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8

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tJ'we;f u (CI) &J@taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rª;u D k ‘'Drxa&mhA’ yJ? ol@&@J ‘zufqpfqef@usia&;wyfaygi;f pk’ D f f vrf;pOfa=umifh ‘Auy’ vdrfhvdrfhvJvJ rjzpfwmyJ? 'gawmifrS ‘Auy’ xJrSm tawG;tac:±_yfaxG;olawG &Scao;w,f? *syefzufqpfe@J ywfouf+yD; oabmxm; d hJ (CPC) &J@ (CI) eJ@ywfoufwtuJjzwfcsu? hJ f awG uGcao;wmyJ? 'gayrJh *syefzufqpfta=umif; aygi;f rS J hJ od+yD; 'DrDxa&mhAf (CI) &J@ tpD&ifcHpmaus;Zl;a=umifh (CI) &J@oufwrf; 24 ESpukd (3) ydi;f (8) ESppD f k f jyefvnfppnf;rdvmwmyJ? k tnDtr#c+JG yD; olw@kd u oH;k oyfw,f? armfpwe;f u (CI) &J@ yxr (8) ESp/f 1919 rS D k 1927 umvudk qufqH&wmaumif;w,fvdk@ oHk;oyf w,f? 'kw, (8) ESprm odyraumif;bl;/ wwd, (8) d f S f ESprm aumif;w,fv@kd oH;k oyfw,f? 'gu olw@kd tawG@ f S tñuHt& ajymwmyJ? *syeft0if t*Fvdyftajy;rSm ‘Auy’ acgif; aqmifawGxrm tawG;tac:±_yaxG;aewmudk &Si;f ay; J S f wm (CI) 'Drxa&mhA&@J vrf;!ïecsua=umify? 'ga=umifyJ D f f f hJ h jyef v nf p k p nf ; rd v mwmyg? wOD ; wa,muf a umif ; a=umifh vH;k 0r[kwb;l ? f 17

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um; 0if+yD;q&mvkyv@kd cH&wmrsm;w,f? epfemcJwmawG f h odyrsm;w,f? 'gayrJh vlo&i=f um;jzpfatmif rvkyb;l ? f d S f (CPC) eJ@ rwlbl;? armfpwe;f / csLaw;/ csKd tifvi;f wd@k ukd ta&;,lwm cH&wm D k kd d (CPC) u (CI) u 0if+yD; (tajctaerodb) awG &Sw,f? J !ïe=f um;r_trSm;ay;wmawG c%c%cHc&w,f? hJ qdk&S,fvpfawmfvSefa&;vkyf=uqdk+yD; òr@}uD; (CI) eJ@ywfouf&if (Auy) tawG@tñuHu wckukd erlemtjzpf a&;ygr,f? w±kwfjynfrSm usef;a&$vsHeJ@ ,ef[lcsif;qdkwJh AdvcsKyf}uD; (2) a,mufu cseau&Swuzrf;wJh ‘&S;D tef; k f f d f kd ta&;tcif;’ qdwm (1936) rSm jzpfw,f? k awGrm ykeuefrawG vkyci;f vd@k tustqH;k vnf; rsm;cJ+h y? S f _ f kd D 'gayrJh }udwrwcw,f? ynmwwfawGu ygwukd acgi;f f dS f H D aqmifaevd@k c%c% ygwwi;f *d%;f *%wduyJG jzpfwm D G k k f yJ? 'ga=umifh tvkyorm;ADZ&SoawGukd acgi;f aqmifwif f d l =u&r,f !ïe=f um;vd@k vkyc&wmvnf; &Sw,f? tvkyf f hJ d orm;ADZ&Sdwdkif; acgif;aqmifwufvkyfvdk@rS rjzpfwmyJ? rmhup0g'oabmw&m;ydiEiz@kd / w±kwjf ynf&@J xl;jcm;wJh ff k f kd f vuQ%mudk ESH@pyfzdk@/ acgif;aqmifr_tawG@tñuH&Sdzdk@/ awmfvea&;&J@prf;oyfcxm;&zd@k / awmfvea&;pdw"mwf S f H S f f &ifusuz@kd pwmawGukd xnfwu&rSmyg? h f h G f

zrf;wJhAdkvfcsKyf}uD;xJrSm ‘rm&S,fuav;’ vdk@ tac:cH&wJh ‘usef;a&$vsH’ &J@tazu *syefeJ@aygif;wJh refcsL;&D;,m;u ppfbk&if}uD; ‘usef;pdk;vif’? 'ga=umifh (CI) u usef;a&$vsHudk ‘*syef@aemufvdkufacG;’ vdk@ owfrww,f? cseau&Swuzrf;wm[m *syef@tvdus S f f d f kd k vkywmvd@k qdw,f? cseau&Swu qdA,uf&@J ‘r[m f k f d f k D ADZaumif;oludk acgif;aqmifwifawmh olu rdw’ jzpfaevd@k olw@kd (CI) u tJ'vkd oabmxm;wmyJ? tzrf;cH&±He@J tukeazmfajymvd@k A[dwckv;kH tzrf;cH& f D k f k w,f? tukev;kH towfc=H u&w,f? &Se[rm ajratmuf f f JS (CPC) u (CI) !ïe=f um;vmwmudk ypfy,f qufaevdk@ r&vdk@ vufeufudkifa'oajy;&w,f? tJ'D vduw,f? tajctaeudk rodbJ &rf;+yD;!ïe=f um;wmvd@k k f tcgusrS (CI) u olwdk@ rSm;ygw,f ajymwmvnf; oabmxm;w,f? (CPC) cHc&wmyJ? hJ use;f a&$vsw@kd uyJ *syefqef@usia&;wyfaygi;f H kd f rS e f & if iguG v d k @ vuf r raxmif e J @ ? rS m ;&if v nf ; pkxJ odr;f oGi;f w,f? cseau&Swukd wqH;k wprvkybJ f d f f ol@a=umifhvdk@ vuf!‡dK;rxdk;eJ@? *syefqef@usia&;twGuyJ pnf;±H;k zd@k em;csw,f? atmif f f jrifygw,f? a¹rraowkwfrusdK; ajcvSrf;vSrf;vdkufvdk@ (CI) r&Sdayr,fh uGefjrLepfygwDawG[m tcg jynfwi;f ppf c%awmh&yfom;+y;D *syefbufukd w±kwawG tm;avsmpm awG@qaqG;aEG;=uw,f? (2) ygwcsi;f vnf; G G f fG kH D tm;vH;k OD;vSnvmEdicw,f? hf k f hJ aqG;aEG;=uw,f? tckvnf; tJ'vkd vkyaewmyJ? (IT) D f acwfjzpfv@kd tJ'vawG@qaqG;aEG;wm/ tjrif!Ei;f wm D kd kH d‡ d_ ‘&S;D tef;ta&;tcif;’ rSm (CPC) u tajrmf awGu ydawmifrsm;ao;w,f? k tjrif&cv@kd t}uD;tus,*%oumwufcwmyJ? (CI) dS hJ f k f d Q hJ !ïe=f um;ovdom vkyr&if ‘zGwr& "m;rqH;k ’jzpfrmyJ? k f d f S awG@=u&if tjrifzvS,fr,f? tjyeftvSef a0zef t}uay;p&m&Sd ay;r,f? olpw0ifpm;&m ud,pwf H d f k fd 'gu erlemwckuyJ jywmyg? tJ'vuprsKd ;awG kd D kd d P 0ifpm;&mawGukd ajym=ur,f? uGejf rLepfcsi;f awG@wm[m (CPC) u trsm;}uD;cH&zl;w,f? (CI) u wwfa,mif 18

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rdwqxrif;pm;yG/J vufzuf&nfyrS r[kwb? Ediia&; f kH JG f J kfH pum;ajym=uwmyg? olrsm;ay;wJht}uHudk udk,fu,loHk;&if tJ'g ud,qENt& oH;k wmyJ? rSe&ifpH rSm;&ifcz@kd y? olrsm;v$cs k hf f H J J vd@k rjzpfb;l ? v$cs&if r±d;k om;wmru ,kwrmwmyJ? t}uH J f ay;ole@J vnf; woufv;kH rdwysurmyJ? f f S ñuHwkef;ajymcsifwm? uGejf rLepftifwmae&Sie,f (CI) zsuor;f wm f f d ESpaygi;f (60) eD;yg;&S+d yD? (CI) r&SbJ uGejf rLepfygwcsi;f f d D qufqHa&;awG vkyfcJh=uwmyJ? =um+yD? tawG@tñuH &ifusuyg+yD? h f ygwDawG trsm;}uD;qHkpnf;aqG;aEG;cJhwm awGvnf; rsm;vS+yD? tckacwfrm ydrsm;vmovdy? zdwf S k k J wdi;f vnf; roGm;Edib;l ? wcsKd @vnf; o0%fvmeJ@yJ quf k kf $ qH&wmyJ? ud,u AS vkycwhJ ygwy? tck UG ygwD k f f hJ D J uvnf; AS udk a&G;vrf;tjzpf xm;aewJhygwDjzpfvdk@ ae&mwumrSm 0ifygaevd@k raumif;bl;? qifjcifw,f? tckacwf uGejf rLepfygwawGuvnf; trsKd ;rsKd ; D tzHkzHkyJ? tm%m&ygwD/ tm%mwydkif;wp&wJh ygwD/ ajray:ygw/D ajratmufygw/D vufeufuiwuyJG AS kd f kd f vkyaewJygw/D twkutcHygw/D pHaewmyJ? tusKd ;pD;yGm; f h d f k csi;f uvnf; rwl=ubl;? wdi;f jynfwckwnf;rSmawmif Auy eJ@ qufqH k wJygwu wcsKd @ae&mrSm ‘2’ ygwru &Sw,f? olw@kd csi;f h D D d u &efjzpfaewm? vrf;!ïeoabmw&m;uvnf; ol@ygwu,hf f D kd ygwD wnDwnf; r&S=d ubl;?
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wd k i f ; jynf w d k i f ; eJ @ jynf o l w d k i f ; rS m udk,fpDtusdK;pD;yGm; &Sd=uw,f? tusdK; pD;yGm;csif; wxyfwnf; r&SdEdkifbl;vdk@ jywfjywfom;om; ,k=H unf,qw,f? l wjcm;ygwu awmif;qdvm&ifawmh D k Armjynf & J @ tusd K ;pD ; yG m ;eJ @ Armjynf jynfo&@J tusKd ;pD;yGm;u bmawGvJ qdk l wmudk ‘rdwquf’ jyr,f? Auy bmvkyf f aew,fqwmudk ajymjyr,f? kd 2 ygwqufqa&;rSm oabmwlxm; D H wm &Sc&if tJ'gukd opPmapmifor,f? 2 d hJ h d ygwD c sif ; t}uH a y;wm a0zef w mud k b,fawmhrS vlod&Sif=um;atmf}uD;[pf us,f rvkyb;l ? f

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(1) pmtkywtkyqwmu vkyief;cGiu 'kursm; (Occupational Hazards) yg? odaumif;p&mawGqwmu f f kd f f Q kd odr;f yduc+H yD;p tD&wfrm tar&duefawG bmvkycovJ qdwmudk odz@kd y? a&;wJol pwl;0yf Rory Stewart u k f S f hJ k J h tD&wfu jynfe,fwckrm jynfe,ftycsKyfa&; !‡Ei;f a&;rª;eJ@ wGzuf+yD; 'kw,!‡Ei;f a&;rª; vkycojl zpfv@kd wpHw&m S k f d _d J d d _d f hJ k cdirmw,f? ol@vufawG@awGcsn;f a&;xm;wmyJ? vlajymolajym r[kwb;l ? kf f +yD;awmh odaumif;p&m taumif;qH;k u tar&duef&@J uveD (opf) vkyyukd avhvmEdiv@kd yg? udveD kd kd f kH kf k kd (a[mif;) eJ@ bmawGumjcm;ovJqwmudk Edi;f ,SO=f unfEiv@kd yg? G kd _ h kd f Edi;f ,SO=f unfawmh wlwmawG trsm;}uD;awG@w,f? rwlwmawGvnf; awG@&w,f? Edi;f ,SOp&muvnf; _ h _ f a0;a0;&Smp&mrvdb;l ? (1885 - 86) ArmjynfvufawG@e@J Edi;f ,SO=f unf±y? k _ h kH J Ediia&;pepfrm wlwmawGu kfH S • wnf&aewJh EdiiawmftycsKyfa&; (a[mif;) udk csucsi;f zsuypfw,f? wnf&aewJh Ediiawmf dS kfH k f f f dS kfH ppfwyf (a[mif;) udk csucsi;f zsuypfw,f? f f • ol@u|ercHvoawG&@J ykeuefrukd tjyif;txefacsre;f ypfw,f? jynfoawGukd ‘w&m;Oya' f kd l f _ _ l pd;k rd;k a&;’ qd+k yD; +idr0yfyjd ym;atmif &uf&ufpufpuf vkyw,f? f f • wdi;f jynf&@J Oao#mifukd zrf;qD;ta&;,lw,f? k • vufa0cHv@l tv$mw&yfukd arG;jrLw,f? rwlwmawGu • jynfor;f wyfAvcsKyfu (Armjynfrmvd) ppftycsKyfa&; tm%mydirvkyb;l ? d kd f S k k f kf f tkycsKyfa&;rª;csKyfq+kd yD; t&yfom;wa,mufuyJ 0g&iwefu cef@w,f? f kd Sf tifyg,mxJrm oGwoi;f vdu+f yDv@kd ra=unmbl;? tD&wfawGcsn;f ygwhJ S f G k ‘tkycsKyfa&; aumifp’ qdwmudk zG@J w,f? +yD;awmh ‘tajccHOya'jyifqifraumfrwD’ f D k _

20

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pD;yGm;a&;pepfrm wlwmawGu S • wdi;f jynf&@J pD;yGm;a&;toufaoG;a=umrSeor#ukd vuf0g;}uD;tkyxe;f csKyfwmrSm wlw,f? k f f d • wdkif;jynf&J@ o,HZmwawGudk csKyfudkifcs,fvS,fxkwf,l a&mif;cswmudk vuf0g;}uD;tkyf+yD; vkywmrSm wlw,f? f rwlwmu • t*Fvye,fcs@J pepf (a[mif;) u ajAmifor;f w,f? tar&duefe,fcs@J pepf (opf) u wif'gac:wm/ df d uefx±duay;wm pwmawG vkyw,f? xl;awmh rxl;ygb;l ? tar&duefur%awGyJ &=uwmyg? k f f k` D • tar&duefu a&eHwi;f awG jyefvnfywfz@kd v#yppfr;D yHre&zd@k ukd tav;ay;w,f? 'guvnf; G f k S f o,HZmw rwl=uvd@k y? J • emrnftrsKd ;rsKd ;eJ@ Ediiwumh NGO awG tD&wfrm odyrsm;w,f? uefx±duqwmawGuvnf; kfH S f k f kd rsm;w,f? (udveD (a[mif;) rSm 'grsKd ; r&SEib;l ? omoemðyvkyief;yJ &Sw,f?) k kd d kd f f d • tar&duefu a':vmawG bDvse@J cs+D yD; tD&wfxJ oGi;f vmw,f? a':vm&mwefawGukd uspae H f atmif tkycwcJvkd jzpfaeatmifvy+f y;D a':vmwoef; ‘tkwc’ awG bDvse@J cs+D y;D oGi;f vmw,f? fJ k fJ H xkway;&ifvnf; ‘a':vmwoef;zd;k tkwc’ udk xkway;wmvd@k qdw,f? (pmtkya&;ol pwl;0yf f fJ f k f udk wvtwGi;f ukeatmif oH;k zd@k q+kd yD; a':vm (10) oef; xkway;owJ? olu ‘ya&m*su’ f f h f awG vky+f yD;oH;k wm ukeatmifroH;k Ediv@kd (woef;cG) jyeftyf&owJ?) f kf J h • t*Fvye,fcs@J orm; (a[mif;) uawmh ppfavsma=u;qd+k y;D awmif;w,f? tzd;k wef&wemawGukd df f ajAmif,wm wrsKd ;/ cd;k ,lwmwrsKd ;vky+f yD; t*Fvefukd yd@k w,f? l tar&duefuawmh ‘a':vmwoef;weftwc’ awG bDvse@J cs+D y;D tD&wfukd oGi;f vmw,f? k fJ H uefx±duawG/ NGO awG/ tkycsKyfa&;rª;awGu ‘ya&m*su’ trsKd ;rsKd ;wDxi+f yD; tJ'a':vmawG k f f f G D udk jyef,om;=uwmyJ vkyw,f? tar&duef tcGexrf;awG&@J ‘a':vm’ awG tD&wf 0ifvm+yD; l G f f 21

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tar&duefvuf0g;}uD;tkyf t&if;&SifawGu tar&duefudk jyef,loGm;w,fqdkwJhoabmyJ? (pm&if;r&Sd tif;r&Sd aysmufom;wJh a':vmawGvnf; bDvse@J cs+D yD; &Sw,fv@kd tar&duefr',m G H d D D awGrm toHxuvmwm awG@&w,f?) S G f pwl;0yfa&;wJhtxJrSm &,fp&mvdkvdk[mawGvnf; awG@&w,f? twnfaygufeJ@ [moaESm+yD; tar&duefuveD (opf) vky[efukd oa&mfwmvd@k xif&w,f? kd kd f tDwvDvrsKd ; tif*sie,m touf (60) tzd;k }uD;u olw@kd xrm vkyouft&ifq;kH l f D J S f h yJwJh? 'gayrJh ol@tvkyfubmvJqdkwm b,folrS rod=ubl;wJh? oludkifxm;wJh ‘uwfjym;’ rSmawmh ‘txl;ya&m*sursm;’ vd@k yJ a&;xm;owJ? tJ'D ‘tif*sie,m’ u ol@a&csKd ;cef;xJrm f h f D S a&yef;eJ@ qyfjymcGuwifwhJ tydi;f &J@=um;rSm xl;xl;qef;qef; cvkwwck a&mufaew,fajymvd@k f k f oGm;=unfh =uawmh rayguuao;wJh armfwmAH;k wvH;k jzpfaeowJ? armfwmAH;k udawmif rodwhJ f JG h k ‘tif*sie,m’ u a&csKd ;cef;u cvkwwckxifaeyHukd oa&mfwmyg? fD f k (3) pwl;0yfu t*Fvefjynfom;yJ? t*Fvyu tD&wfukd udvetjzpf tkyp;kd zl;wJh t&Siocifa[mif;yJ? +idr0yfyjd ym; d f k kd D f f f atmif b,fvtycsKyf&r,fqwmudk odw,f? ‘&S,mrlqvif’‘qGeerqvif’umh'awG uGjJ ym;ae±Hru vlrsKd ;tkypk kd k f kd DS fDl f k f awG trsm;}uD;/ bmoma&;q&m}uD;awG trsm;}uD;uvnf; =oZm}uD;=uw,f? uGae=uw,f? olwcsi;f vnf; J kd

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r=umcif u =um;&wJh owif;wck t&qd k & if tD & wf tpdk;&u tar&duef wyfawG qufxm;zdk@ pmcsKyf csKyfr,fqdk&if quf+y;D ae&rSmaygqwhJ h kd avoH =um;&w,f? taocH AH;k cGJ wmawGuvnf; jywf w,f r&S d b l ; ? qG e f e D awGu cGJvdkuf/ &SD,m awGu cGvdkuf/ tpdrf; J a&mif vHkðcHa&;e,fajr xJ AH;k cGcae&w,f? tD&wftpd;k &tzG@J uvnf; tm%mcGa0r_ tom;usaewm r[kwb;l ? ‘qGeee@J &,m’ rlqvif JH J f f D DS csi;f ta0rwJwmyJ? a&G;aumufyuvnf; tajzr[kwwm &Si;f aew,f? ±kyjf yorRwudawmh umh'f vlrsKd ;pkukd h JG f k ay;xm;w,f? umh'vrsKd ;pkxrmuvnf; jy\emawGe@J y? f l J S J (3) pmtkyupuawmh 'Davmufygy? tD&wfppfu tar&duefueqmaA;wpf (vufopf) awG pcJwmyg? tck f d P J G f h vpfb&,forRwuvnf; tar&duefypH udveD (opf) udk quf+yD;vkyaewmyg? kH k kd f r=umrDrSm ‘tar&dueforRwa&G;yGJ’ vkyfjyefawmhr,f? uGefqmaA;wpf (vufopf) eJ@ vpfb&,f (vufopf) wd@k &@J pum;ppfx;kd yGrm tD&wfupP jyefazmf=urvm;qdwm apmif=h unf=h u&rSmyg? udveD (vufopf) J S d k k kd ta=umif; quf+yD;avhvmEdir,f xifygw,f? kf avhvmcsiwmu ynm&Smzd@k r[kwygb;l ? Armjynfrmvnf; udveD (vufopf) udk tm±HusaewJowcsKd @ f f S k kd k h l &Saevd@k yg? d 2003 rSm tD&wfukd bk&tpd;k &u 0ifwuawmh Armjynfuvnf; ‘'Drua&pDa&;/ vl@tcGita&;/ vGwvyf fS kd f kd kd hf f r_w@kd twGuf 0ifwuay;yg’ vd@k a&;olwcsKd @ &Sw,f? tJ'gukd ‘ºuufrEdif usr;D ±d@_ ci;f ’ wJenf;yJv@kd Auy u ajymawmh kd f d k D kd h (uG,veo) a=u;rHO;D aomif;u ‘Auy v'vm;/ a'gi;f vm;’ a&;zl;w,f? f G f l k 'DtawG;tac:rsKd ;u a=u;rHO;D aomif; wa,mufwnf;&Swm r[kwb;l ? k d f udveD (a[mif;) qdwm 19 &mpkypy? 21 &mpkrmvkyv@kd r&ygb;l ? 'ga=umifh udveD (opf) yHpH vkyae k kd k kH H J S f k kd k f =uwmyg? opfopf a[mif;a[mif; udvevy=f uwmygy? k kd D k J
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- vlom;orkdif;qkdif&m zGH@+zdK;wkd;wufr_ wkd@u vl@tzGJ@ tpnf;&J@ ar#mfvifhcsufawGukd tvkyf orm;vlwef;pm;tay: yHtyfxm;=uw,f? tde*,f[m k f w&m;awGudk twlwuG awG@&cjhJ cif; dS 1844 rSm “EdkifiHa&;abm*aA' a0zefcsuft!¸ef;”eJ@ rmhupe@J tde*,fw@dk [m 1845 rS 1846 txd 6 vausmf 1845 ckrm “+Adwetvkyorm; vlwef;pm;tajctae” ff f S df f tcseumvukd toH;k jyK+yD; “*smrefawG;ac:,lqr_” qkwhJ qdwhJ usr;f rsm;rSm odyenf;us qd&,vpf0g' a,bk,srl df d k H` k S f usrf;ukd a&;om;jyKpkcJhw,f? olwkd@[m tEkyËdavmr wcs@d udk a&;om;azmfjyvkuw,f? 1867 rSm rmhupf a&; d f f ±kyf0g'ukd toHk;cs+yD; vlom;orkdif;ukd pl;prf;avhvmcJh om;+yD;pD;cJhwJh “t&if;usrf;” yxrwGJtwGif; tcpm; w,f? rsuarSmufacwf t&if;&Sipepf vl@tzG@J tpnf;&J@ tvkye@J ywfoufv@dk cGjJ crf;pdwjf zmum tpGe;f xGuwefz;kd f f f f vufiif;tajctaersm;ukd cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmcJh&mrS vlom; oabmw&m;ukd xlaxmifvuygw,f? 'g[m }uD;jrwf dk f orki;f qki&m zG@H +zdK;wk;d wufrw&m;rsm;ukd awG@&cw,f? wJh 'kw,awG@&r_ jzpfw,f? olw@dk [m qk&,vpfpepf&@J d df _ dS h J d dS d S f tJ'guawmh orki;f ±ky0g'tjrif jzpfygw,f? 1859 rSm vlra&;t& uk,pm;jyKoltjzpf tvkyorm;vlwef;pm; d f _ d f f rmhupf a&;cJwhJ “Ekiia&;abm*aA' a0zefa&;”pmtkyf ukd awG@&vuygw,f? rsuarSmuf"e&Sivwef;pm;eJ@ qef@ f h dfH dS dk f f f l ed'ge;f rSm olw@kd awG@&cwhJ vlom;orki;f zG@H +zdK;wk;d wufa&; usibufvwef;pm;rsm;twGi;f ypPn;f rJvwef;pm;om dS h J d f l h l w&m;awGudk *EÎ0ifusr;f tjzpf yxrqH;k azmfxwa&; v#if wu,fppfrewhJ awmfvewhJ vlwef;pm;jzpfw,f? k f S f S f om;cJw,f? “vlawG[m rdrw@dk touf&iaexkia&; usefwJhvlwef;pm;awG[m pufr_vkyfief;}uD;awG zGH@+zdK; h d Sf df jzpfwhJ vl@tzG@J tpnf;ukexwvyrtwGi;f rdrw@dk pdwf wkd;wufvmwmeJ@tr# wae@wjcm; qkwf,kwfysufpD; f k f k f _ d qENe@J rqkibJ vlrqufqa&; tajymif;tvJawG rv$J csKyf+idr;f oGm;vdrr,fv@dk olw@dk u &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif; !¸ejf y df _ H hf om ra&Smifom wpHw&m jzpfay:apcJw,f? qkvwmu vkuw,f? ypPn;f rJvwef;pm;[m pufrvyief; zG@H +zdK;wk;d k h d dk d f h l _ kf olw@dk &@J ±ky0wÎKukexwpr;f tm;pk[m rdre@J tjyeftvSef wufr&@J txGuypPn;f jzpfw,f? t&if;&Sipepf urBm f f k fG d _ f f ukdufnDwJh ukefxkwfqufqHr_ukd jzpfay:apcJhw,f” a[mif;ukd wGe;f vSeypf+yD; qk&,vpfpepf urBmopfudk f d S f qkdwmygyJ? olwkd@&J@ 'DawG@&Sdcsuf[m “vlom;orkdif;&J@ xlaxmifa&; }uD;jrwfwhJ orki;f ay;wm0efudk wm0efcol d H v#Kd @0ucsuudk zGicsvuwm jzpfw,f? vlom;vl@tzG@J jzpfw,f? 'DvkdeJ@ qkd&S,fvpf0g'ukd pdwful;,OfrS ody`H S f f hf dk f tpnf; zG@H +zdK;wk;d wufrrm rdr&@J yuwdbm0w&m;awG enf;ustjzpfo@dk jzpfxe;f wd;k wufapcJw,f? 1875 rSm _ S d G h &Saew,f? tJ'gawG[m vlom;vltzG@J tpnf; tajccH rmhupu “*komvkyief;pOf a0zefcsu”usr;f eJ@ 1875 d f f d f f yËdyuQawG&@J v_y&m;r_w&m;Oya'awGtwki;f vkuem rSm tde*,fu “'l;&if;qef@usia&;” usr;f wk@d udk a&;om; f S d d f f f aqmif&uwmjzpfw,fv@dk azmfxwjf ycJw,f? G f k h vkujf cif;tm;jzifh uGejf rLepf0g' oabmw&m; xlaxmif d a&;ukd twlwuG +yD;jynfpom;apcJw,f? h kH G h -ody`Henf;us uGefjrLepf0g'oabmw&m;ukd od twlwuG xlaxmifcjhJ cif; - ypP n f ; rJ h v l w ef ; pm; Ek d i f i H a &;ygwD u k d twlwuG xlaxmifcjhJ cif; 19 7mpk 40 ckEprsm;rSm Oa&my[m ya'o&mZfpepfrS S f t&if;&Sifpepf ul;ajymif;a&;umvukd a&muf&Sdaeyg+yD? y&yf&m;rSm aexkipOfu tde*,fe@J rmhupw@dk S df f f f pdwu;l ,Of qk&,vpf0g' awG;qcsursm;vnf; ay:xGuf [m *smrefuejf rLepfrsm;&J@ tzG@J csKyfudk xlaxmif=uw,f? f d S f f G aeygw,f? vl@tzGJ@tpnf; zGH@+zdK;wkd;wufr_w&m;awGeJ@ 1847 rSm uGefjrLepfrsm;&J@ r[mrdwftzGJ@rSm yg0if=u obm0w&m;awG[m rwl=uygb;l ? obm0w&m;awG jyefw,f? ‚tzGJ@tpnf; jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;a&;twGuf [m tvktavsmufjzpfay: taumifxnfay:vmwm nDvmcH 2 }udrf usi;f yjcif;eJ@ “uGejf rLepfrsm;&J@ r[mrdwf d yg? vl@tzG@J tpnf; w&m;awGuawmh taumiftxnf tzG@J pnf;rsO;f Oya'”ukd twnfjyKjcif;tm;jzifh urBmay: ay:vmzd@k q&if wpHwckaom vlra&;tiftm;pkrsm; &Sz@dk rSm yxrqH;k ypPn;f rJvwef;pm; Ekiia&;ygwD arG;zGm;vm dk k _ d h l dfH vkdtyfygw,f? tvkyform;vlwef;pm;[m qif;&J'kuQ apcJw,f? 1848 azazmf0g&rm “uGejf rLepfygwD a=unm h D S teuf±i;f qH;k cH&wJoawGjzpfv@kd pdwu;l ,Ofq&,vpf pmwrf;”ukd twdtvif; xkwa0cJw,f? 'g[m rmhupf d_ h l f dk S f f h f 0g'awGe@J =unfjh rifycsi;f rwl=uygb;l ? rmhupe@J tde*,f 0g' wenf;tm;jzifh odyenf;us qd&,vpf0g' ay:ayguf D kH f f f H` k S f 27

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vmjcif;&J@ rSwwijf zpfw,f? uGejf rLepfrsm;&J@ r[mrdwf f dk tzG@J [m rdr&@J orki;f ay;wm0efudk tajccHtm;jzifh +yD; d d ajrmuf+yD;aemuf 1852 rSm rdrbmom zsuor;f a=umif; d f d a=unmcJw,f? 19 &mpk 60 ckEpyi;f rsm;rSm av;eufwhJ h S f dk orki;f t"dym,faqmifwhJ Ekiia&;jzpf&yf 2 ck jzpfay:cJh d ` dfH zl;w,f? (1) 1861 rSm tar&duef jynfwi;f ppf jzpfw,f? G (2) ykvefjynfoawGu Zmbk&if ±k&m;ukd ykeuefw,f? d l S f 1863 rSm ykveftvkyorm;rsm;&J@ vufeufuif ykeuefr_ d f dk f ay:ayguvmw,f? 1864 pufwifbm 28 rSm +Adwe/f f d jyifopf/ *smreD/ tDwvD/ ykvef/ qGpZmvefw@dk &@J vef'ef d f ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;[m vef'ef - rmwifrSm pkpnf;+yD; ykveftvkyorm; ykeuefrudk axmufca=umif; a=unm d f f _ H +yD; ‘EkdifiHwum tvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf’xlaxmifa&;ukd qHk;jzwf=uw,f? rmhufpf[m *smreftvkyform; ukd,fpm;vS,f A[dkaumfrwD0iftjzpf ta&G;cH&w,f? 1870 rSm tde*,f[m vef'efo@dk a&$@ajymif;aexki&ef f df qHk;jzwfvkdufw,f? EkdifiHwum taxGaxGaumifpD0if jzpfc&mrS A[kaumfrwD0if jzpfvmygw,f? tJ'tcseu hJ d D d f pvk@d rmhupe@J tde*,fw@dk [m Ekiiwum tvkyorm; f f f dfH f v_y&m;r_&@J }uD;jrwfwhJ a&S@aqmifq&m}uD;awG jzpfvm+yD; f S odyenf;us uGejf rLepf0g' v_y&m;r_udk pwifxaxmifchJ H` f S l olrsm;tjzpf urBmol urBmom;rsm;u todtrSwjf yK vm=uygw,f? 2? rmhupf wtdraxmifv;kH &J@ aexkirb0ukd f f df _ pD;yGm;a&;t& tpGr;f ukef ulnaxmufyay;+yD; rmhup&@J D hH f f ^m%fynm xufjrufr_t& wDxGifzefwD;a&;om;r_ pGrf;tm;rsm;ukd tjynfht0 jzpfxGef;apcJhjcif; 1848 awmfvea&; ±H;_ edrom;+yD;aemuf rdr&@J S f hf G d oabmw&m;opfrsm;ukd ykrcirmwJh odyenf;us tcsuf d dk dk f H` tvufrsm;jzifh oufaoxljya&;twGuf rmhufpf[m tcsdeftrsm;pkeJ@ ukd,ftm;^m%ftm;awGukd EdkifiHa&; abm*aA' pl;prf;avhvma&;bufrm ajcpHypf jr‡KyfExm; S k HS awmhw,f? pl;prf;avhvma&;rSm vkdtyfwJh tcsdefeJ@ b¾ma&;tiftm; zlvHka&;vkyfief;awG[m tdef*,f&@J yckH;ay: usa&mufvmygw,f? tdef*,fvnf; ul;oef; a&mif;0,fa&;vkyief;bufudk 0ifa&mufvyui&awmh f k f dk f w,f? 'Dxl;jcm;wJh vkyfief;cGifu olwkd@&J@ bHkvkyfief; twGuf xl;jcm;wJh aumif;r_awG jyKEkicw,f? 'Duae d f hJ rmhupe@J wjcm;awmfvea&;orm;awGudk pD;yGm;a&; f f S f taxmuftyHhawG ay;EkdifcJhw,f? 'DumvtwGif; 28 rmhupe@J o[m vlawGu wae&mpD a&mufae=uayr,fh ff l pd w f c sif ; u wl n D w J h ,H k = unf c suf t ay:rS m qufE,aew,f? tcseawG ae&mawG jcm;xm;ayr,fh G f d f olw@dk 2 a,muf&@J tawG;tac:t& ul;vl;qufqrudk H _ wm;rxm;Ekiygb;l ? tckwif &Saeao;wJh ay;pm 1386 df dk d apmif&@J trsm;yki;f [m tJ'umvwke;f u pma&;tquf d D toG,fjyKxm;wm jzpfw,f? rdrd rdom;pktygt0if rmhuprom;pke@J pD;yGm;a&;t& }uHKawG@ae&wJh ygw0if f f d D awG&@J tcuftcJawGudk ausmeif;Ekia&;twGuf aexkir_ f df df b0&J@ a&aomufjrpfjzpfwJh 'D}uD;av;wJhwm0efukd tde*,f[m }uHci&0pm xrf;aqmifcw,f? 1851 rS f h dk f J hH G hJ 1869 txd rmhupvufc&&ScwhJ tde*,fay;yk@d vmwJh f f H d hJ f aiGppaygi;f rSm 3˜121 aygif jzpfygw,f? tJ'umvrsm; k k D twGi;f rmhupo;kH pGaiG pkpaygi;f rSm 12˜000 aygif eD;eD; f f J k &Sw,f? rdrbmom pkaqmif; &&SaiG 8˜250 aygif &Syg d d d d w,f? tdef*,fu “New York Daily Tribune ” owif;pmtwGuf pmwrf; 120 ukd rmhufpfukd,fpm; wm0efcH a&;om;cJw,f? 'Dvenf;eJ@ pmrlc&wJh aiGa=u; h dk ukd rmhupxH yk@d ay;Ekicv@dk rmhuprom;pktwGuf wnf f f d f hJ f f d +idrwhJ 0ifaiG &&Sapygw,f? aexkirb0ukd wifawmifh f d df _ h wifhw,f&Sdatmif jr‡ifhwifay;Ekdifygw,f? rmhufpf[m rlvu “t&if;usrf;” yHkESdyfxkwfa0+yD;&if aexkdifr_ b0twGuf aiGa=u;taxmuftyHh &Ekdifvdrfhr,fvdk@ wGufqxm;cJhwmyg? vufawG@rSm pmrlc&wJh aiGu odyenf;aewmrk@d tde*,fuyJ woufywfv;kH aiGa=u; f f t& ESppOfaxmufyc&w,f? 19 &mpk 60 ckEprsm;rSm f hH h J S f tde*,f[m aowrf;pmwapmif a&;om;xm;cJz;l w,f? f h aowrf;pmrSm olom t&ifaooGm;cJ&if rmhuptm; h f f ol&@J ypPn;f OpPm"etm;vH;k tarGqufcotjzpf a&;om; H l azmfjyxm;cJhygw,f? rmhufpfukd ol@&J@ arG;&myg ^m%f ynmxufjrufrt& a&;om;jyKpkEipr;f awG tjynft0 _ kd f G h jzpfxe;f apa&;twGuf rmhupudk pD;yGm;a&;t& tpGr;f G f f ukef taxmufuay;cJw,f? l h tdef*,f[m tJ'DumvtwGif; rmhufpfukd “t&if;usrf;” jyKpka&;jzpfpOfeJ@ EkdifiHwum tvkyf orm;vlwef;pm;&J@ uGejf rLepf0g'v_y&m;r_rm yg0ifEia&; f S S dk f twGuf awmufav#muf*±kpkdufay;cJhw,f? 1892 tde*,f&@J jyefvnfowd&rdjcif; pmtkyxrm “rmhupf f f J S f [m +AdwdefjywkdufrSm ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm okawoejyKr_ &v'frsm;ukd ‘EkdifiHa&;abm*aA'a0zefcsuf-yxrwGJ’

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tusOf;om;wOD;&J@tjrif- “wkefv_yfr_ESihftHh=ojcif;”udk usr zwfrdw,f? cifAsm;wdk@EdkifiH[m tD&wf&@J v#yfppfrD;awG/ zkef;awG/ ±kyfjrifoH=um;awG/ a&awmifrusefatmif ðzwfypfw,f? usrwdk@EdkifiHrSm vlwa,muf&@J t0wftpm;awGudk rodrf;bl;/ vlwa,mufudk rdkifaygif;axmifcsDa0;wJhqD ydk@rypfbl;? 'DrSmawmh tusOf;om;awGu wkefv_yfr_e@J tHh=ojcif;udk od=uw,f? 'DrSm olwdk@u usrudk vHk;wD;c|wfypfw,f/ tukefvHk; odrf;oGm;=uw,f? usr&J@uav;awGyHkygwhJ avmhuufoD;av;udkodrf;oGm;=uw,f? usr tqufjywfoGm;&w,f? uHaumif;wmu olwdk@usr&J@aq;rifa=umifawGudk jzwfrxkwfchbl;? J olwdk@u usrudk usrtwWqDuae ,lxkwfoGm;=uw,f? usr&J@emrnfudk ,lxkwfoGm;+yD;aemuf eHygwfwckay;cJhw,f? &mrdk@pfqdkwmyJ usefchJw,f/ &mrdk@pf 72283-212 usr[m eHygwfr[kwfbl;? usr[m qm&mrm&D,m&mrdk@pf-ay:wDvdk jzpfw,f? eHygwf r[kwfbl;? usrrSm aq;rifa=umifxdk;xm;wm ±Sdw,f? usrnwdkif; usra,mufsm;&J@ emrnfudk vufe@J prf;=unhfw,f? tdef*s,fvl0pPwhJ/ usr&J@ESvHk;om;ay:rSm ewforD;ewfom;tawmifyHav;awGe@J ? aemufyef;awGe@J wcku ESif;qDyef;±kyfawGe@J usrvufaumuf 0wfay:rSm/ usr&J@uav;awGjzpfwhJ vl0pPe@J wDemwdk@&@J emrnf twdkaumufav;awGe@J ? 'gawGudk olwdk@usrqDu ,lroGm;Edkifbl;? usrb,foljzpfw,f/ usrb,fuvmw,fqdkwmudk usrrSwfrdaew,f? usr&J@b0Zmwfvrf;/ usr&J@ta&jym;ay:uaq;rifa=umif/ usr&J@ oDcsif;udk usrtqHk;±H_;rcHbl;? “wkefv_yfr_ESifhtHh=ojcif;” ppfoHk;a0g[m&vdkajym&&if tjrefpdk;rdk;odrf;ydkufjcif; qdkwhJt"dy`m,f &ygw,f? trsm;}uD;omvGefwhJtiftm;/ qufoG,fr_/ enf;ynm pwmawGe@J wzufom;&J@ jrifEdkifpGrf;udk zsufqD;ypf+yD; wdkufcsifpdwfudkyg zsufqD; ypfw,fqdkwhJ ppfw&m;jzpfygw,f? 'Dw&m;udk a&;olawGu [mvefauOD;vfref; (Harlan K. Ullman) eJ@ *sdrf;yD0d'f (James P. Wade) qdkolwdk@ jzpfygw,f? tar&duefEdkifiHawmf umuG,fa&;wuUodkvfuae 1966 ckESpf wkef;u xkwfchwm J jzpfygw,f?

36

Tattoos

A prisoner’s observation: I read about “shock & awe,” your country stripped Iraq: lights, phones, TVs even the water in my country, they don’t take your clothes they don’t send you thousands of miles away here prisoners know shock and awe here they stripped me bare, took everything my locket with my children’s pictures, I’m cut off lucky they didn’t cut off my tattoos They tried to steal me from myself took my name, added a number Only Ramos remains: Ramos 72283-212. I am not a number I am Sara Maria Ramos-Portillo, not a number. I have my tattoos every night I touch my husband’s name, Angel Luís, with angel’s wings over my heart, and one with flowers, tiny red roses woven around my wrist with Tina and Luís my children’s initials, they can’t take them away from me I remember who I am and where I’m from. I will not lose my story My skin tattoos my song.

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v,f,majr eJ@ v,form;tdraxmifpawGudk wkucwfzsuq;D aewJh rkewi;f w&yf f k d f f f dk em*pfrewi;f rwkurD q,fpEptwGi;f rSpI Armjynfwi;f ok@d t&Set[kejf yif;+yD; &ufpuf=urf;=uKwf k f dk d f k S f G d f aom/ aumufuspfaom rkefwkdif;w&yf pwifwkdufcwfvmcJhonfrSm ,ae@txdyif jzpfonf? xkdrkefwkdif;onf aejynfawmf e,ferwf (ppftypk rsupa&S@arSmuf) ygrusef ta&S@buf w±kwe,fpyf&r;f jynfrq,frtp awmifyi;f dd kf fd f S l S dk &Sr;f jynf/ ajrmufyi;f &Sr;f jynf/ yavmife,fajr/ rGejf ynfe,f/ u&ifjynfe,f/ weoFm&Dwi;f txd? ajrmufbuf ucsif dk dk jynfe,f {&mjrpfzsm;/ jrpfq/Hk zm;uef@rtp awmifbuf &efueqyurf;+rKd@e,ftxd/ taemufbuf [l;aumif; S k f d f awmif=um; csKdifh0Srf;tp &ckdifjynfe,ftxd? ArmjynftESH@ ar$aESmuf&rf;um;onfh'%f Armjynfv,form;xk tvl;tvJ cHpm;=u&onf? cHpm;ae&qJ jzpfonf? xkrewi;f (v,f,majr t"rRv,or;f ykur/_ ck;d ,lr/_ "m;jy d k f dk k l d d f wkur) a=umifh Armjynf tES@H tjym;rS aus;vuftraxmifpaygi;f rsm;pGm/ v,form;aygi;f rsm;pGm 'l;eJ@rsu&nf d f _ d f k f okw=f u&onf? b0ysu=f u&onf? v,form;om;orD; uav;oli,frsm;ygrusef xrif;iwf=u&onf? (od&dS &aom tcsuftvufrsm;t&) ,ae@tcsdefwGif ajymif;ESifhxrif; a&mpm;ae&aom v,form;ESifh vufzuf awmiforsm;OD;a& ykrrsm;jym;vmonf? &maxmifcsaom aus;vufvi,frsm; wki;f jynfjyifyok@d vGixuom; l d dk D l d hf G f G =u&onf? wcsKd @aus;vufv,fuvEihf ysusrsm; jzpfom;=uonf? wcsK@d pdwxcuI uk,u,udk owfao l D S H G f d dk f d hf dk f =uonf? em*pfrewi;f vkd csucsi;f aoaysmufr_ rrsm;aomfvnf; v,form;tdraxmifpk axmifaygi;f rsm;pGmukd k f dk f f rsK;d qufEicsI wwdwnO;f owfonfrewi;f jzpfonf? S hf D d ‡ h k f dk [laumif;awmif=um;csKi0r;f wGif ,kZeukr%u 2007 ckEpup+yD; ajr{u 2 ode;f ausmf odr;f ykua&; d hf S ` D S f d f tpDtpOf pwifvmcJovkd rGejf ynfe,f (1998 ck -2002 ck {u-7000 ausm) (22 &uf Zlvif 2011 ck {u h f dk 13000 ausm)/ rauG;wki;f ewfarmuf+rKd@e,f (2005 ck {u 5000 ausm) ucsijf ynfe,f (2006 ck 1338 {u) Arm f d f jynftv,fyi;f (2010 ar ppfwyfu {u 3 aomif;odr;f ) ponfjzifh wki;f ESijhf ynfe,frsm;wGif {u&maxmifcsaom dk d D t}uD;pm;odr;f ykurrsm; ESpEicsvyc&m pkpaygi;f jynfe,fwckpD (u&ifjynfe,f/ &ckijf ynfe,f pojzifh tygt0if) d f _ f S hf D k f h J k d wGif {u aomif;ESicsaom odr;f ykurrsm; v,form;wk@d cHc=hJ u&onf? {u q,f*%ef; &m*%ef;csaom odr;f ykur_ hf D d f_ D d f 49

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ukdvkdeDacwf/ zqyvacwf/ ppftpkd;&acwf tqufquf ajr,majrjyKajymif;vJa&;enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh ajr,mjy\emrsm;ukd ajz&Si;f &ef }uKd;yrf;vmcJ=h uonf? ajr&Sipepftm; t+yD;tykizsuor;f jcif;r[kwbJ "e&Sif f df f d f ukexwvyenf;jzpfatmif ajymif;vJz@JG pnf;+y;D v,f,m f k f kf wavmu axmifrS jyefvwvmaom v,f ajrjyKjyifa&;vkyenf;rsm; (y&yf&m;enf;) onf v,form; G f f S orm;rsm;ukd ±Gmvlxu tk;d pnfAarmif;ESihf xGu}f uKd=u k Hk 50

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xktm; tvGetrif; emusiapa=umif; vDeifu !¸ejf y 30 &mckiEe;f / rtlyifc±kiY 29 &mckiEe;f / yJc;l c±kiY 28 f f df _ df df _ df cJz;l onf? h &mckdifE_ef;onf awmifolvufxJrS Xmaeajr&Sifrsm;ESifh cspfwD;rsm;vufokd@ usa&mufoGm;onf? (1914 ckESpf rjzpfpavmuf jyKjyifa&;enf;rsm;ukd tok;H jyK ajrESiv,f,maumfrwD. tpD&ifcpm) hf H vmcJh=u&m acwftqufquf Armjynfv,form;xk emvS+yD? ausmaumhaeatmif cHpm;cJ&onf? ajr&Sipepf h f 1926 ckEpwif wjynfv;Hk pkuysK;d ajrtm;vk;H . S f G d f ukd t+yD;tykdif zsufodrf;ypfonfh awmfvSefa&;enf; 82 &mckiEe;f om v,form;u ykiqionftajctae df _ d f dk f h uomv#if v,form;xkudk vGwajrmufapvdrrnf? jzpfom;onf? f hf G pkuysK;d ajr. 5 &mckiEe;f ukd Xmaeajr&Sirsm; d f df _ f ykionf? pkuysK;d ajr. 13 &mckiEe;f ukd Xmaer[kwwhJ df d f df _ f ya'o&mZfacwfwif v,f,majrtm;vk;H ukd G ajr&Sif rsm;u ykionf? df rif ; (&S i f b k & if ) yk d i f o nf [ k owf r S w f x m;cJ h o nf ? (armif;axmifq&mawmf. bk&ifh tar;ukd ajz=um;csu) f 1937 ckEp.f pkuysK;d ajrykiqirrm S f d f d f dk f _ S ,ae@wi;f jynfu ajr,mtm;vk;H Ekiiawmfu ykionf dk dfH df v,form;ykif 68 &mckiEe;f ? Xmaeajr&Siyif d df _ f dk qkaom 2008 zG@J pnf;tkycsKyfyyg tcsuEihf woabm d f Hk f S 7²5 &mckiEe;f ? Xmaer[kwwhJ ajr&Siyiqir_ 26 &mckif df _ f f dk f dk f d wnf; jzpfonf? (EkdifiHawmfqkdonfrSm ppftkyfpkyif E_e;f ? (Xmae ajryki&irsm;u 450˜000 {u ykionf? df Sf df jzpfonf) ya'o&mZfacwfu v,form;rsm;onf Xmaer[kwwhJ ajr&Sirsm;u 2˜500˜000 {u ykiqif f f d f dk v,fu|eajru|ersm; jzpfc=hJ u&onf? f f onf?) Armjynfo@dk t*Fvyuvee,fcs@J a&muf&vm d f dk dk D dS ukdvkdeDacwfwGif Tenf;jzifh v,form;rsm; aomtcg bk&ifwOD;wnf;ykiaom ya'o&mZfpepf ysuf df wpwp ajr,mvufvwq;Hk ±_;H cJ&onf? $ f h oGm;onf? v,form;rsm;tm; ajr,ma0jcrf;a&; vkychJ f ygawmfracwfaemufyi;f wGif v,fvyorsm; l dk k f l onfh umvtwki;f twmwckrvI acwftqufquf d S JG u v,f,majrykiqici&cJaom umvwck &Scz;l onf? d f dk f G hf h d hJ v,form;rsm; enf;trsK;d rsK;d jzifh ajr,mqk;H ±_;H vmcJonf h ok@d &mwGif e,fcs@J tpk;d &u ya'o&mZf ajr&Sif rSm ,cktcsetxd jzpfonf? ,ae@wirum; ppftpk;d & d f Gf l tºuif;tusefrsm;ukd qufvufxdef;odrf;arG;jrLjcif;/ 2008 Oya't& v,form;tm;vk;H ajr,mtm;vk;H ukd Xmaer[kwol twk;d }uD;pm;ajr&Sirsm; (cspw;D rsm;) ukd (Oya't&)vufv$wfvkduf&onfomru (vufawG@ f f f ac:,l+yD; arG;jrLjyKpkay;cJhjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfojzifh ajr,m t&vnf;) oef;ESicsaom v,f,majrrsm;ukd todr;f cH hf D ykiqir_ tcsK;d tpm; ajymif;oGm;cJ&jyefonf? d f dk f h vku&+yD; ajr,mvkyyiciyg qk;H ±_;H oGm;cJ&onf? v,f d f f dk f G hf h orm;rsm;rSm ukd,fykdifcJhaom v,f,majruGufwGif 1914 ckESpfrwkdifrDuyif Armv,form;rsm; oD;pm;tjzpf &ifememESihf vkyuiae&aom tajctae f dk f v,fr,mrJb0ok@d pwifqw,wusqif;vmcJ&onf? hJ h k f k f h jzpfonf? [Hom0wDc±kdifY pkdufysKd;ajr. 43 &mckdifE_ef;/ zsmykc&kiwif pkuysK;d ajr. 33 &mckiEe;f / tif;pdec±kiY H df G d f df _ f df - acwftqufquf v,f,majrykiqirpepf d f dk f _ onf ppftm%m&SipepfEihf ppftypacwfwif tqk;d 0g; f S k f k G 51 ajr&SifpepfESifh ajr,mykdifqkdifr_rsm;

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qk;H aom tajctaeok@d a&mufconf? v,form;tusK;d hJ vkvm;ygonfq+dk yD; awmifov,form;ES;D aESmzvS,yJG d l f rsm; [efjyusi;f ycJaomfvnf; (,ae@ 2008 zG@J pnf;ykwif h H G azmfjyxm;onfh) v,f,majrtm;vkd EkdifiHawmf (ppf tkyfpk) u ykdifqkdifonfqkdaomtcsufukd 1965 ckESpf uwnf;u pwifcsrwvmcJjh cif; jzpfonf? S f v,f,majrykdifqkdifr_pepfESifh v,f,majr aoG;pkyfr_pepfonf ykd+yD;t&if;cHusonf? v,fcGef tygt0if v,f,mukefa&mif;0,fa&;pepftxdvnf; qufpyftusK;H 0ifaeonf? (ukveacwf ajrcGe/f vlce/f d dk D G pyg;aps;ESrcsrw@dk onf qif;&Jv,form;tm; qif;&Jwi;f df _ G eufoxufeufatmif zefw;D +yD; v,f,majr vufvwf $ ap&atmif zefw;D aom ausmui;f rsm; jzpfonf) ,if; h G 1965 ck E S p f w G i f v,f , majrtm;vk H ; uk d a=umifh v,fvyol v,fyia&;onf v,form;xk. k f dk f Ekiiawmfu ykiqia=umif;/ v,fvyol v,fvyyicihf dfH d f dk f kf k f dk f G t"duawmif;qkcsuf jzpfvmcJonf? d h &Sd&rnf[k a=unmcJhonf? v,frvkyfEkdifolrsm;xHrS v,f,majr odr;f ,lyici&onf[k qkonf? dk f G hf dS d onftaESmiftzGJ@rsm;ukd acwftqufquf v,form;xku wkuy0ifvm=uonf? wcsK@d umvrsm; d f JG 1964 wGif 10§64 t&- ajr,mxGufukef wGifrl v,form;xk tygt0if wwkdif;jynfvkH;tusKd; ypPn;f rsm; jynfya&mif;0,fciudk ppftypu csKyfuivuf G hf kfk dk f dk pD;yGm;twGuf uk,pm;jyKaomwkuyrsm;ukvnf; v,f d f d f JG d onf? v,f,mt"du xGuuef 24 rsK;d ukd ppftypu f k k f k orm;xku yg0ifqifEconf? J$ hJ csKyfa&mif;csKyf0,fvyonf? 65 wGif v,f,mxGuuef k f f k (64) rsK;d ukd uef@owfuetjzpf jyÏmef;vkuonf? v,f acwftqufquf v,form;xk yg0ifqifEaom k f d f $J ,majr/ O,smOf+cHajr/ uki;f ajrtrsK;d rsK;d ukd Ekiiawmfu d dfH wkdufyGJrsm; ykiqiojzifh owfrwpyg;ESihf oD;ESuom pkuysK;d &rnf? d f dk f S f H dk d f - ukveacwfrm ay:cJaom v,form;ta&; d dk D S h v,f,mxGuueo;D ESrsm;ukd tpk;d &xH a&mif;csay;oGi;f f kf H v_y&m;r_ 12 }udrteuf xif&m;aom v_y&m;r_rsm;rSm f S f S f S &rnf? tcGeawmf ay;aqmif&rnf? tu,fI ysuuuf f f G v#if Ekiiawmfu ta&;,lci&onf[k trde@f xwonf? dfH G hf dS k f - 1910 ywf0ef;usi? jrif;rl(ppfui;f / a&$b/dk f dk rkH&Gme,ftygt0if) rS v,form; OD;oef@acgif;aqmif ppftm%m&SifpepfacwfOD; 1960 ckESpfrsm; aom v,form;tkºH ur_? acwfEihf ,ae@ppftm%m&Sipepfacwfudk E_i;f ,SO=f unfh S f d rnf q k d v #if ajr,myk d i f q k d i f r _ p epf / ajr,moD ; ES H r sm; - 1920 ckEpaemufyi;f aus;vuf0omEktzG@J / S f dk H csKyfuirpepfw@dk onf tajymif;tvJwcsK@d &aeaomfvnf; bl;toif;/ v,form;pD;yGm;a&;toif;rsm;. v_y&m; dk f _ dS f S tESpom & t& twlwyif jzpfa=umif; awG@jrifEionf? r_rsm; f l dk f v,form;xkukd aESmifzGJ@xm;aom aESmif}uKd;rsm; - a&$ b k d e ,f r S “AE< u ”bG J @ trnf & &aoh OD;aqmifaom v,form;wkuyrsm; d f JG

v,f,majrykdifqkdifr_pepf/ (tjrwf}uD;pm; aiGacs;vkyfief;tygt0if) v,f,majraoG;pkyfr_pepf/ - 1930 'DZifbm? q&mpHacgif;aqmifwJh (v,f,majr tcGefawmf tygt0if) v,form;xk *VKefwyfz@JG 0if v,form;rsm;. vufeufuiawmfvef dk f S xrf;aqmif&aom tcGetrsK;d rsK;d / v,f,majr ukexwf ykeuefr_ f f k f qufqrpepf/ v,f,mxkwuef a&mif;0,fa&;pepfw@dk H _ f k jzpfonf? 52

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- 1300 jynfta&;awmfytwGi;f v,form; ok@d &mwGif ay:vpDwr;f apmif;r_Eihf vufawG@ taumif h Hk d S rsm;. yg0ifqifErrsm; J$ _ txnfazmfrwif trSm;t,Gi;f rjzpfatmif tcse,+l yD; _ G d f tckitrm jyifqifvyuiz@dk vkonf? vlwef;pm; cGjJ crf; df k f dk f d - zufqpf*syefawmfvSefa&;twGif; v,f pdwjf zmr_ trSm;t,Gi;f rjzpfatmif qk;H jzwfowfrwa&; S f orm;ajymufusm;wyfz@JG rsm;. awmfvea&;qifErrsm; S f J$ _ onf ta&;}u;D vkyief; jzpfonf? v,f,majra0jcrf;a&; f - 1948 ckEprp+yD; ,ae@txd r+yD;jywfao; &v'frsm; wnfwHhap&ef wjynfvkH;vGwfajrmufa&; S f S d hH aom jynfwGif;ppfwkdufyGJrsm; (jynfwGif;ppfqkdonfrSm jzpfap/ aus;vufjynfo@l tm%m cki+f rJwnfw&efjzpfap t"du vkdtyfonf? v,f,majra0jcrf;a&;. tckdif t&if;cHtm;jzifh v,form;ppfyyif jzpfonf) JG trm vufawG@tawG@t}uKHt& v,form;u ajr&±ke@J H - &Spav;vk;H ta&;awmfytwGi;f v,form; vGwvwvyfvyf pkuysK;d a&mif;csci&±ke@J vGwajrmuf f Hk f G f d f G hf H f xk yg0ifqifEcrrsm; J$ hJ _ onf r[kw? (ajr - vkytm; - aiGa=u;) tajccHtm;jzifh f f h Hk d f acwftqufqufwGif v,form;xkonf 'D (3) ck jynfprS jzpfonf? 0rf;pm - rsK;d - pkuysK;d a&; ,if;uJhokd@ rdrdta&;/ wkdif;jynfESifhtrsKd;om;ta&; p&dwftwGufu aiGvkdonf? ajr&Sifu aiGxkwfracs; k f toufay; aqmif±uc=hJ uonf? ok@d wiatmif ,ae@ awmh? csr;f omuvnf; aiGxwf racs;csi? (tpdr;f a&mif; G f dk f f h l k f umvwGif wki;f jynftajctaea&m/ v,form;xkb0yg tpdr;f 0,f rvky&onftcg rnfor# aiGxwracs;csif d D dk f d d tqk;d qk;H tajc taeESihf ±ke;f uef&ifqiae&qJ jzpfonf? =u?) ygwwyfu aiGwuor;f rdpOfu &&Saom aiGrsm;ESihf dk f wESpftwGuf “trawmfa=u;”aiGxkwfacs;Ekdifonf? acwftqufquf v,f,majra0jcrf;r_rsm; aemufESpf aiGxkwfracs;Ekdifawmh? v,form;twGuf vGwfvyfa&;rwkdifrDESifh vGwfvyfa&;acwfOD; pkdufysKd;p&dwf aiGa=u;onf v,f,mykdifqkdifcGifhenf;wl ya'o&mZfajr&Sipepf qufvufwnf&aeaom tajc ta&;}uD;onf? ,ae@umvwGifrl v,form;rsm;. f dS v,f,majrvkyief;wGif t}uD;rm;qk;H tcuftcJu aiG f taewGif a=u; jzpfaeonf? v,form;awG aºu;awG odywifae f - ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu 1946 azazmf onf? aºu;0efyaeonf?) d 0g&vwGif c±ki(6) c±ki/f +rKd@e,f(36) +rKd@e,fwif v,f,m D df d G - jynfol@&JabmfESifh tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwDwkd@ ajr a0jcrf;a&;vkyconf? f hJ uvnf; ‚wk@d oufqi&ma'orsm;wGif v,f,majr dk f - (1949 pufwifbmvrS 1950 pufwifbmv a0jcrf;a&; vkyconfvnf; &Sonf? f hJ d twGi;f ) +rKd@e,f(17) +rKd@e,frm Armjynfuejf rLepfygwu S G D - awmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkrsm;. ,if;uJhokd@ ajr,ma0jcrf;a&; xyfrjH yKvkycjhJ yefonf? f ajr,ma0jcrf;a&;t&Set[kea=umifaomfvnf;aumif;/ df f h - onfaemuf “rok;H vk;H a'o”pojzifh a'o v,f o rm;xk . awmif ; qk d v _ y f & S m ;r_ a =umif h aomf h tvkuf ajr,ma0jcrf;a&; xyfvyonfrsm; &Sonf? vnf;aumif; vGwvyfa&;acwfO;D yki;f (1953-54) wGif d k f d f d zqyv tpk;d &u c±kif (3) ck/ +rKd@e,f (8) ckwif v,f,m d G (Armjynfuejf rLepfygw. tawG@t}uKHt& “v,fvyf G D k ajr a0jcrf;a&;vkyconf? 1953 rS 1958 txd v,f f hJ ol v,fyia&;”vkyz@dk u vG,onf? tm%mESihf vkyv@dk dk f f f f {uaygi;f 3 oef;ESihf 3 ode;f ausmf v,f,majr a0jcrf;a&; &onf? ajr&Siqu ajrukd “odr;f ”+y;D a0vku±Hk jzpfonf? f D d f vkyfcJhonf[k tpkd;&u 0g'jzef@cJhonf? vGwfvyfpGm 53

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v,form;xke@J taºu; ukveacwfwe;f u cspw;D u pyg;vmodr;f +yD; d dk D k f a&m v,form;rSm “qefaumeJ@ aumufqyJ use&pf G f awmhw,f” qkonfh qk±;dk pum;enf;wl ppftpk;d &acwf d d wav#mufvkH;wGifvnf; v,f,majrv,form;wkd@. qkd±kd;pum;wcGef; &SdcJhonf? “aumufvnf; odrf;a&m wvif;xJrm v,form;&,f/ olyiwmqkv@dk aumuf±;dk S dk f d &,f/ tarSmfykH&,fyJ usefawmhw,f” [lI jzpfonf? ,ae@umvwGium; “v,form;eJ@twl aumuf±;dk &,f/ f tarSmfykH&,f/ taºu;&,fyJ usefawmhw,f” [lI “taºu;” ukd xyfjznfvm=uonf? aemufwck qk±;dk h d pum;wcGe;f vnf; &Sao;onf? “tpk;d &&J@ v,fvyyicihf d k f dk f G eJ@twl taºu;awGyg wG,vu&w,f” qkwm jzpfonf? J l dk f d v,form;wk@d . taºu;rSm atmufygta=umif; rsm;a=umifh jzpfay:vm&jcif; jzpfonf? - ppftpk;d & pkuysK;d p&dwacs;aiGonf qifyg;pyf d f f h ESrf;yufoavmufom &Sdonf? v,form;twGuf w&moD w{u pkuysK;d p&dwrm usyaiGwode;f rS ok;H ode;f d f fS f txd vktyfonf? ppftpk;d &. twk;d ESiay;aom pkuysK;d d hf d f p&dwfacs;aiGrSm w{u tedrfhqifh usyfESpfaxmifrS &Spf axmif=um;/ tjrifhqkH; usyfwaomif;rS ESpfaomif; 0ef;usifom &Sdwwfonf? }uH@ckdifzGH@+zKd;a&;toif;ESifh aus;vuf t m%myk d i f r sm;u aiG a cs;ay;Ek d i f o l r sm; jzpfonf? olw@dk acs;ay;onfrmvnf; olw@dk toif;om; S rsm;/ olw@dk tm%mykirsm;ESihf olw@dk aqGrsK;d rsm;twGi;f om df acs;ay;wwf+yD; a±G;aumufyGJumv rJqG,fcsdefusrS rJaocsmayguxnfrnforsm;ukd acs;ay;wwf=uonf? f h h l xk@d a=umifh v,form;u &yf±mtwGi;f aiGw;dk acs;olrsm; G xHrS rwefwqtwk;d E_e;f (20 wk;d rS ok;H -av;-ig;q,fw;dk txd) ay;I acs;&wwfonf? pyg;ay:csef a&mufv#if d tpk;d &acs;aiG/ a'oaiGw;dk acs;pm;orm;acs;aiGw@dk twGuf &onfpyg;ukd &onfaps;jzifh 0rf;pmpyg;awmif rcseEibJ h h f dk f csucsi;f a&mif;csum twk;d a&mt&if;yg jyefqyf&onf? f tcGeaoG;pkyr/_ ajr=oZmESihf v,fvyu&,m a&mif;csr_ f f kf d d tay:rS tjrwf}uD;pm; aoG;pkyfr_/ ppfwyf&duQmpyg;ukd aps;OD;ESraps;jzwf0,f,r_ (,cifu wm0efauspyg; 12 d f l wif;E_e;f a&mif;cs&rnfqonftpm; 2005 aemufyi;f dk h dk vGwfvyfpGm a&mif;0,fcGifh &Sdonfqkd+yD; e,fajrausmf ra&mif;& qkonfEihf csKyfaESmifvuum aps;ESr0,f,jl cif; d S dk f df jzpfonf)/ rsK;d pyg;rsm; / ae=umaphrsm;/ "mwfajr=oZmrsm; r0,frae& t0,fci;f I 0,f,&r_ æ ponfw@dk a=umifh dk l v,form;wk@d rm rdrvytm;rS xGu&onfpyg;. tusK;d S d kf f dS h tjrwfukd cHpm;cGifh r&&SdbJ “pkduf&efaºu;,l/ aºu;xl u|ejf zpf” b0 a&muf&&Smonf? taºu;wifv,form; rsm;ukd ,cifuuJhokd@ w&m;rpGJ=uawmhbJ &Jrsm;ESifh aygi;f +y;D axmifoi;f tusO;f csypf=uonf? taºu;puf0ef; G rS ±kef;rxGufEkdifI wcsKd@v,form;rsm; rdom;pkvkduf uk,u,udk owfaooGm;=uonhf a=uuGz,owif;rsm; d hf dk f JG f r=umc% =um;ae&onf?? wcsKd@ pdwfxdckdufaoqkH; oGm;onf? wcsKd@ pdwfusef;rma&;ysuf,Gif; (±l;) oGm; =uonf? ukveacwfwif taºu;a=umifh cspw;D u vlyg d dk D G f odr;f onfrsK;d &Scz;l ygonf? ,ckacwfrl cspw;D u rodr;f d hJ f aomfvnf; v,form;. orD;ysKrsm; cspw;D odr;f onf d f xuf ykq;dk aomb0rsK;d a&muf=u&onf? (aus;vufwif fd G orD;ysKdrsm; raumif;onfhvkyfief; vkyfukdifaiG&Smwwf onfudk onfuprsK;d cGijhf yK&ef cufcwwfaom ArmvlrsK;d dP J rdbrsm; jzpf&ufu rwm;jrpfombJ ikwww=f unfae f k h &onfb0 a&mufae+yD) zqyv acwf (1948-rS 58) h wGif wEkiiv;Hk v,form;rsm;tay: t&yf&yfwif&aom dfH dS taºu;aiG usyf (16) ukaÉausmf &Scz;l ygonf? rsuarSmuf d hJ f umvwGirum; EkiiwumwuUovwcku ±Gmaygi;f f l dfH dk f 100 wGif 2009 ckEpf okawoejyKcsut& v,form; S f rdom;pkwi;f usyaiG 5 ode;f ESihf 8 ode;f t=um; taºu; dk f wifae+yD; {&m0wDwi;f wGirl v,form; 90 &mckiEe;f dk f df _ taºu;wifaeonf[k qkygonf? d 55

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v,f,majr. ukefxkwfqufqHa&;pepf ppfwyfudk csKyfuixm;aom tm%mykif EkiiH dk f d df awmf (ppfAsL±kdu&ufajr&Sif}uD;) ESifh ‚. oD;pm;rsm; jzpfaom tm%mrJh v,form;rsm;. wzufowfaoG; pkycH ukexwvya&;qufqrpepfom jzpfonf? f f k f k f H _ vlwef;pm;tv$m cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmjcif; tkyf ppftm%mykiajr&Si}f u;D tjzpf ppfAsL±ku&ufajr&Si}f u;D df d pepfudk usio;Hk vsuf &Saeonf? v,f,majr{u aomif; hf d ESioe;f ESicsI odr;f ykuci&aeaom ppftyp. tcGihf hf d hf D d f G hf k f k xl;cHp;D yGm;a&;ukr%rsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;yk*K~ vrsm;ukvnf; ` D d f d ppftkyfpk. taygif;ygrsm;tjzpf ajr&Sif}uD; owfrSwfr_ xJwif xnfoi;f xm;&rnf jzpfygonf? ‚wk@d atmuf G h G wGif Armjynf. v,f,majrwGif tckitrm aoG;pkyf df cs,fvS,fcGifh &,lxm;aom ajr&Sif[k owfrSwf&rnfh vlwef;pm;vnf; qufvufwnf&Sdaeonfukd owdjyK &ygrnf?

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