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Jim Hagerman. HagennanTechnology July24,1995 Introduction J was reading my first issue of

Audio Amateur

snubber

when design

my eye caught in power supply

the Jetter diode

from

Scott I've

Morovich

(TAA

3/94 pA6)

regarding

circuits.

been working recently on snubber design and everythillghe said was right on the money Rick Miller's reply suggested using capacitors only as snubbers, but these may not have

the effect he expected and the impedance of the circuit may not be as 10 w as bethinks. A similar letter (PA9) gave me the impression that there may be a lot of misunderstanding out there about how snubbers work. I thought perhaps I could help by sharing my analysis of snubbers in power supply circuits. The without is a series Many (boxed) point results having resistor readers This aUowing show to that snubbing to exotic the parasitic diodes usually you placed up RF oscillations The across with values. The basic values is relatively type supply straightforward in this analysis

resc rt

and

snubber

capacitor this, (once

the power results

rectification

diodes.

have tried analysis direct

but coming

for the components in a few simple

can be a crapshoot. equations a starting

get through of optimum tests

the math)

calculation listening

At a minimum

they provide

for the all important

Problem is needed forms see Figure I when This an oscillatory circuit circuit must oscillation be damped. LC circuit rrequency Oscillatory commonly given by circuits knoV>lll as

A snubber come a

in many

but can often

be reduced has a natural

to a simple

"tenkv.

When atypical

damped output

by the when

addition excited

of a resistance of the oscillation by an impulse

the

natural

oscillation in time to zero

frequency Figure

remains 2 shows

unchanged

but the amplitude

will decay

Figure L RLCtankcircuit

insufficient damping oscillation a better in series inductor. VoltageoutpulofRLCcircuil Damping "ringing" longtime Equivalent To get source drive Circuit understanding with the let us redraw we choose. greater rate than the frequency allows so that no oscillation 10 continue or for a is seen.~Figure 2. Figure I adding AC a zero impedance and source voltage we can anywhere can occur at a much Conversely. as the voltage across a voltage the capacitor given we by can calculate the output/input It is simply divider which reduces to . function It will have the same We could later characteristics it with any stimulus put the voltage in the analysis in the circuit but this position will become convenient Figure) If we define the transfer output function.

The general form given by T(s) S'+S(2~~J+(U: where e.9. the greater the ringing Figure4_Steprcsponsesofsecondorderfunction Equating the previous two equations we get and The latter becoming the familiar description of the natural oscillatingfrequency . is the damping coefficient and wn is the natural frequency in radians Many systems in real life can be approximated by this function.Many will recognize this as having the form ofa second order response. Figure 4 shows various step responses ofa second order function fore. especially the 5tep response of an amplifier. The smaller the damping. varied fromO_3toO.

G But what we really want is to calculate the value of resistance which "snubs" the circuit to our desired response. Its value must be large enough so that theringingfrequencyiseasilypassedbutalllowerfrequenciesandDCareblocked.5 Too lillie damping allows the oscillation to continue and too much damping results in high resistor power dissipation So using a damping of 0.3) times lower This gives us a nice..(about 6. won't be achieved We need a corner frequency about 10 times lower.. This is solved as Notice in Figure 4 a reasonable damping occurs at a I.The other equation is solved for damping as t. simple equation for determining the snubber capacitor . is placed in series with R.R.~_l_. 2w. We know that the-3dB corner frequency ofthe snubber is given by However we don't want to be 3dB down or our chosen value of I. of 0.5 our equation reduces to which is exactly what the Cornell Dubilier application note suggests characteristic impedance of our circuit Snubber Capacitor II is the Using only a resistive snubber as in Figure 3 wiU result in excessive power dissipation To cure this a capacitor C. For convenience it is nice to choose a frequency that is 2:n.

Using our formula and knowing the inductance you can calculate the equivalent capacitance The diode capacitance depends on the amount of reverse bias and is nonlinear. This can be approximated as a single lumped capacitor in parallel with the inductance.Try both polarities to see if you get the same answer. of course).It is the leakage inductance of the secondary that will cause the parasitic RF oscillation. As I will show later the transformer and diode capacitances are in parallel. Leakage can be determined by shorting the primary and measuring the inductance of the secondary (out of circuit.6VAC filament transformer. An approximate zero bias value can be measured using a D"M:M. This is also a good way to calculate the coupling coefficient ofa transformer defined as where L"" is the open circuited inductance and L"" is the short circuited (leakage) inductance Transformers also have a lot of inter-winding capacitance. Another method uses a sineweve generator and an oscilloscope. A 1N4004 diode measured about 45pF (data sheet specifies SOpF).Ddennining Values One problem is that the equivalent parasitic inductance and capacitance are not always known. My readings showed a secondary leakage inductance of 0 l33mH and an inter-winding capacit anceofS50pF. but there are ways to measure them Inductance can be measured on some of the newer D"M:Ms. Applying these values to our formulas we get a natural frequency of 560kHz and a characteristic impedance of 470 Ohms Sometimes the parasitic inductance or capacitance is difficult to determine. We can replace one of those parameters with the frequency or period ofoscillat ion which can be measured on an oscilloscope of spectrum analyzer By combining and solving the above equations for different cases we get . Connect the output of the generator through a series resistor and the coil Measure the voltage across the coil while varying frequency. This information can also be obtained from a data sheet T tried these techniques on a 1A. Not exactly something everyone has lying around. The lowest frequency which gives a peaked reading is probably the natural resonant frequency of the coil. Measuring the capacitance directly is difficult but can be done with a bridge type impedance analyzer. 12.

L 1 . During each transition all of the energy stored in the capacitor is dissipated in the resistor. Since the snubber resistor must be in parallel with both the inductanee andcapaeitanee. then the parasitic tank circuit becomes the same as Figure I (assuming the output capacitor is large and bypassed at RF) The snubber is usually. T. or period T.. Wirewounds should be avoided because they themselves are inductive. I 1f/. Power dissipation is given as .=~=o::=4<C. Carbon composition resistors work the best. It can be seen in the equivalent circuit that the diode capacitance is in parallel with the coil capacitance so they are additive.I R. However any decent non-inductive type is suitable._ For each cycle there are two edges or transitions. placed across the diode. Pay attention to power and voltage ratings DC-DC Power Supplies Analyzing DC-DC supplies is easy since the input consists of square pulses and not sinewaves.rL Not just any type of resistor will work well. The energy is given by where V~ is the peak voltage stored on the capacitor between pulse edges A DC·DC converter switches at a typical frequency f. If we ignore the ESR of the output capacitor and inductor.=. but not necessarily. Eq"ivalen!circui!ofDC·DCco"vcrter The power dissipated in the resistor is determined by dividing the energy stored in the capacitor by time. it can be placed across either the diode or the eoiI Figurc'. A typical converter can be reduced to the equivalent circuit of Figure S.

This is where snubbers come in A typical power supply circuit is shown in Figure 6. It is no wonder audio designers often build the power supply on a separate chassis Judicious attention to wiring. Although extremely efficient they regulate by either modulating their switching frequency or duty cycle Modulation can occur at low frequencies. However. especially in the audio band. it is modulated by the power line frequency. and output capacitors resulting in a significant loop area. loop area. The primary to secondary turns ratio is replaced by a voltage source of the appropriate value. suggested in the letters T added C" a purely capacitive snubber A full-wave bridge can be reduced to the same circuit but with two diodes in series This will effectively cut the diode capacitance in half and the analysis is still valid . It can be reduced to the equivalent circuit of Figure 7. 12. This is much higher than the audio band. this only attacks the symptoms. However.It is important to note that the power dissipated in the snubber resistor isa function of the snubber capacitance. Using the 1A. diodes. and shielding will reduce the ability of the oscillation to couple with other circuits. Coupling mechanisms to other circuits are both magnetic and capacitive. components. so there is a good chance of switching interference in low level audio circuits. To make matters worse the capacitance of the diode is nonlinear so the ringing frequency will contain plenty of harmonics well into the MHz region. High power car amplifiers is one application that requires their use because the battery voltag eis insufficient Ringing occurs in AC-DC supplies when the diode is just turning off. Another problem is that the circuit is physically large consisting of a power transformer. The ringing frequency acts as a carrier to couple with other circuits.6VAC transformer of the previous example we had a natural ringing frequency of 560kHz. As AC-DCpowcrsupply. so it helps to make the capacitor as small as possible AC-DC Power Supplies DC-DC switching power supplies are rarely used in audio equipment.) Figun:6. Accuracy of the model is improved by the addition of transformer secondary and output capacitor ESR (combined in R. not the cause. A half-wave bridge will "buzz" at the line frequency and a full-wave bridge at twice the line frequency.

C. PSPICEcircui( The above circuit was simulated using PSPICE (see Appendix A for a listing) I modeled the IN4007. The oscillation should be approximately 560kHz as we calculated . It is difficult to see in the figure but near both 5ms and 22msthe diode turns off and there is a burst of ringing FigureS. The second peak more clearly shows the steady state conditions. consequently the first sinewave pushed the output up to near final value. using data sheets from Motorola.figure?. R". a commonly used 60Hz rectjfier. Figure 8 shows the simulation without the snubber components. PSPICE simula(ion of Figure? To see what it really going on we zoom in on the ringing near 22ms Figure 9 dearly illustrates the problem. A load of about IOOmAwas added so the diode always conducted during each cycle.' & Cx. Initial conditions set the output voltage to zero.

In practice R. skipping the mathematical derivation. is given by where As R. ~ '" l·133mH 600pF == 47Hz C _ 2JTAA 'R. goes to zero the equation is the same as we had before. 2JT~(O.5 we calculate our snubber values as R == • ~ C. . although if large enough it would act as a snubber itself.133mH)(600pF) 471 3800pF. is so low that it may not effect the outcome significantly. Targeting a damping of 0.Figure9_Ringingofstandardcircuit Derivation of snubber values is a little different than before because of R.. The solution.

as is commonly recommended. RingingwilbRCsnubbcr It is interesting to see what happens when only a capacitor is used as a snubber. and then simulated Figure II shows the results Figuroll.O.QluF was added for C. no damping or snubbing has occurred. A value of Q.Using standard values of 470 Ohms and 3900pF the circuit was simulated and results shown in Figure 10.5 Figure 10.OluFcapacitoronlysnllbbcr Ringing is still evident. Ringing is almost completely damped out except for the initial pulse Overshoot is consistent with a damping of about 0. The new frequency should be . however the frequency is much lower.

~(l1O)[(12. but the frequency of the initial pulse is lowered by Cx Calculating the power dissipation in the resistor can be done knowing the input rms voltage V""".J(O.f = 27rk '" 2. the larger the capacitor. Power is given and approximated by ( For our final case we get PH. the lower the frequency. and C. Obviously the improvement in sonic quality or reduction of noise occurs because the ringing frequency is so much lower that the ability to couple to other circuits is reduced In fact.Q68uFrespectively Again a simulation was performed and is shown in Figure 12 This solution may be the best of all. getting 110 Ohms and Q.068uF)]' = 12pW . It should come as no surprise that each power supply must be individually tuned for optimum performance So what happens if both types of snubbers are combined? Keeping C. and a lot of math). Not only is ringing snubbed by the R.6)(27r)(60)(O.OI06UF) 130kHz. & C.r.l33m~)(O. we recalculate values for R. All of this very much depends on the quality of the components and the transformer involved..

[have tried them in several DC-DC switching power supply circuits with excellent results. Improvements in sonic quality could range from nothing to quite dramatic. If anything there should be a reduction in power line buzz. In fact none of them required tweaking after calculation of the original values I encourage readers to try these snubbers in their audio equipment. Goodluck! Appendix A: PSPICE Listing of AC-DC Snubber Circuit Snubber Circuit.Not very much power is dissipated in the resistor because the power line frequency is relatively low Reader Feedback Of course all of this theory may be hogwash. Jim Hagerman. The real test is how these snubbers actually perform in real circuits. .

He has published several technical articles and has several patents pending. Chryssis.49 G. Cornell Dubilier Snubber Capacitors. Theory 140 & Design." 138- "Designing an RC Snubber". . "High-Frequency Switching Power Supplies. TAA 3/94. 46. 14-16 Biography Jim Hagerman obtained a BSEE from the University of Minnesota in 1982 His professional career has been designing circuits for CRT based displays and pursuing the "art of analog". a1 TAA [/94.References Rick Miner et.26-27. In the future he hopes to offer tube-based audio equipment DIY kits.

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