Solar Crop Dryer

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A multi-purpose solar crop dryer was developed for drying various agricultural products such as fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants etc. The newly developed system consists of a small fan, a solar air heater and a tunnel dryer. The simple design allows production either by farmers themselves, using cheap and locally available materials, or by small scale industries. Due to the low investment required, the solar dryer is predestined for application on small farms in developing countries. Depending on the crop to be dried and the size of the dryer 100–1000 kg of fresh material can be dried within 1–7 days to safe storage conditions. The solar dryer was successfully tested in Greece, Yugoslavia, Egypt, Ethiopia and Saudi Arabia drying grapes, dates, onions, peppers and several medicinal plants. Compared to traditional sun drying methods, the use of the solar dryer reduces drying time significantly and prevents mass losses. Furthermore, product quality can be improved essentially. During drying, the crop is protected completely from rain, dust, insects and animals. All these features contribute to the desired high product quality. The energy cost required for operating the fan features contribute to the the additional earnings from reduced mass losses and improved quality. On-farm tests also showed that the dryer can be easily operated by farmers. However, at present the dissemination of the solar dryer is limited to electrified areas.

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Chapter – 1 Introduction
Drying is an excellent way to preserve food and solar food dryers are appropriate food preservation technology for sustainable development . Drying was probably the first ever food preserving method used by man, even before cooking. It involves the removal of moisture from agricultural produce so as to provide a product that can be safely stored for longer period of time. “Sun drying” is the earliest method of drying farm products ever known to man and it involves simply laying the agricultural products in the sun on mats, roofs or drying floors. This has several disadvantages since the farm products are laid in the open sky and there is greater risk of spoilage due to adverse climatic conditions like rain, wind, moist and dust, loss of products to birds, insects and rodents (pests); totally dependent on good weather and very slow drying rate with danger of mould growth thereby causing deterioration and decomposition of the products. The process also requires large area of land, takes time and highly labour intensiv. With cultural and industrial development, artificial mechanical drying came into practice, but this process is highly energy intensive and expensive which ultimately increases product cost. Recently, efforts to improve “sun drying” have led to “solar drying”. In solar drying, solar dryers are specialized devices that control the drying process and protect agricultural produce from damage by insect pests, dust and rain. In comparison to natural “sun drying”, solar dryers

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generate higher temperatures, lower relative humidity, lower product moisture content and reduced spoilage during the drying process. In addition, it takes up less space, takes less time and relatively inexpensive compared to artificial mechanical drying method. Thus, solar drying is a better alternative solution to all the drawbacks of natural drying and artificial mechanical drying. The solar dryer can be seen as one of the solutions to the world’s food and energy crises. With drying, most agricultural products can be preserved and this can be achieved more efficiently through the use of solar dryers.

Solar dryers are a very useful device for: Agricultural crop drying. Food processing industries for dehydration of fruits and vegetables. Fish and meat drying. Dairy industries for production of milk powder. Seasoning of wood and timber. Textile industries for drying of textile materials, etc. Thus, the solar dryer is one of the many ways of making use of solar energy efficiently in meeting man’s demand for energy and food supply. Air is commonly used as a heat transfer fluid in many types of energy conversion systems. In drying applications and space heating solar energy can take part in a major role because which can be done with warm air alone. Nearly any black surface which is heated by the sun will transfer heat to air when the air is blown over it. Air is

Conventional. Air collector is usually over-laid by one or more transparent covers to reduce the heat loss.Solar Crop Dryer 4 Project Report-2011 distributed over the black radiation-absorbing surface and the air stream should be in contact with the complete collector surface to achieve higher temperatures. providing uniform high quality products. fuel-operated artificial dryers are more efficient. The increasing rate of fuel consumption in agriculture has made it necessary not only to save energy by intensifying the drying processes and improving their designs and where these solar energy systems can play a major role. But such units are beyond the reach of the farmers with limited crop volume and high requirements of financial resources with respect to the cost of equipment. . A good review of solar air heaters and their applications has been reported.

The World Meteorological Organization uses the term "sunshine duration" to mean the cumulative time during which an area receives direct irradiance from the Sun of at least 120 watts per square meter. it is experienced as sunshine.000 lux or lumens per square meter at the Earth's surface. a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds. radiation is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon. sunlight in the broad through sense. visible. it is experienced as diffused light. is filtered the Earth's atmosphere. When it is blocked by the clouds or reflects off of other objects. is the total frequency and solar spectrum of electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. . Bright sunlight provides illuminance of approximately 100. Direct sunlight has a luminous efficiency of about 93 lumens per watt of radiant flux. Sunlight takes about 8.Solar Crop Dryer 5 Project Report-2011 Chapter – 2 Literature Survey Sunlight Sunlight. which includes infrared. On Earth. and ultraviolet light. pyranometer or pyrhelio meter.3 minutes to reach the Earth. Sunlight may be recorded using a sunshine recorder.

dn=32 on February 1. a process vital for life on Earth. because in modern times Earth's perihelion. is equal to 128×103 lx. both the elliptical orbit of the Earth and the attenuation by the Earth's atmosphe. corrected for the attenuating effects of the atmosphere is given by: .935338.98328989AU) squared and the aphelion (1. etc. The direct normal illuminance (Edn). the closest approach to the Sun and therefore the maximum Eext occurs around January 3 each year. The value of have to be taken into account. The solar illuminance constant (Esc). The extraterrestrial solar illuminance (Eext).016710033 AU) should be approximately 0.033412determined knowing that the ratio between perihelion.Solar Crop Dryer 6 Project Report-2011 Sunlight is a key factor in photosynthesis. In this formula dn-3 is used. dn=2 on January 2. corrected for the elliptical orbit by using the day number of the year (dn). Calculation To calculate the amount of sunlight reaching the ground. is given by where dn=1 on January 1. (0.

Solar Crop Dryer 7 Project Report-2011 where c is the atmospheric extinction coefficient and m is the relative optical airmass. a measure of flux density. not just the visible light. is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area that would be incident on a plane perpendicular to the rays. It is measured by satellite to be roughly 1. Solar constant The solar constant. at a distance of one astronomical unit (AU) (roughly the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth). the measurements can be adjusted using the inverse square law to infer the magnitude of solar irradiance at one AU and deduce the solar constant. When solar irradiance is measured on the outer surface of Earth's atmosphere. The solar constant includes all types of solar radiation. .366 kilowatts per square meter (kW/m²).

413 – 1.Solar Crop Dryer 8 Project Report-2011 Sunlight intensity in the Solar System Different bodies of the Solar System receive light of an intensity inversely proportional to the square of their distance from Sun.9 16.08 Neptune 29.3075 – 0.446 – 6.4 4.048 – 10.47 and radiation minimum Mercury 0.04 – 3.576 1.7 – 13.666 4.272 2.Aphelion distance (AU) Solar maximum (W/m²) 14.7282 0.321 715 – 492 55.77 – 30.7184 – 0.4667 Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus 0.382 – 1.950 – 5.9833 – 1.647 – 2.8 – 45.017 1. A rough table comparing the amount of light received by each planet on the Solar System follows - Planet Perihelion .54 – 1.38 – 20. For example Venus' thick atmosphere reflects more than 60% of the solar .39 1.12 18.44 The actual brightness of sunlight that would be observed at the surface depends also on the presence and composition of an atmosphere.458 9.

For comparison purposes. sunlight on Saturn is slightly brighter than Earth sunlight at the average sunset or sunrise (see daylight for comparison table). a distance of about 500 AU (~69 lighthours) is needed. comparable to that on Earth "in the daytime with overcast clouds". Even on Pluto the sunlight would still be bright enough to almost match the average living room. Sunlight on Mars would be more or less like daylight on Earth wearing sunglasses. Composition . there is enough diffuse sky radiation that shadows would not seem particularly dark. Thus it would give perceptions and "feel" very much like Earth daylight.Solar Crop Dryer 9 Project Report-2011 light it receives. and as can be seen in the pictures taken by the rovers. The actual illumination of the surface is about 14. there is only a handful of objects in the solar system known to orbit farther than such a distance.000 lux. To see sunlight as dim as full moonlight on the Earth.

Solar Crop Dryer 10 Project Report-2011 The spectrum of the Sun's solar radiation is close to that of a black body with a temperature of about 5. Although the Sun produces Gamma rays as a result of the Nuclear fusion process. and even Radio waves. ultraviolet. The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation striking the Earth's atmosphere is 100 to 106 nanometers (nm). This can be divided into five regions in increasing order of wavelengths . these super high energy photons are converted to lower energy photons before they reach the Sun's surface and are emitted out into space. it can cause damage to the skin known as sunburn or trigger an adaptive change in human skin pigmentation. however. The Sun does. The Sun emits EM radiation across most of the electromagnetic spectrum. emit X-rays.800 K. When ultraviolet radiation is not absorbed by the atmosphere or other protective coating. So the Sun doesn't give off any gamma rays to speak of. Solar irradiance spectrum above atmosphere and at surface. infrared. visible light .

As the name suggests. it is this range that is visible to the naked eye. Infrared range that spans 700 nm to 106 nm [1 (mm)]. It has been traditionally held as less damaging to the DNA. Ultraviolet A or (UVA) spans 315 to 400 nm. and hence used in tanning and PUVA therapy for psoriasis. The term ultraviolet refers to the fact that the radiation is at higher frequency than violet light (and. It is also divided into three types on the basis of wavelength: Infrared-A: 700 nm to 1. Owing to absorption by the atmosphere very little reaches the Earth's surface (Lithosphere). SOLAR RADIATION – THE ENERGY SOURCE FOR SOLAR DRYING . It is also greatly absorbed by the atmosphere. and is used in germicidal lamps. Visible range or light spans 380 to 780 nm.000 nm to 1 mm.400 nm to 3.Solar Crop Dryer 11 Project Report-2011 Ultraviolet C or (UVC) range. It is responsible for an important part of the electromagnetic radiation that reaches the Earth. This spectrum of radiation has germicidal properties. and along with UVC is responsible for the photochemical reaction leading to the production of the Ozone layer.000 nm Infrared-C: 3.400 nm Infrared-B: 1. which spans a range of 100 to 280 nm. hence also invisible to the human eye). Ultraviolet B or (UVB) range spans 280 to 315 nm.

360 W/m2 (solar constant). When the solar radiation penetrates through the atmosphere some of the radiation is lost so that on a clear sky sunny day in summer between 800 to 1000 W/m2 (global radiation) can be obtained on the ground. coal. However there is an unlimited amount of power across different countries in summer.) are converted solar energy. photosynthesis. In spite of this. wind. The only problem is that the public is unwilling to make the huge investments in solar that are needed. Capital costs of solar will be very high because the percentage of time . I has the form of a ball and nuclear fusion take place continuously in its centre. the factory won’t work and it might be necessary to go to bed early because there is no electricity. The radiation intensity of 6000oC solar surface corresponds to 70.000 to 80.000.000 billion kWh. the incoming solar radiation energy in a year is about 200. we will have to have seasonal industries that take advantage hat when the sun doesn’t shine. There will not be enough input from other sources and therefore we must work extremely hard on solar energy. and if we wait too long to make these investments it will be too late.Solar Crop Dryer 12 Project Report-2011 The sun is the central energy producer of our solar system. It will be indispensable. All fossil fuels (oil. Solar energy will be extremely expensive as compared to other energy sources. Solar radiation drives all natural cycles and processes such as rain. ocean currents and several other which are important for life. etc. The solar radiation intensity outside the atmosphere is in average 1. The whole world energy need has been based from the very beginning on solar energy. this is more than 10. Our planet receives only a very small portion of this energy. A small fraction of the energy produced in the sun hits the earth and makes life possible on our planet. In order to use this energy.000 kW/m2.000 times the yearly energy need of the whole world. gas.

g. Global Radiation The duration of the sunshine as well as its intensity is dependent on the time of the year. The diffuse radiation component is created when the direct solar rays are scattered from the different molecules and particles in the atmosphere into all directions.200 kWh/m2. the condition of the atmosphere (e. i. haze and dust layers over large cities) and the path length of the beams through the atmosphere. Solar energy . The amount of diffuse radiation is dependent on the climatic and geographic conditions.Solar Crop Dryer 13 Project Report-2011 that it is available is so small.e. the radiation becomes un-beamed. The direct solar radiation is the component which comes from the direction of the sun. weather conditions and naturally also on the geographical location. The amount of yearly global radiation on a horizontal surface may thus reach in the sun belt regions over 2. A lot of labour will be required but labour will be cheap after oilo depletion power needs for an economic one. The global radiation composes of direct and diffuse radiation. The information gained can then be used in large power plants or in house sized installations. the maximum values are 1.100 kWh/m2. In north Europe. The global radiation and the proportion of diffuse radiation is greatly influenced by clouds.

Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. account for most of the available renewable energy on earth. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun. convert and distribute solar energy. Solar energy's uses are limited only by human ingenuity. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture. Only a minuscule fraction of the available solar energy is used. hydroelectricity and biomass. the most common way is to use solar panels. has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar radiation. radiant light and heat from the sun. To harvest the solar energy. along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave power.Solar Crop Dryer 14 Project Report-2011 Solar energy. selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties. and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. Energy from the Sun . Solar powered electrical generation relies on heat engines and photovoltaics.

where the temperature is low. and this raises their temperature. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds. oceans and land masses. water vapor condenses into clouds. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection. causing atmospheric circulation or convection.Solar Crop Dryer 15 Project Report-2011 The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere. producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind. When the air reaches a high altitude. By photosynthesis green plants convert solar . cyclones and anti-cyclones. oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation. Earth's land surface. completing the water cycle. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet. Warm air About half the incoming solar energy reaches the Earth's surface. containing evaporated water from the oceans rises. Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C. which rain onto the Earth's surface.

which produces food. increased food prices by diverting forests and crops into biofuel production.000 EJ[8] 487 EJ[9] 56. . oil. oceans and land masses is approximately 3.850. the increased use of biomass has had a negative effect on global warming and dramatically As intermittent resources. The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal. Photosynthesis captures approximately 3.000 EJ[6] 2.Solar Crop Dryer 16 Project Report-2011 energy into chemical energy.850. wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived. solar and wind raise other issues. wind or biomass would be sufficient to supply all of our energy needs. and mined uranium combined.7 EJ[10] The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere. however. this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year. From the table of resources it would appear that solar. Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption Solar Wind Biomass Primary energy use (2005) Electricity (2005) 3. natural gas.250 EJ[7] 3.000 EJ per year in biomass.000 exajoules (EJ) per year. In 2002.

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Solar energy can be harnessed in different levels around the world. Depending on a geographical location the closer to the equator the more "potential" solar energy is available.

Applications of solar technology
Average insolation showing land area (small black dots) required to replace the world primary energy supply with solar electricity. 18 TW is 568 Exajoule (EJ) per year. Insolation for most people is from 150 to 300 W/m² or 3.5 to 7.0 kWh/m²/day. Solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for practical ends. However, all renewable energies, other than geothermal and tidal, derive their energy from the sun.

Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive or active depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight. Active solar techniques use photovoltaic panels, pumps, and fans to convert sunlight into useful outputs. Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces

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that naturally circulate air, and referencing the position of a building to the Sun. Active solar technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply side technologies, while passive solar technologies reduce the need for alternate resources and are generally considered demand side technologies.

There are records of solar collectors in the United States dating back to before 1900, comprising a black-painted tank mounted on a roof. In 1896 Clarence Kemp of Baltimore, USA enclosed a tank in a wooden box, thus creating the first 'batch water heater' as they are known today. Although flat-plate collectors for solar water heating were used in Florida and Southern California in the 1920s there was a surge of interest in solar heating in North America after 1960, but specially after the 1973 oil crisis.
Work in Israel Main article: Solar power in Israel

Passive (thermisiphon) solar water heaters on a rooftop in Jerusalem

Flat plate solar systems were perfected and used on a very large scale in Israel. In the 1950s there was a fuel shortage in the new Israeli state, and

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the government forbade heating water between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.. Levi Yissar built the first prototype Israeli solar water heater and in 1953 he launched the NerYah Company, Israel's first commercial manufacturer of solar water heating. Despite the abundance of sunlight in Israel, solar water heaters were used by only 20% of the population by 1967. Following the energy crisis in the 1970s, in 1980 the Israeli Knesset passed a law requiring the installation of solar water heaters in all new homes (except high towers with insufficient roof area). As a result, Israel is now the world leader in the use of solar energy per capita with 85% of the households today using solar thermal systems (3% of the primary national energy consumption), estimated to save the country two million barrels of oil a year, the highest per capita use of solar energy in the world.

Other countries.

New solar hot water installations during 2007, worldwide.

The world saw a rapid growth of the use of solar warm water after 1960, with systems being marketed also in Japan and Australia Technical

Spain became the first country in the world to require the installation of photovoltaic electricity generation in new buildings.000 were installed. and Japan and Austria. Over 40. Driven by a desire to reduce costs in social housing. the team of Gaviotas studied the best systems from Israel. and that the popularity is due to the efficient evacuated tubes which allow the heaters to function even under gray skies and at temperatures well below freezing . Israel and Cyprus are the per capita leaders in the use of solar water heating systems with over 30%-40% of homes using them. Installation of solar water heating has become the norm in countries with an abundance of solar radiation. It is said that at least 30 million Chinese households now have one.500 yuan (US$190). and made adaptations as to meet the specifications set by the Banco Central Hipotecario (BCH) which prescribed that the system must be operational in cities like Bogotá where there are more than 200 days overcast. The ultimate designs were so successful that Las Gaviotas offered in 1984 a 25 year warranty on any of its installations. where there Colombia developed a local solar water heating industry thanks to the designs of Las Gaviotas. Solar water heating systems have become popular in China.Solar Crop Dryer 20 Project Report-2011 innovation has improved performance. Australia has a variety of incentives (national and state) and regulations (state) for solar thermal introduced starting with MRET in 1997 . . directed by Paolo Lugari. In 2005. much cheaper than in Western countries (around 80% cheaper for a given size of collector). like the Mediterranean. and still function a quarter of a century later. and the second (after Israel) to require the installation of solar water heating systems in 2006. where basic models start at around 1. life expectancy and ease of use of these systems.

Solar Crop Dryer 21 Project Report-2011 See Appendix 1 at the bottom of this article for a number of countryspecific statistics on the "Use of solar water heating worldwide".Solar thermal collectors. solar insolation. Wikipedia also has country-specific articles about solar energy use (thermal as well as photovoltaic) in Australia. Canada. is captured by an absorbing medium and used to heat air . Solar air heat Solar air heat is a type of energy collector in which the energy from the sun. Israel. Portugal. India. systems provide heat by recirculating conditioned building air through solar collectors . Solar air collectors can be commonly divided into two categories: . Spain. China.Japan. and ducting air to come in contact with it. . the United Kingdom and the United States. Through the use of an energy collecting surface to absorb the sun’s thermal energy. a simple and effective collector can be made for a variety of air conditioning and process applications. Solar air heating is arenewable energy heating technology used to heat or condition air for buildings or process heat applications. . glazed (recirculating types) unglazed (ambient air heaters -transpired type) Glazed Air Systems Functioning in a similar manner as a conventional forced air furnace. R omania. Germany.

to capture radiation from the sun and transfers this thermal energy to air via conduction heat transfer. sometimes having a selective surface. such as fossil fuels. or process heat can be addressed by solar air heat devices. Space Heating Applications Space heating for residential and commercial applications can be done through the use of solar air heating panels. This configuration operates .Solar Crop Dryer 22 Project Report-2011 SPF Solar Air Heat Collector A simple solar air collector consists of an absorber material. to create a sustainable means to produce thermal energy. Further strides are being made in the field of ‘solar co-generation’ where solar thermal technologies are being paired with photovoltaics (PV) which increases the efficiency of a typical PV system by generating additional useful energy in the form of both electricity and heat. This heated air is then ducted to the building space or to the process area where the heated air is used for space heating or process heating needs. Applications such as space heating. pre-heating ventilation makeup air. Air Heat Applications A variety of applications can utilize solar air heat technologies to reduce the carbon footprint from use of conventional heat sources.

Transpired collectors only require one penetration into the building. By drawing air through a properly designed unglazed transpired air collector or an air heater (such as an http://en.wikipedia.Solar Crop Dryer 23 Project Report-2011 by drawing air from the building envelope or from the outdoor environment and passes it through the collector where the air warms from conduction of the absorber and is then supplied to the living or working space by either passive means or with the assistance of a fan. tea. Many applications are now being installed where the transpired collector preheats the fresh air entering a heat recovery ventilator to reduce the defrost time of HRV's. Process Heat Applications Solar air heat can also be used in process applications such as drying laundry. the solar heated fresh air can reduce the heating load during daytime operation. energy and heat recovery ventilators ERV/HRV]). crops (i. Air heated through a solar collector and then passed over a medium to be dried can provide an efficient means by which to reduce the moisture content of the material. Unglazed Air Systems Transpired Air Collector Transpired air collectors are becoming the most popular type of solar air heating system in North America.e. corn. These unglazed solar collectors are low cost and primarily used to heat ambient air and not building air. or . industrial and institutional buildings to meet code requirements. coffee) and other drying applications. fresh air or makeup air is required in most commercial.

there may be insufficient energy for space heating but ambient air heaters may still be able to extract a few degrees of useful energy from the filtered sunlight. . it is only necessary to raise the outside air temperature to room temperature (20 C). The transpired air collectors are generally wall mounted to capture the lower sun angles in the winter months. there are over 1500 transpired collector installations with over 300.Solar Crop Dryer 24 Project Report-2011 if existing fan inlets are used. Space heating collectors are designed to reheat inside building air so the air entering the collector is warmer than outside air resulting in some heat loss through the glazing. Solar Heating Efficiency Solar air collector heat loss is lowest when the temperature of the air entering the solar panel is equal to (or less than) ambient temperature. then no additional penetrations are necessary. Transpired collectors will provide significant energy savings when heating ventilation air for buildings that have high fresh air requirements such as factories. hospitals arenas etc. This occurs with transpired collectors designed to pre-heat outside air for ventilating a building. As of 2009. Most homes have low ventilation requiements and need higher temperature air and thus transpired collectors are not as popular for residential applications. Transpired collector systems are generally day time solar heaters without storage. overcast days.000 square meters of collector surface. Space heating systems must also heat the air above room temperature whereas with ventilation heating. additional sun reflection off the snow and they also capture heat loss escaping from the building envelope which is collected in the SolarWall air cavity and drawn back into the ventilation system. On cold. schools.

Solar trackers. to increase the usable heat in a system. Active solar uses electrical or mechanical equipment. and are therefore classified under active solar technology. cause air-movement for ventilation or cooling.Solar Crop Dryer 25 Project Report-2011 Active solar Active solar technologies are employed to convert solar energy into usable light. are classified as passive solartechnologies. but can have a higher performance if they track the path of the sun through the sky. like a solar chimney. such as pumps and fans. used to orient photovoltaic arrays or daylighting. Solar energy collection and utilization systems that do not use external energy. use pumps or fans to circulate water. Solar hot water systems. may be driven by either passive or active technology. except those based on the thermosiphon. Solar trackers may be driven by active orpassive solar technology . The solar collectors can be nonconcentrating or 'flat-plate'. heat. or store heat for future use. Most solar-thermal collectors have fixed mounting. or air throughsolar collectors. or of various concentrating designs. an anti-freeze mixture.

have . Passive solar technologies include direct and indirect solar gain for space heating. air. use. cause air-movement for ventilating. and other devices that enhance solar energy collection. use of thermal mass and phasechange materials for slowing indoor air temperature swings. solar water heating systems based on the thermosiphon or geyser pump.Solar Crop Dryer 26 Project Report-2011 Passive solar Passive solar technologies are means of using sunlight for useful energy without use of active mechanical systems (as contrasted to active solar). Passive cooling is the use of the same design principles to reduce summer cooling requirements. such as space and water heating.Passive solar energy is a type of energy. and earth sheltering. and reduce undesirable heat transfer. Technologies that use a significant amount of conventional energy to power pumps or fans are active solar technologies. or future use. but these typically require some external energy for aligning their concentrating mirrors or receivers. More widely. storage. Some passive systems use a small amount of conventional energy to control dampers. A common example is a solarium on the equator-side of a building. solar cookers. Such technologies convert sunlight into usable heat (water. with little use of other energy sources. and historically have not proven to be practical or cost effective for widespread use. passive solar technologies include the solar furnace and solar forge. shutters. thermal mass). the solar chimney for enhancing natural ventilation. night insulation. 'Low-grade' energy needs.

removing moisture from food dramatically reduces the weight of the food. Further. typically 80% to 95% for various fruits and vegetables and 50% to 75% for various meats. A food dehydrator uses heat and air flow to reduce the water content of foods. Chapter – 3 Solar Drying Food dehydrator A food dehydrator is an appliance that removes moisture from food to aid in its preservation.Solar Crop Dryer 27 Project Report-2011 proven. food dehydrators are used to preserve and extend the shelf life of various foods. Removing moisture from food restrains various bacteria from growing and spoiling food. to be better applications for passive use of solar energy. Thus. . over time. The water content of food is usually very high.

food that is hard and dry on the outside but moist on the inside. or preheated to those temperature levels. usually fifteen to twenty percent or less. or 54 °C. A dehydrator's heating element. This process continues for hours until the food is dried to a substantially lower water content. although meats being made into jerky should be dehydrated at a higher temperature of 155 °F. a fan. or 68 °C. moist air out of the appliance via the air vents. The key to successful food dehydration is the application of a constant temperature and adequate air flow. multiple trays can be stacked on top of each other and warm air flows around the food. In this model. air vents allowing for air circulation and food trays to lay food upon.Solar Crop Dryer 28 Project Report-2011 Tomato slices ready to be dried in a food dehydrator. fans and vents simultaneously work to remove moisture from food. A dehydrator's heating element warms the food causing its moisture to be released from its interior. Too high of a temperature can cause case hardened foods. . Most foods are dehydrated at temperatures of 130 °F. to guard against pathogens that may be in the meat. The appliance's fan then blows the warm. A food dehydrator's basic parts usually consist of a heating element.

smoking or wind drying) but. food is first frozen and then the water is removed by sublimation. preservation that which inhibits works the by removing water from growth of microorganisms and hinders quality decay. Bacteria yeasts and moulds need the water in the food to grow. in the case of freeze-drying. Solar dryers use solar energy to create a flow of warm air through the tray. . Drying food using sun and wind to prevent spoilage has been practised since ancient times. Drying effectively prevents them from surviving in the food.Solar Crop Dryer 29 Project Report-2011 The first food dehydrator was sold in 1920. Water is usually removed byevaporation (air drying. sun drying. Drying (food) Drying is a method the of food food.

sliced pieces (right).a. bresaola.k. and beef jerky. Parma ham). First the meat is soaked / pickled in saltwater for a couple of days to guarantee the conservation of the meat. Then the meat is dried in the sun in spring when the air temperature is below zero. and dried sliced pieces (left) Food types Many different foods are prepared by dehydration. Dried and salted reindeer meat is a traditional Sami food. The dried meat can be further processed to make soup. . Good examples are meat such as prosciutto (a.Solar Crop Dryer 30 Project Report-2011 A whole potato.

fruit and even meat (to produce jerky) may be carried out by a do-it-yourself practice. employing electrical dehydrators (household appliance). etc. or BHA. or so they can be used as seasonings.Solar Crop Dryer 31 Project Report-2011 Fruits change character completely[clarification needed] when dried: the plum becomes a prune. to affect the potency of chemical components. dried products may be hermetically shelf stored if it is to be consumed soon. Edible andpsilocybin mushrooms. such as garlic and onion. If the user does not like to use additives as potassium metabisulphite. and . which are often dried. that can be eaten as they are or else after rehydration. the grape a raisin. military. Home drying of vegetables. It formed the main protein source for the slaves on theWest Indian plantations. BHT for meats. much of the European diet depended on dried cod. different products. For centuries. as well as other fungi. A collection of dried mushrooms. Freeze dried vegetables are often found in backpackers food. The exception to this rule are bulbs. known as salt cod or bacalhau (with salt) or stockfish (without). figs and dates are also transformed in new. hunters. are also sometimes dried for preservation purposes. Also chilis are frequently dried. or else in the refrigerator or even freezer if a long storage is to be expected.

low temperatures in storage are also highly recommended to avoid degradative reactions and. in order to inhibit microbial growth. the growth of insects and mites. to 12. rice and other grains as sorghum. Continuous flow dryers may produce up to 100 metric tonnes of dried grain per hour. soybean..30 m in Cross-Flow. with heated air flowing horizontally from an internal cylinder through an inner perforated metal sheet. and finally across the outer perforated metal sheet. and are of the continuous type: Mixed-flow dryers are preferred in Europe. The depth of grain the air must traverse in continuous dryers range from some 0. both types are usually found. They normally consist of a bin. then through a annular grain bed. etc. Grain drying Hundreds of millions of tonnes of wheat. 8% (sunflower) and 9% (peanuts). sunflower seeds. The more oil the grain has. corn. Drying is carried out as a requisite for safe storage.50 m thick (coaxial with the internal cylinder) in radial direction. depending on the grain. known as Hákarl.5% (soybeans). drying comprises the reduction of moisture from about 17-30%w/w to values between 8 and 15%w/w. In the main agricultural countries. before . is a delicacy in Iceland.Solar Crop Dryer was a major 32 Project Report-2011 economic force within the triangular trade. The largest dryers are normally used "Off-farm". particularly in the USA and Europe. are dried in grain dryers. In Argentina. A good maximum storage temperature is about 18°C. rapeseed/canola. Cereals are often dried to 14% w/w. The final moisture content for drying must be adequate for storage. barley. However. the lower its storage moisture content will be (though its initial moisture for drying will also be lower). while Cross-flow dryers in the USA. Dried shark meat.15 m in Mixed flow dryers to some 0. especially. oats. in elevators. some 0. Batch dryers are mainly used "On-Farm". while oilseeds.

adapting a bin to slowly drying grain fed at the top and removed at the bottom of the bin by a sweeping auger. Now it is possible to simulate the performance of a dryer with computer programs based on equations (mathematical models) that represent the phenomena involved in drying: physics. A typical quality parameter in wheat drying is the breadmaking quality and germination percentage whose reductions in drying are somewhat related. The solar radiation has been used by man since the beginning of time for heating his domicile. Most recently the evolution of quality indices is beginning to be predicted with some confidence. In the 19th century. continuous counterflow dryers may be found on-farm. The usual drying times range from 1 h to 4 h depending on how much water must be removed. Antoine Lavoisier on solar furnace. and satisfactory grain quality. development of solar . for agricultural purposes and for personal comfort. air temperature and the grain depth.Solar Crop Dryer 33 Project Report-2011 being discharged to the atmosphere. Grain drying is an active area of manufacturing and research. Joseph Priestly on concentrating rays using lens. In the USA. in order to add an essential performance parameter with which to establish a compromise of reasonably fast drying rate. Reports abound in literature on the 18th century works of Archimedes on concentrating the sun’s rays with flat mirrors. type of grain. Attempts to Harness Solar Energy Some Background to the Concept The idea of using solar energy to produce high temperature dates back to ancient times. physical chemistry. limited energy consumption. thermodynamics and heat and mass transfer.

which produced 1hp (746 W) for each 9. but it is difficult to market them in competition with engines running on inexpensive gasoline . Modern research on the use of solar energy started during the 20th century. Two main collectors are used to capture solar energy and convert it to thermal energy. Thus. interest was rekindled in the harnessing of solar energy for heating and cooling.000 gallons of water from salt water per day has been reported.Solar Crop Dryer 34 Project Report-2011 distillation unit covering 4750sq meters of land. John Ericson’s work on conversion of solar energy into mechanical energy through a device. Also.During the mid 1970’s shortages of oil and natural gas. In this paper. the generation of electricity and other purposes Capturing Solar Energy Solar radiation can be converted either into thermal energy (heat) or into electrical energy. Importance of Solar Dried Food . small powered steam engines and solar battery. producing 6.3m2 of collecting surface has also been reported. these are flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors . emphasis is laid much on the flat plate collectors which are also known as nonfocusing collectors. operated for 40 years and. This can be done by making use of thermal collectors for conversion into heat energy or photovoltaic collectors for conversion into electrical energy. Developments include the invention of a solar boiler. increase in the cost of fossil fuels and the depletion of other resources stimulated efforts in the United States to develop solar energy into a practical power source.

Solar dried food are quality products that can be stored for extended periods. mold and enzymes are all prevented from spoiling it. people of various nations have been preserving fruits. meat and fish by drying. Drying is also beneficial for hay. other crops. This paper therefore presents the design and construction of a domestic passive solar food dryer. Dried foods do not require any special storage equipment and are easy to transport . Studies showed that food items dried in a solar dryer were superior to those which are sun dried when evaluated in terms of taste. and the storage space is minimal compared with that needed for canning jars and freezer containers. The energy input for drying is less than what is needed to freeze or can. It is worth noting that until around the end of the 18th century when canning was developed. drying was virtually the only method of food preservation. It was further stated that the nutritional value of food is only minimally affected by drying . tea and other income producing non-food crops. copra. With solar drying being available everywhere. Also. because the products deteriorate rapidly . The flavour and most of the nutritional value of dried food is preserved and concentrated . Microorganisms are effectively killed when the internal temperature of food reaches 145°F . . easily transported at less cost while still providing excellent nutritive value. bacteria. the availability of all these farm produce can be greatly increased. yeast. food scientists have found that by reducing the moisture content of food to 10 to 20%. colour and mould counts . Dehydration of vegetables and other food crop by traditional methods of open-air sun drying is not satisfactory.Solar Crop Dryer 35 Project Report-2011 For centuries.

Solar Crop Dryer 36 Project Report-2011 Chapter – 4 Solar Crops Dryer Parts Collector types A solar-thermal-collector is a solar-collector designed to collect heat by absorb ing sunlight. The term is applied to solar hot .

The simpler collectors are typically used for supplemental space heating in residential and commercial buildings. b) front-pass. The solar energy striking the Earth's surface depends on weather conditions. but overall. air ducted onto one side of the absorber passes through a perforated or fibrous type material and is heated from the conductive properties of the material and the convective . as well as location and orientation of the surface. collectors are commonly classified as one of three types: a) through-pass collectors. Through-Pass Air Collector In the through-pass configuration. The more complex collectors are generally used in solar power plants where solar heat is used to generate electricity by heating water to produce steam which drives a turbine connected to an electrical generator. d) combination front and back pass collectors. it averages about 1. The energy in sunlight is in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the infrared (long) to the ultraviolet (short) wavelengths. c) back pass. Due to varying air-ducting methods.Solar Crop Dryer 37 Project Report-2011 water panels. but may also be used to denote more complex installations such as solar parabolic. solar trough and solar towers or simpler installations such as solar air heat.000 watts per square meter under clear skies with the surface directly perpendicular to the sun's rays. A collector is a device for converting the energy in solar radiation into a more usable or storable form.

durable and produce high flow rates at a high pressure while having a low power consumption in order to keep the prise of the solar crop dryer down and at the same time en. or on both sides of the absorber to be heated from the return to the supply ducting headers. In order to limit the necessary size of the PVpanel the flow rate through the crop was de. the front. resulting in lower overall performance of the collector. Through-pass absorbers have the most surface area which enables relatively high conductive heat transfer rates. and deterioration of certain absorber material after many years of solar radiation exposure can additionally create problems with air quality and performance.expensive.Solar Crop Dryer 38 Project Report-2011 properties of the moving air.creased considerably . In cold climates. but significant pressure drop can require greater fan power. air passing next to the glazing will additionally cause greater heat loss. Fan The main problem with a PV powered solar crop dryer is the fan: the fan should be in. Although passing the air on both sides of the absorber will provide a greater surface area for conductive heat transfer. and combination type configurations the air is directed on either the back. issues with dust (fouling) can arise from passing air on the front side of the absorber which reduces absorber efficiency by limiting the amount of sunlight received. front-pass. Combination Passage Air Collector In back-pass.sure an efficient drying process.

1 m/s in conventional platform dryers. some types are even improved making use of cardboard boxes and transparent nylon or polythene.Solar Crop Dryer 39 Project Report-2011 compared to conventional dryers.7 m/s in conventional cross flow dryers and also low compared to the 0. With the air flow in the design case of 300 m³/h per unit the air speed through the drying bed was 0. Chapter – 5 Materials and Method General Description of the Domestic Passive Solar Food Dryer The most commonly seen design types are of cabinet form (wooden boxes with glass cover).pared to the 0. The data sheet for the chosen fan is shown in appendix A.06 m/s.8.For the design . The figure shows that the pressure drop of the system should be below 50 Pa at a flow rate of 300 m³/h as the flow rate else may drop to around 200 m³/h. curve 2.3-0. The fan is type 7212N from Pabst. The voltage range of the fan is between 6 and 15 V and the nominal power demand is 12 W. This is very low com. The characteristic of the fan is shown in figure 2.

. designed to accommodate four layers of drying trays made of net cloth (cheese cloth) on which the produces (or food) are placed for drying. The hot air acts as the drying medium. removing the moisture content and exits through the air vent (or outlet) near the top of the shadowed side. the greenhouse effect and thermosiphon principles are the theoretical basis. the hot air rises through the drying chamber passing through the trays and around the food. There is an air vent (or inlet) to the solar collector where air enters and is heated up by the greenhouse effect. The drying chamber. thus the system is a passive solar system and no mechanical device is required to control the intake of air into the dryer. which can also be referred to as the air heater.Solar Crop Dryer 40 Project Report-2011 being considered.The solar food dryer consists of two major compartment or chambers being integrated together: The solar collector compartment. it extracts and conveys the moisture from the produce (or food) to the atmosphere under free (natural) convection.

Solar Crop Dryer 41 Project Report-2011 Drawings .

Solar Crop Dryer 42 Project Report-2011 .

Solar Crop Dryer 43 Project Report-2011 .

Welding for joining Hinges and Magnet for Paint (black and cherry red).1mm thickness (dimension 30cm × 30cm) frames for constructing the trays. • Aluminium sheet - of 18gauge . . as the solar collector cover and the cover for the drying chamber. painted black with mat finish for absorption of solar radiation.Solar Crop Dryer 44 Project Report-2011 Materials Used The following materials were used for the construction of the domestic passive solar dryer: • • GI Sheet of gauge 16 (1. • • • • • Steel net and Steel rods as Thermocol – as insulation in drying chamber and glue as adhesive for insulation. the dryer’s door. It permits the solar radiation into the system but resists the flow of heat energy out of the systems.2mm)Glass - as the casing (housing) of the entire system.

fruits.Solar Crop Dryer 45 Project Report-2011 Chapter – 6 Design Consideration 1. Here the metal sheet thickness should be of 0. a gap of 5 cm should be created as air vent (inlet) and air passage. . 3mm thick transparent glass was used. T0 of 60°C and the air inlet temperature or the ambient temperature T1 = 30°C (approximately outdoor temperature). Glass and flat plate collector -The glass covering should be 3-4mm thickness. crop seeds and some other crops . Temperature. Efficiency . 45°C and above is considered average and normal for drying vegetables.The minimum temperature for drying food is 30°C and the maximum temperature is 60°C. The glass used as cover for the collector was 30 × 50cm2. roots and tuber crop chips. 2.This is defined as the ratio of the useful output of a device to the input of the device. therefore. 3. here an Aluminium sheet of 18gauge (1mm) thickness was used. 4. The design was made for the optimum temperature for the dryer. In this work.8 – 1. Air gap – In this work. 5.0 mm thickness.

removes flavor and causes the food to dry unevenly. Design Calculations 1. Hence. A research obtained the value of insulation for Thrissur.516667 . India i. thus the design of the drying chamber was made as spacious as possible of average dimension of 30 × 30 × 30cm with air passage (air vent) out of the cabinet of 2” diameter. It states that the angle of tilt (β) of the solar collector should be β = 100 + lat ф where lat ф is the latitude of the collector location.69W/m2 . Insulation on the Collector Surface Area. Kerala. average daily radiation H on horizontal surface as. Dryer Trays – Steel Net was selected as the dryer screen or trays to aid air circulation within the drying chamber. The design of the dry chamber making use of thermocol wall sides and tends to bleach colour.e. Dimension – It is recommended that a constant exchange of air and a roomy drying chamber should be attained in solar food dryer design.5170 = 20.Solar Crop Dryer 46 Project Report-2011 6. Region: Kerala Country: India Latitude: 10. Angle of Tilt (β) of Solar Collector/Air Heater. 7. the suitable value of β use for the collector: β = 100 + 10. Two trays were made.5170 2. H = 978. The tray dimension is 30 × 30cm .

15m2 4.15m/s.05m and the width of the collection assumed to be 30cm = 0.3 = 0.25 × 10-3 × 1.25 × 10-3m3/s Thus mass flow rate of air: a = vaρa Density of air ρa is taken as 1. collector area was taken as (0.0035 Ic = 982.491m Thus. volumetric flow rate of air V'a = Va × 0.3× 0.88 × 10-3kg/s Therefore.147356m2/0. The air gap height was taken as 5cm = 0. Determination of the Insulator Thickness for the Drying Chamber .28 = 2. Determination of Collector Area and Dimension.3m.3 V'a = 0.5m.6 Ic AC = (2. R = 1.3 = 2. the length of the solar collector was taken approximately as 0. area of the collector AC = Ma Cp dT / 0.11W/m2 3.69 × 1.5) 2 = 0.88 × 10-3 × 1005 × (60-30)/(0. insulation on the collector surface was obtained as Ic =HR = 978.15 × 0. Thus.05 × 0.05 × 0.28kg/m3 Ma = 2. Therefore.6× 982.11) = 0. L = Ac/B = 0.147356m2 The length of the solar collector (L) was taken as.Solar Crop Dryer 47 Project Report-2011 and average effective ratio of solar energy on tilted surface to that on the horizontal surface R as.0035 Thus. The mass flow rate of air Ma was determined by taking the average air speed Va = 0.

554mm For the design. Determination of Heat Losses from the Solar Collector (Air Heater). 5.05 × 0.1×2. Total energy transmitted and absorbed is given by IcAcτα = Qu + QL + Qs where Qs is the energy stored which is considered negligible therefore. IcAcτα =Qu +QL Thus QL the heat energy losses .88×10-3×1005×(60-30)] = 0. F = 10% = 0. The side of the drying chamber was insulated using thermocol (a polymer).Solar Crop Dryer 48 Project Report-2011 The rate of heat loss from air is equal to the rate of heat conduction through the insulation.1 T0 = 60ºC and Ti = Ta = 30ºC approximately ma = 2. The following equation holds for the purpose of the design.09m2 tb =[0.05Wm-1K-1 which is the approximate thermal conductivity for polyurethane [11]. the thickness of the insulator was taken as 50mm. the loss through the side of the collector was considered negligible. FmaCp (T0 – Ti) = Ka(Ta Ta)/tb K = 0.88× 10-3Kgs-1 Cp = 1005JKg-1K-1 and Ac = 0.001554m = 1.09 × (60-30)]/[0.

15×30) = (114. QL = 6.maCp∆T UL = (IcAcτα .15×0.88×10-3×1005×30)/(0.774 – 2.maCp∆T)/(Ac∆T) α was taken as 0.022971 .19W This heat loss includes the heat loss through the insulation from the sides and the cover glass.774 UL = (982.0424 × 0.832)/4.11×0.Solar Crop Dryer QL = IcAcτα .0424W/m2°C Therefore. .9 and τ = 0.5 UL = 6.86.Qu Since 49 Project Report-2011 Qu = maCp (T0 – Ti) = maCp∆T and QL = ULAc∆T then ULAc∆T = IcAcτα .15 × 30 = 27.86 Ta = 0.

Solar Crop Dryer 50 Project Report-2011 Part no: 1 SL no Activity Name: Collector Distance Time moved (m) (min) Operations 1 Material laying store 5 Name: 10 Collector Time 2 Distance480 3 moved 180 (min) 60 300 10 15 480 180 60 300 15 no: 1 2 Part Moved to machine shop Activity 3 SL Welding 4 no Grinding 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Operations Painting 1 (m) Material laying Delay time for 2 store drying point Moved to 5 Inspection machine shop Welding Grinding Painting Delay time for drying point Inspection 2 3 1 2 .

Solar Crop Dryer 51 Project Report-2011 Part no: 2 SL no Name: Drier Distance moved (m) Time (min) Operations Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Material laying shop Moved workshop Welding Grinding Painting Delay time for drying Inspection to 5 2 3 1 2 10 420 120 60 300 15 .

5cm 150 10 Ps 00 00 thickness 4m diameter 2inch diameter 0.5kg 400 00 2mm thickness ½HP 1½ Door Magnet 100 00 1400 50 100 00 00 00 00 200°c 5mm thickness Synthetic gum 2½mm plate thickness 225 105 20 1750 4310 00 00 00 Chapter – 7 . Sheet 1no 3nos 2no 1no 1no 1no 250ml 1no 1no 100ml 19.I.Solar Crop Dryer 52 Project Report-2011 Estimation & costs Cost SL no 1 2 Item Quantity Specification Rs Aluminium Sheet Thermo coal 1no 1no 3mm thickness cross 14*2 Sheet 1.5inch wire grill long*2inch 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Total PVC Pipe Bend Steel net Blower Reducer Magnet Paint Thermometer Glass Adhesive G.

Pinch bar and pincers. • • • Hand saws (crosscut saw and ripsaw).2mm) thickness. Vernier caliper. The following tools were used in measuring and marking out on the wooden planks: • • • • • • Carpenter’s pencil.Solar Crop Dryer 53 Project Report-2011 Construction The solar food dryer was constructed making use of locally available and relatively cheap materials. Steel tapes (push-pull rule type). It was cut to the size of 30 × 50cm. Steel meter rule. Scriber. a The metal sheet used was GI sheet of 16gauge (1. The following tools were also used during the construction. Since the entire casing is made of wood and the cover is glass. and 30 x 20cm according to the . The construction was made with simple butt joints using nails as fasteners and glue (adhesive) where necessary. Steel square. the major construction works is carpentry works (joinery). 30 x 30cm. Hammer.

together with the insulator of 50mm thickness. the tray size was 30× 30cm. Two trays were used with average of 10cm spacing arranged vertically one on top of the other.Solar Crop Dryer 54 Project Report-2011 design. It was painted black with mat finish for maximum absorption and radiation of heat energy. The glass used was clear glass with 3mm thickness. The trays were made with steel rod as frame and steel net to permit free flow of air within the drying cabinet (chamber). was placed inside the air heater (drying chamber) compartment. . The glass was cut into size of 30 × 50cm size was required as the solar collector’s cover. The interior of the solar food dryer was insulated to prevent the heat loss while the exterior was painted cherry red to minimize the adverse effects of weather and insect attraction on the drying chamber and also for aesthetic appeal. The metal sheet.

Also. Locally available cheap materials were used in construction making it available and affordable to all and sundry especially peasant farmers. It protects the environment and saves cost and time spent on open sun drying of agricultural produce since it dries food items faster. This was demonstrated and the solar dryer designed and constructed exhibited sufficient ability to dry agricultural produce most especially food items to an appreciably reduced moisture level. and it is also a clean form of energy. However. meteorological .Solar Crop Dryer 55 Project Report-2011 Chapter – 8 Conclusion Solar radiation can be effectively and efficiently utilized for drying of agricultural produce in our environment if proper design is carried out. since it can be used extensively for majority of the agricultural food crops. This will go a long way in reducing food wastage and at the same time food shortages. solar energy is required for its operation which is readily available in the tropics. thus minimizing the case of pest and insect attack and also contamination. the performance of existing solar food dryers can still be improved upon especially in the aspect of reducing the drying time and probably storage of heat energy within the system. Apart from this. The food items are also well protected in the solar dryer than in the open sun.

Further work is needed to optimize the length and inclination angle of the side mirror of the flat plate collector. Increased flow ratio improves the matrix efficiency. The performance of the air heater is dependent on the number of covers used and the temperature difference between the inlet air to the ambient air. Therefore. Such information will probably guide a local farmer on when to dry his agricultural produce and when not to dry them. Even plastic covers can be used where the inlet temperature rise over the ambient air temperature is small. . The fluid conduction has no effect on the overall performance of the collector. With the addition of side mirrors one can produce the maximum output only in the peak hours. the efficiency will be maximum when the inlet air temperature is more than the ambient air temperature.Solar Crop Dryer 56 Project Report-2011 data should be readily available to users of solar products to ensure maximum efficiency and effectiveness of the system. The performance of a solar air heater without any cover is very poor and hence at least one cover should be used for better performance. Since the double exposure solar collector unit cost is estimated to be only 70 per cent greater than a conventional air collector it is efficient to go for the double exposure solar collector. The highest output obtained from the inclined side mirror when compared to the vertical side mirror.

1989.G. 2. Construction and Use of an Indirect. Addison Werley Publishing Company. 57. Solar Food Dryer. p. . 1997. Dorf R. Resources and Policy. GEDA-Gujarat Energy Development Agency. www. 62-72. Home Power Magazine. Scalin D. The Design. 2003.. Throughpass. Massachusetts. Energy.Solar Crop Dryer 57 Project Report-2011 References 1..

Solar-Energy-Principles of Thermal Collection and Storage. 10(1). 12. USA. 1982. Solar Dryer Systems and the Internet: Important Resources to Improve Food Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc. Nandi P. ASME. Massachusetts. 9. 7/17. www. Beckman.. 58 Project Report-2011 The World Book Encyclopedia (1982).. pp. 123-131. Herringshaw D.. W.. Ambrose. 2008. 2000.P. Solar Thermal Energy Utilization in Food Processing Industry in India. Melbourne. Dehydration of Food Crops Using Solar Dryer with Convective Heat Flow. Ayensu A. Ghana. J.J. . Bandopadhyay. 8. World Book-Childcraft International Inc. South Africa.. p... Fisk M. 51-54. Olaleye D. 1996. (1970). 6. Chicago.O... C. Inst. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited.E.Solar Crop Dryer 4. Research of Department of Physics. A. 11. Abeokuta. The Design and Construction of a Solar Incubator. Proceedings of International Conference on Solar Cooking. 13. (1968): Radiation and convection heat transfer in a porous bed. 5. 2009. Power. 2000. P.. proc. Introduction to Solar Technology.. Eng. Whitfield D. Kimberly. 7. 10. W. Asymmetrical heating in non circular ducts. Anderson H. University of Cape Coast. 1997. University of Agriculture. C. submitted to Department of Mechanical Engineering. All About Food Drying. The Ohio State University Extension Jan. Solar Energy Conf. Project Report.C. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology..ohio-state.. Sukhatme S. Paper No.

(1955): Multiple gauge flat plate solar air heaters. H..D. Boyd. pp. 15. 17.J. V.: Heat transfer and flow friction characteristics of metallic foil matrices using radiation as the heat source and their application to the design of solar collectors. pp. 283-288. F. 164. Engng.. pp. Bevill. J. USA.. Proc. W. 28-30. 38(1) pp. J. W.S. Phoenix. 16. Buelow.H. S. Solar energy. 20. 12(1). COMPLES. Word Symposium on Applied Solar Energy. 29-38.. Buelow. (1957): Heating air by solar energy. thesis. F. 19-36. Revenue Internationale d’ Heliotechnique. . (1974): Heat transfer effects in solar air heaters. W. R. Ph. Brandt. Characters. Michigan State University. 13(2). University of Wisconsin. Solar energy. thesis. 151-158.Solar Crop Dryer 59 Project Report-2011 14. Bliss. (1971): Some aspects of flow duct design for solar air heater applications. P.W. R.H. Characters. (1956): The effects of various parameters on the design of solar energy air heaters. 18. Agri. D. 1. pp. Ph. 19. (1968): A solar energy collector for heating air.. W. MacDonald. Chiou.

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