vior ™ould h—ve f—r re—™hing e'e™ts on the eustr—li—n ™ultur—l environmentF st w—s deemed espe™i—lly o'ensive th—t the im—ges h—d ˜een used on — medium @™—rpetA th—t w—s designed to ˜e w—lked uponF yther n—tions h—ve ˜egun using tr—dem—rk l—w to prote™t „gisD even when „gis —re not mentioned in n—tion—l st—tutesF por ex—mpleD in Canada, New Zealand —nd the United StatesD —s well —s AustraliaD indigenous people h—ve sometimes relied @with v—rying degrees of su™™essA upon tr—dem—rk l—w or its equiv—E lent to prote™t tri˜—l n—mes —nd other designs —nd motifs —g—inst un—uthorized use ˜y othersF gonsider—˜le e'orts h—ve —lso ˜een m—de to prote™t s—™red —nd ™ultur—lly signi(™—nt sym˜ols —s well —s ™olle™tive —nd ™erE ti(™—tion m—rks under tr—dition—l tr—dem—rk l—wF por inst—n™eD Australiaprovides for design registr—tionD whi™h —llows for the registr—tion of fe—tures of sh—peD ™on(gur—tionD p—ttern or orn—ment—tion —ppli™—˜le to —n —rti™leF „his system prote™ts the visu—l form for IT ye—rsD provided th—t it is new —nd origin—l —nd is not ˜—sed on — preEexisting designF ƒtillD ˜e™—use of the origin—lity requirementD this system h—s not yet ˜een e'e™tive for prote™ting folkloreF wore e'e™tive is the system used in New ZealandF „hereD the re™ently —dopted „r—de w—rks e™t of PHHP13 D prevents the registr—tion of tr—dem—rks ˜—sed on w—ori text or im—gery where the use or registr—tion of su™h m—rks would ˜e o'ensive to the w—oriF „he gommissioner of „r—de w—rks h—s set up — w—ori edvisory gommittee to —dvise on whether the proposed registr—tion or use of — m—rk is likely to ˜e o'ensiveF elthough the United States h—s not —™ted to provide gener—l prote™tion for indigenous peoples9 tr—E dition—l knowledgeD it h—s sometimes —dopted n—rrow st—tutes in response to x—tive emeri™—ns9 —ttempts to reg—in selfEgovern—n™e —nd to ™ontrol the use of their tr—dition—l knowledge ˜y nonE™ommunity mem˜ersF i'orts of this sort in™ludeX

• the entiquities e™t of IWHT14 @IT …FƒFgF ŸŸRQIEQQ @PHHHAAD giving the €resident power to set —side —s n—tion—l monuments ™ert—in histori™ l—ndm—rksD stru™tures —nd other o˜je™ts of histori™ interestD • the ristori™ ƒitesD fuildings —nd entiquities e™t of IWQS15 @IT …FƒFgF ŸŸRTIETUAD empowering the x—tion—l €—rk ƒervi™e to restoreD re™onstru™tD —nd m—int—in sites —nd o˜je™ts of histori™ interestD • the x—tion—l ristori™ €reserv—tion e™t of IWTT16 @IT …FƒFgF ŸRUHAD providing for the m—inten—n™e of — x—tion—l ‚egister of ristori™ €l—™es —nd requiring the ƒe™ret—ry of the snterior to est—˜lish — progr—m to help x—tive emeri™—n tri˜es to preserve their propertiesD t—king into —™™ount tri˜—l v—luesD
12 http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/AILR/1996/20.html 13 http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2002/0049/latest/DLM164240.html?search=ts_act_Trade+Marks+Act_resel&sr=1 14 http://www.nps.gov/history/local-law/anti1906.htm 15 http://www.nps.gov/history/local-law/hsact35.htm 16 http://www.nps.gov/history/local-law/nhpa1966.htm




• the x—tive emeri™—n erts —nd gr—fts e™t17 @PS …FƒFgF ŸQHS @PHHHAAD intended to —ssure the —uthenti™ity of x—tive emeri™—n —rtif—™tsD —nd • the x—tive emeri™—n qr—ves €rote™tion —nd ‚ep—tri—tion e™t18 @xeq€‚eA@ PS …FƒFgF ŸQHHI@IAE@IQA @PHHHAAD whi™h provided th—t the ownership or ™ontrol of x—tive emeri™—n ™ultur—l items ex™—v—ted or dis™overed on feder—l or tri˜—l l—nds rem—ined with line—l des™end—ntsD x—tive emeri™—n tri˜esD or r—w—ii—n yrg—niz—tionsF Protection Using Explicit Reference to TCEs

w—ny ™ountries now expli™itly refer to folklore in their ™opyright legisl—tionF ƒu™h referen™es t—ke v—rious formsF ƒome ™ountries h—ve se™tionsD ™h—ptersD or spe™i—l p—rts of ™opyright l—w th—t —re entirely devoted to folkloreF gountries within this group in™lude Algeria, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Chile,
Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Rwanda, Seychelles, Togo, Tanzania, Tunisia, —nd ZimbabweF sn the CongoD for ex—mpleD folklore is ™onsidered p—rty of the ™ountry9s herit—geD —nd gongolese ™opyright

l—w prote™ts folklore without — time limit—tionF e 4fody of euthors4 so™iety is responsi˜le for ™olle™ting roy—ltiesD representing —uthors9 interestsD —nd overseeing the use of folkloreF €ermission must ˜e sought from the so™iety ˜efore —ny pu˜li™ perform—n™eD reprodu™tionD or —d—pt—tion of folklore for ™ommer™i—l purposesF „his in™ludes the import or distri˜ution of ™opies of works of n—tion—l folklore m—de —˜ro—dF €u˜li™ —gen™ies —re exempted from the o˜lig—tion to o˜t—in prior —uthoriz—tion to use folklore for nonEpro(t —™tivitiesD though they still must notify the so™iety ˜efore useF sn GhanaD the re™ently —dopted gopyright e™t of PHHS19 signi(™—ntly ™h—nged the w—y tr—dition—l knowledge is prote™tedF sn the e™tD ™opyright prote™tion extends to liter—ry worksD —rtisti™ worksD musi™—l worksD sound re™ordingsD ˜ro—d™—stsD ™inem—togr—phi™ worksD ™horeogr—phi™ worksD deriv—tive worksD —nd progr—mE™—rrying ˜ro—d™—st sign—lsF „o ˜e eligi˜le for ™opyrightD the work must ˜e origin—lD in writing @or otherwise redu™ed to m—teri—l formAD —nd ™re—ted ˜y — ™itizen or resident of qh—n—F „he work must —lso h—ve ˜een (rst pu˜lished in qh—n—D orD if (rst pu˜lished outside qh—n—D pu˜lished in qh—n— within thirty d—ys of its origin—l pu˜li™—tionF e work ™re—ted ˜y —n individu—l is prote™ted for the life of th—t individu—l plus (fty ye—rsY — work ™re—ted ˜y — ™orpor—tion is prote™ted for (fty ye—rs from the d—te on whi™h the work w—s (rst m—de pu˜li™F sn qh—n—D —n —uthor h—s ex™lusive rights to reprodu™e the work @with the ex™eption of priv—te useD quot—tions in other worksD —nd use in ped—gogyD whi™h —re permittedAF st is —n infringement of the ™opyright to reprodu™eD sell or exhi˜it in pu˜li™ for ™ommer™i—l purposes —ny work without —uthoriz—tionD or to use the work in — m—nner th—t —dversely —'e™ts the reput—tion of the —uthorF foth ™ivil —nd ™rimin—l pen—lties m—y —pplyF erti™le SW of the e™t est—˜lishes — x—tion—l polklore fo—rdD whi™h governs the —dministr—tionD preserv—tionD registr—tion —nd promotion of expressions of folkloreF „he fo—rd m—y —uthorize the use of folklore —nd m—y determine — fee to ˜e p—idF „he e™t provides th—t the ™opyrights of —uthors of folklore vest in the government —s if the government were the ™re—tor of the worksF sn qh—n— @—s in the gentr—l efri™—n ‚epu˜li™ —nd gongoAD funds from fees or other money —™™ruing from the use of folklore —re to ˜e used for so™i—l welf—re ˜ene(tsF Namibia gr—nts indigenous ™ommunities inde(nite ex™lusive rights to ™ontrol expressions of folklore —nd their —d—pt—tionsD tr—nsl—tionsD —nd tr—nsform—tionsF „hese ex™lusive rights in™lude the right to pu˜li™izeD m—ke — reprodu™tionD or distri˜ute ™opies of —n expression of folkloreY ™ommuni™—te —n expression of folklore to the pu˜li™ ˜y perform—n™eD ˜ro—d™—stingD distri˜ution ˜y ™—˜le or other me—nsY in™lude —n expression of folklore in — ™inem—togr—phi™ (lm or — television ˜ro—d™—stY ™—use the folklore expressionD or — television progr—m or other progr—m in™luding the expressionD to ˜e tr—nsmitted in — di'usion servi™e @unless su™h servi™e tr—nsmits — l—wful ˜ro—d™—stD in™luding the expressionD —nd is oper—ted ˜y the origin—l ˜ro—d™—sterAY
17 http://www.doi.gov/iacb/act.html 18 http://www.nps.gov/nagpra/MANDATES/25USC3001etseq.htm 19 http://www.wipo.int/clea/en/text_pdf.jsp?lang=EN&id=1789.

VI m—ke —d—pt—tionsD tr—nsl—tions —nd other tr—nsform—tion of the expression @erti™le TH20 AF erti™le TI21 D howeverD —llows — se™ond—ry user to use expressions of folklore for person—l or priv—te useD ™riti™ism or reviewD te—™hing or s™ienti(™ rese—r™hD —nd in™ident—l useF erti™le TI —lso —llows the use of the origin—l expression if the use is 4™omp—ti˜le with f—ir pr—™ti™eD4 su™h —s for ™re—ting —n illustr—tion or ˜orrowing the expression to ™re—te —n origin—l workF vikewiseD Nigerian gopyright v—w22 prote™ts expressions of folklore 4—g—inst reprodu™tionD ™ommuE ni™—tion to the pu˜li™ ˜y perform—n™eD ˜ro—d™—stingD ‘or“ distri˜ution ˜y ™—˜leF4 sn —dditionD it for˜ids —d—pt—tionsD tr—nsl—tionsD —nd other tr—nsform—tions of su™h folkloreD when m—de either for ™ommer™i—l purE poses or outside their tr—dition—l ™ustom—ry ™ontextF „he right to —uthorize —ny of these —™ts lies with the xigeri—n gopyright goun™ilF roweverD xigeri—n folklore m—y ˜e used without —uthoriz—tion for priv—teD edu™—tion—lD or illustr—tive purposesF „he l—w requires identi(™—tion of the sour™e of the folklore ˜y referen™e to the ™ommunity or pl—™e from whi™h the folklore is derivedF †iol—tions of the l—w su˜je™t the user to li—˜ility in d—m—gesD injun™tionsD —nd other remedies the ™ourt deems —ppropri—teF xigeri— —lso prote™ts tr—dition—l knowledge through p—tents —nd tr—dem—rksF „o ˜e p—tent—˜leD —n invention must ˜e newD result from inventive —™tivityD —nd ˜e ™—p—˜le of industri—l —ppli™—tionF „he p—tent right is vested in the inventorD —nd the p—tent is v—lid for PH ye—rs —fter the (ling d—teF eddition—llyD xigeri—n legisl—tion prote™ts registered tr—dem—rksF ‚egistr—tion is v—lid for seven ye—rs —nd then ™—n ˜e renewedY registr—tion is limited to m—rks th—t —re distin™tiveF sn RwandaD ertF Q of the gopyright v—w @IWVQA23 provides generous prote™tion to folkloreF sn™luded in its ™over—ge —re tr—ditions —nd liter—ry produ™tions @t—lesD legendsD mythsD prover˜sD —™™ountsD —nd poemsAD —rtisti™ works @d—n™es —nd spe™t—™les of —ny kindD musi™—l works of —ny kindD styles —nd works of de™or—tive —rtD —nd —r™hite™tur—l stylesAD religious works @ritu—l ritesD o˜je™tsD ™lothingD —nd pl—™es of worshipsAD s™ienti(™ knowledge @pr—™ti™es —nd produ™ts of medi™ine —nd ph—rm—™ologyD theoreti™—l —nd pr—™ti™—l (elds of the n—tur—l s™ien™e —nd —nthropologyAD —nd te™hnologi™—l knowledgeF „he gopyright v—w of Zimbabwe prote™ts performers9 rights to re™ordD ˜ro—d™—st —nd distri˜ute ™opies of their perform—n™es @ƒe™tion TV24 AF sn —dditionD it extends prote™tion to — 4work of folkloreD4 whi™h it de(nes —s — liter—ryD musi™—l or —rtisti™ workD whether or not it is re™ordedD of whi™hX @—A no person ™—n ™l—im to ˜e the —uthorY —nd @˜A the form or ™ontent is em˜odied in the tr—ditions pe™uli—r to one or more ™ommunities in im˜—˜weY —nd in™ludesX @iA folk t—lesD folk poetry —nd tr—dition—l riddlesY @iiA folk songs —nd instrument—l folk musi™Y @iiiA folk d—n™esD pl—ys —nd —rtisti™ forms of ritu—lY —nd @ivA produ™tions of folk —rtD in p—rti™ul—r dr—wingsD p—intingsD s™ulpturesD potteryD woodworkD met—lworkD jeweleryD ˜—skets —nd ™ostumes @ƒe™tion VH25 AF „he ™opyright l—ws in sever—l other ™ountries shield tr—dition—l knowledge ˜y in™luding folklore in the list of liter—ry —nd —rtisti™ works eligi˜le for regul—r ™opyright prote™tionF gountries —dopting this —ppro—™h in™lude Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Djibouti, Gabon, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Lesotho, Madagascar, must seek permission from the x—tion—l gopyright gorpor—tion ˜efore —ny ™ommer™i—l exploit—tion of folklore m—y o™™urF egents —uthorized ˜y the gorpor—tion regul—te the use of folklore in g—meroonD while the gorpor—tion ™olle™ts roy—lties (xed ˜y —greement ˜etween the p—rties —nd ˜rings infringement —™tions —g—inst unl—wful users of prote™ted worksF Lesotho's gopyright yrder of IWVW27 de(nes folklore —s ™ultur—l produ™tions with 4™h—r—™teristi™ eleE ments of the tr—dition—l —rtisti™ herit—ge developed —nd m—int—ined over gener—tions ˜y — ™ommunity or ˜y individu—ls re)e™ting the tr—dition—l —rtisti™ expe™t—tions of their ™ommunityF4 ‡orks inspired ˜y expressions
Mali, Mozambique, Oman, Republic of Central Africa, Senegal, Togo, Uganda, and Zaire. por inst—n™eD Cameroonian l—w extends ™opyright prote™tion to 4works derived from folkloreF426 …sers

20 http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/tk/en/consultations/questionnaires/ic-2-7/namibia.pdf 21 http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/tk/en/consultations/questionnaires/ic-2-7/namibia.pdf 22 http://www.nigeria-law.org/CopyrightAct.htm 23 http://www.amategeko.net/display_rubrique.php?ActDo=ShowArt&Information_ID=874&Parent_ID=3070032&type=public&Langue_ID= 24 http://www.unesco.org/culture/pdf/anti-piracy/Zimbabwe/zb_copyright_2000_en 25 http://www.unesco.org/culture/pdf/anti-piracy/Zimbabwe/zb_copyright_2000_en 26 http://www.wipo.int/clea/en/text_html.jsp?lang=en&id=836 27 http://www.copyright-watch.org/sites/default/les/LesothoCopyrightOrder1989.pdf




of folklore —re prote™ted —s origin—l works @erti™le R@™AAF sn Mali —ll persons @ex™ept pu˜li™ entitiesA seeking to use folklore for pro(t must o˜t—in prior —uthoE riz—tion from the winister of erts —nd gulture who m—y impose — fee for su™h useF „he l—w prohi˜its the —ssignment or li™ensing of 4works derived from folklore4 without the —pprov—l of the winisterF „he l—w —lso pl—™es in the pu˜li™ dom—in —nd ™h—rges — user fee for —ll 4works whose —uthors —re unknownD in™luding the songsD legendsD d—n™esD —nd other m—nifest—tions of the ™ommon ™ultur—l herit—geF4 Senegal in™ludes folklore in the list of works eligi˜le for ™opyright prote™tionF erti™le I of the ƒeneg—lese gopyright e™t provides spe™i—l prote™tion for folkloreD —nd erti™le W st—tes th—t —ny 4dire™t or indire™t4 (x—tion of su™h m—teri—l for 4pro(tEm—king purposes4 is su˜je™t to prior —uthoriz—tion ˜y the gopyright y0™e of ƒeneg—lF ell folklore uses require prior —uthoriz—tion from the y0™eD whi™h ™h—rges users — fee whose —mount depends on the n—ture of the use —nd prior —rr—ngementsF ƒeneg—l ™rimin—lizes the import—tion of works into ƒeneg—l th—t viol—te its ™opyright l—wF Uganda's gopyright —nd xeigh˜ouring ‚ights e™tD PHHT28 gr—nts ™opyright prote™tion to 4work in the (eld of liter—tureD tr—dition—l folklore —nd knowledgeD s™ien™e —nd —rt4 @erti™le SAF st gr—nts performers ! persons who —™tD singD deliverD de™l—imD pl—y inD interpretD or otherwise perform liter—ry or —rtisti™ works or expressions of folklore ! the right to ™ontrol the (x—tionD tr—nsmission —nd reprodu™tion of their perform—n™es @erti™les P —nd PPAF e (n—l group of ™ountries prote™t „gis ˜y gr—nting rights to the ƒt—te for its prote™tionF sn™luded in this group —re Egypt, Jordan, Malawi, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, —nd QatarF por inst—n™eD in SudanD erti™le U29 of the gopyright e™t notes th—t 4x—tion—l folklore of the ƒud—nese ™ommunity is deemed to ˜e the property of the ƒt—te4 —nd th—t the 4ƒt—te represented ˜y the winistry of gulture —nd snform—tionD sh—ll ende—vor to prote™t works of folklore ˜y —ll leg—l w—ys —nd me—nsD —nd sh—ll exer™ise the rights of —n —uthor in ™—ses of mutil—tionD tr—nsform—tion —nd ™ommer™i—l exploit—tionF4 ƒimil—rlyD in EgyptD erti™le IRP30 of the v—w on the €rote™tion of sntelle™tu—l €roperty ‚ights xoF VP @Q tune PHHPA de(nes 4n—tion—l folklore4 —s p—rt of the 4pu˜li™ dom—in of the peopleF4 „he —™t st—tesD 4„he ™ompetent ministry sh—ll exer™ise the —uthor9s e™onomi™ —nd mor—l rights —nd sh—ll prote™t —nd support su™h folkloreF4 sn Saudi ArabiaD erti™le U31 of the gopyright v—w of PHHQ st—tes th—t 4‘f“olklore sh—ll ˜e the property of the st—teD —nd the winistry sh—ll exer™ise the ™opyright pert—ining theretoD4 —nd th—t 4‘t“he import or distri˜ution of ™opies of folklore worksD ™opies of their tr—nsl—tions or others whi™h —re produ™ed outside the uingdom without — li™ense from the winistry sh—ll ˜e prohi˜itedF4 vikewiseD in QatarD erti™le QP of the gopyright e™t of PHHP provides th—t 4‘n“—tion—l folklore sh—ll ˜e the pu˜li™ property of the ƒt—te4 —nd th—t 4the ƒt—teFFFsh—ll prote™t n—tion—l folklore ˜y —ll leg—l me—nsD —nd sh—ll —™t —s the —uthor of folklore works in f—™ing —ny deform—tionD modi(™—tion or ™ommer™i—l exploit—tionF4 sn JordanD erti™le U@™A@QA32 of the gopyright v—w xoF PP of IWWP ex™ludes from ™opyright prote™tion 4works whi™h reverted to the pu˜li™ dom—inF por the purpose of this —rti™le folklore sh—ll ˜e ™onsidered in the pu˜li™ dom—in with the minister exer™ising the ™opyrights of these works —g—inst distortionD misrepresent—tion or d—m—ge to ™ultur—l interests4 unless 4the ™olle™tions of these works were distinguished ˜y — person—l e'ort involving innov—tion or —rr—ngementF4 Countries with Sui Generis Traditional Knowledge Laws

„he ™ountries dis™ussed in the previous se™tion in™lude tr—dition—l knowledge in their regul—r ™opyright l—wsD ˜ut typi™—lly tre—t „u somewh—t di'erently from other types of ™opyrighted worksF „he mem˜ers of the (n—l group of ™ountries go one step furtherF snste—d of ™l—ssifying „u —s — @spe™i—lA type of ™opyrighted workD these ™ountries h—ve —dopted soE™—lled sui generis l—ws th—t ™re—te —n entirely di'erent sort of leg—l prote™tion for „uF @es we will seeD the distin™tion ˜etween ™ustomized ™opyright l—ws —nd sui generis l—ws is ˜lurryD ˜ut is nevertheless helpful in di'erenti—ting the types of —ppro—™hes to this issueFA
28 http://www.i-network.or.ug/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=93&Itemid=130 29 http://www.wipo.int/clea/en/text_html.jsp?lang=en&id=3605#P116_9052 30 http://www.ecipit.org.eg/Arabic/pdf/IPR%20law%20no%2082%20year%202002%20English.pdf 31 http://www.boe.gov.sa/English/En%20Word/2%20Media,%20Culture%20and%20Publishing/Copyright%20Law.doc 32 http://www.agip.com/country_service.aspx?country_key=50&service_key=C&SubService_Order=3&lang=en

VQ „wo e—rly ex—mples of n—tion—l sui generis l—ws grew out of ™ountries9 e'orts to prote™t the tr—dition—l knowledge of indigenous groups ™on™erning the medi™in—l v—lue of pl—ntsF Ecuador's v—w on sntelle™tu—l €roperty of IWWV33 prote™ts the ™ountry9s ˜iologi™—l —nd geneti™ herit—ge —nd ™onditions the gr—nt of produ™t or pro™ess p—tents rel—ting to th—t herit—ge on the —™quisition of rights from the relev—nt tr—dition—l ownersF ƒimil—rlyD in IWWUD the Philippine Congress p—ssed the sndigenous €eoples ‚ights e™t34 to re™ognize —nd promote —ll the rights of sndigenous gultur—l gommunitiesGsndigenous €eoples @sggsGs€sAD in™luding their rights to preserve —nd develop their ™ulturesD tr—ditionsD —nd institutions in ™ultur—l propertyF „he e™t —0rms the right of sggsGs€s to the full ownership —nd ™ontrol of their ™ultur—l —nd intelle™tu—l rightsF „husD —™™ess to ˜iologi™—l —nd geneti™ resour™es is permitted only —fter o˜t—ining the free —nd informed ™onsent of su™h ™ommunitiesF sn —dditionD the e™t gu—r—ntees sggsGs€s the right to pr—™ti™e —nd revit—lize their ™ultur—l tr—ditionsD in™luding to pr—™ti™e —nd te—™h their spiritu—l —nd religious tr—ditionsD ™ustoms —nd ™eremoniesY the right to m—int—inD prote™t —nd h—ve —™™ess to their religious —nd ™ultur—l sitesY the right to the use —nd ™ontrol of ™eremoni—l o˜je™tsY —ndD the right to the rep—tri—tion of hum—n rem—insF Panama's e™t xoF PH35 l—un™hed the sui generis prote™tion movement spe™i(™—lly for „gis in tuneD PHHHF „he e™t su˜je™ts the rights of use —nd ™ommer™i—liz—tion of the —rtsD ™r—fts —nd other ™ultur—l expresE sions ˜—sed on the tr—dition of the indigenous ™ommunity to the regul—tion of e—™h indigenous ™ommunity —pproved —nd registered in the hsqi‚€s or in the x—tion—l gopyright y0™e of the winistry of idu™—tionF st de(nes indigenous ™olle™tive rights —s indigenous intelle™tu—l —nd ™ultur—l property rights l—w rel—ting to —rtD musi™D liter—tureFFF—nd other su˜je™t m—tter —nd m—nifest—tions th—t h—ve no known —uthor or owner —nd no d—te of origin —nd ™onstitute the herit—ge of —n entire indigenous peopleF vikewiseD Peru's PHHP sui generis36 37 „u v—w38 —ims to promote respe™t for —nd prote™t the 4™olle™tive knowledge of indigenous peoplesY to promote the f—ir —nd equit—˜le distri˜ution of the ˜ene(ts derived from the use of th—t ™olle™tive knowledgeY to promote the use of the knowledge for the ˜ene(t of the indigenous peoples —nd m—nkind in gener—lY to ensure th—t the use of the knowledge t—kes pl—™e with the prior informed ™onsent of the indigenous peoplesY to promote the strengthening —nd development of the potenti—l of the indigenous peoplesFFF—nd to —void situ—tions where the p—tents —re gr—nted for inventions m—de or developed on the ˜—sis of ™olle™tive knowledge of the indigenous peoples of €eru without —ny —™™ount ˜eing t—ken of th—t knowledge —s prior —rt in the ex—min—tion of the novelty —nd inventiveness of the s—id inventionsF4 sn PHHQD Guatemala designed —nd implemented — spe™i—l sui generis set of intelle™tu—l property rights for indigenous folkloreD ˜—™ked ˜y ˜oth ™ivil —nd ™rimin—l pen—ltiesF qu—tem—l—9s 4gultur—l rerit—ge €rote™tion v—w4 —lso en—˜les the —ttorney gener—l to prote™t —ny registered indigenous ™ultur—l good @in™luding or—l or musi™—l tr—ditionsA —nd provides perpetu—l intelle™tu—l property prote™tion for —ny registered itemF „he qu—tem—l—n system is re™ipro™—lY it re™ognizes the registered folklore of —ny other ™ountry th—t re™ognizes the qu—tem—l—n registryF st is likely th—t m—ny other ™ountries will soon —dopt sui generis „u l—wsF yne indi™—tion of the trend in this dire™tion is th—t m—ny n—tion—l mem˜ers of ‡s€y9s sntergovernment—l gommittee on sntelle™tu—l €roperty —nd qeneti™ ‚esour™esD „r—dition—l unowledgeD —nd polklore h—ve ™—lled for the est—˜lishment of sui generis systems in their written su˜missions to the gommitteeF emong su™h ™ountries —re Brazil,
Colombia, Ethiopia, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Morocco, the Russian Federation, Thailand, —nd VenezuelaF

9.6 Regional Codes Governing Traditional Knowledge
enother w—y in whi™h some ™ountries —ttempt to prote™t tr—dition—l ™ultur—l expressions @„gisA is ˜y pooling their resour™es —nd ™re—ting intergovernment—l org—niz—tions th—t monitor —nd seek to ™ontrol the
33 http://www.wipo.int/clea/en/text_html.jsp?lang=en&id=1205 34 http://www.grain.org/brl_les/philippines-ipra-1999-en.pdf 35 http://www.ichrdd.ca/english/commdoc/publications/indigenous/aresioPanamaLawEng.html 36 http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/tk/en/laws/pdf/peru_law_27811.pdf 37 http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/tk/en/laws/pdf/peru_law_27811.pdf 38 http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/tk/en/laws/pdf/peru_law_27811.pdf




use of „gis in foreign territoriesF edv—nt—ges of this —ppro—™h in™lude h—rmonizing lo™—l l—wsD ™entr—lizing —dministr—tionD —nd —voiding dupli™—tion of ™ostly e'orts —™ross multiple ™ountriesF ‡hile the o˜je™tives of region—l l—ws m—y ˜e soundD it is de˜—t—˜le whether the region—l org—niz—tions provide e'e™tive forms of enfor™ementF „he m—jor ex—mples of this str—tegy —re des™ri˜ed ˜elowF

9.6.1 African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO)
„he efri™—n ‚egion—l sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tion @e‚s€yA @origin—lly n—med the efri™—n ‚egion—l sndustri—l €roperty yrg—niz—tionA w—s formed in IWUT —nd in™ludes m—ny of the inglishEspe—king efri™—n ™ountriesX Botswana, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, —nd ZimbabweF e‚s€y9s overE —ll o˜je™tives39 —re to h—rmonize intelle™tu—l property regimesD foster ™ooper—tionD —nd provide ™oordin—ted —dministr—tive tr—ining —™ross mem˜er st—tesF e‚s€y h—s —dopted two ™entr—l proto™olsX the r—r—re €roto™ol40 D pert—ining to p—tents —nd industri—l designsD —nd the f—njul €roto™ol41 D rel—ting to tr—dem—rks —nd servi™e m—rksF ƒurprisinglyD neither protoE ™ol spe™i(™—lly mentions prote™tion of tr—dition—l knowledge or „gisF ƒome h—ve ™riti™ized the proto™ols —s insensitive to the needs of the mem˜er st—tesF roweverD sin™e the —doption of the proto™olsD e‚s€y h—s ™ontinued to work with the ‡orld sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tion @‡s€yA to prote™t indigenous knowledgeF purthermoreD e‚s€y9s edministr—tive goun™il h—s initi—ted — study to —ssess the fe—si˜ility of developing — tr—dition—l knowledge d—t—˜—seF sn PHHWD e‚s€y9s edministr—tive goun™il suggested42 three prim—ry w—ys to implement the yrg—niz—tion9s m—nd—te on the prote™tion of geneti™ resour™esD tr—dition—l knowledgeD —nd expressions of folkloreX @IA develop e‚s€y9s „r—dition—l unowledge higit—l vi˜r—ryD @PA ™re—te region—l fr—meworks on —™™ess —nd ˜ene(t sh—ring rel—ted to ˜iologi™—l resour™esD —nd @QA —dopt the hr—ft €roto™ol —nd implementing regul—tions on the prote™tion of tr—dition—l knowledge —nd the expressions of folkloreF €rogress on one or more of these p—ths ™—n ˜e expe™ted in the ne—r futureF

9.6.2 African Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI)
„he efri™—n sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tion @ye€sA w—s ™re—ted ˜y the fr—n™ophone efri™—n ™ountries in IWTPF „he org—niz—tion9s most import—nt leg—l instrument is the f—ngui egreementD whi™h w—s signed in IWUUF „he following IT efri™—n ™ountries —re ˜ound ˜y the egreementX Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon,
Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Equitorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Chad, —nd TogoF „he f—ngui egreement43 w—s —mended

in IWWW so th—t its form—l n—me is now the egreement of PR pe˜ru—ry IWWW ‚evising the f—ngui egreement of P w—r™h IWUU on the ™re—tion of —n efri™—n sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tionF elthough the IWUU version of the egreement is no longer e'e™tiveD ™omp—ring the IWUU —nd IWWW versions helps to identify the strengths —nd we—knesses of ye€s9s most import—nt —greementF

9.6.3 Annex VII in the 1977 Bangui Agreement
„he most not—˜le di'eren™e ˜etween the IWUU —nd the IWWW egreements is the remov—l of dire™t prote™tion of folklore from the ™opyright se™tionF ennex †ss of the IWUU egreement o˜liged mem˜er st—tes to de™l—re use of folklore to — n—tion—l —gen™y —nd to p—y fees for su™h useF „he fees ™olle™ted were dire™tedD in p—rtD to ™ultur—l —nd so™i—l purposesF „his se™tion w—s ™riti™ized for its v—gueness ˜e™—use most people were not sure how ˜ro—dly to interpret the s™ope of use of elements ˜orrowed from folklore @IWUU egreementD ennex †ssD gh—pter ID erti™le VD p—r—F SAF eddition—llyD the older version of the f—ngui egreement imposed — (ne for —ny use of folklore work or — work th—t h—s entered the pu˜li™ dom—in without prior de™l—r—tion to
39 http://www.aripo.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=19&Itemid=53 40 http://www.aripo.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=4&tmpl=component&format=raw&Itemid=11 41 http://www.aripo.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=5&tmpl=component&format=raw&Itemid=11 42 http://www.aripo.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=57&tmpl=component&format=raw&Itemid=11 43 http://www.oapi.wipo.net/doc/en/bangui_agreement.pdf

VS the —ppropri—te n—tion—l —gen™y @IWUU egreementD ennex †ssD gh—pter ID erti™le QVD p—r—F PAF „he older system ™—n ˜e des™ri˜ed —s one in whi™h folklore —utom—ti™—lly ˜elongs to the pu˜li™ dom—in —nd folklore users simply p—y the pu˜li™ dom—in for the use to ˜e —uthorizedF eltern—tivelyD this older system ™—n ˜e ™h—r—™terized —s one in whi™h folklore is owned —nd regul—ted ˜y the st—te ˜e™—useD —s de™l—red in the origin—l egreementD the st—te h—s —n indefe—si˜le right with respe™t to folklore —nd folklore is ˜y its origin p—rt of n—tion—l herit—ge @IWUU egreementD ennex †ssD gh—pter ID erti™le VD p—r—F IAF „he tension ˜etween these two interpret—tions ultim—tely ™re—ted ™onfusion reg—rding who owned „gisF €rote™tion of folklore —nd ™ultur—l herit—ge w—s then moved from the ™opyright se™tion of the IWUU egreement to the se™tion dis™ussing provisions ™ommon to ™opyright —nd neigh˜oring rights in the IWWW egreementF es dis™ussed ˜elowD this new pl—™ement did not elimin—te ™onfusion —nd —m˜iguityF

9.6.4 Annex VII in the 1999 Bangui Agreement
„he IWWW f—ngui egreement ™ontinues e—rlier —ttempts to prote™t folklore —nd ™ultur—l herit—geF …nder the new systemD users of folklore must re™eive prior —uthoriz—tionF „he o˜je™tives of the system —re to prote™t @gh—pter PAD to s—fegu—rd @gh—pter QAD —nd to promote @gh—pter RA ™ultur—l herit—geF gultur—l herit—ge is de(ned —s — ™omposition of —ll those m—teri—l or imm—teri—l hum—n produ™tions th—t —re ™h—r—™teristi™ of — n—tion over time —nd sp—™eF ƒu™h produ™tions rel—te to @iA folkloreD @iiA sites —nd monumentsY ‘—nd“ @iiiA ensem˜les @erti™le TUD p—r—sF IEPAF „he de(nitions of folklore @erti™le TVA —nd monuments @erti™le UHA —re very det—iledF eddition—llyD the de(nitions of sites —nd ensem˜les ™—n ˜e found in erti™les TW —nd UID respe™tivelyF €rohi˜ited —™ts —re listed in erti™le UQF „hey in™lude deform—tionD exportD mis—ppropri—tionD —nd unl—wful tr—nsferF erti™le UR st—tes three m—in ex™eptions to these prohi˜itionsX 4use for te—™hingD4 4use —s illustr—tion of the origin—l work of —n —uthor on ™ondition th—t the s™ope of su™h use rem—ins ™omp—ti˜le with honest pr—™ti™eD4 —nd 4˜orrowings for the ™re—tion of —n origin—l work from one or more —uthorsF4 e fee p—yment s™heme simil—r to the IWUU egreement still exists in whi™h the exploit—tions of expressions of folklore —nd th—t of works or produ™tions th—t h—ve f—llen into the pu˜li™ dom—in F F F sh—ll ˜e su˜je™t to the user entering into —n undert—king to p—y the n—tion—l ™olle™tive rights —dministr—tion ˜ody — relev—nt roy—lty @IWWW egreementD ennex †ssD gh—pter SD erti™le SWD p—r—F IAF „he fees will ˜e don—tedD in p—rtD to welf—re —nd ™ultur—l purposes @IWWW egreementD ennex †ssD gh—pter SD erti™le SWD p—r—F QAF ƒome o˜servers ™ontend th—t the IWWW egreement ™ompletely removed folklore from ™opyright l—w —nd inste—d provided it with sui generis prote™tion where˜y folklore is regul—ted —nd owned ˜y the governmentF roweverD others see th—t folklore ™—n still ˜e prote™ted —s — form of ™opyright —s st—ted in erti™le S of ennex †ssF „his —m˜iguity ™re—tes ™onfusion —s to who owns folklore under the terms of the egreementF „his ™onfusion is even gre—ter th—n in the IWUU egreement ˜e™—use there —re no longer spe™i(™ referen™es to the ƒt—tes h—ving —n indefe—si˜le right with respe™t to folklore —nd ™ultur—l herit—geF

9.6.5 Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR)
wi‚gyƒ…‚ is — region—l tr—de —greement ™re—ted in IWWI ˜y the „re—ty of esun™ion ˜etween Argentina, —nd UruguayF sn IWWSD the region—l org—niz—tion —dopted —n import—nt proto™ol to prote™t indigenous herit—geX the €roto™ol for the r—rmoniz—tion of sntelle™tu—l €roperty xorms in wi‚E gyƒ…‚ with respe™t to „r—dem—rks —nd sndi™—tions of ƒour™e or henomin—tions of yriginF sn p—rti™ul—rD erti™le IW of the €roto™ol requires €—rty ƒt—tes to re™ipro™—lly prote™t their indi™—tions of sour™e —nd domE in—tions of originF henomin—tion of origin is de(ned ˜ro—dly —s the geogr—phi™—l n—me of — ™ountryD ™ityD region or lo™—lity within — €—rty ƒt—te9s territoryD whi™h design—tes produ™ts or servi™es whose qu—lities or ™h—r—™teristi™s —re ex™lusively or essenti—lly ™—used ˜y the geogr—phi™—l environmentD in™luding n—tur—l —nd hum—n f—™torsF ƒu™h — ˜ro—d de(nition of geogr—phi™ origin ! whi™h not—˜ly in™ludes hum—n f—™tors ! enE ™omp—sses tr—dition—l ™ultur—l expressionsF ƒimil—rlyD the €roto™ol —ttempts to prote™t tr—dition—l knowledge through its de(nition of indi™—tions of sour™e ˜y ˜—sing the de(ned term on the lo™—tion th—t is known —s — ™enter pl—™e for extr—™tionD produ™tion or m—nuf—™ture of — ™ert—in produ™t or for the perform—n™e of — ™ert—in servi™eF sn IWWTD wi‚gyƒ…‚ —0rmed the import—n™e of ™ultur—l rights ˜y ™re—ting the €roto™ol
Brazil, Paraguay,




on the gultur—l sntegr—tion of wi‚gyƒ…‚F elthough tr—dition—l knowledge is not spe™i(™—lly mentionedD this proto™ol fo™uses on the ™re—tion of ™ultur—l poli™ies th—t displ—y histori™—l tr—ditionsD ™ommon v—luesD —nd ™ultur—l diversity of mem˜er ™ountriesF

9.6.6 Andean Community
„he ende—n gommunity @origin—lly known —s the ende—n €—™tA w—s ™re—ted in IWTW with the signing of the g—rt—gen— egreementF „he over—ll o˜je™tive of the gommunity is to en—˜le the mem˜er ™ountries to work jointly to improve their people9s st—nd—rd of living through integr—tion —nd e™onomi™ —nd so™i—l ™ooper—tionF „he ™urrent mem˜er st—tes —re Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, —nd Peru; Mexico —nd Panama —re o˜server ™ountriesF sn PHHHD the gommunity en—™ted he™ision RVT44 D the purpose of whi™h w—s to improve intelle™tu—l property prote™tion —nd provide more expeditious —nd tr—nsp—rent pro™edures for tr—dem—rk registr—tion —nd p—tent issuesF elthough this he™ision fo™uses on ˜iologi™—l resour™esD it —lso provides for prote™tion of tr—dition—l knowledge in the qener—l €rovisionsF erti™le Q st—tes th—t mem˜er ™ountries must ensure th—t the prote™tion gr—nted to intelle™tu—l property elements sh—ll ˜e —™™orded while s—fegu—rding —nd respe™ting their ˜iologi™—l —nd geneti™ herit—geD together with the tr—dition—l knowledge of their indigenousD efri™—n emeri™—nD or lo™—l ™ommunitiesF es — resultD the gr—nting of p—tents on inventions th—t h—ve ˜een developed on the ˜—sis of m—teri—l o˜t—ined from th—t herit—ge or th—t knowledge sh—ll ˜e su˜ordin—ted to the —™quisition of th—t m—teri—l in —™™ord—n™e with intern—tion—lD ende—n gommunityD —nd n—tion—l l—wF „he wem˜er gountries re™ognize the right —nd the —uthority of indigenousD efri™—n emeri™—nD —nd lo™—l ™ommunities in respe™t of their ™olle™tive knowledgeF

9.6.7 Pacic Regional Framework for the Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Expression of Culture
„he €—™i(™ ‚egion—l pr—mework for the €rote™tion of „r—dition—l unowledge —nd ixpression of gulture45 w—s ™re—ted in PHHP ˜ut h—s not yet ˜een implementedF st w—s dr—fted ˜y the €—™i(™ ssl—nds porum ƒe™reE t—ri—t46 whose mem˜er ™ountries —re Australia, Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji,
Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Marshal Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, —nd VanuatuF eddition—llyD the following ™ountries h—ve —sso™i—te mem˜ershipX New Caledonia —nd French PolynesiaF pin—llyD Tokelau, Wallis and Futuna, the Commonwealth, the Asia Development Bank, —nd Timor L'este —ll h—ve o˜server st—tusF „he porum h—s developed — spe™i(™ —™tion pl—n47 th—t det—ils w—ys th—t the mem˜er ™ountries pl—n to

prote™t the ‚egion9s tr—dition—l knowledgeF sn p—rti™ul—rD the porum h—s ™re—ted — set of wodel v—ws to prote™t tr—dition—l knowledge —nd the expressions of ™ulture48 F „he l—ws —re noteworthy ˜e™—use they not only prote™t „u —nd „gis ˜ut —lso employ ™ustom—ry uses —s the found—tion of the fr—meworkF „he pr—mework9s gener—l —ppro—™h is to ™re—te new rights in tr—dition—l knowledge —nd expressions of ™ultureD whi™h previously m—y h—ve ˜een reg—rded —s p—rt of the pu˜li™ dom—inF €eople seeking to use „gis must h—ve prior —nd informed ™onsent from the tr—dition—l ownersF „he rights the pr—mework spe™i(es f—ll into two ™—tegoriesX mor—l rights —nd tr—dition—l ™ultur—l rightsF st is ™ru™i—l to note th—t neither mor—l nor tr—dition—l ™ultur—l rights depend on ™opyright form—lities @eFgFD registr—tion requirementsAF wor—l rights in™lude the right of —ttri˜utionD the right —g—inst f—lse —ttri˜utionD —nd the right of integrity of indigenous workF es st—ted in gl—use U@PA of €—rt sD tr—dition—l ™ultur—l rights in™lude the right to reprodu™eD pu˜lishD performD m—ke —v—il—˜le onlineD —nd ™re—te deriv—tive worksD —mong m—ny othersF „hese —re s—id to ˜e ˜oth ex™lusive —nd in—lien—˜leF gl—use II is noteworthy ˜e™—use it st—tes th—t tr—dition—l rights exist in —ddition to @—nd do not —'e™tA the rights ™re—ted ˜y other intelle™tu—l property l—w regimesF gl—use U@RA provides th—t there is no tr—dition—l
44 http://www.comunidadandina.org/ingles/normativa/D486e.htm 45 http://www.forumsec.org/resources/uploads/attachments/documents/PacicModelLaw,ProtectionofTKandExprssnsofCulture20021.pdf 46 http://www.forumsec.org/index.cfm 47 http://www.forumsec.org/resources/uploads/attachments/documents/Traditional%20Knowledge%20Action%20Plan%202009.pdf 48 http://www.forumsec.org/resources/uploads/attachments/documents/PacicModelLaw,ProtectionofTKandExprssnsofCulture20021.pdf

VU knowledge prote™tion in the following ™ontextsX f—™eEtoEf—™e te—™hingD ™riti™ism or reviewD reporting news or ™urrent eventsD judi™i—l pro™eedingsD —nd in™ident—l useF gl—use U of €—rt s of the pr—mework m—kes ™le—r who owns the prote™ted „gisF „r—dition—l owners —re de(ned —sX — groupD ™l—nD or ™ommunity of peopleD or the individu—l who is re™ognized ˜y — groupD ™l—nD or ™ommunity of people —s the individu—lD in whom the ™ustody or prote™tion of the tr—dition—l knowledge or expressions of ™ulture —re entrusted in —™™ord—n™e with ™ustom—ry l—w —nd the pr—™ti™es of th—t groupD ™l—nD or ™ommunityF pin—llyD gl—use QU det—ils the role of the gultur—l euthority in prote™ting „gisF „hose —ttempting to seek permission to use elements of prote™ted „gis h—ve two optionsX @IA —pply dire™tly to the gultur—l euthority or @PA ™ommuni™—te dire™tly with the tr—dition—l ownersF yne of the euthority9s m—ny roles is to —dvise the tr—dition—l ownersF †—lid „gi users must prove they h—ve re™eived ™onsent from the tr—dition—l owners vi— —n —uthorized user —greementF „his pr—mework is —m˜itious —nd m—y provide for strong „gi prote™tion on™e —doptedY howeverD its potenti—l imp—™t is unknown —s the l—ws h—ve not yet ˜een implementedF

9.7 International Legal Instruments
„he (n—l set of l—ws pert—ining to tr—dition—l knowledge ™onsist of intern—tion—l —greementsF „hese —greeE ments h—ve emerged from v—rious intern—tion—l org—niz—tionsD in™luding the …nited x—tions idu™—tionD ƒ™iE enti(™ —nd gultur—l yrg—niz—tion @…xiƒgyAD the ‡orld sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tion @‡s€yAD the ‡orld „r—de yrg—niz—tion @‡„yA —nd the sntern—tion—l v—˜or yrg—niz—tion @svyAF „he types —nd strength of the prote™tions they provide for „gis v—ry r—di™—llyY no ™onsistent p—ttern or theme is dis™erni˜leF „hey —re dis™ussed ˜elow in reverse ™hronologi™—l orderF

9.7.1 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007)
„he …x h—s ˜een investig—ting49 the prote™tion of minorities —nd indigenous popul—tions sin™e IWTWF yn QH t—nu—ry PHHUD the essem˜ly of the …nion —dopted — de™ision @essem˜lyGe…G he™F IRI @†sssAAD known —s the …x he™l—r—tion on the rights of indigenous peoplesF IRQ ™ountries voted in f—vor of the he™l—r—tionF Australia, Canada, New Zealand —nd the United States voted —g—inst itF Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Samoa —nd Ukraine —˜st—inedF „he he™l—r—tion is the most ™omprehensive st—tement of the rights of

indigenous peoples ever developedD giving prominen™e to ™olle™tive rights to — degree unpre™edented in intern—tion—l hum—n rights l—wF „he —doption of this instrument is the ™le—rest indi™—tion yet th—t the interE n—tion—l ™ommunity is ™ommitting itself to the prote™tion of the individu—l —nd ™olle™tive rights of indigenous peoplesF „he key provisions followF Article 8

IF sndigenous peoples —nd individu—ls h—ve the right not to ˜e su˜je™ted to for™ed —ssimil—tion or deE stru™tion of their ™ultureF ƒt—tes sh—ll provide e'e™tive me™h—nisms for prevention ofD —nd redress forX eny —™tion whi™h h—s the —im or e'e™t of depriving them of their integrity —s distin™t peoplesD or of their ™ultur—l v—lues or ethni™ identitiesY eny —™tion whi™h h—s the —im or e'e™t of dispossessing them of their l—ndsD territories or resour™esY eny form of for™ed popul—tion tr—nsfer whi™h h—s the —im or e'e™t of viol—ting or undermining —ny of their rightsY eny form of for™ed —ssimil—tion or integr—tionY eny form of prop—g—nd— designed to promote or in™ite r—™i—l or ethni™ dis™rimin—tion dire™ted —g—inst themF
49 http://www.sami.uit.no/girji/n02/en/102daes.html#Anchor-39228

VV Article 11



IF sndigenous peoples h—ve the right to pr—™tise —nd revit—lize their ™ultur—l tr—ditions —nd ™ustomsF „his in™ludes the right to m—int—inD prote™t —nd develop the p—stD present —nd future m—nifest—tions of their ™ulturesD su™h —s —r™h—eologi™—l —nd histori™—l sitesD —rtef—™tsD designsD ™eremoniesD te™hnologies —nd visu—l —nd performing —rts —nd liter—tureF PF ƒt—tes sh—ll provide redress through e'e™tive me™h—nismsD whi™h m—y in™lude restitutionD developed in ™onjun™tion with indigenous peoplesD with respe™t to their ™ultur—lD intelle™tu—lD religious —nd spiritu—l property t—ken without their freeD prior —nd informed ™onsent or in viol—tion of their l—wsD tr—ditions —nd ™ustomsF Article 12

IF sndigenous peoples h—ve the right to m—nifestD pr—™tiseD develop —nd te—™h their spiritu—l —nd religious tr—ditionsD ™ustoms —nd ™eremoniesY the right to m—int—inD prote™tD —nd h—ve —™™ess in priv—™y to their religious —nd ™ultur—l sitesY the right to the use —nd ™ontrol of their ™eremoni—l o˜je™tsY —nd the right to the rep—tri—tion of their hum—n rem—insF PF ƒt—tes sh—ll seek to en—˜le the —™™ess —ndGor rep—tri—tion of ™eremoni—l o˜je™ts —nd hum—n rem—ins in their possession through f—irD tr—nsp—rent —nd e'e™tive me™h—nisms developed in ™onjun™tion with indigenous peoples ™on™ernedF Article 25

sndigenous peoples h—ve the right to m—int—in —nd strengthen their distin™tive spiritu—l rel—tionship with their tr—dition—lly owned or otherwise o™™upied —nd used l—ndsD territoriesD w—ters —nd ™o—st—l se—s —nd other resour™es —nd to uphold their responsi˜ilities to future gener—tions in this reg—rdF Article 27

ƒt—tes sh—ll est—˜lish —nd implementD in ™onjun™tion with indigenous peoples ™on™ernedD — f—irD independentD imp—rti—lD open —nd tr—nsp—rent pro™essD giving due re™ognition to indigenous peoples9 l—wsD tr—ditionsD ™ustoms —nd l—nd tenure systemsD to re™ognize —nd —djudi™—te the rights of indigenous peoples pert—ining to their l—ndsD territories —nd resour™esD in™luding those whi™h were tr—dition—lly owned or otherwise o™™upied or usedF sndigenous peoples sh—ll h—ve the right to p—rti™ip—te in this pro™essF Article 28

IF sndigenous peoples h—ve the right to redressD ˜y me—ns th—t ™—n in™lude restitution orD when this is not possi˜leD justD f—ir —nd equit—˜le ™ompens—tionD for the l—ndsD territories —nd resour™es whi™h they h—ve tr—dition—lly owned or otherwise o™™upied or usedD —nd whi™h h—ve ˜een ™on(s™—tedD t—kenD o™™upiedD used or d—m—ged without their freeD prior —nd informed ™onsentF PF …nless otherwise freely —greed upon ˜y the peoples ™on™ernedD ™ompens—tion sh—ll t—ke the form of l—ndsD territories —nd resour™es equ—l in qu—lityD size —nd leg—l st—tus or of monet—ry ™ompens—tion or other —ppropri—te redressF Article 31

IF sndigenous peoples h—ve the right to m—int—inD ™ontrolD prote™t —nd develop their ™ultur—l herit—geD tr—dition—l knowledge —nd tr—dition—l ™ultur—l expressionsD —s well —s the m—nifest—tions of their s™iE en™esD te™hnologies —nd ™ulturesD in™luding hum—n —nd geneti™ resour™esD seedsD medi™inesD knowledge of the properties of f—un— —nd )or—D or—l tr—ditionsD liter—turesD designsD sports —nd tr—dition—l g—mes

VW —nd visu—l —nd performing —rtsF „hey —lso h—ve the right to m—int—inD ™ontrolD prote™t —nd develop their intelle™tu—l property over su™h ™ultur—l herit—geD tr—dition—l knowledgeD —nd tr—dition—l ™ultur—l expressionsF PF sn ™onjun™tion with indigenous peoplesD ƒt—tes sh—ll t—ke e'e™tive me—sures to re™ognize —nd prote™t the exer™ise of these rightsF Article 34

sndigenous peoples h—ve the right to promoteD develop —nd m—int—in their institution—l stru™tures —nd their distin™tive ™ustomsD spiritu—lityD tr—ditionsD pro™eduresD pr—™ti™es —ndD in the ™—ses where they existD juridi™—l systems or ™ustomsD in —™™ord—n™e with intern—tion—l hum—n rights st—nd—rdsF

9.7.2 WIPO Draft Provisions on Traditional Cultural Expressions/Folklore and Traditional Knowledge (2006)
sn IWWVD the ‡orld sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tion @‡s€yA em˜—rked on — f—™tE(nding mission to PV ™ountries to identify intelle™tu—l propertyErel—ted regul—tions of tr—dition—l knowledgeF pollowing — review of those m—teri—lsD the ‡s€y sntergovernment—l gommittee on sntelle™tu—l €roperty —nd qeneti™ ‚esour™esD „r—dition—l unowledge —nd polklore @the sqgA w—s formed in PHHIF ƒin™e PHHRD it h—s ˜een working50 on dr—ft provisions for the enh—n™ed prote™tion of tr—dition—l ™ultur—l expressions —g—inst mis—ppropri—tion —nd misuseF elthough the provisions —re still in dr—ft formD they —re me—nt to serve —s points of referen™e for ongoing poli™y dis™ussions —t the n—tion—lD region—lD —nd intern—tion—l levelsF „he hr—ft €rovisions h—ve the following o˜je™tivesX to re™ognize v—lueY to promote respe™tY to meet the —™tu—l needs of ™ommunitiesY to prevent the mis—ppropri—tion of tr—dition—l ™ultur—l expressionsGexpressions of folkloreY to empower ™ommunitiesY to support ™ustom—ry pr—™ti™es —nd ™ommunity ™ooper—tionY to ™onE tri˜ute to s—fegu—rding tr—dition—l ™ulturesY to en™our—ge ™ommunity innov—tion —nd ™re—tivityY to promote intelle™tu—l —nd —rtisti™ freedomD rese—r™h —nd ™ultur—l ex™h—nge on equit—˜le termsY to ™ontri˜ute to ™ultur—l diversityY to promote ™ommunity development —nd legitim—te tr—ding —™tivitiesY to pre™lude un—uthorized s€ rights —nd to enh—n™e ™ert—intyD tr—nsp—ren™y —nd mutu—l ™on(den™eF „he qener—l quiding €rin™iples —nd ƒu˜st—ntive €rin™iples —re —v—il—˜le here51 F

9.7.3 Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005)
„he gonvention on the €rote™tion —nd €romotion of the hiversity of gultur—l ixpressions ˜uilds o' the e—rlier …nivers—l he™l—r—tion on gultur—l hiversity52 of @PHHIAF Canada, France, Germany, Greece, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, —nd Senegal —nd pr—n™ophone mem˜er st—tes of …xiƒgy strongly supE ported the gonventionF „he United States opposed itF IHR ™ountries h—ve —™™eded to or r—ti(ed the gonventionF „he gonvention re™ognizes 4the import—n™e of tr—dition—l knowledge —s — sour™e of int—ngi˜le —nd m—teri—l we—lthD —nd in p—rti™ul—r the knowledge systems of indigenous peoplesD —nd its positive ™ontri˜ution to sust—in—˜le developmentD —s well —s the need for its —dequ—te prote™tion —nd promotionF4 st seeks to to re—0rm the sovereign rights of ƒt—tes to m—int—inD —dopt —nd implement poli™ies —nd me—sures th—t they deem —ppropri—te for the prote™tion —nd promotion of the diversity of ™ultur—l expressions on their territory @erti™le I@hAAF „he gonvention —lso seeks to mitig—te the dilution of ™ulture th—t follows from the movement of ™ultur—l goods —nd servi™es —™ross n—tion—l ˜ordersF „he gonvention mentions intelle™tu—l property rights on™eD ˜y re™ognizing 4the import—n™e of intelle™tu—l property rights in sust—ining those involved in ™ultur—l ™re—tivityF4 „he gonvention is —m˜iguousD howeverD
50 http://www.wipo.int/tk/en/consultations/draft_provisions/draft_provisions.html 51 http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/tk/en/consultations/draft_provisions/pdf/draft-provisions-booklet.pdf 52 http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13179&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html




on how mu™h prote™tion to gr—nt to „gisF erti™le T lists the types of me—sures mem˜er st—tes m—y —dopt to prote™t —nd promote ™ultur—l diversityF ƒu˜se™tion P@gA —llows me—sures —imed —t nurturing —nd supporting —rtists —nd others involved in the ™re—tion of ™ultur—l expressions ˜ut su˜se™tion P@eA —llows for me—sure th—t promote the free ex™h—nge —nd ™ir™ul—tion of F F F ™ultur—l expressions —nd ™ultur—l —™tivitiesD goods —nd servi™esF ƒtrong support for indigenous groups —s ™re—tors of „gis is not required ˜y erti™le UD —s mem˜ers st—tes need only ende—vour to re™ognize the import—nt ™ontri˜ution of —rtistsD others involved in the ™re—tive pro™essD ™ultur—l ™ommunitiesD —nd org—niz—tions th—t support their workD —nd their ™entr—l role in nurturing the diversity of ™ultur—l expressionsF €rofessor v—uren™e ‚F relfer h—s noted53 th—t the gonvention disreg—rds the prote™tion for „gis th—t ™ould ˜e derived from the use of intelle™tu—l property l—wF

9.7.4 UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003)
sn PHHID …xiƒgy54 ˜eg—n dr—fting — de(nition of int—ngi˜le ™ultur—l herit—ge —nd formul—ting provisions for its prote™tionF sn PHHQD the resulting gonvention w—s —dopted —nd in PHHT it entered into for™eF IPI55 ™ounE tries h—ve r—ti(ed the gonventionF Australia, Canada, New Zealand —nd the United States h—ve not r—tE i(ed the gonventionF Argentina, Columbia, Denmark, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles —nd the Syrian Arab Republic —ll entered de™l—r—tions or reserv—tionsF erti™le I56 lists the purposes of the gonvention —s 4to s—fegu—rd the int—ngi˜le ™ultur—l herit—geY to ensure respe™t for the int—ngi˜le ™ultur—l herit—ge of the ™ommunitiesD groups —nd individu—ls ™on™ernedY to r—ise —w—reness —t the lo™—lD n—tion—l —nd intern—tion—l levels of the import—n™e of the int—ngi˜le ™ultur—l herE it—geD —nd of ensuring mutu—l —ppre™i—tion thereofY to provide for intern—tion—l ™ooper—tion —nd —ssist—n™eF4 elthough the gonvention does not dire™tly dis™uss intelle™tu—l property rightsD erti™le Q57 notes th—t nothE ing in the gonvention —'e™ts 4the rights —nd o˜lig—tions of ƒt—tes €—rties deriving from —ny intern—tion—l instrument rel—ting to intelle™tu—l property rights FFF to whi™h they —re p—rtiesF4 i—™h ƒt—te €—rty sh—llX t—ke the ne™ess—ry me—sures to ensure the s—fegu—rding of the int—ngi˜le ™ultur—l herit—ge present in its territoryY —mong the s—fegu—rding me—sures referred to in erti™le PD p—r—gr—ph QD identify —nd de(ne the v—rious elements of the int—ngi˜le ™ultur—l herit—ge present in its territoryD with the p—rti™ip—tion of ™ommunitiesD groups —nd relev—nt nongovernment—l org—niz—tionsF
Article 11 Role of States Parties

9.7.5 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994)
es we s—w in wodule PD the IWWR „‚s€ƒ egreement58 ™re—ted — set of minimum intelle™tu—l property st—nd—rds for —ll mem˜ers of the ‡orld „r—de yrg—niz—tionF elthough the egreement requires developing ™ountries to in™re—se m—ny forms of intelle™tu—l property prote™tionD it does not mention folklore or „gisF efter the p—ss—ge of „‚s€ƒD the …x rum—n ‚ights gommission studied its impli™—tions for hum—n rightsF sn PHHHD the gommissionD relying on th—t studyD —dopted ‚esolution PHHHGU on sntelle™tu—l €roperty —nd rum—n ‚ightsF „he ‚esolution notes th—t —™tu—l or potenti—l ™on)i™ts exist ˜etween the implement—tion of the „‚s€ƒ egreement —nd the re—liz—tion of e™onomi™D so™i—l —nd ™ultur—l rights in rel—tion to F F F the redu™tion of ™ommunities9 @espe™i—lly indigenous ™ommunities9A ™ontrol over their own F F F n—tur—l resour™es —nd ™ultur—l v—luesF st de™l—res th—t the implement—tion of the „‚s€ƒ egreement does not —dequ—tely re)e™t the fund—ment—l n—ture —nd indivisi˜ility of —ll hum—n rightsD in™luding F F F the right to
53 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=891303 54 http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?pg=00007 55 http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?pg=00024 56 http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?pg=00006 57 http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?pg=00022 58 http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/27-trips_01_e.htm

WI selfEdetermin—tionF „here —re —pp—rent ™on)i™ts ˜etween the intelle™tu—l property rights regime em˜odied in the „‚s€ƒ egreementD on the one h—ndD —nd intern—tion—l hum—n rights l—wD on the otherF „he ƒu˜E gommission urged n—tion—l governmentsD intergovernment—l org—niz—tionsD —nd ™ivil so™iety groups to give hum—n rights prim—™y over the e™onomi™ poli™ies —nd —greementsF ƒin™e the p—ss—ge of the PHHHGU ‚esolutionD rum—n ‚ights ˜odies —t the …x h—ve investig—ted the rel—tionship ˜etween intelle™tu—l property l—w —nd hum—n rightsD —s dis™ussed ˜y v—wren™e relfer in this —rti™le59 F

9.7.6 ILO Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal People (1989)
„he sntern—tion—l v—˜or yrg—niz—tionD — spe™i—l —gen™y under the —uspi™es of the …xD w—s the (rst intern—E tion—l org—niz—tion to —ttempt to de(ne indigenous popul—tions —nd to de™l—re the rights of su™h popul—tionsF svy gonvention xoF ITW repl—™ed svy sndigenous —nd „ri˜—l €opul—tions gonvention xoF IHU60 @IWSUA th—t h—d ˜een r—ti(ed ˜y six efri™—n ƒt—tesF elthough no efri™—n st—tes h—ve yet r—ti(ed61 svy gonvention ITWD the svy —nd the efri™—n gommission on rum—n —nd €eoples9 ‚ights62 view this instrument —s —n inspir—tion —nd — re)e™tion of — trend tow—rds the prote™tion of indigenous rights glo˜—lly —nd in efri™—F „he ITW gonvention fo™uses on indigenous peoples9 rights to ™ontrol their own institutionD e™onomi™ developmentD ™ustoms —nd ˜elief systemsF st —pplies to 4tri˜—l peoples in independent ™ountries whose so™i—lD ™ultur—l —nd e™onomi™ ™onditions distinguish them from other se™tions of the n—tion—l ™ommunityD —nd whose st—tus is regul—ted wholly or p—rti—lly ˜y their own ™ustoms or tr—ditions or ˜y spe™i—l l—ws or regul—tions4 —nd to 4peoples in independent ™ountries who —re reg—rded —s indigenous on —™™ount of their des™ent from the popul—tions whi™h inh—˜ited the ™ountryD or — geogr—phi™—l region to whi™h the ™ountry ˜elongsD —t the time of ™onquest or ™olonis—tion or the est—˜lishment of present st—te ˜ound—ries —nd whoD irrespe™tive of their leg—l st—tusD ret—in some or —ll of their own so™i—lD e™onomi™D ™ultur—l —nd politi™—l institutionsF4 erti™le I63 F „he gonvention does not mention intelle™tu—l property rightsD ˜ut seeks to prote™t indignous ™ulture —nd re™ognizes the ™olle™tive ownership th—t ™h—r—™terizes m—ny indigenous popul—tionsF ƒpe™i—l me—sures sh—ll ˜e —dopted —s —ppropri—te for s—fegu—rding the personsD institutionsD propertyD l—˜ourD ™ultures —nd environment of the peoples ™on™ernedF the so™i—lD ™ultur—lD religious —nd spiritu—l v—lues —nd pr—™ti™es of these peoples sh—ll ˜e re™ognised —nd prote™tedD —nd due —™™ount sh—ll ˜e t—ken of the n—ture of the pro˜lems whi™h f—™e them ˜oth —s groups —nd —s individu—lsY the integrity of the v—luesD pr—™ti™es —nd institutions of these peoples sh—ll ˜e respe™tedY poli™ies —imed —t mitig—ting the di0™ulties experien™ed ˜y these peoples in f—™ing new ™onditions of life —nd work sh—ll ˜e —doptedD with the p—rti™ip—tion —nd ™oEoper—tion of the peoples —'e™tedF sn —pplying the provisions of this €—rt of the gonvention governments sh—ll respe™t the spe™i—l import—n™e for the ™ultures —nd spiritu—l v—lues of the peoples ™on™erned of their rel—tionship with the l—nds or territoriesD or ˜oth —s —ppli™—˜leD whi™h they o™™upy or otherwise useD —nd in p—rti™ul—r the ™olle™tive —spe™ts of this rel—tionshipF
Article 13 Article 5 Article 4(1)

9.7.7 Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (1979)
elthough the ferne gonvention @dis™ussed —t length in wodule PA does not mention tr—dition—l knowledgeD erti™le IS@RA ™—n ˜e interpreted to le—ve to the dis™retion of e—™h mem˜er ™ountry how @if —t —llA to prote™t „gisF
Article 15(4)
59 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=891303 60 http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C107 61 http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/ratifce.pl?C169 62 http://www.ilo.org/indigenous/Resources/Publications/langen/docNameWCMS_115929/index.htm 63 http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C169




IF sn the ™—se of unpu˜lished works where the identity of the —uthor is unknownD ˜ut where there is every ground to presume th—t he is — n—tion—l of — ™ountry of the …nionD it sh—ll ˜e — m—tter for legisl—tion in th—t ™ountry to design—te the ™ompetent —uthority whi™h sh—ll represent the —uthor —nd sh—ll ˜e entitled to prote™t —nd enfor™e his rights in the ™ountries of the …nionF

9.7.8 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966)
„he sntern—tion—l goven—nt on i™onomi™D ƒo™i—l —nd gultur—l ‚ights @sgiƒg‚A est—˜lishes — right to the prote™tion of the mor—l —nd m—teri—l interests resulting from —ny s™ienti(™D liter—ry or —rtisti™ produ™tionF sgiƒg‚ h—s ITH p—rties64 D TW of whi™h —re sign—toriesF ‚e—d65 F66 sn ™onjun™tion with the IWRV …nivers—l he™l—r—tion of rum—n ‚ightsD —nd re™ognizing the ˜inding n—ture of the tre—ty upon its sign—toriesD the sgiƒg‚ ™—n ˜e interpreted67 —s gu—r—nteeing intelle™tu—l property rights —s — hum—n rightF sn PHHSD the gommittee on i™onomi™D ƒo™i—l —nd gultur—l ‚ights @giƒg‚A ™ommented68 on erti™le IS of the sgiƒg‚ @reprodu™ed ˜elowAD exp—nding it to prote™t indigenous groups9 expressions of ™ultur—l herit—geF giƒg‚ ™—lls upon sign—tories to —dopt prote™tive me—sures th—t 4re™ognizeD register —nd prote™t the individu—l or ™olle™tive —uthorship of indigenous peoples under n—tion—l intelle™tu—l property rights regimes —nd should prevent the un—uthorized use of s™ienti(™D liter—ry —nd —rtisti™ produ™tions of indigenous peoples ˜y third p—rtiesF4 „he ƒt—tes €—rties to the present goven—nt re™ognize the right of everyoneX „o t—ke p—rt in ™ultur—l lifeY „o enjoy the ˜ene(ts of s™ienti(™ progress —nd its —ppli™—tionsY „o ˜ene(t from the prote™tion of the mor—l —nd m—teri—l interests resulting from —ny s™ienti(™D liter—ry or —rtisti™ produ™tion of whi™h he is the —uthorF „he steps to ˜e t—ken ˜y the ƒt—tes €—rties to the present goven—nt to —™hieve the full re—liz—tion of this right sh—ll in™lude those ne™ess—ry for the ™onserv—tionD the development —nd the di'usion of s™ien™e —nd ™ultureF „he ƒt—tes €—rties to the present goven—nt undert—ke to respe™t the freedom indispens—˜le for s™ienti(™ rese—r™h —nd ™re—tive —™tivityF
Article 15

9.7.9 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)
„he sntern—tion—l goven—nt on givil —nd €oliti™—l ‚ights @sgg€‚A re™ognizes the self determin—tion of minority groups —nd their right to ™ontrol their ™ultureF „he sgg€‚ h—s ITS p—rties69 D UP of whi™h —re sign—toriesF elthough the sgg€‚ is silent on most ™ultur—l —nd intelle™tu—l property rights issuesD ™onsidered70 in ™onjun™tion with the IWTT sntern—tion—l goven—nt on i™onomi™D ƒo™i—l —nd gultur—l ‚ights —nd the IWRV …nivers—l he™l—r—tion of rum—n ‚ightsD the sgg€‚ ™—n ˜e viewed —s est—˜lishing intelle™tu—l property rights —s hum—n rightsF ell peoples h—ve the right of selfEdetermin—tionF fy virtue of th—t right they freely determine their politi™—l st—tus —nd freely pursue their e™onomi™D so™i—l —nd ™ultur—l developmentF sn those ƒt—tes in whi™h ethni™D religious or linguisti™ minorities existD persons ˜elonging to su™h minorities sh—ll not ˜e denied the rightD in ™ommunity with the other mem˜ers of their groupD to enjoy their own ™ultureD to profess —nd pr—™tise their own religionD or to use their own l—ngu—geF
Article 27 Article 1

64 http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-3&chapter=4&lang=en 65 https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=48+Am.+U.L.+Rev.+769 66 https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=48+Am.+U.L.+Rev.+769 67 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=891303 68 http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/%28Symbol%29/E.C.12.GC.17.En?OpenDocument 69 http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en 70 https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=48+Am.+U.L.+Rev.+769


9.7.10 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
„he …nivers—l he™l—r—tion of rum—n ‚ights @…hr‚A est—˜lishes the right to the prote™tion of mor—l interests —nd m—teri—ls deriving from —ny s™ienti(™D liter—ry or —rtisti™ produ™tionF „he …hr‚ is not — ˜inding do™umentD ˜ut it is — found—tion—l do™ument for the …nited x—tions —nd for the two IWTT goven—ntsD the sntern—tion—l goven—nt on i™onomi™D ƒo™i—l —nd gultur—l ‚ights —nd the sntern—tion—l goven—nt on givil —nd €oliti™—l ‚ightsF elthough the …hr‚ does not —ddress intelle™tu—l property rightsD erti™le PU71 of the …hr‚ re™ognizes the 4mor—l —nd m—teri—l interests4 of —uthors —nd inventors —nd the right of the pu˜li™ to enjoy the —rts —nd to sh—re in s™ienti(™ —dv—n™ement —nd its ˜ene(tsF „his —rti™le expresses the ™h—llenge of ˜—l—n™ing priv—te intelle™tu—l property rights —nd — vi˜r—nt pu˜li™ dom—inF
Article 17

IF iveryone h—s the right to own property —lone —s well —s in —sso™i—tion with othersF PF xo one sh—ll ˜e —r˜itr—rily deprived of his propertyF IF iveryone h—s the right to freely p—rti™ip—te in the ™ultur—l life of the ™ommunityD to enjoy the —rts —nd to sh—re in s™ienti(™ —dv—n™ement —nd its ˜ene(tsF PF iveryone h—s the right to the prote™tion of the mor—l —nd m—teri—l interests resulting from —ny s™ienti(™D liter—ry or —rtisti™ produ™tion of whi™h he is the —uthorF
Article 27

9.8 Policy Arguments
es indi™—ted —˜oveD the questions of whether —nd how to prote™t tr—dition—l knowledge —re ™urrently ˜eing de˜—ted —nd —re highly ™ontroversi—lF et the intern—tion—l level —nd within m—ny individu—l ™ountriesD strong di'eren™es of opinion ™—n ˜e foundF ƒet forth ˜elow —re summ—ries of the prim—ry —rguments m—de in this de˜—teF

9.8.1 Why Protect TK?
por m—ny indigenous groupsD „u en™omp—sses ™ultur—l elements th—t —re integr—l to the group9s sense of identityF yne ™—n —rgue th—t o˜je™ts —nd expressions th—t —re fund—ment—l to — person9s or group9s identity merit prote™tionD —nd —t the extremeD ™ould ˜e ™onsidered in—lien—˜leF ƒimil—rlyD some —dvo™—tes for „u prote™tion h—ve proposed — 4™ultur—l stew—rdship4 justi(™—tion for this prote™tionF por ex—mpleD uristen g—rpenterD ƒony— u—ty—l —nd engel— ‚iley —dvo™—te —llowing indigenous ™ommunities to ret—in ™ontrolD if not ex™lusive —™™ess —nd ownershipD of „u ˜e™—use of its import—n™e in sh—ping the identity of the indigenous group —nd its ™ultureF glosely rel—ted to —rguments from personhood —re —rguments from mor—l rightsD whi™h we dis™ussed in wodule RF st is —rguedD just —s —n individu—l —rtist should enjoy — right of —ttri˜ution —nd integrity with respe™t to her ™re—tionsD so should — ™ommunity enjoy — right of —ttri˜ution —nd integrity with respe™t to its ™olle™tive ™re—tionsF Arguments based on Preservation. enother re—son to —dvo™—te for prote™tion of „u is th—t unlike m—ny forms of intelle™tu—l propertyD ™ultur—l expressions m—y require prote™tion in order to preserve their v—lueF por ex—mpleD religious ™eremonies —nd s—™red ritu—ls m—y ˜e v—lu—˜le to — ™ulture in p—rt ˜e™—use they —re not widespre—dY their r—rity is integr—l to their pl—™e in the ™ultureF sn order to m—int—in the v—lue of these tr—ditionsD it m—y ˜e ne™ess—ry to restri™t their useF Arguments based on Reparations. e third —rgument in f—vor of prote™tion for „u is ˜—sed upon the ide— th—t m—ny indigenous ™ultures h—ve ˜een d—m—ged ˜y inv—sive ™oloni—lism pr—™ti™ed ˜y ‡estern ™ountries in the p—st few ™enturiesF ƒupporters of this —rgument ˜elieve th—t prote™tion of „u is — w—y of providing rep—r—tionsD sym˜oli™ —s well —s monet—ryD for the wrongs ™ommitted —g—inst these indigenous groupsF
Arguments from Personhood.
71 http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml




9.8.2 How Should TK be protected? Traditional IP Modes of Protection Copyright

es we h—ve seenD m—ny n—tions h—ve used ™opyright l—w @either —lone or in ™onjun™tion with sui generis l—wsA to prote™t „uF roweverD there —re m—ny —rguments —g—inst using st—nd—rd ™opyright to prote™t „uF IF ƒome ™opyright systems require th—t — work ˜e (xed in — m—teri—l formF „his is —n o˜st—™le in the prote™tion of „gisD whi™h —re not —lw—ys m—nifested in t—ngi˜le expressionsF PF Originality. gopyright l—w requires th—t — work ˜e 4origin—l4 in order to merit prote™tionF ƒin™e most „u is 4tr—dition—l4 r—ther th—n newD this origin—lity requirement will often ˜e di0™ult to s—tisfyF QF Authorship. wu™h ™ultur—l expression develops gr—du—lly over timeD through the ™ontri˜utions of sever—l mem˜ers of — ™ommunityF sf no single —uthor or group of —uthors ™—n ˜e identi(edD it will ˜e di0™ult for ™opyright prote™tion to ˜e o˜t—inedF RF The term of protection. „he term of prote™tion for ™opyright in most ™ountries is tr—dition—lly limitedD —nd not in(niteF w—ny forms of „u —re in f—™t older th—n the ™opyright termF es — resultD ™opyright prote™tion m—y ˜e un—v—il—˜le for themF
The xation requirement.

„o —void these di0™ultiesD it is possi˜le for ™ountries to modify ™opyright legisl—tion so th—t it h—s di'erent requirements for folklore or ™ultur—l expressionF por ex—mpleD the „unis wodel v—w for gopyright in the heveloping gountries72 D —dopted in IWUTD —dvo™—tes extending ™opyright prote™tion to works of folklore without requiring (x—tion —nd with —n unlimited term of prote™tionF Trademark Law

ƒome expressions of folklore might ˜e registered —s tr—dem—rksF „r—dem—rk l—w prote™ts not only gr—phi™ represent—tionsD ˜ut —lso words —nd @in some ™ountriesA soundsF en —dv—nt—ge of prote™tion through tr—deE m—rk l—w is its ne—r inde(nite term of prote™tionD —nd its l—™k of — novelty requirementY it is su0™ient for purposes of prote™tion th—t the tr—dem—rk h—s — 4distin™tive ™h—r—™terF4 roweverD —t le—st in some ™ountriesD tr—dem—rk prote™tionD unlike ™opyright —nd p—tent prote™tionD requires th—t the —ppli™—nt demonstr—te use of the m—rk in ™ommer™eF w—ny ™ultur—l expressions do not h—ve — dire™t link to ™ommer™e —nd —re not used —s design—tions of sour™e to the ™onsuming pu˜li™F purthermoreD the —ppli™—tion of tr—dem—rk l—w to „u is ™ompli™—tedD sin™e ˜y registering — m—rk the ™ommunity m—kes pu˜li™ „u th—t the ™ommunity m—y desire to keep se™ret for religious or other re—sonsF Collective Trademarks, Certication Marks, and Geographic Indicators

golle™tive tr—dem—rksD ™erti(™—tion m—rksD —nd geogr—phi™ indi™—tors form — su˜set of tr—dem—rk l—w th—t ™ould ˜e p—rti™ul—rly useful for the prote™tion of „uF golle™tive tr—dem—rks —re tr—dem—rks th—t —re used ˜y — group of produ™ers r—ther th—n one produ™erF golle™tive m—rks —re held ˜y —n —sso™i—tion r—ther th—n —n individu—lY in order to ˜e useful for prote™ting „uD mem˜ers of indigenous groups would need to form —n —sso™i—tion for the purpose of m—rking their ™ultur—l expressionsF gerti(™—tion m—rks indi™—te th—t the produ™er of — good h—s met ™ert—in st—nd—rds of qu—lityF @e popul—r ex—mple is the qood rousekeeping73 ™erti(™—tion prominent on household produ™ts sold in the …nited ƒt—tesFA gerti(™—tion m—rks ™ould ˜e used to spe™ify whi™h „gis meet the st—nd—rds of the indigenous ™ommunity in whi™h they origin—tedF „hisD like — ™olle™tive tr—dem—rkD would require the form—tion —n o0™i—l oversight org—niz—tion to —™t on ˜eh—lf of the indigenous ™ommunity in determining whi™h expressions ™—n ˜e—r the ™erti(™—tion m—rkF qeogr—phi™ indi™—torsD —s the n—me suggestsD —re m—rks th—t ™—n ˜e pl—™ed on produ™ts th—t ™ome from — spe™i(™ geogr—phi™ —re—F qeogr—phi™ indi™—tors —re often used for food produ™tsD su™h —s winesD ˜ut some
72 http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=31318&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html 73 http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/product-testing/history/welcome-gh-seal

WS indigenous groups h—ve experimented with using geogr—phi™ indi™—tors —s — me—ns of prote™ting ™ultur—l expressions ˜y —uthenti™—ting produ™ts th—t —re sold elsewhereF yne ex—mple of su™h — progr—m is the el—sk—n ƒilver r—nd €rogr—m74 F Sui Generis Laws

es we h—ve seenD where „u does not m—p onto tr—dition—l intelle™tu—l property regimesD sui generis l—ws m—y ˜e —doptedF Sui generis legisl—tion is — promising route for —dvo™—tes of „u prote™tionD —s it ™—n provide strong prote™tion while —voiding the hurdles th—t sep—r—te „u from tr—dition—l s€ su˜je™t m—tterF Absolute Ownership

yne possi˜ility for „u prote™tion is to give —˜solute ownership of the ™ultur—l expression to the indigenous group from whi™h it origin—tedF roweverD this is rel—tively unpopul—r optionD —s it would impede the spre—d of knowledge —nd risk the loss of ™ultur—l expressions —nd inform—tion in the event th—t the group is dis˜—nded or its mem˜ers —re —ssimil—ted into the gener—l popul—tionF Negotiation and Mutual Respect

wi™h—el frown —rgues th—t the l—w shouldD —t mostD foster 4negoti—tion —nd mutu—l respe™t4 ˜etween indigeE nous ™ultures —nd those who seek to employ — ™ulture9s tr—dition—l expressionsF „his —ppro—™h would give indigenous groups mu™h less prote™tionD ˜ut would f—™ilit—teD he —rguesD ˜ene(™i—l ™ultur—l inter™h—ngeF International Human Rights

yther s™hol—rsD su™h —s v—uren™e ‚F relferD —ppro—™h the issue —s one of rum—n ‚ightsF „hey —dvo™—te gr—nting „u prote™tion th—t is f—ir —nd ˜—l—n™ed —nd not overre—™hingF „heir —m˜ition is to ˜—l—n™e the needs of indigenous groups —nd the ˜ene(ts of — ro˜ust pu˜li™ dom—inF sn this veinD hun™—n wF w—tthews75 points out th—t 4— hum—n rights —ppro—™h t—kes wh—t is often —n impli™it ˜—l—n™e ˜etween the rights of inventors —nd ™re—tors —nd the interests of the wider so™iety within intelle™tu—l property p—r—digms —nd it m—kes it f—r more expli™it —nd ex—™tingFFFF ‘„“he rights of the ™re—tor —re not —˜solute ˜ut ™ondition—l on ™ontri˜uting to the ™ommon good —nd welf—re of so™ietyFFFF ‘f“e™—use — hum—n rights —ppro—™h —lso est—˜lishes — di'erent —nd often more ex—™ting st—nd—rd for ev—lu—ting the —ppropri—teness of gr—nting intelle™tu—l property prote™tionD in order for intelle™tu—l property to ful(ll the ™onditions ne™ess—ry to ˜e re™ognised —s — univers—l hum—n rightD intelle™tu—l property regimes —nd the m—nner they —re implemented (rst —nd foremost must ˜e ™onsistent with the re—lis—tion of the other hum—n rightsD p—rti™ul—rly those enumer—ted in the goven—ntF4 System of Domain Public Payant

„he do™trine of dom—in pu˜li™ p—y—ntD —dvo™—ted ˜y the „unis wodel v—w76 —nd dis™ussed —t ‡s€y9s IWWW ‚ound „—˜le on s€ —nd „u @se™tion Q ˜ of the ‚ound „—˜le minutesA77 D —dvo™—tes p—yment of roy—lties for worksD in™luding „gisD th—t —re in the pu˜li™ dom—in ˜e™—use they do not qu—lify for prote™tion under tr—dition—l intelle™tu—l property l—wF „his would provide monet—ry ™ompens—tion for indigenous ™ommunitiesD ˜ut would not ˜e — s—tisf—™tory solution for ™ommunities whose priority is ™ontrol over their „gis r—ther th—n remuner—tionF por more on di'erent versions of dom—in pu˜li™ p—y—ntD see the …xiƒgy gopyright fulletin from IWWRF
74 http://www.eed.state.ak.us/aksca/Native.htm 75 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1414900 76 http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=31318&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html 77 http://www.wipo.int/meetings/en/doc_details.jsp?doc_id=1192




9.8.3 Why not protect TK?
ƒome o˜servers think th—t leg—l prote™tion for tr—dition—l knowledge is highly pro˜lem—ti™F rere —re some of their —rgumentsX TK does not map onto IP law easilyF es indi™—ted —˜oveD tr—dition—l ™ultur—l expressions —re often not put into — (xed formD —re not 4origin—lD4 —nd do not h—ve — de(ned —uthor ! three requirements for ™opyright prote™tionF purthermoreD —s indi™—ted —˜oveD most expressions of folklore —re not used in ™ommer™e —s — me—ns of identifying their sour™eD —nd so would not ˜e eligi˜le for tr—dem—rk prote™tionF pin—llyD p—tent l—w m—y not ˜e —v—il—˜le to prote™t „u ˜e™—use ˜y de(nitionD „u h—s ˜een used —nd p—ssed down through gener—tionsD —nd this type of prior pu˜li™ use m—y pre™lude p—tent prote™tionD —s le—st if it is pu˜li™ly re™ordedF „husD it —ppe—rs th—t ™ert—in —ttri˜utes of „u m—ke it — di0™ult (t with —ll three of the m—jor types of intelle™tu—l property l—wF eddition—llyD prote™tion for „u does not (t well with the prin™ip—l go—ls underlying the prote™tion of intelle™tu—l property l—wF „here is little eviden™e th—t prote™tion of „u is ne™ess—ry to in™entivize the ™re—tion of ™ultur—l expressionD —s other f—™tors h—ve su™™essfully motiv—ted the ™re—tion of these expressions for millenni—F purthermoreD the l—˜orEdesert theory does not e—sily (t with „u prote™tionD —s those who ™re—ted the tr—dition—l expression —re either unidenti(—˜le ˜e™—use the expression w—s the produ™t of ™oll—˜or—tionD or in some ™—sesD long de—dF gurrent mem˜ers of the ™ulture do not h—ve —s strong — ™l—im for prote™tion from — l—˜orEdesert perspe™tiveF
Protection of TK would involve perpetuation of illiberal social hierarchies and oppressive customs within indigenous groups. enother —rgument —g—inst providing prote™tion for „u is th—t doing

so m—y perpetu—te inequ—lity —nd oppression within indigenous groupsF ‡hen —n indigenous group is given the right to ™ontrol the use of „uD the powerful mem˜ers of th—t indigenous group m—y ˜ene(t —t the expense of the group9s minoritiesF €—ul uuruk —rgues th—t prote™tion of „u m—y further the oppression of women —nd su˜ordin—ted so™i—l —nd e™onomi™ groups within —n indigenous ™ultureF Protection of TK may deprive the world community of valuable knowledge. ƒome might —rgue th—t prin™iples of li˜er—l demo™r—™y di™t—te th—t knowledge should ˜e freely sh—red r—ther th—n restri™ted to ™ert—in people or groupsF €rote™tion of „u might deprive outsiders of — ™h—n™e to ˜ene(t from the tr—ditionsD medi™in—l or otherwiseD of —n indigenous ™ultureF ‡hen —dv—n™ing this —rgumentD howeverD one should keep in mind th—t prin™iples of li˜er—l demo™r—™yD while widely —™™epted in the ‡estern worldD —re not ne™ess—rily —n —greedEupon st—rting point for this de˜—teF Increase awareness rather than changing the law. ƒome org—niz—tions h—ve —dvo™—ted prote™tion of „u through nongovernment—l org—niz—tions —nd proje™ts r—ther th—n through legisl—tionF por ex—mpleD the sntergovernment—l gommittee for the ƒ—fegu—rding of snt—ngi˜le gultur—l rerit—ge h—s ™ompiled — vist of snt—ngi˜le rerit—ge in xeed of …rgent ƒ—fegu—rding78 F …xiƒgy lists proje™ts for s—fegu—rding int—ngi˜le ™ultur—l herit—ge in efri™—n ™ountries here79 F pin—llyD groups of —™—demi™s —nd —™tivists h—ve ™re—ted ™ommunity st—nd—rds for thoseD su™h —s —nthropologistsD whose work imp—™ts indigenous ™ultures —nd m—y involve sensitive issues of dis™losure of „uF

9.9 Back to the case study
x—di— should m—ke engel— —w—re of the v—rious types of n—tion—l intelle™tu—l property l—ws th—t ™ould —pply to this situ—tionF por ex—mpleD in their ™ountry tr—dition—l d—n™es might ˜e prote™ted under ™opyright or sui generis st—tutesF roweverD those l—ws would only —pply within their ™ountryD not to the distri˜ution of the w—donn— video in other ™ountriesF x—di— should —lso m—ke engel— —w—re of region—l org—niz—tions of whi™h their ™ountry m—y ˜e — mem˜erF pin—llyD x—di— ™ould help equip engel— to —dvo™—te for prote™tion of her ™ommunity9s tr—dition—l ™ultur—l expressions ˜y m—king her —w—re of the poli™y re™ommend—tions —nd reports of intern—tion—l org—niz—tionsD su™h —s ‡s€yD —nd the relev—nt ™ommittees th—t m—y ˜e proposing dr—ft legisl—tion on tr—dition—l knowledge in the ne—r future
78 http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?pg=00011#list 79 http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?pg=00176


9.10 Additional resources

9.10.1 In General
ƒilke †on vewinski idFD sndigenous rerit—ge —nd sntelle™tu—l €roperty @PdF PHHVAF ‡s€y9s h—t—˜—se80 ™ont—ins existing ™odesD guidesD poli™iesD proto™ols —nd st—nd—rd —greements rel—tE ing to the re™ordingD digitiz—tion —nd dissemin—tion of int—ngi˜le ™ultur—l herit—geD with —n emph—sis on intelle™tu—l property issuesF ‡ho ywns x—tive gulture ˜y wi™h—el pF frown81 is — good resour™e for underst—nding ™urrent de˜—tes —˜out the leg—l st—tus of indigenous —rtD musi™D folkloreD ˜iologi™—l knowledge —nd s—™red sitesF sntelle™tu—l €roperty ‚ights ynline82 is — ™ompendium —rti™les —˜out „r—dition—l unowledge —nd gulE tur—l ixpressions „he efri™—n gopyright 8 e™™ess to unowledge €roje™t @egePuA83 pro˜es the rel—tionship ˜etween n—tion—l ™opyright environments —nd —™™ess to knowledge in efri™—n ™ountriesF x—tion—l ixperien™es with the €rote™tion of „r—dition—l gultur—l ixpressionsGixpressions of polkloreX €ref—™e84 ‡s€y9s resour™es on „r—dition—l gultur—l ixpressions @polkloreA85 gre—tive rerit—ge €roje™tX ƒtr—tegi™ w—n—gement of s€ ‚ights —nd snterests86 lists resour™es for develE oping ˜est pr—™ti™es —nd surveys existing pr—™ti™esD proto™ols —nd poli™iesF ‚esour™es on sndigenous gultures —nd gultur—l €roperty87 is — se—r™h—˜le d—t—˜—se of ™odesD guidesD poli™iesD proto™ols —nd —greements rel—ting to s€ —nd the digitiz—tion of sgrF st —lso in™ludes short ™—se studies presenting inform—l summ—ries of ˜est pr—™ti™esD multimedi— m—teri—lsD —rti™lesD l—ws —nd other resour™esF ss — ƒui qeneris ƒystem xe™ess—ryc88 reviews tr—dition—l s€ l—ws —nd outlines potenti—l pro˜lems with sui generis systemsF ‡s€y89 list of legisl—tive texts on the prote™tion of „uF ‡s€y ™—se studies of —ppropri—ted tr—dition—l ™ultur—l expressions90

9.10.2 Examples of Nation Specic Rules Governing Traditional Knowledge
€eter t—sziD 4„r—dition—l gultureX e ƒtep porw—rd for €rote™tion in sndonesi—4 @PHHWA91 v—uryn qr—ntD 4„he €rote™tion of „r—dition—l or sndigenous unowledgeD4 ƒtHRW evsEefe RTW @PHHRAF €—ul uurukD 4qo—ding — ‚elu™t—nt hinos—urX wutu—l ‚e™ognition egreements —s — €oli™y ‚esponse to the wis—ppropri—tion of poreign „r—dition—l unowledge in the …nited ƒt—tesD4 QR €eppF vF ‚evF TPW @PHHUAF €—ul uuruk D 4„he ‚ole of gustom—ry v—w …nder Sui Generis pr—meworks of sntelle™tu—l €roperty ‚ights in „r—dition—l —nd sndigenous unowledgeD4 IU sndF snt9l 8 gompF vF ‚evF TU @PHHUAF €—ul uurukD 4€rote™ting polklore …nder wodern sntelle™tu—l €roperty ‚egimesX e ‚e—ppr—is—l of the „ensions fetween sndividu—l —nd gommun—l ‚ights in efri™— —nd the …nited ƒt—tesD4 RV emF …F vF ‚evF UTW @IWWWAF ƒtephen ‚F wunzerD u—l ‚—usti—l—D 4„he …ne—sy g—se for sntelle™tu—l €roperty ‚ights in „r—dition—l unowledgeD4 PU g—rdozo erts 8 intF vFtF QU @PHHWAF

vKUx386Lbgxl_JtZO798bxHrrw 89 http://www.wipo.int/tk/en/laws/tk.html 90 http://www.wipo.int/tk/en//studies/cultural/minding-culture/studies 91 http://www.wcl.american.edu/pijip/go/news/professor-peter-jaszi-authors-report-on-protection-of-the-traditional-arts-inindonesia

80 http://www.wipo.int/tk/en/folklore/creative_heritage/ 81 http://www.williams.edu/AnthSoc/native/index.htm 82 http://www.iprsonline.org/resources/tk.htm#2006 83 http://www.aca2k.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=174&Itemid=60&lang=en 84 http://www.wipo.int/tk/en/studies/cultural/expressions/preface/index.html 85 http://www.wipo.int/tk/en/folklore/ 86 http://www.wipo.int/tk/en/folklore/culturalheritage/index.html 87 http://www.caslon.com.au/ipguide14.htm 88 http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:YpXBL2B8YW4J:www.iipi.org/speeches/newyork011404.pdf+what+are+sui+generis+laws+W




‡ikipedi— site92 on the …nited ƒt—te9s x—tive emeri™—n w—s™ot gontroversyF

9.10.3 Examples of Regional Codes Governing Traditional Knowledge
ede˜—m˜o edewopoD 4„he qlo˜—l sntelle™tu—l €roperty ƒystem —nd ƒu˜Eƒ—h—r— efri™—X e €rognosti™ ‚eE )e™tionD4 QQ …F „olF vF ‚evF URW @PHHPAF efri™—n sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tion @ye€sA93 efri™—n ‚egion—l sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tion @e‚s€yA94 ende—n gommunity95 gommon w—rket of the ƒouth @wi‚gyƒ…‚A96 €—™i(™ ssl—nds porum ƒe™ret—ri—t97

9.10.4 International Legal Instruments
v—uren™e ‚F relferD 4„ow—rd — rum—n ‚ights pr—mework for sntelle™tu—l €ropertyD4 RH …FgF h—vis v—w ‚eview WUI @PHHUAF e ™ritique of ‡s€y9s hr—ft €rin™iples from — ™o—lition of indigenous groups98

9.10.5 Policy Arguments
weg—n g—rpenterD sntelle™tu—l €roperty v—w —nd sndigenous €eoplesX 4ed—pting gopyright v—w to the xeeds of — qlo˜—l gommunityD4 U ‰—le rumF ‚tsF 8 hevF vFtF SI @PHHRAF €—tty qersten˜lithD 4sdentity —nd gultur—l €ropertyX „he €rote™tion of gultur—l €roperty in the …nited ƒt—tesD4 US fF …F vF ‚i†F SSWD SUH @IWWSAF vorie qr—h—m —nd ƒtephen w™tohnD 4sndigenous €eoples —nd sntelle™tu—l €ropertyD4 IW ‡eƒrF …F tFvF 8 €yv9‰ QIQ @PHHSAF uristen eF g—rpenterD 4‚e—l €roperty —nd €eoplehoodD4 PU ƒt—nF invtlF vFtF QIQD QRSESID QSSESU @PHHVAF €—ul uurukD 4€romoting polklore under wodern sntelle™tu—l €roperty ‚egimesX e ‚e—ppr—is—l of the „ensions ˜etween sndividu—l —nd gommun—l ‚ights in efri™— —nd the …ƒD4 RV emF …F vF ‚evF UTW @IWWWAF enup—m gh—nder 8 w—dh—vi ƒunderD 4„he ‚om—n™e of the €u˜li™ hom—inD4 WP g—liforni— v—w ‚eview IQQI @PHHRAF uristen eF g—rpenterD ƒoni— u—ty—lD —nd engel— ‚ileyD 4sn hefense of €ropertyD4 IIV ‰—le vFtF IHPP @PHHWAF

9.11 Assignment and discussion questions

9.11.1 Assignment
enswer one of the following questionsX IF ƒhould intelle™tu—l property prote™tion of —ny sort ˜e gr—nted to tr—dition—l knowledgec PF essuming some sort of intelle™tu—l property prote™tion for tr—dition—l knowledge is —ppropri—teD whi™h of the m—ny leg—l systems dis™ussed in this module is the ˜estc
92 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_American_mascot_controversy 93 http://www.oapi.wipo.net/en/OAPI/index.htm 94 http://www.aripo.org/ 95 http://www.comunidadandina.org/endex.htm 96 http://untreaty.un.org/unts/144078_158780/12/10/5009.pdf 97 http://www.forumsec.org/index.cfm 98 http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/tk/en/igc/ngo/ciel_gap.pdf


9.11.2 Discussion Question(s)
ƒele™t one of the —nswers th—t your ™olle—gues provided to the essignment questionsD —nd ™omment on itF ixpl—in why you —gree or dis—greeF

9.12 Contributors
„his module w—s ™re—ted ˜y imily gox99 D edrienne f—ker100 D eriel ‚osthstein101 D —nd wiri—m ‡eiler102 F st w—s then edited ˜y ‡illi—m pisher103 F

99 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#cox 100 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#Abaker 101 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#arothstein 102 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#weiler 103 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#sher




Chapter 10

10.1 Module 9: Activism 10.2 Learning objective
„his module tries to —ssist li˜r—ri—ns in developing ™ountries who —re ™onsidering org—nizing to in)uen™e the sh—pe of ™opyright l—wsF st does so ˜y ex—mining how other groups h—ve sought in the p—st to modify @or to resist modi(™—tions ofA ™opyright systemsF „o th—t endD it o'ers three ™—ses studiesD involving sh—rply di'erent issues —nd ™ountriesF xo simple lesson emerges from these ™—se studiesF ‚—therD they —re intended to provide the ˜—sis for re)e™tion —nd dis™ussion ™on™erning wh—t forms of —™tivism —re e'e™tive ! —nd wh—t forms —re notF

10.3 Case Study #1: The Swedish Pirate Party

10.3.1 Challenged Law
yn tuly ID PHHSD the ƒwedish €—rli—mentD the ‚iksd—gD —mended its ™opyright l—w to ™omply with — PHHR iurope—n …nion dire™tive2 requiring —ll mem˜er n—tions to ˜—n downlo—ds of ™opyrighted m—teri—l —˜sent the rightsEholder9s ™onsentF fefore the end of the ye—rD — ƒwedish ™ourt h—nded down the ™ountry9s (rst ™onvi™tion —nd (ne for —n illeg—l downlo—dF

10.3.2 Local Factors
ƒwedes were well poised to org—nize —g—inst the tightening ™opyright l—w ˜e™—use of the following lo™—l f—™torsX @IA the ƒwedish government w—s —n e—rly —dopter of pu˜li™ high speed ˜ro—d˜—ndD whi™h m—de un—uthoE rized downlo—ding of —udio —nd video re™ordings p—rti™ul—rly e—syF @PA ƒwedes were ™ultur—lly predisposed to underst—nd property rights —s tools for pu˜li™ good r—ther th—n —s n—tur—l rights of the holdersF @QA — gr—ssroots think t—nk n—med €ir—t˜yr—n3 @or €ir—™y fure—uA h—d ˜een pu˜li™ly ™ontesting ™opyE right prote™tion in ƒweden sin™e PHHQF
1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.org/content/m38527/1.2/>. 2 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32004L0048R%2801%29:EN:NOT 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piratbyrån





10.3.3 Founding the Pirate Party
yn xew ‰e—rs h—y of PHHTD just months —fter the (rst (leEsh—ring prose™utionD —n s„ entrepreneur n—med ‚i™k—rd p—lkvinge formed PiratpartietD the ƒwedish €ir—te €—rtyF xeither p—lkvinge nor his ™oEfounders h—d —ny form—l politi™—l experien™e when they m—de the de™ision to st—rt the p—rtyF es — resultD they did know th—t the p—rty needed PDHHH sign—tures to register form—lly with the ƒwedish ile™tion euthorityD Valmyndigheten. ‡hen they le—rnedD they hosted — we˜site for ™itizens to de™l—re pu˜li™ly their mem˜ership —nd then ˜eg—n ™olle™ting physi™—l sign—tures in personF yn™e form—lly registeredD the p—rty re™ruited ™—ndid—tes for the Riksdag ele™tions in ƒeptem˜erD dr—fted — p—rty pl—tformD fundr—isedD —nd ˜uilt lo™—l org—niz—tions in ˜oth ur˜—n —nd rur—l —re—s throughout ƒwedenF

10.3.4 Drafting the Pirate Party's Platform
„he €ir—te €—rty —rti™ul—ted its ™opyright poli™y go—ls —s p—rt of — l—rger e'ort to exp—nd freedom of —™™ess to ™ulture —nd to prote™t fund—ment—l rightsF „he p—rty issues its pl—tform in num˜ered versionsF ƒin™e pe˜ur—ry PHHTD —ll of the v—rious versions of the pl—tform h—ve fe—tured three ™ore prin™iplesX fund—ment—l ™opyright reformD —˜olition of p—tentsD —nd government respe™t for person—l priv—™yF …nder the su˜he—ding 4pree yur gultureD4 the €ir—te €—rty de™l—res three det—iled poli™y —imsX to redu™e ™opyright prote™tion for —ny work to (ve ye—rs —fter its pu˜li™—tionD to exempt —ll deriv—tive works from ™opyright prote™tionD —nd to limit ex™eptions to this gener—l rule to those gr—nted ˜y expli™it st—tutory en—™tmentF „he ™urrent edition4 D titled 4€ir—te €—rty he™l—r—tion of €rin™iples QFPD4 des™ri˜es —n ongoing movement to ™le—r leg—l o˜st—™les from the p—th of 4the emerging inform—tion so™ietyF4 †ersion QFP —lso —nnoun™es the p—rty9s open st—n™e tow—rd p—rtnering with —ny politi™—l —lli—n™e to —™hieve its str—tegi™ o˜je™tivesX 4yur go—l is to use — tie ˜re—ker position in p—rli—ment —s lever—geF4

10.3.5 The Pirate Bay
„he wotion €i™ture esso™i—tion of emeri™— —nd its ƒwedish —0li—teD the e€fD re—™ted to the mo˜iliz—tion ˜y pressuring the ƒwedish government to pursue the ™ountry9s l—rgest f—™ilit—tor of illeg—l downlo—dsX the €ir—te f—yF €reviouslyD emeri™—n rightsEholders h—d spent ™onsider—˜le resour™es ˜ringing su™™essful ™ivil l—wsuits —g—inst the l—rgest …FƒFE˜—sed (le sh—ring servi™esX x—psterD eimsterD qroksterD —nd worpheusF „he rightsE holders h—d ˜een less su™™essfulD howeverD in shutting down fittorrent tr—™ker se—r™h enginesD su™h —s ƒuprnov—D ilite „orrentsD „orrentƒpyD —nd ehonkeyD whi™h en—˜le one ™omputer to downlo—d — ™opyrighted work more e0™iently ˜y ™onne™ting it to multiple other ™omputersD e—™h t—sked with tr—nsferring — sm—ll pie™e of the origin—l (leF es the l—rgest —nd most inf—mous fittorent tr—™ker se—r™h engineD the €ir—te f—y w—s — p—rti™ul—rly ™onspi™uous f—™ilit—tor of un™he™ked illeg—l downlo—dingD —nd it w—s he—dqu—rtered in ƒwedenF „he €ir—te f—y w—s designed ˜y qottfrig ƒv—rtholmD — former mem˜er of the Piratbyran think t—nkF „he „‚s€ƒ egreementD the i… hire™tives @˜oth dis™ussed in wodule P5 AD —nd the Riksdag 9s impleE menting legisl—tion —ll strengthened the rightsEholders9 h—ndF sf ƒweden refused to enfor™e its intelle™tu—l property l—ws —g—inst „he €ir—te f—yD the rightsEholders ™ould en™our—ge the …FƒF government to initi—te — ‡orld „r—de yrg—niz—tion dispute resolution pro™eedingD whi™hD if su™™essfulD would h—ve exposed ƒweden to ret—li—tory tr—de s—n™tionsF „he wotion €i™ture esso™i—tion of emeri™— ™ont—™ted the ƒwedish winistry of tusti™e dire™tlyD en™our—ging it to —™tF yn w—y QID PHHTD ƒweden9s government gr—nted domesti™ poli™e — w—rr—nt to se—r™h the €ir—te f—y9s f—™ilities —nd seize its (le serversF
4 http://docs.piratpartiet.se/Principles%203.2.pdf 5 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_2:_The_International_Framework


10.3.6 September 2006 Riksdag Elections
„he ™l—mpdown provoked street protests in ƒwedenD whi™h in turn —ttr—™ted intern—tion—l medi— —ttentionF „he €ir—te €—rty9s mem˜ership in™re—sed r—pidlyD espe™i—lly —fter the €ir—te f—y resurf—™ed in the xetherE l—ndsF „he €ir—te €—rty h—s no form—l ™onne™tion to the €ir—te f—y or to the €ir—te fure—u think t—nkD ˜ut the pu˜li™ per™eived the three —s linkedF „he m—jority of the new mem˜ers of the p—rty were too young to voteF ƒwedish s™hools regul—rly hold mo™k ele™tionsD —nd the €ir—te €—rty took —pproxim—tely RH per™ent of the PHHT student voteF ‚e™ognizing the potenti—l longEterm power of this groupD the €ir—te €—rty de™ided to invest its resour™es —nd politi™—l ™—pit—l in se™uring the votes these mem˜ers would eventu—lly representF „he p—rty org—nized ‰oung €ir—tes student groupsF edult ƒwedes in PHHT were less in™lined to support the €ir—te €—rty th—n the youthD espe™i—lly if the ™ost were to forego the ™h—n™e to vote for one of the ruling p—rtiesF „h—t disin™lin—tion w—s reinfor™ed ˜y — tuly PHHT newsp—per —rti™le reve—ling th—t „he €ir—te f—y w—s pro(ting su˜st—nti—lly through —dvertising revenueF „his seemed out of step with the pu˜li™ servi™e ethos „he €ir—te f—y9s le—ders h—d ™h—mpionedF eg—inD —lthough the €ir—te €—rty h—s no form—l ™onne™tion to the €ir—te f—yD the pu˜li™ per™eived them —s inter™onne™tedF ‡hen the PHHT ˜—llots were ™—stD Piratpartiet e—rned less th—n one per™ent of the vote —nd therefore f—iled to qu—lify for — se—t in the Riksdag.

10.3.7 June 2009 European Parliament Elections
„he ƒwedish €ir—te €—rty w—s more su™™essful se™uring se—ts in the iurope—n €—rli—mentF sn the tune PHHW ele™tionsD the €—rty se™ured enough votes to ˜e —w—rded P of UQT se—ts in the €—rli—mentF „he €—rty9s su™™ess w—s f—™ilit—ted ˜y low turnout for the ele™tionsF „he €ir—te €—rty surged —s support for its ™ompetitors l—ggedF Piratpartiete—rned more th—n seven per™ent of the ƒwedish voteD most of whi™h it pi™ked up from ƒweden9s veft €—rtyF „he €—rty9s two ele™ted wem˜ers were ghristi—n ingstromD —n —ntiEsoftw—reEp—tent —™tivist —nd former te™hnology exe™utiveD —nd PPEye—rEold emeli— endersdotterD one of the e—rly student mem˜ersF

10.3.8 Present Day
„he €ir—te €—rty now h—s RWDHHH mem˜ersF sf the p—rty g—ins Riksdag represent—tion in the PHIH ele™tions @s™heduled for ƒeptem˜er IWthAD its nonEp—rtis—n st—n™e will provide it su0™ient )exi˜ility either to ˜ring the ‚edEqreen voting ˜lo™ to power or —ltern—tively to in™re—se the n—rrow m—jority ™urrently enjoyed ˜y the ruling ˜lo™F ƒtillD even ˜efore the polls ™lose in PHIHD it is ™ert—in th—t the €ir—te €—rty h—s exp—nded its in)uen™e over the l—st three ye—rsF ell of ƒweden9s m—jor leftEwing p—rties now voi™e pu˜li™ support for li˜er—lizing ™opyright pen—lties for priv—te individu—ls who downlo—d —udio —nd video re™ordings for nonE™ommer™i—l person—l useF „his is the most import—nt pl—nk in the €ir—te €—rty9s pl—tformF „he ™h—n™es th—t it will eventu—lly ˜e —dopted seem to ˜e in™re—singF

10.4 Case Study #2: "Click Wrap" Licenses and the Uniform Commercial Code

10.4.1 The UCC
sn the …nited ƒt—tesD ™ontr—™t l—w is sh—ped —nd enfor™ed ˜y the legisl—tures —nd ™ourts of the individu—l st—tesD not ˜y the n—tion—l legisl—ture —nd ™ourtsF „o promote n—tion—l uniformity of ™ontr—™t l—wD — promiE nent org—niz—tion of leg—l s™hol—rs —nd pr—™titionersD known —s the emeri™—n v—w snstitute @evsAD works with the x—tion—l gonferen™e of gommissioners on …niform ƒt—te v—ws @xgg…ƒvA to promulg—te the …niform




gommer™i—l gode @…ggAD — ™omprehensive model set of ™ontr—™t l—ws whi™h it o'ers —s the ide—l version of st—te l—wF elthough no st—te is o˜liged to —dopt the …ggD —ll of the st—tes h—ve done soF „he …gg is not pu˜lished on ˜eh—lf of —ny one set of politi™—l interests or leg—l perspe™tivesF „h—t —ur— of o˜je™tivityD whi™h the evsExgg…ƒv sust—ins ˜y opening their dr—fting pro™ess to leg—l pr—™titioners —nd s™hol—rs of —ll politi™—l stripesD ˜—™kgroundsD —nd sour™es of expertiseD en™our—ges st—te legisl—tures to en—™t su™™essive versions of the …gg with few —lter—tionsF sn IWWRD the evs ˜eg—n work with the xgg…ƒv to ™r—ft —n —ddendum to the existing …gg th—t would —ddress the enfor™e—˜ility of ™li™k wr—p li™ensesF

10.4.2 "Click Wrap" Licenses
ƒin™e the IWVH9sD m—ny softw—re ™omp—nies h—d ˜een en™—sing the ˜oxes ™ont—ining physi™—l ™opies of their produ™ts in pl—sti™ wr—ppers ™—lled shrink wr—pF yften they would in™lude in the p—™k—ges do™uments setting forth provisions th—t pur™h—sers of the produ™ts would ˜e o˜liged to o˜eyF ƒometimes these terms were printed on the ˜oxes themselves @—nd thus visi˜le through the pl—sti™ wr—ppingAY —t other timesD they were printed on sep—r—te pie™es of p—per @—nd thus invisi˜le prior to pur™h—seAF snv—ri—˜lyD —mong the list of terms w—s — provision indi™—ting th—tD ˜y te—ring open the wr—ppingD the pur™h—ser —greed to —˜ide ˜y —ll of the other terms ! unless he or she returned the produ™t to the sellerF ƒoftw—re ™omp—nies referred to this pr—™ti™e —s shrink wr—p li™ensingF v—terD it ˜e™—me ™ustom—ry to distri˜ute propriet—ry softw—reD not through the s—le of physi™—l ™opiesD ˜ut ˜y en—˜ling ™onsumersD —fter p—ying — feeD to downlo—d the produ™t from the snternetF ‡hen they shifted to this new —ppro—™hD the softw—re (rms —ltered their li™ensing str—tegy somewh—tF snste—d of in™luding — set of terms in — physi™—l do™umentD the (rms presented the s—me terms on — we˜ p—geF „o downlo—d the produ™tD — ™onsumer h—d to 4™li™k4 — ˜ox indi™—ting th—t he or she —greed to the termsF „his modi(ed str—tegy ™—me to ˜e known —s ™li™k wr—p li™ensingF es these pr—™ti™es spre—dD —™—demi™s —nd ™onsumer groups in™re—singly ™h—llenged the enfor™e—˜ility of these li™ensesF „heir o˜je™tions were rooted in p—rt in form—l ™ontr—™t l—wF fre—king the pl—sti™ wr—pping or 4™li™king4 — ˜ox w—s insu0™ientD they —rguedD to ™onstitute 4—™™ept—n™e4 of the ™ontr—™t termsD p—rti™ul—rly in light of the onerous ™h—r—™ter of m—ny of those termsF „heir o˜je™tions —lso drew strength from the —pp—rent unf—irness of the pr—™ti™eF gonsumers h—d no re—l options ˜ut to —gree to — set of provisions th—t deprived them of m—ny of the rights they would otherwise enjoy under ™opyright l—w —nd under st—te tort —nd ™ontr—™t l—wF sn light of these o˜je™tionsD whether the li™enses were ˜inding on ™onsumers rem—ined un™ert—inF

10.4.3 The ALI Addresses the Issue
„he evs —nd the xgg…ƒv set out to resolve the un™ert—intyF „hey —ssigned the t—sk of dr—fting — new ™li™k wr—p —ddendum to the …gg to the hr—fting gommittee on ‚evision of …FgFgF erti™le PF „he dr—fting ™ommittee pu˜lished —n initi—l set of dr—ft model l—wsD in whi™h it suggested th—t 4™li™k wr—p4 li™enses were v—lid ™ontr—™ts —nd should therefore ˜e enfor™e—˜leF wem˜ers of the emeri™—n v—w snstitute re—lized th—t this w—s — ™ontroversi—l positionF „he evs invited potenti—l ™riti™s of the dr—ft to — series of ™ommittee meetingsD —nd —lso soli™ited ™omments vi— memor—nd— —nd lettersF

10.4.4 Criticism from Copyright Scholars
en import—nt groups of —™—demi™s ! led ˜y gem u—nerD €—mel— ƒ—muelsonD —nd h—vid ximmer ! —™™epted the invit—tionF sn their su˜missions to the ™ommittee —nd in — series of —rti™les pu˜lished in leg—l periodi™—lsD they —rgued th—t the li™enses should not ˜e enfor™e—˜le —nd th—t the …gg should not ˜e modi(ed to lend them supportF „heir su˜missions mingled leg—l —nd e™onomi™ —rgumentsF

IHS Legal Arguments

„he …nited ƒt—tes gonstitution limits the power of the n—tion—l legisl—tureD ˜ut —lso provides th—t l—ws properly —dopted ˜y the n—tion—l legisl—ture override or 4preempt4 in™onsistent st—te l—wsF „he feder—l ™ourts h—ve interpreted this prin™iple to inv—lid—teD not only st—te l—ws th—t —re ™le—rly in™onsistent with v—lid feder—l st—tutesD ˜ut —lso st—te l—ws th—t undermine the spirit or purposes of v—lid feder—l st—tutesF „he result is th—t the s™ope of this prin™iple of feder—l 4preemption4 is somewh—t v—gueF ƒome feder—l st—tutesD in™luding the gopyright ƒt—tuteD try to redu™e th—t v—gueness ˜y spe™ifying the kinds of st—te l—ws they preemptD ˜ut su™h provisions do not —ltogether elimin—te the un™ert—intyF sn this murky environmentD the ™riti™s of ™li™kEwr—p li™enses —rgued th—t using st—te ™ontr—™t l—w to enfor™e them should ˜e deemed preempted ˜y feder—l gopyright l—wF „he prim—ry re—son w—s th—t ™li™kE wr—p li™enses typi™—lly deprived ™onsumers of m—ny ™ru™i—l privileges under ™opyright l—w —nd therefore upset the deli™—te ˜—l—n™e ˜—l—n™e ˜etween the rights of ™opyrightEholders —nd the ex™eptions —nd limit—tions th—t ˜ene(t users ! — ˜—l—n™e th—tD —s we h—ve seenD is ™ru™i—l to the ™opyright systemF et — minimumD the ™riti™s —rguedD the issue w—s su0™iently ™omplex th—t the feder—l ™ourts would struggle for ye—rs to determine the extent to whi™h the preemption prin™iple —pplied in this ™ontextD le—ving the enfor™e—˜ility of the li™enses un™le—r —nd undermining the over—ll —spir—tion of the …gg to se™ure n—tionwide uniformity in ™ontr—™t l—wF pin—llyD —™—demi™ ™riti™s su™h —s h—vid ximmer —rgued th—tD if m—ssEm—rket ™li™kEwr—p li™enses were v—liE d—ted ˜y proposed revision of the …ggD softw—re vendors ™ould deprive ™onsumers of ™hoi™e —nd ™ompetition ˜y using the s—me 4t—keEitEorEle—veEit4 ™li™kEwr—p li™enses —™ross the industryF ximmer suggested th—t this would —mount to 49priv—te legisl—tion9 th—t serves to —lter en m—sse the pu˜li™9s rights gr—nted under the gopyright e™tF4 Economic Arguments

gem u—ner ™ontended in pu˜li™ meetings —nd in pu˜lished form—l letters th—t the proposed modi(™—tion of the …gg would shift the rel—tionship ˜etween softw—re ™omp—nies —nd their ™ustomersF ‡hether or not you —gree with meD it9s import—nt th—t you underst—nd th—t the ground rules —re —˜out to ™h—ngeD he wrote in — w—r™h IWWT m—g—zine —rti™leF u—ner —™knowledged the legitim—™y of the softw—re ™omp—nies9 ™on™ernsF sf ™ontr—™t l—w were not —ltered to limit the ™omp—nies9 li—˜ility for the ™onsequen™es of f—ulty produ™tsD the ™omp—nies would ˜e o˜liged to r—ise the pri™es of their produ™tsF ell ™onsumers would thus su'er to some degreeF wore pre™iselyD ™onsumers —s — group would ˜e—r the ™ost of ™ompens—ting the rel—tively few ™onsumers who su'ered e™onomi™ injuries resulting from defe™ts in softw—re produ™tsF roweverD u—ner —rguedD en—˜ling the ™omp—nies to use ™li™kEon li™enses to —void li—˜ility for defe™ts would le—ve to even worse out™omesF „he in™re—sed lever—ge for softw—re sellersD he —rguedD would not motiv—te them to ™onvert their s—vings into lower pri™es for their produ™tsF ‚—therD it would indu™e them to spend less money on testing their produ™ts for m—jor pro˜lems or on (xing those pro˜lems ˜efore rele—sing their produ™ts onto the open m—rketF h—vid ximmer —rgued th—t the sellers of other kinds of intelle™tu—l produ™ts would likely follow the le—d of the softw—re ™omp—niesF re predi™ted th—t emeri™—n ™onsumers would soon ˜e —˜le to ˜uy poetryD —rtD novelsD —nd fe—ture (lms only from online ret—il ™ontent stores th—t used ™li™kEwr—p li™enses to dis™l—im —ll potenti—l w—rr—ntiesF

10.4.5 McManis Amendment
sn w—y of IWWUD €rofessor gh—rles w™w—nis o'ered — motion6 —t — hr—fting gommittee meeting to —mend the initi—l dr—fts of the proposed erti™le Pf ! the dr—ft provision th—t would h—ve m—de the li™enses enfor™e—˜leF „he w™w—nis emendment —ddressed the preemption issue he—d onD ˜y prohi˜iting —ny m—ssEm—rket softw—re li™ense th—t limited the rights provided ˜y the feder—l ™opyright st—tuteF st w—s —dopted ˜y — slim m—jorityF
6 http://www.ali.org/ali_old/mcmanis.htm




„he w™w—nis emendment w—s (er™ely ™riti™ized ˜y softw—re ™omp—niesF „heir o˜je™tions were —ired —t —n import—nt —™—demi™ ™onferen™e held —t the …niversity of g—liforni— —t ferkeleyF

10.4.6 UC Berkeley UCC 2B Conference/California Law Review Symposia
„he …niversity of g—liforni— —t ferkeley9s genter for v—w —nd „e™hnology hosted — ™onferen™e in epril IWWV to explore the impli™—tions —nd merits of proposed erti™le PfF „he ™onferen™e w—s ™osponsored ˜y the evs —nd ˜rought together pr—™titioners —nd l—w professors with di'ering viewsF e diverse —rr—y of —rguments were presentedF „he keynote spe—ker w—s ‚—ymond ximmerD the ‚eporter to the hr—fting gommitteeD who —rti™ul—ted opposition to the w™w—nis emendment ˜e™—use he ˜elieved erti™le Pf w—s —lre—dy 4neutr—l4 in its e'e™ts on feder—l ™opyright l—wF w—ny p—rti™ip—ntsD howeverD dis—greedF fy the endD the domin—nt view seemed to ˜e th—t @—A 4™li™k wr—p4 li™enses did not give ™onsumers the opportunity me—ningfully to —ssent to or reje™t the terms of nonEnegoti—˜le m—ss li™enses —nd @˜A the s™ope of feder—l preemption w—s su0™iently un™ert—in th—t feder—l ™ourts would likely dis—greeD gener—ting —n undesir—˜le p—t™hwork of in™onsistent l—ws —™ross the ™ountryF

10.4.7 Eects of the Conference/Symposia
e series of —™—demi™ p—pers ˜y the ™onferen™e —ttendees w—s pu˜lished in IWWW in — g—liforni— v—w ‚eview symposium volume dedi™—ted to erti™le PfF fy th—t timeD howeverD the evs —nd the xgg…ƒv were su0E ™iently persu—ded th—t erti™le Pf9s interferen™e with feder—l ™opyright l—w w—s — f—t—l )—w th—t they ˜—™ked —w—y from the proposed revisionF „he xgg…ƒv issued — de™l—r—tion th—t —ny (n—l version of erti™le Pf should ™ont—in — provision th—t —llows ™ourts to inv—lid—te m—ss m—rket softw—re li™enses th—t were 4un™onE s™ion—˜leD4 —nd the evs deferred —pprov—l of the erti™le pending further ™onsider—tion of its rel—tionship to feder—l ™opyright l—wF pin—llyD in epril IWWWD the evsExgg…ƒv —nnoun™ed in — press rele—se7 th—t the two groups would not issue erti™le PfF „he xxg…ƒv l—ter pu˜lished its own re™ommend—tions to v—lid—te ™li™kEwr—p li™enses under — model l—w with — sep—r—te titleX „he …niform gomputer snform—tion „r—ns—™tions e™t @…gs„eAF roweverD only two of (fty st—te legisl—tures —dopted the me—sureD —nd sever—l st—tes —dopted provisions th—t sought to shield their own residents from its imp—™tF „he e'ort to solidify the enfor™e—˜ility of ™li™kEwr—p li™enses throughout the n—tion h—d f—iledF

10.5 Case Study #3: Copyright Law and Folklore

10.5.1 Seeking Greater Protection for Traditional Knowledge
es we s—w in wodule V8 D m—ny indigenous groups view ™ultur—l knowledge —nd —n™ient expressions in myths —nd —rtwork to ˜e ™olle™tively owned —nd s—fegu—rdedF „hey h—ve sought strengthened intelle™tu—l property rights for „gis —nd other forms of tr—dition—l knowledge —t ˜oth the intern—tion—l —nd n—tion—l levelsF „heir m—jor griev—n™es —re —˜sen™e of su0™ient remuner—tion for ™ommer™i—l use of indigenous expressionsD widespre—d disreg—rd for indigenous ™ommun—l rightsD misrepresent—tion of s—™red indigenous ™ultur—l elementsD —nd un—uthorized pu˜li™—tion of sensitive inform—tion —nd folkloreF

10.5.2 Mobilization of Indigenous Communities WIPO's 1998-1999 Fact Finding Missions

„he …nited x—tion9s ‡orld sntelle™tu—l €roperty yrg—niz—tion re—™ted to the growing pressure from indigeE nous groups ! —nd from the n—tion—l governments of the ™ountries in whi™h those groups were lo™—ted ! ˜y designing nine f—™tE(nding missions ™overing twenty eight ™ountries to determine the expe™t—tions —nd s€
7 http://www.law.upenn.edu/bll/archives/ulc/ucita/2brel.htm 8 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Module_8:_Traditional_Knowledge

IHU needs of the groupsF sndigenous represent—tives informed ‡s€y o0™i—ls —˜out the o˜st—™les to prote™ting their lo™—l intelle™tu—l property pr—™ti™esD the di0™ulty of do™umenting s—™red elements of their ™ulturesD —nd their struggles to ™ur˜ mis—ppropri—tion of indigenous expressions ˜y emeri™—n entert—inment industriesF ‡s€y ™oll—ted the respondents9 —ssessments of spe™i(™ n—tion—l regimes —nd pu˜lished — report9 F ƒome respondents f—vored n—tion—l pu˜li™ roy—lty systems for the —ppropri—tion of indigenous ™ulturesF ythers dis—pproved of —ny system for selling —™™ess to folkloreF ƒome f—vored government do™ument—tion of indigeE nous folkloreD ˜ut others felt th—t th—t would f—™ilit—te mis—ppropri—tion ˜y providing — ™onvenient ™—t—log for ™omp—nies seeking new ™ultur—l sym˜ols to ™ommoditizeF ‡s€y —lso ™olle™ted lo™—l perspe™tives on how ˜est to org—nize indigenous popul—tions —round intelle™tu—l property reformF ƒome suggested th—t lo™—l ™ustom—ry norms would h—ve to —dopt some of the prin™iples of ™opyright l—w in order to t—ke —dv—nt—ge of ™opyright prote™tionF ythers ™—lled for edu™—tionG—w—reness progr—msD stronger restri™tions on pu˜li™ —™™ess to their folkloreD ™olle™tive dr—fting of region—l model l—wsD pu˜li™ funds for leg—l —idD or more prolonged e'orts to ™l—rify existing leg—l rights for indigenous ™ommunitiesF ƒet forth ˜elow is — ™olle™tion of indigenous de™l—r—tions de(ning —nd seeking prote™tion for tr—dition—l knowledgeF The Mataatua Declaration, New Zealand, 1993

yne of the most not—˜le expressions of these griev—n™es w—s the w—t——tu— he™l—r—tion on gultur—l —nd sntelE le™tu—l €roperty ‚ights of sndigenous €eoples10 D forged —fter — ™onferen™e in tune of IWWQF „he ™onferen™e w—s hosted ˜y the nine tri˜es of w—t——tu— in xew e—l—ndF yver ISH deleg—tes from fourteen ™ountries —ttendedF „he he™l—r—tion pro™l—imed th—t indigenous groups were the ex™lusive owners —nd prim—ry ˜ene(™i—ries of indigenous knowledge —nd folkloreD —nd th—t —ll forms of mis—ppropri—tionD whether dis™rimin—tory depi™tion or ™ommer™i—l exploit—tionD 4must ™e—seF4 „he he™l—r—tion provided suggestions for indigenous groups —™ross the worldD whi™h w—s —n essenti—l eleE ment to mo˜ilizing — glo˜—lly dispersed politi™—l ˜—seF sn — se™tion l—˜eled 4‚e™ommend—tionsD4 indigeneous groups were instru™ted to de(ne their own intelle™tu—l property pr—™ti™es —nd develop — ™ode for extern—l users to o˜serve whi™h in™luded s—n™tions for misuseF „he he™l—r—tion —lso dem—nded th—t individu—l n—tion—l governments re™ognize indigenous groups —s the keepers of their ™ultur—l expressions —nd leg—lly re™ognize multiEgener—tion—lD ™ooper—tiveD ™olle™tive ownership over ™ultur—lly signi(™—nt itemsF Kari-Oca Declaration and the Indigenous People's Earth Charter, 1992

et — meetings in fr—zil —nd sndonesi— in IWWPD indigenous groups from esi—D efri™—D iurope —nd the €—™i(™ promulg—ted the u—riEy™— he™l—r—tion —nd the sndigenous €eople9s i—rth gh—rter11 F „he se™tion on ™ultureD s™ien™e —nd intelle™tu—l propertyD de™l—res th—tX IF w—teri—l ™ulture is ˜eing used ˜y the nonindigenous to g—in —™™ess to our l—nds —nd resour™esD thus destroying our ™ulturesF PF wost of the medi— —t this ™onferen™e were only interested in the pi™tures whi™h will ˜e sold for pro(tF „his is —nother ™—se of exploit—tion of indigenous peoplesF „his does not —dv—n™e the ™—use of indigenous peoplesF QF es ™re—tors —nd ™—rriers of ™iviliz—tions whi™h h—ve given —nd ™ontinue to sh—re knowledgeD experien™eD —nd v—lues with hum—nityD we require th—t our right to intelle™tu—l —nd ™ultur—l properties ˜e gu—r—nteed —nd th—t the me™h—nism for e—™h implement—tion ˜e in f—vour of our peoples —nd studied in depth —nd implementedF „his respe™t must in™lude the right over geneti™ resour™esD gene˜—nksD ˜iote™hnologyD —nd knowledge of ˜iodiversity progr—msF
9 http://www.wipo.int/tk/en/tk/m/report/index.html 10 http://www.wipo.int/tk/en/folklore/creative_heritage/indigenous/link0002.html 11 http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-30141-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html




RF ‡e should list the suspe™t museums —nd institutions th—t h—ve misused our ™ultur—l —nd intelle™tu—l propertiesF SF „he prote™tionD normsD —nd me™h—nisms of —rtisti™ —nd —rtis—n ™re—tion of our peoples must ˜e est—˜E lished —nd implemented in order to —void plunderD pl—gi—rismD undue exposureD —nd useF TF ‡hen indigenous peoples le—ve their ™ommunitiesD they should m—ke every e'ort to return to the ™ommunityF UF sn m—ny inst—n™esD our songsD d—n™esD —nd ™eremonies h—ve ˜een viewed —s the only —spe™ts of our livesF sn some inst—n™esD we h—ve ˜een —sked to ™h—nge — ™eremony or — song to suit the o™™—sionF „his is r—™ismF VF et lo™—lD n—tion—lD —nd intern—tion—l levelsD governments must ™ommit funds to new —nd existing resour™es to edu™—tion —nd tr—ining for indigenous peoplesD to —™hieve their sust—in—˜le developmentD to ™ontri˜ute —nd to p—rti™ip—te in sust—in—˜le —nd equit—˜le development —t —ll levelsF €—rti™ul—r —ttention should ˜e given to indigenous womenD ™hildrenD —nd youthF WF ell kinds of folklori™ dis™rimin—tion must ˜e stopped —nd for˜iddenF Santa Cruz de la Sierra Statement on Intellectual Property, Bolivia, 1994

„he goordin—ting fody of the sndigenous €eoples of the em—zon f—sin @gysgeA org—nized the sntern—tion—l gonsult—tion on sntelle™tu—l €roperty ‚ights —nd fiodiversity held —t ƒ—nt— gruz de l— ƒierr—D folivi— in ƒeptem˜er IWWRF „he gysge ƒt—tement12 e™hoed the self determin—tion theme of the w—t——tu— he™l—r—tionF st de™l—res th—t 4por mem˜ers of indigenous peoplesD knowledge —nd determin—tion of the use of resour™es —re ™olle™tive —nd intergener—tion—lF xo FFF individu—ls or ™ommunitiesD nor the qovernmentD ™—n sell or tr—nsfer ownership of ‘™ultur—l“ resour™es whi™h —re the property of the people —nd whi™h e—™h gener—tion h—s —n o˜lig—tion to s—fegu—rd for the nextF4 4‡ork must ˜e ™ondu™ted on the design of — prote™tion —nd re™ognition system whi™h is in —™™ord—n™e with FFF our own ™on™eptionD —nd me™h—nisms must ˜e developed FFF whi™h will prevent —ppropri—tion of our resour™es —nd knowledgeF4 4„here must ˜e —ppropri—te me™h—nisms for m—int—ining —nd ensuring the right of sndigenous peoples to deny indis™rimin—te —™™ess to the ‘™ultur—l“ resour™es of our ™ommunities or peoples —nd m—king it possi˜le to ™ontest p—tents or other ex™lusive rights to wh—t is essenti—lly sndigenousF4 Julayinbul Statement on Indigenous Intellectual Property Rights, Australia, 1993

„he gonferen™e on gultur—l —nd sntelle™tu—l €roperty held —t ting—rr˜— —dopted the tul—yin˜ul ƒt—tement on sndigenous sntelle™tu—l €roperty ‚ights13 F „he de™l—r—tion re—0rms the right of sndigenous €eoples —nd x—tions 4to de(ne for themselves their own intelle™tu—l propertyD —™knowledging FFF the uniqueness of their own p—rti™ul—r herit—ge FFFF4 st st—tes th—t 4e˜origin—l intelle™tu—l propertyD within e˜origin—l gommon v—wD is —n inherentD in—lien—˜le right whi™h ™—nnot ˜e termin—tedD extinguishedD or t—ken FFF eny use of the intelle™tu—l property of e˜origin—l x—tions —nd €eoples m—y only ˜e done in —™™ord—n™e with e˜origin—l gommon v—wD —nd —ny un—uthorised use is stri™tly prohi˜itedF4

10.5.3 Action by Indigenous Groups to protect TK
sn —ddition to —git—ting for leg—l ™h—ngeD indigenous groups h—ve re™ently ˜egun to —™t ! sometimes on their ownD sometimes with the —id of other org—niz—tions ! to prote™t their tr—dition—l knowledgeF ƒome ex—mples followF
12 http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/AILR/2001/11.html 13 http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Indigenous_intellectual_property

IHW Training about IP Rights and Technology Uses

sn PHHVD two mem˜ers of — w——s—i14 ™ommunity from v—ikipi—D ueny— —nd —n expert from the x—tion—l wuseums of ueny— tr—veled to the emeri™—n polklife genter @epgA —nd the genter for ho™ument—ry ƒtudies @ghƒA in the …nited ƒt—tes for intensiveD h—ndsEon tr—ining in do™ument—ry te™hniques —nd —r™hiv—l skills ne™ess—ry for e'e™tive ™ommunityE˜—sed ™ultur—l ™onserv—tionF ‡s€y provided s€ tr—ining15 F sn eugust PHHWD ‡s€y16 provided the w——s—i ™ommunity in ueny— with digit—l te™hnology to re™ord their ™ultur—l herit—geF ‡s€y tr—ined —ttendeesD providing them with requisite te™hni™—l skillsD — digit—l ™—mer—D sound re™ording equipment —nd — l—ptop to do™ument —nd digitize their ™ultur—l herit—ge on —n onEgoing ˜—sisF Contracting IP Rights at The Garma Festival, Gulkula, Australia

„he q—rm— pestiv—l17 is — ™ele˜r—tion of the ‰olngu ™ultur—l inherit—n™eF ‚eg—rded —s eustr—li—9s most signi(™—nt sndigenous ™ultur—l ex™h—nge eventD the q—rm— pestiv—l —ttr—™ts ™l—n groups from northe—st ernhem v—ndD —s well —s represent—tives from ™l—n groups —nd neigh˜ouring sndigenous peoples throughout ernhem v—ndD the xorthern „erritory —nd eustr—li—F q—rm— is org—nised ˜y the ‰othu ‰indi pound—tionD — notEforEpro(t e˜origin—l ™h—rit—˜le ™orpor—tionF ell —ttend—n™e fees —nd other revenues re™eived go to the oper—tion of the pound—tion9s progr—ms —nd proje™tsD su™h —s q—rm—D to —™hieve the following out™omesX

• in™our—ging —nd developing e™onomi™ opportunities for ‰olngu through edu™—tionD tr—iningD employE ment —nd enterprise development • ƒh—ring knowledge —nd ™ultureD there˜y fostering gre—ter underst—nding ˜etween indigenous —nd nonE indigenous eustr—li—ns • xurturing —nd m—int—ining of ‰olngu ™ultur—l tr—ditions —nd pr—™ti™es
q—rm— pestiv—l org—nizers require th—t —ttendees sign the qener—l euthority to w—ke — ‚e™ord of the pestiv—l ™ontr—™t18 if —ttendees seek to t—ke photogr—phs or m—ke —ny other re™ording of the eventF st is in—ppropri—te to t—ke —ny photogr—phs of ‰olngu without (rst seeking the permission of — senior elderF Seeking Consent from the Sto:lo Nation for use of Cultural Heritage

ƒtoXlo x—tion rerit—ge €oli™y19 requires users of ƒtoXlo x—tion ™ultur—l herit—ge to seek ™onsent from the x—tion —nd to give proper —ttri˜utionF st prohi˜its users from misrepresenting their —0li—tion with ƒtoXlo x—tionF „he poli™y —llows for the f—ir use of ex™erpts of ™ultur—l herit—ge @ex™ept for property th—t is ™on(denti—lD se™retD or priv—teA if the herit—ge is used for edu™—tion—lD inform—tion—lD ™omment—ryD or purposes other th—n pro(tD —s long —s the ƒtóXl© owner is properly referen™edF €rior ™onsent is still en™our—ged for this o useD ˜ut is not requiredF Using Trademarks to protect TK

„he q—˜ „itui gultur—l gentre20 D „hursd—y ssl—nd in the „orres ƒtr—it ssl—ndsD eustr—li—D is — pu˜li™ keeping pl—™e for histori™—l ssl—nder —rtif—™ts —nd tr—dition—l —nd modern —rtF st h—s registered — tr—dem—rk for „orres ƒtr—its ™ultur—l m—teri—lF @e… „r—de w—rk num˜er WWRPPIA „he ƒilver r—nd €rogr—m21 in el—sk—D …ƒD uses the ƒilver r—nd vogo —nd t—g to promote —uthenti™ el—sk—n x—tive —rt m—de in the st—teF e permit to use the t—g is —w—rded for two ye—rs from the d—te issued —nd must ˜e renewed every two ye—rs to rem—in —™tiveF ynly fullEtime residents of el—sk— over the —ge of
14 http://www.maasai-association.org/maasai.html 15 http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/tk/en/folklore/culturalheritage/pdf/digit_trad_cult.pdf 16 http://www.wipo.int/pressroom/en/articles/2009/article_0030.html 17 http://www.garma.telstra.com/aboutgarma.htm 18 http://www.garma.telstra.com/pdfs/2010/GF10genauthority.pdf 19 http://www.srrmcentre.com/media_pdf/StoloHeritagePolicyManual.pdf 20 http://www.indigenoustourism.australia.com/business.asp?sub=0616 21 http://www.eed.state.ak.us/aksca/Native.htm




IVD who ™—n verify el—sk— x—tive tri˜—l enrollment —nd who produ™e —rt ex™lusively in the st—teD —re eligi˜le for the se—lF ynly origin—l —rtworkD not reprodu™tionsD m—y ˜e identi(ed with the ƒilver r—nd se—lF sn IWWWD the €—uktuutit snuit ‡omen9s esso™i—tion of g—n—d—22 sought to prote™t their intelle™tu—l property rights in the —m—uti23 D — tr—dition—l snuit women9s p—rk—F „he e'ort w—s provoked ˜y — visit to the western —r™ti™ ˜y — represent—tive from honn— u—r—nD x‰D — f—shion designerD who w—s seeking inspir—tion for the PHHH f—shion lineF „he €—uktuutit snuit ‡omen9s esso™i—tion mo˜ilized — medi— —nd letter writing ™—mp—ign to prevent wh—t they s—w —s — mis—ppropri—tion of snuit ™ultureF „he pl—n to prote™t the —m—uti involved three st—gesF pirstD they sought the thoughts —nd opinions of the key st—keholders " snuit ™lothing produ™ersF „his w—s ™ompleted in w—y PHHI —t — workshop in ‚—nkin snletD xun—vutF „he se™ond st—ge involved developing — n—tion—l inventory or registry to re™ognize —ll the se—mstresses —nd designers —nd to do™ument region—l v—ri—tions in designsF „he third st—ge envisioned —n —sso™i—tion of m—nuf—™turers who will sh—re — tr—dem—rk or m—rk of —uthenti™ity th—t will gu—r—ntee ™onsumers th—t they —re ˜uying true h—nd™r—fted produ™tsF es of pe˜F IVD PHIHD no tr—dem—rk mentioning em—uti w—s lo™—ted on the g—n—di—n sntelle™tu—l €roperty y0™e „r—dem—rk h—t—˜—se24 D ˜ut the proje™t —ppe—rs to ˜e ongoingF

10.6 Additional Resources

10.6.1 General
ƒus—n uF ƒellD €riv—te €owerD Public g—m˜ridge …niversity €ressD PHHQF
Law: The Globalization of Intellectual Property Rights.


10.6.2 Sweden's Pirate Party
‡ikipedi—X €ir—te €—rty @ƒwedenA25 wi—or—n viD 4„he €ir—te €—rty —nd the €ir—te f—yX row the €ir—te f—y sn)uen™es ƒweden —nd sntern—E tion—l gopyright ‚el—tionsD426 PI €—™e sntern—tion—l v—w ‚eview PVID PHHWF ton—s endersonD 4por the qood of the xetX „he €ir—te f—y es — ƒtr—tegi™ ƒovereignD427 Cultural Machine, †olume IHX PHHWF renry ghuD 4ƒweden9s €ir—te €—rty f—ttles ‡e˜ v—wsD428 Los Angeles Times, PUFIPFHWF 4ƒwedish €ir—te €—rty g—ins votes in iurope—n ele™tionsD429 The Independent, HVFHTFHWF w—rie hemkerD e xew ir— of €—rty €oliti™s in — qlo˜—lised ‡orldF „he gon™ept of †irtue €—rtiesD30 …niversity yf qothen˜urgX „he u—lity of qovernment snstituteD ƒeptem˜er PHHVF uinn xortonD 4e x—tion hivided yver €ir—™yD431 Wired, IUFHVFHTF uinn xortonD 4ƒe™rets of the €ir—te f—yD432 Wired, ITFHVFHTF uinn xortonD 4€ir—te f—y floodied fut …n˜owedD433 Wired, HTFHTFHTF enn r—rrisonD 4„he €ir—te f—yX rere „o ƒt—ycD434 Wired, IQFHQFHTF 4ƒweden gonvi™ts pirst pileEƒh—rerD435 BBC News PSFIIFHSF
22 http://www.wipo.int/tk/en/igc/ngo/wssd_amauti.pdf 23 http://pauktuutit.ca/pdf/publications/pauktuutit/Amauti_e.pdf 24 http://www.ic.gc.ca/app/opic-cipo/trdmrks/srch/tmSrch.do?lang=eng 25 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pirate_Party_%28Sweden%29 26 http://digitalcommons.pace.edu/intlaw/290/ 27 http://www.culturemachine.net/index.php/cm/article/view/346/359 28 http://articles.latimes.com/2009/dec/27/world/la-fg-pirate-party27-2009dec27 29 http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/features/swedish-pirate-party-gains-votes-in-european-

elections-1699670.html 30 http://www.qog.pol.gu.se/working_papers/2008_20_Demker.pdf 31 http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2006/08/71544 32 http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2006/08/71543 33 http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2006/06/71089 34 http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2006/03/70358 35 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/4376470.stm


10.6.3 "Click Wrap" Licenses and the Uniform Commercial Code
‡ikipedi—X …niform gommer™i—l gode36 q—rry vF poundsD 4ƒhrinkwr—p —nd gli™kwr—p egreementsX Pf or xot Pfc4D37 SP Federal Communications Law Journal WWD IWWWF €—mel— ƒ—muelson —nd uurt yps—hlD4vi™ensing snform—tion in the qlo˜—l snform—tion w—rketX preedom of gontr—™t weets €u˜li™ €oli™yD438 PIEuropean Intellectual Property Review QVTD IWWWF €—mel— ƒ—muelsonD 439 ƒymposiumX sntelle™tu—l €roperty —nd gontr—™t v—w for the snform—tion egeX porewordD440 VU California Law Review ID IWWWF ximmer hD frown i 8 pris™hling qD 4ƒymposiumX „he wet—morphosis of gontr—™t into ixp—ndD441 VU California Law Review IUD IWWWF gh—rles w™w—nisD 4ƒymposiumX €riv—tiz—tion or ƒhrinkE‡r—pping of emeri™—n gopyright v—wD442 VU California Law Review IUQD IWWWF €—mel— ƒ—muelsonD 4veg—lly ƒpe—kingX hoes snform—tion ‚e—lly ‡—nt to ˜e vi™ensedcD443 RI Communications of the ACM WD ƒeptem˜er IWWVF …gg Pf gonferen™e ‡e˜site44 D PSFHRFHVF ƒu˜™ommitteee yn ƒoftw—re gontr—™ting yf the …niform gommer™i—l gode gommitteeD frie(ng €—perX €roposed …gg erti™le PfD45 emeri™—n f—r esso™i—tionD PRFHUFWUF €—mel— ƒ—muelsonD 4veg—lly ƒpe—kingX „he xeverEinding ƒtruggle for f—l—n™eD446 RH Communications of the ACM SD w—y IWWUF gem u—nerD …niform gommer™i—l gode erti™le Pf e xew v—w of ƒoftw—re u—lityD47 Q Software Quality Assurance IHD w—r™h IWWTF

10.6.4 Copyright Law and Folklore
4„r—dition—l unowledgeD „r—dition—l gultur—l ixpressionsD —nd sntelle™tu—l €roperty v—w in the esi—E€—™i(™ ‚egionF4 idF ghristoph entonsF xew ‰orkX ‡olters uluwerD PHHWF he˜or— tF r—l˜ertD Resisting Intellectual Property. xew ‰orkX ‚outledgeD PHHSF tF wi™h—el pinger —nd —nd €hilip ƒ™hulerD 4€oor €eople9s unowledgeX €romoting sntelle™tu—l €roperty in heveloping gountriesF4 @‡orld f—nkA ISFHRFHRF ƒe™ret—ri—t of the €—™i(™ gommunityD 4Pnd ƒ€gG€spƒGxiƒgy ‡orking qroup por veg—l ixperts on the €rote™tion of „r—dition—l unowledge —nd ixpressions of gultureF4 xew g—ledoni—D PHHQF ƒrividhy— ‚—g—v—nD 4€rote™tion of „r—dition—l unowledgeD4 P winnF sntellF €ropF ‚evF I48 €rofessor wi™h—el fl—keneyD 4„he €rote™tion of „r—dition—l gultur—l ixpressions49 4
36 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uniform_Commercial_Code 37 http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v52/no1/11founds1.mac.pdf 38 http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/∼pam/papers/2bEIPR.pdf 39 http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/∼pam/papers/clr_2b.html 40 http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/∼pam/papers/clr_2b.html 41 http://eon.law.harvard.edu/openlaw/DVD/research/metamorphosis.html 42 http://www.jstor.org/stable/3481006 43 http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=jep;view=text;rgn=main;idno=3336451.0004.305 44 http://www.law.berkeley.edu/institutes/bclt/events/ucc2b/ucc2b.html 45 http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/workshops/warranty/comments/divelymaryjo3.pdf 46 http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/∼pam/papers/acm_wipo.html 47 http://www.kaner.com/pdfs/ucc2b.pdf 48 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=310680 49 http://www.ecap-project.org/leadmin/ecapII/pdf/en/activities/regional/aun_sept_07/traditional_cultural_expressions_word.pdf




10.7 Contributors
„his module w—s ™re—ted ˜y gonor uennedy50 D imily gox51 D edrienne f—ker52 D eriel ‚othstein53 D —nd wiri—m ‡eiler54 F st w—s then edited ˜y ‡illi—m pisher55 F

50 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#ckennedy 51 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#cox 52 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#Abaker 53 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#arothstein 54 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#weiler 55 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/copyrightforlibrarians/Contributors#sher



Index of Keywords and Terms
—re listed ˜y the se™tion with th—t keyword @p—ge num˜ers —re in p—renthesesAF ueywords do not ne™ess—rily —ppe—r in the text of the p—geF „hey —re merely —sso™i—ted with th—t se™tionF Ex. —pplesD Ÿ IFI @IA Terms —re referen™ed ˜y the p—ge they —ppe—r onF Ex. —pplesD I



euthorD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ R@PSA euthorsD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ U@TIA euthorshipD Ÿ R@PSA ev—il—˜leD Ÿ S@QSA




ePuD Ÿ Q@IIA e˜soluteD Ÿ W@UUA e™™essD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ U@TIA eg„eD Ÿ Q@IIA e™tivitiesD Ÿ R@PSA e™tsD Ÿ V@TWA ed—ptingD Ÿ S@QSA eddressesD Ÿ IH@IHIA efri™—nD Ÿ W@UUA egend—D Ÿ Q@IIA egreementD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ W@UUA egreementsD Ÿ Q@IIA evsD Ÿ IH@IHIA ellowingD Ÿ S@QSA eltern—tivesD Ÿ U@TIA emendmentD Ÿ IH@IHIA ende—nD Ÿ W@UUA ennexD Ÿ W@UUA entiEgounterfeitingD Ÿ Q@IIA eppro—™hesD Ÿ U@TIA ergumentsD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA e‚s€yD Ÿ W@UUA erti™leD Ÿ W@UUA ertisti™D Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ W@UUA espe™tsD Ÿ W@UUA essignmentsD Ÿ T@RWA eudiovisu—lD Ÿ R@PSA eustr—li—D Ÿ IH@IHIA

f—nguiD Ÿ W@UUA ˜—si™D Ÿ P@SA fene(tsD Ÿ Q@IIA ferkeleyD Ÿ IH@IHIA ferneD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ W@UUA fil—ter—lD Ÿ Q@IIA flindD Ÿ S@QSA folivi—D Ÿ IH@IHIA fro—d™—stD Ÿ R@PSA g—liforni—D Ÿ IH@IHIA g—seD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ U@TIAD Ÿ V@TWA gh—llengedD Ÿ IH@IHIA gh—rterD Ÿ IH@IHIA ginem—togr—phi™D Ÿ R@PSA ™ivilD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ W@UUA gli™kD Ÿ IH@IHIA godeD Ÿ IH@IHIA godesD Ÿ W@UUA goll—˜or—tionsD Ÿ R@PSA golle™tiveD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ T@RWA gommer™i—lD Ÿ IH@IHIA ™ommonD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ W@UUA gommonsD Ÿ U@TIA gommuni™—tionD Ÿ S@QSA gommunitiesD Ÿ IH@IHIA gommunityD Ÿ W@UUA gompil—tionsD Ÿ R@PSA gomplexD Ÿ V@TWA gompulsoryD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ T@RWA gomputerD Ÿ R@PSA gomputersD Ÿ S@QSA ™on™eptD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ R@PSA gonditionsD Ÿ T@RWA gonferen™eD Ÿ IH@IHIA gon)i™tD Ÿ V@TWA


IIR gonsentD Ÿ IH@IHIA gontentD Ÿ T@RWA gontr—™tingD Ÿ IH@IHIA gonventionD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ W@UUA gopiesD Ÿ S@QSA gopyD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ S@QSA ™opyrightD Ÿ I@IAD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ V@TWAD Ÿ IH@IHIA gopyrightedD Ÿ S@QSA gountriesD Ÿ Q@IIA gourseD Ÿ S@QSA goven—ntD Ÿ W@UUA goverD Ÿ W@UUA gre—tingD Ÿ S@QSA gre—tiveD Ÿ U@TIA grossE˜orderD Ÿ V@TWA gruzD Ÿ IH@IHIA gultur—lD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA gultureD Ÿ W@UUA expressionD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ W@UUA ixpressionsD Ÿ W@UUA ixtensionsD Ÿ R@PSA ixtr—territori—lityD Ÿ V@TWA



p—™torsD Ÿ IH@IHIA f—irD Ÿ P@SA f—irEuseD Ÿ P@SA peesD Ÿ T@RWA pestiv—lD Ÿ IH@IHIA pix—tionD Ÿ R@PSA polkloreD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA porm—tsD Ÿ U@TIA pr—meworkD Ÿ W@UUA preeD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ U@TIA pun™tionsD Ÿ T@RWA q—rm—D Ÿ IH@IHIA qenerisD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ W@UUA qoverningD Ÿ W@UUA qovernsD Ÿ W@UUA qre—terD Ÿ IH@IHIA qroupsD Ÿ IH@IHIA qulkul—D Ÿ IH@IHIA rerit—geD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA rireD Ÿ R@PSA rolderD Ÿ R@PSA rowD Ÿ W@UUA rum—nD Ÿ W@UUA sde—sD Ÿ R@PSA sdenti(™—tionD Ÿ T@RWA svyD Ÿ W@UUA smp—iredD Ÿ S@QSA smpli™—tionsD Ÿ U@TIA sndigenousD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA sndire™tD Ÿ V@TWA sndividu—lD Ÿ T@RWA snfringeD Ÿ V@TWA snfringementD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ V@TWA snfringesD Ÿ V@TWA snstrumentsD Ÿ W@UUA snt—ngi˜leD Ÿ W@UUA sntelle™tu—lD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA snterD Ÿ S@QSA intern—tion—lD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ U@TIAD Ÿ W@UUA intern—tion—l ™onventionsD Ÿ Q@IIA snterpret—tionD Ÿ R@PSA snvestmentD Ÿ Q@IIA s€D Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA sssueD Ÿ IH@IHIA



h—t—˜—seD Ÿ T@RWA de—lingD Ÿ P@SA he˜—teD Ÿ W@UUA he™l—r—tionD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA he(nitionD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ T@RWA heriv—tiveD Ÿ R@PSA hetermineD Ÿ R@PSA hevelopingD Ÿ Q@IIA hevelopmentD Ÿ Q@IIA higit—lD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ U@TIA hire™tD Ÿ V@TWA his—˜ledD Ÿ S@QSA histri˜utionD Ÿ S@QSA hiversityD Ÿ W@UUA hom—inD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ W@UUA hr—ftD Ÿ W@UUA hr—w˜—™ksD Ÿ Q@IIA dur—tionD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ R@PSA i—rthD Ÿ IH@IHIA i™onomi™D Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA idu™—tion—lD Ÿ U@TIA ispvD Ÿ Q@IIA ile™tionsD Ÿ IH@IHIA imployeesD Ÿ R@PSA invironmentD Ÿ T@RWA iquipmentD Ÿ S@QSA iurope—nD Ÿ IH@IHIA ix—mpleD Ÿ T@RWA ex™eptionsD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ S@QSA ix™lusionD Ÿ R@PSA ixpli™itD Ÿ W@UUA





IIS yrg—niz—tionsD Ÿ T@RWA origin—lD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ R@PSA yrigin—lityD Ÿ R@PSA yrph—nD Ÿ T@RWA ytherD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ T@RWA ywnershipD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ W@UUA ywningD Ÿ R@PSA


tointD Ÿ R@PSA tul—yin˜ulD Ÿ IH@IHIA tuneD Ÿ IH@IHIA turisdi™tion—lD Ÿ V@TWA u—riEy™—D Ÿ IH@IHIA unowledgeD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA l—wD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ IH@IHIA v—wsD Ÿ V@TWAD Ÿ W@UUA veg—lD Ÿ V@TWAD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA vendingD Ÿ S@QSA vi—˜ilityD Ÿ V@TWAD Ÿ W@UUA li˜r—ri—nsD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ V@TWA li˜r—ryD Ÿ I@IAD Ÿ S@QSA li™enseD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ U@TIA vi™ensedD Ÿ T@RWA vi™ensesD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ U@TIAD Ÿ IH@IHIA vi™ensorD Ÿ T@RWA limit—tionsD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ V@TWA viter—ryD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ W@UUA vo—nsD Ÿ S@QSA vo™—lD Ÿ IH@IHIA w—kingD Ÿ S@QSA w—n—gementD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ T@RWA w—rketD Ÿ W@UUA w—t——tu—D Ÿ IH@IHIA w—teri—lsD Ÿ S@QSA w™w—nisD Ÿ IH@IHIA we—suresD Ÿ T@RWA wi‚gyƒ…‚eD Ÿ W@UUA wo˜iliz—tionD Ÿ IH@IHIA wodesD Ÿ W@UUA wor—lD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ S@QSA movementD Ÿ U@TIA wultipleD Ÿ R@PSA wutu—lD Ÿ W@UUA x—tionD Ÿ IH@IHIA x—tionsD Ÿ W@UUA xegoti—tionD Ÿ W@UUA xeigh˜oringD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ S@QSA xewD Ÿ U@TIA xew e—l—ndD Ÿ IH@IHIA ye€sD Ÿ W@UUA y˜lig—tionsD Ÿ T@RWA ynlineD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ V@TWA ypenD Ÿ U@TIA optionsD Ÿ U@TIA yrg—niz—tionD Ÿ W@UUA


M w—™hinesD Ÿ S@QSA


€—™i(™D Ÿ W@UUA €—™ksD Ÿ S@QSA €—rli—mentD Ÿ IH@IHIA €—rtiesD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ W@UUA €—rtyD Ÿ IH@IHIA €—tronsD Ÿ S@QSA €—y—ntD Ÿ W@UUA €en—ltiesD Ÿ V@TWA €eopleD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA €eoplesD Ÿ W@UUA €erform—n™esD Ÿ Q@IIA €ersonsD Ÿ S@QSA €honogr—msD Ÿ Q@IIA €hysi™—lD Ÿ U@TIA €ir—teD Ÿ IH@IHIA €oli™yD Ÿ W@UUA €oliti™—lD Ÿ W@UUA €reserv—tionD Ÿ S@QSA €ro™eduresD Ÿ V@TWA €rofessorsD Ÿ R@PSA €rogr—msD Ÿ R@PSA €roje™tsD Ÿ U@TIA €romotionD Ÿ W@UUA €ropertyD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA €roposedD Ÿ Q@IIA €rote™tD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA prote™tedD Ÿ W@UUA €rote™tionD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA €roto™olsD Ÿ U@TIA €rovidersD Ÿ V@TWA €rovisionsD Ÿ W@UUA €u˜li™D Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ W@UUA €urposeD Ÿ T@RWA ‚e—dingD Ÿ S@QSA ‚e™ordingD Ÿ R@PSA ‚eferen™eD Ÿ W@UUA ‚egion—lD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ W@UUA ‚el—tingD Ÿ S@QSA ‚el—tionshipD Ÿ R@PSA religiousD Ÿ P@SA ‚emediesD Ÿ V@TWA ‚enew—lD Ÿ T@RWA ‚ent—lD Ÿ S@QSA



IIT ‚epl—™ementD Ÿ S@QSA ‚eprodu™tionD Ÿ S@QSA ‚ese—r™hersD Ÿ R@PSA resour™esD Ÿ U@TIAD Ÿ V@TWA ‚espe™tD Ÿ W@UUA ‚esponsi˜ilitiesD Ÿ V@TWA ‚eviewD Ÿ IH@IHIA ‚ightsD Ÿ P@SAD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA ‚iksd—gD Ÿ IH@IHIA ‚oleD Ÿ W@UUA ‚omeD Ÿ Q@IIA ‚ulesD Ÿ R@PSA




ƒ—fegu—rdingD Ÿ W@UUA ƒ—nt—D Ÿ IH@IHIA ƒ™hol—rsD Ÿ IH@IHIA ƒ™ien™eD Ÿ U@TIA ƒ™opeD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ U@TIA ƒeekingD Ÿ IH@IHIA ƒeptem˜erD Ÿ IH@IHIA ƒerv—ntsD Ÿ R@PSA ƒervi™eD Ÿ V@TWA ƒhouldD Ÿ W@UUA ƒierr—D Ÿ IH@IHIA ƒo™i—lD Ÿ W@UUA ƒoftw—reD Ÿ U@TIA ƒouthD Ÿ W@UUA ƒt—tementD Ÿ IH@IHIA ƒt—tesD Ÿ W@UUA ƒtepD Ÿ Q@IIA ƒtoXloD Ÿ IH@IHIA ƒtudentsD Ÿ S@QSA ƒtudyD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ U@TIAD Ÿ V@TWA ƒu˜je™tD Ÿ T@RWA ƒuiD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ W@UUA ƒwedishD Ÿ IH@IHIA ƒymposi—D Ÿ IH@IHIA ƒystemD Ÿ W@UUA

„giD Ÿ W@UUA „e™hnologi™—lD Ÿ T@RWA „e™hnologyD Ÿ IH@IHIA „ermD Ÿ T@RWA „ermin—tionD Ÿ T@RWA „ermsD Ÿ T@RWA „estD Ÿ Q@IIA „hreeD Ÿ Q@IIA „uD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA „r—deD Ÿ Q@IIA „r—deE‚el—tedD Ÿ W@UUA „r—dem—rksD Ÿ IH@IHIA „r—dition—lD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA „r—iningD Ÿ IH@IHIA tre—tiesD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ Q@IIA „re—tyD Ÿ Q@IIA „ri˜—lD Ÿ W@UUA „‚s€ƒD Ÿ Q@IIA „ypi™—lD Ÿ T@RWA …gD Ÿ IH@IHIA …ggD Ÿ IH@IHIA …n—uthorizedD Ÿ R@PSA …xiƒgyD Ÿ W@UUA …niformD Ÿ IH@IHIA …nitedD Ÿ W@UUA …nivers—lD Ÿ Q@IIA …seD Ÿ S@QSAD Ÿ T@RWA …sersD Ÿ U@TIA …sesD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ IH@IHIA …singD Ÿ IH@IHIA †ssD Ÿ W@UUA †isu—llyD Ÿ S@QSA ‡s€yD Ÿ Q@IIAD Ÿ W@UUAD Ÿ IH@IHIA workD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ S@QSA ‡orksD Ÿ R@PSAD Ÿ T@RWAD Ÿ W@UUA ‡€€„D Ÿ Q@IIA ‡r—pD Ÿ IH@IHIA



W ‡g„D Ÿ Q@IIA



golle™tionX Copyright for Librarians idited ˜yX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety …‚vX httpXGG™nxForgG™ontentG™olIIQPWGIFPG vi™enseX httpXGG™re—tive™ommonsForgGli™ensesG˜yGQFHG woduleX 4e˜out gopyright for vi˜r—ri—ns4 fyX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety …‚vX httpXGG™nxForgG™ontentGmIURUVGIFSG €—gesX IEQ gopyrightX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety vi™enseX httpXGG™re—tive™ommonsForgGli™ensesG˜yGQFHG woduleX 4gopyright —nd the pu˜li™ dom—inX —n introdu™tion4 fyX wel—nie hulong de ‚osn—yD ‡illi—m pisherD ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety …‚vX httpXGG™nxForgG™ontentGmPPTSPGIFRG €—gesX SEIH gopyrightX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety vi™enseX httpXGG™re—tive™ommonsForgGli™ensesG˜yGQFHG woduleX 4„he intern—tion—l fr—mework4 fyX €etroul— †—ntsiouriD ‡illi—m pisherD ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety …‚vX httpXGG™nxForgG™ontentGmPPTSVGIFRG €—gesX IIEPR gopyrightX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety vi™enseX httpXGG™re—tive™ommonsForgGli™ensesG˜yGQFHG woduleX 4„he ƒ™ope of gopyright v—w4 fyX snge ysm—nD wel—nie hulong de ‚osn—yD ‡illi—m pisherD ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety …‚vX httpXGG™nxForgG™ontentGmPPTSWGIFRG €—gesX PSEQR gopyrightX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety vi™enseX httpXGG™re—tive™ommonsForgGli™ensesG˜yGQFHG woduleX 4‚ightsD ix™eptionsD —nd vimit—tions4 fyX imily goxD wel—nie hulong de ‚osn—yD ‡illi—m pisherD ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety …‚vX httpXGG™nxForgG™ontentGmPPTSTGIFRG €—gesX QSERU gopyrightX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety vi™enseX httpXGG™re—tive™ommonsForgGli™ensesG˜yGQFHG woduleX 4w—n—ging ‚ights4 fyX h—vid ƒ™ottD imily goxD wel—nie hulong de ‚osn—yD ‡illi—m pisherD ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety …‚vX httpXGG™nxForgG™ontentGmPPTSSGIFRG €—gesX RWESW gopyrightX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety vi™enseX httpXGG™re—tive™ommonsForgGli™ensesG˜yGQFHG

IIV woduleX 4gre—tive —ppro—™hes —nd —ltern—tives4 fyX wel—nie hulong de ‚osn—yD ‡illi—m pisherD ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety …‚vX httpXGG™nxForgG™ontentGmPPTSQGIFRG €—gesX TIETV gopyrightX ‡illi—m pisherD ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety vi™enseX httpXGG™re—tive™ommonsForgGli™ensesG˜yGQFHG


woduleX 4infor™ement4 fyX hmitriy „ishyevi™hD wel—nie hulong de ‚osn—yD ‡illi—m pisherD ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety …‚vX httpXGG™nxForgG™ontentGmPPTSRGIFSG €—gesX TWEUS gopyrightX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety vi™enseX httpXGG™re—tive™ommonsForgGli™ensesG˜yGQFHG woduleX 4„r—dition—l unowledge4 fyX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety …‚vX httpXGG™nxForgG™ontentGmQVSIWGIFPG €—gesX UUEWW gopyrightX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety vi™enseX httpXGG™re—tive™ommonsForgGli™ensesG˜yGQFHG woduleX 4e™tivism4 fyX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety …‚vX httpXGG™nxForgG™ontentGmQVSPUGIFPG €—gesX IHIEIIP gopyrightX ferkm—n genter for snternet 8 ƒo™iety vi™enseX httpXGG™re—tive™ommonsForgGli™ensesG˜yGQFHG

Copyright for Librarians

gopyright for vi˜r—ri—ns is — joint proje™t of the ferkm—n genter for snternet —nd ƒo™iety —nd ile™troni™ snform—tion for vi˜r—ries @espvAD — ™onsortium of li˜r—ries from SH ™ountries in efri™—D esi— —nd iuropeF „he go—l of the proje™t is to provide li˜r—ri—ns in developing —nd tr—nsition—l ™ountries inform—tion ™on™erning ™opyright l—wFwore spe™i(™—llyD it —spires to inform li˜r—ri—ns ™on™erningX ™opyright l—w in gener—l the —spe™ts of ™opyright l—w th—t most —'e™t li˜r—ries how li˜r—ri—ns in the future ™ould most e'e™tively p—rti™ip—te in the pro™esses ˜y whi™h ™opyright l—w is interpreted —nd sh—pedF

About Connexions

ƒin™e IWWWD gonnexions h—s ˜een pioneering — glo˜—l system where —nyone ™—n ™re—te ™ourse m—teri—ls —nd m—ke them fully —™™essi˜le —nd e—sily reus—˜le free of ™h—rgeF ‡e —re — ‡e˜E˜—sed —uthoringD te—™hing —nd le—rning environment open to —nyone interested in edu™—tionD in™luding studentsD te—™hersD professors —nd lifelong le—rnersF ‡e ™onne™t ide—s —nd f—™ilit—te edu™—tion—l ™ommunitiesF gonnexions9s modul—rD inter—™tive ™ourses —re in use worldwide ˜y universitiesD ™ommunity ™ollegesD uEIP s™hoolsD dist—n™e le—rnersD —nd lifelong le—rnersF gonnexions m—teri—ls —re in m—ny l—ngu—gesD in™luding inglishD ƒp—nishD ghineseD t—p—neseD st—li—nD †ietn—meseD pren™hD €ortugueseD —nd „h—iF gonnexions is p—rt of —n ex™iting new inform—tion distri˜ution system th—t —llows for Print on Demand BooksF gonnexions h—s p—rtnered with innov—tive onEdem—nd pu˜lisher yy€ to —™™eler—te the delivery of printed ™ourse m—teri—ls —nd text˜ooks into ™l—ssrooms worldwide —t lower pri™es th—n tr—dition—l —™—demi™ pu˜lishersF

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->