ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH

Support Materials and Exercises for

GRAMMAR: PART I
Parts of Speech

FALL 1998

PARTS OF SPEECH

ACADEMIC ENGLISH
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The following persons have contributed to the development of this learning material: Content and Structure: Curriculum Developer(s)

Leslie Childs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English Curriculum Content Expert New Brunswick Community College . . . . . . . . . . Bathurst

Project Supervision/Co-ordination:

Angela Acott-Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Co-ordinator New Brunswick Community College . . . . . . . Woodstock

Kay Curtis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literacy Co-ordinator New Brunswick Community College . . . . . . . Woodstock

This document is available full-text on the World Wide Web thanks to the National Adult Literacy Database. http://www.nald.ca/CLR/search/ The financial support for this learning materials project was provided by the National Literacy Secretariat of Human Resources Development Canada. Fall 1998

This support module may be used with BAU-ENG 6.5,Parts of Speech, and IAUENG 2.1 Parts of Speech.
BAU-ENG 6.5 OBJECTIVE Upon successful completion of this unit, the learner will be able to 1. identify the eight parts of speech in simple sentences. 2. explain the function of each part of speech. TEACHING POINTS Noun 1 2 3 4 Pronoun 5 6 Verb 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Adjective 14 15 16 17 18 19 common and proper singular and plural possessive nouns (with ‘s) used to name people, places, things personal, indefinite, interrogative use to replace nouns identify verbs and verb phrases (e.g. walk, walks, walked, is walking, has walked, has been walking, etc .) singular and plural forms of “to be” (present, past, future) singular and plural forms of “to have” (present, past, future) use of basic verb tenses (past, present, future) principal parts of common irregular verbs uses to express action and state of being used to describe nouns and pronouns comparison of adjectives use of “er” ending to compare two things use of “est” ending to compare two or more things use of “more” and “most” with longer adjectives comparison of irregular adjectives e.g. good, better, best Level 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 PARTS OF SPEECH

how. quickly. why. how much usually end in “ly” comparison of adverbs: e.Adverb 20 21 22 used to describe verbs: where. . most quickly used to show space and time relationship between nouns used to join complete thoughts used to express surprise. or other strong emotions 3/4 3/4 5/6 5/6 5/6 3/4 Preposition Conjunction Interjection 23 24 25 Learners should be encouraged to use their own writing as well as traditional exercises to identify parts of speech. more quickly.g. horror. when.

demonstrative. the learner will be able to 1.) subordinate conjunction: (e.g. boys’ and Charles’ Types: personal (gender. present. quantitative (e. present. who. describe the function of each part of speech.1 PARTS OF SPEECH OBJECTIVES Upon successful completion of this unit. thus. etc. present. the) Comparison of adjectives: regular and irregular Types: regular (“ly”) & irregular negative (e. neither/nor. in/in front of) Types: co-ordinate (and. because.g. case) interrogative. number. indefinite reflexive.) 7 7 7 Pronoun (naming) Verb (stating: action/existence) 7 7 7 8 8/9 7 7 9 7 7 7 7 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8/9 9 Adjective (describing) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Adverb (describing) Preposition(joining) Conjunction(joining) .IAU-ENG 2. which. yet. identify the eight parts of speech in written and oral communications. future) perfect progressive (past.g. never). nor. future) perfect (past. reciprocal.g.. emphatic relative Type: action & linking helping (auxiliary) & main = verb phrase active & passive voice Principal parts: regular & irregular Tense: simple (past. but. therefore. if. future) progressive (past. for. present.g. not only/but also) conjunctive adverb (e. person. not. that. an. etc. 2. relative pronoun (e. when. future) Types: common & proper demonstrative articles (a.g. TEACHING POINTS Lev el Nouns (naming) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Types: common & proper concrete & abstract singular & plural possessive (with boy’s. so) correlative (either/or. or. Comparison of adverbs: regular & irregular Types: simple & compound (e.

surprise. in newspapers and magazines. as well as in the learner’s own writing. Learners should develop a “hands-on” approach to identifying parts of speech by regularly using their own writing as a source of practice material. . Practice sentences can be found in every grammar text.Interjection 30 expressing horror. 7 Practice is the key to developing mastery of this objective. etc.

9. Facilitators are free to use any support materials appropriate to their learners’ needs. 7. Learners working in IAU-ENG should complete all sections of this module. and novels as a source for practice sentences. Do NOT write in this module. those sections marked with an asterisk should be reviewed.. 3. Parts of Speech.5 objectives. Learners should be very familiar with the parts of speech before they attempt Module 6. this module indicates alternate terminology and ways of handling specific grammar situations. presents information and exercises to accompany the objectives of BAU-ENG 6. The accompanying Practice Booklet contains exercises and an answer key in support of specific teaching points. Learners will benefit from using their own writing. Where possible.Parts of Speech. 10. Additional resource materials may be required for those wanting more information on this topic or for those needing more practice mastering certain areas. Alternate support materials may be appropriate. Grammar terms are not always consistent.5. Please make your notes and complete the exercises in your own notebooks so that other learners may also use these booklets. The real purpose for learning grammar is to help learner write and speak as effectively as possible. 11. magazines.NOTE TO FACILITATORS AND LEARNERS: 1. Parts of Speech and IAU-ENG 2. . Many exercises may.1. so that a wider variety of source materials are accessible to them. Practice is essential to mastery of parts of speech. The first grammar module. Sections of this module marked with an asterisk (*) should be completed by learners wanting to complete the BAU-ENG 6. however. 5. If they have previously completed the BAU-ENG programme. Parts of the Sentence. 4. 6. 2. newspapers. 12. 8. Learners should be familiar with these. be used to practice identifying a variety of parts of speech.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 42 47 48 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES . . . . . . 4 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WHAT IS GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 FEEDBACK FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES . . . . . 12 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . 17 Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . 19 Rules for forming possessive forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 INTERJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principle parts of the verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 CONJUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Verbs . 22 A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of verb tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Nouns . . . . . . . . . Irregular Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . 6 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 The root word “morph” means form. How did they learn it? When they were learning to talk. singing. sang. sung. Like many dictionary definitions. 2 . their arrangement in phrases and sentences (syntax2). Be sure to write the sentence in your notebook. and they learned how to put them into sentences in the right order (syntax) so they would be understood and get what they wanted. this makes grammar sound more difficult than it really is. Look at this picture. and then write a simple sentence (about 6 or 7 words) to explain what you see. write. songs). the different forms of a word (sings. and their classification based on their function (parts of speech). they learned the names of things (vocabulary). A.1 GRAMMAR: PART I PARTS OF SPEECH I INTRODUCTION• This module is the first of three that focuses on the basics of English grammar you need to speak and write as effectively as possible. speak. they are using their knowledge of grammar. The etymology of “syntax” shows it meanings “putting together”. Everyone already knows a lot about grammar and uses it correctly most of the time. Whenever people read. or listen. WHAT IS GRAMMAR?• Dictionaries define grammar as the rules and explanations which deal with the forms and structure of words (morphology1).

You wrote the sentence the way you did because you already know and use the basic rules of grammar. and a word that meant a man.2 Your sentence probably looks something like this. You see you really do know lots about grammar! B. You certainly didn’t write Ball throwing man the the is. In fact. First. WHY STUDY GRAMMAR?• Although you do write “good sentences” most of the time. you saw the picture. and your brain understood the ideas the picture presented. 2. Here’s what probably happened at lightning speed in your head. People judge us and our abilities by the way we use . Speaking and writing correctly are very important. Studying grammar is really just learning a new vocabulary so that you can talk about and learn how to correct these mistakes. The pitcher is going to throw the ball. Then you thought the names (vocabulary) for the things you just saw and arranged them (syntax) in an understandable order. you may make a few mistakes. the action throw. it probably include the word ball. Whatever you wrote. you probably started your sentence with a capital letter and ended it with a period (punctuation). The ball is being thrown by the pitcher. has of us comes from what we say or write and how we say it. You might even have written 3. Finally. That wouldn’t make sense and people hearing or reading your message would be confused. including a possible employer. Usually the first impression someone. The man is throwing the ball. 1. you translated each sound in each word into letters (spelling) and wrote the entire sentence. Understanding grammar also helps you write new kinds of sentences that are more effective and more persuasive.

adverb) They will fast to raise money for UNICEF. He ran fast so he wouldn’t be late. (tells about an action. or classifications.. The system of classifying words based on their function is known as the parts of speech. (names a thing.verb) Their fast lasted for three days.noun) . the way it was said (or written) may encourage others to think that the speaker/writer probably doesn’t have much “schooling” or else isn’t very good at expressing him/herself. some people say “He sure done good!” or “He should of went to the dance” or “Hunters didn’t shoot a big amount of deer this year..3 the language.. Unless you correct those errors in grammar.. For example. and your true abilities may go unrecognized.” While the meaning is very clear.. C. This module gives you a chance to find and correct any grammar mistakes you may be making. look at these sentences. Because some words can be used in several different ways. (describes how he ran. you have to look at what a word is doing in a specific sentence before you can classify it (name its part of speech). WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH?• Although English has hundreds of thousands of words. every one can be placed into at least one of eight groups.. For example. The eight parts of speech are noun pronoun verb adjective adverb preposition conjunction interjection Learning about the eight parts of speech will help you understand the grammar explanations of some of the mistakes you make and figure out how to correct them. you may be unfairly judged.

places and things are called nouns. NOUNS• Words that name people. One way to find nouns is to look for the little words a. and most sentences contain several nouns. II THE BASICS OF PARTS OF SPEECH• A. The following table lists a variety of nouns. Paul is a noun that names a person. Paul and his children visited the continent of Africa and saw some lions. Children name people continent names a thing Africa names a place lions names a thing. but it functions differently in each sentence. the. EXAMPLES OF NOUNS PEOPLE PLACES: THINGS: ANIMALS: OBJECTS: SUBSTANCES: ACTIONS: MEASURES: QUALITIES: cashier province cat fork iron (a) race kilogram happiness Carol New Brunswick Dalmatian television air (the) dance centimetre honesty boys lake bug car gold (the) hits day beauty Nouns can be found anywhere in a sentence. but you can usually insert them without changing the meaning of the sentence. The naming word that comes after them is probably a noun.4 The word “fast” is spelled the same. Sometimes nouns appear without these little words. an. Can you find 10 nouns in this picture? .

PRONOUNS• Pronouns refer to and replace nouns (the names of people. and things) that have already been mentioned. The candy that we gave them was made last year. and this are pronouns. or that the speaker/writer assumes are understood by the listener/reader. B. “I want you to read this again. reader. Paul and his sister went to the zoo to see the elephants. For example. (e.5 Examine the following sentences carefully until you feel satisfied that you can identify the nouns in most sentences. think of a noun it could replace. What did you buy from them? Write a sentence about this picture. . places. Everybody was glad when it was over. For each pronoun printed in bold type.” The words I. and sentence) because the writer’s/speaker’s meaning is obvious Examine the sentences below. She saw it when they bought it. it isn’t necessary to actually see the nouns (writer. and Fredericton is the capital of this province. you. Sometimes people eat more food than their bodies need. Her lawyer bought an old house in Moncton last year. You may also choose to use any of the exercises in the Grammar Practice Booklet to find nouns. Ottawa is the capital of Canada.g. Use pronouns instead of nouns. Sue saw the dog when the boys bought the dog. In this sample sentence. Finish your work before the big game starts on TV. The Smiths lived on a farm until a week ago when the family moved to town. you should do more exercises from other textbooks. French is the first language of some citizens of Ontario. Complete Exercise 1 and 2 in the Grammar Practice Booklet and check your answers in the Answer Key. If you made more than one or two mistakes.

always. 15. 13. please..a group of words that belong together. never. find more exercises either in another text or use other exercises in the Practice Booklet itself. one of the main parts of every sentence. therefore. but the birds ate everything. they are verbs. The word walked became will walk. 14. Here are some sentences that show verbs at work. Verbs usually tell about an action. Verbs are often found in the middle of sentences. Many signed up. Notice that some verbs have more than one word and are sometimes interrupted by small words that are not part of the verb. VERBS• The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb. Verbs may consist of one word. Some of this is important to me When she heard herself on tape she was embarrassed. Here are some hints that may help you locate verbs. 3 Phrase.. . 9.6 It barked loudly and then wagged its tail. 11. Who bought those from you? Fill it up. If you need more practice. Verb phrases can be interrupted by small words like not. We walked to the store yesterday can be changed to show the action happening in the future. 12. 10. Complete Exercise 3 and 4 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. but few were chosen. Verb phrases3 may have up to five words. A sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. We were surprised when they did the laundry themselves. Verbs change their form to tell about actions taking place at different times. We planted them. For example. C. We will walk to the store tomorrow.

My dad thought that he could sell his old car for more. you use nouns like girl. D. The farmer used all the water in his pond. Paul can do anything. She might have been being chased before her car smashed into the bridge. Some special verbs are a little more difficult to find because they do not show any action. Learning to identify verbs takes lots of practice. old. Most students are usually sitting on the steps when the teacher arrives. I have never seen anything like that before. you add “detail” words in front of the noun like little. I am a teacher. Alex and Jim were unhappy with their marks. rich. Sometimes these special verbs are used to show how a person is feeling or to describe a quality. 6. you have found one of these special kinds of verbs. She is beautiful and talented. I have finished the laundry. The dog was chasing its tail. and 7 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. was. Have you written that letter? They had already bought her present. Tracy will be buying her wedding dress in New York. are. Complete Exercises 5. blue. The runner flew down the race track. They were always honest. is. or tree. When you find the words am. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint verbs in most sentences.7 The pitcher threw the ball to the catcher. and were used in a sentence between two nouns. house. To add descriptions to those nouns that give the reader a clearer picture of what you mean. . My sister is a nurse. ADJECTIVES• To talk or write about a person place or thing. our father was a millwright. Words that tell more about nouns or pronouns are called adjectives.

changes. the white. The first sentence does not tell anything about my car. new. stately trees a rich dark chocolate layer cake five huge leafy bushes Here’s another way of thinking of adjectives. “Give this piece of paper to the woman”. To which one should you give the paper? Your boss might have said “the tall woman”. powerful could be added that would further limit the meaning of the word car or tell what kind it is. Therefore. an adjective limits. . Your boss tells you. The second adds the adjective blue. blond woman with the red dress”. The word tall is an adjective and somewhat helpful. Imagine that you are in a large meeting room full of people. changes. carefree child some tall. I have a small dark blue car. The group of words “with the red dress” is also a form of adjective that helps limit the meaning to one particular person. I have a car. Other adjectives like shiny. The third sentence adds even more details. only that I have one. I have a blue car. these adjectives limit the noun woman to one specific person. This descriptive word makes the sentence more interesting and helping the reader “see” your car in his/her mind’s eye. or alters the meaning of another word. or alters the meaning of a noun or pronoun. Adjectives are usually placed before the noun. “the tall.8 An adjective is a word which describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. To which tall women should you give the paper? Perhaps your boss said. The words tall and blond are adjectives that help you pick out a specific woman from a large group. as only six of the women are tall. You will learn about these groups of words later in this module. In other words. cool. The only problem is that there are twenty-three women in the room. A modifier is a word that limits. puffy clouds a happy. The meaning of the word car has been limited from all the cars in the world to only those that are blue. Examine the sample sentences below for a better understanding of adjectives.

so the reader can accurately see the picture you are describing in his/her mind’s eye. those pencils are Ted’s. In the second sentence. This and those are adjectives because they come in front of the nouns book and pencils. those are Ted’s. others called them adjectives. I have a blue car. The nouns they “stand for” or replace were probably mentioned in an earlier sentence. that coat. The words a and the change the meaning of the word car. that modifies the proper noun Chevy. this modifies the proper noun Ford. and those can be used as either adjectives or pronouns. Adjectives also tell how many. these boots. The words this. these. and four children. This book belongs to Pete. an) and definite articles (the). these. that. This and those modify or limit the meaning of the nouns book and pencils. These are demonstrative adjectives. that. Compare these two sentences to clarify the difference between their use as adjectives and pronouns.9 One of the secrets of good writing is to include lots of details (adjectives). This belongs to Pete. Compare the meaning of these two sentences. Words which limit the noun by telling which one or ones are also adjectives. and those. and Ted bought that Chevy. Although some grammar books call them indefinite (a. and those houses. Such adjectives include this. . (pronouns) Pete bought this Ford. I have the blue car. (adjectives) This and those are pronouns in the first sentence because there are no nouns in the sentence for them to modify. as in this car. Either is correct. several candies. as in many people.

few hours. these computers.a. Glass. . and two cities. there are two right answers: noun and/or adjective. and cold day. A good “trick” to remember is that adjectives are almost always placed next to the nouns that they modify. Do you know the value of that school book? In cases like these. or school. an adjective tells which one or ones. new clothes. bad taste. Examine these sentences that demonstrate this use of adjectives. this restaurant. Hang the kitchen clock above the refrigerator. couple of dollars. Used in the following ways. and an. as in those books. kitchen. however. as in old man. Sometimes nouns can be used as adjectives. if you are asked to identify the part of speech for glass. that building. articles are also adjectives . many grammar books call them adjectives: I could see that he had a glass eye. Adjectives are sometimes hard to find. as in many days. an adjective tells how many.10 A REVIEW OF WHAT YOU HAVE READ SO FAR ABOUT ADJECTIVES: L L L L L an adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. an adjective tells what kind. kitchen. The big orange school bus pulled up beside those leafy maple trees. the. and school are usually nouns.

11 Write a sentence or two about this man that clearly describes him to someone who cannot see the picture. . Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you can accurately pinpoint adjectives in most sentences. Underline all the adjectives you used. Complete the Exercises 8 and 9 on adjectives in the Practice Exercise Booklet.

the noun sunset is described as beautiful. Thus very and truly are adverbs modifying the adjective beautiful. you will find out how he is driving. that word is called an adverb. you can add something in front of the adjective. This sentence tells you only that a person is doing an action. 1. Another type of describing word or modifier is the adverb. ADVERBS MODIFY VERBS• He is driving. Beautiful is an adjective modifying the noun sunset. where he is driving. He is driving quickly. ADVERBS MODIFY ADJECTIVES In the following sentence. ADVERBS• You have just learned that adjectives modify nouns and pronouns.12 E. The campers saw a very beautiful sunset. He is driving now. or alter the words they modify. When a word is added that expresses how beautiful the sunset was. If you want to tell how beautiful it was. The campers saw a truly beautiful sunset. How is he driving? Where is he driving? When is he driving? 2. What part of speech is the word beautiful. or when he is driving. Adverbs limit. or to what extent it was beautiful. The campers saw a beautiful sunset. He is driving away. change. If an adverb is added. .

change ll to l *first. . WORDS ENDING IN “LY”• Many adverbs are often made by adding ly to an adjective. The dog ate quickly. The adverb quickly modifies the verb ate and shows how the dog ate. ADJECTIVE bright easy soft full careful quick *first. as follows: How quickly did the dog eat? The dog ate very quickly. extremely somewhat a little completely really tremendously particularly especially perfectly unusually 3. By adding another adverb. ADVERBS MODIFY OTHER ADVERBS Adverbs may also be used to modify other adverbs. change y to i ADD -LY brightly easily softly fully carefully quickly ADVERB * Check the dictionary if you are unsure about the correct spelling of any word.13 Here are some of the words that can be used as adverbs in front of adjectives. we can find out how quickly the dog ate.

He will never tell another lie. you learned that some small words can be found in the middle of verb phrases. (adjective) There is a late student. (adverb) It was an early train. (adjective) Penny is a fast driver.can be an adjective to describe a person's health . never as adjectives. The train arrived early. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint adverbs in most sentences. He was always asking questions. I have often wondered about the moon. (adverb) Penny drives fast. 4 usually an adverb . well4 quite very almost always usually often surely not never so (He was so happy. (adjective) Complete Exercises 9 and 10 on adverbs in the Practice Exercise Booklet. The only way to remember these words is to memorize them.) In the section on verb phrases.14 WORDS THAT ARE ALWAYS ADVERBS• Some words can only be used as adverbs. (adverb) A student is late. WORDS THAT MAY BE ADVERBS OR ADJECTIVES A few words can be used as adverbs or adjectives. and late. Three examples of such words are early. A list of these words follows. fast. but they are not verbs. Eric will not shop on Sundays. Those words are adverbs. and learn to recognize them in sentences.

Prepositions and the nouns/pronouns that follow them are always grouped together and treated as a single grammar unit. sometimes called connectives. The girl walked to the building. in what way. called prepositional phrases. Other prepositions show different relationships between the girl walked and the building: Consider these prepositions.15 F. The girl walked beside the building. preposition Time: after Place: under Ownership: of + + + + noun or pronoun the party the table our town = prepositional phrase = (after the party) = (under the table) = (of our town) Prepositions are always the first word in a prepositional phrase. therefore. PREPOSITIONS• Preposition are joining words. Prepositional phrases are used to add more detail to a sentence. The girl walked near the building. Adverb phrases can also be used to tell how. or ownership relation between two nouns/pronouns or a noun and a verb. telling where she walked. when. place. Where did the girl walk? Perhaps she walked around the building: The girl walked around the building. The following sentence gives no details about the person or her actions: The girl walked. . which are used to show a time. Anything that modifies a verb is an adverb. In each sentence above. The word around is a preposition which tells the relationship between the girl walked and the building. The girl walked into the building. are called prepositional adverb phrases. The girl walked through the building. The girl walked behind the building. the prepositional phrases give more information about the verb “walked” by telling where she walked. these prepositional phrases.

. Because these phrases function as adjectives. The driver in the 96 Ford was responsible. the prepositional phrase adds details about the noun. The sweaters on the shelf match these jeans. Some boxes from Japan were delivered yesterday. The books in that bag are yours. Here are some common prepositions: about above across after against along among at before below beneath beside between beyond by down during except for from in inside into of off on out outside over past since through toward under until up with without within Complete Exercises 10 and 11 on prepositions in the Practice Exercise Booklet. they are called prepositional adjective phrases. In each example above. Find more exercises if necessary and continue to practise until you can accurately pinpoint prepositions and prepositional phrases in most sentences. They rented the house on the corner. The presents under the tree were delivered this morning. The colour of that paint is just right.16 Prepositional phrases can also be used as adjectives to modify a noun or pronoun.

Following are some examples of interjections: Wow! Oh. like prepositions. no! Never! Fantastic! No! Oh! Ouch! Fabulous! Ah! Wow! Do Exercise 12 in the Grammar Practice Booklet. For the purpose of this module. H. you will need to work through Module 6. you can use the elimination method to find conjunctions. 5 . it burned quickly ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ? noun verb adj adj noun pronoun verb adverb The word when looks like it might be an adverb. those that are left over are probably conjunctions. the word itself doesn’t add any new information. Part of the Sentence. It works like this: identify all the words you can in a sentence. but does it tell you at what time? No. Before you can really understand clauses. CONJUNCTIONS• Conjunctions. An interjection is a word or group of words used to express strong feeling. What it does do is introduce a group of words that tells specifically when something happened. are also joining words or connectives. Look at these examples. INTERJECTIONS• Perhaps the easiest part of speech to find is the interjection. When lightning struck the old barn. or clauses5. Conjunctions are used to join words. Clauses are “mini-sentences stuck into ‘real’ sentences” and which need special joining words (conjunctions) to attach them. Unlike all the other parts of speech. It can be an actual word.. the interjection is not linked in any way to any other word in the sentence.17 G. Conjunctions can be found in any position in a sentence except the very end. phrases. or merely a sound and is followed by an exclamation mark (!) or a comma.

what do you think you should do next? Review? Start again? Do more practice work? Go on to the next section? ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ . Complete Exercises 13 and 14 on conjunctions in the Grammar Practice Booklet. ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Based on how you rated your understanding of parts of speech. I am beginning to get the basics of parts of speech. Then complete Review Exercise 15 before you continue with this module. but joins two complete ideas. I am a little confused about parts of speech. And joins two nouns. I am totally lost.18 Joe and Mike followed the young cub. ù ù ù ù verb adv verb pro The words and and but are conjunctions. Evaluate your learning so far! Which statement below best describes you? I understand parts of speech. but they ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ù noun ? noun verb adj adj noun ? pro could not catch it. I can usually identify the parts of speech correctly.

it is called a concrete noun. swiftness. TYPES OF NOUNS Nouns are classified according to their meaning. . dog.19 III A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS Nouns are words that name a person. New Brunswick (the name of a particular province). jury. Examples: honesty. COMMON NOUNS AND PROPER NOUNS• A word which names a person. cloud. When a word names a particular. heard or touched. crowd. house. herd. pride. place. six committees. committee. 2. brain. tasted. height. faith 1. friendship. Proper nouns are always capitalized. Examples: team. Examples:Paul (the name of a particular person ). speed. places and things. Doberman (the name of a particular kind of dog). car. seen. Do Exercise 18 in the Practice Booklet. Nouns like table. or the only. and city. car. Examples: waiter. member of a class or group it is called a proper noun. province. house. place or thing in general is called a common noun. sky are concrete nouns. girl. Do Exercise 16 and 17 in the Practice Booklet. 3. COLLECTIVE NOUNS Collective nouns name groups or collections of people. On the other hand. panel. flock. Example: Six trials are scheduled so the judge called six juries. A. beauty. they are categorized as abstract nouns. or thing in a sentence. if a noun refers to qualities which do not exist in the real world and cannot be felt. audience. and Ottawa (the name of a particular city). CONCRETE NOUNS AND ABSTRACT NOUNS• If a noun names something that can be detected by the five senses. Collective nouns have both singular and plural forms: one committee.

Examples: meat. Some grammar books call these mass nouns as non-count nouns. so he needed a huge amount of grain. and are. The farmer bought a large number of cows. The team is buying new uniforms. chairs. dollars. equipment. furniture. The team are buying new uniforms. timber. land. and there are many different opinions. Here are two examples that illustrate this point. Certain words and phrases are always used with non-count nouns. jewellery. gold. 4. an amount of jewellery (non-count) a number of rings (count) a little meat (non-count) a few steaks (count) some furniture (non-count) several chairs (count) less clothing (non-count) fewer shirts (count) Here are some examples of correct usage. clothing. therefore called count nouns. miles. each juror is acting as an individual. . Mass nouns. The jury is announcing its decision. bracelets. food. everyone agreed on one decision. the first sentence describes a situation where the team has held several fundraisers and the team as a unit will order and pay for the clothes. The jury are stating their opinions. steaks. but refer to non-living things which cannot be counted: They are always used in the singular even though they refer to many items. In the second set of examples. are similar to collective nouns. In the first sentence. money. MASS NOUNS Most nouns refer to things that can be counted like apples. the jury is acting as a single unit.20 Singular collective nouns can have a singular meaning (the group is acting as a single unit) or a plural meaning (the group is acting as individuals). Do Exercise 19. In the second case. however. The second sentence reports that each member of the team will shop for and buy the uniform him/herself.

explains the basic rules and the exceptions for forming plurals. We bought several chairs and some bedroom furniture.21 His construction company owns several graders but only a little excavating equipment. B. or plural. FORMS OF NOUNS Grammar is also the study of the changes in spelling of form that words make as they perform different functions in a sentence. 1. SINGULAR AND PLURAL• Nouns may be singular referring to one. 2. A possessive noun shows ownership. Spelling. Be sure when you write or speak that you use the correct words to go with each type of noun. belonging. POSSESSIVE NOUNS• Common and proper nouns can sometimes be further classified as possessive nouns.and exceptions for the exceptions. My uncle owns a few acres in the country and a little land nearer town. However. or that something is part of something else. Module 4. They are easy to find in a sentence because they always include an apostrophe (’). Libby’s front teeth Eva’s big smile Greg’s tiny nose . Most nouns change their form by adding “s” when they are plural. referring to more than one. there are exceptions to every rule .

be guided by the way you say the word Possessive Form add an apostrophe (') plus s to the noun Examples .Dennis's car . If it follows the plural form of the noun.the Jones' party .men's choir .New Brunswick's art . it shows that several .the ladies’ room .my boss's approval .the neighbour's car . and already has an s at the end add only an apostrophe (') If a noun is plural and does not end in “s” add apostrophe (') s Now examine the following phrases: the boy’s bicycles the boys’ bicycles Which phrase refers to one boy? Which refers to several boys? How can you tell? If the apostrophe follows a singular form of the noun.witnesses' story .witness's description .if a new syllable is formed in the pronunciation of the possessive.oxen's hooves .22 RULES FOR FORMING POSSESSIVE FORMS OF NOUNS Conditions If a noun is singular and does not end in “s” If a noun is singular and ends in “s”.Mary Parsons' garden .John Hastings' store .librarians' club . it indicates that one person owns the item.Phillips' farm .if adding an extra “s” would make the word seem awkward or hard to pronounce. add only an apostrophe If a noun is plural.Gloria's career .the child's toys .children's toys .Doris's store .Jesus' parables .students' lounge .women's wear . add an apostrophe plus “s” .

Which phrase correctly describes the man? the babies’ grandfather the baby’s grandfather How about the picture to the right? Which sentence is the best description of the whole picture? The books’ covers are different colours. It was already plural before the apostrophe was added.23 people own it. The book’s covers are different colours. How many people own the house? The party is going to be at my friends’ house. Now examine these phrases: the lady’s room the ladies’ room Which phrase probably indicates a bedroom? Which likely refers to a washroom? Why? What grammar mistake is almost always made on the doors of public restrooms? Look at the illustration below. Look at the word with the apostrophe. so the house is owned by two or more friends. Babies’ grandfather is correct The books’ covers is correct . Examine these phrases.

it is acceptable to use the possessive form for common expressions referring to time and measurement. The above sentence contains 3 possessives. Here’s an example: Sarah's boyfriend's mother's house is for sale. 23. such as two weeks' vacation five dollars' worth one hour's time Avoid using two or more possessives together in a sentence. Do Exercises 22. Hints for Using Possessive Nouns 1. The possessive form of a noun is rarely used in formal writing with plants and non-living objects. create a rule to explain what you found. Only one is acceptable. and 24 in the Practice Booklet. 4. Mary and Susan’s mother arrived yesterday. Then.” 5. it is better to write "the legs of the table" instead of "the table's legs" or "the leaves of a tree" rather than "the tree's leaves. Examine the following sentence. each one owns a separate thing. Mary’s and Susan’s houses are on the same street. 3. 2. If both nouns are possessive. For example. you use an apostrophe only with the owner who is mentioned last." However. You should have written something like this: “When two or more people “own” something together. . A better version of the sentence would look like this: The house belonging to the mother of Sarah's boyfriend is for sale.24 Pay attention to the position of the apostrophe when you read or write because it gives you important information about who owns the item(s).

Spot likes to play. two brothers. It has a long black tail. Our cat has a long black tail. Everyone in our family loves the cat. and three sisters love our cat. Our cat’s body is mostly white. using pronouns to replace some nouns. We call our cat Spot. Its body is mostly white but its four paws are black. Our cat’s name is Spot. Our cat’s name is Spot. It is black and white. The following paragraph contains no pronouns. Our cat likes to play. It is for you! . and less repetitive. Our cat has four black paws. my father. What’s wrong with this paragraph? How does it sound? Would you want to read a whole book that was written like this? Why not? When the paragraph is rewritten. It purrs a lot. Our cat never scratches. Our cat is black and white. Our cat purrs a lot. it sounds more natural and interesting. TYPES OF PRONOUNS• Pronouns are divided into eight groups depending on their meaning and how they are used in a sentence. My mother.25 IV A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS• Pronouns replace nouns that were mentioned earlier. and it never scratches.

male girl.26 A. woman. their. me. his she. you. mine we. us. actions. ours. the words we. your. them. theirs they. her. us. Person 1st person Singular I. theirs 2nd person you. theirs. man. him. its. you. He. and they are called third person pronouns because the person(s) referred to is not present. ours you. You is classed as second person because the person referred is present. PERSONAL PRONOUNS• Personal pronouns are used frequently in English to make writing and speaking more interesting. and case. The grammar term number means singular or plural. she. my. substances. him. yours he. gender. our. his she. Pronouns are also grouped by person. his. my. hers it. mine Plural we. they. hers it. objects. I and we are first person pronouns and refer to the writer/speaker. them. me. your. she. female plants. they are plural. it. obviously the “most important person(s)” in the message. their. its . yours they. them. her. These Personal Pronouns I. their CAN BE USED IN PLACE OF: your name your name and the names of other people the name of someone else you are addressing boy. our. your. yours 3rd person he. you. it are singular forms. Personal pronouns can be classed by number. and other things you would not refer to as "he" or "she" people Do Exercise 26 in the Practice Booklet. The pronouns I. he. person.

Some of personal pronouns are used to show possession or ownership. you. hers show feminine gender.27 * If the pronoun you is used to refer to one person. mine your. Do Exercise 27 in the Practice Booklet. they. Mary is standing by the door. actor. I want you to be on time. --our. The pronouns he. Case is a term used in grammar to talk about the special forms of pronouns needed when they are used in different places in a sentence. Nouns which name a female person are called feminine: waitress. his show masculine gender. . aviatrix. Grammar: Part 2. The sentence could be rewritten.) The term gender refers to nouns and pronouns. then it is considered singular. and she. (I want you to close the door. ours their. it is considered plural (Class. regardless of gender. Mary is standing by the door. my. ----Read the following sentence which does NOT contain possessive pronouns. theirs whose. In English. That coat belongs to Mary. we. That coat is hers. The pronoun it which shows no gender is called neuter and is used to refer to plants. yours his. you is used to designate a group of people. on the other hand. explains case in greater detail. plural pronouns. hers. aviator. using the possessive pronoun hers to replace the second Mary and the part of the sentence belongs to. animals.) If. his her. Module 6. its. etc. him. That is her coat. and inanimate objects which are singular. are used to replace plural nouns. Nouns which name a male person are called masculine: waiter. her. actress. OR Mary is standing by the door.

You know that does not look right or sound right. An easy way to select the right personal pronoun. but they must be present. we/us. however. you’re. A lot of people have been told if they want a good job they have to stay in school. the pronoun you can also refer to a group of people. (I/me. Here’s another common error in pronoun selection. For instance. using only the pronoun. and they’re are not possessive pronouns. but they should match. . do not match. The sentence should read: My mother and I rushed into the house. The pronouns. 1. Their apartment will be for rent when they’re transferred to Saint John.28 Very important: Possessive pronouns do not need apostrophes because the spelling the word itself shows that it is possessive. she/her. he/him. You’re going to be surprised when you see your new sister. Both pronouns replace People. Of course. PRONOUN SELECTION• What do you think is wrong with the following sentence? People are often told that if they want a good job you have to stay in school. you are. not present at the time of speaking. they are contractions of it is. My mother and me rushed into the house. they/them is to test the pronoun alone. and they are. Me rushed into the house. The words it’s. It should read I rushed into the house. The only pronouns in the sentence are they and you. The pronoun "me" is not correct in the right case. you can test the sentence above by reading it. The people referred to in this sentence are . It’s always funny when the dog chases its tail. Examine these sentences and learn the difference. therefore. The sentence should be corrected. a noun which means a group of people who are not present at the time of speaking.

The next two examples show a very common error. Mr. but it contains a basic grammar mistake that lots of people. You can find the error by imagining that Mr. Smith gave John and I three letters to mail. . Give me them pencils so I can sharpen them. Many people make this mistake. Give me those pencils so I can sharpen them. and 33 in the Practice Booklet. The pronoun them is never used with a noun. but be careful when you are speaking. the pronoun you is the correct choice. Just as in the example above. The pronoun me is the correct form. even well-educated ones. Are yous going to the movie tonight? The error may seem obvious in print. This sentence may look and sound correct. heard often in speech. When speaking to one OR more than one person. Smith gave John and me three letters to mail. Smith gave I three letters to mail. Mr. The correct word to use in this sentence is those. you can hear and see that this is not correct. make. Yous is not a word. and the sentence should be corrected like this.29 It is obvious now that the correct pronoun is “I”. 32. Look at this sentence. Mr. 31. Do Exercises 30. Smith gave to letter to only one person.

Note: When it is impossible to tell whether an employee (mechanic. This means that the pronoun and the word it replaces must match. There are two ways to correct this grammar mistake. the noun Margaret is the antecedent of the pronoun her. This means that the pronoun and its antecedent must match. PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS• Margaret rode her bike to the mall. An antecedent is the noun or nouns a pronoun refers to or replaces. In this sentence.30 2. etc. Is the noun employee singular or plural? Is the pronoun their singular or plural? To make this sentence grammatically correct. teacher. OR An employee must always be ready to give his (or her) best service to each customer. Read this sentence. or make them both singular. employee and the pronoun which replaces it their must agree. What is the antecedent of the possessive pronoun their. person. Make both words plural. An employee must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. it is now considered more appropriate to write the singular form of the sentence this way. The pronoun her replaces the possessive noun Margaret's and refers to the proper noun Margaret at the beginning of the sentence. The noun “Margaret” is the antecedent of the pronoun “her”. in other words. . An employee must always be ready to give his/her best service to each customer. student. Employees must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. The pronoun must agree with the antecedent it replaces. The only reason for knowing about antecedents at this point in the course is to improve your sentence writing.) is male or female. who is supposed to give the best service? The antecedent of their is employee.

They went to Tahiti. The sentence is not clear. Everybody should sit in his or her seat until the plane has stopped. The pronoun everybody is singular. you should read it through just looking for correct agreement of pronouns and their antecedents. Al and Tim actually cleaned his apartment yesterday. Do Exercises 34 and 35 in the Practice Booklet.31 Here is another place where using the right pronoun is essential. the sentence will read Al and Tim actually cleaned their apartment yesterday. it is an called an indefinite pronoun. everybody is a pronoun. Because it does not refer to any particular person or thing. the pronoun his is still incorrect because it has no antecedent. use a singular pronoun like he/his. The pronoun they replaces the antecedents Carla and Jack in the previous sentence. the antecedent does not appear in the same sentence as the pronoun which replaces it. When you proofread your own writing. Sometimes when you are writing a story or an essay. When referring to everybody. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS• In the following sentence. The reader doesn’t know who his refers to because the writer hasn’t mentioned anyone else. Do not use the plural pronouns they/their to . How would you rewrite the sentence if the apartment belonged only to Al? Al and Tim actually cleaned Al’s apartment yesterday. or she/he. The corrected version is Al and Tim actually cleaned Mark’s apartment yesterday. Whose apartment was cleaned? Did it belong to Al? Tim? Al and Tim? or someone else entirely? When the pronoun agrees with its antecedent. Carla and Jack left for vacation yesterday. If the apartment belongs to someone else entirely. B..

few some many . Other singular indefinite pronouns include any anybody anything anyone everyone everything everybody either neither another everything everyone each nobody no one none nothing somebody someone something A few indefinite pronouns are plural.32 replace everybody. The correct version is Correct: Everybody should sit in his/her seat until the plane has stopped. The pronoun they/their is the proper choice for replacing or referring to such indefinite pronouns. Plural indefinite pronouns include: several all both Do Exercise 36 in the Practice Booklet. Incorrect: Everybody should sit in their seat until the plane has stopped. Even though it may sound “right” because you have heard it so often. it is NOT correct.

Take them. the words are not demonstrative pronouns. (Not a demonstrative pronoun) Buy those pork chops. (e. Book is the antecedent of this Eat the pie. Eat those. Pie is the antecedent of that. but I gave those to Mary. use that and those to refer to things that are farther away. (plural) Demonstrative pronouns are used to replace a noun or nouns. Give her the book.(singular) Such horses are hard to find. . Remember to look for the antecedent before you decide that this. Pies is the antecedent of those. Give her the books. and those are demonstrative pronouns. these. that. If you cannot find the antecedent. (A demonstrative pronoun) Do Exercise 37 in the Practice Booklet. Coat and hat are the antecedents of them. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS This very small group of pronouns is extremely useful in making clear sentences. (Not a demonstrative pronoun) I sold some cakes. I know that you are honest. Take his coat and hat. Give her these.g. The word such can be used as either singular or plural. Eat that. Singular this that such Plural these those such Use this and these to point out something close to you. Give her this.33 C. Books is the antecedent of these Eat the pies. Such a horse is hard to find.

Singular reflexive pronouns: myself. In other words. wouldn’t pass judgement on him. there is no such word as “themself”. or I. if someone does something to himself or herself. when you want to point out that you did something all by yourself. Singular emphatic pronouns: myself. Check the dictionary. I fixed the car myself. use the singular form yourself. watch yourselves out there on the field today. herself. itself Plural emphatic pronouns: ourselves. Tammy cut herself on the broken glass. The children frightened themselves with ghost stories. yourselves. yourself. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns are used when the “receiver” of the action is the same person as the “doer”. Can you find the word “themself”? Can you explain why not? E. myself. . themselves Examples: You. I inspected the tree itself before deciding it was dead. yourself. themselves Notice the two different second person forms of the reflexive pronoun. yourselves. If the sentence is directed to one person. They arranged their trip to Toronto themselves. are better able to answer that question. herself. himself. itself Plural reflexive pronouns: ourselves. 6 Some grammar texts call this group “intensive pronouns”. Players. use the plural form yourselves. Although it may sound and look correct. EMPHATIC PRONOUNS Emphatic pronouns6 look exactly like reflexive pronouns but they are used to emphasize a noun or another pronoun. you must be careful not to push yourself too far.34 D. the action is expressed using a reflexive pronoun. but if it refers to a group. himself. you might say. For example. Andy. yourself.

that in many sentences. G. The man who lives there recently walked to Miramichi. Do Exercise 38 in the Practice Booklet. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS• When you ask a question about someone or something. She taught her children to help one another. whom. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns are used to insert special grammar structures called clauses into a basic sentence. whom8 whose. Example: The friends started listening to each other and their relationship improved. The term “clause” really means extra bits of 7 Module 6 explains how to use “who” and “whom” correctly. you often start with an interrogative pronoun. If they are not used to ask a question. H.35 F. which. 8 . Do Exercise 39 in the Practice Booklet. what Example: Who is going to the dance next week? Whom will you ask about the schedule? Which do you like best. We saw the boat which was damaged by the whale. CDs or tapes? What are you going to wear tomorrow? You will see the words who. Interrogative pronouns: who7. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS There are only two reciprocal pronouns: each other. Module 6 explains how to use “who” and “whom” correctly. which. they are not interrogative pronouns. one another.

......... Do Review Exercises 40.. whomever........ Module 6. The teacher whom you met trained in France.....36 information in a sentence.......to refer to people which...... We went to see her favourite movie which was playing in Woodstock....... expressed in a special way..... whom..........to refer to people/things Examples: The man who is wearing the red shirt just robbed the bank...... The driver that stopped didn’t get a ticket.... ......... Parts of the Sentence explains their use in detail... I almost forgot that it was your birthday......... Relative pronouns: who.....to refer to things that......... and 42 in the Practice Booklet........ The driver who didn’t stop got a ticket. whoever.. 41. I saw the television program which was banned in the States....

That accounted for his absence. TYPES OF VERBS• A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being. Make twenty short sentences like the ones above. They realized their mistake. A. He caught the ball easily. Make sure they express a physical action you can actually observe. 1. She thought about what she had done. In fact. They show that something is being done or that something is happening. You can guess the answer? Trish really loves her husband. She drives very carefully when it’s snowing. The rose grew very quickly. Action verbs may also show mental action that cannot be seen or observed. Underline the verbs you used.37 V A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS• The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb. They refer to actions that can be observed with the five senses. Do Exercise 43 in the Practice Booklet. a sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. . David decided to move to Woodstock. one of the main parts of every sentence. ACTION VERBS• Most verbs are action verbs. The horse jumped the fence. such as The children ran after the dog.

We were scared. I am happy. The dog was friendly. the writer’s state of being is as a student. the noun student and the pronoun I refer to the same person. the verb in the third example ate definitely describes an action. Parts of the Sentence presents more information on linking verbs. I am a student. You will be successful. Module 6. You are hungry. This is one way to use a “state of being” or “linking verb. The verb ate is an action verb. not a linking verb. John is tired. Examples of these types of verbs include: I am here. They were unhappy. STATE OF BEING VERBS• A very small number of verbs express a state of being. was were has been will be become (all forms) being be had been will have been seem (all forms) . and the sentence means that “I” = “a student”. In the first sentence the verb am describes the writer’s state of being and “happy” describes how the writer is feeling. He was a good friend. A list of non-action or linking verbs includes LINKING VERBS am is are have been are Compare these sentences. These non-action verbs are sometimes called linking verbs or copula verbs. Sherri is an accountant. In the second sentence. They show that something or somebody exists.38 2. I and apple do not refer to the same thing. On the other hand. As well. I ate the apple. This is the second use of the “state of being” or “linking verb”. In other words.

. The investigator looked carefully at the evidence. Bob smelled the smoke from the forest fire. the verbs you identified consisted of only one word. The sculpture felt smooth.39 A few verbs can be used as either action verbs or linking verbs. or the fact that something has certain qualities. Examine the sentences below where these verbs are used as linking verbs. 45. B. He felt the water before he jumped in. (Notice that you can replace each of these linking verbs with the verb seem or is or become. He walked to school every day. The engineer sounded the locomotive’s horn at the crossing. and 47 in the Practice Booklet. they are consider to be linking verbs. 1. something that can really happen or that is observable. cannot perform the physical action of tasting. therefore. If these same verbs are used to express a state of being. smell grow taste sound feel look If these verbs are used to describe a physical action. The evidence looks convincing in this case. The music sounded perfect in the arena. FORMS OF VERBS• AUXILIARY OR HELPING VERBS• In the previous section. The chili tastes good. Tom grew 3 inches last year. they are considered to be action verbs. 46. Martha tasted the chili. A bowl of chili does not have taste buds or a mouth and. Here are the most common ones. The sky grew dark before the storm.) The smoke smelled stronger now. Do Exercise 44.

A verb can sometimes be made up of more than one word. Sue and Greta were finishing the decorating. I will travel to Halifax on the train. had been am being. however. is being. as in I willed all my property to my children. will can be a main verb. I was eating my dinner. thought. was being. Think about how the auxiliary verbs change the meaning in the sentences below. the word that expresses the action is called the main verb and the other words that tell when the situation took place are called auxiliary verbs. When will comes before a main verb. has have had would could should may might must can am is are was were has have had shall will do does did have been. Within a verb phrase. were.40 My Aunt Teresa feels sick. it is a helping or auxiliary verb.) Here are some other words that can be used as helping or auxiliary verbs. When you called. have. has been. will. I had eaten my dinner. called a verb phrase. We have thought about a vacation this winter. and did are helping or auxiliary verb. Travel. were being . I am eating my dinner now. Before calling. and write are the main verbs. I will have eaten my dinner by 6 o’clock. are being. I will eat all the cookies before the sale. Sometimes. finishing. Did you write that poem? In the above sentences.

called PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERB. 2. VERB TENSES• Verbs are the most important part of the sentence. before today. Every verb has FOUR main forms. as well as what will happen after today. in the present. In fact. I have never driven in a big city before. in the future. in the past.. we need to use different forms of verbs. In some sentences. . some sentences have more than one helping or auxiliary verb. but which are never part of the verb phrase. past. The main verb is saved. Saved is the main verb. should and have are the auxiliary verbs.m. The word enough is not a verb nor an auxiliary verb. the new engine will have been being tested for 57 hours. Although rare. Here is a list of some of words that you may find in the middle of a verb phrase. sometimes with the help of auxiliary verbs. Verbs express states of being or things happening today. Both will and have are auxiliary verbs. not never scarcely always usually sometimes please enough hardly almost just Do Exercise 48 in the Practice Booklet. I should have enough saved by Christmas to buy a special gift. Here tested is the main verb. In order to talk about the present. the main verb is separated from the auxiliary verb or verbs by other “non-verb”words.41 As you have just seen. it is possible to have as many as four helpers in one verb phrase. At 5:00 p. and will have been being are the auxiliary verbs. and future. you cannot have a sentence without a verb. I will have saved enough money by Christmas.

. simple tenses perfect tenses progressive tenses perfect progressive tenses 9 This form becomes “walks”. Decide when the action in each of these verbs took place: past.42 PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE VERB I PRESENT walk9 carry bring sing hit do am. were had III PAST PARTICIPLE walked carried brought sung hit done been had IV PRESENT PARTICIPLE walking carrying bringing singing hitting doing being having We use these forms of verbs to write and talk about things that happen at different times: past.the auxiliary helps indicate the time Although English has many verb tenses. this module explains four common tenses. 3. “carries”. and future. present. the present or the future. . The children will be hearing the story. How can you tell? 1. The children are reading the story. etc. 2. are. “brings”. is has. 1. The children had heard the story. Future. in the third person singular.. have II PAST walked carried brought sang hit did was. Past 2. Present 3.

43 a. completed. or is about to be. It is built using . present and future) are used to express a single action which has been.past Column I . from Column II. present and future. but the correct written form uses “shall” in the first person. from Column I. You (plural) will write that test. Perfect Tenses The three forms of the perfect tense (past. Simple present He walks to school. I and we. Simple past I walked to the store today. SUMMARY OF SIMPLE TENSES TENSE Simple past Simple present Simple future AUXILIARY none none will or shall PRINCIPAL PART Column II . Notice that the future tense always contains an extra word: shall or will. I shall walk to the store. He will talk to them They will attend the lecture. We shall walk home You (singular-one person) will sing a song. Simple Verb Tenses• These verb tenses are used to express actions in their simplest form. To create this tense use the second principal part of the verb. he walks They will publish b. To create this tense use the first principal part of the verb. It will be here. will in the second and third person. The perfect tenses are often used to show which of two actions happened first. She will make the cake.present Column I . Simple future They will walk to the movies tomorrow. “will” is almost always used when speaking about the future. Today. There are three forms of the simple tense: past. To create this tense use shall or will as auxiliaries along with the first principal part of the verb from Column I.present EXAMPLE I walked I walk.

The future perfect uses the future form of the verb to have (shall have or will have). but it is clear that the boat launching will definitely take place before the arrival of the storm. it uses had. had. .I had answered your letter before you called me. the past form of to have as its auxiliary.) Past perfect . I have completed my assignment. Because this is the past perfect. He has finished his work. Here the time frame is a little more difficult to see. this present perfect verb tense tells about actions that happened in the past. Present perfect - . The third form of the perfect tense is the future perfect.He will have launched the boat before the storm hits. but also notice that the answering took place before the calling. Here all the action definitely takes place in the future. but see how one action (launching and showering) takes place closer to the present than the other. Future perfect . Despite its name. The truck has delivered the load of topsoil. Compare the two sentences below to understand the difference in meaning between the two tenses. It is easy to see that the action happened in the past. I shall have showered before you arrive. but the actions happened more recently (closer to the present) than if the past perfect tense were used. have.44 some form of the auxiliary to have (has.Past Perfect Which action happened farthest in the past? Which action happened most recently? You can see that the present perfect refers to action that happened more recently.Present Perfect The truck had delivered the washing machine. shall will have) plus the past participle (Examples of past participles are shown in Column III of the chart called Principal Parts of the Verb. .

were. they will be selling only new computers. and the auxiliary is the present form of the verb to be (am. Notice how the action of washing dishes takes place over a period of time.past participle EXAMPLE We had walked He has sung I shall have done c. are.past participle Column III.45 SUMMARY OF PERFECT TENSES TENSE Past perfect Present perfect Future perfect AUXILIARY had has. Future progressive: Eventually. Past progressive: Gilda was washing the dishes when he arrived. Progressive Tenses The progressive tenses also describe actions in the past. were) plus the present participle from Column IV (washing). the action described in this sentence will be taking place over a period of time. present and future. the action of “watching” takes place over a period of time. This tense is constructed by using the past form of the verb to be (was. This tense is constructed by using some form of the verb to be (am. will be) plus the present participle from Column IV in the chart. Here. are.past participle Column III. was. have will have. When you want to describe actions that continued over a period of time. The future form of to be (will be. Present progressive: The children are watching a puppet show. is) plus the present participle form from Column IV (watching). shall have PRINCIPAL PART Column III. . you use one of the progressive tenses. shall be. too. In this case. is. shall be) acts as the auxiliary along with the present participle from Column IV (selling). at sometime in the future.

.had answered 2..46 SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES TENSE Past Progressive AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART was.. As a final check.......... d. shall be Perfect Progressive Tenses The perfect progressive tenses are a combination of the perfect tense and the progressive tense. Future Perfect Progressive: I shall have been watching TV for hours by then. Which tenses use the auxiliary to have?. The verb phrase had answered is in the past perfect tense... They will have been driving for sixty hours when they arrive.... Try this one yourself.. Sheila had answered all their questions. are..had is in the past form....the perfect tenses 4....... Is the auxiliary in the past..... were EXAMPLE Column IV-present participle He was eating Column IV-present participle You are eating Column IV-present participle We will be doing Present Progressive am... The students will be walking to school from now on.. 1.... Begin by identifying the whole verb phrase. is Future Progressive will be.. My sisters had been discussing my birthday party. Is it in the form of a past participle (Column III)? Yes. He has been saving his money to buy a car.. this is truly an example of a past perfect tense.. ........ present or future. RECOGNIZING VERB TENSES The key to naming verb tenses lies in recognizing the auxiliary verb and the principal part of the main verb it uses.. The main verb in the perfect progressive tenses is taken from Column IV.... Past Perfect Progressive: This man had been asking too many questions. Perfect progressive tenses are created by using forms of both to have and to be as auxiliaries.... Present Perfect Progressive: My groceries have been costing too much lately. the present participle. look at the main verb.. Identify the auxiliary.. Here the auxiliary is had from the verb to have 3. Then.

47 Identify the verb phrase will be walking Identify the auxiliary verb will be This comes from to be Tense is progressive What form? will is future The verb tense is future progressive Remember one of the best reasons for learning about verb tenses is so that you will recognize the complete verb phrase in a sentence. . is. have shall/will have was. are shall/will be had been has/have been will have been PRINCIPA EXAMPLE L PART Column II Column I Column I Column III Column III Column III Column IV Column IV Column IV Column IV Column IV Column IV I walked He sings They will sing We had hit She has carried I shall have rung He was hearing You are finding She will be fitting I had been sitting He has been filling We will have been biting Do Exercises 49 and 50 in the Practice Booklet. but you learn them later. The following chart is a combination of all the summary charts dealing with verb tenses. and choose the correct form when writing. SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES TENSE Simple Past Simple Present Simple Future Past Perfect Present Perfect Future Perfect Past Progressive Present Progressive Future Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Present Perfect Progressive Future Perfect Progressive AUXILIARY none none shall or will had has. were am. There are other tenses.

the dictionary gives its principal parts right after the “entry word”. just use the dictionary. If there are no words written in bold type. The next chart lists a few of these irregular verbs. These verbs are called irregular verbs.”ing” or “ed” to form its principal parts. some verbs form their principal parts by changing their spelling. Look up the verb. IRREGULAR VERBS PRESENT throw feel spring ring drink bring burst eat rise raised swim cut PAST threw felt sprang rang drank brought burst ate rose raised swam cut PAST PARTICIPLE thrown felt sprung rung drunk brought burst eaten risen raised swum cut lain laid lie (to recline) lay lay (to place) laid Do Exercise 51 in the Practice Booklet. it is a regular verb and all you need to do is add “s”. . If it is an irregular verb.48 IRREGULAR VERB• As you may have noticed. If you are unsure about the correct form of a verb.

If you can’t find a “by” phrase.M. (by me). The truck was hit by the VIA train on a stormy night. The candles were melted. Think about how you report bad news.(by me). Often it is phrased in the passive..) .. I had an accident and the fender was crumpled. The truck was hit on a stormy night. Read the sentence and see if you can find a phrase that starts with “by. For example.. which of the three sentences above would you write? The one which “downplays” the railway’s responsibility is The truck was hit on a stormy night.someone/something”. Verbs when used in the active voice look like this in a sentence. When you hear or read a sentence. “Good writing” generally avoids the passive voice because it takes away from and weakens the message. That house was designed by a famous architect. Here’s an easy way to find passive verbs. try to insert one of your own. you naturally place the most importance on the thing you hear first. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE A final way to categorize verbs is as active voice or passive voice. Kids are really good at using the passive to avoid responsibility.. In this case. so in this example. Many beginning writers use a lot of passive voice verbs in their writing. If you can. the VIA train has the strongest focus. On the other hand. (by whom? by what?. The VIA train hit the truck at 7:43 P.by the heat. the focus is now centred on the truck because it is mentioned first.. the verb is probably passive.. if you worked for VIA and were afraid that the company might be sued for negligence. In sentences using active voice. the person or thing that did the action is usually mentioned first and the thing that received the action is mentioned last.. sentences that use verbs in the passive voice look like this. My report card got lost. on a stormy night. There are only a few occasions when the passive voice is useful. One of them is to reduce someone’s or something’s responsibility for an action.49 3. based on s sentence structure and meaning. The effect of using a passive voice is to “downplay” the “doer” of the action.

you should always read it through just looking for passives.. Finish the story in 5 or 6 more sentences. 53. Passive verbs make your message weak and ineffective. At the party. restructure the sentences to place the “doer” of the action at the beginning of the sentence. putting the “doer” at the beginning.. Complete Review Exercises 55.. At the party. she still grabbed Clark’s arm and . For example. Make sure your story uses only active verbs. and 60 in the Practice Booklet.. A vicious dog bit Mark. CDs were played and local news discussed. When you proofread your work. the guests played CDs and discussed local news. if you find a sentence that looks like this Mark was bitten by a vicious dog. This would be more effective if the verbs were in the active voice. 56.. 59.. Although Lois could barely keep up. When you find them.50 It is important to know how to reduce the number of passive verbs you use in your writing. Do Exercises 52. 57. How many verbs did you use? What tenses did you use? Proofread your story and look for passive verbs. and 54 in the Practice Booklet. 58. .. you should rewrite it.

A sentence with a linking verb uses adjectives like this: The trees were tall and stately. The boys will be hungry. . angry are all adjectives. The words tall. Adjectives are usually placed BEFORE the nouns or pronouns they modify. white. The clouds. They became nervous when they heard the thunder. The tourists are American. is the best thing a mother can think of. The trees. Writers choose to place the adjectives after the noun to get a special effect. However. busy and happy. Max was late again today. The counsellors were very angry.51 VI A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES• Adjectives are describing words which add details about the nouns in a sentence. The clouds were white and puffy. I am happy about winning the lottery. Do Exercises 61 and 62 in the Practice Booklet. huddled in the ambulance. The man with the umbrella stood in the rain. These are a special kind of adjective called a predicate adjective. adjectives can occasionally be found AFTER nouns and pronouns. Here are some more examples of adjectives used with linking verbs. It seems to be injured. The book is heavy. Adjectives which follow a noun are always surrounded by commas. They are placed after the linking verb and give more information about the person or thing which comes before the verb. tall and leafy. A child. stately. puffy and white. puffy. lined the driveway. The survivors. sailed across the autumn sky. happy. pale and fearful. I am frustrated with my son's behaviour. You will learn more about these predicate adjectives in Module 6.

use the adjective good because it modifies a noun and tells more about the noun answer. and 65 in the Practice Booklet. bright: This light is brighter than that one.52 VII A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS Adverbs are describing words which add details to the sentence by modifying verbs. He answered the question well. When comparing two things. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS• The word good is an adjective and the word well is almost always used as an adverb. COMPARISONS USING MODIFIERS• Sometimes a sentence compares two or more things. Review the section on adverbs on page 10 at the beginning of this module before continuing. How are you? I am well. Practice is the best way to master adverbs and adjectives. and other adverbs. you use the word more in front of the adjective or adverb instead of adding “er”. add “er” to most modifiers. comfortable: This chair is more comfortable than mine. Do Exercises 63. . To use them properly. Well is usually an adverb. He wrote a good answer. adjectives. If the sentence sounds awkward. nice: This sweater is nicer than my red sweater. In this sentence. Exception: The word well can be used as an adjective when used in relation to how someone feels. Adverbs often end in “ly”. either adjective or adverb. you must know which part of speech is needed in the sentence you are creating: an adverb or an adjective. Using the “wrong” modifiers is a common mistakes both in speaking and writing. well modifies the verb answered and that tells how the questions was answered. Or I feel well. quick: The spaniel is the quicker of my two dogs. 64. In the sentence below.

Examples of other irregular modifiers follow. Some of the rules change when comparing more than two things. It is not correct to say gooder. Do not add “est” to adverbs ending in “ly”. add “est”. more than two things are compared. Chop the pepper more finely than the onions. such as the adjectives beautiful and gorgeous. They left sooner than we did. the suffix “er” is not added to ANY modifier with more than one syllable. goodest. DO NOT add “er” to adverbs ending in “ly”. IRREGULAR COMPARISONS• Some words do not form comparisons simply by adding “er”. kind: My math teacher is the kindest I have ever had. These words actually change their form. carefully: Barbara drives more carefully than Pat. bravely: He acted more bravely than this brother. beautiful: Today’s sunset is more beautiful than yesterday's. sickly: Tom is the most sickly guy I have ever met. or by using more or most. When comparing two things. peaceful: The time I spend at the lake are the most peaceful hours of my day.53 fast: soon: He walked faster than I did. Vanilla ice cream tastes good. . Instead of adding “er”. strawberry tastes better. Use the word more in front of the adverb instead. finely: Usually. Often. but chocolate tastes the best of all. or more good. “est”. fast: He always drives fastest at night. quietly: Of the four. and use most with modifiers of more than one syllable. nice: Our view is the nicest of all the ones on this street. this car's motor runs most quietly.

. further COMPARING THREE OR MORE Least Most Most Best Worst Farthest. badly Far COMPARING TWO Less More More Better Worst Farther. These words are called absolute adjectives . some Well Bad. An answer on a test is either correct. because of their meaning. furthest ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES Still other words cannot be used in comparisons. correct and dead. It cannot be less dead or more dead. It cannot be more correct. or correcter. or not correct. it is dead. If something is dead.54 SINGLE FORM Little Many Much.words such as.

therefore the correct version is He is really happy. an adjective. or another adverb. . The correct adverb is really. Happy is an adjective and needs an adverb to modify it. use an adverb. He is real happy is incorrect. some writers make mistakes because they can’t decide whether to use an adjective or an adverb. Do Exercise 66 in the Practice Booklet. If the word modifies a verb. It is no different than distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs at any other time.55 EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES complete conclusive eternal final immaculate level perfect perpendicular perpetual right round spotless square supreme unanimous unique CHOOSING THE CORRECT MODIFIER• When making comparisons. If the word modifies a noun or a pronoun. an adjective is necessary.

you. at Superior School. where. Compound prepositions. Always use the personal pronouns me. consist of two or more words which are treated as a single unit. Example: They were standing in the middle of the football field. in front of the house by means of a tow rope on top of the hill in addition to their good health ahead of everyone in spite of his good intentions except for my sister out of kindness as far as the gas station These prepositional phrases can be used as adjectives that modify a noun/pronoun or as adverbs that modify a verb. Review the list of prepositions on page 13 of this module before continuing.56 VIII A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS• Prepositions are little words that show the relationship between nouns/pronouns or tell when. Do Exercise 67 and 68 in the Practice Booklet. Some grammar textbooks list prepositions in two categories: simple and compound. in the middle of is the preposition in the middle of the football field is the complete phrase Here is a list of some compound prepositions. them after a preposition. him. with her The underlined nouns or pronouns are called the object of the preposition. sometimes called complex prepositions. us. her. Prepositions are also sometimes called connectives because their function in a sentence is to connect the modifier with the thing it modifies. how the action in a verb took place. . to the library. The students at Superior School went to the library with her. after the accident = prepositional phrase ù ù preposition + noun The noun or pronoun which completes the prepositional phrase is called the object of the preposition. Prepositions are always part of a group of words called a prepositional phrase. There are three prepositional phrases in the sentence below. it.

but they are always used in pairs. 2 adverbs) The girls sang. 2 verbs) After the hike and before dinner. . B. so they cancelled the outing. phrases or clauses. and so on. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS This small group of joining words are similar to co-ordinate conjunctions. not only/but also Example: Harold was not only late. for she had no money. yet he never carries a map. (2 adjectives. A conjunction may join words. (2 ideas) He always gets lost. but also at the wrong address. CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS• Co-ordinate conjunctions join words that are the same part of speech: a noun with a noun. they peeled vegetables and told stories. (2 ideas) It rained. an adjective with an adjective. (2 ideas) She couldn’t attend school. or you can make a speech. (2 ideas) I can’t finish this dessert. and the boys danced. The cat and the dog always eat and sleep together (2 nouns. nor* can I drink my coffee. (2 prepositional phrases. (2 complete ideas) I want to go.recognition only) Conjunctions are also joining words and are sometimes called connectives. 2 verbs) The young and restless children ran quickly and effortlessly. There are only seven coordinate conjunctions: and for but yet or so nor Some people use the mnemonic FANBOYS to remember them. TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS• A.57 IX A CLOSER LOOK AT CONJUNCTIONS (BAU. but I can’t find the time. (2 ideas) You can write a report. (2 ideas) * Notice how the word order changes when this conjunction is used.

A writer might choose to say Lightning struck the old farmhouse. Although these could be two unconnected events.58 Example: neither/nor Harold was neither on time. either/or Harold was either late. it burned to the ground. therefore moreover thus consequently as a result however nevertheless hence otherwise besides anyway instead meanwhile furthermore still If these words do not join two complete ideas. in this case. Do Exercise 69 in the Practice Booklet before continuing. Lightning struck the old farmhouse. place a semicolon in front of it and a comma after it. We did. Lightning struck the old farmhouse. The old farmhouse burned to the ground. the house burned down because it was struck by lightning. they are adverbs. therefore. consequently. Compare It snowed last night. whether/or I don't care whether Harold gets here or not. Here is a list of some common conjunctive adverbs. Example: Example: Example: C. call them to explain. . or lost. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Conjunctive adverbs are used to join two complete sentences that are very closely related in meaning. nor at the right address. both/and Both Harold and Steve arrived two hours late. therefore. When a conjunctive adverb is used to join two complete sentences. it burned to the ground. we didn’t go. however.

Since she got that job. These are called subordinate conjunctions. Module 6 explains this in more detail. We stopped at the grocery store after we bought gas. The truck drivers stopped carefully. Look at the following sentences and decide which contain subordinate conjunctions and which have prepositions. Although she was confused. She was confused. As soon as you can. after* since * whether although while where as than* why as if though when because unless how before* until* even if if The words with an asterisk (*) may sometimes be used as prepositions. she didn’t ask any questions. . she hasn’t been able to go to school. She didn’t ask any questions. D. I would start studying now. Module 6. I will be able to come sometime. Here are some examples of other subordinate conjunctions at work. You must look at the sentence carefully to determine whether these words are used as prepositions or conjunctions. make sure Mark is alright. Parts of the Sentence gives more details on identifying subordinate conjunctions. If the word is a preposition it will be followed by only a noun or pronoun. I am not sure when I will be able to come. If I were you. Here are some common subordinate conjunctions. You won’t be able to write your GED unless you sign up now. Notice that every sentence that contains a subordinate conjunction has at least two complete verb phrases. Her boyfriend will do whatever she asks. The road was slippery. If it is a subordinate conjunction it will be followed by a noun and a verb. The truck drivers stopped carefully because the road was slippery. They are used to join two ideas which otherwise would require two separate sentences.59 SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS• Another group of words are often used as conjunctions. I am not sure when that time will be.

60

Before the party started, we went to the store. Before the game, they bought popcorn and a drink. Because she lost her wallet, she couldn’t go to the concert. Because of her loss, she was unable to afford the plane ticket. Since I won the lottery, I decided to buy a new car. Since the election, the politicians have stayed in Fredericton. The best way to learn how to identify conjunctions is to practise. Do Practice Exercise 70 in the Practice Booklet. E. RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Relative pronouns, which you learned in the pronoun section, are also used as conjunctions. These words are relative pronouns: who, whom, which, that, whomever, whichever. Do not confuse them with interrogative pronouns, used to start a question or pronouns. Example: That club always has good entertainment. (Demonstrative adjective) That is a good idea! (Demonstrative pronoun) Ivan said that he will be working. (Relative pronoun) What did you say? (Interrogative pronoun) They guessed what I was giving them for Christmas. (Relative pronoun) Who is the designated driver? (Interrogative pronoun) The driver who was hired last week was laid off. (Relative pronoun) Most students need more practice identifying prepositions and conjunctions than can be provided in any one textbook. All grammar books contain exercises suitable for extra practice. It is the student’s responsibility to decided when he/she needs extra work and to locate the practice exercises he/she needs. The instructor may suggest sources for supplementary work. You can practice identifying parts of speech using sentences from the newspaper or magazines. You can write your own or trade with a class mate. As well, any of the exercises in the Practice Exercises Booklet may be used to practice identifying parts of speech. Do Exercise 71 in the Practice Booklet.

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X

INTERJECTIONS• Interjections are the eighth and final part of speech. Interjections are exclamations and may be followed by an exclamation point (!) or a comma. They are straightforward and simple to use because they are not related to any other word in the sentence. Whew! Ouch! Oh! My goodness! Eek! Yuck! Wow, did you see The Grateful Dead concert. Boy, that was a funny episode with Robin Williams. Do Exercise 72 in the Practice Booklet.

Wow! Yikes! Yippee! Hey! I just won the lottery!

62

XI

SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES•

Boy, it is some cold today! Boy, it is very cold today. Boy, it is real cold today! Boy, it is really cold today. Some is a pronoun or and adjective and cannot modify an adjective. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective cold and show how cold it is. Use very cold. If he had went home sooner, he wouldn’t have missed dinner. If he had gone home sooner, he wouldn’t have missed dinner. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. The verb phrase had went is meant to be in the past perfect tense. The past perfect is constructed using the past participle from Column III, not the past form from Column II. Use had gone. I done well on that test. I did well on that test. The form of the verb tense is incorrect. This sentence requires the simple past tense which created using the form from Column II. Done is the past participle form taken from Column III. Use the simple past form did. The pictures should of been ready by now. The pictures should have been ready by now. The verb phrase is incorrect. Of is a preposition and does not belong in a verb phrase. This verb phrase requires the auxiliary have. I ain’t finished yet. I’m not finished yet. There is no such word as ain’t anymore. Bob said, “Very best, I’ll go with you next week”. Bob said, “Of course, I’ll go with you next week. English does not include the phrase very best. It is a translation of the French très bien and does not belong in a correct English sentence. Use a phrase like Of course. Fran had did her best on that test. Fran did her best on that test. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. The verb phrase had did is meant to be in the simple past tense. The simple past is constructed using the principal part of verb from Column II. Use did.

Sure is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective late. the correct form of the word is taller. CONCLUSION Getting rid of all the grammar mistakes in your writing and speaking will help you progress more quickly. therefore. “Unlearning” something you have said all your life is not easy. learning about parts of the sentence will be much easier. Do another self-evaluation? What do you think you should do next? Review? Write a pre-test? Find more practice exercises? . only two things are being compared. He is the tallest of my two boys. Keep a section of your notebook for the explanations and corrections of your personal grammar problems that is set up like the one above. A final word of advice before you move on to Module 6. The officer who stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. He is sure late with his payment this month.63 Polly was real pleased with her new dress. The word tallest is used to compare more than two things. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective late and show how late he was. Real is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective. If you understand parts of speech well. The officer is obviously a person. The relative pronoun which can only be used to refer to things. Polly was really pleased with her new dress. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective pleased and show how pleased Polly was. Start by identifying the kinds of mistakes you make without realizing it. Use really pleased. Use certainly late. He is the taller of my two boys. Parts of the Sentence. so the correct pronoun is either who or that. or very late. Be sure that you are comfortable with the parts of speech and can accurately identify them at least 80% of the time. really late. In this sentence. The officer which stopped me for speeding gave me a warning.

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ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH

Supplementary Exercises

GRAMMAR: PART I
Parts of Speech

FALL 1998

8. Write 10 sentences of your own. 1. and lobster. we saw the Northumberland Strait. 5. clams. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the nouns. Penguins live near the South Pole. 7. and the clouds were beautiful. 2. 6. My daughter sold her computer to a friend. their catch is usually large. Give everybody something to eat before they leave. If the weather is good. . So much snow covered the roads. 9. 2. Many retired couples move to Florida where the weather is warmer. 1. From the top of a small hill. After she cut herself. the little boats began to appear. Exercise 2: Nouns A. many husbands and wives were separated. The dog chased the cat under the porch. The passengers on the ship witnessed the collision with the iceberg. 10. Storms make life on the water dangerous. Shediac is closer to the Confederation Bridge than Riverview is. The Titanic sank in a few hours. 3. and then underline all the pronouns you can find in this exercise. Check your answers in the answer key. but few stayed long.1 Exercise 1: Nouns Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline all the nouns you can find. the fishermen return to their harbours for the night. 4. 2. 1. 3. 9. scallops. When their boats are full. Many of them came. Then. What did you bring with you? 4. Muffins made with blueberries are delicious. that even truck drivers pulled into motels. 5. canneries prepare seafood for shipment to Japan. The ocean was calm. but these birds aren’t bothered by the cold. 10. 4. she went for a tetanus shot. In small villages. Exercise 3: Pronouns Copy these sentences into your notebook. 8. Local markets are full of mussels. Did they teach themselves how to speak German? 5. 7. Robert drove his car to Saint John and shopped for a new truck. Many people in this area spend most of their lives on the sea. The fishermen were out checking their traps for lobster. Underline all the nouns you used. 3. 6. B.

7. but these are pink. He dreamed about his recent accident. The robin perched on a lower branch. 4. His parents thought about him every day. Exercise 5: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. She never gave them any of it. They told about the hardships we survived. 10. We always welcome suggestions. None of us was frightened by that. Mine was destroyed by the flood.2 6. The lions slept in the sun for hours. 10. 8. What did you give him and his wife for Christmas? 6. Exercise 4: Pronouns A. but the insurance covered it. The New Brunswick flag cost five dollars. Give me some! 9. Exercise 6: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. 9. All of those are expensive. 7. This belongs to her. Who likes chocolate? The stones on the beach were green. Phillip called to tell them about that. Who told us that no one would be at the mall? 2. 4. 8. She often rode the bus home at night. Underline all the pronouns you used. He gave her several bottles of this. B. Melissa always walks to work in the morning. 10. 7. John ate his lunch slowly. 1. 3. . 8. 3. 5. 6. 1. Write 10 sentences of your own. 2. 9. 5. 2. Sue sat on the bench as we were jogging through the park. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the pronouns. The pitcher threw the ball. The Christmas tree looked beautiful. Many told about the kindness of strangers. 1. Seagulls flew lazily in the light breeze.

6. They are calling it the storm of the century. 2. These apples are juicy and red. Exercise 8: Adjectives A. B. Since his accident. Finally. 6. The dark brown painted dripped on the new white carpet. 9. 8. 10. We hope that we will not have another ice storm this year. Six delicious cookies were cooling on the rack. 5. Only a few people could stay in their houses without electricity. 7. After three days. Heavy icy was still bringing down many power lines. 3. nine miles from Minto. 8. You will never guess the answer. Exercise 7: Verbs A. 5. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. A beautiful red rose bloomed in a quiet corner of that flower garden. After work. Everyone wants a lucky lottery ticket. 4. 9. the dealer agreed to our price. B. Rewrite it using enough adjectives . 7. Write a paragraph about an exciting event.3 3. or have you finished it? Lucy will send you her new address. The old curtains were torn and faded. 4. 1. Use the paragraph you wrote in Exercise 7B. 7. Underline all the verbs you used. Are you reading that magazine. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adjectives 1. The long summer months are usually hot and dry. People from nearby communities brought many loads of firewood. Soon. 5. He was enjoying a ham and cheese sandwich. life was returning to normal. They used paper plates for the annual picnic. 10. 8. food became scarce. and they flapped in the light breeze. We learned about the effects of the storm from Norma. we decided on a movie. 4. they arrived at the train station. The hockey arena is located on Water Street beside the steel mill. Many branches had been broken by the wind. he has been driving more carefully. 3. 9. The little girl ran along the dusty road. 6. Volunteers arrived with emergency supplies. 2. 10. After a few hours.

5. 5. The weather turned really hot at the beach during this last week. Rick gave his girlfriend an extremely expensive gift. Politely. She placed the crystal vase carefully on the table. 3. They finished their work surprisingly quickly. Kate is a truly courageous woman. 2. The colour of her dress was really flattering. the strikers blocked the driveway effectively 7. Computers are relatively new devices. 2. she wrote the very last sentence correctly.4 to make your reader see the scene clearly. Exercise 9: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. 6. Generally. They arrived early for class. 9. 2. Many businesses use them daily. 7. he asked for a second helping. Many people have never used a computer. She hid the presents behind the desk and under the stairs. They produce statistics quickly and accurately. 3. Finally. You cannot drive there! 5. Can you come soon? 3. 8. 1. Exercise 11: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the prepositions. Paula walked through the park and then turned towards home. 10. Put your coats on the bed in the guest room. they are quite easy to use. 8. 1. Today. very fast computers are needed. 1. Yesterday. The bus will arrive here at noon tomorrow. 6. Draw a circle around the nouns or pronouns that complete the prepositional phrase. 10. 9. . The books on airplanes were placed beside those on trains. 4. Exercise 10: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. The baby has been very cranky lately. 4. Underline the adjectives you used. She smiled brightly and said that she was really sorry. 4.

circle the nouns/pronouns that complete them. 7. 4. Exercise 12: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook. 1. The time of day doesn’t matter. or groups of words (phrases). many of the survivors have received cash settlements. It was a life and death situation. 5. 8. The mine owners from Germany sold all of it to them. Then indicate whether they are joining words. Exercise 14: Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook. Apples and oranges are good for you. 6. My aunt in Sackville gave several of the antiques to Gene. 2. No! Don’t touch the brake. The man with the long scarf just robbed the store in the mall. We saw six pheasant on the road to Stanley. 3. Oh no! He lost the puck. 4. 5. None of the items on that page are available until July. 10. 1. Yuck. Ouch! That hurts. Look under the table and in the closet. . 8. 1.5 6. I hate boiled cabbage. The chairs on the porch were painted white. The supervisor questioned the quality of her work. Exercise 13: Interjections Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the interjections. 2. Underline the conjunctions. The sap from maple trees is boiled into a syrup. Wow. 3. most of the money disappeared. Underline the prepositions. The camp beside ours was built in 1966 by John’s brother. Brad Pitt drives a car from Toronto to Los Angeles. A few of our friends from school arrived for supper at Julie’s. 3. In 1992. Since the crash. or complete ideas (clauses). did you see that jet! 2. 7. and then decide whether the prepositional phrase is used as an adjective or an adverb. Guests with tickets entered first. 9. 10. In his new movie. 9.

We jogged quickly through the dark woods. 2. Sheila and he were talking to her when it happened. 7. Although she missed the bus. 10. Carol and I travelled to Alberta last year. she and Lily still arrived on time. Until the snow melts. 10. but the sun was really warm. 9. 8. . 4. The American fishermen caught two salmon for lunch. After we saw a deer. We bought the tickets. 1. We sent you a full and complete refund when you asked for it. 5. we won’t believe it. Our friends in Calgary were surprised when we arrived. We ran home because it was raining. This book cost six dollars. Turn at the lights and go two blocks west. 6. 7. 6. The waiter who served our lunch was really nice but slow. 9. 8. but I couldn’t get a ride. 13. they gave it to the teacher. 4. When they had finished. The tall. 11. 8. Roller blades and skateboards are very popular. She was giving a short but interesting lecture. you should not take your new camera on your trip. 9. I wanted to travel quickly and cheaply. 10. he should go to the doctor. Andy bought it because he liked it yet he never wore it. majestic Rocky Mountains are a truly beautiful sight. CDs are great because they have good quality sound. I saw the nests that the robins built both on the porch and in the tree. 14. 6. We bought a very small quantity of food yesterday. Exercise 16: Review Identify the part of speech of every word in each sentence. 12.6 4. 3. 5. Betty or Fran will bring the books which you wanted. The wind was cold. 7. we can leave so we will be on time. we will have to stay home. Exercise 15 Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the conjunctions. 5. 1. 3. Before he gets sicker. 2. If you are ready. No. Most of the students listened politely. so we went to the concert. we drove to Doaktown. Until we see it. Their house was built in 1990.

Maple syrup is produced in rural areas of North America. Your instructor will correct your work. b. Exercise 19: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Divide the words in this exercise into two lists: concrete nouns and abstract nouns. Place each noun you underlined in the appropriate column. Moonlight flickered on the dried leaves on the path from Black Lake. Create two columns in your notebook: one for common nouns and one for proper nouns. Do most people in Italy read the newspaper on the weekend? English is a language with many exceptions to the rules of grammar. The hockey arena in Beresford is located near the main street. Robin and his family moved to Alberta when the mill closed. Eric and they learned very quickly. Underline all the nouns. Early settlers to the Gaspé came from France and England. Copy the following sentences into your notebook. 4. Bathurst is a small city on the Bay of Chaleur. 1. 2. 7.7 15. The stores on Main Street are planning a large sale and carnival to boost their profits. 9. 8. 6. Marsha sent a parcel to her sister in Regina. 10. c. 5. rose happiness school computer skiing bubbles justice cow truth grace stars fear . Exercise 18: Common and Proper Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. 3. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns a. Underline all the nouns you used and identify each as either a common or proper noun.

2. using apostrophes. A large amount of deer were shot this season. Bobs uncle lives near Sharons farm. Each of the boy’s bicycles was locked. B Reword each of the following phrases. Mary’s house is on the corner of Jones and Water Streets. Rewrite the sentences in your notebook and include apostrophes where necessary. Owen has a great deal of assignments to do this week. 4. He received three months’ back pay yesterday. Write the corrected form in your notebook. family couple class staff crowd Exercise 21: Mass Nouns Decide which of these sentences using mass nouns needs correction. . 2. the second should describe the group as a collection of people acting as individuals.8 Exercise 20: Collective Nouns For each of the collective nouns below. write two sentences. Ann receives too many junk mail. 3. There was a lot of traffic in town over the holidays. 1. 1. They bought several rings at the auction. Have you seen the dog’s leash? 3. 5. 1. 4. Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns A Record the possessive nouns in the following sentences in your notebook. Sue’s friends bought her a sweater in the men’s department. the book belonging to the children the biggest fans of Elvis the meeting for the secretaries the memos sent by the bosses the car belonging to my oldest son the mens department the schedule for the buses the paws of the cats the barking of the coyote the pay for two weeks Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns The following sentences contain some words that need apostrophes to show possession. The first should describe the group acting as a single impersonal unit. 5.

The skateboarders park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. My uncles farmhouse was struck by during last summers storm. Mr. Marks mother lives at my sisters. his wifes income was reduced. 6. 9. (two sons) The childs name is Nora. Smith was worried about her sons health. The womens resumés were sent to the companies head offices by the bosses secretary. (one girl. read the section on apostrophes again. two twins) 3. Childs car was being serviced at Eatons. Then try these sentences. 5. The girls hair had been cut short for the twins wedding. but the companys salesman went to my cousins place. Frank and James mail order business is making them a rich mans fortune. City Councils regular meetings are held on Mondays. (one son) Mr. 7. 4. 1. Charles company owed him two days pay. . 6. 10. Make sure your instructor corrects your work before you continue with this module. (two uncles) 2. The students cafeteria will be closed after next weeks graduation. Because of the accident. The suns rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 25: Possessive Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. Marthas sister was worried about her sons health. Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns If you had more than two mistakes in Exercise 22. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. and the familys name is Boudreau. 8. (one client) 9. 3. Each sentence should include at least one possessive noun. 7.9 2. A March snow storm is sometimes called “winters last lament”. 10. Finish your clients reports before you go to Smiths tonight. 4. Have you seen Mel Gibsons last three movies? 5.

accidents. D. connects. Rewrite the following sentences to make the nouns in bold print possessive. . Chatham. you should review the parts of this section that gave you “trouble” thoroughly by doing more exercises and/or finding more explanations of the point(s) in another text book. The police wrote down the descriptions given by the witnesses. C. The new car is my neighbours'. Read the following sentence. 5. When you have completed the test. Road. Laura is the oldest sister of Pam. do not look back at the material in the module. Centennial Bridge. That is my neighbours' new car. D. Chatham. There have been many accidents on the Centennial Bridge which connects Chatham with Ferry Road. or ask your instructor to mark it for you. When you are satisfied that you really understand. As you work through the test. That is my neighbour's new car. Centennial Bridge. Ferry Road. Chatham. Chatham. accidents. Ferry Road. I do not like the apartment belonging to Cheryl Hastings. B. That new car is my neighbour. 4. 1. A correct possessive form of the noun would be A. That is the new car belonging to my neighbour. Centennial Bridge. If you had any mistakes. accidents.10 Exercise 26: A Review of Nouns Use this review test to check out how well you have learned the grammar points presented so far in this module. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. B. C. E. Name the eight (8) parts of speech. and do not peek at the answer key. This is the store belonging to Doris. C. mark your own work. Bridge. A. What is a noun? 2. try this test again. Ferry. 3. Those toys belong to the children. D. B. Read the following sentence.

Parker There are errors in SOME of the following sentences. I had a great time last St. For each word below indicate whether it is a) common or proper b) concrete or abstract c) singular or plural d) count or non-count e) indicate which nouns are collective and/or possessive. A. There is a burn mark on the chair's arm. 7. holiday E. 8. Halifax. town. B. correcting the errors. soda pop B. Dr. Do you remember when ten cents worth of candy was enough to share with your friend's? E. Give a proper noun for each of the following common nouns. The Morrisons just returned from two weeks' vacation. Canada C. D. Rewrite only the sentences you think are incorrect.11 6. river D. friends. this. C. A. they. Halifax. city C. The flower's petals fell to the floor. B. Patricks Day. magazine Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. Saint John D. Halifax. Our friends lived in Halifax. town. Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia. Read the following sentence. friends. January B. D. Jupiter E. . town. The nouns in the sentence are A. Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia. A. C. friends. this. before they moved to this town. 11. Nova Scotia. Halifax. 9.

their. Where are you going with her tapes. 2. Exercise 28: Personal Pronouns . 4. She. I saw them eating their lunch myself. First person singular E. 3. yours. write its person and number . He may have taken her coat. your. 5. our. I. You should take yours. . singular. yourself F. her husband and their children visited your mother. 1. 3. You. We. Practice the terms above by matching the term in the first column with the examples in the second column. ourselves 4. yourselves B. her. ours. church beauty armies boys’ grammar men’s trouble boy’s Church: common. Second person plural C. Third person plural D. For third person singular pronouns also include the gender. 1. us. You. mine.Person.12 The first one is done for you. Third person singular B. Try not to look at the chart above. but mine is on the desk. They say that we should always mind our own business. themselves 3. concrete. Number. myself 2. Write each personal pronoun in the sentences below in your notebook. count mob news equipment jury fragrance surprise sunrise broccoli mice Canada’s meat loyalty March company English horn Lions’ Club Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns List all the personal pronouns in the following sentences in your notebook. 4. them. hers. me. Gender A. Did you give him his book? 2. When I went to the club last night. They didn’t know it was theirs until they saw its label. theirs. they took my jacket and your camera. your. Cheryl gave her cold to them. First person plural A. My sister. 1. Beside each. They. herself 5. yours. my.

check the answers in the answer key. The first set is done for you. 10. A student must try to find (his. I). them) sneakers because of (their. their) own learning modality. they) have to keep trying. your. They were sure that Lisa and (he. The pronouns mine. your. 5. him) went to a meeting 2. her. its. 3rd person singular). ours. Have you seen my raincoat? That raincoat isn’t mine Exercise 30: Possessive Personal Pronouns Write 10 sentences of your own. but (you. her) to town. I do not want (those. . Mom divided the Halloween candy between Stacey and (me. (It’s. 1. 12. (You’re. its) nest was destroyed and (it’s. Each must contain at least one possessive pronoun. theirs are used alone. yours. After finishing all the sentences. his. Students often think that (you. me)! 6. John and (he. Give the pencil to Martha or (I. whose are always followed by a noun.13 Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Use each of the seven sets of possessive pronouns in a separate sentence. Notice that the pronouns my. 4. using the correct pronoun. your) going to pass. yours. 11. him) and (I. their. me) could go to the game? 7. (You. Be sure to underline every personal pronoun you use. they) will fail. Jerry took his brother and (she. they’re) ugly colour. his. him) were going to Miramichi. Your) hard work means that (you’re. Rewrite the sentence in your notebook. Then identify the pronoun by person and number (i. Yous) are all invited to go to the concert in Moncton. hers. 8. our.e. Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection The following exercise will help identify the problems you have selecting the appropriate pronoun. 3. Do you think that (he. 9. her. its) not likely to return.

If the WRONG pronoun is used in a sentence. I took them clothes to the cleaners yesterday. If a sentence is CORRECT. 9. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. 4. the 1989 Buick LeSabre had not been driven very far when Tim Maxwell bought the car. 1. Mary drove Paul and I to the mall. Leo and her gave yous the coffee money Monday. Jane’s best friend is me. 7. using the correct pronoun. REWRITE the sentence. 6. The man standing outside in the rain is him. Be sure to replace some of the nouns with pronouns. using the right pronoun Mary gave her the keys. 12. 8. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection Each of the following sentences contains one or more pronouns. We sent her some flowers. leave it as it is. Them people pushed in line ahead of me! . Al met John and she at the movies. The car of Tim Maxwell had been in an old lady's garage since the old lady's husband died in early 1990. Although the car of Tim Maxwell is not a new car. They kept the secret from Jack and I. 10. The car of Tim Maxwell is just like a new car. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. 5. Could him and me could go to the game? You and your husband should prepare yourself for some bad news.14 Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection Improve the following paragraph. 3. EXAMPLE: Mary gave she the keys. Rewrite it so that it is easier and more interesting to read. 2. Rewrite the sentence. 11. The 1989 Buick LeSabre had travelled only 800 kilometres! Eight hundred kilometres is not very many kilometres for a car as old as the car of Tim Maxwell. Tim Maxwells car is a 1989 Buick LeSabre.

. Explain in your own words what an antecedent is. Philip gave her her present. Rewrite these sentences in your notebook. The students asked for new books. 3. The instructor will give them those. 5.15 Exercise 34: Pronoun Selection Rewrite the following sentences. 4. These will be used to buy Christmas toys. B. 9. Tracy's children are giving Tracy a surprise party. 1. 2. 6. The boys tried out for the football team. 3. Some managers write their business letters themselves. My family are always ready to support their relatives. The dog belonging to you has run away again. 5. and he should pay it. The blue coat in your closet is a coat belonging to me. 2. A student should always be on time for his or her class. Draw an arrow from the antecedent to the noun it replaces. 4. The dog's ears are pointed. The police officer told him that he deserved the ticket. The jury were presenting their opinions. One of the girls will receive her trophy at the banquet. 5. 4. Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents A. The audience clapped for their performance. 8. 1. Our family is not large. The merchants gave donations. We ourselves were happy to participate. 2. Norm and Al filled his basket with apples from Fredericton. 3. replacing the underlined word or words with an appropriate pronoun. It gathers once a year for a reunion. 7. The president should take his office seriously. 1. Exercise 36 : Pronouns and Antecedents Rewrite the following sentences so the meaning is clearer. 10. The class asked their mother to help at the bake sale.

2. Many hens have escaped from (her. A few of us have received (his. He cut himself when she was cleaning the kitchen. his. 1. their. his or her. 3. This is the one I want to buy. Write each corrected sentence in your notebook. 10. A few forgot (his. his. 6. You will learn about the use of this.16 Exercise 37: Indefinite Pronouns Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct pronoun. 8. Be sure that they are not attached to a noun. Does anybody know (his or her. Reciprocal Pronouns Underline the all the reflexive. our) marks. 2. their) own bus ticket. their) report later than tomorrow. Wash the car yourself this time. and those as describing words later. I myself won’t put up with that. her or his. 7. their) mutual friends' wedding. Whose book is that on the floor? B. his or her. Several of the men have paid (his. her. her. You will have to drive yourself to the hospital. 4. their) dues. 3. 5. 4. his or her. The soldiers hoisted each other over the stone wall. Underline the demonstrative pronouns in these sentences. 1. emphatic and reciprocal pronouns used in the following sentences. 6. . Give me all of these and some of those.g. 9. their) lunches. their) pen. Max and Helen sang at (her. Each of those buyers should consult (his. Write This is mine. their) supervisors. Exercise 38: Demonstrative Pronouns A. 1. these. No one should submit (his or her. Do not write This book is mine Exercise 39: Reflexive. Such cannot be true! 4. that. e. Then tell which is which. None of the boys has paid for (his. The deer hurt (her. 5. Emphatic. its) leg when it jumped the fence. Did he really say that? 3. her. Write at least five sentences of your own that use demonstrative pronouns. 5. The players patted one another on the back after they scored. her. their) Social Insurance Number? 2.

8. She asked herself if any of the dresses really suited her. The man who won is my friend Steve. What did you bring for lunch? 3. Which is right? There are two choices. 3. List all the pronouns in the following sentences. The dealer totalled their bill and then asked them how they would pay it. A nurse should protect himself or herself from infectious diseases. Exercise 40: Interrogative Pronouns Underline only the interrogative pronouns in the following sentences. . He reported to his boss that those which you bought were too expensive. but the house itself was undamaged. Whom should we reward? 6. That is definitely the kind of book that someone like you would read. but later I had learned from it. 8. 5. 9. What have you done with the keys? 10. 9. Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns A. both of them look correct. 4. 1. making notes as you go. Ian is the one who knows that. When you talk about that accident. 1. 6. 10. 7. He hasn’t decided what he wants to do next. it always gives me the shivers. The furniture was destroyed. B. The children themselves saw it. Beside each one give as much information as you can about it. 10. can you create a catch word or silly sentence using these first letters. 8. We laughed when we watched ourselves on TV. Marg and Steve built their new house themselves. 5. Who stole the money? 2. 2. How many different groups of pronouns are there? What is the first letter in the name of each group? As a mnemonic to help you learn all these names.17 7. My first attempt was a failure. What would anyone do with that? 4. She limited herself to less than 1600 calories a day. He said many things which I didn’t understand. Which of them belongs to Marla? 7. Read this entire section on types of pronouns again. Which is the fastest way to the airport? 9.

reciprocal pronoun C. Sherri took your boots. He cut (himself. “What can I do to help those less fortunate?” 10. Who brought the ketchup and mustard for the hotdogs? 3. its 5. The couple who just arrived on the plane kissed each other. The dog (who. d. what 7. b. demonstrative pronoun F. which) is barking lives next door. its K. himself 9. All of my friends saw that movie starring Whoopi Goldberg. You didn’t give that to them. The cat often chases (it’s. these 2. few 2. We can tell you who leaked that information to the press! 8. Always ask yourselves. c. a. 7. did you? 5. indefinite pronoun (singular) G. Rewrite these sentences using the correct form of the pronoun. reflexive pronoun I. its) tail. our 4. which 10. What is the function of a pronoun? 3. 1st person plural A. indefinite pronoun (plural) E. 6. themself 8. but he took mine. she) went to the automatic teller. Something is missing from this recipe. Sheila and (her. 1. but the contractor poured the cement. relative pronoun D. e.18 Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns Underline and identify each pronoun used in these sentences. 9. Match the term on the left with the example on the right. interrogative pronoun B. Have you read the article in the Times Transcript about you and (I. We did most of the work ourselves. everybody 6. 2. Did they give themselves a pre-test before writing that exam? 4. . 1. Exercise 43: Review of Pronouns 1. me). hisself) on that rusty can. a word that doesn’t exist J. possessive pronoun H. each other 3.

there) too expensive. Hutchins bought (their. . i. C. After Bill gave his employees their bonus. g. My aunt always sends a card to Angela and (he. 6. B. employees is the antecedent of them D. j. C. Which statement below is not correct. Everyone should buy their own hockey equipment. he told them to spend it wisely. A. D. us and the kids returned to Rexton. there. B. it is the antecedent of bonus. themself) Write a paragraph (about 6 or 7 sentences) about a pet. After the holidays. A. Do you think there house is big enough? The cab drove Mike and me to the airport. Which sentence below is correct? A. Bill is the antecedent of he C. give yourself a hand for a great fundraising effort. She says that Jimmy and the boys usually cut the wood (themselves. Mr. 4. h. them) shoes. we and the kids returned to Rexton. Be sure and tell her where (your. the kids and ourselves returned to Rexton. they’re) old car. Underline every pronoun you have used. D. him). you’re) house is. their. Don’t buy (those. bonus is the antecedent of it 5. the kids and them returned to Rexton. Which group of words below correctly completes this sentence. (they’re. Volunteers. 7. B.19 f.

indicate whether it is an action or a linking verb. 12. The students were happy about their marks. The dog jumped over the fence. identify its type and give as much information about it as you can. For each verb that you identify. The little mouse squeaked loudly. 3. 1.20 8. Check with your instructor to make sure you have used only linking verbs in your sentences. We feared the storm. 7. Mr. . Then underline the verbs. Those are mine. Few of them knew the right answer. 4. The baseball hit the boy in the face. Write ten sentences that use verbs that express a physical action that can be observed. 6. The companies which produce these CDs handle their advertising themselves. Who knows anything about this? E. My sister’s name is Paula. His car smashed into a bridge. Buy yourself something expensive. Remember even if the verb is expressing a mental action. it is classed as an action verb. Exercise 44: Action Verbs A. 8. My old roommate from college drove to Fredericton last night. 5. 13. 10. C. For each underlined pronoun. There were fourteen people in that class last year. D. We watched a movie last night. B. They will be angry about your forgetfulness. B. 2. 9. Exercise 45: Linking Verbs Write at least 10 sentences that use linking verbs. Think of some other verbs that express a mental action. Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs Copy these sentences into your notebook. We were afraid of the storm. A. 11. Use each one in a sentence. Smyth was my uncle. Ask your instructor to review your work.

Exercise 49: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs In your notebook. 15. sound.21 14. Wolves always howl at the moon. He felt the smoothness of the fur pelt with his hand. and look can be used as both action and linking verbs. grow. Write two sentences for each verb: one with an action verb. The sailors looked intently at the horizon for signs of another ship. identify the verbs in the following sentences and record whether they are action or linking verbs. indicate the main verb in each of the following sentences. Exercise 47: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs In your notebook. You may want to create a chart like the one on the next page. 7. She fell down the stairs and broke her leg. the bookkeeper at Colpitt’s. 4. 9. 12. feel. You know my aunt. He looks taller than Mario. please. 3. 2. Suddenly. Close the door to the garage. if any. and the auxiliary or helping verb(s). 6. 13. 11. . That newspaper publishes editions in both Toronto and Vancouver. The children became excited before the snow storm. Exercise 48: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs The verbs smell. 1. The pie smells good. we coughed all day. Madonna sings and dances well. 10. he slammed the door and drove down the lane. I felt sick after the party. 5. the other with a linking or copula verb. The puppy carefully tasted his new food. This stew tastes good on a cold winter’s night. Because of the dust. 15. 8. taste. 14. The policeman believed their every word about the robbery.

Sue may never have been given that letter. 1. Carl will kick the ball across the field. 8. Today. I shall never agree to his proposal. He must have taken my jacket by mistake. The men should have eaten that supper by now. The washing machine has broken down. Carl is kicking the ball across the field. Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses Name the verb tenses in the following sentences. Tomorrow. Carl will have kicked the ball across the field. Yesterday. Tomorrow. 10. Carl had kicked the ball across the field. That would have confused anyone! Would you please flip the hamburgers? There was a good show on TV last night. I will not be going. 5. 9. A child can easily learn this song. 6. He might have consulted a doctor. 2. Mitchell has lived here all his life. 6. 4. We played ball against their team Saturday. 2. 4. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter. 7. 12. not after the last trip. 15. . 11. 3. Today. Have you ever heard such nonsense. Today. Carl has been kicking the ball that way for years. 13. Carl has kicked the ball across the field six times. 7. 3. Carl kicks the ball across the field. 5.22 SENTENCE MAIN VERB HELPING VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1. 14.

C. We're afraid we have served dinner too early. They have lived here for two months. You will be leaving Bathurst tomorrow. They have lived in Halifax and Charlottetown. I think I will soon receive a letter from my friend in Ottawa. He is finished painting my house. He has finished painting my house. I have completed my income tax return. At 8:00 pm we will have served dinner. He had been learning Chinese at school. 10. B.23 8. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present progressive tense? A. B. C. I am completing my income tax return early this year. He will be finished painting my house by tonight. C. I will have completed my income tax return before the deadline. won’t you? My aunt was giving lectures in Asiatic culture this summer. Do you think I will have received a letter from my friend by next week? D. I had completed my income tax return before April 30. D. 9. They lived in Halifax before moving here. C. Which one of the following sentences is written in the past perfect tense? A. we will serve dinner. They will have been living here for two months by the end of the week. D. I had received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. D. . 5. 4. B. 3. He will finish painting my house soon. we had already served dinner. C. Which one of the following sentences is written in the future perfect tense? A. When they arrive. D. I recently received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. By the time they arrived. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple past tense? A. 2. B. B. Exercise 51: Identifying Verb Tenses 1. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple future tense? A.

She is designing a logo for the company. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. Exercise 52: Irregular Verbs 1. 12. 8. 10. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. She will design a logo for the company. Use the present perfect progressive tense in a sentence. D. She designed a logo for the company.24 6. 9. Write a sentence in the present perfect tense using the verb to talk. Write a sentence in the future progressive tense using the verb to need. 3 . 2. Be sure to have your instructor correct your work. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to do. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present perfect tense? A. She has designed a logo for the company. C. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to cut. Write a sentence in the past progressive tense using the verb to sign. 11. B. Use the past perfect progressive tense in a sentence. Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to wash. Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to know. 7.

G. 3. Local workers will be hired to build the new mall. Our MLA will be voted into office again in the next election. 15. 4. F. I am feeling better already. 8. C.25 4. 11. 10. After the elections. Barry threw the ball to first base. The train will be making three stops before Montreal The butcher had already delivered our order. Indicate the tense of the underlined verbs in the following sentences. The audience will be arriving in the next hour. Then decide if the verb is in the active or passive voice. The disaster relief team has sprung into action. 9. 1. D. E. 7. The child was struck by a stray bullet. 12. My heart was broken. I have just been thinking about you. That document was written in Halifax in 1774. SENTENCE A. The strike vote is being called for next Monday. B. 14. 6. Stephen King has written many best sellers. By the time you get to school. the bell will already have rung. the votes were recounted several times. . We have been searching for answers to our questions. 2. 5. I might have forgotten to add your name to the list. My car ran out of gas on the Resources Road. Sandra’s writing is improving daily. 13. My son did his homework last night. I was frightened by the storm. Write your answers in your notebook. TENSE? Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice Identify the verbs in the following sentences by underlining them.

they start to function by carrying the writer’s meaning to the reader. . Change the passive verbs to active ones. Write five sentences of your own in the passive voice. words cannot have a part of speech. Look at the words below. run still horse dog fly farm house calm storm sail motor book B. Decide which words are nouns and which words are verbs. C. It is at this point that a word develops into a part of speech. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs A.26 Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Practice changing verbs from the passive to the active voice by rewriting all the passive verbs you identified in the sentences in the previous exercise. Once they have been placed in a sentence. All by themselves. This was a “trick” exercise to remind you that you cannot tell what part of speech a word is unless it is actually written in a sentence. Is there more than one entry word with the same spelling? Which of these words can be used as both a noun and a verb? How many of these words can be other parts of speech besides nouns or verbs. Exercise 55: Active and Passive Voice Write five sentences of your own in the active voice. Now look up each word in the dictionary. Write two (or more) sentences for each word above that demonstrate its uses as various parts of speech.

so the dog was destroyed. 14. Have you eaten here before? 4. When everyone is finished. For each one you identified. Everything that Tom says about them is true. What were you thinking? 10. 3. Marcie had been asked to the recital by the committee. 9. and verbs in each sentence. The couple usually walks to the office. My sister was teaching herself Spanish. they will announce the results. The music will have been playing for several hours. Number: 3rd person singular Tense: present perfect Voice: active Note: to name a passive verb tense. pronouns. 8. I am doing my homework now. He has never drunk stout before. 12. 11. 10. Exercise 58: Review of Nouns. I shall be seeing you again next week. Pronouns. 3. reword the sentence in the active voice and name that tense. 7. 1. 7.27 Exercise 57: Review of Verbs Underline every verb and verb phrase in the sentences below. Something should be done about each of these problems. The men were unhappy with both of those. The houses had just been repainted. 2. The surgeon spoke quietly to the patient. The tour guides will show you the way to the restaurant. The first one is done for you. Lunch will be served at twelve o’clock sharp. The child was severely bitten. He is dating a beautiful doctor. 5. 15. New friends are silver. They might not find each other at the airport. 4. 5. 13. 8. 2. That company buys only the best automotive parts from us. but old ones are gold. and Verbs List the nouns. Verb Phrase: has drunk Person. 6. write everything you can about it. 6. The plane landed at Gander because of the ice on its wings. 9. My sister always rides her bike to the office. 1. Mel has been asking for trouble for months. .

4. 4. How much money will you need next week? 7. Kevin gave me Marion’s card. and his mouth watered. It was a dark and stormy afternoon. Pronouns. Pronouns. pronouns and verbs in each sentence. Those were made in China. 5. 2. Your choices seem logical. Her relatives were eating lunch on the porch because of the heat. 1. If you have too many mistakes. Oprah has changed people’s attitudes towards honesty. Will you complete that survey? . They were anxious about their reservations in Cuba. 3. identify and review the area that is giving you problems. Pronouns. What has anyone seen lately. 8. 4. 1. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. 7. The chefs are always being asked for their recipes. and then return to these review exercises and try them again. The storm grew worse as night approached. 10. ask your instructor to find alternate resource material. Then give as much information as you can about each. Exercise 61: Review of Nouns. 9. Aunt Gladys lives at my mother’s now. He had watched TV for more than an hour.28 Exercise 59: Review of Nouns. 6. Where was he going? 5. Many of the colours in these rooms are being changed by the decorator. All of these will sell well. Why haven’t you written that letter yet? 6. these come from Sackville. If you find you are still confused about some points. 3. Luke is talking to his girlfriend on the phone. 9. We were walking along the beach just before the accident. 2. Tony will have finished his course by next June. 3. 1. I am happy about your decision. and Verbs List the nouns. 8. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns. 2. He smelled the fresh bread. study it. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. 5. The jury is discussing its decision.

29 10. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. SENTENCE 1. sweet and lovable. The child licked the sugary sweet icing from a big spoon. Mexican food? We bought Shelley and Tim’s house. 3. Two cats. 4. The little girl had big. Exercise 62: Adjectives In the following sentences. This trip takes several days Do you like spicy. depressing day. 13. I have had a boring. sat on the dining room table. 9. 14. Invite those six people. Our cousins were eating huge. Karl’s hockey skates are dull. 12. 7. 6. 2. 5. 8. These parcels are heavy. Give them some light summer clothes. The road was rough and uneven. 15. An old rusty car is parked in my space. Liz had driven herself to Central Hospital. A ragged string dangled from the dusty light bulb. Write your answers in your notebook. sparkling blue eyes. Don't forget articles. . juicy apples. Adjectives Nouns 10. 11.

A few boys knew that they were lost. 8. 9.30 Exercise 63: Adjectives List all the adjectives in this paragraph. Where is the grocery store now? 4. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. and ate their supper. lit a huge crackling fire. With relief. After two long hours. 7. Why was his work finished so quickly? 5. I have never seen such expensive jewellery. Bob read the material carefully. Simon is not a very good driver. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. He arrived there later with an extremely important message. and the hills were gentle. The circus was really exciting. bright and narrow. His ideas were quite useful in completing the project more efficiently. 3. . Jensen’s chicken farm. they saw a beam of light. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags. Decided what kind of information each gives: how? when? where? how much? what kind? 1. They set up their canvas tents. and one older boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. The young hikers walked through the dark woods. 6. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. The weather was warm. Krista almost never goes to the arena. Yesterday. 10. They weren’t lost at all! Exercise 64: Adverbs Record the adverbs you find in these sentences in your notebook. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and autumn leaves that littered the ground. 2. piercing the inky darkness. They were dressed too casually for the banquet. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr.

i. calmly) voice after the accident. 2.e: adjective or adverb. The apples had been tightly packed in the box. Write your answers in your notebook. bright) in my eyes. 8. The change in speed was (gradually. quickly). 4. Indicate the type of modifier. Adjectives.31 Exercise 65: Adverbs Modifying Verbs. 5. (adverb) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Leah behaves (good. gracefully) across the stage. We feel (awful. Tim was very happy about his success. awfully) about what happened. 12. badly) on that last hole! The lights shone (brightly. These chocolates taste (good. 3. simply) to follow. well). She strolled leisurely down the mall. Tiger Woods putted (bad. The repairs went (slowly. 13. Exercise 66: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs Choose the correct modifier. Firefighters must respond very (quick. 7. gradual). 6. 9. well). the old man chewed his dinner. Make sure that you review daily. 8. Lynn spoke in a (calm. 5. 6. seriously) sometimes. The directions were (simple. 10. tell whether it modifies a verb. You must travel very fast if you are going to get there in time. I am not (really. real) sure if I will have a party. You work too (serious. well) on his second driver’s test. 10. sadly) about the death of her dog. Thoughtfully. adjective or adverb. 7. Paul did (good. 2. 1. well). Sheila feels (sad. and Adverbs List the adverbs in this exercise. 14. gracefully) across the stage. Example: Answer: 1. 15. Write an explanation of your choice. 3. His deeply tanned body told of hours in the sun. For each adverb.( ) She danced (graceful. 4. The soldiers were really tired after their training. I don't feel (good. I am sincerely grateful for your help. 9. She danced (graceful. . Dave asked politely for another piece of pie. 11. slow).

Krista searched among the rubble for pictures of her mother and father. 3. 3. 7. 2. more rapidly. 2. 1. Dawn fell the horse. 3. The prize for the best costume was given to the clown with the funny hat. I think all the odd socks in the world end up under my son's bed. I can never find a sales clerk or a cashier in this store! 4. Exercise 68: Prepositions A Choose a preposition to join the following parts of sentences. worser) than the damage to mine. The cat with the sore ear comes to the door every day at noon. 4. How many different prepositions will fill in the blank? For example: Carl drove the bank. 5. Write the whole prepositional phrase in your notebook. Cathy or Diane? My heart beat (rapidlier. 1. The damage to the other car looked (worse. They searched for shells and pebbles along the beach at the end of the day. Tom thinks math is (difficulter. He is the (elder. 1. 8. I will meet you the front entrance. most small). 2. The houses beside the store on top of the hill were built in 1960 by my son. more) in January than in February. 5. unique. 9. Answer: Carl drove to.. the bank. more difficult) than grammar exercises. This idea is (more unique. 5. more rapid) with each step. 6. etc. It snowed (most. near. The horse galloped the field. Smoking is not allowed the building. C Now that you are familiar with finding prepositions go back to the beginning of this exercise and find the noun(s) or pronoun(s) which follow each preposition. Earl worked him. B In the next part of this exercise. Be careful walking near the tree with the hornets' nest! 6.32 Exercise 67: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverbs Write the correct form of the modifier for the following sentences in your notebook. 7. smallest. Have the women in your group chosen a theme for the conference? 10. Down the hill and around the corner came the three lost children. find and underline the prepositions. most unique). eldest) of the candidates. around. Who is the (smaller. more badly. from. 4. . beside.

... but also steaming hot. Will you watch television tonight or go to the mall? 4. 6. In the middle of a big spacious lawn.. After his graduation in 1992.... the rest of the water drained from the basement... Conjunctive Adverbs Underline the conjunctions in the following sentences...... 2.. 4. The old lady with the big hat cut into the line in front of me at the store..where:. Exercise 70: Conjunctions ... Look at each prepositional phrase and decide if it is used as an adjective or adverb... Correlative. During the night. the children from the day care at the church have walked around the block every day.. 1.. Because of the storm.. it is an prepositional adverb phrase. Here’s an example. The chili was not only spicy hot.. Skiing is both fun and good exercise. 8.... On Fridays. 5... 5...Coordinate.... 2.... He lived near the mall which was located to the north of the city limits. 3. The women in the kitchen looked under the tables and in the closet.. it is a prepositional adjective phrase.. 3. when.... with the red dress. the volunteers did not hear about the revised forms. why or how the action of the verb took place..prepositional adverb phrase modifying “sat” Exercise 69: Prepositional Phrases List the prepositional phrases in this exercise.m. Either Anna and I will go. She neither washes windows nor cleans ovens.. The blond woman with the red dress sat on the bench at 5:00 p. tell whether it is used as an adjective or an adverb. but she went home on the bus... . or Lynn and Joan will take our place.33 D Each prepositional phrase you found is working as either an adjective or an adverb in its sentence.prepositional adverb phrase modifying “sat” at 5:00 p. If it is telling where.. all of the staff at the radio station eats lunch at the old mill... he answered an ad for a job in Manitoba. 9.. If it limits the meaning of a noun or pronoun.. I asked her to wait for me. Since his return. 6. The men on the roof worked for two hours in the heat... After each one..prepositional adjective phrase modifying “woman” on the bench. 1.m. 7. the designer placed a beautiful statue..when.. 10..

We will go. 15. 10. He always talks as if he were an expert. but I don’t have a map. Since I first met Sheila and her. 3. so he just drank pop all night. Not only will I attend. 12. 9. 11. 25. 21. You just answered my questions before I asked them. they couldn’t fix it themselves. 12. The engineer from Mainframe explained how they would build the bridge. Although it was quite sunny. 15. It isn’t certain whether they will come or not. The weather was snowy. I wonder why they are leaving so early. I won’t be able to go even though I have the money. If you are short. Exercise 71: Conjunctions Copy these sentences and underline the subordinate conjunctions you can find. 10. The roads were slippery because the snow was followed by rain. Thieves broke in while we were away. After the whale beached itself. 24. Before they read the instructions. but also I will perform. Les is five inches taller than I am. they are out of the playoffs. Although he is stronger. He organized his study time. 8. meanwhile. 11. 17. . I made supper. the wind was cool. He was the designated driver. I don’t know how I will get there. 9. 5. Neither Cal nor Emma wanted to leave. 7. 1. some local citizens rescued it. After the lecture. 6. 23. Tired but happy. They searched under the bridge and beside the river. however. 4. 14. 22. 14. The story explained why people believed in the ghost. we will not pay our own fare. 19. Unless the Leafs win this game. 2. the students asked if they could stay. he couldn’t turn it. Because you were late. he felt prepared. you missed it. the children swam in the pool. yet he decided to drive anyway. 18. After he won the gold medal.34 7. He paid for her ticket because he liked her. 13. Mark knows more than I do about that case. she has always been very polite. I know where they have hidden the treasure. the team returned home. they will be cut down. he turned pro. 16. as a result. 20. Since the maple trees were damaged in the storm. you can’t reach that cupboard. 13. 8.

6. The monkeys which escaped from the zoo were recaptured. put brackets around the subordinate conjunction and all the words that belong with it. 2. 8. 5. I know who bought the Fuller’s house. Copy these sentences into your notebook. Cars that cost more than $20. Detectives investigated the theft which Miles reported. The first one is done for you. Underline all the relative pronouns. My sister. He reported that he had seen the incident. 9. . Use both exclamation points and commas to punctuate your sentences. Are you sure that you are right? 3. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). 7. 4. Exercise 72: Relative Pronouns A. 1. came for a visit. For each sentence above. Exercise 73: Interjections Write TEN (10) sentences beginning with an interjection. The women who volunteered for the sale will work on Tuesday.35 B. who lives in Utah. 10. I just introduced you to the man whom I met at the club. That book that you bought last month is very interesting.000 aren’t worth the money.

1. (10) Does he often go to the beach during the summer? (10) Those big. 10. so you can buy several of them. 5. 15. (11) Lilacs always smell wonderful in spring. 9. chunky pots sell for nine dollars. Count the number of correct answers.(7) The pioneers settle quickly on the small farms around Gloucester.36 Exercise 74: REVIEW EXERCISES (BAU and IAU) Identify the part of speech of every word in each of these sentences. (9) You must never show your fear of snakes to your children.(12) Everyone recognized his courage and strength even if he did not. the thieves surveyed the neighbourhood until they spotted the right house. (5) The frail.(15) I do not think about their problems now because I don’t have time. (12) He has always been a really excellent hockey coach. (9) The students in this program are very hard workers. 11. 6. (11) 8. If you have less than a 120. 4. 13. (14) Casually. There are a total of 150 words in this review. . Dogs make good pets for young children. 7. old lady is safe but unhappy at the seniors’ home. 3. mine lived near Moncton. 2. you may consider asking your instructor for more practice. (9) She believes in his ability. 14. (10) Your ancestors lived beside the sea. 12. (6) Mark smelled the skunk and left the area immediately.

(14) Very quickly. 6. (13) Who thinks that these train tickets are ours and those are theirs. (10) Since the accident. . 10. 12. and I still don’t know it. (6) They had been writing their essays before they went there . 7.37 Exercise 75: Review Exercise (IAU only) These sentences are a little more difficult. (10) Although the storm was very intense. they finished their work. they bought lunch .(9) Because they have cashed their cheques. (15) Usually.(10) After they had mowed the lawn. 1. (14) I had been studying for three hours. 16. the victims have recovered quite well. (11) Miles’ brother is extremely intelligent even if he can’t pass those provincial exams. (12) Where did you hide the candy which I bought? (9) Ouch. 11. 5. Fred sat on the fence and ate his lunch while the others went into town. that knife is so sharp that I cut myself badly. 8. (9) Because of her problems. they have some money. 2. 14. the damage was minor. 13. Identify the parts of speech of each word. 9. the chairs were placed near the windows. but today they are in a circle. Sue often seeks my advice. 4. 15. (13) 3. (8) Have you ever seen those boats in the harbour before? (10) The elderly waiter who served us beer is an old friend of hers.

Hey Eric. did you complete that work on those cars during the weekend? (13) Finally. you can continue with the pre-test for this module which you can find in the back of this book. his clever tricks have failed. If you correctly identified 160 of them. (8) There are 200 words in this exercise. try to pinpoint the areas you need to review based on the mistakes you made. . 19. 18.38 17. (6) The Canadian economy is becoming worse very quickly. If you encountered some problems or are confused about some aspects of parts of speech. Ask your instructor for supplementary work.

The six workers complaints were very reasonable. It’s 6. possessive noun. Someone 2.(9) a. Collective noun k. Concrete noun i. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. interrogative pronoun D. In the paragraph above. indefinite pronoun F. Rewrite these sentences. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. Singular noun e. b. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. c. e. Sisters’ 8. Michael’s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. The horses hooves needed new shoes. possessive noun. . Its 5. 3rd person singular B. singular 3.39 BAU ENGLISH . using apostrophes correctly. find one example of each of the following: (11) a. non-count noun 9. Sallys covered a whole month of work. Common noun g. Possessive noun d. Noun used as an adjective 2. Proper noun h. Their 4. d. Non-count noun c. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. g. What 1. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. Plural noun f. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. We 3. Count noun b. fruit. 3rd person plural H. plural C. Abstract noun j. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. means “it is” E. 1st person plural G. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. Read this paragraph.PRETEST 1. and meat. Paul’s 7. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. f.(8) A.

The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. Are you cutting her hair? 6. 8. The crows flew toward the swamp. 5. 7. During the week. 10.(11) 1. Paula will rent a car in Boston. John is always talking to his boss lately.(10) 1. 2. 7. 9. Charles. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. 4. 2. we will go to Disneyland. His Ford has always run well. Linton. I was the first one there! 8. Write a sentence comparing two things. (2) Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. Write a sentence comparing two people. He always uses a cane since his accident.40 4. The teacher with the beard is Mr. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. They were afraid of bears. 6. Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. . Write two (2) sentences using interjections. 10. Use the correct form of the adjective good. 6. (15) walk cut sing think drive List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. 5. 3. 9. Write a sentence comparing two actions. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. Next summer. 7. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. They ate six lobsters each. 3. we work for Mr. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. 5.

Use the correct form of the adverb early. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. 3. Common noun g. 4. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. using apostrophes correctly. Collective noun k. What are the correct pronouns in the following sentence? Josh and (she. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. Her Read this paragraph. . Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. In the paragraph above. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. Non-count noun c. her) were the first to arrive. find one example of each of the following: (11) a. Plural noun f. Possessive noun d. 1. fruit. 13. Write a sentence comparing two actions. she and them 2. 1. Concrete noun i. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather. Singular noun e. Hey! What are you cooking for supper.(9) a.41 11. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. Proper noun h. and meat.(41) 1. Count noun b. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb’s friend. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. 14. Our new neighbours have three young children. 2. Rewrite these sentences. 5. Abstract noun j. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. 2. Michael’s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. Noun used as an adjective 12.

possessive noun.(8) A. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. d. 2. 3. Sisters’ 8. What 1. They were afraid of bears. c. We 3. Someone 2. plural C. 6. 3rd person plural H. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. we work for Mr. e. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. singular Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. non-count noun 9. During the week. The crows flew toward the swamp. It’s 6. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. They ate six lobsters each. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. Sallys covered a whole month of work. not a personal pronoun E. 5.(10) 1. Its 5. . 4. He always uses a cane since his accident. 5. interrogative pronoun D. John is always talking to his boss lately. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. 6. g. (15) walk cut sing think drive List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. 1st person plural G. possessive noun. (2) Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. Charles. 7. The horses hooves needed new shoes. 2. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. Paul’s 7. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. f. Their 4. The teacher with the beard is Mr. 4. 7. indefinite pronoun F. Linton. The workers complaints were very reasonable.42 b.(11) 1. 3rd person singular B. 3. 3.

9. . His Ford has always run well. Use the correct form of the adjective good. 10. we will go to Disneyland. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. Write a sentence comparing two things. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. 8. 6. 7. 8. Write a sentence comparing two actions.43 5. I was the first one there! Next summer. 10. Are you cutting her hair? The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. Write a sentence comparing two people. 9. Paula will rent a car in Boston.

That team is going to Mount Carleton soon.(44) 1. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. A. 13. Hey! What are you cooking for supper. How many nouns does this sentence contain? Wetlands. 5. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. including ponds. she and they B. marshes. C. 2. B. are home to many kinds of plants and animals A. 14. and swamps. 3. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb’s friend. Our new neighbours have three young children and a dog. D.44 11. Use the correct form of the adverb early. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Five Six Seven Eight . 15. her and them 12. her and they C. and (they. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather. 4. What are the correct pronouns for the following sentence? Josh and (she. them) were the first to leave. her) were the first to arrive. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. she and them D.

dirty C. homeless. Five Three Two Six 17. ragged. have lost B. ragged. 19. was very hungry.45 16. C. are used to take the place of pronouns. join groups of words or sentences. homeless. playing Florenceville B. playing They have never lost a game against that team. ragged. hungry D. dirty. 20. places. things. very B. D. include the names of persons. lost D. The complete verb in this sentence is A. D. How many pronouns does this sentence contain? What can you tell me about each of them? A. C. The complete verb in this sentence is A. and people. Our hockey team has played Florenceville before. ragged and dirty. homeless. dirty. and qualities. be playing C. was. never lost C. animals. has played D. hungry 18. B. Nouns are words that A. The adjectives in this sentence are A. dirty. ragged. B. the. . the. lost against The homeless man. describe substances. very.

Which donut is the biggest. Which one of the following sentences is correct? A.(9) A. He insists his cold is badder today than it was yesterday. the chocolate covered. The O'Neills are selling their trailer. B. Rewrite the corrected version on your paper. D. or the glazed? This fall is the prettier of all the falls I can remember. D. TOTAL: 133 . The dogs blanket wasn’t in it’s house when the storm hit. Them skates are real good. The following sentences make comparisons. 22. They are moving to Moncton. Them sneakers are really great! Everybody who wants to enter the contest should put their form in the box. C. C. 23. Only one sentence uses the correct modifier. He divided the candy between Sarah and I. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences. I think Toronto is farther away than Ottawa. D. B. E. I bought a pair of sneakers.46 21. Him and me went to the Ashleys house. Yesterday. C. B. Did anybody lose their car keys? I found one. Which one? A. Everyone must sign their time sheet before leaving.

6. 5. singular possessive noun. A. walk cut sing think drive Molly’s. 7. Answers will vary. 4. Linton walking cutting singing thinking driving 3. What Someone We Their Its It’s Paul’s sisters’ walked cut sang thought drove Interrogative pronoun Indefinite pronoun 1st person plural 3rd person plural 3rd person singular means “it is” possessive noun. 4. weeks’ Sally’s Molly and Sally’s lady’s. 5. 2. 7. 6. of the cereal during the week after supper since his accident with the beard on the trees with the red wheels Answers will vary. Duncan’s week’s workers’ horse’s or horses’ Explain the meaning of your choice. 2. a. .PRETEST 1. plural walked cut sung thought driven in the cupboard for Mr. in the light breeze beside the general store 6.47 ANSWER KEY: BAU ENGLISH . 8. 3. 2. 5. 3. 4.

verb discussing...verb supper... have sold.....preposition of.pronoun the..... possessive 3..noun new....... flew... Many..verb to... 1.... Hey........ 9.........noun of.. 12...noun the. Answers will vary...adjective weather............... Several........... Answers will vary....preposition disks.noun What.verb Mount Carleton......adjective is. has run......noun team.. were....noun 5.....noun going...noun.. 11..........noun a....preposition friend. 13...adjective from. is talking. will go.preposition men......verb young... Answers will vary.preposition camp..... 8..noun always...pronoun you...pronoun/adjective neighbours....adjective 2..............adjective and. That.noun to. will rent Answers will vary. Answers will vary..pronoun these......pronoun for........ ate...verb Jeb’s.verb bad.. was.....verb cooking. Our....adjective were.adjective have. are cutting.......interjection are....adjective children.. 10........48 7...adverb 4....adverb the.....adjective belonged.....conjunction dog.preposition soon.adjective .noun three.

3. 22. 21. 23. He divided the candy between Sarah and me. 20. 4. 18. 2. . 5. A D A B C A C C A A. 15. 17.49 14. 16. He and I went to Ashley’s house. 19. The dog’s blanket wasn’t in its house when the storm hit. Those skates are really good. Everyone must sign his or her time sheet before leaving.

John will loan the maps to Erin' husband. F. Cheryl’s ideas are better than mine are.(9) C.(51) A. I will call you. The kitten pulled on its mothers ear. C. E. Nimoy has been playing that role for over twenty years. John had loaned the maps to Erin's husband. Identify the part of speech of each word. I bought those pants in the childrens department. Some nouns in the following sentences require apostrophes to show possession. 3. but the answers that you changed are now wrong. A month from now. John has loaned the maps to Erin's husband. The dentist was examining my teeth thoroughly. Are you really happy that they are coming here?(9) D. Matt will not have the money before the tour leaves Woodstock.(11) E. (7) A. The bosses letters are always long and dull.50 IAUENG . Oh no. 2. . B. The Sullivans have a new boat. The renovations to the Jones house gave him three weeks work. C. Beth handled the dog very well today. An extremely loud clap of thunder rattled the windows. John loaned the maps to Erin's husband. D.(6) B.(16) In which one of the following sentences is the verb to loan written in the past perfect tense? A. Sheilas mother lives next door. E. D.PRETEST 1. C. The Martins bought Nicoles old washing machine. B. Name the tense of each verb. Rewrite the sentences and make the necessary correction. D. Each of these would have been correct. 4. A. B.

Reflexive pronoun. Relative pronoun 2. car belonging to my neighbour. D. We will watch the ships arrive tonight. Christmas. We are watching the ships arrive tonight. We will have watched the ships arrive before dark. 7. Personal pronoun 3. 6. C. my neighbours' car. D. Someone d. Demonstrative pronoun 7. B. Which f. Match the term on the left with the name on the left. with.51 5. What b. B. (8) a. Indefinite pronoun 1. my neighbour's car. my neighbours car. Us g. B. Myself c. We watched the ships come in that night. 8. C. Each other Which one of the following sentences is the verb to watch written in the simple future tense? A. C. Emphatic pronoun. and. . The proper nouns in the sentence are A. These h. today. families. Interrogative pronoun 8. Anne and Jim left for Cape Breton today to spend Christmas with their families. to. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the car belonging to my neighbours? A. Cape Breton. singular 5. Yourselves e. Anne. Jim. for. Read the following sentence. spend. D. Reciprocal pronoun 4. Themself 9. plural 6. left.

) Read the following sentence:(4) I will complete this course by April of next year. the camera strap. 13. C. Do you like chocolate cake white cake? I shovel snow mow lawns. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). the camera's strap. Choose the best conjunctions to join the parts of the following sentences. B. the cameras' strap.52 9. B. changing the verb to the future perfect tense. university's women club. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the strap of the camera? A. 10. D. university women's club.(6) early quite almost fast easily quickly (You should write a total of SIX sentences. university's women's club. C. Ron was late he stopped for me.(3) A. A. Write the tense of the verb. B. Write one sentence correctly using each of the following adverbs. D. . Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the club of university women? A. D. Rewrite the sentence. 12. B. C. university womens' club. the cameras strap’s 11. C.

B. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). 15. using pronouns as you think are necessary. Our children don’t like the icy. Use each in a sentence. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. looked abandonned. In the following sentences. Read the following sentence:(4) We lived in New Brunswick all our lives.(3) 3. Monford’s old barn. Pronouns have been left out of the following paragraph. Monica’s sneakers are always dirty and dusty. C. Rewrite the paragraph. 18.(5) Shirley has a pet ferret named Furry.53 14. red and expensive.(6) 4. The ferret belonging to Shirley bites at every opportunity. 1. cold water.(5) Write three (3) sentences with interjections. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence.(4) 5.(6) A. The ferret belonging to Shirley was named Furry because of the soft fur of the ferret. and the ferret belonging to Shirley does not smell very pleasant. . As far as I can see. Rewrite the sentence. 16.(3) 17. D. Write the tense of the verb. the soft fur of the ferret belonging to Shirley is the only good thing about the pet ferret belonging to Shirley. List five (5) linking verbs. I heard a great new song on the radio. large and unpainted. is too flashy. Their sporty new car.(5) 2. A. changing the verb to the present perfect tense.(5) B.

54

19.

Choose the correct modifier. Indicate whether the modifier is an adjective or an adverb.(10) A. Ted damaged his car (bad, badly). B. The entire team did not feel (well, good) after the meal. C. The managers had a (private, privately) meeting. D. Ken gets behind at school because he works (slow, slowly). E. He answered those questions (real, really) (well, good). Write five sentences using FIVE DIFFERENT auxiliary verbs.(5) Read the following sentence:(4) I feel the raindrops on my face. A. B. C. D. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). Write the tense of the verb. Rewrite the sentence, changing the verb to the past perfect tense, Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. Write a sentence containing at least one example of each of the eight parts of speech. Write each word of your sentence in a line down the page. Indicate after the word the part of speech of each word (see example following).(8)

20. 21.

22.

A.

B.

Example: A. Cindy writes letters. B. Cindy - NOUN writes - VERB letters - NOUN

23.

Find five examples of prepositional phrases anywhere in this test.(5)

55

24.

Record and name all the conjunctions in these sentences.(10) A. Ruth and Steve will either write or telephone. B. While they were away, they visited Len and Jennifer. C. A storm was forecast; therefore, we cancelled our trip. D. Have you seen the movie that is playing downtown. E. The man who wrote that book is in town today. F. Your work is good, but it still needs more work. G. They completed the report which we requested, yet we never received it. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences.(12) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I bought some of them apples from he and Jim. He had went there several times before. The driver could of finished this if I had had the time. The lawyer will do all the work hisself. The tourists changed a large amount of dollars at the airport. Could him and me rent a movie? He sure done good on his last test. Each of the students should buy their own textbook for this course.

25.

Total 192

56

ANSWER KEY - IAU ENGLISH - PRETEST 1. A. Cheryl’s.....noun, possessive are.....verb than.....conjunction are.....verb. An.....adjective loud.....adjective of.....preposition rattled.....verb windows......noun Are.....verb really.....adverb that......conjunction/pronoun are.....verb here.....adverb Oh no.....interjection will.....verb have.....verb money......noun the.....adjective leaves......verb Each.....pronoun these.....pronoun have.....verb correct......adjective the.....adjective that......conjunction/pronoun changed......verb now......adverb ideas.....noun better.....adjective mine......pronoun extremely......adverb clap.....noun thunder.....noun the.....adjective you.....pronoun happy......adjective they......pronoun coming.....verb Matt.....noun not.....adverb the.....adjective before......conjunction tour......noun Woodstock.....noun of.....preposition would.....verb been.....verb but......conjunction answers......noun you.....pronoun are......verb wrong......adjective

B.

C.

D.

E.

2.

C

D. 5. 5. h. b. F. 2. 1 c. 2. D. Answers may vary. 12. 7. 3. B A C B B Simple past Past progressive Simple future Simple present Present perfect progressive Sheila’s children’s Nicole’s bosses’ mother’s Jones’ weeks’ 3. Answers will vary. d. 7. will complete Simple future will have completed 13. 6. 9: e. 6. g. 11. 9. E. 14. 8. B. B. Answers may vary. C. A. E. f.57 3. C. a. 4 4. . 10. A. A.

... 21.co-ordinate conjunction yet.children the.. flashy. lived Simple past have lived..subordinate conjunction therefore. dirty.... 22.. red....... icy...co-ordinate conjunction.sneakers Monford’s.adverb really.....past perfect Answers will vary.....adjective (after a linking verb) private. dusty.. 19..radio Monica’s...relative pronoun who.adverb well.. badly. sporty. large......present perfect a..58 15.. either/or..barn Our........song the.. new.conjunctive adverb that..co-ordinate conjunction 16.. unpainted..... Answers will vary..... old... expensive... .. 17. feel simple present had felt..correlative conjunction and....adjective slowly. Answers may vary...co-ordinate conjunction while... new....... 24. and.. 23.. 18...relative pronoun but.....car Answers may vary.......adverb well...adverb Answers may vary....... abandonned. 20. cold........ great......water their.

I bought some of those apples from Jim and him. Could he and I rent a movie? He certainly did well on his last test Each of the students should by his or her own textbooks for this course.59 25. He had gone there several times before. The lawyer will do the work himself. The driver could have finished this if he had had the time. The tourists changed a large number of dollars at the airport. .

ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Answer Key for Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 .

dog. sea 7. they 4. weather 2. Titantic. him. something. you. scallops. fishermen. friend 5. snow. collision. area. villages. some 9. Who 9. clams. themselves 6. lobster 6. Japan 9. markets. All. catch Answers will vary. mussels. we 10. Answers will vary. you. . weather. Them. those 8. motels 7. Exercise 3: Pronouns 1. us. husbands. She. He. Stones. truck 6. Many B. lives. Saint John. cold 10. 1. herself.1 ANSWER KEY Exercise 1: Nouns 1. computer. Who. them. Shediac. Riverview Exercise 2: Nouns A. couples. They. shipment. None. few 3. porch 3. Many. car. boats 5. people. 2. Robert. Northumberland Strait 3. She. penguins. hours. storms. canneries seafood. Mine. cat. ocean. them. What. muffins. daughter. This. blueberries 4. water B. drivers. ship. it 8. harbours. lobster 8. clouds 4. it 4. top. her 3. his 6. any. us. birds. They. We 7. 1. hill. you 5. her. she 7. these 10. roads. Me. Florida. Confederation Bridge. that 5. traps. South Pole. fishermen. night 10. no one 2. passengers. Everybody. iceberg 8. life. wives 9. What. that 2. boats. this Exercise 4: Pronouns ( The second part of answers will vary) A.

on the table. If you identified them as adverbs. you are really thinking. A. effectively 7. Perched 5. Brought 10. the. The.2 Exercise 5: Verbs 1. Became 8. Had been broken 5. that. really Note: for class. A. annual 9. quiet. Really. tomorrow 6. Has been driving 8. quickly 10. why. torn. The. Paper. where. Will guess 9. have finished 10. during this last week are also adverbs because they answer the questions when. juicy. lately 8. beautiful. the. hockey. train. brown. Are calling 2. the steel 10. Thought 3. at the beach. summer. Dreamed 8. Slept Exercise 6: Verbs 1. . new. Very. red Exercise 9: Adverbs 1. Ate 5. Could stay 7. Learned 4. Soon 3. dark. Was enjoying 6. Here. will have Exercise 8: Adjectives 1. Not . Arrived 9. long. Carefully 4. Wants Exercise 7: Verbs 1. Was returning 3. the. Surprisingly. Truly 9. Sat. dusty 4. few. Little. faded 6. Early 2. there 5. at noon. Was bringing 6. old. light 8. Walks 9. Rides 10. Cost 7. These grammar points will be dealt with in a later section. white 5. Threw 4. Looked 2. six the. Decided 7. flower 7. were jogging 4. Six. Agreed 2. The. Are reading. Will send 3. Flew 6. These. delicious 3. hot dry 2. The. Hope. Yesterday.

Generally. Of our friends: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun few From school: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun friends For supper: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived At Julie’s: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived 8. Finally. to Stanley 10. really Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. 6. Beside ours: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun camp In 1966: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built By John’s brother: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built 3. Of the antiques prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun several To Gene: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb gave 2. Quickly. 4. 8. Daily 3. beside those. In his new movie: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives From Toronto: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives To Los Angeles: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives 5. Since the crash: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb have received Of the survivors: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun many 4. Brightly 2. Not. In 1992: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb disappeared Of the money: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun most . towards home Of her dress. on trains 7. On the porch From maple trees. Through the park. Of her work: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun quality 7. Today. in the guest room 3. On airplanes. into a syrup Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. very 5. On the bed. With the long scarf. correctly 10. Politely. On the road. Behind the desk. Relatively 4. In Sackville prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun aunt.3 Exercise 10: Adverbs 1. Of the items: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun none On that page: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun items Until July: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb are 9. With tickets 9. quite 6. in the mall 2. under the stairs 5. late 9. Of day: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun time 6. accurately 7. very. Never 8.

Before ideas 8. And words (2 nouns) 3. Oh no 3.4 10.. And words (2 nouns) 2. Because yet 3. Ouch Exercise 13: Conjunctions 1. Carol noun and conjunction I pronoun 4. Because Exercise 15: Review 1. Wow 2. Yuck 2.and 6. Because ideas 10. And adjectives When ideas 9. Until ideas Exercise 14: Conjunctions 1. Our friends in pronoun/adjective noun preposition . And adverbs But ideas 5. From Germany: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun owners Of it: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun all To them: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb sold Exercise 12: Interjections 1. Who but 5. Or which 4.. Until 7. So ideas 6. That both. After ideas 7. And 10. Although and 2. And prepositional phrases 4. If so 8. No 5. When 9.

She was giving a short but interesting lecture pronoun verb verb adjective (article) adjective conjunction adjective noun . tall adjective majestic adjective Rocky Mountains noun majestic adjective are verb a adjective (article) truly adverb beautiful adjective sight noun No you should not take your camera on your trip Most of the students listened politely interjection 6. pronoun verb adverb verb pronoun/adjective noun preposition pronoun/adjective noun pronoun 8.5 travelled to Alberta last year verb preposition noun adjective noun Calgary were surprised when we arrived Their house was built in 1990 noun verb adjective conjunction pronoun verb pronoun/adjective noun verb verb preposition noun 3. The adjective (article) 4. We jogged quickly through the dark woods pronoun verb adverb preposition adjective (article) adjective noun 7. preposition adjective (article) noun verb adverb 5.

verb adjective (article) adverb adjective noun preposition noun adverb The wind was cold but the sun was really warm Sheila and he were talking to her when it happened Turn at the lights and go two blocks west adjective (article) noun verb adjective conjunction adjective (article) noun verb adverb adjective noun conjunction pronoun verb verb preposition pronoun conjunction pronoun verb verb preposition adjective (article) noun conjunction verb adjective noun adverb 11. . We bought a very small quantity of food yesterday pronoun 10. This book cost six dollars adjective noun verb adjective noun 12. 15. 13.6 9. The American fishermen caught two salmon for lunch Eric and they learned very quickly adjective adjective noun verb adjective noun preposition noun noun conjunction pronoun verb adverb adverb 14.

street Beresford 9. parcel. areas North America 8. etc. Alberta 5. stores. fear Exercise 19: Collective Nouns Answers may vary. language. Exercise 18: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Common nouns: rose. (Many. happiness. skiing. etc. several.) deer were shot this season. the word maple may be considered either a noun or an adjective. a large number of. rules. men’s . Owen has (many. bubbles Abstract nouns: justice. maple*. etc. leaves. profits Main Street * Depending on the grammar text you consult. England 10. 3. a large amount of. hockey*. Ann receives (too much.) assignments to do this week. dog’s 3. Bay of Chaleur 4. boy’s B. 4. arena. sister. grace. school. path Black Lake 2. family. the children’s book Elvis’s biggest fans the secretaries’ meeting the bosses’ memos my oldest son’s car the men’s department 4. a lot of. computer. mill Robin. a few. months’ 5. Exercise 20: Mass Nouns 1. people. weekend Italy 6. city Bathurst. moonlight. exceptions. many pieces of. newspaper. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns Answers will vary.) junk mail. Exercise 21: Possessive Nouns A. grammar English 7. 1.7 Exercise 16: Common and Proper Nouns Common Nouns Proper Nouns 1. Sue’s. sale. Mary’s 2. truth. carnival. several. settlers Gaspé. Marsha. Regina 3. syrup. stars. cow. France.

10. A correct possessive form of the sentence would be C. Exercise 25: Review of Nouns 1. 3. That is my neighbour's new car.8 the buses’ schedule the coyote’s barking the cats’ paws two weeks’ pay Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns 1. Martha’s sister was worried about her son’s health. Bob’s uncle lives near Sharon’s farm. My uncles’ farmhouse was struck by during last summer’s storm. The students’ cafeteria will be closed after next week’s graduation. Mr. Mrs. The skateboarders’ park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. 9. Mark’s mother lives at my sister’s. . 10. (one client) 9. Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns 1. 3. but the company’s salesman went to my cousin’s (cousins’)* place. Because of the accident. Finish your client’s reports before you go to Smith’s tonight. City Council’s regular meetings are held on Mondays. either would be correct. The women’s resumés were sent to the companies’ head offices by the bosses’ secretary. Frank and James’ mail order business is making them a rich man’s fortune. (one son) 4. 8. The girl’s hair had been cut short for the twins’ wedding. Charles’ company owed him two days’ pay. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. 4. * Depending on the meaning. 6. and the family’s name is Boudreau. Childs’ car was being serviced at Eaton’s. 7. The sun’s rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns Answers will vary. A March snow storm is sometimes called “winter’s last lament”. (two sons) 5. Have you seen Mel Gibson’s last three movies? 5. The child’s name is Nora. his wife’s income was reduced. Smith was worried about their sons’ health. 6. (two uncles) 2. 7. 2.

Bathurst. Halifax. Discover. New Brunswick Day. 7-Up. place. magazine . Rewrite the following sentences to make the noun indicated by bold print possessive. I do not like Cheryl Hastings' apartment. adverbs 6.9 2. Answers will vary. Campbellton. C. Coca-Cola. New River D. Saint John. Chatham. Orange Crush. 6. Laura is Pam's oldest sister. A. city Moncton. D. Boxing Day. 5. Inside Sports.Canadian Living. Ottawa C. Thanksgiving. E. This is Doris's store. soda pop . Salmon River. The eight parts of speech are: 1. Sprite B. Halifax. holiday Christmas. nouns 2. Truro. 7. Chatelaine. Easter. friends. Little River. Entertainment. or quality. B. town. A. Miramichi River. Edmundston. . Ferry Road. prepositions 7. adjectives 5. Canada Day E. The nouns in the sentence are C. Fredericton. The following is an example of answers you might have chosen. Labour Day. The police wrote down the witnesses' descriptions. interjections The proper nouns in the sentence are B. Nova Scotia. thing. 4.Pepsi. river St. pronouns 3. verbs 4. John River. Consumer Reports. Centennial Bridge. A noun is a word which names a person. Sports 3. conjunctions 8. Those are the children's toys. Check your answer with your instructor.

singular. abstract*. singular surprise . singular jury . count. count. non-count. singular mice . singular trouble . (Example: New Brunswick .common. Patrick's Day. non-count. singular fragrance . collective.common. concrete. count. singular beauty . non-count.proper. Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. abstract. concrete. 10. concrete. abstract.common. D.proper.province) A. singular Canada’s .common.10 Illustrated. concrete. concrete. count. count. abstract. abstract. singular gold . E. B. count**. concrete. count.common. Jupiter planet E. count**. abstract.common. abstract*.common.common.common. Dr. plural mob . concrete. possessive loyalty . concrete. January month B. I had a great time last St. count. abstract*. singular/plural grammar . count.common. concrete. The petals of the flower fell to the floor. Saint John city D. plural. non-count. singular armies .common. singular English horn . church . count. no corrections Do you remember when ten cents' worth of candy was enough to share with your friends? There is a burn mark on the arm of the chair. count. 9. Canada country C. count.common.common. Parker doctor A. count. collective. singular . singular boys’ . count. collective. count. Parents 8. abstract*.common. concrete. collective.common. plural.common. plural food . possessive news . C.common. possessive company . singular March . singular men’s . abstract.common.

hers. theirs.proper. us. their. concrete.common. you . concrete. 5. abstract. yours. mine. etc.11 sunrise . collective. First person singular A. but mine is on the desk.2nd person singular 2. Exercise 30: Pronoun Selection . count. count. your. me. my. herself 3. Cheryl gave her cold to them.1st person singular your . our. First person plural C. They. Third person singular D.2nd person singular/plural her . yourselves 4.3rd person plural we .3rd person plural its .3rd person plural they . They . singular.common. We. her husband and their children visited your mother.g. possessive Lions’ Club .1st person plural our -1st person plural Exercise 28: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. singular. Gender A.3rd person singular theirs . singular boy’s .1st person singular they . She. I saw them eating their lunch myself 3. I . Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. Upper /Lower Canada. French/English Canada. ours. 1.3rd person singular 3. Did you give him his book? 2.3rd person plural my . them.3rd person plural it . Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns . themselves 5. Number. Second person singular F. 4. her.3rd person singular feminine you . You.2nd person singular/plural yours .common. ourselves 2. He may have taken her coat. e. They . count. count. Third person plural B. “Lions’ possessive broccoli . I. concrete. myself B.2nd person singular/plural 4. Exercise 26: Personal Pronouns 1.Person. 1. My sister. singular and plural * debatable ** could be counted if referring to more than one.

you’re Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection Answers will vary. His car is just like a new one. I 10. Could he and I could go to the game? (Try the sentence with each pronoun separately. Your.12 1. Mary drove I to the mall. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. he 6. Al met she at the movies.. he 5. Leo and she gave you the coffee money on Monday. his. so try Al met her at the movies. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. 4. her 7. he. It had travelled only 800 kilometres! That is not very many kilometres for a car as old as his. and break up the sentence as follows: Could him go to the game? 2. they 11. me 9. . Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection 1. The word yous does not exist. I took those clothes to the cleaners yesterday. The following is an example of how you may have rewritten the paragraph. Now it’s easy to tell that me is the wrong pronoun to select. Her is the right choice.. it’s 2.. Mary drove Paul and me to the mall. Her gave. Your other choice is her. We sent her some flowers. 7. they. Have your instructor check your answer. To find the right choice. Read the sentence as though only one person got a ride. It is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. her 3. Its. it had not been driven very far when he bought it. Although his car is not a new one. It had been in an old lady's garage since her husband died in early 1990. me 4. 6. The pronoun them never goes with a noun. Read the sentence without John . read the sentence as though only the woman gave the money. those. 3.. You 8. Al met John and her at the movies. their 12. That doesn’t sound right. 5.

) 8. the correct pronoun selections in this sentence are he and I. Now the other pronoun choice. the second sentence sounds better. two people should be preparing themselves. The plural version of this pronoun is the right one. Could me go to the game? Could I go to the game? Again. Therefore. In this sentence.13 Could he go to the game? The second sentence sounds better. The pronoun yourself is singular. You and your husband should prepare yourselves for some bad news. .

. His. 11. those. Exercise 34: Pronouns and Antecedents A. and is the correct pronoun selection in this instance.family (used as a single unit) 6..but try switching the sentence around. Your 4.. 1.students..president 2........ It.. Their.. themselves. Only one person received a trophy.) 7..jury (used in this sentence as a plural) 5.donations 10. Read the sentence as if only one person did not know the secret. Them... The obvious choice is the pronoun I. Him is the man outside.. Her 3.. Her. Me was Jane's best friend.... Your instructor will check your answer... They kept the secret from I.. Their...student (3rd person singular. It’s means “it is”.managers 3.. They kept the secret from Jack and me....) Jane's best friend was I..one (Girls is not the antecedent.. The second choice makes more sense. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection 1.. The pronoun them is NEVER used to go along with a noun.. Its (Remember that the personal pronoun has not apostrophe. He is the man outside... The man standing outside is he........ Their. Ourselves... 10. Those (or these) people pushed in line ahead of me! This mistake is often heard in speech... These..we 9..... 12... Mine 5. the gender is not clear) ... (This is tricky and may not sound right.family (showing that each individual family member acts separately) 8..... Use the same strategy as in sentence 11.14 9. His or her. B...books 4... Decide which sentence sounds the best.. They 2... I was Jane's best friend.

A few of us have received our marks. 1. 4. Reciprocal Pronouns 1. The police officer told the driver. 4.. Several of the men have paid their dues. 9. Yourself emphatic. Emphatic. 2. 3. None of the boys has paid for his bus ticket. 3.. Norm and Al filled Jim’s basket with apples from Fredericton. those B. Norm and Al filled Al’s (or Norm’s) basket with apples from Fredericton. One another reciprocal 5. 8. 7. (It is important to understand that too many pronouns make the meaning of a sentence unclear. A few forgot their lunches. The audience clapped for the actors’ performance.an action he did to himself 2.. Such 4.. That Exercise 38: Reflexive. Each member of the class asked his or her mother to help at the bake sale.” 5. Himself reflexive. “You deserved this ticket. a pronoun always refers to the noun closest to it (in front of it) 1. That 3. Exercise 36: Indefinite Pronouns 1. 5. Many hens have escaped from their pen.. Yourself reflexive 6. 6. These.) Philip gave her Donna’s present. Answers will vary.. Each other reciprocal 3. Myself emphatic . 10. The deer hurt its leg when it jumped the fence. Each of those buyers should consult his or her supervisors. This 2...15 Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents Answers may vary. As well.. No one should submit his or her report later than tomorrow. Philip gave her a present. and you should pay it.no one else washed it 4. Max and Helen sang at their mutual friends' wedding. Does anybody know his or her Social Insurance Number? 2. (Donna bought the present. Exercise 37: Demonstrative Pronouns A. (Philip bought the present.) Philip gave her the present that he had bought for Marilyn. 5.

singular. 3rd person singular.. singular it. What.interrogative pronoun anyone. singular or plural.16 7.. feminine 5. 3rd person....personal pronoun. 3rd person plural. ---8. ----4.... 9..personal pronoun.. singular.. 1.. He... Which 9. 8..personal pronoun. What 5.. 1st person singular.. themselves... Themselves Herself Himself... 10... What 3.. She.... (To) whom 10.. feminine herself. refers to person(s) who are present that. refers to the noun children it....reflexive pronoun.personal pronoun. neuter (no gender).personal pronoun. 3rd person..... singular. (PRRRIIDE) P personal R reflexive R reciprocal R relative I indefinite I interrogative D demonstrative E emphatic B.. feminine any..personal pronoun. singular. 3rd person...demonstrative pronoun... Some students use PRIDE with 3 Rs and 2 Is. 3rd person. singular that. ---6... you. refers to person who is speaking 2... herself Ourselves emphatic reflexive reflexive reflexive Exercise 39: Interrogative Pronouns 1.. replaces the noun accident me...emphatic pronoun..demonstrative pronoun 4. 2nd person.. Who 2..personal pronoun.indefinite pronoun... masculine .. ---- Exercise 40: Review of Pronouns 1. 3rd person singular 3....indefinite pronoun her... Which 7...

... refers to the noun choices them...... plural.indefinite pronoun you... shows possession.. 2nd person.. 3rd person.reflexive pronoun 4. who. singular... 3rd person. singular. used as a conjunction to join two ideas those. 3rd person... 2nd person....personal pronoun.personal pronoun 2.personal pronoun themselves...... they.personal pronoun. shows possession.. refers to a plural noun mentioned previously it.. plural.personal pronoun ..personal pronoun..personal pronoun.. plural..emphatic pronoun Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns 1.. modifies the noun attempt.. You.. singular that..personal pronoun......relative pronoun. refers to the person speaking I.relative pronoun.relative pronoun. singular or plural their. singular.... plural. refers to the person speaking I. masculine.. no gender. all. used as a conjunction joining two ideas someone... refers to a “whole” idea (the first attempt was a failure) Which.. refers to a plural noun mentioned previously which... masculine and/or feminine they... 3rd person.personal pronoun. shows possession. singular...demonstrative pronoun.....(as above) it.personal pronoun... refers to pronoun both which refers to the noun choices itself. plural.. modifies the noun boss that... 3rd person.indefinite pronoun.... plural..personal pronoun. neuter...personal pronoun. masculine and/or feminine..... used as a conjunction to join two ideas you.... 9..... 1st person..... modifies the noun bill them... his.. 3rd person..... My.. 3rd person..interrogative pronoun both.. 1st person...demonstrative pronoun.. 8.... 10. singular or plural That...personal pronoun. masculine and/or feminine.....17 6. singular.. 7.......interrogative pronoun 3...indefinite pronoun my. refers to a singular noun mentioned previously.....personal pronoun..

..... 9... 10.... or I.reflexive pronoun what.. 6. K.. 1st person plural interrogative pronoun reciprocal pronoun relative pronoun indefinite pronoun (plural) demonstrative pronoun indefinite pronoun (singular) possessive pronoun reflexive pronoun a word that doesn’t exist 2..........personal pronoun who.......indefinite pronoun 7....personal pronoun 5..personal pronoun you... F...personal pronoun (used as an adjective) he... or I.personal pronoun you.... .. E... J..demonstrative pronoun We. C..... H...interrogative pronoun I.... who..emphatic pronoun yourselves.. Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns 1..........personal pronoun mine.... G Pronouns are used to replace or refer to nouns and to make sentences more interesting and less repetitive.demonstrative pronoun them. possessive We.....relative pronoun each other.personal pronoun............demonstrative pronoun Something. A..18 that..reciprocal pronoun your.relative pronoun that. 8.personal pronoun those..... B F.personal pronoun ourselves.....

.....action 4.... 3rd person.. C.linking feared. 5.. its h.. A.personal pronoun. 3.. him 4.relative pronoun themselves..indefinite pronoun E.demonstrative pronoun.. singular this.... plural Those.. B. plural.action 2. D.linking will be..........indefinite pronoun.. singular yourself.action watched. Exercise 43: Action Verbs A...... their j. hit. B.. singular something. Few. Exercise 45: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. 8. which g. 7.... were.. a......... refers to companies Who. your i... singular.... Answers will vary. 6. is incorrect D. A.reflexive pronoun.indefinite pronoun.. correctly completes the sentence.....19 3........demonstrative pronoun.reflexive pronoun....linking 6. 9. were. themselves Answers will vary.action is.. she d. shows possession which......linking 8.. was. B. those c. himself e. jumped.. Exercise 44: Linking Verbs Answers will vary... 1st person..action .. Answers will vary.. smashed....interrogative pronoun anything.. plural mine. 5. 7..linking 10. me f. is correct b.

.action SENTENCE MAIN VERB drive taken played confused flip was lived going eaten HELPING VERB(S) (IF ANY) will must have ---------would have would ------has will be should have 1. That would have confused anyone! Would you please flip the hamburgers? There was a good show on TV last night.action felt..... 7. 6.......... Close..... broke.linking Exercise 47: Action and Linking Verbs Answers may vary.. 15..... Exercise 48: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs looks. dances.. felt.....linking 2. 15... The men should have eaten that by now.action 14.linking believed. slammed. 8.action 6.. He must have taken my jacket by mistake... 3... 13. squeaked..... .. 4...action sings... 9. coughed. 5......action 12.action howl.. 3.. drove....... We played ball against their team Saturday.. I will not be going.action drove...linking know...20 11. tastes.. 11......action tasted.linking became. were. 9. smells. 13.linking 10...... 7.action 4.. 5.. not after the last trip... 2.action 12..action Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1.. looked... Mitchell has lived here all his life.. fell.action publishes. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter. 14.action 8..

. Answers may vary.. will have kicked. 8. Answers may vary. has kicked.. C. 3... broken heard has have consulted might have given agree learn may have been shall can Exercise 49: Identifying Verb Tenses A.present progressive C. B.. A...present perfect F. 9... Answers may vary.future progressive I.. A.. 11. We have been thinking about you lately. Answers may vary. kicks.... B.21 10.. The washing machine has broken down... Exercise 51: Irregular Verbs . 15..... It had been snowing for three days. He has talked to the Lions’ Club before. Have you ever heard such nonsense. I shall never agree to his proposal. 7.future perfect G. has been kicking.past perfect progressive Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses 1.. 11.. Sue may never have been given that letter.past perfect H. 13.. Answers may vary. 5.. D. had kicked... had been learning. will kick.simple future D.. 6.. 12.past progressive J. The couple will be needing even more room soon. is kicking.simple present B. He might have consulted a doctor.present perfect progressive E.... was giving..... will be leaving... 10. Vanessa was signing her lease..... They will have washed the laundry by then. 14.. 2... 4.. A child can easily learn this song. 12..

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1-3. Answers may vary. 4. A. Present progressive B. Simple past C. Present perfect D. Future perfect E. Future progressive F. Past perfect G. Simple past

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Exercise 52: Active and Passive Voice 1. Passive 2. Active 3. Active 4. Passive 5. Passive 6. Active 7. Passive 8. Passive 9. Passive 10. Passive 11. Active 12. Active 13. Active 14. Passive 15. Active Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Exercise 55: Review of Verbs Remember that it is impossible to decide on a word’s part of speech until it is used in a sentence. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs 2. Will show 3rd person plural simple future active voice 4. Had been asked 3rd person singular past perfect passive voice

3.

Have eaten 2nd person (singular or plural) present perfect active voice Has been asking 3rd person singular present perfect progressive active voice

5.

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The committee had asked

and Verbs Nouns Pronouns Verbs 1. 14. Am doing 1st person singular present progressive active voice Is dating 3rd person singular present progressive active voice 13. her rides 3. 9 a). simple past passive voice The dog bit the boy 10 a) Are 3rd person plural (m or f) simple present active voice 11. Gander. Will be served 3rd person singular simple future passive voice “The waiter” will serve Shall be seeing 1st person singular future progressive active voice 7. Had been repainted 3rd person plural. Tom everything. ice. . planes. that. neuter past perfect passive voice “The painter” had just repainted Exercise 57: Review of Nouns. office my. sister. bike. Spoke 3rd person singular simple past active voice 8. is 15. them says. Walks 3rd person singular simple present active voice Will have been playing 3rd person singular future perfect progressive active voice 9 b) Was destroyed 3rd person singular (neuter) simple past passive voice “The vet” destroyed 10 b) Are 3rd person plural simple present active voice 12. wings its landed 2. Was bitten 3rd person singular. Pronouns.25 6.

possessive. singular..verb.noun.... herself something... Aunt Gladys.. 3rd person. proper. singular.. concrete lives... 3rd person. Pronouns. simple present decision. I.pronoun.... common. 1st person.. common..... plural these..verb... plural.. 1st person singular am. possessive decision. personal. singular card.verb. concrete. present progressive. personal. common.noun.. will announce Exercise 58: Review of Nouns.. demonstrative..pronoun.. personal. common.... 8. simple present.. singular 3.. and Verbs 1. 3rd person.pronoun.. present progressive. concrete.. concrete.noun.noun. active voice its... singular gave... plural. active voice my.... 2nd person....... singular.. proper. possessive choices. plural.. 3rd person.. singular 2... 3rd person. active voice Exercise 59:Nouns. 5.verb. passive voice their.. plural . common. singular.. simple past.. simple future...noun. common. 10..... Kevin. concrete. proper..noun. personal.... singular or plural.pronoun.. concrete. parts sister. Spanish problems airport ---results both...noun. singular are being asked. common... singular 4.... 1st person singular.. concrete. 3rd person.. personal. indefinite.. concrete. common..26 4...noun. possessive recipes.. 9...... singular 2. concrete. collective is discussing.. those us my.pronoun. plural 5.. possessive.. 7..verb. 1st person singular Marion’s. 3rd person.. jury.. singular. mother’s..... Your. singular.verb. concrete....pronoun..... chefs. each other you everyone.pronoun.noun. all. men company...pronoun. 6. Pronouns.. personal...noun.. and Verbs 1... concrete...noun.. active voice me.. each they.. they were buys was teaching should be done might find were thinking is finished. plural will sell. linking. possessive.

.noun. personal.noun.. personal....noun....... singular. possessive girlfriend. present progressive. common.. active voice He.. 1st person.pronoun... singular. 7..verb. past progressive...noun.... personal. 10. concrete.noun.. concrete..verb.. active voice course.. proper.noun.. linking.verb.. plural..noun. 5.. common.pronoun.. plural.. personal. singular. concrete.. masculine smelled..pronoun...pronoun..... common.verb.. concrete. singular June. concrete. singular Tony. 4..noun.verb..noun......verb... singular. common...... simple future..... 3rd person.. concrete. 3rd. 3rd. active voice letter. personal.. singular/plural will need. 8..noun. singular accident. personal. action. 3rd. seem. present perfect. concrete.... concrete... singular/plural have written.... active voice TV... past progressive. active voice his. 2nd person.pronoun. 3rd person. concrete... common.. concrete. concrete. 3rd person. singular has changed.. simple past.. proper.. singular... singular He. He. 3rd person singular was going.. singular hour.. present perfect..... 1st person.. masculine... 3rd person. masculine. action 3rd person.. simple present Luke. common. singular. singular/plural.noun. 2nd person.... possessive attitudes. 6. his.. masculine had watched. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns and Pronouns 1. proper will have finished.noun... singular is talking... 3rd person. active voice people’s.......noun. action..noun.. singular you. singular money.verb.verb.. common.... personal. plural.verb.. abstract. active voice You.... past perfect. common.. 2nd person.... non-count.noun. future perfect.. proper We.. singular Oprah..pronoun. common.. singular.. common. 3rd person. active voice beach. concrete..noun. singular.27 3..verb.pronoun.... common... concrete. plural were walking. common....... common... plural honesty. singular..... singular. singular/plural.pronoun... 2nd person...noun. personal. active voice bread.. used as an adjective .. non-count.... singular. singular phone.... 9. 3rd person.

singular porch.. 3rd person. present perfect.noun.... interrogative has seen. proper. active voice herself. past perfect. action. concrete. action. plural Cuba. feminine drove. singular grew. passive voice these... personal... active voice Sackville.28 2.... common.. count.. concrete..noun. 3rd.. action. demonstrative.... 9.. singular Those. mouth. 3rd. simple past..... simple past reservations. 8. 3rd person.noun. simple future... active voice survey.. singular/plural. plural were eating.. action.. 4..verb. possessive relatives. plural colours.. What.. 3rd.. personal... plural are being changed. proper.. action. personal... reflexive...... plural come. present progressive..pronoun..pronoun. plural were..noun..noun... 3rd... 3rd singular afternoon. concrete.. singular/plural... concrete.noun... common... common...... action..verb..verb. 6. concrete.. passive decorator.. plural. singular They... singular watered.noun. singular... feminine Central Hospital. proper. singular Liz. plural... common. past progressive. simple present. active voice Will complete.. 3rd.pronoun.pronoun. common... indefinite.noun.... 3rd.. plural were made.pronoun.verb. active voice storm. concrete. singular. concrete. singular.. plural..... action. singular approached. concrete. singular.... 3... simple past..... concrete.verb..pronoun.noun. count.verb. common.. count.. singular Her.verb. singular....noun.. plural... simple past. 3rd.. count.. 3rd..pronoun.. simple past. demonstrative.noun... concrete.. 3rd. night..pronoun. concrete.noun... concrete. concrete. 5. common. count. concrete. personal... non-count.. active voice their..verb....... common.noun....noun... common. linking verb. linking... 2nd..verb. 3rd person.. singular. 7... common.... concrete ....verb.noun.noun. possessive lunch.... singular heat..... plural.. common.. singular. count. count.. active voice It.. common..pronoun.. 3rd person. plural. 10..verb. proper Many.... 3rd.

our cousins huge. Karl’s*. The. those. and the hills were gentle. After two long hours. a. an. Tim’s* house 10. and one older . some. these parcels 12. rusty car my space 3. hockey*. they can be identified as adjectives. this trip several days 8. ragged string dusty. dining room* table * These words are technically nouns but when used to describe another noun. light* bulb 5. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and autumn leaves that littered the ground. depressing day 6. Mexican food 9. blue eyes 11. lovable cats the. six people 7. spicy. sugary. rough. uneven road 2. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. The weather was warm. little girl big. two. sweet. Shelley. boring. big spoon 4. juicy apples 13. sweet icing the.29 Exercise 61: Adjectives Adjectives Nouns modified 1. The. Exercise 62: Adjectives The young hikers walked through the dark woods. light. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. a. A few boys knew that they were lost. summer* clothes 14. sparkling. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. the child the. old. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. dull skates 15.

. and Adverbs 1.how good never..how too.... bright and narrow.interrogative adverb 5..how later.how quickly efficiently.... very modifies the adjective happy 6.... where.interrogative adverb 4. deeply modifies the adjective tanned 8.how useful 6..when important more.... and ate their supper. thoughtfully modifies the verb chewed 3.. casually.. Jensen’s chicken farm. sincerely modifies the adjective grateful 7. 9.. tightly modifies the verb packed 5. there.how efficiently extremely..when carefully...when Exercise 64: Adverbs Modifying Verbs. they saw a beam of light... yesterday. They weren’t lost at all! Exercise 63: Adverbs 1.when very.how 3... Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags..how very..where 7. leisurely modifies the verb strolled Exercise 65: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs 1... An adverb is needed to ... The sentence describes how she behaves...... really modifies the adjective tired 10..negative almost..when really........ Well.. With relief. fast modifies the verb travel... very modifies the adverb fast 9.how casually now..... They set up their canvas tents...30 boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook...... daily modifies the verb review 4... Why....... lit a huge crackling fire.. politely modifies the verb asked 2... 10..how exciting not... quite. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr... the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. 8. piercing the inky darkness..... Adjectives....when 2. never..

Simple. Good. Badly is an adverb. Smaller. 4. 15. Slowly. This is another linking verb which needs an adjective to complete it. sadly is an adverb. 5. 3. simply is an adverb. Badly. . Calm is an adjective. The adverb well describes how Paul did on his driver’s test. Sad is an adjective. Comparing two people 2. bad is an adjective. Eldest. 9. More difficult (comparing two things) 6. An adverb is needed to describe how the work is done. gradually is an adverb. An adverb is needed to describe how the work was done. Feels is a linking verb and it needs an adjective to complete it. An adverb is required to describe how he putted. More rapidly 3. Quickly. Gradual is an adjective. An adverb is required to modify the adjective. Quickly is an adverb. Feel is a linking verb which needs an adjective to complete its meaning. Gradual. Use the adjective good to complete it. Awful. Calm. Worse (comparing two things) 5. 12. Really. Well. Exercise 66: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverb 1. serious is an adjective. Taste is a linking verb. calmly is an adverb. Comparing more than two 7. Brightly is an adverb describing how the light shone. Brightly. Unique. An adjective is needed to complete the linking verb were. Although well is usually an adverb. Awful is an adjective. Slowly is an adverb modifying the verb went. Simple is an adjective. Unique is an absolute adjective and cannot be compared. Comparing snowfall for two months 4. 7. so well. Sad. 11. 13. Seriously. 10. An adjective is needed to modify the noun voice. awfully is an adverb.31 2. Good is an adjective. More. modify the verb behaves. 14. 6. it is used as an adjective when speaking of someone’s health. 8. An adverb is needed to describe how firefighters should respond. quick is an adjective. Really is an adverb. Sure is an adjective completing the linking verb am. Seriously is an adverb. Well. is the best choice. an adverb. real is an adjective. An adverb modifies a verb.

by (on top of) 9. in. at. at 8. in. along. with . on. with 6. of. to. B. beside. in. down. with. of 3. to. for. 1. in 4. Among. Answers will vary. near. For. around 7.32 Exercise 67: Prepositions A. under 5. of (at the end of) 2. for 10. for.

can be considered as one prepositional phrase.when by my son.where for pictures... 8.adjective... of the day (at the end of the day) among the rubble. with the hornets’ nest down the hill.... in 1960.where at the end...... with the funny hat for shells and pebbles......adverb.. 6. ....adverb.adjective....adverb..where with the sore ear...modifies the noun houses on top.when of the day.........adverb............. 1..... of her mother and father in this store in the world.. Some grammar books call on top of a compound preposition. 5. 8..adverb.....adjective. 4.....modifies the noun top on top of the hill... to the clown......adjective..adverb....adjective....adverb.adverb. for the conference for the best costume...........where near the trees...... for pictures..adjective...adverb......... to the door.. 10.........modifies the noun pictures in this store.. 3. around the corner With the sore ear.adverb..... along the beach..33 C..why of her mother and father..how 2. For shells and pebbles.modifies the noun end among the rubble.. by my son (on top of the hill) in your group..adverb. 7............ under my son’s bed near the trees....modifies the noun trees down the hill...adverb... at noon beside the store.....where around the corner. 6...adjective.. 1..where with the hornets’ nest.... 5.. 3............. of the hill..... 2..where in the world.modifies the noun socks under my son’s bed. 4.......where at noon. in 1960..when beside the store.. D...modifies the noun houses of the hill....why along the beach... on top.. 9.adverb.........modifies the noun cat to the door.... at the end.adverb..adjective...... 7......

.. near the mall..adverb....adverb.....modifying the pronoun all at the radio station.......... In the middle. on the roof.modifying the noun middle in the middle of a big spacious lawn...modifying the noun children at the church.adverb.modifying the noun lady into the line.where of the city limits....where in front.adverb.adverb.modifying the noun north 4...where 10.. On Fridays....adverb......adjective....34 9...adverb... during the night................where in the closets..... in the kitchen.....................modifies the noun prize to the clown...............modifies the noun women for the conference....modifies the noun theme for the best costume.adjective.adjective.....modifying the noun front in front of me.adverb..........where 7...modifies the noun clown Exercise 68: Prepositional Phrases 1....where of a big spacious lawn..adverb.....adverb......where of me...adjective........adverb..adjective...adverb....modifying the noun day care around the block..how long in the heat.....adverb......adjective...adverb. 10....when of the water.......adverb...adjective... in your group..adverb....why from the day care.....where 5..................adjective...... After his graduation.modifying the noun women under the tables.......adjective.........modifying the noun rest from the basement.. where 2.adverb....... with big hat......when .where.......when of the staff..where 8.............adjective.adjective.......modifying the noun men for two hours....how.where (can be identified as a single phrase) at the store.adverb........adverb.....adjective............where 3........where 6.......adverb...adjective...........adjective.....adjective.where to the north......modifying the noun station at the old mill. Because of the storm... how with the funny hat.

.. if 20. 4. The engineer from Mainframe explained (how they would build the bridge). however 8..... but 2. It isn’t certain (whether they will come or not). 3. I know (where they have hidden the treasure). 25.. 7.. 13. nor meanwhile but so since where than before because although why than 3. (After the maple trees were damaged). and 12.adjective. 4.. 9.. 6... although 14. but also 10.adjective. she has always been very polite. 21.. why 8. not only. or.. 15. after 5.. 19.. they were cut down. even though since whether if while how as if after He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). 1. (Since I first met Sheila and her). how 11. local citizens rescued it. both. and. I wonder (why they are leaving so early).. 11. but I don’t have a map... and 6. but also either.adjective.modifying the noun graduation for a job.. because 17. 5. 16. unless 23. 5.. 10. and 7. After the whale beach itself... because 2.. as a result Exercise 70: Conjunctions 1. 7. 2.modifying the noun Manitoba Exercise 69: Conjunctions 1. 12. before B. or 4. 8.. 15. nor neither. . 9... 3. neither. But is a conjunction joining two separate and complete ideas. I won’t be able to go (even though I have the money). 10. 13. 9.35 in 1992. yet 14. 24.modifying the noun ad in Manitoba.. Mark knows more (than I do about that case). 6.. not only. 18. 22.

that Exercise 72: Interjections Answers will vary. The story explained (why people believed in the ghost). (After he won the gold medal). 24. Exercise 74: Review A 1.36 11. the students asked (if they could stay). 19. (Before they read the book). the wind was cool. Les is five inches taller (than I am). I don’t know (how I will get there). you can’t reach that cupboard. 21. who whom that 2. 17. that 10. Compare the use of after. that 2. they fixed it themselves After the lecture. 20. 16. they are out of the playoffs. 18. In sentence 12. 25. 9. The roads were slippery (because the snow was followed by rain). He always talks (as if he were an expert). (Because you were late). he turned pro. which 5. 22. that 4. who 7. Exercise 71: Relative Pronouns 1. 12. 6. Compare this with. (Unless the Leafs win this game). 14. 23. You just answered my questions (before I asked them). dogs noun make verb good adjective pets noun for preposition young adjective children noun 3. 15. Why? (Although he is stronger). you missed it Thieves broke in (while we were away). The adjective (article) pioneers noun settle verb quickly adverb on preposition the adjective (article) small adjective farms noun around preposition . (If you are short). who 8. 13. he couldn’t turn it. The roads were slippery because of the snow. (Although it was quite sunny). after is a preposition.

7. adjective adjective noun verb preposition adjective noun conjunction pronoun verb (aux) verb (main) pronoun preposition pronoun 8. your ancestors lived beside the sea mine lived near Moncton Those big chunky pots sell for nine dollars so you can buy several of them adjective (pronoun) 4. noun verb preposition adjective noun preposition verb preposition noun adjective/pronoun 6.37 Gloucester noun 3. Does he often go to the beach during the summer I do not think their problems now because I do not have time verb (auxiliary) pronoun adverb verb (main) preposition adjective noun preposition adjective noun pronoun verb (aux) adverb verb (main) adjective/pronoun noun adverb conjunction pronoun verb (aux) adverb verb (main) noun 5. Casually adverb the adjective thieves noun surveyed verb the adjective neighbourhood noun until conjunction they pronoun Everyone recognized his courage and strength even if he pronoun verb adjective/pronoun noun conjunction noun conjunction pronoun .

He has always been a really excellent hockey coach pronoun verb (aux) adverb verb (main) adjective adverb adjective adjective/noun noun . did not verb (aux) adverb Mark noun smelled verb the adjective skunk noun and conjunction left verb the adjective area noun immediately adverb She believes in his ability pronoun verb preposition adjective/pronoun noun 11. Lilacs always smell wonderful in spring verb adjective adjective noun noun adverb verb adjective preposition noun 10. 13.38 spotted the right house 9. The students in this program are very hard workers The frail old lady is safe but unhappy at the seniors’ home adjective 12. noun preposition adjective/pronoun noun verb adverb adjective noun adjective adjective adjective noun verb adjective conjunction adjective preposition adjective adjective/noun noun 14.

Usually the chairs were placed near the windows but today they are in a circle Very quickly they finished their work adverb adjective noun verb (aux) verb (main) preposition adjective noun conjunction adverb pronoun verb preposition adjective noun adverb adverb pronoun verb adjective/pronoun noun . Fred noun 2.39 15. You must never show your fear of snakes to your children pronoun verb (aux) adverb verb (main) adjective/pronoun noun preposition noun preposition adjective/pronoun noun Exercise 75: Review B 1. I had been studying for three hours and pronoun verb (aux) verb (aux) verb (main) preposition adjective noun conjunction 4. sat verb on preposition the adjective fence noun and conjunction ate verb his adjective/pronoun lunch noun while conjunction the adjective others noun went verb into preposition town noun 3.

40 I still do not know it 5. Although the storm was conjunction adjective noun verb very intense the damage was minor Because of her problems Sue often seeks my adverb adjective adjective adjective verb adjective preposition adjective/pronoun noun noun adverb verbs adjective/pronoun . Since the accident the victims have recovered pronoun adverb verb (aux) adverb verb (main) pronoun pronoun verb verb verb adjective/pronoun noun conjunction pronoun verb adverb conjunction pronoun verb verb pronoun noun pronoun verb adjective noun preposition adjective noun adjective noun verb verb 10. They had been writing their essays before they went there Because they have cashed their cheques they have some money 9. 6. After they had mowed the lawn they bought lunch conjunction pronoun verb verb adjective noun pronoun verb noun 7. 8.

advice noun The elderly waiter who served us beer is an old of hers Where did you hide the candy which I bought adjective adjective noun conjunction verb pronoun noun verb adjective adjective preposition pronoun adverb verb pronoun verb adjective noun conjunction pronoun verb 13. 15. Have you ever seen those boats in the harbour before adverb adverb verb pronoun adverb verb adjective noun preposition adjective noun adverb 12. Miles’ brother is extremely intelligent even if he noun/adjective noun verb adverb adjective conjunction pronoun . Ouch that knife is so sharp that 16. Who thinks that these train tickets are ours and those are theirs pronoun verb conjunction adjective adjective/noun noun verb pronoun conjunction pronoun verb pronoun interjection adjective noun verb adverb adjective conjunction 14.41 quite well 11.

. Hey Eric did you complete that work on those cars during the weekend The Canadian economy is becoming worse very quickly interjection noun verb pronoun verb adjective noun preposition adjective noun preposition adjective noun adjective adjective noun verb verb adjective adverb adverb 19. Finally his clever tricks failed verb adverb verb adjective adjective noun adverb adjective/pronoun adjective noun verb 17.42 I cut myself badly pronoun verb pronoun adverb can not pass those provincial exams 18.