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Co,'glnitiive -J (_,e'lo,r'jle,s o,'f' B,iilliiilnlgulclll lsrn and lihl'9 Currii,clullum
INillODUCfllOINI
Th:f::~ p:ll~\l i()iu'~ ,.;ih! 1111' CM,!lIJl ined th~ rel tl flon ~~ilp bet~ .. c:~n biUlilgunl.i~mland ler ~ ICf:lirnd,~' tjOll. Th(l' distlJ~~:sjlon~"r,aspfimtr[iii1ly l}a'~d OJI1I researeh 6ndin,~s~lliu~, lc;u~m.lintlifed ~J1I. e'xpll.',11HUiOlI\S of ~,h~ lik!dy~mS11~ivc fc'I'Jth,JJ)lshi~) t~~w,el1:~~iliu~u,aJjl!S'Jf~,~n{~ Ilhinkii~lf~g b I'jtQce51~e':t\ aad ,prodl U~ ts, 'rh,is, c'ha:pb:~:l! x t~udtba I: diif;HDl\ll~£,iIOl1 e Qfe)qdalllaUO]ll,~' by r lh'~VIIY o£ I~UlI:gm:lg~ nUllj'! ~oll!:i,i:~t!JJi,irilg,i'J1 'Rflii'l",e i ~m(~ {~ognUirv{;l' run{:ti:tHling; lh(>n~
~ec[i!li1d~:y, e1!1,amJi[n~ng ~jln~'C!~ev~llj1Jpmenll, ,~f a IlliIlijo:r ,aulnl!d(jk}minli~ilig theory oilbiUn~ g'J!lalisrn and a~gni Hun, t hI!! ,cu~'m~nalion of il1~~ chapteais a d iseussioa of ~.10W this evol ved tJh~(iI.!if as dlh:~·c~ h CUF!!ih::ull um im.p:~h-:aliion s.

Tl~(~reVhJIJ.Hi ,d'~"]lP:~I!i~i[ p rnfJ'b~d Ilh~ I.i n~~~a ]11·l"S~!.JJlch.~_~ bjlll~n.gualtsm t 1.0
fundIlC'lFl!ing and i.lI1I.ltnb~illlingTLl.aUlill ~lllild. t'!du['at~{)\IiI11
fll~~uiillrn~.nt

,iiliinid. cogll1g~IU\'e

O:~,t~lil

.found b~}~

lingua.~s I~b," mJer.ior ~o motllo~inguru1 .. 'fhl '~~;llriln'(ll'S wBib! a naive dleo,ry o~ b:ilirlll~lul~islli ~bnlliJ'll'!IPt'iIeSen.lh lb.e ~'tl!,r('illaliU.I~llaQI!l'l'a~f'jo;jsl~in~ loge d1l:e r .!InbalaO.ce,'" ]f'Il(.
pirtllll'C' is of \'''''~~ghll1l,g ~:H:a~;e~. \'l!'Uh ,i'II secoad laJIl!tl.ag\" liVU;:Ft.~:!:lit~g.[lIt the C'XJ)(!J.I,tsct'0:[ ... (be IM,Fst Jnngu{lg:~. J\n. aJllhl'iFI1.al:~\f~n.a~i!:I',,(!!p"'::t~IJ1'1tJ-~lb,!OIr>ilU~,clu~d the ,e,~l!'ly tu, ms~\aordil i~oftW@1 II.a,iIiI,gu,318e b'aJ~~oon_sil,~.ideUr..emf!'Hld. '['hie p~,ehIJliie'pOi.rltr,[llys t!h,!e Iliilil(}noHJnl~nal,

as haMiing om~\veU.6i~.I~d. banOt)", the biI:ln,guali!'i1 pi[lUfied asha;v~ng Il",,>'o, l~~~~d .~~ss' mr Ihal £ .fiUcd. ballecns, j\.s the sc.cCiI.nd IIIa11iiI,~u.lse balloen ; S f'lllrulP "l.Il hui!~her ((' .,g. EIiIl,gUfi>h lim,d~(~S}~" SO' LI\",~ lfllr~lt J.,ilil1,~'Ua~,e U ba,tlkJOOIilI (e.g. :S~"',ilI.rnilsh.) ,d.imllflish,esil,1l, size, le(ll~bl,S It~ c(mr~I"~I~)li1t fI~ls'tr,ailiolii ,aJIli\dl ~tlillure. The bala n!';ea ~~d loon pirtutc tJlt~odcs 0'( Ibmin,;:ltwm and (lQ!n ilti(lln ap'p ~"at to Ib~l~ l)e' ]ru~Jdlitn'11~tl~l~h,~~'.lyIlrHlny f)!eop~e•. Many p£U'I!2'IliIland l~ae~\'Ier~,pldj!'tli,(.~an'B ,and b,y

168 FOUINDAnONS OF B~UNGUAL EDUCATION

'01f lrul.e p'tlbl ic a:p'pe,i'lili Itol,n t'CRlljY.~ subcon !!l[WOU s~yIl.ak,~ ~:helb'a~Toon pid,l!Ifi~ ,~lSl~, ' one, ILhatbe!!l rClUc'!1cnts bnil~!!u,rnll r-nL!IInl!:ru,i[l;nt~lg,. Cumlrmd1i'l!!, (19Rllml) Ill!!rm,NilI I(bi!=. tbe: 's,e,a,;rclUJ2! Jnd,edJ~iml, P'IiOfJieiem:cy' Mod,e,11 of B:,mll,guali501. I 'l M, teJI,ctotDooive· of It~'I:~IWQt ~'(UtS1Um)Ge' 'cpeltlltmg, sep'uati£'])' wiwr!Jloul IltaJi1~fer mnd IIllOd

large sec lion

1.;

with

fI:rt~stT~,~II~d iuno\uu:o.f
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'r"c'I"ml ~ijJrlang;u,a~·s. As Bii:l1ys~o'k (.20tll~.lp.59)iaIg'I@;S:

.mmions 01 (bUdn~nr:oul_!e[y pareets' .

krun~~ a.boutm,eID:O~f :S[lD.\1t:anlti,aJll"e~ 'O'E:'~~ 'ear" 1I'11d'li!'(!d\Jtile faci Ithal, gnll\,v up with .iiDore tkall1l.ooeltan_giIJage in IhJ.(!ir,ernvim'llime n I ,nnd ap~ta'r ~o sllJIJffernOI ob!l.fl,Dus. b"OlTUD1(l hould al ~a,yl~~'~concerns ofmos I s

'noil1nn~,

\!\!,'h,a't. t1i,P'P~,t'IJIl'S at is, nt'l'~,lI~ ys p:SY'ldll ()mO,~j(. ~lliyva lid. Wt'1lJil~bn~hi~~l(! ~oGb: ~,,~a b'£ljmcc ,or bru!!oo.ft ~de.c; are' p[ollsible. neiill.illiu fU.s. the (!'vidJernloo. s 11\("prevlou .. 'Ch.ap~1 s A l' rJOJlcltld~dl~~,belll dU1dre.~1 b .onli.~'rehu~\,~~y b'~l~.<Jneci biJlimi~ual~,tJt\te evidt'ififut:e ' SUtggt"s~s I~'hal t11f!'f\!?tiilre c:~~niti\"f t11.ttVaDtag,esfailier lhan disadvillnllag~s (VI b!l?ing b:Uh~flll.ml. 'sirmi1Hly. ,chap'~~_Ii ~. and 12 will shuCli:Y Il;hall c,eID~.fJJin Ilypits 0,( bilm,ltua1 t teducalio:I'II! I(e.:g. leady lliolal .immr~e.lI:'sionand hif!ril~~,g.e'l'iiII]'iIg;utlllgebiJrlro!;:guid ed,W[[,a.ltiJon)
t

(e.g. in Itw,€) langu."lg,if's and i,JiI, Sli!'lI,~f,i:lI] t31111U'ic'l.ldum p'erf@iII'IDIU1,(lC) CiomlJarod w:iUh!!':ubmcnoicm nr ili1ilOQOUnguai cduca~lio'n. Rcooi!ii'i'icl,'1I hasal 'P' ~!l.I&~ :sled If~~al'~,i ~vrrulQ, lio, as 1i.,1,'I1flfthal1thu b'rai:itnhas only a l js: lin:Ull~d ;~lJIJfIOW1llt of reem for l'tn1&llage skiUs, sud} lh I~ mlonairng,uruiun is, pf,ee.r,llble (5~11?'chapter 'l There 'ilp'p~ar!i Ilu be '~Rou,gh (if:rebr,a[ ~:i;vi.R,g rUtilfb?cs DO~: ltly for hllto q O ~Bl.nguages,but :for '()II~her~attg.uages,as well. ThHi~picmfi!.~ the weighilllg t tQ:f st':ai,e • ,oJ one la:ngua8,eirncre,o}sing, allhtl! leXpt tRS~th~ s~roliJ;dll-,-nguage, does nol H~ the dala.
hlpI2FrOl'maRtC:~t advanll!ag,~

appe,ar to rnsuU

oLhe,rp[ii:lll!lrE!~j pJi'Dvi.d.ed

IJ8,lE reseiil n:1TII1]L~ld f h'ilg;s. Tt:iC"F(!I~ ancUI,1cr falla,ey wlid,lI ~hcba~anre OF balh]nilli,~h,ef.It['Y'The Bssump'lio:n ,of dl~5 111eory is mal~. 1.0 irsl am.d StN::ond. Imguage' tillf~ 'kept ,~p~ It L'IIw,a ~bilnOorn •
ell'lCiI psu

la leI' i~. ~hilSdb ;rupll~r, be tter

inqide th,e h ",ad .. fh e' I~\" ~,d ene'll' s IJgAe5 is EI'iiC Op,p'l1Si~e' - rh,t[It ~ilJ'ngutljGl1' a IIJdb II t "'S Mt? I not 'ieparaited in. the c08.nilli,'w,f' ~,Ifi~,em, transfer :Il'eitd,i~yand re inl~r:ajlrtruVt~. -or bUlt

m

Oe. Sltlch . of Spanis~lJ' thley do mot sQ.l~ u hjlngtmg~.yin.d:'enl!::r I(Cum l:illlilm~t lrg Oa.!ll!!' reenlrali l l!!Illugin Wh~n .f I:~·vo. Thai ls.] I~asj~}f Ir.lli}oluujr in JE [iig~:iJs.ing.lIO~DU]tii.mlmIlm~'n.P'f!I~"1 wh.~5uffi.e:dlyiill1lg PI~".3)'C.avey!i_sib[y W1fel _mE a in o·~t"'llan:l.edi.dllefJIJqr U D1Irlode~ o~ bilingtl.aJUoli\" Underft"Ia_lth I~hesurface.)' be .iuls. d sf'paralt(dy "Bodl hmg. Illhuugh. they .lin .It m.a'~ c[mG'pl 'C.ile~lIil" I'IFI.ed I[he Eng!lllish .1.aJ~1: ag.~e'~y a Spo.9811.n . .mn.ap G'fSO~l owns ~wo or W1iooor~Mil!:gLlages.ll~Ugb the ..'f)'_ The ilr>wo ~'(\Cber:g.ang~1J~Cf o nOlt I~UDr'"i(n1i.g P!frOf~.'Oug~'l.roe' 0:[ .ll i~riIo'ifile ~i!iiI1i:ll1lilge of I.a.J~~~. It\VIO ~atn.ua. ma.lilulllDb(!'r~ .liurl'ii. .den~l)f l. ol[1il.ed.~.m~d.e leads 10 .~gh. ~[~'1eC'lrDlmi'lOIl1li.G PI'10.'n is_1~ rl [1.f1JI~Tld !il'. r 1.[. dll-wis 10]1' in tegr.t!elUII(s.ium. rs to ..ic..em' feed p. R. '00 u.lUSJIlil can be pildDfiaUyrepre~ented in Irihe :fOUll o. -~ dHy h~H!!iI' -r uuo Im~ nlmfl'1:' l.cn. com e mom thes aDl."ess.roJilJi'v[jrs.uaU&rfll.y' CMlmmirillg~ (19 [UblJ.aill\.odl:e. ystem. mr.iilIj'iJj be eia'!!:iily and im!Dled.[hang.iC.sI![.uage~nwh~dl a -person is tlIp~:riliUng.ges 'Opertlile l1'i1~. ret ding.-\-fO .11ls It]lal ~ i!ilJ'C(lOIU pany 1~. Undlel·~yiD.aan'IJi5h if tht'i5e W.f:~.f~Y t numlilbein.( 11111e! r'.e.gIish. T.e' bll'.~dhC'rcnnu~p~..muU11r?. i"~~l!fg-. child! ~IOm:lldl~~p'ly . e\xlmple" in 'S'p'lmish or use a dw.aUefnaMlvie' idea [aU~ed Cfilrtif:uJilJon Und.\'eU d)eVle~orp~d.CO'GNI1~VE lHEORllES OF B~lIIIN'GUAUSM AND THE CUIRR'IIICUIlUM 169' when ~'choo)! lessons illJe' d. the: two.l.Uca l[iol.etts}" . um'Ill3J~ 0'£ r~z.l.o noll on III}'I~. addng.o:r dicilio0- UI r~-l' se ii~fII I~heOdle.~ b '!~s:!mns 1Ilirei nE IIlgl i51h.ta~+ TIHIEIC:EIIERQ A.l! six parts: In!e5p'~('lltv oi 1h!i!lmng. m~s 'f'~ua~cabove Ubesu face.fiIlJi1l.! tho ugh I:.(.eix.~ bil1ing.cl. HIS.llh'e!'l1ililIal~-.)im.aI:'lgiI. IlJflP sam'e cl?:nlriidprc). '-II' rill ~s.EfiI.:iale~y used In r E]1g~ishOf Sp. :o!d...andj Ii. a.mrf:~.guages.It ihiM Id6e~ ]jot have h} bere.S are f~~'5C'd0 tID~ilIIl 8 lhe 1:'!.uage5.ioe:bcrgs (see belo\"r. 0 ~'~Ii~.NAL..

t!lllrUV I.r. 's@!tIond~ml!lll(g-uage (~.!il!lallif!!~ngs .'Ll1IlC"5 bolh.-JUsm IvI ~CUP')tdoos ntJ. UVJ.llu dies h ave S!iJglcS'~I~d Ilhe th it'tU'J.tlf( byp(1!lhc~i~ I~f.ism 'F.g'f'S ail!t II:()VJ!'l!rds ba.t.am~l\l.nft': lim.ilnJl.dying P:rofiJ.r!.o.Ul .r.r ~he l~kl~llnH.n~ce ~ t1~{iH[lileo][l'inn .w. :il[fll.£ mf'~flill!lg CIliIllI. .'s~JltJi1deCtilll.i.nJiMIrI.tfe :hmc.ce t i.n.t:IWUy'~'lIi1~~~:ll a IKIilI'litguH:gW' seems aliI!) 10 occur.'~:lrtUlig.III.'ilIp]e {..0 IP:I~QRes I~he '!!lQg1li1lillii.e!illdlit.J<nlicul~dy IlilJl'iOtlE4h lL1ilr"lr crw.I(S:lkuIDab~.bo~l.~'\iI~llJ"~.IIiiI.n.111. b. aswell .cn ad ~aII1Sluag~.~ed. ln~brll'illl! ti(O.iiUld.i.:g.n run~" (lOla).f~ybe relfu~uel~t~"cak 3JJ:d.n because belh la rn.).lin.::I'O.:il ). d.l fUUVS:UiOl up: 111. ~f.. ng!~'jflig.id..ayomCeili ~ ~U~:ni!.g lf1'el. lllas"C "dljallliilUliU~l!jj.ch 'lJI1!lc!()gJilH~~~!.orn· d.{1l1S1h ne o . JU m.auill. .~\N' a. intrililsirn~llyllcadLol d~nf't!["'lIilIlt I\ril~~\!'.(SI_ .>..'!I\ cirl~ld~ chnUe~il.2ijijS'~-).ltJiU:ngllll~.elrf~nm 'fl !'Ody ii u H11~'ii: (JIjFI'~'!::iUII[tllll.: '01' the seeend lilllgllJi n£ll:.gi' CUJliru.. I lHI.full~lly ~]~Jr{i!u~hwe well developed t i:h aJDli1lf~SI ~oodl th.(tlvl!tlllop€'~~ Ion Hu:olllgh.!!Im]flt~ fe<r:ie.!ilto "" \\·ith.gjbl da[~Ienl~y dUiJugh..nljlll.~IIlIi:..slmnaIY disC1n'Uif:Sf!~ 'conct!pt:s d.md.{~on Ih~ Sillp"r~\'\'h.~ Ib~(h Pi ludgh HUd.(.evPE.• e'KZU11(!':I'Ie~ ~h.\1Lddl.~ s ~'i!l~lniciern.. Umd~dvil1!:j) .n.d."1.u:e j:[l~oral and." fiJ!~d. (h'e 'C:11Iil~S room .@J~ (~gIAilli'V~ :(itln.' s:i.n.ngc \~.P')iand CO:l1Il1li11uC..all'. dl. be .'~~lcrdty IlhEl' 'lgln.{ull~f.I:I. 1.'b 's't IIII[ . of Idle.E liMIIRtESH'OLDS.(:1' :\lIiJjll~jh j.~IJflinJkil..gnLillti:t1'e 'iI'.kiUs .iUl(!1: f11 pe:ll'.g.lIFte :tl~l Iii Itytil1il1l!1 qlUt:llllti i:y .m 1 tium~m"g'~lf~d.altiv~~IF!d e)c!.~were . b~'r.ang'~ Ill~!~if Ilh~~ldl~g ~'Vh.-hel pI<> Oli l~irSit l~ momC!l~ingllill channel lollm.Flisl.r rD~ .fiI.rC!I).fi. IHIEQRV Mil rll}' s. i('JIf" Ihe d Q'~$(~OIiili1I.g. 'Itl QiravaJo.2Y.1' .fS and ideals.dllhn~ t drenare made 10' .i rill .&hl.a'~mg.m .\~11'U1~ ~..I:d~I!i:I. one .IiiII. dillne1\. if Mhbr:enaN m..lIJt.ie\l.P. u~i~Flir~ UlI.i~h.@'. Spenkll1£1 Ii teniiJ1I& f~nd m rn~g W r il~ng In.lildl:l.e GOIiltinulrng d·ell:lalt. l~a~..lllreeJfl r!f "" lJu: Separaw. Ithen Sl'J[lu.r~l~a 'i!Oip~e Hv-eh.orllh.f~nl[~lilC'JnJng.]S.~r (see :r.ilt~~ iJllaU~n5Uffid€!nlt~lr 1a!levlel.a~ r& rt1UlkOllulllN'l a~ 119116 'S·u~h.'u)d @l~ !i1o.181 tai.lil'I'::!.)Iilg:l~a. CaS:lljiJit~.en ~ l" h.ifil~ & .m.of wllFll'ill( Iljhey ~"'£) frO flm 11I'iI ~ IrlC)I~~~ ClU'll~ic~ ll~~lIl: Ulill m mall('!d.) ~1.s.chj~dr. ItWiO' lallli9lalge'B.~u~g~ Ile.• H thws iH.~ m~egfaJt~d 5~1LIT~le 'of ll1!:oo..age.(~lIiIjc peiri iur.~d UJIt::a' &.fli:e'S is 'I.opt'!:r.ings imn. "[~l i.aSSLFOOIW .""en bJ dl~ w'mole '''0l'tlJ iU!il'~'F!i}. .C:ie. H!ll}"'.ua.~ 1 s chalh!lll.J n .:~•.de.sm:il.a1fil..i..r. 'l1o~h .s hiJ be ~ad.s.g.avlll~TI.i!JJII1:Se pr~s~ (ill !>UfE'tor~'plat:!e Ilt'!l@'hoM!el.m.d.l.3. (P'IY'l!.'H. t.m~'IiIIII.~"!rel)' aJfl'ecilit.[llndll'~fi.e h~. .he' y:st:em w~lll m.agl~slcan .· li:'n.kOt 2JClOI:·r.1i' l1. Sf)! s(:1!l!('.1/:In to .:hlll~and . btl' d. 'ex ~llSwedi~ll 1!l{"'hoo'~'5 oper.nd) 'Ope['.haP ~Lc'.OCCillIUli' ~h=f'£H1I~ Inngii!lI3.~ln sub:m. lrJ' com ."I1 a temi.~ 'S di~l~JIlIClio.. ~~I'Jll'1i1llli:' o(!nltli"~dpn')€:(!5~(Mr.I. Itbe conle. m Thecxtcnl tC!I~.lileg.r .m.!5jtlaUS'li1rl~ gJr.:d::.OCIil.g~ tihe.r! .ed tn.11 UNGUAlIEDlJCA'TION !l!r~pO~1 itdctille:ca~lts~ IPoop'~e' holYI~ Ihe ca:pllcilly hill stOIR' Il'1\!V(1l m.W~~lfnl billimg:_uuds that bar'ri{c".•1IpOOl[Y devel o~ped. iIO..1l~p.~.11 t!'anings.~anced ~j[>.~lrlualf~-e~h~ j.oped. .dh.(I!l!1 thml~sh one Illaril:g:u.8''~i!! III th ea se.~. Swe-d:ish .ng s.p fm'tlS~. Bind.~I!.l1l \.[U .A. l~'t.lli1J.·o~. d.lil!ilig"iUg la !1'!i.'lali€! nol fUillu::tiOldng funy (e.I:1I bel. school a.glJl.e e..ill $\. ~l!1lriUen £ol. m When Ollie or Ibodll hllllg111~'.~e'!( IrUlrnCllIlu.en'II.ga ned 3J1!':(ljd.':.I!:~.9trS.[IIJI.::i.&U~'~c'inll~J!.nIt.g.1.' ~I.:~ see '!.nndmtlliminglu.d~v '''~op.P!lob~i~n(:v ~IiJlI~dels l:1Ii~l~iftlJtu.i:ClFilI (11.alndi.g.l10 FOUlNlDA]llllONS Bil~lilgunU~m IOF 8.@m Iple'N: 't\~iJtho~d' :s:imIP[~' 'Maek er 'Whi I:e~ a all:!lIW.ce's""".9S o.g. bui~hl in i 0.g.arfiJImg m~y alllg.1!fa.o f~Uil(:tiou ~lrIi ~WOIlOll' or ~U:o~' IliaIIiI g~lalg'(".lptl\We'rlfilu:~d.K!lIJmg.g1l)"'.'l! hill!]~'~rmtjh~ dMt~i moves t bi~iln'.or "qu a IIIlly '"lJI:I. co .tlse'HI[.. T yet ""I!JII)Jle"'lmtd.e$..pad 10 be at.and. Thus v3[i:(1'.~\·emt!'ri( maj1f be fl!d (hr.~.ff . em al.fl~Sitnd 'lIcCih. The bn.)ll fu fill': tion .

ehl"lIU se \l'\il'U 'L1elh.[).:rb(lu~ 1992. to @'.Emm. ehUcll \\rl~OI [is MLu"il. A~ l("mup.r.tl'l!:!ond.s fn.ch HI Ibcory Ibe:re:rare li m [i. ipd 3il~ .dbr. l~v~ll\ I.iIJand bmng~~a~~~m b st ~x.!lr llJ:iiIill:1l gj\!l. Mifipud i.uoor of lll!il!~'l![lIUS~ ~lIrillll b~ d:ilO~~ \v. the>m~.y.llain~@.1G se.P CleFt .i'!Jl~bnd1.mlh.[ 1.nld i.IJ'Ilo:l. s 'CD]1ISe()~tf~lI!ces rOI .1iJ1plt!. Dl. lli:rr:eJfill :l{'1ri.gtel1l.'Qo[~ tbi?ftl lfil.D""'t~rls (11983) slllu!Iy .v.liliut Jaln.Uil. ttllt~ llcnvm' and ~lle ~tigb:er tt~l.atlf a~il~lii.l.ll' IlIg.Vli\icn chUdn. (-fLUlin.e'lPosit~v.e]1Jfou: it chi~d [to :reachh:J .(ie ~p bloltth Itl1H~.he.QQln~1.m 0 ~[r.k.d£'Cr :edIYCil.S.Qse ary II .U~Ci(S'I.can n (hal' ~'he Ipos. B [i.a I [~S 1.al~. i51.!g-~~tl:innand .e:lic laulicdhllld.gua~i['Sim? Ollie: tllut~r.iCl'n beco Ii'lTl.01. ~.'Q ~s ~~llirleshGBds.ui.aJl~cs..luiuglHlt AJ lbl:e' [~'OI) of the .u '\.gu"'l.~\'Ic.a. 1C~3!rk~llln I( E'~92).gl?1.11I1[ t. thislc"i.~al~"" t'..'hliPotb .lll:Jy T~lflko:limai1l a'lld Skl'tllkbb~Knngas (U}lf1) . '~'\fhen ' 'lbere.Ulg:r!.i[ia~.o b SII!!l[gS'.l~ou~e'~l!'."i'tlt.Foll'c. ilmll:\at11!Jcm.a'\i~eoo'g~IlHiive.'C[filCeS. advan~.20IX'Ib).§i)I[~ive .8~)J' Cbu:'k.e classroem in .l1Ili nS.01 ~h~i~' in ~.ge ~add!(!ri!!lindjc'llhmg fhat a IltliUngu.r-e&bold_.aldillisievel . ~] l(hilld.vle mi::dJJllelil.ducM.9~.t''l.tlleSI.t·s tnerea ""d~ St. 'iflli.)n. ~.l\\re ~9R:3:) KOl!lJl..i\ a .!d.~t1(Jnd 1'!hr[1~sh:td~tsa ~!1."Y'e~ i re~Uliril..n~D. '1 hus tl~.2!OOflh.ii11!lll.1{1.1tdli eV'~dlm'llre U1r both.di[sm may appear.ysIQ. l'~.£ bili:_l!.ll~h~~ld l".iila~Je' com[pe'te'[IiiI(Ce~_n [I:\VO l!~i[ mCl!:Ir1!'~Jngu a.Q.\I~ li:nln.~stls thall' Ih. 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Up~he stdes of nile house an! .eo.l:cfIliCY' ImnV{lI ]lm~dt(I.as-cs 'OJ bihnglll.onC@i n tiI'n~'uf {h€!ir lal1i[gtl!.P.o Ilali'rkt.aIWI~y mUl\~inslIp~!ard and ~.}.rtli. ap~rt'~y~biliD..~' clns:s[-g{Jm irnl one 0:( can lht'!ir I a'llg'u~l"g~ r.tN1J?~f?![lop[F.(iIt'bi'mU~Jnfll "~(Jlflftilli'f~.~ro:lill!llli.Etilrh .holLnle~ dJJ~Itlhla.al'tiall. 9791~K~l'!~h~'r&: 'QUjLl.dilJ~y ~fo.\ii!. On [llfSits: cd d".aw~' (1 <)g.forthe' T1ii!i:res. '.!'fl.ci(!iIH:1 OJ[' :mlta t!lil\"I '~r \.fbiJiili1i:g:f_~'ilglllii.ddnc.0Ids.m is. ueatral IOlnd [l'iIe.ged 111.h()'llds·1. has ag~n'Pp'rnpJI':i.1'!:1lI.~i[liI.rdllfl.\i :II.[lhagt"-apwrt.~e d:ilifl~e'[Ii'1\'nCi~!:! l'<JLrllil'ln~:l1iedi w~iLI.. a.J?le~.I~I~ • chiW·.e:a:Uilpl1' b.'t-.. CUllIl.t!J}1' Jc~sid~'i n dlis :s.ldIl'S· £II ~~'Il.'~'1iiI .a.~ a'I'llftc-'\3tili~(lljGlII'l('8Ulihin .ang!IJag(~~ h 'Ijherc mayllt~ nllgaHvc: (111. Su. 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Ilh:"" d!.I. jJ..~a..:~.dl!\red.'f.\j I.ftiiio~.prn~'IIe.~ (~~e 10).ir~iJlCih hll.2) ."\r more Sp~vtlluishJ .1I~ :~oenable "'~ltl-"I£.tdlll.mi nnd:\U!{:t. ..d.~nglj!illl (Joilldnan~) CmlJ1lh".cd h)il!i~'!'C hU1!ll~llaS~jC!Ul t"Cs!dil in saperl mperfoillIDlil nee !Compa.!lll:.rutild_lEII~ao Sl1l:o\.JI' 1l...ijld 'i~':f.!.\c'!.ermay Il1e in i!Jo'l1ii!~tn~c:Ung~r~Hiclii!l 'cnl~c!llstagl2·.e.) thE' Th(!m:r"oIf~! OUiilJl l~lilgllJll]~I1:lp'lfOglli'lnll'5!:.'il~lSjli. i):h~..~".lnd e.)nilih I EJilgUSb.~~ IPro(j.::U~5:jJli.l..~r. ¥-~ I~ . (.IP'~Jer Thli!'ir 1l1[lw le/vel.t~~!)I~'~o:i:rts 'UllIlilkf. .t'''1.~ . nUie$l1ol.~gu~gC' cdUld i E:fIlgtl~b h:Jiun~JrSt'C)~' !ii'}lIITit)lls.llP' rt~'U.UI[.ft! djltl.OJI .lIg. sl!llf.mngnii~mBc.e posillivl.~hy. 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'!!I.excep UCln~(e.·.. .ifil~Jf~."ilf d~a~leclts\llClrgo.p'·.~'!!1'~ . on I~::.r..D31:~ :S)'~I~.AJIONI l'nu!l'i.:I'di[l~s.a1 1"~ilJ""r"ofd:".:moll .mllddl~e~(]~s.---.\Jt~ lalIilgUrrl.m 'Un . 'S.e){.c~u[ ~'C'llihlr~:~l ...OF.i~\r'l~1I)'..m.. o~~.'~[~.~~ltl.p~'r"""'-1iI !I_.dlh.d.. _ <~ llt"i. '1I'996. "'I-l.lgie !]. PU\-'\\lI(~'rn~~a'li()nih~p~'r : cldrur-e.1!~Jn~lll!i.' L IIIJ.JS.. nd ~~e'r""ei~ .iII..ry :Sl1!\'tes ~IPCddll ~t~lU!l~r:1!i:Hlut:alledi.OI ~U'ElI iL~ ~~'riU~n .e~.i1Ile1s:l~ n.l/lO' FIOUNiDrATI.. L "'-I 'Y .a~·reall ·'JiliHU:"'!!i.of 'Ialll~g:lJ t l.. Such lJ'rai('" 1111.m.}r It ~ 1!ILt .i}.l. !!I~ J 'hu1in..AL~l n11~yn.~ 'I)' result of Ibe' odLu?LCog. If~} just to ~ognUiv(!·kUI!S.~ "·~"'·I·'ilr-I""'IilI.• !L!I~I '··~·"'~·'''..al . I!!!.u~ngl(}' be.'<t· have dl~le[en~ eXIFr)erll~lbiCilna.ull U IIiUI.Fu[ .!l~bH~t.em.~~ _j _~.).c :5 Ju:. l(~I ) The Ir~~ilJJ io[~I' P be h~ren IliU'l~U dC'\feloPJnt"n t. 1!UI~. t Oral ~flIIiI.U1)alS\!.s. !!I.llin~ l.~ Ll '!C" .l i'f ~ll]lrOullte' lOr im ITlJ i. ~I"l!.e1i'J~ 1 cO.(It.>·It.~ la ee Ill· ~otiCt if) . This :relates to Spe(~I[:j.e._~..!!.ElI(~or~..ClUS b(l'.~i50f:'.e' (OI1l!1flt'!' te'll~('~ (l3:n::s} h)' ·i!3(~IP~' jj~..~lb.9~[l3J'Sr~'JFor bQ Uces .h!Jc.ang:llu~13~ chiIdrei£1l.r -I.'h~'filbilJ.alicnland n.t!.g~lUilgr"L" it n' cd C nOlt C!ljillrl]fll./I ~'Il:~d(.s.d ....!ndclla IllgI11tl.'l~~ld U s was n~lri~a~ljl"ly "fiI.]·~I·-1 .alO]lv.rf(l'\d t(Cl'r~g.g ~l~(h lh~ll' a s"hool is 'Oldy {lfU~ ~!pe.· 11II1i.is~ in .liunal Go:mpe h~EhIJil! ha Ihr·l:!·lnes illl?f1illlno]._.aiftl~helle.."-~l·~'""'-1iI ·'I~I' " .illdemic 1~..~: tll I..~[I[1t~to all .c' .nsIJI.-( ..if:dtif1l.ad'eMIIC [.flmldQ~.i.':.1 f~!i! ts fl.[Il~lI.!'· ~~iUs I~~ cr~Ulb11!~UiI.~"'~{!'rn and CALF he:~l"~ GIICS eNp~..1.i'~' c..tt.. U: 115.[. ~ ~iU~gUi1'._!!Ii]! J cOI. Stclltt!-S" various IIP'(ogrmIDs.~~". However.ajm to gi."i>r'!j!:-~'II<.~:_~_~ 11101111: 11.U [.1iJ..ti!l]·n~ 5..ity !S1!).lll1ll}' edUC'<llt£)~S :mI'DII ltlp'llelllrlorlIIU!Jfe:ly' nlli~lJi~Flis.~\".(hooL 1ICl·' .yrmiJnoril~?I.~.s.llg~and in~eiFf~r~lmal t:lJJllilnlmlu:riI:it:.JllllfiFJilj~Q:it SC· end laJn.Fli'Jf ~o' Ci\LP .t.g:Uf.ay be n~d 10 ~albt.yto' :p~.~:des ~lr:sue Ih~lt: 1U1ie 1~111['u.vi.aHure ~/I!.hulgungC! ::!1~:}~:le. pulitl~C". _ i!I..":iI. 'til11iILI/l. £il:pt:lJ1i1:l ti(~ ~nl l! eu ff'i'f.tde.III ~~ IJ.Cumrufns' ~nl.slint':ltl.lju~.f._.r ·~..rul~'\!'~'l)fdClm._.JIr'I) .e~lVitha bi~lSiagainst spe'ak!ef5.fUlgU8._! l~'~ (~_._~.alllll .'\:\~'~Hj s. d elfiir~.ag.'l ~Jf~-J.I~]~ll1cil·-nl·Eng..• f~pedaUy i(I3ECS t ~f\nas in:F(!.~~re'hH.aibso.O'~.a..·[lh .')'ccfls:i n dll .s :l:iiidies. lf:I"~ ""'jil.0ID'.!.)r. he . . c Th~' di.~-'!!.e. t.l l~rl:.c~fi Qcm.B:IE' !fuT[tbll...i""-iL·'..dliIc.sUtll:S~'i.1. 1~.·nl 10 OfjnV~Ii'~g l."'U -1'1""'1 '''Lt.t~r'f:!'h~Jnil'i\tn ~ ~ 11. 1(6) researeh purE'o.

nnd ~fl'i.lll CumlnliLI. ~lI.t~~ usj~.agiflod d (!11"\!!l':ClIf: s~.(h~tol._1!1Ii~U 'CO:ll.lli~~t:S~-l:el1d.a:g~~(OKf1Ijll.! · a\. in Ilh.ffn~ '~'lIreU 1. d r."!'~ by _po~nllliL1rlI. to' of to.~ 5i'~~' {..I~O'lfl. ~ .of .'8~.(1lP'O~ ilicd1n.s Ir~IUI'(!'s.dal~silf¥inl.LP i:t1l. 01. ~I' t: "jl'I·1 •. Cn.l ~l(ali.a'ti~~.N"_ilC:~'1I ~nJ)nlstr~ilrfne_."d d1t. jf[u. c· ".~ 11' '111.g~~.~o imenslen s ('C~ d 1Lflil1il1l" 'i n 5.(i~.ve:n It·ions . This U~I'~"OFY. . a~oo ~_n ~ 61' but bed~_hblll\I.i'~.g n:ll~vc'~ t fin(I ion tihntllldl be rogm [ii\f~'1 dl fi..Il:~'btl 5~IJffici4"1fl1ll~.ll[~h [be currlcu h.eo:r VllfolO!o.1. the' imlS[f'U{ Uo.il~ uhun If.l'tlfiriif!uc'v i!!il... r ".gU!iilt.chas '~1o':\¥i1I.i-\F.and ..(1i. n I ~'Ib'jE"l\.s~.tiI.~"I"~ped (:.(2JlOOi3l. dif.n ...y .]~1I!d p'@lv~·r wj fhi .~g..aDsnage .I\!ilfi£ieilllc\.(I·n ~.84a ) ll.sag~ be unde rstood.se.al1ll.il. l\ rlllll.~ sraml br~o\~~ 1L1.I'Jr~lllge.lI1'I').IUiluu: tio..f:'c. ers 110 the' amou lilt . (]I f Ilh Is t 'h.b).S 'I)'m ~n·c y ~ng~ ~ll.(1!'l!Wlped blJl.c<IJJP~d..t. Langn. b l1'. Tht'!: firrs~:d:~men!B~.~ rhi~d'~ d a . (:onuUl Ul. the seceud II.20 Ollb )liIJ.l'!'~~s of dele ..o'.~.(l'nll.l~p@nelllls: 1':c..i!lItrlyIUg l}fi'O:~i(..P)t.~l t~!\. Jiln dlla i 1 Both..f fl. . .gl~n~r-(ltti'~lng.u illS~IU~5~ )1.!I]f ca.lt!" ..IJ1l1(i.d:f~n is as t1h~1. l~.:.o:n.lrh luin8lui..-!D)FI_I. '[:HCS land C.nali"m pU callbltm s ..Con tl~.si~Dl'~ILUani!~uslly..(J!lt~.r)Iw. i~t:"Ll~~m~lt I n .A.d!be imr~~~)' G u jd~(1 \~!·il.e~lid's b~.·cO.d . .e '1'I!. iJnlg .'l"111 C('!HF'!!c~' Ithe d~n~lalndl:ii' nil thE" '!["'UlrfiCll!l~lll.y(e·.~l"v.eIl:o a s tude n ~..'Vi11~e'nessshould 'be d!e'\lP'. jn~ftrl:'b~gr .elllllCm. Thiis.l ~I.[mtli: Ithe me ~ii..rpfpO'.'M'iC ilb.ll~wh ~n tht:fi• fll.f \fi~l body lanS.g~n 19R3br [.al~.i.ll'l2'nSb\.ll01"d. .1Ii."." .rlsext!ended.'\~e~l11I.tlh~if dcv·. ~~I' ~ijl~~QIJi~1ilI Ile~Jl!1:~ 10'':. h'~1ll1t.".caltlve p··.I.m.IIDJ p.ml. terms " ell!.iI.d. UIH.r.ale: '([.j.itlamp. " _alllgllJo~.f. -' . li ..g. Ifb:..~lljiP ~hp'biUlrlgu~ll~ ~t-tueaUo" '€).t"1 hl '~"LHnlnrllUnLi(:alliIOII1L p~1J1rUi.ij.g!ut~g"-.m.d ~ reeeive pleiliuy of lJue~and (:IU:~~hel Pi dUll C:Cllnb~.If '~i\'ilh \vh.jlr.J?' explains '\~71h.[jSt.l.~u.)u.x11 IC:IMJ bed died.IJI.I • ~"IL .Us:ShJII.. IF e 't.OO(iO[IillI~t urnd~yI :sod. FOll" (~..)l1gQ2IIGers.education.~ ~ ~. 'so' It_ha~.~..la. 1oPfficnll.snncl~iun..!ru:hl Hltllg11ag l!) .)1I . .S (1 9'.ilJu~u.an."'CI"IIl.t} ~fi(Jtm'lll.Sh elf nJ'd'{~'f thlnrlkiJlilg sJld. ClIJuunilii s .~:r aflu J.be.[Jlfll ~n t ~~. 'rl1.of C.ll.nh'l.(.sloiltaUy I(e":&i... dimensions ~nl1l0eEIi1 c()mrrrn~.: '''. d .TUi. l."~yE'8~ he:ad M~.1 Cuenrnlns' {1194~)1 d.~1~.all"gU{~.'rnifiilp'h. 11£)'1!c'vrl.l I'!::£.g~9..glllll(·~'!!!'e·.ilJ.n le'x 11UJJl SUlppCilI t 11'\'.c~ldJeflil1lJ £CUI(fiJS·. .g.nbilUt1 couldbe .ff 'th.Jh..~ .~.O. h!.ca~~h}]ngll~.::lu lil.A. '~g"~il! .i.tg~ It\Ui~6 andint(rlnalti~l!lrl .il'f.I.ilfd-' ~§'S~lflIlJl.~fiJi.lllmO. ad:e.IlJth~ _bJi_n.llf!n(y·be ~I\~en:e~lelopf'd.1]'~ t\.~~.Lnflee (.(el'~n t: s.CUJr[.

\I'I(~'fS~l" H u HOIIi'I. ~yE'8~ he:ad Ir1l~I(i~. '1 he S·tHi:iOJD.'Um."i: " dema nds .llll:lOUI( Y ( IO~ ..ttng.)u.e stdl ]15.:liic illllte[iPer:s.·YOU h:ll b(~' h ~l\Fi g a (OllJil.flang.al1ll.It '~:S com m.:9 ith a stlDllJle't:}" and Jpr!2'i" isi 'n.. CIDSl1[idJi.Ulo·nlbe'lle' \\'iU b!f' '\W'l!r¥ {{:. FOll" (~.'\O.e.aR.~.4ib).IIf c 'n~.k.tlh(1ll: ~'lJIil.. .~I.caltlwe pF!ilfi{iejlll[~{.::luli'.em.. I.\iIIUy l'il~~~~llt:'l.t1J.o:n. .II)uumpl .~r· \i'\..lulinJiJ('atio~[il1 Inay oe ur in a elassroom l\rb. lfl.g. reeeive pleiliuy of lJue~and (:IU:~~hel Pi dUIJ hJ'I1 C:Cllnb~. ngioad d(!Wl!!l':rJlf: '1i..{d.fi.!I]f con le'x IJu. 'Con tl~j(11 t IC:llIJbcdd1cd.t~~ usj~.sj.fHfffiill[UU:y. inh. surppol t 11.f. jf[ltl.d.i U~rd.e:n'ilt~llllts .(1 i.ls th: II level oI '. In ~'Ib'jE"l\. ilnCOljllmn~l~. CrO'8nj1hrle~y u und.lI..p.~lli\i' ly 0.orJ.:b[(l'i'i:1l . r a ~:>.'"!'~ by . 'Ol£ ~ .il fceet ~Ib()p~ :~ua.l'f.{da.of the teacher Illl"the IlllIll0k.~Ulllidhe!1.mrlliliitlnl![. ~iO the' amou 1iI1 .~llde 1t"'.'UU.le I!!)...R.:111 linl o'l'lrlu..D...alti~l!lrl .'rnifiilp'h.ll.! 1 ~:hi!' ela ntion.ll.jwh~~il! th\'!ti'7' h.l!!1i.lllag.~j .sllery o. dlmenslons eoncem c()mrrrn~.J'n~ in. Th~: firrs~: d:~H1en!B~.iI1'I'). ~r[l fIOf:d.a.f \fi~l body lanS. yLng: tbe lm.91'lb.~n . 1!. b~hjl'll>ft dU(l':ljf@'nt m.ed i:o..sag~ be unde to rstood.I.ULl1l~.g:s in lJle vIDrabl~la'fy .acc .iUII.d Ibe liV 1ta..rl hl 1~"cUlllnriUUlLi(:alliIOII1L p~1J1rUi..@:xt .ji~vlel FJj~ds ptll)oos-~img qfuic k IjJt.1!t111.IJ1i1(i.efie rrl.u ~en..-!D)FI_I.?'DI.h::o' and $tfajlgbtlft11'~~r'~lf~l.a'5 th~'m.ooqlllli_f€ld.eum.11~~1)f (fj..e:x:t~lieldltu. l IllleaJil!JJ1Jg s Fesbflicb~{~ I." o :S5Irlg{UJlTl :lI.~ 5i'~~' {..'~ lin dlla.t to en . .\'.~ n..An.rJl.dii In .ldi. 'tyher!(:!!" dli!e' f)fiO(iN1~itrlilg 1:..)[1I.Q tn~ethi.!!!'!".II-\j'~~'~b~lll)lreiirn.h.'lt:knll! sldUs 'ioiviilll fi. (IOnnDlu·I.f (unlr:!2~'(t: em bed ded It]UeIU '10 ~i~e ~'!.sranll bl?[O\~:~ Both.iUe '\~r:e~111 ~nl~.O~Ii.l1k ~lltilOn\\i01iJ] A~!l1i"":(a !Iilil.:lnVl! u~~I:bc tj"nll"ufe' ~I..l]er'11i! per~onh.'U1(~~f'n(~d ~h.. isv.t g~ It\Ui~6 andint(r)Jn. '~r [uE!anin.lirn"g.po~nllliL1rlI. to ~be' 's.t.'~1(\111 nUiHil(i tJ b.I]luelllt~rlo'r_km.ll~i ~i!:SI' ~.en's·.wo .eo a s tude n ~.a~hj)n .d ~ . t'1l:0~iiiIII rlli'{~b~x .1" 1111 s ~ '5iLtlL1!f.ltii.uch. .~llr£nll!'S1fl.n€!nt'l.ve~.:muni..uag lOS f1'I<lyl~II1.'I. .rs. h'~1ll1t.itlamp.jitln.dI ..~(Hrdln8~ .lrJUlJlilg.li~dlU!i:'(~~~. .t? words is 1t.m.:ns.r"'" 'liuilgLm~cs ~s:e·~nil!11b~e10'C:[1II1iiI(nllUni~~ll~le~lu.F)i (he' (:~[Sll 19A3b~ 119.~.' delm)aJJI'''~ln(8 (OI.·[h..rprpfJ1..lil.i\:'n .P)t.l~ U~I'iI. r i"f.chi ldren 1!'fiho ~I[' baJFiLU)'I' i]lbh! It) IIJIJ~~ l!1~lclil! o::rh. ~i I!IJ.m. .[mtli:of Ithe me ~ii.l"lj.l~ ICUit"6i to th:i2' RiI'eall.. S:L1r.: (ftJIErtJlilnl un it" ~l 0•• Allillle'~ am pi e \.ur1!'~~n'!r:)I.c'.beI~' Itbe· 1. 'rhis Ithlf'o~y lis Ir~~.0sni.I~c')~:lIn:l_!l!JItnh~·.i1~('t1Ho:n (1" .

a..chi ldren ~ll 1!'fiho ~I[' baJFiLU)'I' i]lbh! It) IIJIJ~~ l!1~lclil! o::rh.cxt embedded.1!t111.dI . I~te 1~i!J~or1sU. '~r [uE!anin.It.R.I]luelllt~rlo'rim..1rrli1llthl! Sanfr~l~lUni ~r.iqlds:iUona"" .aR.HlllJlstl :t'opul.~I.af.lil.{da.~llde 1t"'. . ls th: II level oI '.i\:'n . 'rhis 1!Y'i~1 e aJnt~ b ex~mpUfi~d lin. ()f 'in e I1tU~..1":~ua.(ln~.:liic illllte[iPer:s. UlJ..allph/ncun.) \:vuh 111re·:'(ic.·[h. '<En.\iIIUy l'il~~~~llt:'l...)[1I.tJjr~.l1k tilOn\\i01iJ] d Ibe liV 1ta.~1J1 01111.ot~UJl1i.u ~en.~md O '.ch~s."!Ii'i.~'ili' hU'i1.acc .~x:l"r~dl!l(ed nne-Lu:y.eum.:h~on Idl~ f".m.g:[li.ed i:o.ll.h::o' and $tfajlgbtlft11'~~r'~lf~l.ei.thall' billlm.:15."I~ .FlIlE'.lulinJiJ('atio~[il1 Inay oe ur in a elassroom l\rb...ltii.l~f s. ntion.It '~:S It]UeIU '10 ~i~e ~'!.a~hj)n .l~ U~I'iI.gulill:se· by bolt.n I baJV1.:111 o'l'lrlu.·YOU h:ll b(~' h ~l\Fi g a (OllJil.OO. l\lIrl.=e ~lit'l~r.t? words u~~I:bc tj"nll"ufe' ~I.lrs!u[Jjge:pI"olfici~n:c~ It] l:\i'ork in 1d1~ (Olilr~~'f~.::h.ams." I.l'f.'tyher!(:!!"dli!e' f)fiO(iN1~itrlilg 1:.lln~omp:AriB(lnJ~ ~on~.'UO'IIg:ll fllst 'O'[!S (ond ~a'.S:UJ'A~e· sUIlf.tiler 1.'jl~~~1 U1u:~lr.velyrnliul ncade. inh.ldi.b" '[l!. ~:hi!' ela :S5Irlg{UJlTl :lI."ears.'"'aIUoft ~""liinbl> 'S:lhJ. .' . :nr:~.Ulo·nlbe'lle' \\'iU b!f' '\W'l!r¥ {{:.(!5 an IIliJI .IIlI€' next 'Si@cti. .~(Hrdln8~.~Ulllidhe!1.n€!nt'l.IIfc 'n~.ve~.[~}li'D'1I1jill!.tld i:n.Mu1.w'ldle' .gruQlledu.tlH]U tha t :~)dl'~l~EnSll~'''Ih Mkes 'lltur~~~ .11~~1)f (fj.Re"~f!'alnh'by l~hd\(.:'r-d!e'pend~nUyand d 1~i:uriJbe'pir(]Rlll:i!l~d by .K'ouLrtlit Ql.c'.f (unlr:!2~'(t: em bed ded com m..(!n' [In.d~nr.:ns.. ~!en~/ea rs .e.mrllili itlnl![.An.Cllil.l·h-'Ddl~ reaeher lC't Fr!J' N~t~'~hthdlti.~nlc 0.dii1111 In ..quadJlan.rnUlil' t~o Sl'!>W'l~':Ii1 }f~. CrO'8nj1hrle~y u und..~lbel{!f(1!I.:b[(l'i'i:1l .ighl J...e:x:t~lieldltu.soI'-"'T~d~n!!:~s dfld~ o .11.ade. r~·I.h I(hl't'! f~ig/lUre~ tl.!!!'!". l.l]er'11i! per~onh.•Olto thlt'.@:xt.lirn"g..aQqni'rt)·I~~nt.lre:S5lhll~ .en's·. 1t.le I!!).d ~1'8nil~i'\feJy de. sit nation oE·the classrocm.0I[i1IIt!1t:rn1:i((lUOU dC'". th. l)nh~'f C I( 19.:lnVl! yLng: tbe lm. ~be' 's. isv. lfl..efie rrl. Y (b~hjl'll>ft IO~ dU(l':ljf@'nt m. S:L1r.beI~' Itbe· IllleaJil!JJ1Jg s Fesbflicb~{~ I.OJl of Ith_.d d Ill{r"l n(V'e" fl~f..jlf'e lit.lI.em.1.~ ...b :lilIIDJg1:~aS.flang.FJ! (he' (:~[Sll ('o.e leCllgniljJve'~J 'Chl~~~'~~'ln.{lI[e fluency .g:s in lJle vIDrabl~la'fy .llll:lOUI( . .A~!l1i"":(a !Iilil.ilfceetl ~Ib()p~.lllag.ee d~'dl to callh..ll~i ~i!:SI' ~.1\ n?:1:lll H aku I~ll rl~.f.~."i: " dema nds .fi. fOl' CUJIUliIll 0".t)fS .0sni. i~lrc\acher vallm'bly bll"l(e!'iiilita all(({iWUIIII.l"lj.. ~i I!IJ.31111 aiel.he· .p.iJ"nctil'r .e.\l'IE' tD seven yellljf~ n~qui~·.1k.Klh~ cunl~x. tb)~ l~ulll :r'.:9 ith a stlDllJle't:}" and Jpr!2'i" isi 'n. ~r[l fIOf:d.\t\'!. bnll 'I]:!i?f< 10 ~~:Vf!n ~re~ll':~' or mf)~f" IbO .D.of the teacher Illl"the IlllIll0k.Q'.).~llr£nll!'S1fl.?'DI.ic~U\lS~OllUl(~ l~onJi.ll.ULl1l~. (t9.ul~r:Slfn~d itl1g. in 2£HJOb) 111~flell 'nik'>'< OIl" lor more y'~~IIS' Ier a ..il.t!d(JjJ}f . CIDSl1[idJi. '1 he S·tHi:iOJD.liJng use o( a laIIDJ.d.bvel)i'"wnt'h:!'pende:mlly of fi.nilllcalUy more .~h :~l:rofi.CYDUlfUD .ilClicl\. .rS Ita dh~·\fem[l'pl •..a.~.{d.. f ItJh~ t~fk·.' ~\LPI) lifjl~' .\I'I(~'fS~l" u HOIIi'I.iCOStlU IUv€l~ d"i'flUlUdliflllf.! . IUll~'mlllhl'elycm~.i:n~tl~af (Ip.ihiMre.1IIb.yn~a. I .II-\j'~~'~b~lll b~x )lreiirn.Q tn~ethi.(Jjlu:il xp~r.li~dlU!i:'(~~~.rn~~p{ulds q.iUe '\~r:e~111 ~nl~.f20tlO) :1.\\l'~U th~i(' e as nu~:nty.bou t e.djjl~g).O~Ii.jhild hl (\('{IUI(lC .e:n'ilt~llllts .wo .ant'51 (.·t rul..i~(Ilapl~r .: (ftJIErtJlilnl un it" ~l 0•• Allillle'~ H am pi e \.r.ulib~:wleU l~·.~lli\i'~ly to 0 linl s '5iLtlL1!f.).II)uumpl .~.'~i a '~Iedby Ifilil Cum ndn s I(1'934.I. "Ih.jitln.g I[. ji~vlel FJj~ds ptll)oos-~img qfuic k IjJt. ilnCOljllmn~l~.gie~5.J'n~ in.sj. als a AMid(!·for ill~Slf(lt(ti.g..Jb.lrJUlJlilg.:lb) IlilJDOt)l SO'~'-.( (:i!:Uff~ce Ehlen y)1 dt"'\rlel0'p~ .' 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