Harminder Singh B- Tech., Mech. Engg. Univ. Roll No. – L-90491175389.



The globe is shrinking. The world is taken over by the technicians. A day after day a new technology arises. A technician without practical knowledge is zero, don’t matter how many books you have studied. Practical know how is must to be successful. Industrial training is the bridge for a student that takes him from the world of theoretical knowledge to that of practical one.  Training in a good industry is highly conducive for: 1. 2. 3. Development of solid foundation of knowledge and personality. Confidence building. Pursuit of excellence and discipline.

4. Enhancement of creativity through motivation and drive which helps to produce professional and well trained for the rigorous of the job/society. The present report has been done as an industrial training of six weeks for the completion of 4th semester of B–Tech Mechanical Engineering. During the training I got the exposure to various equipment and machines their maintenance and technology concerning the repairing the Diesel Locomotive and hence was assisted in developing self-confidence. The training helped me in implementing my theoretical knowledge to the actual industrial environment. This training at the “NORTHERN RAILWAY DIESEL SHED LUDHIANA” is definitely going to play an important role in developing an aptitude for acquiring knowledge hard work and self confidence necessary for successful future.

Few tasks are more enjoyable and fulfilling than acknowledging my gratitude to all those.ACKNOLEDGEMENT In these six weeks of industrial training.P. in every game of life these are multitude of players whose are the real heroes and this experience there are many loyal and phenomenally selfless friends. Senior Section Engineer Mr. I wish to my attribute my profound sense of gratitude without whose generous co-operation and co-ordination it would have been highly difficult for me to have such a successful training experience in the organization. . I am equally thankful to my faculty teacher for providing me this opportunity to work with such a big company. I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to the management of “NORTHERN RAILWAY DIESEL SHED LUDHIANA” of permitting me to observe and study the whole setup of factory. coworkers and my bosses in industry.Ram (Principal). I am overwhelmed. Kuldeep Rai. who have helped in this effort in so many ways. Sarbjeet Singh (Mechanic) & all the staff for their corporation & guidance made it possible to complete the work. R. I owe more than a debt of gratitude to Mr. and specially Thanks to Mr.

Certificate .

OVERVIEW Early internal combustion engine-powered locomotives used gasoline as their fuel. however. Once the concept of Diesel-electric drive was accepted the pace of development quickened. Rudolf Diesel patented his first compression ignition engine in 1892. its application for railway propulsion was considered. Steady improvements in the Diesel engine's design (many developed by Sulzer Ltd. due to the poor power-to-weight ratio of the early engines. By the mid 20th century the Diesel locomotive had become the dominant type of locomotive in much of the world. Currently. offering greater flexibility and performance than the steam locomotive. with whom Dr. as well as the difficulty inherent in mechanically applying power to multiple driving wheels on swivelling trucks (bogies). Diesel was associated for a time) gradually reduced its physical size and improved its power-to-weight ratio to a point where one could be mounted in a locomotive. Soon after Dr. as well as substantially lower operating and maintenance costs. almost all Diesel locomotives are Diesel-electric. of Switzerland. . Progress was slow.

Engineer (Diesel).NORTHERN RAILWAY. it was expanded to home 100 WDM2 locos in the year 1987-88. It is also equipped with the recreation facilities & gymnasium with high-tech exercise machines. DME-II. Initially. Diesel Shed. Further the total holding of shed was increased to 150 locos in the year 1993-94.1977. Ludhiana is also having a Diesel Training School and Hostel attached to it. ADME/R/Mech. In addition to this. Presently. Ludhiana is presently the biggest shed on the Northern Railway and the 3rd largest on Indian Railways. This training School is being mainly utilized for training of running staff for Diesel conversion and refresher courses of FZR & UMB division.. ADME/H. Later. the shed was designed to home 60 WDM2 locos. . Ludhiana is 170 having different types of locos i. LDH is ISO0-14001 Certified Shed. Diesel Shed. Diesel Shed. under whom the officers DME-I. WDM2.e. The staying capacity in the hostel is 72 and is having 38 double-bedded rooms. LUDHIANA Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION _____________________________________________________________ Diesel Shed Ludhiana came into existence on 29. indoor games etc.09. which is headed by under the dynamic control of Sr. ADME/R/Elect. The Training School consists of 5 classrooms and various working models of mechanical and electrical sub assemblies of WDM2 locos.Divl. Present loco holding of Diesel Shed. The total kilometers earning is approximately 22 lakh kilometers per month and the shed is running a mail link of 96 locos consisting of various prestigious Mail/Express trains. ACMT & SMM/Stores are working. this is also being utilized for imparting training to the maintenance staff of the shed. DIESEL SHED. Mech. WDM3A & WDG3A.

1 Various Sections In Diesel Shed: Turbo Section  Expressor Section  Compressor Section  Power Assembly Section  Cylinder Head Section  Machine Shop  Cross Head Section  Water Pump & Lube Oil Section  Radiator Section  Traction M/C  Governor Section  Gauge & Valve Section  Air Brake Section  Electrical Complaint Room  Auxillary M/C Section  Electrical Test Room  Magnaflux Section  Bogie Section  Valve Grinding Section  Contactor & Relay Room  Zyglo Testing Room  Fip Section  Tsc Balancing Section  Draftsman Room  Battery Section  Metallurgical Lab.1.  Spectro Section .

1. The fuel injection pump is responsible for maintaining desired pressure to inject the fuel. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) ALCO Turbo Supercharger ABB Turbo Supercharger Napier Turbo Supercharger Hispano Suiza Turbo Supercharger All these TSCs are fully dismantled and overhauled in this section. 4 types of TSCs are being overhauled in this section. Scrap Yard Various Sections In Diesel Shed To maintain various parts of locomotives. Brief details are as under:1. Two types of FIPs are being used at present. (i) (ii) section. At present. The strength of staff of this section is 7.1. 1. Ludhiana has different sections for electrical and mechanical repairs & maintenance. Diesel Shed.5 times. whereas the injector has the duty to spray the fuel in the cylinder after atomization. 15mm FIP 17mm FIP All these subassemblies are being dismantled.1 Turbo Supercharger Section Turbo Supercharge is a machine. overhauled and tested in this . which uses exhaust of the diesel engine to compress the intake air to improve the engine efficiency to about 1.2 Fip & Injector Section This section is responsible for maintaining the fuel injection pump and the injector of diesel locomotives.

The staff strength of section is about 10. In fuel-efficient locomotives. the valve angle is 300.4 Power Assembly Section The piston and connecting rod assembly is called as power assembly. Cross Head Section Crosshead is a subassembly. Cylinder Head Section This section is responsible for maintenance and overhauling of cylinder heads of diesel locomotives. which is operated by camshaft to operate the valve lever mechanism of the cylinder heads. two exhaust and two inlet valves. Two types of pistons are being used in the locomotive. Steel cap pistons are being used in fuel efficient locomotives. the head is made ready for service in this section after various tests. This section is responsible for maintaining this subassembly. zyglo tested and again are made ready for service in this section. 16 power assemblies are being used in one locomotive. Complete expressor or compressor is dismantled and overhauled in this section as per Work Instructions issued to the section.6. 1.1.1. whereas in conventional locomotives it is 450. There are 16 cross heads in one locomotive. The shed has switched over to barrel shape piston rings to provide better fuel efficiency. The staff strength of the section is about 30. Each cylinder head has four valves. 1. cylinder heads are there in one locomotive. 1.3 Expresser & Compressor Section The expresser is used to maintain air pressure and vacuum pressure for breaking system in the locomotive.5.1.1. The pistons and connecting rods are dismantled. whereas aluminium pistons are being used in conventional locomotives. 16 Nos.1. The staff strength of this section is about 7. The . The head is completely dismantled and after cleaning and mating the valve & valve seat and overhauling the complete components. cleaned.

various heat exchangers. Two bogie frames are used to house six axles and wheels and called as front bogie and rear bogie.9. The staff strength of this section is 4. In addition to above. 1. eddy current clutch gear box used to provide drive to radiator fan. Cross heads are completely dismantled and overhauled and also the valve lever mechanism is completely dismantled and overhauled in this section. lubricating oil pump. which are supplied from a generator driven by the diesel engine. The staff strength of this section is about 4.cross heads operate the valve levers through two bush rods. which is used to drive radiator fan. overhauled and made ready for service in this section. such as radiator.1. Both the pumps are gear driven through crankshaft split gear train. 1. 1.8. 4 on each bogie and . whereas these are roller bearings in about 50% of locomotives. compressor after cooler and engine lube oil cooler are cleaned.7. The self-centrifuging unit of locomotive is also overhauled in this section. Both the pumps are cleaned. Pump Section The pump section is responsible for overhauling water pump and lube oil pump of the locomotive. tested & overhauled in this section. over speed trip assembly is responsible for preventing the engine from over-speeding. Miscelleneous Sub-assembly & Heat Exchanger Section This section is responsible for maintaining rear truck traction motor blower which is belt driven. traction motors.Bogie Section This section is responsible for complete overhauling of undergear of the locomotive.1. one for exhaust and other for air inlet. Every loco is having one water pump and one no.1. A locomotive is driven on line through 06 No. turbo aftercooler. axles and connected to axles through a bull gear pinion arrangement. The braking arrangement for the locomotives is given through 8 brake cylinders. These motors are fitted on 6 Nos. The motors are suspended through suspension bearing which is plain bearing in some locomotives. front truck traction motor blower which is gear driven. universal shaft.

1. Air Brake Section Air brake section is responsible for overhauling of brake valves of air brake system and other safety items such as wipers. central pivot. lube oil relief valve. Staff strength of this section is about 90.12.1. Staff strength of this section is about 50. 2 on each side to bear various pumps during operation. engine block and removal of various mechanical subassemblies. The valves are overhauled and are set at a required pressure as per Maintenance Instructions. buffers. The chassis of the locomotive is having 2 Nos. 1.11. The yearly section carries out 24 monthly and 48 monthly schedules of the locomotives in which engine and various subassemblies are overhauled completely. 1.1.1. Each bogie has two nos. lube oil bypass valve of the locomotive. The load of locomotive is shared by each bogie. brake shoes and brake blocks. Staff strength of this section is about 16. Governor Section . fuel relief valve.13.1.14. Staff strength of this section is 2. horns etc. 1. Staff strength in this section is about 70. various gauges are also being maintained by this section. Speedometer Section The speedometer section is responsible for maintaining speedometers of the locomotive. In addition to it. which are responsible for recording and indicating the speed of the locomotive. central buffer couplers on each side for connection to the train. The chassis is also having mounted 4 Nos.various brake riggings. The load sharing between the central pivot and the side bearer is in the ratio of 60:40.10. Yearly Section Yearly section is used for complete overhauling of locomotive. 1.1. side bearers and one no. Valve Section This section is responsible for maintaining fuel regulating valve. sanders. lube oil regulating valve.

12 monthly and 16 monthly schedules of diesel locomotives. undergears etc. and Mail Elect.3 Quarterly & Half Yearly Section Quarterly and half yearly section is responsible for 8 monthly.2. various mechanical subassemblies.2. the shed has 3 types of governors. section.2 Minor Repairs Sections 1. The governor of the locomotive is responsible for maintaining constant speed of the engine as per requirement at every notch. 1. and goods electrical. 1. At present. 1. 1.2. for trip schedule. for trip schedule.1 Mail Section Mail Section is having 2 sections i. various mechanical subassemblies.5 M & P Of The Shed .4 Out-Of-Course Section OOC section is responsible for attending various major repairs of the locomotives. monthly schedule and quarterly schedule for goods locomotives. which cannot be covered during minor schedule. Goods section is responsible for maintenance of diesel engine.e.2. monthly schedule and quarterly schedule for mail and passenger locomotives. Mail/Mech. undergears etc. (i) (ii) (iii) Woodward governor GE or electro hydraulic governor Microprocessor based governor 1. Mail section is responsible for maintenance of diesel engine.2.2 Goods Section Goods section is also having goods mech.Governor section is responsible for maintenance of governor of the locomotive.

2. These cranes are used to lift bogies. 1 schematic diagram of diesel electric locomotive 1.e. 0ne 10tonne and the other is 3tonne crane. goods.6 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF DIESEL – ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE Fig. quarterly half yearly sections are also having 3 tonne self operated cranes which are used to lift various subassemblies of the locomotive.2. engine blocks and various major subassemblies.7BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE RADIATOR AFTER FRAME EXPRESSOR OR COMPRESSO R ROOM ENGINE ROOM GENERATOR ROOM DRIVER CABIN NOTCH COMPART MENT BOGGI E BOGGI E .The shed. in its bogie section. 1. is having two 40tonne cranes and one 10 tonne crane. Every minor repair bay i. Heavy Repair Bay subassembly sections are having two cranes. The shed is also having 3 Nos. mail. These are used for handling various subassemblies. fork lifters for material handling.

meters.577 sq. Average off-take of lube oil per day = 2700 liters (approx). M2 60 days. Trip 280 . RB (By DMW/PTA) 16-22 years NO. M24 M48 24 months. SCHEDULES GIVEN BY SHOPS Schedules Periodicity IOH/M48 (By CB Shop) 4 years POH/M96(By CB Shop) 8 years. Berthing capacity = 32 locos. Lube oil storage capacity = 350 kiloliters. Annual budget of shed = Rs.___________ (approx).OF SCHEDULES UNDERTAKEN IN A MONTH Type of Sch No.3 lakh liters (approx). T2 30 days. of Sch. Average off take of diesel oil per day = 0. Fuel storage capacity = 730 kiloliters. M12 12 months.61 lakh kilometers. 48 months. = 1969 Present mail link = 96 Present loco holding = 170 (a) WDM2 = 62 (b) WDG3A = 44 (c) WDM3A = 64 Total = 170 Direct maintenance staff per loco = 4. %age of staff housed = 21%. 2 Block diagram of diesel locomotive A Diesel locomotive is a type of railroad locomotive in which the prime mover is a Diesel engine 1.03 ACTIVITIES IN SHED Schedules Periodicity Trip 15/20 days. Stock items in the stores depot.72 SFC Goods (Lts/1000GTKM) (2008-09) = 2.Fig. M4 120 days.2.30 SFC Mail (Lts/1000GTKM) (2008-09) = 3.8 SALIENT FEATURES Sanctioned staff strength = 1331 Staff on roll = 1206 Total covered area = 12. Average kms earned/month = 21.

2.M72 72 months T2 M2 M4/8/16/20 M12 M24/48 82 40 27 08 04 1.9 Engine Description  Diesel Engine  Main Alternator  Auxiliary Alternator  Motor Blower  Air Intakes  Rectifiers / inverters  Electric Controls  Control Stands  Batteries  Cab  Traction Motor  Pinion Gear  Fuel Tank  Air compressor  Drive Shaft  Gear Box  Radiator and Radiator Fan  Turbo charging  Sand Box  Truck Frame  Wheel  Brakes  Mechanical Transmission .

the fuel is cheaper because it is less refined than petrol and it can do heavy work under extended periods of overload. At this stage. the air gets compressed into an area 1/25th of its original volume. This would be expressed as a compression ratio of 25 to 1. whereas the fuel in the diesel engine's cylinders is ignited by the heat caused by air being suddenly compressed in the cylinder.5 bar) and will increase the air temperature to over 800° F (427° C). 2. It can however. in a high speed form.1 Diesel engine: Mode of Operation . By 1913. A compression ratio of 16 to 1 will give an air pressure of 500 lbs/in² (35. as opposed to the petrol (or gasoline) engine. The diesel engine is a compression-ignition engine. which is a spark-ignition engine. Fluid Coupling  Final Drive  Hydraulic Transmission  Wheel Slip Chapter-2 Diesel Engine _____________________________________________________________ The diesel engine was first patented by Dr Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913) in Germany in 1892 and he actually got a successful engine working by 1897. his engine was in use on locomotives and he had set up a facility with Sulzer in Switzerland to manufacture them. The advantage of the diesel engine over the petrol engine is that it has a higher thermal capacity (it gets more work out of the fuel). which is why it is still not popular for passenger automobiles. when he died. His death was mysterious in that he simply disappeared from a ship taking him to London. be sensitive to maintenance and noisy. The spark ignition engine uses an electrical spark from a "spark plug" to ignite the fuel in the engine's cylinders.

Now the black injection pump injects heavy fuel in the hot air. which is what actually propels the train) will tend to inversely vary with speed within these limits. By the high temperature the fuel gets ignited immediately (auto ignition).Compression stroke: The piston compresses the air above and uses thereby work. Compressed: Pressure and Temperature are very high.Expulsion stroke: The burned exhaust gases are ejected out of the cylinder through a second valve by the piston sliding upward again. Therefore. 2. the unit's ability to develop tractive effort (also referred to as drawbar pull or tractive force. 3 4 stroke compression ignition (diesel) engine cycle 2. as long as the units generator current and voltage limits are not exceeded. performed by the crankshaft.Power stroke: In the upper dead-center. the air is max. 3. 4.2 Diesel-electric control A Diesel-electric locomotive's power output is independent to road speed. The piston gets pressed downward and performs work to the crankshaft. Suction stroke: Pure air gets sucked in by the piston sliding downward.1. . Fig.

Binary encoding also helps to minimize the number of train lines (electrical connections) that are required to pass signals from unit to unit. as determined by the engineer (driver). For example. pull the throttle from notch 2 to notch 4 without stopping at notch 3. Therefore. and thus speed. as their control systems are able to smoothly modulate power and avoid sudden changes in train loading regardless of how the engineer (driver) operates the controls. In older locomotives. The governor is designed to react to both the throttle setting. only four train lines are required to encode all throttle positions. the locomotive will . This feature was intended to prevent rough train handling due to abrupt power increases caused by rapid throttle motion ("throttle stripping. Locomotive power output. and ultimately led to the complex control systems in place on modern units where all these parameters are solved and regulated by computer modules. This basic design lends itself well to multiple unit (MU) operation by producing discrete conditions that assure that all units in a consist respond in the same way to throttle position. The prime mover's power output is primarily determined by its rotational speed (RPM) and fuel rate. The engineer could not.The diesel engine ideally should operate with maximum fuel economy as long as maximum power is not required. Modern locomotives no longer have this restriction. the throttle mechanism was ratcheted so that it was not possible to advance more than one power position at a time. for example." an operating rules violation on many railroads). and the speed at which the prime mover is running. 2. Also. Maintaining acceptable operating parameters was one of the principal design considerations that had to be solved in early Diesel-electric locomotive development. the prime mover will be receiving minimal fuel.3 WORKING OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE When the throttle is in the idle position. which are regulated by a governor or similar mechanism. the traction motors will not be connected to the main generator and the generator's field windings will not be excited (energized)—the generator will not produce electricity with no excitation. is typically controlled by the engineer (driver) using a stepped or "notched" throttle that produces binary-like electrical signals corresponding to throttle position. causing it to idle at low RPM.

however. resulting in a corresponding increase in RPM and horsepower output. An experienced engineer (driver) can accomplish these steps in a coordinated fashion that will result in a nearly imperceptible start. An experienced engineer (driver) will be able to recognize an incipient stall and will gradually advance the throttle as required to maintain the pace of acceleration. main generator field excitation will be proportionally increased to absorb the higher power. this is the same as placing an automobile's transmission into neutral while the engine is running. the brake is released and the throttle is moved to the run 1 position (the first power notch). depending on the requirements of the train's schedule.000 pounds of drawbar pull for a . At the same time. resulting in motion. not coupled to a train) and is not on an ascending grade it will easily accelerate. as the drag imposed by the train will exceed the tractive force being developed. the propulsion system is designed to produce maximum traction motor torque at start-up. the fuel rate to the prime mover will increase. It will not. This will translate into increased electrical output to the traction motors. As the throttle is moved to higher power notches. As will be seen in the following discussion. the reverser control handle is placed into the correct position (forward or reverse). with a corresponding increase in tractive force. To set the locomotive in motion.000 tons. If the locomotive is running "light" (that is. The positioning of the reverser and movement of the throttle together is conceptually like shifting an automobile's automatic transmission into gear while the engine is idling Placing the throttle into the first power position will cause the traction motors to be connected to the main generator and the latter's field coils to be in "neutral. if a long train is being started. With excitation applied. even on ascending grades. increase prime mover RPM. the engineer (driver) will have moved the throttle to the position of maximum power and will maintain it there until the train has accelerated to the desired speed. the main generator will deliver electricity to the traction motors." Conceptually. Current technology allows a locomotive to develop as much as 30 percent of its loaded driver weight in tractive force. Eventually. which explains why modern locomotives are capable of starting trains weighing in excess of 15. amounting to some 120. On the other hand. the locomotive may stall as soon as some of the slack has been taken up.

and actual engine speed (feedback).large. the prime mover's governor and a companion device. The load regulator's job is relatively complex. Therefore the net power produced by the locomotive will remain constant for any given throttle setting. six-axle freight (goods) unit. This is detected by the governor via a change in the engine speed feedback signal. The load regulator is essentially a large potentiometer that controls the main generator power output by varying its field excitation and hence the degree of loading applied to the engine. the generator will produce high current and low voltage at low locomotive speeds. The net effect is to . The governor has two external inputs: requested engine speed. determined by the engineer's throttle setting. which determines the engine fuel rate. Due to the innate characteristics of traction motors. In particular. or break couplers (the latter being referred to in North American railroad slang as "jerking a lung"). Therefore. its rotational speed will also change. play a central role in the control system. As previously explained. the main generator's output is not (which characteristic was not correctly handled by the Ward Leonard elevator drive system that was initially tried in early locomotives). "jerking a lung" could be a calamitous matter if it were to occur on an ascending grade. The governor also incorporates a separate over speed protective mechanism that will immediately cut off the fuel supply to the injectors and sound an alarm in the cab in the event the prime mover exceeds a defined RPM. because although the prime mover's power output is proportional to RPM and fuel rate. gradually changing to low current and high voltage as the locomotive accelerates. The governor has two external control outputs: fuel injector setting. In older designs. as well as the way in which the motors are connected to the main generator. It should be noted that not all of these inputs and outputs are necessarily electrical. it is incumbent upon the engineer (driver) to carefully monitor the amount of power being applied at start-up to avoid damage. In fact. a consist of such units can produce more than enough drawbar pull at start-up to damage or derail cars (if on a curve). and load regulator position. which affects main generator excitation. the load regulator. As the load on the engine changes. the locomotive's control system is designed so that the main generator electrical power output is matched to any given engine speed.

The computer compares this value with actual main generator power output. In newer designs controlled by a “traction computer. or by varying the frequency and voltage output of the VVVF for AC motors. Fig. as described above. or “kW reference”.” each engine speed step is allotted an appropriate power output. engine RPM and torque will remain constant for any given throttle setting. With DC motors.adjust both the fuel rate and the load regulator position. However. for DC motors. Therefore.4 3200Hp Diesel Locomotive Engine Traction motor performance is controlled either by varying the DC voltage output of the main generator. The computer adjusts the feedback value to match the reference value by controlling the excitation of the main generator. in software. the load regulator is retained as a “back-up” in case of engine overload. Modern locomotives fitted with electronic fuel injection (EFI) may have no mechanical governor. The governor still has control of engine speed. regardless of actual road speed. . however a “virtual” load regulator and governor are retained with computer modules. or “kW feedback”. but the load regulator no longer plays a central role in this type of control system. various connection combinations are utilized to adapt the drive to varying operating conditions. calculated from traction motor current and main generator voltage feedback values.

Fig. which will oppose the output of the main generator and cause traction . as well as the capacity of the main generator itself. the traction motors will produce their highest torque. current flow will be limited only by the DC resistance of the motor windings and interconnecting circuitry. Hence. the now-rotating motor armatures will start to generate a counter-electromotive force (back EMF. often in excess of 1000 amperes per motor at full power. meaning the motors are also trying to act as generators). where it is in first gear and thus producing maximum torque multiplication. As the locomotive accelerates. enabling it to overcome the inertia of the train. When the locomotive is at or near standstill. causing the locomotive to develop maximum tractive effort.1 inches) Full speed: 904 rpm Normal idle speed: 269 rpm At standstill. main generator output is initially low voltage/high current.6 L (710 in3) Cylinder bore: 230 mm (9. 5 Top View of Diesel Locomotive Engine Here are some of the specifications of this engine: • • • • • • • Number of cylinders: 12 Compression ratio: 16:1 Displacement per cylinder: 11. This effect is analogous to what happens in an automobile automatic transmission at start-up. Torque in a series-wound motor is approximately proportional to the square of the current.2 inches) Cylinder stroke: 279 mm (11.

" o Resistance is connected in parallel with the motor field. to increase the operating speed range.4 Starting: A diesel engine is started (like an automobile) by turning over the crankshaft until the cylinders "fire" or begin combustion. pairs of motors are connected in series across the main generator. The compressed air was supplied by a small auxiliary engine or by high pressure air cylinders carried by the locomotive." o Initially. Electric starting is now standard. The starting can be done electrically or pneumatically. It works the same way as for an automobile." "field diverting" or "weak fielding. • Generator transition . producing a corresponding increase in motor torque and speed. Since this plateau will usually be reached at a speed substantially less than the maximum that may be desired. Note: Both methods may also be combined. At higher speed. unless on a downgrade. something must be done to change the drive characteristics to allow continued acceleration. In older locomotives fitted with DC generators instead of AC alternators. then fuel was applied to fire the engine. Compressed air was pumped into the cylinders of the engine until it gained sufficient speed to allow ignition." a process that is analogous to shifting gears in an automobile.5 Transition methods include: • Series / Parallel or "motor transition. At this point.motor current to decrease. the generator was used as a starter motor by applying battery power to it. 2. Main generator voltage will correspondingly increase in an attempt to maintain motor power. • Field shunting. the locomotive will essentially cease to accelerate. Pneumatic starting was used for some engines. with batteries providing the power to turn a starter motor which turns over the main engine. motors are re-connected in parallel across the main generator. This change is referred to as "transition. 2. but will eventually reach a plateau. This has the effect of increasing the armature current.

It combines some great mechanical technology. These relatively low speeds mean that the engine design is heavy.500 rpm and this is regarded as high speed in the railway diesel engine category. each cylinder will produce about 200 hp. In this article. two-stroke diesel engine. it was necessary for the engineer to manually execute transition by use of a separate control. the more power you need. However. the UK HST (High Speed Train.6 Size Does Count Basically. the load meter (an indicator that informs the engineer on how much current is being drawn by the traction motors) was calibrated to indicate at which points forward or backward transition should take place. In older locomotives. and a modern engine can double this if the engine is turbocharged. The maximum rotational speed of the engine when producing full power will be about 1000 rpm (revolutions per minute) and the engine will idle at about 400 rpm. developed in the 1970s) engine has a speed of 1. The slow. Automatic transition was subsequently developed to produce better operating efficiency. the bigger the engine has to be. with some heavy duty electric motors and generators. . lightweight engine. heavy engine used in railway locomotives will give low maintenance requirements and an extended life. For a UK locomotive of 3. The hybrid diesel locomotive is an incredible display of power and ingenuity.o Reconnecting the two separate internal main generator stator windings from parallel to series to increase the output voltage. Early diesel engines were less than 100 horse power (hp) but today the US is building 6000 hp locomotives. we'll start by learning why locomotives are built this way and why they have steel wheels. 12-cylinder. This combination of diesel engine and electric generators and motors makes the locomotive a hybrid vehicle. As an aid to performing transition at the right time. 2. as opposed to a high speed. throwing in a little bit of computer technology for good measure. and to protect the main generator and traction motors from overloading due to improper transition. Then we'll take a look at the layout and key components.300 hp (Class 58). including a huge.

so the power of a single locomotive is limited. cooling jackets and its valves thoroughly before its dismantling. • • • • • • • • • • Study the condition of cylinder head combustion chamber face.There is a limit to the size of the engine which can be accommodated within the railway loading gauge. Use liquid nitrogen for valve seat insert fitting. Before final assembly check all valve seat inserts as well as of nozzle cooling sleeve. Check the clean nozzle. Do RDF of cylinder head combustion face. Check cylinder head hydraulically at 5kg/sq. where freight trains run into tens of thousands of tons weight.8 Cylinder Head . Temp of water up to a min of 15 minutes. Clean cylinder head thoroughly especially cooling jackets. Check valve seat inserts for cracks by RDF (After grinding). Check the diameter of valve guide after removing its carbon deposits. In the US. defect any cracks. 2. cooling sleeves seat of cylinder head. Where additional power is required. four locomotives at the head of a train are common and several additional ones in the middle or at the end are not unusual. 2. it has become usual to add locomotives. cm and 8. Compare seat should be lapped thoroughly and it should be 1/16” thick all over.7 Important Maintenance Instruction For Cylinder Head.

Fig. 6 Cylinder Head

2.9 To V or not to V
Diesel engines can be designed with the cylinders "in-line", "double banked" or in a "V". The double banked engine has two rows of cylinders in line. Most diesel locomotives now have V form engines. This means that the cylinders are split into two sets, with half forming one side of the V. A V8 engine has 4 cylinders set at an angle forming one side of the V with the other set of four forming the other side. The crankshaft, providing the drive, is at the base of the V. The V12 was a popular design used in the UK. In the US, V16 is usual for freight locomotives and there are some designs with V20 engines.

2.10 Tractive Effort, Pull and Power
Before going too much further, we need to understand the definitions of tractive effort, drawbar pull and power. The definition of tractive effort (TE) is simply the force exerted at the wheel rim of the locomotive and is usually expressed in pounds (lbs) or kilo Newtons (KN). By the time the tractive effort is transmitted to the coupling between the locomotive and the train, the drawbar pull, as it is called will have reduced because of the friction of the mechanical parts of the drive and some wind resistance. Power is expressed as horsepower (hp) or kilo Watts (kW) and is actually a rate of doing work. A unit of horsepower is defined as the work involved by a horse lifting 33,000 lbs one foot in one minute. In the metric system it is calculated as the power (Watts) needed when one Newton of force is moved one metre in one second. The formula is P = (F*d)/t where P is power, F is force, d is distance and t is time. One horsepower equals 746 Watts. The relationship between power and drawbar pull is that a low speed and a high drawbar pull can produce the same power as high speed and low drawbar pull. If you need to increase higher tractive effort and high speed, you need to increase the power. To get the variations needed by a locomotive to operate on the railway, you need to have a suitable means of transmission between the diesel engine and the wheels.

One thing worth remembering is that the power produced by the diesel engine is not all available for traction. In a 2,580 hp diesel electric locomotive, some 450 hp is lost to on-board equipment like blowers, radiator fans, air compressors and "hotel power" for the train.


WDM-2 Diesel Locomotive

The first few prototype WDM-2s were imported. After Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) completed construction of its factory in Varanasi, production of the locomotives began in India. The first 12 locos were built using kits imported from ALCO in the United States. After that DLW started manufacturing the WDM-2 locomotives from their own components. Since then over 2,800 locomotives have been manufactured and the WDM-2 has become the most popular locomotive in India. However, even before the arrival of WDM-2 another type of diesel locomotive was imported from ALCO beginning in 1957. This locomotive was classified as WDM-1. Later a number of modifications were made and a few subclasses were created. This includes WDM-2A, WDM-2B and WDM-3A (formerly WDM-2C). The WDM-2 is the diesel workhorse of the Indian Railways, being very reliable and rugged.

The class WDM-2 is Indian Railways' workhorse diesel locomotive. The first units were imported fully built from the American Locomotive Company (Alco) in 1962. Since 1964, it has been manufactured in India by the Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW), Varanasi. The model name stands for broad gauge (W), diesel (D), mixed traffic (M) engine. The WDM-2 is the most common diesel locomotive of Indian Railways. The WDM-2A is a variant of the original WDM-2. These units have been retrofitted with air brakes, in addition to the original vacuum brakes. The WDM-2B is a more recent locomotive, built with air brakes as original equipment. The WDM-2 locos have a maximum speed of 120 km/h (75 mph), restricted to 100 km/h (62 mph) when run long hood forward. The gear ratio is 65:18. Types of Diesel locomotives WDM2 WDM3 WDM6 WDM7 BG Main Line Locomotive BG Main Line Locomotive BG Main Line Locomotive BG Main Line Locomotive 2600HP 3100HP 1350HP 2150HP 4000HP 4000HP 1350HP 2300HP 3100HP 3100HP 3300HP 1350HP

WDG4 BG Main Line Goods Locomotive WDP4 BG Main Line Passenger Locomotive WDS6 BG Shunting Locomotive WDP1 BG Inter City Express Locomotive WDP2 BG High HP Passenger Locomotive WDG3A WDG3C BG High Goods Locomotive BG High HP Goods Locomotive

YDM4 MG Main Line Locomotive

3.1 Technical specifications

at adhesion 27%. GE752 (original Alco models) (405 hp). Higher Reliability 3.5:1. The above requirement. 4. It included the computer based test facility for both data logging and control of engines.600 hp (2.8 tones.Builders Alco.430 hp site rating) with Alco 710/720/?? Turbo supercharged engine. GE 17MG8 / Woodward’s 8574-650.000 rpm).000 rpm).8 t.4 t. 228 mm x 266 mm bore/stroke.862 mm. Electric. Better Fuel Efficiency 2.000 rpm max.000 rpm. fan driven by eddy current clutch (86 hp at 1. 770 V. Increased Availability . BHEL 4906 BZ (AZ?) (435 hp) and (newer) 4907 AZ (with roller bearings) 18. 400 rpm idle. Alco design cast frame trimount (Co-Co) bogies 30. in the year 1987. compression ratio 12. 10. 2. Engine Governor Transmission Traction motors Axle load Bogies Starting TE Length over buffer beams Distance between bogies 15.516 mm. total weight 112. centrifugal pump cooling system (2.520 amps). 16 cylinder. The above facilities comparable to the best facilities in the world were created to meet the following objectives: Development of technology for improving existing Rail Traction Diesel Engines for 1.457 l/min at 1. Direct fuel injection. led to the creation of test beds at Engine Development Directorate of RDSO at Lucknow having state of the art facilities for developmental testing of all the variants of diesel engines being used by Indian Railways. with BHEL TG 10931 AZ generator (1. DLW Alco 251-B. 1.

Develop capability for designing new Rail Traction Diesel Engines for meeting future needs of Indian Railways.Development of technology for increasing power output of existing Diesel Engines.1 Technical Information Diesel Electric main line. with 16 cylinder ALCO engine and AC/DC traction with micro processor controls. To provide effective R&D backup to Railways and Production units to 1.2. Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Length over Buffers Wheel Diameter Gear Ratio Min radius of Curvature Maximum Speed Co-Co 1676 mm 123 t 19132 mm 1092 mm 18 : 74 117 m 105 Kmph . Maintain Quality 2. heavy duty goods service locomotive. Facilitate Indigenization 3.2 Broad Gauge Main Line Freight Locomotive WDG 3A 3.

Axle Load 19.1 Technical Information Diesel Electric Locomotive with micro processor control suitable for main line mixed Service train operation.3.3 Broad Gauge Main Line Mixed Service LOCO WDM 3D 3.V 3100 IRAB-1 Air. Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Length Buffer Wheel Diameter 1092 mm Gear Ratio Maximum Speed 18 : 65 120 Kmph 1676 mm 117 t over 18650 mm Co-Co Max..16 Cyl.Diesel Engine HP Brake Loco Train Fuel Tank Capacity Type : 251 B.5 t . Dynamic Air 6000 litres 3.

Hand Air Tank 5000 litres . ‘V’ type 3300 HP (standard UIC condition) Electric AC / DC IRAB-1 system Air. Dynamic.Diesel Engine HP Transmission Brake Loco Train Fuel Capacity Type: 251 B-16 Cyl.

3.4 Broad Gauge Shunting Locomotive WDS 6AD 3.1Technical Information A heavy duty shunting Diesel Electric Locomotive for main line and branch line train operation. in-line 1350 / 1120 HP (std. This locomotive is very popular with Steel Plants and Port Trusts.) Electric AC / DC IRAB-1 Air Air .4. Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Length over Buffer Wheel Diameter Gear Ratio Maximum Speed Diesel Engine HP Transmission Brake Loco Train Co-Co 1676 mm 113 t 17370 mm 1092 mm 74 : 18 50 Kmph Type : 251 D-6 Cyl.

. 6 cylinders ALCO) types of DLW manufactured Engines. 8 Test Bed 3. temperature and other parameters. fuel consumption at this notch is one of the important fuel efficiency index. 16 cylinders ALCO.6 Fuel Consumption on 8th Notch Since the fuel consumption at 8th notch is highest and also since Locomotives run at this notch for longer duration as compared to other Tank Capacity 5000 litres 3. Each test cell has an instrumentation catering to 60 to 120 pressures / temperature transducers along with sophisticated equipments like gravimetric fuel balance for measurement of fuel consumption and the equipment for measurement of air flow. Each test cell has its own microprocessor controlled data acquisition and control systems and Video Display Unit (VDU) for pressure. 12 cylinders ALCO.5 Engine Test Bed Facilities The test bed facilities in RDSO are equipped with four Test Cells. Various transducers relay the information from the test engines to the microprocessor based test commander for further processing with the help of sophisticated software. This is measured in terms of gm / bhp . Fig. These Test Cells house four (16 cylinders GMEMD.

He turns and holds a switch there. Then the engineer flips about a hundred switches on a circuit-breaker panel. turn the key and drive away in a diesel locomotive. the engineer walks down a corridor into the engine room.9 Driving a Locomotive You don't just hop in the cab. He then turns the switch the other way and the starter motor engages.3. which primes the fuel system. The notch wise percentage running of locomotive over duty cycle for passenger and freight operations of Indian Railways locomotives is as under: 3.4-m) ladder and enters a corridor behind the cab. The engine cranks over and starts running. Next. Starting a train is a little more complicated than starting your car. making sure that all of the air is out of the system.7 Fuel Consumption Over Duty Cycle An Engine runs in the field at different notch as per requirement of speed / load of the locomotive. He or she engages a knife switch (like the ones in old Frankenstein movies) that connects the batteries to the starter circuit. providing power to everything from the lights to the fuel pump.8 Speed at different Notch position Notch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Speed (RPM) 400 450 550 650 750 850 915 1000 3. . The engineer climbs an 8-foot (2.

" Notch 1 is the slowest speed. putting the throttle into notch 1 engages a set of contactors (giant electrical relays). Some combinations of contactors put certain parts of the generator winding into a series configuration that results in a higher voltage. To get the train moving. and sounds the air horns twice (indicating forward motion). he engages the bell. . As the contactors engage.Next. Once he has permission from the conductor of the train to move. the engineer releases the brakes and puts the throttle into notch 1. plus an idle position. and notch 8 is the highest speed. producing a different voltage. The throttle control has eight positions. the computerized engine controls adjust the fuel injectors to start producing more engine power. resulting in a lower voltage. Each notch engages a different combination of contactors. which rings continuously. he goes up to the cab to monitor the gauges and set the brakes once the compressor has pressurized the brake system. Each of the throttle positions is called a "notch. The traction motors produce more power at higher voltages. Finally he can head back up to the cab and take over control from there. He can then head to the back of the train to release the hand brake. In this General Motors EMD 710 series engine. These contactors hook the main generator to the traction motors. Others put certain parts in parallel.

1 Main Alternator The diesel engine drives the main alternator which provides the power to move the train. 4. the motor blower provides air which is blown over the traction motors to keep them cool during periods of heavy work. 4. on the train. The alternator generates AC electricity which is used to provide power for the traction motors mounted on the trucks (bogies). In the UK. Whatever the arrangement. The output is transmitted along the train through an auxiliary power line. so the blower output is connected to each of the motors through flexible ducting. The blower is mounted inside the locomotive body but the motors are on the trucks. air conditioned passenger coaches get what is called electric train supply (ETS) from the auxiliary alternator.Chapter-4 Main Parts Of An Engine _____________________________________________________________ 4.2 Auxiliary Alternator Locomotives used to operate passenger trains are equipped with an auxiliary alternator. . Some designs have separate blowers for the group of motors on each truck and others for the alternators. heating. The next development was the replacement of the generator by the alternator but still using DC traction motors. air conditioning. the alternator was a DC machine. it is known as "head end power" or "hotel power". In the US. called a generator. This provides AC power for lighting. The blower output also cools the alternators. dining facilities etc. As its name suggests. In older locomotives.3 Motor Blower The diesel engine also drives a motor blower. Many of these machines are still in regular use. It produced direct current which was used to provide power for DC traction motors. a modern locomotive has a complex air management system which monitors the temperature of the various rotating machines in the locomotive and adjusts the flow of air accordingly. The AC output is rectified to give the DC required for the motors.

One inverter per axle is more complicated. GM EMD relies on one inverter per truck. To see more on the difference between DC and AC traction technology try the Electronic Power Page on this site. if one inverter (i. . They are cheaper to build and cost less to maintain and. By controlling each axle individually. but full tractive effort is still available through the other five inverters. the output from the rectifiers is used directly. EMD's system links the axles within each truck in parallel. keeping wheel diameters closely matched for optimum performance is no longer necessary. In the US. If an inverter fails. both inside and outside the locomotive. AC motors have become standard for new locomotives. To convert the AC output from the main alternator to DC. ensuring wheel slip control is maximized among the axles equally. one truck) fails then the unit is only able to produce 50 per cent of its tractive effort.5 Rectifiers/Inverters The output from the main alternator is AC but it can be used in a locomotive with either DC or AC traction motors. 4. DC motors were the traditional type used for many years but. If the motors are AC. rectifiers are required. Parallel control also means even wheel wear even between axles.4. in the last 10 years. there are some variations in how the inverters are configured.4 Air Intakes The air for cooling the locomotive's motors is drawn in from outside the locomotive. while GE uses one inverter per axle . but the GE view is that individual axle control can provide the best tractive effort. with electronic management can be very finely controlled. It has to be filtered to remove dust and other impurities and its flow regulated by temperature. If the motors are DC. However.e. The air management system has to take account of the wide range of temperatures from the possible +40° C of summer to the possible -40° C of winter. the tractive effort for that axle is lost.both systems have their merits. the DC output from the rectifiers is converted to 3-phase AC for the traction motors.

These are usually collected in a control cubicle near the cab for easy access. each weighing over 300 pounds (136 kg). is much preferred by drivers to the modern desk type of control layout usual in Europe and now being offered on some locomotives in the US. known as a control desk in the UK or control stand in the US. 4.4. Fig.9 Controls. Once the main engine is running. The common US type of stand is positioned at an angle on the left side of the driving position and. it is said.8 Batteries Just like an automobile. The controls will usually include a maintenance management system of some sort which can be used to download data to a portable or hand-held computer. These batteries provide the power needed to start the engine (it has a huge starter motor). . The locomotive has eight 8-volt batteries. as well as to run the electronics in the locomotive.7 Control Stand This is the principal man-machine interface. an alternator supplies power to the electronics and the batteries. the diesel engine needs a battery to start it and to provide electrical power for lights and controls when the engine is switched off and the alternator is not running. The locomotive operates on a nominal 64-volt electrical system.6 Electronic Controls: Almost every part of the modern locomotive's equipment has some form of electronic control. indicators and the radio 4.

000 hp. The seats have a suspension system as well. US freight locos are also designed with narrow engine compartments and walkways along either side. US passenger locos. 4. Propulsion: The traction motors provide propulsion power to the wheels. which meshes with a larger gear on the axle shaft. Each motor drives a small gear. There are between four and six motors on most diesel-electric locomotives. it is difficult to tell the difference between a freight and passenger locomotive because the designs are almost all wide bodied and their use is often mixed.4. which helps isolate the engineer from bumps. Fig. A modern AC motor with air blowing can provide up to 1.10 Traction Motor Since the diesel-electric locomotive uses electric transmission. In Europe. 10 Traction Motor . There is one on each axle. This gives a reasonable forward view if the locomotive is working "hood forwards". This provides the gear reduction that allows the motor to drive the train at speeds of up to 110 mph. on the other hand have full width bodies and more streamlined ends but still usually with one cab.9 Cab Most US diesel locomotives have only one cab but the practice in Europe is two cabs. The cab of the locomotive rides on its own suspension system. These motors were traditionally DC but the development of modern power and control electronics has led to the introduction of 3phase AC motors. traction motors are provided on the axles to give the final drive.

This huge tank in the underbelly of the locomotive holds 2. 3. so if any compartment is damaged or starts to leak.200 gallons (8. . which is driven by the diesel engine.11 Fuel Tank A diesel locomotive has to carry its own fuel around with it and there has to be enough for a reasonable length of trip.000 pounds (2. 4. The new AC6000s have 5.Each motor weighs 6.000 imperial gallons (UK Class 59.500 gallon tanks. the locomotive will carry around. The fuel tank is compartmentalized. If the speed falls the weights move inwards.000 US gallons in a General Electric AC4400CW 4. the engine speed is monitored and controlled through a governor.400 hp locomotive.12 Governor Once a diesel engine is running. If the weights move inwards. The governor is a simple mechanical device which first appeared on steam engines.170 amps of electrical current. The fuel tank is normally under the loco frame and will have a capacity of say 1. A pair of flyweights is linked to the shaft and they rotate as it rotates. the collar moves down the shaft. The flyweights are linked to a collar fitted around the shaft by a pair of arms. The centrifugal force caused by the rotation causes the weights to be thrown outwards as the speed of the shaft rises. so the collar rises on the shaft. Air reservoirs are also required for the train braking and some other systems on the locomotive. As the weights move out. These are often mounted next to the fuel tank under the floor of the locomotive. 4.722 kg) and can draw up to 1. typically about 300 US gallons of cooling water and 250 gallons of lubricating oil for the diesel engine.328 L) of diesel fuel. The movement of the collar is used to operate the fuel rack lever controlling the amount of fuel supplied to the engine by the injectors.000 hp) or 5. pumps can remove the fuel from that compartment. It operates on a diesel engine as shown in the diagram below. In addition to fuel. The governor ensures that the engine speed stays high enough to idle at the right speed and that the engine speed will not rise too high when full power is demanded. The governor consists of a rotating shaft.

This type of governor is installed as a safety measure and comes into action when the engine approaches dangerous over speed.1 Function and types of governors The purpose of a governor is to control the speed of an engine. The other type trips a fuel . it will slow down or may even stop. 11 Principle of Governor 4. If an engine is loaded beyond its rated capacity. By necessity.Fig. This governor controls all abnormal speed surges. governs the power developed. The over speed type is used on most marine engines where the speed of the engine is variable. the action of the governor depends upon the centrifugal force created as the governor weights revolve. Centrifugal force is the force that tends to move a body away from the axis about which it is revolved. This condition could occur before the operator had time to bring the engine under control by other means. This force is transmitted to the fuel injection system by means of levers connected to the governor collar and a linkage system.12. are : over speed governor and regulating governor. The over speed trip functions only if the regulating governor fails. The two types of governors. Governors act through the fuel injection system to control the amount of fuel delivered to the cylinders. Overspeed governors are of the centrifugal type. In some types of over speed governors the action merely cuts off the fuel until the engine has slowed to a point of safety and then allows the resumption of normal operation. The quantity of fuel delivered. each of which serves a distinctly different purpose. the marine engine requires flexibility in speed due to the maneuvering of the ship. that is. in turn.

The mechanical governor is more applicable to the small engine field not requiring extremely close regulation while the hydraulic type finds favor with the larger installations demanding very close regulation. the governor must be sensitive to the slightest variation in speed. The F-M engines employ an F-M design over speed governor and the GM engines use Woodward over speed governors. For this discussion governors will be classified as either hydraulic or mechanical. consisting of the power spring. a speed adjusting spring whose tension governs the speed setting of the governor. while the hydraulic type employs a centrifugally actuated pilot valve to regulate the flow of a hydraulic medium under pressure.12. and the compensating assembly which consists of the actuating compensating plunger. pilot valve bushing. and power cylinder. and flyweights which control the amount of oil going to the power assembly. 4. from one of the camshafts. On F-M engines. the power element. Figure 10-2 is a schematic diagram of the governor. To perform this function. it is driven from the lower crankshaft. The regulating governor is much more sensitive to slight speed fluctuations than is the overspeed governor. It takes the place of the operator's manual control of the throttle. the receiving compensating plunger. and two . the compensating spring. a pilot valve plunger. and on GM engines. power piston.cutout mechanism and affects a complete stopping of the engine. When the load on the engine increases. The mechanical type embodies the principle of centrifugal force similar to the over speed type. The Woodward hydraulic governor of the regulating type is widely used in the United States Navy & Railway Engines.2 Description and operation The type of regulating governor used on all submarine main engines is the Woodward SI hydraulic type governor. thus maintaining the engine speed at the set rate. The purpose of the governor is to regulate the amount of fuel supplied to the cylinders so that a predetermined engine speed will be maintained despite variations in load. it permits an increase of fuel to the cylinders. The principal parts of the governor are a gear pump and accumulators which serve to keep a constant oil pressure on the system at all times. Its duty is to control the speed within very narrow limits when an engine is operating under varying loads. and before the engine's speed has appreciably dropped.

raising the pilot valve plunger. As the trapped oil drains to the oil sump. This opens the regulating port of the bushing. and trapped oil from the power cylinder is then allowed to flow through the pilot valve cylinder into a drainage passage to the oil sump. the land on the pilot valve plunger covers the regulating port in the bushing. Fig. and the supply of fuel to the engine is diminished. The amount of oil below the power piston is regulated by the pilot valve plunger controlled by the flyweights. In this governor the flyweights are linked hydraulically to the fuel control cylinder. actuating the linkage to the fuel system controls. the flyweights resume their original position and the. 12 Woodward regulating governor installed When the engine is running at the speed set on the governor. the power spring forces the piston down. The pilot valve plunger is constructed with a land which serves to open or close the port in the pilot valve bushing leading to the power cylinder. . The plunger is held in this position by the flyweights. The downward pressure of the power spring is balanced by the hydraulic lock on the lower side of the power piston. pilot valve plunger again covers the regulating port. However. if the engine load decreases.compensation needle valves. As the engine speed returns to the set rate. the engine speeds up and the additional centrifugal force moves the flyweights outward.

13 Schematic diagram of Woodward regulating governor If the load increases. actuating the linkage to increase the amount of fuel injected into the engine cylinders.Fig. The bushing moves upward. The power piston moves upward. and the flyweights move inward. the flyweights resume their central position. allowing pressure oil to flow through the pilot valve chamber to the power cylinder. This acts on the pilot valve bushing so as to anticipate the pilot valve movement and close the regulating port slightly before the centrifugal flyballs would normally direct the pilot valve to cover the port. as the speed returns to the set rate. As the flyweights and pilot valve return to their central position. To prevent overcorrection in the regulating governor a compensating mechanism is used. Once again. A compensating plunger on the power piston shaft moves in a cylinder that is also filled with oil. the engine slows down. closing the port to the power piston. This creates a suction above the receiving compensating plunger which is part of the pilot valve bushing. Thus the power piston is stopped. The gear pump that supplies the high-pressure oil is driven from the governor drive shaft and takes suction from the governor oil sump. This oil supplied by a pump is under a pressure sufficient to overcome the pressure of the power spring. allowing no time for overcorrection. This lowers the pilot valve plunger. A spring-loaded accumulator maintains a constant pressure of oil and allows excess oil to return to the sump. the actuating compensating plunger is also carried down. drawing oil into its cylinder. oil . When the engine speed increases and the power piston moves downward.

In actual operation. Check valve seats are arranged at the top and bottom of each chamber. oil pump check valves. On opposite sides of the central bore in the power case. The pressure of this spring determines the engine speed necessary for the flyweights to maintain their central position. and compensating needle valves. As before. The oil pump drive gear turns the rotating sleeve to which it is attached. When the engine speed drops below the set rate. carrying with it the pilot valve bushing. Drive adapter: . To keep the port closed. These two gears and their housing constitute the governor oil pump. Oil allowed to leak past the various plungers for lubricating purposes is drained into the governing oil sump. the events described above occur almost simultaneously. This increases the pressure above the actuating compensating plunger and consequently above the receiving compensating piston which therefore moves down.flowing through a needle valve allows the compensating spring to return to its central position. Both check valves have openings . the lower bushing port is closed.3 Regulating governor sub-assemblies:The governor consists of five principal subassemblies as follows: a. are two long oil passages leading from the bottom of the power case to the top of the accumulator bores. and parallel to it. The excess oil in the compensating system is now forced out through the needle valve as the compensating spring returns the bushing to its central position.This assembly includes the governor oil pump. the bushing and plunger must return to normal position at exactly the same speed. Power case assembly:. The governing speed of the engine is set by changing the tension of the speed adjusting spring. b. the needle valve must be adjusted so that the oil passes through at the required rate for the particular engine. The pump idler gear is carried on a stud and rotates in a bored recess in the power case. 4.The drive adapter assembly serves as a mounting base for the governor. Therefore. The upper flange of the casting is bored out at the center to form a bearing surface for the hub of the pump drive gear and for the upper end of the drive shaft. oil pressure accumulators. the actuating compensating plunger moves upward with the power piston.12.

The two compensating needle valves control the size of the openings in the two small tapered ports in the passage that connects the area above the actuating compensating plunger in the Servo motor and the space above the receiving compensating plunger in the pilot valve bushing of the rotating sleeve assembly. Their function is to regulate the operating oil pressure and insure a continuous supply of oil in the event that the requirements of the power cylinder should temporarily exceed the capacity of the oil pump. pulling oil through the lower check valve on one side and forcing it through the upper check valve on the opposite side. There is no adjustment for oil pressure. In this way the pump is arranged for rotation in either direction. power. . power cylinder and rotating sleeve assembly. Only one needle valve and one port are necessary for operation. as this pressure is determined by the size of the springs in the accumulators. These ports open the compensating oil passage to the oil sump tank. case.leading from the space between the valves to the oil pump. 14 Governor-sections through adapter. but two are provided so that adjustment can be made on the one that is more accessible. There are two oil pressure accumulators. Fig.

and the pinion shaft gear and pinion. thereby increasing the fuel flow. An oil drain is provided in the space above the power piston to permit any oil that may leak by the piston to drain into the governor case oil sump. Since these grooves extend completely around the diameter of the rotating sleeve. If no oil pressure is present. The gear train consists of the dial shaft gear.The basic speed control column assembly includes the speeder plug screw.The power cylinder assembly consists of the cylinder. and the speed adjustment knob with gear train. Any oil pressure acting on the lower side forces the piston up against the power spring. loosening the lock nut. Rotating sleeve assembly: . the compression determines the engine speed. Movement of the gear train changes the compression of the speed adjusting spring. The screw can be adjusted by removing the cap nut on top of the power cylinder. power spring.The principal parts of the rotating sleeve assembly (Figure 10-13) are: the pump drive gear. d. The speeder plug screw allows the adjustment of the governor speed setting to match the actual speed of the engine. and turning the screw up or down with a screwdriver. The amount of compression determines the speed at which the flyballs will be vertical. pilot valve plunger. This screw prevents the power piston from traveling beyond the predetermined load limit. rack shaft. thus preventing wear and binding. ballhead. Hence. e. pilot valve bushing. and flyballs. The power piston is single acting. the results are the same as if the sleeve were stationary and the ports were . dial shaft pinion. Power cylinder assembly: . and the actuating compensating plunger.c. rack shaft gear. helical groove permits equal oil pressure on all sides of the piston. speed adjusting spring. piston rod. An adjustable load limit stop screw is provided in the power cylinder. A shallow. The port grooves in the sleeve align with the ports in the power case (Figure 10-10). The area underneath the power piston is connected to the pilot valve regulating ports. the power spring acting on the upper side forces the piston down to decrease the fuel flow. The central bore in the power case forms a bearing for the entire rotating sleeve. power piston. Speed control column:. No piston rings are used in the closely fitting piston.

Speed adjustment: . 4. When the speed setting is . consequently a higher flyball (and engine) speed must be attained to move the flyballs outward and thereby reduce the fuel supply.4 ADJUSTMENTS a.permanently in line with those in the case.The speed setting of the governor is changed by increasing or decreasing the compression of the speed adjusting spring which opposes the centrifugal force of the flyballs. and drain from the lower side of the receiving compensating plunger. decreasing the spring compression decreases the speed at which the engine will run. and the engine. This receiving motor operates in parallel with a Selsyn transmitter generator in the governor control cabinet mounted on the main control cubicle instrument panel in the maneuvering room. Thus. From top to bottom the ports are as follows: accumulator pressure to pilot valve. compensating pressure from the power piston to the receiving compensating plunger on the pilot valve bushing. or electrically from the governor control cabinet in the maneuvering room as follows: 1.The manual adjustment is made by means of the speed control knob located on the front of the regulating governor. Speed adjustments may be made manually at the governor. 2. Electrical adjustment:. This knob is connected through a gear train to the rack shaft which in turn is. decreasing the compression of the speed adjusting spring will permit the flyballs to move outward when they. The knob also actuates a pointer that travels over a dial graduated to show engine speeds corresponding to deflection of the speed adjusting spring. regulating pressure to power cylinder. Increasing the spring compression will make it more difficult for the flyballs to move outward. Conversely. are running at a lower speed.For electrical control. drain from the lower end of the pilot plunger. a Selsyn receiving motor is also geared to the rack shaft. Manual adjustment:.12.geared to a rack on the speed adjusting plug.

12. Then the valve is closed until surging is just eliminated. The needle valve will usually be open about one-fourth of a turn for best performance. the compressor is usually electrically driven and can therefore be mounted anywhere. The one not used must be turned in against its seat. Compensating needle valve adjustment:. 4. In the UK. it is standard practice to drive the compressor off the diesel engine drive shaft. the more accessible valve is opened a full turn or more and the engine is allowed to surge for approximately 30 seconds to eliminate trapped air. However. 4.changed at the transmitter generator. Once the valve has been adjusted correctly for the engine. 4.5 Air Compressor The air compressor is required to provide a constant supply of compressed air for the locomotive and train brakes. b.12. the adjustment depends on the characteristics of the engine. The Class 60 compressor is under the frame.This adjustment is made with the engine running from 200 rpm to 300 rpm as set by the speed adjustment knob or by remote control. Drive to the fan is therefore through a gearbox to change the direction of the drive upwards. When performing the adjustment. whereas the Class 37 has the compressors in the nose. it should not be necessary to change the adjustment except for a permanent temperature change affecting the viscosity of the oil.12.6 Gear Box The radiator and its cooling fan is often located in the roof of the locomotive. the receiving motor in the governor moves to establish the same setting in the governor. The needle valve should be kept open as far as possible to prevent sluggishness. Either of the two needle valves may be used for adjustment. almost 800° F) and then injecting a fine spray of fuel oil to .7 Fuel Injection Ignition is a diesel engine is achieved by compressing air inside a cylinder until it gets very hot (say 400° C. In the US.

8 FIP Testing • Ensure the level of servo calibration. To get the fine spray needed for successful ignition the fuel has to be pumped into the cylinder at high pressure.12. The fuel is pumped into an injector. Oil is above the low mark in storage tank of test stand. which gives the fine spray of fuel required in the cylinder for combustion. 15 Fuel injection pump Fig. The fuel pump is operated by a cam driven off the engine.e. The estimated fuel and lube oil economy with this modification is approx. .cause a miniature explosion. This modification led to sharper fuel injection i. The explosion forces down the piston in the cylinder and this turns the crankshaft. The modification resulted in increase of peak fuel line pressure from 750 to 850 bars and. Fig. The plunger diameter of the fuel injection pump was increased from 15 mm to 17 mm. improvement in the fuel efficiency. 4. thus.5% and 4% respectively. 16 FIP cut section The original fuel injection pumps used on ALCO Engines had plunger diameter of 15 mm. 1. injection at higher-pressure.

12. The FIP rack should be Screw the fuel inlet union. Measure the oil delivery in beaker for 300 strokes. Do this process five times & If specified delivery is not achieved adjust the rack by rotating rack position tool against the spring loaded plunger. Nozzle holder body. check the average of last three measurement of oil delivery. . Compensating washer. 2. 4. to FIP type to be tested b/w the rack positioning tool & FIP face. • Adjust the pointer of full fuel position to proper mm reading. 3.• • • • • • • • • • Heat the oil to 100° F to 120° F. Nozzle cap nut. 4. Remove the horse shoe space & ensure rack length is at idle fuel length i. at 9 mm & record the full fuel delivery in calibration data nozzle. Operate the calibrating m/c & set the oil pressure 25-30 psi. 5. Spindle with guide bush. Nozzle.9. Mount the m/c nozzle according to FIP type to be used on m/c. in the required direction to get the specified delivery & when it is found within specified limit.024˝ max. Connect the high pressure tube b/w FIP discharge & calibrating nozzle. Mount the overhauled FIP on cam housing & tighten.e. 6. 7. Keep the control rack in full fuel oil position & insert horse shoe space according Reset the counter to zero. stop the m/c.12. Spring.1 Maintenance Instruction Of Injector While Re-Conditioning • Nozzle value lift 0.9 Injector Assembly Sequence 1. 4. Intermediate disc.

Gauges. Seat tightness test. lbs. Reamer 23/32 HSS.• • • • • • Testing pressure Min. Pressure Gauge 0 to 8960 psi. Keep spindle with guide bush & intermediate disc on spring. . Place assemble nozzle over the intermediate disc & screw the nozzle cap nut & torque to 105 ft. Clean all the components once again using clean HSD oil & assemble them wet. Centering Sleeve For Injector Nozzle. lbs. Nozzle should give healthy chartering sound. Temp. Pin Vice Kit. Position the spring seat & spring in the body. lbs. Nose Plier. True Running Tool For Injection. Torque Wrenches Used In FIP Section • • • • • • • • • • • • • Torque Wrench – 100 to 400 ft. 4. Pressure Gauge 0 to 100 psi. there should be no dribbling. 4100 Psi-290 kg/cm Spring pattern should be uniform. Dial Gauge. • • • • Place the injector nozzle holder body in the fixture with nozzle & upward.2Tool. Torque Wrench – 450 to 750 ft. Gauge 0 to 110° C.12. Socket – 1 (⅜)˝ & 2((⅜)˝ Box Spanner 36 mm & 70 mm.9. 3100 Psi-260 kg/cm Max.

The fine spray of fuel injected into each cylinder has to be regulated to achieve the amount of power required. operated by an engine-driven cam. The engine will increase power and the governor will monitor engine speed to ensure it does .The fuel rack can be moved either by the driver operating the power controller in the cab or by the governor. 17 Fuel System The amount of fuel being applied to the cylinders is varied by altering the effective delivery rate of the piston in the injector pumps. so the toothed section of the pump rotates and provides a drive to move the pump piston round inside the pump. Fig. and the pumps are aligned in a row so that they can all be adjusted together. As the fuel rack moves. In a diesel engine the amount of air applied to the cylinder is constant so power is regulated by varying the fuel input. If the driver asks for more power. The adjustment is done by a toothed rack (called the "fuel rack") acting on a toothed section of the pump mechanism.13 Fuel Control In an automobile engine. the power is controlled by the amount of fuel/air mixture applied to the cylinder. The mixture is mixed outside the cylinder and then applied by a throttle valve. Each injector has its own pump. Regulation is achieved by varying the fuel sent by the fuel pumps to the injectors. the control rod moves the fuel rack to set the pump pistons to allow more fuel to the injectors.4.

through which a liquid (coolant) is pumped. then through the radiator itself where it loses this heat to the atmosphere. In railway with a liquid-cooled internal combustion engine a radiator is connected to channels running through the engine and cylinder head. also for a fan to blow air through the radiator.14 Radiators They are used for cooling internal combustion engines. This coolant is usually water-based. motorcycles.18 Fuel Supply system 4. but is more commonly a mixture of water and antifreeze in proportions appropriate to the . It's usual for the coolant flow to be pumped. where it is heated. railway locomotives. stationary generating plant or any similar use of such an engine. Fig.not go above the predetermined limit. but may also be oil.The limits are fixed by springs limiting the weight movement. They operate by passing a liquid coolant through the engine block. chiefly in automobiles but also in piston-engined aircraft. This liquid may be water (in climates where water is unlikely to freeze).

even though this requires long coolant pipes.or rear-mounted.climate.14. the radiator may draw air from the flow over the top of the vehicle or from a side-mounted grill.1 Radiator Construction Railway radiators are constructed of a pair of header tanks. Radiators are typically mounted in a position where they receive airflow from the forward movement of the vehicle. . such as behind a front grill. side airflow is most common for engine and transmission cooling and top airflow most common for air conditioner cooling. thereby cooling the engine. such as buses. linked by a core with many narrow passageways. Antifreeze itself is usually ethylene glycol or propylene glycol (with a small amount of corrosion inhibitor). it is common to mount the radiator behind a front grill to achieve sufficient airflow. Alternatively. and sometimes to cool engine oil. Modern radiators save money and weight by using plastic headers and may use aluminium cores. Radiators are also often used to cool automatic transmissions. For many years radiators were made from brass or copper cores soldered to brass headers. this formed what became in effect a solid water tank with many air tubes through it. This core is usually made of stacked layers of metal sheet. 4. pressed to form channels and soldered or brazed together. An earlier construction method was the honeycomb radiator. The radiator transfers the heat from the fluid inside to the air outside. thus a high surface area relative to its volume. As they only touched at their ends. This construction is less easily repaired than traditional materials. then stacked together and soldered. Where engines are mid. air conditioners. Round tubes were swaged into hexagons at their ends. For long vehicles.

19 Honeycomb Radiator Tubes Temperature Control 4. Fig. bypassing the radiator. .Fig. a valve which opens once the engine has reached its optimum operating temperature. Once the coolant reaches the thermostat's activation temperature it opens. allowing water to flow through the radiator to prevent the temperature rising higher. with a small bypass flow so that the thermostat experiences changes to the coolant temperature as the engine warms up.20 Radiator Thermostat When the engine is cold the thermostat is closed. Coolant is directed by the thermostat to the inlet of the circulating pump and is returned directly to the engine.14. Directing water to circulate only through the engine allows the temperature to reach optimum operating temperature as quickly as possible whilst avoiding localized "hot spots".2 Water Flow Control The engine temperature is primarily controlled by a wax-pellet type of thermostat.

in rough proportion to the engine effort. Where an additional cooling fan is driven by the engine. . A side effect of this would be that the passenger compartment heater would not be able to put out enough heat to keep the passengers warm. and this was often only done in cold weather. 4. radiator coolant was usually plain water. this also tracks engine speed similarly.14. Vehicle speed affects this. The thermostat is therefore constantly moving throughout its range.) Conversely. the thermostat will be approaching fully open because the engine will be producing near to maximum power while the velocity of air flow across the radiator is low. to keep the engine at its optimum operating temperature. such as labouring slowly up a steep hill whilst heavily laden on a hot day. 4. (The velocity of air flow across the radiator has a major effect on its ability to dissipate heat. speed and external temperature.14.Once at optimum temperature. the thermostat controls the flow of coolant to the radiator so that the engine continues to operate at optimum temperature. The size of the radiator (and thus its cooling capacity) is chosen such that it can keep the engine at the design temperature under the most extreme conditions a vehicle is likely to encounter (such as climbing a mountain whilst fully loaded on a hot day).3 Airflow Control Other factors influence the temperature of the engine including radiator size and the type of radiator fan. responding to changes in vehicle operating load. Under peak load conditions. the thermostat will be nearly closed because the engine is producing little power. Antifreeze was used solely to control freezing. Airflow speed through a radiator is a major influence on the heat it loses. thus giving crude self-regulatory feedback. Allowing too much flow of coolant to the radiator would result in the engine being over cooled and operating at lower than optimum temperature. and the radiator is able to dissipate much more heat than then engine is producing.4 Coolant Before World War II. when cruising fast downhill on a motorway on a cold night on a light throttle.

when the coolant is evaporated to a level below the water pump. Although ramjets normally require a . These led to the adoption of glycols for their antifreeze properties too. This can happen without warning because. To protect the unwary the cap often contains a mechanism that attempts to relieve the internal pressure before the cap can be fully opened.6 Radiator Thrust An aircraft radiator comprises a duct wherein heat is added.5 Boiling Or Overheating On this type system. A calibrated pressure-relief valve is usually incorporated in the radiator's fill cap. 4. Some scalding of one's hands can easily occur in this event. this is effectively a jet engine. Because the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines increases with internal temperature the coolant is kept at higher-than-atmospheric pressure to increase its boiling point. At one point. fluid transfer to overflow will cause an increased loss by vaporizing the engine coolant. leading to the adoption of glycol or water-glycol mixtures. As a result. This pressure varies between models.14.6 bar) .0 bar). High-performance piston aircraft with well-designed low-drag radiators (notably the P-51 Mustang) derived a significant portion of their thrust from this effect. by overloading or system defect. if the coolant in the overflow container gets too low. 4. corrosion inhibition has become even more important than antifreeze and in all regions and seasons too. by injecting fuel into this duct after the radiator and igniting it.Development in high-performance aircraft engines required improved coolants with higher boiling points. Since the development of aluminium or mixed-metal engines. but is typically 9 psi (0.15 psi (1.14. the sending units are not exposed to the coolant to indicate the excessive temperature. at that point. Opening a hot radiator drops the system pressure immediately and may cause a sudden ebullition of super-heated coolant which can cause severe burns (see geyser). there were even plans to equip the Spitfire with a ramjet. Severe engine damage can be caused by overheating.

Dismantle the components in the following sequence: o Universal end hub. this light-up speed can be reduced where heat is being added. Remove the radiator fan from bearing housing. but for low-density steam. Clean the bearing with HSD oil and water and dry air. causing it to rise in temperature in inverse proportion to its specific heat capacity. to exceed this limit by allowing the coolant to boil. notably the Rolls-Royce Goshawk. This absorbs an amount of heat equivalent to the specific heat of vaporization. • • Open bearing seal plate. o Shaft & bearing using hydraulic press. Cooling was now needed not just for hot dense liquid coolant. 4. such as in a radiator duct. Attempts were made with aero-engines of the 1930s. these were soon realized to be unworkable and so steam cooling was abandoned.supersonic airspeed. For aircraft. Work instruction Radiator Fan Assembly Stripping & Cleaning • • • • Remove the radiator fan assembly from the loco and place on the sand. especially high-speed aircraft. This required a condenser far larger and with higher drag than a radiator. o Bearing housing covers.7 Steam Cooling Pressurized cooling systems operate by adding heat to the coolant fluid. Obviously this allows the necessary cooling effect with far less coolant requiring to be circulated.14. Clean bearing housing externally with diesel oil and place it on work bench. which for water is more than five times the energy required to heat the same quantity of water from 0°C to 100°C. this limits the amount of heat that a given mass-flow of coolant can dissipate. The practical difficulty was the need to provide condensers rather than radiators. With the need to keep the final temperature below boiling point. .

Chapter-5 Cooling System _____________________________________________________________ Like an automobile engine. it must not be allowed to get too hot. the coolant being kept cool by passing it through a radiator. Fit hub at universal end. When starting the coolant isn't circulated at all. it is too cold and. After all. . This consists of a water-based coolant circulating around the engine block. Fix the bearing housing in the fixture. Set the fan end key to fan and fan shaft. The temperature is monitored by a thermostat and this regulates the speed of the (electric or hydraulic) radiator fan motor to adjust the cooling rate. The coolant is pumped round the cylinder block and the radiator by an electrically or belt driven pump. When it starts. Press bearing to shaft by hydraulic press.• • • • • • • Pack the bearing with servogen 3 grease and seal. Some radiators are provided with shutters to help regulate the temperature in cold conditions. the diesel engine needs to work at an optimum temperature for best efficiency. Fix the fan to the shaft and tighten the nut and secure the split pin. To keep the temperature stable. Apply both bearing covers duly ensuring for free rotation of shaft. you want the temperature to rise as fast as possible when starting on a cold morning and this will not happen if you a blowing cold air into your radiator. a cooling system is provided. when working.

000 hp engine. with Gycol and some form of rust inhibitor. causes stresses in the block and pipes and tends to produce leaks.Fig. A problem with engine cooling is cold weather. it is driven through a fluid coupling to ensure that no damage is caused by sudden changes in engine speed. the air blown by the fan being used to cool the water in the radiator. Some engines have fans with an electrically or hydrostatically driven motor. engines do not normally contain anti-freeze. An hydraulic motor uses oil under pressure which has to be contained in a special reservoir and pumped to the motor.5 litres) of coolant into a 3. In the US. . Water freezes at 0° C or 32° F and frozen cooling water will quickly split a pipe or engine block due to the expansion of the water as it freezes. means that engine in the US have traditionally operated without it. 21 Piping System If the fan is driven by a belt or mechanical link. Water up to 1210lts used. Some systems are "self draining" when the engine is stopped and most in Europe are designed to use a mixture of anti-freeze. although the new GM EMD "H" engines are designed to use it. It has the advantage of providing an in-built fluid coupling. Another reason for keeping diesel engines running is that the constant heating and cooling caused by shutdowns and restarts. The fan works the same way as in an automobile. the engine is left running or the locomotive is kept warm by putting it into a heated building or by plugging in a shore supply. In cold weather. Problems with leaks and seals and the expense of putting 100 gallons (378.

To avoid too great a variation in the dimensions of the engine parts: . and other moving parts: . 2.Shown below are the percentages of useful work and various losses obtained from the combustion of a fuel oil in a diesel cylinder: To useful work (brake thermal efficiency) To exhaust gases To cooling water and friction Radiation. To retain the strength of the metals used: .High temperatures change the strength and physical properties of the various ferrous metals used in an engine. If the engine cooling system did not keep the engine temperature at a value that would insure the formation of an oil film. These changes in dimensions result in a variation of clearances between the moving parts. cylinder walls. insufficient lubrication and consequent excessive engine wear would result.This oil film must be maintained to insure adequate lubrication. resulting in possible fracture. To maintain lubricating oil film on pistons. the tensile strength of the metal is reduced. increased friction. and so forth 30-35 percent 30-35 percent 30-35 percent 0. If the engine is kept too cool. condensation takes places in the lube oil and forms acids and sludge. if a cylinder head is subjected to high temperatures without being cooled. The formation of an oil film depends in large degree on the viscosity of the oil. lube oil. and possible seizure.5 percent There are three practical reasons for cooling an engine: 1. 3. These excessive changes also occur when there are large differences between the cold and operating temperatures of the parts. Under normal operating conditions these clearances are very small and any variation in dimension of the moving parts may cause insufficient clearances and subsequent inadequate lubrication. For example. This high .Great differences between operating temperatures at varying loads cause excessive changes in the dimensions of the moving parts.

This is one of the reasons the size of cylinders in diesel engines is limited. the thicker the material necessary for liners and cylinder heads in order to withstand the pressures of combustion. It requires time to conduct heat through any substance. For instance. Thicker metals cause the inside surfaces to run hotter. the water jacket should cover the entire length of the piston stroke to avoid possible unequal expansion of various sections of the cylinder and cylinder liner. This can be accomplished to some extent by engine design.temperature also causes excessive expansion of the metal which may result in shearing of the cylinder bolts. cylinder jackets. therefore the thicker the metal. valves. because the heat is not conducted so rapidly to the cooling water. cylinder liners. the pistons are cooled by lubricating oil which is in turn cooled by engine cooling water. exhaust headers. In present fleet type submarine installations. the slower the conduction. 5. It is important to keep all parts of the engine at as nearly the same temperature as possible.1 Water pump: . and exhaust elbows usually are cooled by water. because the larger the cylinder. Cylinder heads. Pistons may be cooled either by water or oil.

.Fig. Check seal plate for erosion and cavitation damages. Ensure while pressing. Examine bearing and see that there are no damage balls or chattered races.1. Check the run out of shaft and don’t permit more than 2 thou. Check the locking properly of the lock nut.1 Inspection and maintenance • • • • • • • • • • Examine impeller for wear & score marks.22 Water cooling system 5. bearing. Examine visually the impeller and remove any slight burs or Feathers. Use only stainless steel split pin. The torquing of the impeller nut should be done at 125lbs. pressure should be applied only against the inner race of Lubricating ball bearing with a light grease before final assembly.

Chapter-6 Lubrication _____________________________________________________________ .

which has to be kept topped up. There is also a high pressure relief valve. crankshaft and other moving parts.1 Lubricating Oil: WDM2 – 910lts WDM3 – 1110lts Chapter-7 Turbocharger . usually carried in the sump. lubricating oil is distributed around the engine to the cylinders. a diesel engine needs lubrication. The radiator is sometimes designed as a heat exchanger. Fig.Like an automobile engine. If oil pressure falls to a level which could cause the engine to seize up. 23 Lube oil system 6. and a pump to keep the oil circulating evenly around the engine. The oil gets heated by its passage around the engine and has to be kept cool. so it is passed through a radiator during its journey. a "low oil pressure switch" will shut down the engine. to drain off excess oil back to the sump. In an arrangement similar to the engine cooling system. There is a reservoir of oil. The oil has to be filtered to remove impurities and it has to be monitored for low pressure. where the oil passes through pipes encased in a water tank which is connected to the engine cooling system.

2 Working Principle A turbocharger is a small radial fan pump driven by the energy of the exhaust gases of an engine. the term was soon shortened to "turbocharger". A supercharger is an air compressor used for forced induction of an engine. However. . However. 7. A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor on a shared shaft. is a gas compressor used for forced-induction of an internal combustion engine. as the term "turbosupercharged" is sometimes used to refer to an engine that uses both a crankshaft-driven supercharger and an exhaust-driven turbocharger. Like a supercharger. the purpose of a turbocharger is to increase the density of air entering the engine to create more power. or turbo. Logically then. 24 Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger 7. a turbocharger differs in that the compressor is powered by a turbine driven by the engine's own exhaust gases. Some companies such as Teledyne Continental Motors still use the term turbosupercharger in its original sense. adding a turbine to turn the supercharger would yield a "turbosupercharger". This is now a source of confusion. Fig._______________________________________________________________________ _ A turbocharger.1 Nomenclature Early manufacturers of turbochargers referred to them as "turbosuperchargers".

the intake pressure must be controlled by controlling the rotational speed of the turbocharger. Because the turbocharger increases the pressure at the point where air is entering the cylinder. a greater mass of air (oxygen) will be forced in as the inlet manifold pressure increases. Fig. to improve the engine's volumetric efficiency by solving one of its cardinal limitations.7 psi). The additional oxygen makes it possible to add more fuel. The compressor draws in ambient air and pumps it in to the intake manifold at increased pressure.The turbine converts heat to rotational force. which is in turn used to drive the compressor. 25 Principle of turbocharger 7.3 History . This controls shaft speed and regulates air pressure in the intake manifold. resulting in a greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each intake stroke. which routes some of the exhaust flow away from the exhaust turbine. increasing the power and torque output of the engine. Because the pressure in the cylinder must not go too high to avoid detonation and physical damage. there ultimately will be a limit to the pressure difference across the intake valves and thus the amount of airflow entering the combustion chamber. The objective of a turbocharger is the same as a supercharger. The control function is performed by a wastegate. Because the pressure in the atmosphere is no more than 1 atm (approx 14. A naturally aspirated automobile engine uses only the downward stroke of a piston to create an area of low pressure in order to draw air into the cylinder through the intake valves.

the brass oil drain connection. 7. Aircraft such as the P-38 Lightning. The engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14. Diesel ships and locomotives with turbochargers began appearing in the 1920s. and P-47 Thunderbolt all used turbochargers to increase high altitude engine power. 7. In 1918.4 Aviation During the First World War French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbo chargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success.000 feet (4. The primary purpose behind most aircraft-based applications was to increase the altitude at which the airplane could fly. On the right are the braided oil supply line and water coolant line connections.5.1 Components: Fig. General Electric engineer Sanford Moss attached a turbo to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine. Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines in the 1930s before World War II. . His patent for a turbocharger was applied for use in 1905. by compensating for the lower atmospheric pressure present at high altitude.300 m) to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power losses usually experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude. 26 On the left. B-17 Flying Fortress.The turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi.5 Design And Installation 7.

Fig.29 A wastegate installed next to the turbocharger: The turbocharger has four main components. .27 Compressor impeller side with the cover removed. The turbine (almost always a radial turbine) and impeller/compressor wheels are each contained within their own folded conical housing on opposite sides of the third component. Fig.Fig. the center housing/hub rotating assembly (CHRA).28 Turbine side housing removed.

the larger the flow capacity. In the automotive world. This is representative of the extra air pressure that is achieved over what would be achieved without the forced induction. Measurements and shapes can vary. Atmospheric pressure is approximately 14. and anything above this level is considered to be boost. Twin-scroll designs have two valve-operated exhaust gas inlets. . Often the same basic turbocharger assembly will be available from the manufacturer with multiple housing choices for the turbine and sometimes the compressor cover as well. The CHRA may also be considered "water cooled" by having an entry and exit point for engine coolant to be cycled. the larger the turbine wheel and compressor wheel.0 bar. avoiding possible oil coking from the extreme heat found in the turbine. The turbine and impeller wheel sizes also dictate the amount of air or exhaust that can be flowed through the system. The level of boost may be shown on a pressure gauge. This allows the designer of the engine system to tailor the compromises between performance. Generally. Manifold pressure should not be confused with the volume of air that a turbo can flow. The development of air-foil bearings has removed this risk. as well as curvature and number of blades on the wheels.5 psi or 1. a smaller sharper angled one for quick response and a larger less angled one for peak performance.The housings fitted around the compressor impeller and turbine collect and direct the gas flow through the wheels as they spin. allowing it to rotate at very high speed with minimal friction. It also must contain a bearing system to suspend the shaft. The center hub rotating assembly (CHRA) houses the shaft which connects the compressor impeller and turbine. in automotive applications the CHRA typically uses a thrust bearing or ball bearing lubricated by a constant supply of pressurized engine oil. response. Variable geometry turbochargers are further developments of these ideas. Water cooled models allow engine coolant to be used to keep the lubricating oil cooler. and efficiency to application or preference. For instance. and the relative efficiency at which they operate. usually in bar. psi or possibly kPa. The size and shape can dictate some performance characteristics of the overall turbocharger. boost refers to the increase in pressure that is generated by the turbocharger in the intake manifold that exceeds normal atmospheric pressure.

Most modern aviation turbochargers are not designed to increase manifold pressures above this level. the speed must be controlled. methanol. head-gasket. To obtain more power from higher boost levels and maintain reliability. The main function of a wastegate is to allow some . including the turbo. and head bolts. pre-ignition.5. the turbo is only designed to hold a pressure in the intake manifold equal to sea-level pressure as the altitude increases and air pressure drops. many engine components have to be replaced or upgraded such as the fuel pump. liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and diesel fuels allow higher boost than gasoline. The maximum possible boost depends on the fuel's octane rating and the inherent tendency of any particular engine towards detonation. This is called turbo-normalizing. because of these fuels' combustion characteristics. and detonation. A wastegate is the most common mechanical speed control system. inside its thermal and mechanical design operating range. Premium gasoline or racing gasoline can be used to prevent detonation within reasonable limits. Boost pressure is limited to keep the entire engine system. The ICAO standard atmospheric pressure is 29. Since a turbo can spin to RPMs far beyond what is needed. valves. fuel injectors.92 inches (760 mm) of mercury at sea level. The speed at which the assembly spins is proportional to the pressure of the compressed air and total mass of air flow being moved. The speed and thus the output pressure of the turbo is controlled by the wastegate. Absolute pressure is the amount of pressure above a total vacuum. Instead.In contrast. pistons. and is often further augmented by an electronic or manual boost controller. a bypass which shunts the gases from the cylinders around the turbine directly to the exhaust pipe. or of what it is safely capable of. as aircraft engines are commonly air-cooled and excessive pressures increase the risk of overheating. the instruments on aircraft engines measure absolute pressure in inches of mercury. 7. air pressure in the intake system begins to build. the compressor turbine draws in a large volume of air and forces it into the engine. Ethanol.2 Wastegate By spinning at a relatively high speed. As the turbocharger's output flow volume exceeds the engine's volumetric flow.

When a turbocharger is installed on an engine.5.3 Anti-Surge/Dump/Blow off Valves: Turbocharged engines operating at wide open throttle and high rpm require a large volume of air to flow between the turbo and the inlet of the engine. It is basically a pressure relief valve. Recycling back into the turbocharger inlet is required on an engine that uses a massairflow fuel injection system. The primary use of this valve is to maintain the turbo spinning at a high speed.e. If the pressure rises high enough. a compressor stall will occur. bypass. In order to prevent this from happening. 7. A dump valve will also shorten the time needed to re-spool the turbo after sudden engine deceleration. it is common practice to fit the engine with an intercooler. and is normally operated by the excess pressure in the intake manifold.4 Charge cooling: Compressing air in the turbocharger increases its temperature. it is common practice to introduce extra fuel into the charge for the . a type of heat exchanger which gives up heat energy in the charge to the ambient air. The air is usually recycled back into the turbo inlet but can also be vented to the atmosphere. a valve is fitted between the turbo and inlet which vents off the excess air pressure. 7.of the exhaust to bypass the turbine when the set intake pressure is achieved. Passenger cars have wastegates that are integral to the turbocharger. blow-off valve (BOV) or dump valve. The reverse flow back across the turbocharger causes the turbine shaft to reduce in speed quicker than it would naturally. possibly damaging the turbocharger. which can cause a number of problems. When the throttle is closed compressed air will flow to the throttle valve without an exit (i. where the stored pressurized air decompresses backwards across the impeller and out the inlet. These are known as an anti-surge. This causes a surge which can raise the pressure of the air to a level which can damage the engine. Excessive charge air temperature can lead to detonation. which is extremely destructive to engines. In cases where an intercooler is not a desirable solution. because dumping the excessive air overboard downstream of the mass airflow sensor will cause an excessively rich fuel mixture.5. the air has nowhere to go).

turbochargers are most commonly used on gasoline engines in high-performance automobiles and diesel engines in transportation and other industrial equipment. This thermodynamic property allows manufacturers to achieve good power output by using extra fuel at the expense of economy and emissions. Volvo. Instead. the turbo Porsche 944's acceleration performance was very similar to that of the largerengined non-turbo Porsche 928. Today. The evaporated fuel holds this heat until it is released in the exhaust stream. reducing problems with turbo lag and compressor stall caused by sudden accelerations and decelerations. performance characteristics which are normally poor in nonturbocharged diesel engines. and Subaru have produced turbocharged cars for many years. By providing naturally-aspirated and turbocharged versions of one engine. Parts commonality between the two versions of the same engine reduces production and servicing costs. it absorbs and carries away heat when it changes phase from liquid to vapor. Diesels are particularly suitable for turbocharging for several reasons: • Turbocharging can dramatically improve an engine's specific power and powerto-weight ratio. The extra fuel is not burned. • Diesel engines are not prone to detonation because diesel fuel requires much higher pressures to detonate than gasoline does. limited only by the engine's ability to withstand that pressure. Saab. • Diesel engines are optimized to operate within a relatively narrow rpm range. Because of this. Small cars in particular benefit from this technology. as there is often little room to fit a large engine.sole purpose of cooling. diesel engines can use much higher boost pressures than spark ignition engines. the manufacturer can offer two different power outputs with only a fraction of the development and production costs of designing and installing a different engine. and Chrysler Corporation built numerous turbocharged cars in the 1980s and 1990s. . The turbocharger's small size and low weight have production and marketing advantage to vehicle manufacturers. The compact natures of a turbocharger mean that bodywork and engine compartment layout changes to accommodate the more powerful engine are not needed or minimal.

7. Sand is not often provided on multiple unit trains because the adhesion requirements are lower and there are normally more driven axles. .5 Sand Box: Locomotives always carry sand to assist adhesion in bad rail conditions.5.

is a structure underneath a train to which axles (and. mounted on a swivel. attached to a vehicle. It can be fixed in place. Archbar type truck with journal bearings as used on some steam locomotive tenders.Chapter-7 _ Truck Frame Or Bogie _______________________________________________________________________ A bogie (pronounced /bogie/) is a wheeled wagon or trolley. or a wheel truck. To ensure ride comfort by absorbing vibration. To run stably on both straight and curved track. Bogies serve a number of purposes: • • • • To support the rail vehicle body. A bogie in the UK. as on a railway carriage or locomotive. wheels) are attached through bearings. a bogie is a chassis or framework carrying wheels.30 bogie function Bettendorf-style freight car truck displayed at the Illinois Railway Museum. and minimizing centrifugal forces To minimize generation of track irregularities and rail abrasion when the train runs on curves at high speed . In mechanics terms. or sprung as in the suspension of a caterpillar tracked vehicle. Fig. as on a cargo truck. or simply truck in the USA and Canada as well as Mexico. hence. This one uses journal bearings.

Most bogies have two axles as it is the simplest design. and sliders to prevent lateral movement. At least one wheelset composed of an axle with a bearings and wheel at each end. such as for a double decker train to increase interior space while staying within height restrictions. Suspension to absorb shocks between the bogie frame and the rail vehicle body. wagon or locomotive. . An alternate configuration often is used in articulated vehicles. Key components of a bogie include: • • • • The bogie frame itself. one at each end. or rubber airbags. The connection of the bogie with the rail vehicle allows a certain degree of rotational movement around a vertical axis pivot (bolster). More modern bolster less bogie designs omit these features.Usually two bogies are fitted to each carriage. The axle box suspension usually consists of a spring between the bogie frame and axle bearings to permit up and down movement. which places the bogies under the connection between the carriages or wagons. or in easy-access. Heavy-duty cars may have more than two bogies using span bolsters to equalize the load and connect the bogies to the cars. usually an electrically powered the tread of the wheel. traction motors or a hydraulically powered torque converter. A more modern design uses solid rubber springs. but the floor of the car may be lower between bogies. with side bearers preventing excessive movement. Axle box suspension to absorb shocks between the axle bearings and the bogie Common types are coil springs. instead taking advantage of the sideways movement of the suspension to permit rotational movement. Usually the train floor is at a level above the bogies. and disc brakes and pads. • • Brake equipment. Two main types are used: brake shoes that are pressed against In powered vehicles. stepless-entry low-floor trains. frame. but some cars designed for extremely heavy loads have been built with up to five axles per bogie. some form of transmission.

being rated for 100 miles per hour (160 km/h). which was rated to run at 90 mph (145 km/h). 31 Commonwealth bogie as used on BR Mark 1 and CIE Park Royals. The wheels were cast as a one-piece item in a pair with their axle.2 Commonwealth bogie: Fig.7. 7.1 BR1 bogie: The British Railways Mark 1 coach brought into production in 1950 utilized the BR1 bogie. avoiding the need to maintain axle box oil levels. . Each spring was connected to the outermost edge of the axle by means of a roller bearing contained in oil filled axle box. The bogie was a heavy cast steel design weighing 6. The simple design involved the bogie resting on four leaf springs (one spring per wheel) which in turn were connected to the axles.1 Types of Bogie 7. The oil in these boxes had to be topped up at regular maintenance times to avoid the bearing running hot and from seizing. The leaf springs were replaced with coil type springs (one per wheel) running vertically rather than horizontally. The SKF or Timken manufactured Commonwealth bogie was introduced in the late 1950s for all BR Mark 1 vehicles. The advanced design gave a superior ride quality to the BR1. There was also a heavy-duty version designated BR2.1.75 ton with fitted sealed roller bearings on the axle ends.1. The leaf springs were designed to absorb any movement or resonance and to have a damping effect to benefit ride quality.

Some Mark 1 catering cars had mixed bogies—a B5 under the kitchen end. A heavier duty version. The bogie had a conventional bolster suspension with swing links carrying a spring plank. Some of the B4 fitted Mark 2s. The British Rail Mark 2 coach however carried the B4 bogies from new.3 B4 bogie: B4 bogie as used on BR Mark 2 and Irish Cravens. now two coil springs rather than one were fitted per wheel.1. . It was a fabricated steel design as versus cast iron and was hence 1. Only a very small amount of Mark 1 stock was fitted with the B4 bogie from new. with simple horn guides attached.1. was standard on Southern Region Mk1 based EMUs from the 1960s onwards.The side frame of the bogie was usually of bar construction. and a B4 under the seating end. However. The axle boxes had a cast steel equaliser beam or bar resting on them. Each wheel is separately connected to the bogie by a swing-arm axle. Axle/spring connection was again with fitted roller bearings. weighing in at 5. The bar had two steel coil springs placed on it and the bogie frame rested on the springs. allowing the axle boxes vertical movements between them. The effect was to allow the bar to act as a compensating lever between the two axles and to use both springs to soften shocks from either axle. The B4 bogie was introduced in 1963. as well as many B4 fitted Mark 1 BGs were allowed to run at 110 miles per hour (180 km/h) with extra maintenance.4 BT10 Bogie BT10 High speed bogie as used on MK3. It also had a speed rating of 100 miles per hour (160 km/h). 7. it being used on the Mark 1 only to replace worn out BR1 bogies.55 tons lighter than the Commonwealth. the B5. particularly of the wheel profile.2 tons. The BT10 bogie was introduced on the British Rail Mark 3 coach in the 1970s. 7. and more frequent exams.

Trucks used in the USA include AAR type A switcher truck.There is dual suspension • • Primary suspension via a coil spring and damper mounted on each axle. This is connected to the bogie by pendulum links. Secondary suspension via two air springs mounted on the pivot plank. Most diesel locomotives and electric locomotives are carried on bogies (UK) or trucks (US). HT-C truck and Flexicoil. A constant coach height is maintained by air valves. Bloomberg B. .

round bearing. which uses a lot of energy. The weight of the locomotive rests on a big. Fig. and at high speeds. the small variations in the track would make for a rough ride if the trucks could not swing laterally. something like 25 percent of the engine's power is being used to push the tires down the road. The track is not perfectly straight.32 Suspension System The weight of the locomotive rests on the leaf springs. this amount of .1 Wheels Ever wonder why trains have steel wheels. giant metal links. This isolates the body of the locomotive from the bump. Since a car is relatively light. rather than tires like a car? It's to reduce rolling friction. The amount of energy used by the tires is proportional to the weight that is on them. These links allow the locomotive to swing from side to side. which compress when it passes over a bump. which connect to the truck assembly. Below the pivot is a huge leaf spring that rests on a platform. The system also keeps the amount of weight on each rail relatively equal. reducing wear on the tracks and wheels 8. When your car is driving on the freeway. The platform is suspended by four. Tires bend and deform a lot as they roll. The links allow the trucks to move from side to side with fluctuations in the track.Chapter-8 Suspension _____________________________________________________________ The trucks also provide the suspension for the locomotive. which allows the trucks to pivot so the train can make a turn.

But in order for it to use this thrust effectively. The system can also reduce the power of any traction motor whose wheels are slipping. 8. In the next is acceptable (you can buy low rolling-resistance tires for your car if you want to save a little gas). Since a train weighs thousands of times more than a car. The downside of using steel wheels is that they don't have much traction. By using steel wheels on a steel track. The sand dramatically increases the traction of the drive wheels. . In fact.2 Traction: Traction when going around turns is not an issue because train wheels have flanges that keep them on the track. we'll discuss the interesting solution to this problem. But traction when braking and accelerating is an issue. a train is about the most efficient way to move heavy goods. The steel wheels on the train ride on a tiny contact patch -. In front of each wheel is a nozzle that uses compressed air to spray sand. the amount of deformation is minimized. the eight wheels on the locomotive have to be able to apply this thrust to the track without slipping. which reduces the rolling resistance. which is stored in two tanks on the locomotive. The locomotive uses a neat trick to increase the traction. the rolling resistance is a huge factor in determining how much force it takes to pull the train.000 pounds of thrust. The train has an electronic traction-control system that automatically starts the sand sprayers when the wheels slip or when the engineer makes an emergency stop.the contact area between each wheel and the track is about the size of a dime. This locomotive can generate 64.

It will also be necessary to vary the power applied according to the train weight or the line gradient. so it needs some form of transmission system to multiply torque when starting. It will not develop maximum power at idling speed. There are three methods of doing this: mechanical.9. hydraulic or electric. As the name suggests. Most of the parts are similar to the diesel-electric locomotive but there are some variations in design mentioned below. Mechanical and hydraulic transmissions are still used but are more common on multiple unit trains or lighter locomotives.1 Mechanical Transmission A diesel-mechanical locomotive is the simplest type of diesel locomotive. Most diesel locomotives use electric transmission and are called "diesel-electric" locomotives. the diesel engine is in the 350-500 hp range and the transmission is similar to that of an automobile with a four speed gearbox. Fig. In the example below. a diesel locomotive cannot start itself directly from a stand.Chapter-9 Transmission Like an automobile. a mechanical transmission on a diesel locomotive consists a direct mechanical link between the diesel engine and the wheels.33 diesel mechanical locomotive .

Gear change is manual. When the train speed has increased sufficiently to match the engine speed. It varies the gear ratio between the engine and the road wheels so that the appropriate level of power can be applied to the wheels. it did not work well in heavy or express locomotive designs and has largely been replaced by diesel-electric transmission. This is connected to the driving wheels by connecting rods.3 Final Drive The diesel-mechanical locomotive uses a final drive similar to that of a steam engine. for example) in the 1950s and was imported into parts of the UK in the 1960s. The wheels are coupled to each other to provide more adhesion. However.9. It is known as a "torque converter". the fluid is drained out of the torque converter so that the engine is virtually coupled directly to the locomotive wheels. There is no need for a separate clutch because the functions of a clutch are already provided in the fluid coupling. 9.2 Gearbox This does the same job as that on an automobile. It is virtually direct because the coupling is usually a fluid coupling. The design was poplar in Germany (the V200 series of locomotives. one for each bogie. The output from the 4speed gearbox is coupled to a final drive and reversing gearbox which is provided with a transverse drive shaft and balance weights. Higher speed locomotives use two or three torque converters in a sequence similar to gear changing in a mechanical transmission and some have used a combination of torque converters and gears.4 Hydraulic Transmission Hydraulic transmission works on the same principal as the fluid coupling but it allows a wider range of "slip" between the engine and wheels. 9. to give some "slip". . Some designs of diesel-hydraulic locomotives had two diesel engines and two transmission systems.

Consequently. the traction control circuits are configured as follows: • • • The field winding of each traction motor is connected across the main generator. The armature of each traction motor is connected across a forced-air cooled resistance grid (the dynamic braking grid) in the roof of the locomotive's hood. the fan is powered by the output of the traction motors and will tend to run faster and produce more airflow as more energy is applied to the grid. causing a corresponding excitation of the traction motor fields. Forced air-cooling is provided by a fan that is connected across the grid. The prime mover RPM is increased and the main generator field is excited. Dynamic braking takes advantage of the fact that the traction motor armatures are always rotating when the locomotive is in motion and that a motor can be made to act as a generator by separately exciting the field winding. Fig 34 air brake system The aggregate effect of the above is to cause each traction motor to generate electric power and dissipate it as heat in the dynamic braking grid. When dynamic braking is utilized.Chapter-10 Dynamic braking _______________________________________________________________________ _ A common option on Diesel-electric locomotives is dynamic (rheostat) braking. .

In such cases. dynamic brakes are usually applied in conjunction with the air brakes. Constant availability of maximum diesel generator power. Advantages: • Regenerative braking. the traction motors impose drag and the locomotive acts as a brake. Needs high tech electronics with use of ac generators and motors. Easy addition of multiple power units. the source of the energy dissipated in the dynamic braking grid is the motion of the locomotive as imparted to the traction motor armatures. No backlash and breaking of couplings during shifting. Less maintenance with modern ac generators and motors without commutators. where there is always the danger of a runaway due to overheated friction brakes during descent (see also comments in the air brake article regarding loss of braking due to improper train handling). Disadvantages: • More weight. The use of blended braking can also assist in keeping the slack in a long train stretched as it crests a grade. As speed decreases. helping to prevent a "run-in. Blended braking is also commonly used with commuter trains to reduce wear and tear on the mechanical brakes that is a natural result of the numerous stops such trains typically make during a run. • • Less efficient in fuel use. depending on the gear ratio between the traction motors and axles. Therefore." an abrupt bunching of train slack that can cause a derailment.Ultimately. Dynamic braking is particularly beneficial when operating in mountainous regions. the combined effect being referred to as blended braking. the braking effect decays and usually becomes ineffective below approximately 16 km/h (10 mph). and is operated by the levers (grey) on the left . • • • • • No gear shifting.1 BRAKE: A traditional clasp brake: the brake shoe (brown) bears on the surface (tyre) of the wheel (red). 10.

e. The braking effort achievable was limited. braking technology was primitive. The first trains had brakes operative on the locomotive tender and on vehicles in the train. In the earliest times. in the United States brakemen. i. multiple vehicles running together. where “porters” or. the porters travelled in crude shelters outside the vehicles. As train speeds increased. operational features are more complex because of the need to control trains. and to be effective on vehicles left without a prime mover. described as a continuous brake because it would be effective continuously along the length of the train. Some railways fitted a special deep-noted brake whistle to locomotives to indicate to the porters the necessity to apply the brakes. but “assistant guards” who travelled inside passenger vehicles. While the principle is familiar from road vehicle usage. it became essential to provide some more powerful braking system capable of instant application and release by the train driver. and who had access to a brake wheel at their posts supplanted them. All the brakes at this stage of development were applied by operation of a screw and linkage to brake blocks applied to wheel treads. traveling for the purpose on those vehicles operated the brakes. .2 Early days: In the earliest days of railways. and an early development was the application of a steam brake to locomotives. and these brakes could be used when vehicles were parked. or to keep them standing when parked. 10.Fig. where boiler pressure could be applied to brake blocks on the locomotive wheels.35 brake Brakes are used on the vehicles of railway trains to slow them.

except that the creation of vacuum in the train pipe exhausted vacuum reservoirs on every vehicle and released the brakes. but it had the major weakness that it became inoperative if the train became divided or if the train pipe was ruptured. If the driver applied the brake.36 Rotair Valve Westinghouse Air brake Company . Being an automatic brake. and of achieving good adjustment. • The simple vacuum system. this system applies braking effort if the train becomes divided or if the train pipe is ruptured. This system was similar to the simple vacuum system. his driver's brake valve admitted atmospheric air to the train pipe. This system was very cheap and effective. and the vacuum operated brake cylinders on every vehicle. An ejector on the locomotive created a vacuum in a continuous pipe along the train. and because of the necessity to add and remove vehicles from the train at frequent points on the journey. (At these dates. such as the Heberlein brake. and this atmospheric pressure applied the brakes against the vacuum in the vacuum reservoirs. this system has severe limitations in length of train capable of being handled. in which a chain was connected continuously along the train. Fig. unit trains were a rarity).However there was no clear technical solution to the problem. Its disadvantage is that the large vacuum reservoirs were required on every vehicle. When pulled tight it activated a friction clutch that used the rotation of the wheels to tighten a brake system at that point. The chief types of solution were: • The chain brake. and their bulk and the rather complex mechanisms were seen as objectionable. because of the necessity of achieving a reasonably uniform rate of braking effort throughout a train. • The automatic vacuum brake.

but from about 1930 so-called "either-side" brake handles were provided. In this system. The Westinghouse system uses smaller air reservoirs and brake cylinders than the corresponding vacuum equipment. However. by which the brakes could be applied by a hand lever operated by staff on the ground. and the guard walked forward to pin down the handles of sufficient brakes to give adequate braking effort. only passenger trains were fitted with continuous brakes until about 1930. Goods and mineral vehicles were provided with hand brakes. an air compressor is required to generate the compressed air and in the earlier days of railways. applying the brakes. and goods and mineral trains ran at slower speed. his brake valve releases air from the train pipe.• The Westinghouse air brake system. Early goods vehicles had brake handles on one side only. These trains. because a moderately high air pressure can be used. and a proportion of such vehicles marshalled next to the locomotive gave sufficient brake power to run at somewhat higher speeds than unfitted trains. and random alignment of the vehicles gave the guard sufficient braking. this required a large reciprocating steam air compressor. not fitted with continuous brakes were described as "unfitted" trains and they survived in British practice until about 1985.3 Later British practice: In British practice. 10. If the driver applies the brakes. and relied on the brake force from the locomotive and tender. in which some goods vehicles were fitted with continuous brakes. the train then stopped before descending. and this was regarded by many engineers as highly undesirable. air reservoirs are provided on every vehicle and the locomotive charges the train pipe with a positive air pressure. and the brake van – a heavy vehicle provided at the rear of the train and occupied by a guard. These hand brakes were used where necessary when vehicles were parked. . However from about 1930 semi-fitted trains were introduced. but also when these trains needed to descend a steep gradient. which releases the vehicle brakes and charges the air reservoirs on the vehicles. and triple valves at each vehicle detect the pressure loss and admit air from the air reservoirs to brake cylinders.

10. running the length of the train. reducing the time that it takes to release the brakes as not all pressure is voided to the atmosphere. The chain brake was soon superseded by air operated or vacuum operated brakes. which applies the brakes if pressure/vacuum is lost in the train pipe. braking became a problem. the essential difference being what happens should the train break in two. The earliest type of continuous brake was the chain brake which used a chain. With simple brakes. Automatic brakes are thus largely "fail safe". . though faulty closure of hose taps can lead to accidents such as the Gare de Lyon accident. and local reservoirs on each wagon that enable the brakes to be applied fully with only a slight reduction in air pressure.4 Continuous brakes: As train loads. In the late 19th century. so that the driver could still see the line and signals ahead if the brake tender was propelled (pushed) ahead of the locomotive. as they can be used to control the whole train without having to apply the automatic brakes. so the driver could apply or release the brakes with a single valve in the locomotive. The standard Westinghouse Air Brake has the additional enhancement of a triple valve. pressure is needed to apply the brakes.In the early days of diesel locomotives. and all braking power is lost if the continuous hose is broken for any reason. The brake tender was low. to operate brakes on all vehicles simultaneously. which was often the case. Simple non-automatic brakes are thus useless when things really go wrong. a purpose-built brake tender was attached to the locomotive to increase braking effort when hauling unfitted trains. Non-automatic brakes still have a role on engines and first few wagons. significantly better continuous brakes started to appear. as is shown with the Armagh rail disaster. These continuous brakes can be simple or automatic. Automatic brakes on the other hand use the air or vacuum pressure to hold the brakes off against a reservoir carried on each vehicle. gradients and speeds increased. These brakes used hoses connecting all the wagons of a train.

7 psi or 101 kPa at sea level.5. Peru and Switzerland where today vacuum brakes are used by secondary railways. The much higher effectiveness of air brakes and the demise of the steam locomotive have seen the air brake become ubiquitous.10.1 Air versus vacuum brakes: In the early part of the 20th century. but this will be declining in near future. Air Brake System: Most air brake equipped vehicles on the road today are using a dual air brake system. whereas an air brake system requires a noisy and complicated compressor. This air pressure can also be used to operate loading and unloading doors on wheat wagons and coal and ballast wagons. It also accommodates the need for a modulated braking system should either one of the two systems fail. with more reservoir capacity .5. less at altitude). On passenger coaches. The system has been developed to accommodate a mechanically secured parking brake that can be applied in the event of service brake failure. However. The main advantage of vacuum was that the vacuum can be created by a steam ejector with no moving parts (and which could be powered by the steam of a steam locomotive). It is actually two brake systems in one. e. in Argentina and in South Africa. air brakes can be made much more effective than vacuum brakes for a given size of brake cylinder.g. however. the maximum pressure differential is atmospheric pressure (14. Therefore. 10. vacuum braking is still in use in India. With a vacuum system. the main reservoir pipe is also used to supply air to operate doors and air suspension. This advantage of air brakes increases at high altitude. an air brake system can use a much smaller brake cylinder than a vacuum system to generate the same braking force.5 Types Of Brakes 10. many British railways employed vacuum brakes rather than the air brakes used in America and much of the rest of the world. An air brake compressor is usually capable of generating a pressure of 90 psi (620 kPa) vs only 15 psi (100 kPa) for vacuum.2 Air brake enhancements: One enhancement of the automatic air brake is to have a second air hose (the main reservoir or main line) along the train to recharge the air reservoirs on each wagon.

the other circuit is isolated and will continue to operate.resulting in a much safer system. If one circuit has a failure. the dual system is two systems or circuits in one.37 Compressor In the illustration. and if the dual system is separated into basic functions. Pressurized air moves from the supply/wet reservoir to the primary/dry reservoir (8) (green) and the . the dual system might seem complicated. one circuit operates the rear axle and the other circuit operates the front axle. At first glance. On a two–axle vehicle. it becomes quite simple. air is pumped by the compressor (1) to the supply/wet reservoir (5) (blue). which is protected from over pressurization by a safety valve (4). There are different ways of separating the two parts of the system. Fig. As its name suggests. but if you understand the basic air brake system described so far.

which greatly increases passenger comfort. At this point. The primary and secondary circuits are equipped with low air pressure warning devices. the vehicle will continue to have braking ability. and are a development of the EP .secondary/dry reservoir (10) (red) through one–way check valves (7). One section of this dual foot valve controls the primary circuit and the other controls the secondary circuit. The system adopted on the Southern Region of British Railways in 1950 is more fully described at Electro-pneumatic brake system on British railway trains 10. Air is also directed from the secondary/dry reservoir to the foot valve. passes through the foot valve and is passed on to the front brake chambers.4 Electronically controlled pneumatic brakes: Electronically controlled pneumatic brakes (ECP) are a development of the late 20th Century to deal with very long and heavy freight trains. the other will continue to operate independently. as the electrical control signal is propagated effectively instantly to all vehicles in the train. but is divided into two sections (two foot valves in one). If there is air loss in either circuit. It also allows for faster brake application. which are triggered by the low air pressure indicator switch (9) and reservoir air pressure gauges (29) located on the dash of the vehicle. air is drawn from the primary reservoir through the foot valve and is passed on to the rear brake chambers. Air from the primary/dry reservoir is directed to the foot valve (31). from mild to severe. whereas the change in air pressure which activates the brakes in a conventional system can take several seconds or tens of seconds to propagate fully to the rear of the train. air is also drawn from the secondary reservoir. Unless air is lost in both circuits. and allows the driver greater control over the level of braking used. with the brakes controlled electrically with a 3-wire control circuit. At the same time. The foot valve is similar to the one described earlier in the basic air brake system.5. When a brake application is made. This can give seven levels of braking.5. the dual circuits start.3 Electro pneumatic brakes: A higher performing EP brake has a train pipe delivering air to all the reservoirs on the train. This system is not however used on freight trains due to cost. 10.

one by New York Air Brake and the other by Wabtec. At the same time. . as opposed to changes in air pressure which propagate at a rather slow speed limited in practice by the resistance to air flow of the pipe work. it blends in the dynamic braking.5 Brake Control: The brake control varies the air pressure in the brake cylinders to apply pressure to the brake shoes. and results in reduced stopping distance and less equipment wear. There are two brands of ECP brakes under development. For instance. 10. this may mean that a fuel filter is clogged. so that the brakes on all wagons can be applied simultaneously rather than from front to rear. A single standard is desirable. This prevents wagons at the rear "shoving" wagons at the front. if the pressure in the fuel lines is getting too high.5. 38 The brake and throttle controls A computerized readout displays data from sensors all over the locomotive. a power and control line is installed from wagon to wagon from the front of the train to the rear. and it is intended that the two types be interchangeable. In addition. It can provide the engineer or mechanics with information that can help diagnose problems. With ECP. using the motors to slow the train down as well. information about the operation of the brakes on each wagon can be returned to the driver's control panel. The engineer also has a host of other controls and indicator lights. Electrical control signals are propagated effectively instantaneously.brake with even higher level of control. Fig.

and in those countries influenced by British practice.5.7 Vacuum brake: The vacuum brake is a braking system used on trains. such as in Tasmania. Its limitations caused it to be progressively superseded by compressed air systems. The vacuum brake system is now obsolescent. 10. An exception would be made for locomotives which are often turned on turntables or triangles. On the new Fortescue railway opened in 2008. the automatic vacuum brake system became almost universal in British train equipment.6 Reversibility: Brake connections between wagons may be simplified if wagons always point the same way. 39 This computerized display can show the status of systems all over the locomotive. primarily on narrow gauge railroads. supplanted in the main by air brakes.5.Fig. . It was first introduced in the mid 1860s and a variant. it is not in large-scale use anywhere in the world. although their direction changes at the balloon loop at the port. wagons are operated in sets. It enjoyed a brief period of adoption in the USA. The ECP connections are on one side only and are unidirectional 10. in the United Kingdom from the 1970's.

41 Air at atmospheric pressure from the train pipe is admitted below the piston. The fittings to achieve this are therefore: • A train pipe: a steel pipe running the length of each vehicle. the final hose is seated on an air-tight plug. with flexible vacuum hoses at each end of the vehicles. so that a net force is applied. and coupled between adjacent vehicles. these may be separate controls or a combined brake valve. which is forced up In its simplest form. the air pressure acts against pistons in cylinders in each vehicle. In normal running a partial vacuum is maintained in the train pipe.running throughout the length of the train. to create vacuum in the train pipe. connected by rigging to the pipe.5. controls for the driver to bring the ejector into action. and . and the brakes are released. When air is admitted to the train pipe. brake shoes on the vehicle. the automatic vacuum brake consists of a continuous pipe -. A mechanical linkage transmits this force to brake shoes which act by friction on the treads of the wheels.8 How the automatic vacuum brake works: Fig40 Vacuum brake cylinder in running position: the vacuum is the same above and below the piston Fig. A vacuum is sustained on the other face of the pistons. and to admit air to the train A brake cylinder on each vehicle containing a piston.10. at the end of the train. • • • An ejector on the locomotive.the train pipe -.

Practical considerations: The automatic vacuum brake as described represented a very considerable technical advance in train braking. and the vacuum pipe connection to it is flexible. The cylinder rocks slightly in operation to maintain alignment with the brake rigging cranks. through the ball valve. The ball valve closes and there is a higher air pressure under the brake pistons than above it. the brake pistons will have dropped to their lower position in the absence of a pressure differential (as air will have leaked slowly into the upper part of the cylinder. The piston in the brake cylinder has a flexible piston ring that allows air to pass from the upper part of the cylinder to the lower part if necessary. The brake cylinder is contained in a larger housing . and the pressure differential forces the piston upwards. If the driver now moves his control to the "brake" position. so that the brake is not charged. In practice steam locomotives had two ejectors.• A vacuum (pressure) gauge on the locomotive to indicate to the driver the degree of vacuum in the train pipe. Graduable brake valve (right) and the small (upper) and large ejector cocks from a GWR locomotive . According to the driver's manipulation of the control.this gives a reserve of vacuum as the piston operates. air is admitted to the train pipe. the driver moves his brake control to the "release" position and air is exhausted from the train pipe. applying the brakes. some or all of the vacuum will be destroyed in the process. When a locomotive is coupled to the vehicles. creating a partial vacuum. Later Great Western Railway practice was to use a vacuum pump instead of the small ejector. destroying the vacuum). a small ejector for running purposes (to exhaust air that had leaked into the train pipe) and a large ejector to release brake applications. The driver can control the severity of the braking effort by admitting more or less air to the train pipe. Air in the upper part of the brake cylinders is also exhausted from the train pipe. so it is supported in trunnion bearings. When the vehicles have been at rest.

Release valves are provided on the brake cylinders. as the new engine's large ejector would sometimes not be able to fully release the brakes on the train. . or if a vehicle is detached or added.The driver's brake valve was usually combined with the steam brake control on the locomotive. The ejectors on steam locomotives are set to create a certain degree of vacuum in the train pipe. with the exception of the Great Western Railway. in British practice a full release is 21 inches of mercury (533. In the United Kingdom the pre-nationalization railway companies standardized around systems operating on 21 inches of vacuum. a brake continuity test is carried out. depending on atmospheric conditions. usually by manually pulling a cord near the cylinder. when operated. The provision of a train pipe running throughout the train enabled the automatic vacuum brake to be operated in emergency from any position in the train. the Great Western Railway adopted 25 inches of mercury (635 Torr) as its standard degree of vacuum. When a locomotive is first coupled to a train.4 Torr). air is admitted to the upper part of the brake cylinder on that vehicle. This time consuming process was not infrequently seen at large GWR stations such as Paddington and Bristol Temple Meads. This is necessary to release the brake on a vehicle that has been uncoupled from a train and now requires to be moved without having a brake connection to another locomotive. and the passenger communication apparatus (usually called "the communication cord" in lay terminology) also admitted air into the train pipe at the end of coaches so equipped. This is called pulling the tail. for example if it is to be steam ejector shunted. Every guard's compartment had a brake valve. In this case the release valves on each vehicle in the train would have to be released by hand. which used 25 inches. This could cause problems on long distance crosscountry services when a GWR locomotive was replaced with another company's engine. An absolute vacuum is about 30 inches of mercury (760 Torr). to ensure that the brake pipes are connected throughout the entire length of the train.

However the system requires an air pump. The blockage should have been detected if a proper brake continuity test had been carried out before the train started its journey. • The existence of vacuum in the train pipe can cause debris to be sucked in. A rolled newspaper was discovered in the train pipe. a considerable volume of air has to be admitted to the train pipe to make a full brake application. leading to undesirable longitudinal forces in the train. due to inadequate braking effort in the train. In extreme cases this has led to breaking couplings and causing the train to divide. effectively isolating the rear part of the train from the driver's control. chief among these were: • The practical limit on the degree of vacuum attainable means that a very large brake piston and cylinder are required to generate the force necessary on the brake blocks. while the air is traveling along the train pipe. on a very long train. when a proportion of the British ordinary wagon fleet was fitted with vacuum brakes in the 1950's. and admitted atmospheric air directly to the underside of the brake cylinder. A development introduced in the 1950's was the direct admission valve. and a considerable volume has to be exhausted to release the brake (if for example a signal at danger is suddenly lowered and the driver requires to resume speed). including smaller brake cylinders (because a higher air pressure could be used) and a somewhat more responsive braking effort. This has a number of advantages. • For the same reason. and it was quite . An accident took place near Ilford in the 1950's. the physical dimensions of the brake cylinder prevented the wagons from operating in some private sidings that had tight clearances. the brake pistons at the head of the train have responded to the brake application or release. American and continental European practice had long favoured compressed air brake systems. fitted to every brake cylinder. the leading pattern being a proprietary Westinghouse system. On steam engines this was usually a reciprocating steam pump.Limitations: The progress represented by the automatic vacuum brake nonetheless carried some limitations. These valves responded to a rise in train pipe pressure as the brake was applied. but those at the tail will respond much later.

It was possible to provide through pipes for the braking system not fitted to any particular vehicle so that it could run in a train using the "other" system. the North Eastern Railway. provided that there is room to fit the duplicated equipment. for example in old films. Its distinctive shape and the characteristic puffing sound when the brake is released (as the train pipe has to be recharged with air) make steam locomotives fitted with the Westinghouse brake unmistakable. It is much easier to fit one kind of brake with a pipe for continuity of the other. Train crew need to take note that the wrong-fitted wagons do not contribute to the braking effort and make allowances on down grades to suit. Inevitably this led to compatibility problems in exchanging traffic with other lines. Fig. the Great Eastern Railway.42 Dual Brake System When spring brakes are added to a dual air brake system. In the UK.6 Dual brakes: Vehicles can be fitted with dual brakes. the same type of dash control valve discussed previously is used.bulky. It was also standard on the Isle of Wight rail system. allowing through control of the fitted vehicles behind it. the London Brighton and South Coast Railway and the Caledonian Railway adopted the Westinghouse system. 10. Blended air is used to supply the spring parking brake . vacuum and air. but of course with no braking effort of its own. Many of the earlier classes of diesel locomotive used on British Railways were fitted with dual systems to enable full usage of BR's rolling stock inherited from the private companies which had different systems depending on which company the stock originated from.

control valve (27). Blended air is air taken from the primary and secondary circuits through a two–way check valve (26). With this piping arrangement the vehicle can have a failure in either circuit without the spring brakes applying automatically. If air is lost in both circuits, the spring brakes will apply. Air brakes need a tap to seal the hose at the ends of the train. If these taps are incorrectly closed, a loss of brake force may occur, leading to a dangerous runaway. With vacuum brakes, the end of the hose can be plugged into a stopper which seals the hose by suction. It is much harder to block the hose pipe compared to air brakes. 10.6.1 Twin pipe: Vacuum brakes can be operated in a twin pipe mode to speed up applications and release. Braking is provided by a mechanism that is similar to a car drum brake. An air-powered piston pushes a pad against the outer surface of the train wheel.

Fig.43 The brakes are similar to drum brakes on a car.

In conjunction with the mechanical brakes, the locomotive has dynamic braking. In this mode, each of the four traction motors acts like a generator, using the wheels of the train to apply torque to the motors and generate electrical current. The torque that the wheels apply to turn the motors slows the train down (instead of the motors turning the wheels, the wheels turn the motors). The current generated (up to 760 amps) is routed into a giant resistive mesh that turns that current into heat. A cooling fan sucks air through the mesh and blows it out the top of the locomotive -- effectively the world's most powerful hair dryer. On the rear truck there is also a hand brake -- yes, even trains need hand brakes. Since the brakes are air powered, they can only function while the compressor is running. If the

train has been shut down for a while, there will be no air pressure to keep the brakes engaged. Without a hand brake and the failsafe of an air pressure reservoir, even a slight slope would be enough to get the train rolling because of its immense weight and the very low rolling friction between the wheels and the track. The hand brake is a crank that pulls a chain. It takes many turns of the crank to tighten the chain. The chain pulls the piston out to apply the brakes. 10.7 Vacuum brakes in 2007: Today's largest operators of trains equipped with vacuum brakes are the Railways of India and Spoornet (South Africa), however there are also trains with air brakes and dual brakes in use. Other African railways are believed to continue to use the vacuum brake. Other operators of vacuum brakes are narrow gauge railways in Central Europe, largest of them is Ferrovia Retica. Vacuum brakes have been entirely superseded on the National Rail system in the UK, although they are still in use on most heritage railways. They are also to be found on a number (though increasingly fewer) main line vintage specials. C & E has developed the automatic vacuum brake and designed it in its simplest form; the automatic vacuum brake consists of a continuous pipe -- the train pipe -- running throughout the length of the train.

Chapter-11 _ 11.1 Engine Control Development:

Engine Control


So far we have seen a simple example of diesel engine control but the systems used by most locomotives in service today are more sophisticated. To begin with, the drivers control was combined with the governor and hydraulic control was introduced. One type of governor uses oil to control the fuel racks hydraulically and another uses the fuel oil pumped by a gear pump driven by the engine. Some governors are also linked to the turbo charging system to ensure that fuel does not increase before enough turbocharged air is available. In the most modern systems, the governor is electronic and is part of a complete engine management system. 11.2 Power Control: The diesel engine in a diesel-electric locomotive provides the drive for the main alternator which, in turn, provides the power required for the traction motors. We can see from this therefore, that the power required from the diesel engine is related to the power required by the motors. So, if we want more power from the motors, we must get more current from the alternator so the engine needs to run faster to generate it. Therefore, to get the optimum performance from the locomotive, we must link the control of the diesel engine to the power demands being made on the alternator. In the days of generators, a complex electro-mechanical system was developed to achieve the feedback required to regulate engine speed according to generator demand. The core of the system was a load regulator, basically a variable resistor which was used to very the excitation of the generator so that its output matched engine speed. The control sequence (simplified) was as follows: 1. Driver moves the power controller to the full power position

An air operated piston actuated by the controller moves a lever. The load on the engine increases so its speed falls and the governor detects the reduced speed. in this case. The governor weights drop and cause the fuel rack servo system to actuate. 8. Engine speed is measured like modern speedometers. 5. When the engine has responded to the new control and governor settings. Overheating can be controlled by electronic monitoring of coolant temperature and regulating the engine power accordingly. the starter motor gearwheel. the load regulation is done electronically. by counting the frequency of the gear teeth driven by the engine. The fuel rack moves to increase the fuel supplied to the injectors and therefore the power from the engine.2. 7. The load regulator motor moves the variable resistor to increase the main generator field strength and therefore its output. 4. 6. The lever (mentioned in 2 above) is used to reduce the pressure of the governor spring. On locomotives with an alternator. which closes a switch to supply a low voltage to the load regulator motor. it and the generator will be producing more power. Oil pressure can be monitored and used to regulate the engine power in a similar way. Electrical control of the fuel injection is another improvement now adopted for modern engines. 3. .

. use of gauges and measuring instruments and added a lot to our knowledge. different manufacturing process. I used to observe the working of machines. It was my first chance to get knowledge about different machines used for the maintenance of engines.My Activities I joined my training on_____.

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