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SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING OF
LUDHIANA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, KATANI KALAN, LUDHIANA
AS PART OF COURSE WORK OF
B.TECH. (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY KAPURTHALA
Harminder Singh B- Tech., Mech. Engg. Univ. Roll No. – L-90491175389.
The globe is shrinking. The world is taken over by the technicians. A day after day a new technology arises. A technician without practical knowledge is zero, don’t matter how many books you have studied. Practical know how is must to be successful. Industrial training is the bridge for a student that takes him from the world of theoretical knowledge to that of practical one. Training in a good industry is highly conducive for: 1. 2. 3. Development of solid foundation of knowledge and personality. Confidence building. Pursuit of excellence and discipline.
4. Enhancement of creativity through motivation and drive which helps to produce professional and well trained for the rigorous of the job/society. The present report has been done as an industrial training of six weeks for the completion of 4th semester of B–Tech Mechanical Engineering. During the training I got the exposure to various equipment and machines their maintenance and technology concerning the repairing the Diesel Locomotive and hence was assisted in developing self-confidence. The training helped me in implementing my theoretical knowledge to the actual industrial environment. This training at the “NORTHERN RAILWAY DIESEL SHED LUDHIANA” is definitely going to play an important role in developing an aptitude for acquiring knowledge hard work and self confidence necessary for successful future.
. I owe more than a debt of gratitude to Mr. I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to the management of “NORTHERN RAILWAY DIESEL SHED LUDHIANA” of permitting me to observe and study the whole setup of factory. I am overwhelmed. I am equally thankful to my faculty teacher for providing me this opportunity to work with such a big company. coworkers and my bosses in industry.Ram (Principal). Senior Section Engineer Mr. who have helped in this effort in so many ways. Few tasks are more enjoyable and fulfilling than acknowledging my gratitude to all those. Kuldeep Rai. R.ACKNOLEDGEMENT In these six weeks of industrial training. Sarbjeet Singh (Mechanic) & all the staff for their corporation & guidance made it possible to complete the work. and specially Thanks to Mr. I wish to my attribute my profound sense of gratitude without whose generous co-operation and co-ordination it would have been highly difficult for me to have such a successful training experience in the organization. in every game of life these are multitude of players whose are the real heroes and this experience there are many loyal and phenomenally selfless friends.P.
of Switzerland. Once the concept of Diesel-electric drive was accepted the pace of development quickened. as well as substantially lower operating and maintenance costs. Progress was slow.OVERVIEW Early internal combustion engine-powered locomotives used gasoline as their fuel. as well as the difficulty inherent in mechanically applying power to multiple driving wheels on swivelling trucks (bogies). due to the poor power-to-weight ratio of the early engines. By the mid 20th century the Diesel locomotive had become the dominant type of locomotive in much of the world. its application for railway propulsion was considered. Diesel was associated for a time) gradually reduced its physical size and improved its power-to-weight ratio to a point where one could be mounted in a locomotive. offering greater flexibility and performance than the steam locomotive. Soon after Dr. Steady improvements in the Diesel engine's design (many developed by Sulzer Ltd. Currently. with whom Dr. Rudolf Diesel patented his first compression ignition engine in 1892. almost all Diesel locomotives are Diesel-electric. . however.
e. this is also being utilized for imparting training to the maintenance staff of the shed. In addition to this. Diesel Shed. Diesel Shed.. Initially. Later. Further the total holding of shed was increased to 150 locos in the year 1993-94. ADME/H. Diesel Shed. indoor games etc. WDM3A & WDG3A. ADME/R/Mech. DME-II.NORTHERN RAILWAY. under whom the officers DME-I. Mech.1977. ADME/R/Elect. LUDHIANA Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION _____________________________________________________________ Diesel Shed Ludhiana came into existence on 29. The total kilometers earning is approximately 22 lakh kilometers per month and the shed is running a mail link of 96 locos consisting of various prestigious Mail/Express trains. it was expanded to home 100 WDM2 locos in the year 1987-88. The Training School consists of 5 classrooms and various working models of mechanical and electrical sub assemblies of WDM2 locos. LDH is ISO0-14001 Certified Shed. .Engineer (Diesel).09.Divl. It is also equipped with the recreation facilities & gymnasium with high-tech exercise machines. the shed was designed to home 60 WDM2 locos. The staying capacity in the hostel is 72 and is having 38 double-bedded rooms. ACMT & SMM/Stores are working. Presently. which is headed by under the dynamic control of Sr. DIESEL SHED. Ludhiana is also having a Diesel Training School and Hostel attached to it. This training School is being mainly utilized for training of running staff for Diesel conversion and refresher courses of FZR & UMB division. Ludhiana is presently the biggest shed on the Northern Railway and the 3rd largest on Indian Railways. Ludhiana is 170 having different types of locos i. Present loco holding of Diesel Shed. WDM2.
1.1 Various Sections In Diesel Shed: Turbo Section Expressor Section Compressor Section Power Assembly Section Cylinder Head Section Machine Shop Cross Head Section Water Pump & Lube Oil Section Radiator Section Traction M/C Governor Section Gauge & Valve Section Air Brake Section Electrical Complaint Room Auxillary M/C Section Electrical Test Room Magnaflux Section Bogie Section Valve Grinding Section Contactor & Relay Room Zyglo Testing Room Fip Section Tsc Balancing Section Draftsman Room Battery Section Metallurgical Lab. Spectro Section .
Two types of FIPs are being used at present. 15mm FIP 17mm FIP All these subassemblies are being dismantled. The fuel injection pump is responsible for maintaining desired pressure to inject the fuel. Scrap Yard Various Sections In Diesel Shed To maintain various parts of locomotives. 1. The strength of staff of this section is 7. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) ALCO Turbo Supercharger ABB Turbo Supercharger Napier Turbo Supercharger Hispano Suiza Turbo Supercharger All these TSCs are fully dismantled and overhauled in this section. Ludhiana has different sections for electrical and mechanical repairs & maintenance. 1.1. At present. Brief details are as under:1. whereas the injector has the duty to spray the fuel in the cylinder after atomization.2 Fip & Injector Section This section is responsible for maintaining the fuel injection pump and the injector of diesel locomotives. (i) (ii) section.5 times. Diesel Shed. 4 types of TSCs are being overhauled in this section. which uses exhaust of the diesel engine to compress the intake air to improve the engine efficiency to about 1. overhauled and tested in this .1 Turbo Supercharger Section Turbo Supercharge is a machine.
1.6. which is operated by camshaft to operate the valve lever mechanism of the cylinder heads. Steel cap pistons are being used in fuel efficient locomotives. Complete expressor or compressor is dismantled and overhauled in this section as per Work Instructions issued to the section. cylinder heads are there in one locomotive. The shed has switched over to barrel shape piston rings to provide better fuel efficiency. In fuel-efficient locomotives. 1. Two types of pistons are being used in the locomotive. Cylinder Head Section This section is responsible for maintenance and overhauling of cylinder heads of diesel locomotives. The pistons and connecting rods are dismantled.3 Expresser & Compressor Section The expresser is used to maintain air pressure and vacuum pressure for breaking system in the locomotive. The staff strength of the section is about 30. 16 power assemblies are being used in one locomotive.1. two exhaust and two inlet valves. The staff strength of this section is about 7.5. This section is responsible for maintaining this subassembly. cleaned. 1. whereas aluminium pistons are being used in conventional locomotives. There are 16 cross heads in one locomotive. whereas in conventional locomotives it is 450.1. the valve angle is 300.1.1. 1.4 Power Assembly Section The piston and connecting rod assembly is called as power assembly. zyglo tested and again are made ready for service in this section. The head is completely dismantled and after cleaning and mating the valve & valve seat and overhauling the complete components. the head is made ready for service in this section after various tests. The . Each cylinder head has four valves. The staff strength of section is about 10. Cross Head Section Crosshead is a subassembly. 16 Nos.
1. whereas these are roller bearings in about 50% of locomotives.cross heads operate the valve levers through two bush rods. axles and connected to axles through a bull gear pinion arrangement. The braking arrangement for the locomotives is given through 8 brake cylinders. universal shaft.9. Both the pumps are gear driven through crankshaft split gear train.8. front truck traction motor blower which is gear driven. 4 on each bogie and . Pump Section The pump section is responsible for overhauling water pump and lube oil pump of the locomotive. Miscelleneous Sub-assembly & Heat Exchanger Section This section is responsible for maintaining rear truck traction motor blower which is belt driven. over speed trip assembly is responsible for preventing the engine from over-speeding. which is used to drive radiator fan. eddy current clutch gear box used to provide drive to radiator fan. These motors are fitted on 6 Nos. turbo aftercooler.7. compressor after cooler and engine lube oil cooler are cleaned. 1. The self-centrifuging unit of locomotive is also overhauled in this section. Cross heads are completely dismantled and overhauled and also the valve lever mechanism is completely dismantled and overhauled in this section. traction motors.Bogie Section This section is responsible for complete overhauling of undergear of the locomotive. A locomotive is driven on line through 06 No. The motors are suspended through suspension bearing which is plain bearing in some locomotives.1. Both the pumps are cleaned. Two bogie frames are used to house six axles and wheels and called as front bogie and rear bogie. Every loco is having one water pump and one no. one for exhaust and other for air inlet. The staff strength of this section is 4. lubricating oil pump. which are supplied from a generator driven by the diesel engine. 1. overhauled and made ready for service in this section.1.1. The staff strength of this section is about 4. such as radiator. In addition to above. various heat exchangers. tested & overhauled in this section.
1. Staff strength of this section is about 90.1. lube oil bypass valve of the locomotive.1. The chassis of the locomotive is having 2 Nos.12. 1. The valves are overhauled and are set at a required pressure as per Maintenance Instructions. 1.1.1. side bearers and one no. fuel relief valve. The load of locomotive is shared by each bogie. sanders. lube oil regulating valve. Staff strength of this section is about 16. lube oil relief valve. brake shoes and brake blocks. The load sharing between the central pivot and the side bearer is in the ratio of 60:40.10. engine block and removal of various mechanical subassemblies. buffers. central buffer couplers on each side for connection to the train. Speedometer Section The speedometer section is responsible for maintaining speedometers of the locomotive. 2 on each side to bear various pumps during operation. Valve Section This section is responsible for maintaining fuel regulating valve. Air Brake Section Air brake section is responsible for overhauling of brake valves of air brake system and other safety items such as wipers. 1. The chassis is also having mounted 4 Nos.13. horns etc. central pivot.11. Staff strength of this section is 2. Staff strength of this section is about 50. Each bogie has two nos. Yearly Section Yearly section is used for complete overhauling of locomotive.14. which are responsible for recording and indicating the speed of the locomotive.1. Governor Section . various gauges are also being maintained by this section. 1. Staff strength in this section is about 70. In addition to it. The yearly section carries out 24 monthly and 48 monthly schedules of the locomotives in which engine and various subassemblies are overhauled completely.various brake riggings.
various mechanical subassemblies. and goods electrical.2. 1. undergears etc.2 Minor Repairs Sections 1. monthly schedule and quarterly schedule for mail and passenger locomotives. Goods section is responsible for maintenance of diesel engine.1 Mail Section Mail Section is having 2 sections i. At present. and Mail Elect.4 Out-Of-Course Section OOC section is responsible for attending various major repairs of the locomotives.2. for trip schedule.Governor section is responsible for maintenance of governor of the locomotive. Mail/Mech. which cannot be covered during minor schedule. Mail section is responsible for maintenance of diesel engine.5 M & P Of The Shed . various mechanical subassemblies.e.2. monthly schedule and quarterly schedule for goods locomotives. section. 1. undergears etc.2 Goods Section Goods section is also having goods mech. 12 monthly and 16 monthly schedules of diesel locomotives.3 Quarterly & Half Yearly Section Quarterly and half yearly section is responsible for 8 monthly. for trip schedule.2. 1. 1. The governor of the locomotive is responsible for maintaining constant speed of the engine as per requirement at every notch.2. (i) (ii) (iii) Woodward governor GE or electro hydraulic governor Microprocessor based governor 1. the shed has 3 types of governors.
The shed.6 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF DIESEL – ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE Fig. engine blocks and various major subassemblies.7BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE RADIATOR AFTER FRAME EXPRESSOR OR COMPRESSO R ROOM ENGINE ROOM GENERATOR ROOM DRIVER CABIN NOTCH COMPART MENT BOGGI E BOGGI E .2. These are used for handling various subassemblies. Heavy Repair Bay subassembly sections are having two cranes.2. 0ne 10tonne and the other is 3tonne crane. 1 schematic diagram of diesel electric locomotive 1. is having two 40tonne cranes and one 10 tonne crane. goods. 1. fork lifters for material handling.e. These cranes are used to lift bogies. in its bogie section. mail. Every minor repair bay i. The shed is also having 3 Nos. quarterly half yearly sections are also having 3 tonne self operated cranes which are used to lift various subassemblies of the locomotive.
30 SFC Mail (Lts/1000GTKM) (2008-09) = 3. Fuel storage capacity = 730 kiloliters. M2 60 days. Annual budget of shed = Rs. Average off take of diesel oil per day = 0. M4 120 days.3 lakh liters (approx). M12 12 months. RB (By DMW/PTA) 16-22 years NO. 48 months.03 ACTIVITIES IN SHED Schedules Periodicity Trip 15/20 days.___________ (approx).Fig.72 SFC Goods (Lts/1000GTKM) (2008-09) = 2. Berthing capacity = 32 locos. Average kms earned/month = 21. 2 Block diagram of diesel locomotive A Diesel locomotive is a type of railroad locomotive in which the prime mover is a Diesel engine 1. %age of staff housed = 21%. meters. Average off-take of lube oil per day = 2700 liters (approx). Lube oil storage capacity = 350 kiloliters.8 SALIENT FEATURES Sanctioned staff strength = 1331 Staff on roll = 1206 Total covered area = 12. Trip 280 .61 lakh kilometers. Stock items in the stores depot. of Sch.577 sq. M24 M48 24 months. SCHEDULES GIVEN BY SHOPS Schedules Periodicity IOH/M48 (By CB Shop) 4 years POH/M96(By CB Shop) 8 years.2. = 1969 Present mail link = 96 Present loco holding = 170 (a) WDM2 = 62 (b) WDG3A = 44 (c) WDM3A = 64 Total = 170 Direct maintenance staff per loco = 4.OF SCHEDULES UNDERTAKEN IN A MONTH Type of Sch No. T2 30 days.
2.9 Engine Description Diesel Engine Main Alternator Auxiliary Alternator Motor Blower Air Intakes Rectifiers / inverters Electric Controls Control Stands Batteries Cab Traction Motor Pinion Gear Fuel Tank Air compressor Drive Shaft Gear Box Radiator and Radiator Fan Turbo charging Sand Box Truck Frame Wheel Brakes Mechanical Transmission .M72 72 months T2 M2 M4/8/16/20 M12 M24/48 82 40 27 08 04 1.
whereas the fuel in the diesel engine's cylinders is ignited by the heat caused by air being suddenly compressed in the cylinder.5 bar) and will increase the air temperature to over 800° F (427° C). his engine was in use on locomotives and he had set up a facility with Sulzer in Switzerland to manufacture them. His death was mysterious in that he simply disappeared from a ship taking him to London. in a high speed form. the fuel is cheaper because it is less refined than petrol and it can do heavy work under extended periods of overload. which is a spark-ignition engine. The advantage of the diesel engine over the petrol engine is that it has a higher thermal capacity (it gets more work out of the fuel). when he died. as opposed to the petrol (or gasoline) engine. It can however. Fluid Coupling Final Drive Hydraulic Transmission Wheel Slip Chapter-2 Diesel Engine _____________________________________________________________ The diesel engine was first patented by Dr Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913) in Germany in 1892 and he actually got a successful engine working by 1897. be sensitive to maintenance and noisy. the air gets compressed into an area 1/25th of its original volume. The diesel engine is a compression-ignition engine. which is why it is still not popular for passenger automobiles. By 1913. At this stage. A compression ratio of 16 to 1 will give an air pressure of 500 lbs/in² (35. 2. This would be expressed as a compression ratio of 25 to 1. The spark ignition engine uses an electrical spark from a "spark plug" to ignite the fuel in the engine's cylinders.1 Diesel engine: Mode of Operation .
4.Power stroke: In the upper dead-center. The piston gets pressed downward and performs work to the crankshaft. as long as the units generator current and voltage limits are not exceeded.2 Diesel-electric control A Diesel-electric locomotive's power output is independent to road speed. Compressed: Pressure and Temperature are very high. Suction stroke: Pure air gets sucked in by the piston sliding downward. . performed by the crankshaft. which is what actually propels the train) will tend to inversely vary with speed within these limits.Expulsion stroke: The burned exhaust gases are ejected out of the cylinder through a second valve by the piston sliding upward again.1. Therefore.Compression stroke: The piston compresses the air above and uses thereby work. By the high temperature the fuel gets ignited immediately (auto ignition). the air is max. 3. Now the black injection pump injects heavy fuel in the hot air. 2. Fig. 3 4 stroke compression ignition (diesel) engine cycle 2. the unit's ability to develop tractive effort (also referred to as drawbar pull or tractive force.
and thus speed. and ultimately led to the complex control systems in place on modern units where all these parameters are solved and regulated by computer modules. is typically controlled by the engineer (driver) using a stepped or "notched" throttle that produces binary-like electrical signals corresponding to throttle position. the prime mover will be receiving minimal fuel. the traction motors will not be connected to the main generator and the generator's field windings will not be excited (energized)—the generator will not produce electricity with no excitation.3 WORKING OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE When the throttle is in the idle position. This feature was intended to prevent rough train handling due to abrupt power increases caused by rapid throttle motion ("throttle stripping. The engineer could not. and the speed at which the prime mover is running. The prime mover's power output is primarily determined by its rotational speed (RPM) and fuel rate. Therefore. causing it to idle at low RPM. For example. This basic design lends itself well to multiple unit (MU) operation by producing discrete conditions that assure that all units in a consist respond in the same way to throttle position. In older locomotives. 2. Modern locomotives no longer have this restriction." an operating rules violation on many railroads). Maintaining acceptable operating parameters was one of the principal design considerations that had to be solved in early Diesel-electric locomotive development.The diesel engine ideally should operate with maximum fuel economy as long as maximum power is not required. pull the throttle from notch 2 to notch 4 without stopping at notch 3. for example. Locomotive power output. Binary encoding also helps to minimize the number of train lines (electrical connections) that are required to pass signals from unit to unit. The governor is designed to react to both the throttle setting. as determined by the engineer (driver). Also. the locomotive will . the throttle mechanism was ratcheted so that it was not possible to advance more than one power position at a time. which are regulated by a governor or similar mechanism. as their control systems are able to smoothly modulate power and avoid sudden changes in train loading regardless of how the engineer (driver) operates the controls. only four train lines are required to encode all throttle positions.
as the drag imposed by the train will exceed the tractive force being developed. the main generator will deliver electricity to the traction motors. however. resulting in motion. To set the locomotive in motion. resulting in a corresponding increase in RPM and horsepower output." Conceptually. This will translate into increased electrical output to the traction motors. the engineer (driver) will have moved the throttle to the position of maximum power and will maintain it there until the train has accelerated to the desired speed. With excitation applied. It will not. If the locomotive is running "light" (that is. the fuel rate to the prime mover will increase. main generator field excitation will be proportionally increased to absorb the higher power. the reverser control handle is placed into the correct position (forward or reverse). with a corresponding increase in tractive force. depending on the requirements of the train's schedule.be in "neutral. which explains why modern locomotives are capable of starting trains weighing in excess of 15. As the throttle is moved to higher power notches. An experienced engineer (driver) will be able to recognize an incipient stall and will gradually advance the throttle as required to maintain the pace of acceleration. As will be seen in the following discussion. The positioning of the reverser and movement of the throttle together is conceptually like shifting an automobile's automatic transmission into gear while the engine is idling Placing the throttle into the first power position will cause the traction motors to be connected to the main generator and the latter's field coils to be excited.000 pounds of drawbar pull for a . this is the same as placing an automobile's transmission into neutral while the engine is running. increase prime mover RPM. even on ascending grades. the brake is released and the throttle is moved to the run 1 position (the first power notch). Eventually. the propulsion system is designed to produce maximum traction motor torque at start-up. An experienced engineer (driver) can accomplish these steps in a coordinated fashion that will result in a nearly imperceptible start. the locomotive may stall as soon as some of the slack has been taken up. At the same time. amounting to some 120. not coupled to a train) and is not on an ascending grade it will easily accelerate. if a long train is being started.000 tons. Current technology allows a locomotive to develop as much as 30 percent of its loaded driver weight in tractive force. On the other hand.
Therefore. it is incumbent upon the engineer (driver) to carefully monitor the amount of power being applied at start-up to avoid damage. Due to the innate characteristics of traction motors. It should be noted that not all of these inputs and outputs are necessarily electrical. the locomotive's control system is designed so that the main generator electrical power output is matched to any given engine speed. The governor has two external control outputs: fuel injector setting. In fact. This is detected by the governor via a change in the engine speed feedback signal. The net effect is to . as well as the way in which the motors are connected to the main generator. and load regulator position. six-axle freight (goods) unit. the main generator's output is not (which characteristic was not correctly handled by the Ward Leonard elevator drive system that was initially tried in early locomotives). "jerking a lung" could be a calamitous matter if it were to occur on an ascending grade. or break couplers (the latter being referred to in North American railroad slang as "jerking a lung"). Therefore the net power produced by the locomotive will remain constant for any given throttle setting. gradually changing to low current and high voltage as the locomotive accelerates. In particular. and actual engine speed (feedback). determined by the engineer's throttle setting. As previously explained. the prime mover's governor and a companion device. the load regulator. a consist of such units can produce more than enough drawbar pull at start-up to damage or derail cars (if on a curve). which affects main generator excitation. In older designs. the generator will produce high current and low voltage at low locomotive speeds. As the load on the engine changes. because although the prime mover's power output is proportional to RPM and fuel rate. The governor has two external inputs: requested engine speed. The load regulator's job is relatively complex. its rotational speed will also change. play a central role in the control system. The load regulator is essentially a large potentiometer that controls the main generator power output by varying its field excitation and hence the degree of loading applied to the engine. The governor also incorporates a separate over speed protective mechanism that will immediately cut off the fuel supply to the injectors and sound an alarm in the cab in the event the prime mover exceeds a defined RPM. which determines the engine fuel rate.large.
calculated from traction motor current and main generator voltage feedback values.” each engine speed step is allotted an appropriate power output. Modern locomotives fitted with electronic fuel injection (EFI) may have no mechanical governor. . In newer designs controlled by a “traction computer. engine RPM and torque will remain constant for any given throttle setting. however a “virtual” load regulator and governor are retained with computer modules. regardless of actual road speed. or “kW feedback”. in software.4 3200Hp Diesel Locomotive Engine Traction motor performance is controlled either by varying the DC voltage output of the main generator. Fig. or by varying the frequency and voltage output of the VVVF for AC motors. Therefore. for DC motors.adjust both the fuel rate and the load regulator position. or “kW reference”. The governor still has control of engine speed. The computer adjusts the feedback value to match the reference value by controlling the excitation of the main generator. as described above. The computer compares this value with actual main generator power output. the load regulator is retained as a “back-up” in case of engine overload. However. but the load regulator no longer plays a central role in this type of control system. With DC motors. various connection combinations are utilized to adapt the drive to varying operating conditions.
the traction motors will produce their highest torque. 5 Top View of Diesel Locomotive Engine Here are some of the specifications of this engine: • • • • • • • Number of cylinders: 12 Compression ratio: 16:1 Displacement per cylinder: 11. often in excess of 1000 amperes per motor at full power. As the locomotive accelerates. where it is in first gear and thus producing maximum torque multiplication. causing the locomotive to develop maximum tractive effort. enabling it to overcome the inertia of the train.1 inches) Full speed: 904 rpm Normal idle speed: 269 rpm At standstill.2 inches) Cylinder stroke: 279 mm (11.Fig. main generator output is initially low voltage/high current. When the locomotive is at or near standstill. meaning the motors are also trying to act as generators). Torque in a series-wound motor is approximately proportional to the square of the current. the now-rotating motor armatures will start to generate a counter-electromotive force (back EMF. This effect is analogous to what happens in an automobile automatic transmission at start-up.6 L (710 in3) Cylinder bore: 230 mm (9. Hence. which will oppose the output of the main generator and cause traction . current flow will be limited only by the DC resistance of the motor windings and interconnecting circuitry. as well as the capacity of the main generator itself.
to increase the operating speed range. It works the same way as for an automobile." o Resistance is connected in parallel with the motor field." a process that is analogous to shifting gears in an automobile. In older locomotives fitted with DC generators instead of AC alternators. 2.4 Starting: A diesel engine is started (like an automobile) by turning over the crankshaft until the cylinders "fire" or begin combustion.5 Transition methods include: • Series / Parallel or "motor transition. 2. motors are re-connected in parallel across the main generator. Main generator voltage will correspondingly increase in an attempt to maintain motor power. At higher speed. Since this plateau will usually be reached at a speed substantially less than the maximum that may be desired. At this point. the generator was used as a starter motor by applying battery power to it." o Initially. The starting can be done electrically or pneumatically. then fuel was applied to fire the engine. • Field shunting. but will eventually reach a plateau. producing a corresponding increase in motor torque and speed. • Generator transition .motor current to decrease. unless on a downgrade. the locomotive will essentially cease to accelerate. This change is referred to as "transition. The compressed air was supplied by a small auxiliary engine or by high pressure air cylinders carried by the locomotive. pairs of motors are connected in series across the main generator. This has the effect of increasing the armature current. Pneumatic starting was used for some engines. with batteries providing the power to turn a starter motor which turns over the main engine. Compressed air was pumped into the cylinders of the engine until it gained sufficient speed to allow ignition. Electric starting is now standard." "field diverting" or "weak fielding. Note: Both methods may also be combined. something must be done to change the drive characteristics to allow continued acceleration.
In older locomotives.o Reconnecting the two separate internal main generator stator windings from parallel to series to increase the output voltage. the bigger the engine has to be. the more power you need. . It combines some great mechanical technology. Automatic transition was subsequently developed to produce better operating efficiency. 2. the UK HST (High Speed Train. with some heavy duty electric motors and generators. Then we'll take a look at the layout and key components. This combination of diesel engine and electric generators and motors makes the locomotive a hybrid vehicle. These relatively low speeds mean that the engine design is heavy. and a modern engine can double this if the engine is turbocharged.6 Size Does Count Basically. The hybrid diesel locomotive is an incredible display of power and ingenuity. Early diesel engines were less than 100 horse power (hp) but today the US is building 6000 hp locomotives.300 hp (Class 58). two-stroke diesel engine. throwing in a little bit of computer technology for good measure. In this article. as opposed to a high speed. As an aid to performing transition at the right time. including a huge. lightweight engine. it was necessary for the engineer to manually execute transition by use of a separate control. heavy engine used in railway locomotives will give low maintenance requirements and an extended life. we'll start by learning why locomotives are built this way and why they have steel wheels. the load meter (an indicator that informs the engineer on how much current is being drawn by the traction motors) was calibrated to indicate at which points forward or backward transition should take place. each cylinder will produce about 200 hp. The maximum rotational speed of the engine when producing full power will be about 1000 rpm (revolutions per minute) and the engine will idle at about 400 rpm. 12-cylinder. For a UK locomotive of 3. The slow. However.500 rpm and this is regarded as high speed in the railway diesel engine category. developed in the 1970s) engine has a speed of 1. and to protect the main generator and traction motors from overloading due to improper transition.
it has become usual to add locomotives. cm and 8.There is a limit to the size of the engine which can be accommodated within the railway loading gauge. four locomotives at the head of a train are common and several additional ones in the middle or at the end are not unusual. Compare seat should be lapped thoroughly and it should be 1/16” thick all over. cooling sleeves seat of cylinder head.7 Important Maintenance Instruction For Cylinder Head. Where additional power is required. Clean cylinder head thoroughly especially cooling jackets. Do RDF of cylinder head combustion face. Use liquid nitrogen for valve seat insert fitting. Check the diameter of valve guide after removing its carbon deposits. In the US.8 Cylinder Head . Before final assembly check all valve seat inserts as well as of nozzle cooling sleeve. defect any cracks. so the power of a single locomotive is limited. Check valve seat inserts for cracks by RDF (After grinding). Check cylinder head hydraulically at 5kg/sq. cooling jackets and its valves thoroughly before its dismantling. Temp of water up to a min of 15 minutes. • • • • • • • • • • Study the condition of cylinder head combustion chamber face. where freight trains run into tens of thousands of tons weight. 2. Check the clean nozzle. 2.
Fig. 6 Cylinder Head
2.9 To V or not to V
Diesel engines can be designed with the cylinders "in-line", "double banked" or in a "V". The double banked engine has two rows of cylinders in line. Most diesel locomotives now have V form engines. This means that the cylinders are split into two sets, with half forming one side of the V. A V8 engine has 4 cylinders set at an angle forming one side of the V with the other set of four forming the other side. The crankshaft, providing the drive, is at the base of the V. The V12 was a popular design used in the UK. In the US, V16 is usual for freight locomotives and there are some designs with V20 engines.
2.10 Tractive Effort, Pull and Power
Before going too much further, we need to understand the definitions of tractive effort, drawbar pull and power. The definition of tractive effort (TE) is simply the force exerted at the wheel rim of the locomotive and is usually expressed in pounds (lbs) or kilo Newtons (KN). By the time the tractive effort is transmitted to the coupling between the locomotive and the train, the drawbar pull, as it is called will have reduced because of the friction of the mechanical parts of the drive and some wind resistance. Power is expressed as horsepower (hp) or kilo Watts (kW) and is actually a rate of doing work. A unit of horsepower is defined as the work involved by a horse lifting 33,000 lbs one foot in one minute. In the metric system it is calculated as the power (Watts) needed when one Newton of force is moved one metre in one second. The formula is P = (F*d)/t where P is power, F is force, d is distance and t is time. One horsepower equals 746 Watts. The relationship between power and drawbar pull is that a low speed and a high drawbar pull can produce the same power as high speed and low drawbar pull. If you need to increase higher tractive effort and high speed, you need to increase the power. To get the variations needed by a locomotive to operate on the railway, you need to have a suitable means of transmission between the diesel engine and the wheels.
One thing worth remembering is that the power produced by the diesel engine is not all available for traction. In a 2,580 hp diesel electric locomotive, some 450 hp is lost to on-board equipment like blowers, radiator fans, air compressors and "hotel power" for the train.
WDM-2 Diesel Locomotive
The first few prototype WDM-2s were imported. After Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) completed construction of its factory in Varanasi, production of the locomotives began in India. The first 12 locos were built using kits imported from ALCO in the United States. After that DLW started manufacturing the WDM-2 locomotives from their own components. Since then over 2,800 locomotives have been manufactured and the WDM-2 has become the most popular locomotive in India. However, even before the arrival of WDM-2 another type of diesel locomotive was imported from ALCO beginning in 1957. This locomotive was classified as WDM-1. Later a number of modifications were made and a few subclasses were created. This includes WDM-2A, WDM-2B and WDM-3A (formerly WDM-2C). The WDM-2 is the diesel workhorse of the Indian Railways, being very reliable and rugged.
The class WDM-2 is Indian Railways' workhorse diesel locomotive. The first units were imported fully built from the American Locomotive Company (Alco) in 1962. Since 1964, it has been manufactured in India by the Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW), Varanasi. The model name stands for broad gauge (W), diesel (D), mixed traffic (M) engine. The WDM-2 is the most common diesel locomotive of Indian Railways. The WDM-2A is a variant of the original WDM-2. These units have been retrofitted with air brakes, in addition to the original vacuum brakes. The WDM-2B is a more recent locomotive, built with air brakes as original equipment. The WDM-2 locos have a maximum speed of 120 km/h (75 mph), restricted to 100 km/h (62 mph) when run long hood forward. The gear ratio is 65:18. Types of Diesel locomotives WDM2 WDM3 WDM6 WDM7 BG Main Line Locomotive BG Main Line Locomotive BG Main Line Locomotive BG Main Line Locomotive 2600HP 3100HP 1350HP 2150HP 4000HP 4000HP 1350HP 2300HP 3100HP 3100HP 3300HP 1350HP
WDG4 BG Main Line Goods Locomotive WDP4 BG Main Line Passenger Locomotive WDS6 BG Shunting Locomotive WDP1 BG Inter City Express Locomotive WDP2 BG High HP Passenger Locomotive WDG3A WDG3C BG High Goods Locomotive BG High HP Goods Locomotive
YDM4 MG Main Line Locomotive
3.1 Technical specifications
000 rpm. The above requirement. GE752 (original Alco models) (405 hp).000 rpm). in the year 1987. at adhesion 27%. compression ratio 12. GE 17MG8 / Woodward’s 8574-650. DLW Alco 251-B.8 tones. 228 mm x 266 mm bore/stroke.862 mm.Builders Alco. 2. Alco design cast frame trimount (Co-Co) bogies 30. 4. BHEL 4906 BZ (AZ?) (435 hp) and (newer) 4907 AZ (with roller bearings) 18. Electric. total weight 112.4 t. 400 rpm idle. led to the creation of test beds at Engine Development Directorate of RDSO at Lucknow having state of the art facilities for developmental testing of all the variants of diesel engines being used by Indian Railways. 770 V. centrifugal pump cooling system (2. fan driven by eddy current clutch (86 hp at 1.5:1.000 rpm).600 hp (2.516 mm.457 l/min at 1. Direct fuel injection. 10.430 hp site rating) with Alco 710/720/?? Turbo supercharged engine. 16 cylinder. The above facilities comparable to the best facilities in the world were created to meet the following objectives: Development of technology for improving existing Rail Traction Diesel Engines for 1.520 amps).000 rpm max.8 t. Better Fuel Efficiency 2. with BHEL TG 10931 AZ generator (1. Higher Reliability 3. Engine Governor Transmission Traction motors Axle load Bogies Starting TE Length over buffer beams Distance between bogies 15. It included the computer based test facility for both data logging and control of engines. Increased Availability . 1.
1 Technical Information Diesel Electric main line. Develop capability for designing new Rail Traction Diesel Engines for meeting future needs of Indian Railways. heavy duty goods service locomotive. with 16 cylinder ALCO engine and AC/DC traction with micro processor controls.2. Maintain Quality 2. Facilitate Indigenization 3. To provide effective R&D backup to Railways and Production units to 1. Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Length over Buffers Wheel Diameter Gear Ratio Min radius of Curvature Maximum Speed Co-Co 1676 mm 123 t 19132 mm 1092 mm 18 : 74 117 m 105 Kmph .2 Broad Gauge Main Line Freight Locomotive WDG 3A 3.Development of technology for increasing power output of existing Diesel Engines.
Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Length Buffer Wheel Diameter 1092 mm Gear Ratio Maximum Speed 18 : 65 120 Kmph 1676 mm 117 t over 18650 mm Co-Co Max. Dynamic Air 6000 litres 3.3 Broad Gauge Main Line Mixed Service LOCO WDM 3D 3. Axle Load 19.16 Cyl..3.V 3100 IRAB-1 Air.Diesel Engine HP Brake Loco Train Fuel Tank Capacity Type : 251 B.1 Technical Information Diesel Electric Locomotive with micro processor control suitable for main line mixed Service train operation.5 t .
Diesel Engine HP Transmission Brake Loco Train Fuel Capacity Type: 251 B-16 Cyl. Hand Air Tank 5000 litres . Dynamic. ‘V’ type 3300 HP (standard UIC condition) Electric AC / DC IRAB-1 system Air.
3. This locomotive is very popular with Steel Plants and Port Trusts.4 Broad Gauge Shunting Locomotive WDS 6AD 3.) Electric AC / DC IRAB-1 Air Air .4. Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Length over Buffer Wheel Diameter Gear Ratio Maximum Speed Diesel Engine HP Transmission Brake Loco Train Co-Co 1676 mm 113 t 17370 mm 1092 mm 74 : 18 50 Kmph Type : 251 D-6 Cyl. in-line 1350 / 1120 HP (std.1Technical Information A heavy duty shunting Diesel Electric Locomotive for main line and branch line train operation.
Each test cell has its own microprocessor controlled data acquisition and control systems and Video Display Unit (VDU) for pressure. fuel consumption at this notch is one of the important fuel efficiency index.Fuel Tank Capacity 5000 litres 3.6 Fuel Consumption on 8th Notch Since the fuel consumption at 8th notch is highest and also since Locomotives run at this notch for longer duration as compared to other notches. . 6 cylinders ALCO) types of DLW manufactured Engines. 12 cylinders ALCO. 16 cylinders ALCO. Each test cell has an instrumentation catering to 60 to 120 pressures / temperature transducers along with sophisticated equipments like gravimetric fuel balance for measurement of fuel consumption and the equipment for measurement of air flow. Various transducers relay the information from the test engines to the microprocessor based test commander for further processing with the help of sophisticated software.5 Engine Test Bed Facilities The test bed facilities in RDSO are equipped with four Test Cells. Fig.hr. These Test Cells house four (16 cylinders GMEMD. This is measured in terms of gm / bhp . 8 Test Bed 3. temperature and other parameters.
The engineer climbs an 8-foot (2. He or she engages a knife switch (like the ones in old Frankenstein movies) that connects the batteries to the starter circuit.8 Speed at different Notch position Notch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Speed (RPM) 400 450 550 650 750 850 915 1000 3.9 Driving a Locomotive You don't just hop in the cab. which primes the fuel system. Next. making sure that all of the air is out of the system. The notch wise percentage running of locomotive over duty cycle for passenger and freight operations of Indian Railways locomotives is as under: 3. The engine cranks over and starts running. He then turns the switch the other way and the starter motor engages.7 Fuel Consumption Over Duty Cycle An Engine runs in the field at different notch as per requirement of speed / load of the locomotive. . the engineer walks down a corridor into the engine room. Starting a train is a little more complicated than starting your car. Then the engineer flips about a hundred switches on a circuit-breaker panel. providing power to everything from the lights to the fuel pump. He turns and holds a switch there.4-m) ladder and enters a corridor behind the cab. turn the key and drive away in a diesel locomotive.3.
the engineer releases the brakes and puts the throttle into notch 1. Finally he can head back up to the cab and take over control from there. which rings continuously. he goes up to the cab to monitor the gauges and set the brakes once the compressor has pressurized the brake system. These contactors hook the main generator to the traction motors. The throttle control has eight positions. putting the throttle into notch 1 engages a set of contactors (giant electrical relays). The traction motors produce more power at higher voltages. In this General Motors EMD 710 series engine. he engages the bell. resulting in a lower voltage.Next. and sounds the air horns twice (indicating forward motion). plus an idle position. the computerized engine controls adjust the fuel injectors to start producing more engine power." Notch 1 is the slowest speed. . As the contactors engage. Some combinations of contactors put certain parts of the generator winding into a series configuration that results in a higher voltage. Each notch engages a different combination of contactors. producing a different voltage. He can then head to the back of the train to release the hand brake. and notch 8 is the highest speed. To get the train moving. Once he has permission from the conductor of the train to move. Others put certain parts in parallel. Each of the throttle positions is called a "notch.
. It produced direct current which was used to provide power for DC traction motors. The next development was the replacement of the generator by the alternator but still using DC traction motors. on the train. The output is transmitted along the train through an auxiliary power line. Many of these machines are still in regular use. 4. air conditioned passenger coaches get what is called electric train supply (ETS) from the auxiliary alternator. 4. Some designs have separate blowers for the group of motors on each truck and others for the alternators. the alternator was a DC machine. The blower is mounted inside the locomotive body but the motors are on the trucks. heating. the motor blower provides air which is blown over the traction motors to keep them cool during periods of heavy work.3 Motor Blower The diesel engine also drives a motor blower. so the blower output is connected to each of the motors through flexible ducting.Chapter-4 Main Parts Of An Engine _____________________________________________________________ 4.2 Auxiliary Alternator Locomotives used to operate passenger trains are equipped with an auxiliary alternator. air conditioning. Whatever the arrangement. As its name suggests. In the US. dining facilities etc. The alternator generates AC electricity which is used to provide power for the traction motors mounted on the trucks (bogies). This provides AC power for lighting. In older locomotives. a modern locomotive has a complex air management system which monitors the temperature of the various rotating machines in the locomotive and adjusts the flow of air accordingly. The blower output also cools the alternators. The AC output is rectified to give the DC required for the motors. it is known as "head end power" or "hotel power". In the UK.1 Main Alternator The diesel engine drives the main alternator which provides the power to move the train. called a generator.
4 Air Intakes The air for cooling the locomotive's motors is drawn in from outside the locomotive. If the motors are DC. However. If an inverter fails.both systems have their merits. DC motors were the traditional type used for many years but. . It has to be filtered to remove dust and other impurities and its flow regulated by temperature. keeping wheel diameters closely matched for optimum performance is no longer necessary. the output from the rectifiers is used directly. One inverter per axle is more complicated. If the motors are AC. By controlling each axle individually. The air management system has to take account of the wide range of temperatures from the possible +40° C of summer to the possible -40° C of winter. one truck) fails then the unit is only able to produce 50 per cent of its tractive effort. 4. In the US. while GE uses one inverter per axle . To convert the AC output from the main alternator to DC. the DC output from the rectifiers is converted to 3-phase AC for the traction motors.e. in the last 10 years. if one inverter (i. EMD's system links the axles within each truck in parallel.4. To see more on the difference between DC and AC traction technology try the Electronic Power Page on this site. the tractive effort for that axle is lost. They are cheaper to build and cost less to maintain and. AC motors have become standard for new locomotives. there are some variations in how the inverters are configured. Parallel control also means even wheel wear even between axles.5 Rectifiers/Inverters The output from the main alternator is AC but it can be used in a locomotive with either DC or AC traction motors. with electronic management can be very finely controlled. both inside and outside the locomotive. ensuring wheel slip control is maximized among the axles equally. GM EMD relies on one inverter per truck. but the GE view is that individual axle control can provide the best tractive effort. rectifiers are required. but full tractive effort is still available through the other five inverters.
the diesel engine needs a battery to start it and to provide electrical power for lights and controls when the engine is switched off and the alternator is not running. The common US type of stand is positioned at an angle on the left side of the driving position and. The locomotive operates on a nominal 64-volt electrical system. Fig. as well as to run the electronics in the locomotive. each weighing over 300 pounds (136 kg). Once the main engine is running. indicators and the radio 4.6 Electronic Controls: Almost every part of the modern locomotive's equipment has some form of electronic control. it is said.7 Control Stand This is the principal man-machine interface. is much preferred by drivers to the modern desk type of control layout usual in Europe and now being offered on some locomotives in the US. .4.9 Controls.8 Batteries Just like an automobile. known as a control desk in the UK or control stand in the US. These are usually collected in a control cubicle near the cab for easy access. The controls will usually include a maintenance management system of some sort which can be used to download data to a portable or hand-held computer. an alternator supplies power to the electronics and the batteries. 4. The locomotive has eight 8-volt batteries. These batteries provide the power needed to start the engine (it has a huge starter motor).
This gives a reasonable forward view if the locomotive is working "hood forwards". The seats have a suspension system as well.4. on the other hand have full width bodies and more streamlined ends but still usually with one cab. 4. Each motor drives a small gear.000 hp.9 Cab Most US diesel locomotives have only one cab but the practice in Europe is two cabs. traction motors are provided on the axles to give the final drive. 10 Traction Motor . US freight locos are also designed with narrow engine compartments and walkways along either side. The cab of the locomotive rides on its own suspension system. A modern AC motor with air blowing can provide up to 1. In Europe. which meshes with a larger gear on the axle shaft. There are between four and six motors on most diesel-electric locomotives. US passenger locos.10 Traction Motor Since the diesel-electric locomotive uses electric transmission. These motors were traditionally DC but the development of modern power and control electronics has led to the introduction of 3phase AC motors. which helps isolate the engineer from bumps. There is one on each axle. This provides the gear reduction that allows the motor to drive the train at speeds of up to 110 mph. Propulsion: The traction motors provide propulsion power to the wheels. Fig. it is difficult to tell the difference between a freight and passenger locomotive because the designs are almost all wide bodied and their use is often mixed.
400 hp locomotive. so if any compartment is damaged or starts to leak. As the weights move out. The movement of the collar is used to operate the fuel rack lever controlling the amount of fuel supplied to the engine by the injectors. A pair of flyweights is linked to the shaft and they rotate as it rotates.000 hp) or 5. the engine speed is monitored and controlled through a governor. 3.11 Fuel Tank A diesel locomotive has to carry its own fuel around with it and there has to be enough for a reasonable length of trip. so the collar rises on the shaft. which is driven by the diesel engine. . the locomotive will carry around.328 L) of diesel fuel. 4. In addition to fuel.500 gallon tanks. The governor ensures that the engine speed stays high enough to idle at the right speed and that the engine speed will not rise too high when full power is demanded. The flyweights are linked to a collar fitted around the shaft by a pair of arms. The fuel tank is compartmentalized.170 amps of electrical current.000 pounds (2. It operates on a diesel engine as shown in the diagram below.000 imperial gallons (UK Class 59. The governor is a simple mechanical device which first appeared on steam engines. typically about 300 US gallons of cooling water and 250 gallons of lubricating oil for the diesel engine.12 Governor Once a diesel engine is running. Air reservoirs are also required for the train braking and some other systems on the locomotive. The new AC6000s have 5. the collar moves down the shaft. The governor consists of a rotating shaft. This huge tank in the underbelly of the locomotive holds 2.722 kg) and can draw up to 1. These are often mounted next to the fuel tank under the floor of the locomotive. pumps can remove the fuel from that compartment.000 US gallons in a General Electric AC4400CW 4.200 gallons (8. The centrifugal force caused by the rotation causes the weights to be thrown outwards as the speed of the shaft rises. 4.Each motor weighs 6. If the weights move inwards. If the speed falls the weights move inwards. The fuel tank is normally under the loco frame and will have a capacity of say 1.
Governors act through the fuel injection system to control the amount of fuel delivered to the cylinders. This governor controls all abnormal speed surges. The quantity of fuel delivered. This force is transmitted to the fuel injection system by means of levers connected to the governor collar and a linkage system. This type of governor is installed as a safety measure and comes into action when the engine approaches dangerous over speed.12. If an engine is loaded beyond its rated capacity.Fig. This condition could occur before the operator had time to bring the engine under control by other means. 11 Principle of Governor 4. In some types of over speed governors the action merely cuts off the fuel until the engine has slowed to a point of safety and then allows the resumption of normal operation. The two types of governors. Centrifugal force is the force that tends to move a body away from the axis about which it is revolved. are : over speed governor and regulating governor. The over speed type is used on most marine engines where the speed of the engine is variable. in turn. By necessity. each of which serves a distinctly different purpose. the marine engine requires flexibility in speed due to the maneuvering of the ship. that is. The other type trips a fuel . it will slow down or may even stop. the action of the governor depends upon the centrifugal force created as the governor weights revolve.1 Function and types of governors The purpose of a governor is to control the speed of an engine. governs the power developed. Overspeed governors are of the centrifugal type. The over speed trip functions only if the regulating governor fails.
Its duty is to control the speed within very narrow limits when an engine is operating under varying loads. On F-M engines. the receiving compensating plunger.cutout mechanism and affects a complete stopping of the engine. the compensating spring. power piston. the power element. consisting of the power spring. a pilot valve plunger. pilot valve bushing. a speed adjusting spring whose tension governs the speed setting of the governor. The purpose of the governor is to regulate the amount of fuel supplied to the cylinders so that a predetermined engine speed will be maintained despite variations in load. The principal parts of the governor are a gear pump and accumulators which serve to keep a constant oil pressure on the system at all times. Figure 10-2 is a schematic diagram of the governor. and on GM engines.12. and the compensating assembly which consists of the actuating compensating plunger. For this discussion governors will be classified as either hydraulic or mechanical. It takes the place of the operator's manual control of the throttle. The mechanical governor is more applicable to the small engine field not requiring extremely close regulation while the hydraulic type finds favor with the larger installations demanding very close regulation. while the hydraulic type employs a centrifugally actuated pilot valve to regulate the flow of a hydraulic medium under pressure. thus maintaining the engine speed at the set rate. and two . The F-M engines employ an F-M design over speed governor and the GM engines use Woodward over speed governors. it is driven from the lower crankshaft. The Woodward hydraulic governor of the regulating type is widely used in the United States Navy & Railway Engines. from one of the camshafts. and power cylinder. it permits an increase of fuel to the cylinders. 4. and flyweights which control the amount of oil going to the power assembly.2 Description and operation The type of regulating governor used on all submarine main engines is the Woodward SI hydraulic type governor. To perform this function. The mechanical type embodies the principle of centrifugal force similar to the over speed type. and before the engine's speed has appreciably dropped. The regulating governor is much more sensitive to slight speed fluctuations than is the overspeed governor. When the load on the engine increases. the governor must be sensitive to the slightest variation in speed.
However. actuating the linkage to the fuel system controls. the power spring forces the piston down. and the supply of fuel to the engine is diminished. As the engine speed returns to the set rate. This opens the regulating port of the bushing. and trapped oil from the power cylinder is then allowed to flow through the pilot valve cylinder into a drainage passage to the oil sump. the flyweights resume their original position and the. 12 Woodward regulating governor installed When the engine is running at the speed set on the governor. raising the pilot valve plunger. The plunger is held in this position by the flyweights. if the engine load decreases.compensation needle valves. As the trapped oil drains to the oil sump. The pilot valve plunger is constructed with a land which serves to open or close the port in the pilot valve bushing leading to the power cylinder. Fig. pilot valve plunger again covers the regulating port. In this governor the flyweights are linked hydraulically to the fuel control cylinder. the land on the pilot valve plunger covers the regulating port in the bushing. The downward pressure of the power spring is balanced by the hydraulic lock on the lower side of the power piston. the engine speeds up and the additional centrifugal force moves the flyweights outward. The amount of oil below the power piston is regulated by the pilot valve plunger controlled by the flyweights. .
the engine slows down. To prevent overcorrection in the regulating governor a compensating mechanism is used. closing the port to the power piston. This oil supplied by a pump is under a pressure sufficient to overcome the pressure of the power spring. This creates a suction above the receiving compensating plunger which is part of the pilot valve bushing. The power piston moves upward. actuating the linkage to increase the amount of fuel injected into the engine cylinders. Once again. as the speed returns to the set rate. This acts on the pilot valve bushing so as to anticipate the pilot valve movement and close the regulating port slightly before the centrifugal flyballs would normally direct the pilot valve to cover the port. the flyweights resume their central position. As the flyweights and pilot valve return to their central position. When the engine speed increases and the power piston moves downward. drawing oil into its cylinder.Fig. Thus the power piston is stopped. oil . This lowers the pilot valve plunger. A compensating plunger on the power piston shaft moves in a cylinder that is also filled with oil. The gear pump that supplies the high-pressure oil is driven from the governor drive shaft and takes suction from the governor oil sump. and the flyweights move inward. allowing no time for overcorrection. A spring-loaded accumulator maintains a constant pressure of oil and allows excess oil to return to the sump. 13 Schematic diagram of Woodward regulating governor If the load increases. allowing pressure oil to flow through the pilot valve chamber to the power cylinder. The bushing moves upward. the actuating compensating plunger is also carried down.
The pump idler gear is carried on a stud and rotates in a bored recess in the power case. oil pressure accumulators. b. the actuating compensating plunger moves upward with the power piston. In actual operation. are two long oil passages leading from the bottom of the power case to the top of the accumulator bores. To keep the port closed. The pressure of this spring determines the engine speed necessary for the flyweights to maintain their central position. Drive adapter: . This increases the pressure above the actuating compensating plunger and consequently above the receiving compensating piston which therefore moves down.12. Power case assembly:. the lower bushing port is closed. oil pump check valves. The excess oil in the compensating system is now forced out through the needle valve as the compensating spring returns the bushing to its central position. carrying with it the pilot valve bushing. The oil pump drive gear turns the rotating sleeve to which it is attached. Therefore. When the engine speed drops below the set rate. 4.The drive adapter assembly serves as a mounting base for the governor. Oil allowed to leak past the various plungers for lubricating purposes is drained into the governing oil sump. the needle valve must be adjusted so that the oil passes through at the required rate for the particular engine. the bushing and plunger must return to normal position at exactly the same speed. The upper flange of the casting is bored out at the center to form a bearing surface for the hub of the pump drive gear and for the upper end of the drive shaft. These two gears and their housing constitute the governor oil pump. and compensating needle valves.flowing through a needle valve allows the compensating spring to return to its central position. As before. Check valve seats are arranged at the top and bottom of each chamber. the events described above occur almost simultaneously. and parallel to it. On opposite sides of the central bore in the power case.3 Regulating governor sub-assemblies:The governor consists of five principal subassemblies as follows: a. Both check valves have openings .This assembly includes the governor oil pump. The governing speed of the engine is set by changing the tension of the speed adjusting spring.
power cylinder and rotating sleeve assembly. Their function is to regulate the operating oil pressure and insure a continuous supply of oil in the event that the requirements of the power cylinder should temporarily exceed the capacity of the oil pump. as this pressure is determined by the size of the springs in the accumulators. Only one needle valve and one port are necessary for operation.leading from the space between the valves to the oil pump. Fig. In this way the pump is arranged for rotation in either direction. There are two oil pressure accumulators. pulling oil through the lower check valve on one side and forcing it through the upper check valve on the opposite side. 14 Governor-sections through adapter. but two are provided so that adjustment can be made on the one that is more accessible. The two compensating needle valves control the size of the openings in the two small tapered ports in the passage that connects the area above the actuating compensating plunger in the Servo motor and the space above the receiving compensating plunger in the pilot valve bushing of the rotating sleeve assembly. power. These ports open the compensating oil passage to the oil sump tank. There is no adjustment for oil pressure. case. .
power piston. The power piston is single acting. loosening the lock nut. piston rod. d. Hence. power spring. Any oil pressure acting on the lower side forces the piston up against the power spring. Speed control column:. The central bore in the power case forms a bearing for the entire rotating sleeve. and the speed adjustment knob with gear train. ballhead. e. A shallow. If no oil pressure is present. Since these grooves extend completely around the diameter of the rotating sleeve. and the actuating compensating plunger. pilot valve plunger. rack shaft. and the pinion shaft gear and pinion. The port grooves in the sleeve align with the ports in the power case (Figure 10-10). dial shaft pinion.c. This screw prevents the power piston from traveling beyond the predetermined load limit. the results are the same as if the sleeve were stationary and the ports were . An oil drain is provided in the space above the power piston to permit any oil that may leak by the piston to drain into the governor case oil sump. and flyballs. Movement of the gear train changes the compression of the speed adjusting spring. pilot valve bushing. thus preventing wear and binding. The amount of compression determines the speed at which the flyballs will be vertical. rack shaft gear.The power cylinder assembly consists of the cylinder. the compression determines the engine speed. Power cylinder assembly: .The principal parts of the rotating sleeve assembly (Figure 10-13) are: the pump drive gear. The screw can be adjusted by removing the cap nut on top of the power cylinder. and turning the screw up or down with a screwdriver. An adjustable load limit stop screw is provided in the power cylinder. The area underneath the power piston is connected to the pilot valve regulating ports. Rotating sleeve assembly: . No piston rings are used in the closely fitting piston. the power spring acting on the upper side forces the piston down to decrease the fuel flow. The speeder plug screw allows the adjustment of the governor speed setting to match the actual speed of the engine. thereby increasing the fuel flow. The gear train consists of the dial shaft gear.The basic speed control column assembly includes the speeder plug screw. speed adjusting spring. helical groove permits equal oil pressure on all sides of the piston.
a Selsyn receiving motor is also geared to the rack shaft. The knob also actuates a pointer that travels over a dial graduated to show engine speeds corresponding to deflection of the speed adjusting spring. Speed adjustment: .permanently in line with those in the case. are running at a lower speed.The manual adjustment is made by means of the speed control knob located on the front of the regulating governor. Manual adjustment:.The speed setting of the governor is changed by increasing or decreasing the compression of the speed adjusting spring which opposes the centrifugal force of the flyballs. From top to bottom the ports are as follows: accumulator pressure to pilot valve. Thus. 4. and the engine. drain from the lower end of the pilot plunger. Conversely. decreasing the spring compression decreases the speed at which the engine will run. decreasing the compression of the speed adjusting spring will permit the flyballs to move outward when they. Speed adjustments may be made manually at the governor. This knob is connected through a gear train to the rack shaft which in turn is. or electrically from the governor control cabinet in the maneuvering room as follows: 1. This receiving motor operates in parallel with a Selsyn transmitter generator in the governor control cabinet mounted on the main control cubicle instrument panel in the maneuvering room.4 ADJUSTMENTS a. 2. Increasing the spring compression will make it more difficult for the flyballs to move outward. compensating pressure from the power piston to the receiving compensating plunger on the pilot valve bushing. and drain from the lower side of the receiving compensating plunger.geared to a rack on the speed adjusting plug. consequently a higher flyball (and engine) speed must be attained to move the flyballs outward and thereby reduce the fuel supply. When the speed setting is . Electrical adjustment:. regulating pressure to power cylinder.12.For electrical control.
4.12. it should not be necessary to change the adjustment except for a permanent temperature change affecting the viscosity of the oil. the adjustment depends on the characteristics of the engine. In the UK. The one not used must be turned in against its seat. Compensating needle valve adjustment:. Drive to the fan is therefore through a gearbox to change the direction of the drive upwards.12. Either of the two needle valves may be used for adjustment.5 Air Compressor The air compressor is required to provide a constant supply of compressed air for the locomotive and train brakes. In the US. The needle valve will usually be open about one-fourth of a turn for best performance. Then the valve is closed until surging is just eliminated. whereas the Class 37 has the compressors in the nose.7 Fuel Injection Ignition is a diesel engine is achieved by compressing air inside a cylinder until it gets very hot (say 400° C. the receiving motor in the governor moves to establish the same setting in the governor. Once the valve has been adjusted correctly for the engine.changed at the transmitter generator. the compressor is usually electrically driven and can therefore be mounted anywhere. the more accessible valve is opened a full turn or more and the engine is allowed to surge for approximately 30 seconds to eliminate trapped air. When performing the adjustment.12. almost 800° F) and then injecting a fine spray of fuel oil to . The needle valve should be kept open as far as possible to prevent sluggishness.This adjustment is made with the engine running from 200 rpm to 300 rpm as set by the speed adjustment knob or by remote control. b. 4. The Class 60 compressor is under the frame.6 Gear Box The radiator and its cooling fan is often located in the roof of the locomotive. However. it is standard practice to drive the compressor off the diesel engine drive shaft. 4.
1. Fig. 16 FIP cut section The original fuel injection pumps used on ALCO Engines had plunger diameter of 15 mm. This modification led to sharper fuel injection i.cause a miniature explosion. 4. The estimated fuel and lube oil economy with this modification is approx. To get the fine spray needed for successful ignition the fuel has to be pumped into the cylinder at high pressure. 15 Fuel injection pump Fig.12. which gives the fine spray of fuel required in the cylinder for combustion.8 FIP Testing • Ensure the level of servo calibration. improvement in the fuel efficiency. The explosion forces down the piston in the cylinder and this turns the crankshaft. The plunger diameter of the fuel injection pump was increased from 15 mm to 17 mm.e. Oil is above the low mark in storage tank of test stand. The modification resulted in increase of peak fuel line pressure from 750 to 850 bars and. The fuel is pumped into an injector.5% and 4% respectively. thus. injection at higher-pressure. The fuel pump is operated by a cam driven off the engine. .
Mount the overhauled FIP on cam housing & tighten. Nozzle holder body. The FIP rack should be Screw the fuel inlet union.12. stop the m/c. 4. Keep the control rack in full fuel oil position & insert horse shoe space according Reset the counter to zero. at 9 mm & record the full fuel delivery in calibration data nozzle. Remove the horse shoe space & ensure rack length is at idle fuel length i. Do this process five times & If specified delivery is not achieved adjust the rack by rotating rack position tool against the spring loaded plunger.9 Injector Assembly Sequence 1. 4. 7.1 Maintenance Instruction Of Injector While Re-Conditioning • Nozzle value lift 0. Intermediate disc. 4.024˝ max. Nozzle. 5. check the average of last three measurement of oil delivery.9. to FIP type to be tested b/w the rack positioning tool & FIP face. Operate the calibrating m/c & set the oil pressure 25-30 psi. • Adjust the pointer of full fuel position to proper mm reading. 2. Spindle with guide bush. . Mount the m/c nozzle according to FIP type to be used on m/c. Nozzle cap nut. 3. in the required direction to get the specified delivery & when it is found within specified limit.12.• • • • • • • • • • Heat the oil to 100° F to 120° F. Connect the high pressure tube b/w FIP discharge & calibrating nozzle.e. Measure the oil delivery in beaker for 300 strokes. Compensating washer. Spring. 6.
Reamer 23/32 HSS. Torque Wrench – 450 to 750 ft. Gauges.2Tool. Position the spring seat & spring in the body. Gauge 0 to 110° C. Socket – 1 (⅜)˝ & 2((⅜)˝ Box Spanner 36 mm & 70 mm. Nose Plier.• • • • • • Testing pressure Min. Seat tightness test. Nozzle should give healthy chartering sound.9. Temp. Clean all the components once again using clean HSD oil & assemble them wet. Pressure Gauge 0 to 8960 psi. 3100 Psi-260 kg/cm Max. Keep spindle with guide bush & intermediate disc on spring. Pin Vice Kit. • • • • Place the injector nozzle holder body in the fixture with nozzle & upward.12. Centering Sleeve For Injector Nozzle. 4100 Psi-290 kg/cm Spring pattern should be uniform. Dial Gauge. there should be no dribbling. Pressure Gauge 0 to 100 psi. Place assemble nozzle over the intermediate disc & screw the nozzle cap nut & torque to 105 ft. lbs. . lbs. True Running Tool For Injection. 4. lbs. Torque Wrenches Used In FIP Section • • • • • • • • • • • • • Torque Wrench – 100 to 400 ft.
so the toothed section of the pump rotates and provides a drive to move the pump piston round inside the pump. If the driver asks for more power. In a diesel engine the amount of air applied to the cylinder is constant so power is regulated by varying the fuel input. The engine will increase power and the governor will monitor engine speed to ensure it does .The fuel rack can be moved either by the driver operating the power controller in the cab or by the governor. Fig. As the fuel rack moves.13 Fuel Control In an automobile engine. the power is controlled by the amount of fuel/air mixture applied to the cylinder. Regulation is achieved by varying the fuel sent by the fuel pumps to the injectors. The adjustment is done by a toothed rack (called the "fuel rack") acting on a toothed section of the pump mechanism. and the pumps are aligned in a row so that they can all be adjusted together. The mixture is mixed outside the cylinder and then applied by a throttle valve. 17 Fuel System The amount of fuel being applied to the cylinders is varied by altering the effective delivery rate of the piston in the injector pumps.4. Each injector has its own pump. operated by an engine-driven cam. the control rod moves the fuel rack to set the pump pistons to allow more fuel to the injectors. The fine spray of fuel injected into each cylinder has to be regulated to achieve the amount of power required.
also for a fan to blow air through the radiator. but is more commonly a mixture of water and antifreeze in proportions appropriate to the . They operate by passing a liquid coolant through the engine block. Fig.The limits are fixed by springs limiting the weight movement. This coolant is usually water-based. stationary generating plant or any similar use of such an engine.not go above the predetermined limit. motorcycles. through which a liquid (coolant) is pumped. railway locomotives. where it is heated. chiefly in automobiles but also in piston-engined aircraft. This liquid may be water (in climates where water is unlikely to freeze). then through the radiator itself where it loses this heat to the atmosphere.14 Radiators They are used for cooling internal combustion engines. but may also be oil. It's usual for the coolant flow to be pumped.18 Fuel Supply system 4. In railway with a liquid-cooled internal combustion engine a radiator is connected to channels running through the engine and cylinder head.
Where engines are mid. This construction is less easily repaired than traditional materials. Alternatively. thus a high surface area relative to its volume. This core is usually made of stacked layers of metal sheet. An earlier construction method was the honeycomb radiator. Antifreeze itself is usually ethylene glycol or propylene glycol (with a small amount of corrosion inhibitor). the radiator may draw air from the flow over the top of the vehicle or from a side-mounted grill. and sometimes to cool engine oil. this formed what became in effect a solid water tank with many air tubes through it. it is common to mount the radiator behind a front grill to achieve sufficient airflow. air conditioners. For long vehicles. The radiator transfers the heat from the fluid inside to the air outside. Radiators are typically mounted in a position where they receive airflow from the forward movement of the vehicle. pressed to form channels and soldered or brazed together.1 Radiator Construction Railway radiators are constructed of a pair of header tanks. 4. Modern radiators save money and weight by using plastic headers and may use aluminium cores. such as behind a front grill. even though this requires long coolant pipes. For many years radiators were made from brass or copper cores soldered to brass headers. Radiators are also often used to cool automatic transmissions. . Round tubes were swaged into hexagons at their ends. side airflow is most common for engine and transmission cooling and top airflow most common for air conditioner cooling. such as buses.14. linked by a core with many narrow passageways.or rear-mounted. As they only touched at their ends.climate. thereby cooling the engine. then stacked together and soldered.
with a small bypass flow so that the thermostat experiences changes to the coolant temperature as the engine warms up.20 Radiator Thermostat When the engine is cold the thermostat is closed. . Once the coolant reaches the thermostat's activation temperature it opens. allowing water to flow through the radiator to prevent the temperature rising higher.14. Directing water to circulate only through the engine allows the temperature to reach optimum operating temperature as quickly as possible whilst avoiding localized "hot spots". Coolant is directed by the thermostat to the inlet of the circulating pump and is returned directly to the engine. bypassing the radiator. Fig.Fig.19 Honeycomb Radiator Tubes Temperature Control 4.2 Water Flow Control The engine temperature is primarily controlled by a wax-pellet type of thermostat. a valve which opens once the engine has reached its optimum operating temperature.
(The velocity of air flow across the radiator has a major effect on its ability to dissipate heat. . when cruising fast downhill on a motorway on a cold night on a light throttle.3 Airflow Control Other factors influence the temperature of the engine including radiator size and the type of radiator fan.4 Coolant Before World War II. this also tracks engine speed similarly.) Conversely. Allowing too much flow of coolant to the radiator would result in the engine being over cooled and operating at lower than optimum temperature. Under peak load conditions. A side effect of this would be that the passenger compartment heater would not be able to put out enough heat to keep the passengers warm. The thermostat is therefore constantly moving throughout its range. radiator coolant was usually plain water. the thermostat will be approaching fully open because the engine will be producing near to maximum power while the velocity of air flow across the radiator is low. the thermostat will be nearly closed because the engine is producing little power. the thermostat controls the flow of coolant to the radiator so that the engine continues to operate at optimum temperature. The size of the radiator (and thus its cooling capacity) is chosen such that it can keep the engine at the design temperature under the most extreme conditions a vehicle is likely to encounter (such as climbing a mountain whilst fully loaded on a hot day). speed and external temperature. in rough proportion to the engine effort. thus giving crude self-regulatory feedback.14. and this was often only done in cold weather. 4. responding to changes in vehicle operating load. 4. Where an additional cooling fan is driven by the engine. and the radiator is able to dissipate much more heat than then engine is producing. Antifreeze was used solely to control freezing. to keep the engine at its optimum operating temperature.Once at optimum temperature. Airflow speed through a radiator is a major influence on the heat it loses. Vehicle speed affects this. such as labouring slowly up a steep hill whilst heavily laden on a hot day.14.
fluid transfer to overflow will cause an increased loss by vaporizing the engine coolant.6 bar) .6 Radiator Thrust An aircraft radiator comprises a duct wherein heat is added. Although ramjets normally require a . 4. Severe engine damage can be caused by overheating. To protect the unwary the cap often contains a mechanism that attempts to relieve the internal pressure before the cap can be fully opened. A calibrated pressure-relief valve is usually incorporated in the radiator's fill cap. This pressure varies between models.14.5 Boiling Or Overheating On this type system. Opening a hot radiator drops the system pressure immediately and may cause a sudden ebullition of super-heated coolant which can cause severe burns (see geyser). At one point. leading to the adoption of glycol or water-glycol mixtures. by overloading or system defect. 4. but is typically 9 psi (0. Because the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines increases with internal temperature the coolant is kept at higher-than-atmospheric pressure to increase its boiling point. when the coolant is evaporated to a level below the water pump.Development in high-performance aircraft engines required improved coolants with higher boiling points. Since the development of aluminium or mixed-metal engines. These led to the adoption of glycols for their antifreeze properties too. this is effectively a jet engine. the sending units are not exposed to the coolant to indicate the excessive temperature.15 psi (1. at that point. Some scalding of one's hands can easily occur in this event. by injecting fuel into this duct after the radiator and igniting it. This can happen without warning because. corrosion inhibition has become even more important than antifreeze and in all regions and seasons too. High-performance piston aircraft with well-designed low-drag radiators (notably the P-51 Mustang) derived a significant portion of their thrust from this effect. As a result. there were even plans to equip the Spitfire with a ramjet. if the coolant in the overflow container gets too low.14.0 bar).
to exceed this limit by allowing the coolant to boil. o Bearing housing covers. This absorbs an amount of heat equivalent to the specific heat of vaporization. • • Open bearing seal plate. Attempts were made with aero-engines of the 1930s. which for water is more than five times the energy required to heat the same quantity of water from 0°C to 100°C. Remove the radiator fan from bearing housing. The practical difficulty was the need to provide condensers rather than radiators. such as in a radiator duct. This required a condenser far larger and with higher drag than a radiator. For aircraft. 4. but for low-density steam. Clean the bearing with HSD oil and water and dry air. . Dismantle the components in the following sequence: o Universal end hub.7 Steam Cooling Pressurized cooling systems operate by adding heat to the coolant fluid. causing it to rise in temperature in inverse proportion to its specific heat capacity. With the need to keep the final temperature below boiling point. o Shaft & bearing using hydraulic press.supersonic airspeed. especially high-speed aircraft. Cooling was now needed not just for hot dense liquid coolant. this light-up speed can be reduced where heat is being added. these were soon realized to be unworkable and so steam cooling was abandoned. Clean bearing housing externally with diesel oil and place it on work bench. this limits the amount of heat that a given mass-flow of coolant can dissipate. Work instruction Radiator Fan Assembly Stripping & Cleaning • • • • Remove the radiator fan assembly from the loco and place on the sand. notably the Rolls-Royce Goshawk.14. Obviously this allows the necessary cooling effect with far less coolant requiring to be circulated.
it is too cold and. it must not be allowed to get too hot. when working. a cooling system is provided. Fix the fan to the shaft and tighten the nut and secure the split pin. When it starts. The coolant is pumped round the cylinder block and the radiator by an electrically or belt driven pump. Set the fan end key to fan and fan shaft. Fit hub at universal end. . After all. To keep the temperature stable. Chapter-5 Cooling System _____________________________________________________________ Like an automobile engine. Press bearing to shaft by hydraulic press. the coolant being kept cool by passing it through a radiator. Fix the bearing housing in the fixture. Some radiators are provided with shutters to help regulate the temperature in cold conditions. you want the temperature to rise as fast as possible when starting on a cold morning and this will not happen if you a blowing cold air into your radiator. the diesel engine needs to work at an optimum temperature for best efficiency. When starting the coolant isn't circulated at all.• • • • • • • Pack the bearing with servogen 3 grease and seal. The temperature is monitored by a thermostat and this regulates the speed of the (electric or hydraulic) radiator fan motor to adjust the cooling rate. Apply both bearing covers duly ensuring for free rotation of shaft. This consists of a water-based coolant circulating around the engine block.
It has the advantage of providing an in-built fluid coupling. although the new GM EMD "H" engines are designed to use it. the air blown by the fan being used to cool the water in the radiator. In cold weather. 21 Piping System If the fan is driven by a belt or mechanical link. Another reason for keeping diesel engines running is that the constant heating and cooling caused by shutdowns and restarts. Some engines have fans with an electrically or hydrostatically driven motor. with Gycol and some form of rust inhibitor. An hydraulic motor uses oil under pressure which has to be contained in a special reservoir and pumped to the motor. A problem with engine cooling is cold weather. means that engine in the US have traditionally operated without it.Fig.000 hp engine. The fan works the same way as in an automobile. it is driven through a fluid coupling to ensure that no damage is caused by sudden changes in engine speed. Problems with leaks and seals and the expense of putting 100 gallons (378. causes stresses in the block and pipes and tends to produce leaks. Water freezes at 0° C or 32° F and frozen cooling water will quickly split a pipe or engine block due to the expansion of the water as it freezes.5 litres) of coolant into a 3. the engine is left running or the locomotive is kept warm by putting it into a heated building or by plugging in a shore supply. . Water up to 1210lts used. Some systems are "self draining" when the engine is stopped and most in Europe are designed to use a mixture of anti-freeze. In the US. engines do not normally contain anti-freeze.
if a cylinder head is subjected to high temperatures without being cooled. For example. 2. insufficient lubrication and consequent excessive engine wear would result. If the engine cooling system did not keep the engine temperature at a value that would insure the formation of an oil film. lube oil. and other moving parts: . increased friction. cylinder walls.Shown below are the percentages of useful work and various losses obtained from the combustion of a fuel oil in a diesel cylinder: To useful work (brake thermal efficiency) To exhaust gases To cooling water and friction Radiation. These changes in dimensions result in a variation of clearances between the moving parts. If the engine is kept too cool.5 percent There are three practical reasons for cooling an engine: 1. The formation of an oil film depends in large degree on the viscosity of the oil. To avoid too great a variation in the dimensions of the engine parts: .High temperatures change the strength and physical properties of the various ferrous metals used in an engine. condensation takes places in the lube oil and forms acids and sludge. To maintain lubricating oil film on pistons. These excessive changes also occur when there are large differences between the cold and operating temperatures of the parts. Under normal operating conditions these clearances are very small and any variation in dimension of the moving parts may cause insufficient clearances and subsequent inadequate lubrication. resulting in possible fracture. and so forth 30-35 percent 30-35 percent 30-35 percent 0.Great differences between operating temperatures at varying loads cause excessive changes in the dimensions of the moving parts. the tensile strength of the metal is reduced.This oil film must be maintained to insure adequate lubrication. 3. and possible seizure. To retain the strength of the metals used: . This high .
valves. because the larger the cylinder. the thicker the material necessary for liners and cylinder heads in order to withstand the pressures of combustion. 5. because the heat is not conducted so rapidly to the cooling water. In present fleet type submarine installations. It is important to keep all parts of the engine at as nearly the same temperature as possible. This is one of the reasons the size of cylinders in diesel engines is limited. the slower the conduction.temperature also causes excessive expansion of the metal which may result in shearing of the cylinder bolts. Cylinder heads. This can be accomplished to some extent by engine design. cylinder liners. It requires time to conduct heat through any substance. Pistons may be cooled either by water or oil. exhaust headers. For instance. therefore the thicker the metal. Thicker metals cause the inside surfaces to run hotter. cylinder jackets.1 Water pump: . the pistons are cooled by lubricating oil which is in turn cooled by engine cooling water. the water jacket should cover the entire length of the piston stroke to avoid possible unequal expansion of various sections of the cylinder and cylinder liner. and exhaust elbows usually are cooled by water.
Examine bearing and see that there are no damage balls or chattered races. pressure should be applied only against the inner race of Lubricating ball bearing with a light grease before final assembly. The torquing of the impeller nut should be done at 125lbs. Check the locking properly of the lock nut. Examine visually the impeller and remove any slight burs or Feathers. Use only stainless steel split pin.22 Water cooling system 5. .1 Inspection and maintenance • • • • • • • • • • Examine impeller for wear & score marks. bearing. Check the run out of shaft and don’t permit more than 2 thou. Ensure while pressing.Fig.1. Check seal plate for erosion and cavitation damages.
Chapter-6 Lubrication _____________________________________________________________ .
The oil gets heated by its passage around the engine and has to be kept cool. In an arrangement similar to the engine cooling system.1 Lubricating Oil: WDM2 – 910lts WDM3 – 1110lts Chapter-7 Turbocharger . usually carried in the sump. a diesel engine needs lubrication. If oil pressure falls to a level which could cause the engine to seize up. The oil has to be filtered to remove impurities and it has to be monitored for low pressure. lubricating oil is distributed around the engine to the cylinders. a "low oil pressure switch" will shut down the engine. crankshaft and other moving parts. where the oil passes through pipes encased in a water tank which is connected to the engine cooling system. There is also a high pressure relief valve. which has to be kept topped up. and a pump to keep the oil circulating evenly around the engine. Fig. to drain off excess oil back to the sump.Like an automobile engine. 23 Lube oil system 6. The radiator is sometimes designed as a heat exchanger. There is a reservoir of oil. so it is passed through a radiator during its journey.
as the term "turbosupercharged" is sometimes used to refer to an engine that uses both a crankshaft-driven supercharger and an exhaust-driven turbocharger.1 Nomenclature Early manufacturers of turbochargers referred to them as "turbosuperchargers". However.2 Working Principle A turbocharger is a small radial fan pump driven by the energy of the exhaust gases of an engine. However. A supercharger is an air compressor used for forced induction of an engine. 7. A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor on a shared shaft. adding a turbine to turn the supercharger would yield a "turbosupercharger". . Logically then. or turbo. the purpose of a turbocharger is to increase the density of air entering the engine to create more power. a turbocharger differs in that the compressor is powered by a turbine driven by the engine's own exhaust gases. Fig. 24 Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger 7. is a gas compressor used for forced-induction of an internal combustion engine._______________________________________________________________________ _ A turbocharger. the term was soon shortened to "turbocharger". This is now a source of confusion. Some companies such as Teledyne Continental Motors still use the term turbosupercharger in its original sense. Like a supercharger.
resulting in a greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each intake stroke. The compressor draws in ambient air and pumps it in to the intake manifold at increased pressure. Because the turbocharger increases the pressure at the point where air is entering the cylinder. which is in turn used to drive the compressor. there ultimately will be a limit to the pressure difference across the intake valves and thus the amount of airflow entering the combustion chamber. The additional oxygen makes it possible to add more fuel.3 History . the intake pressure must be controlled by controlling the rotational speed of the turbocharger. This controls shaft speed and regulates air pressure in the intake manifold. to improve the engine's volumetric efficiency by solving one of its cardinal limitations.7 psi). The objective of a turbocharger is the same as a supercharger. Fig. Because the pressure in the cylinder must not go too high to avoid detonation and physical damage. which routes some of the exhaust flow away from the exhaust turbine. A naturally aspirated automobile engine uses only the downward stroke of a piston to create an area of low pressure in order to draw air into the cylinder through the intake valves. a greater mass of air (oxygen) will be forced in as the inlet manifold pressure increases. 25 Principle of turbocharger 7. Because the pressure in the atmosphere is no more than 1 atm (approx 14.The turbine converts heat to rotational force. increasing the power and torque output of the engine. The control function is performed by a wastegate.
General Electric engineer Sanford Moss attached a turbo to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine. by compensating for the lower atmospheric pressure present at high altitude. 26 On the left. Aircraft such as the P-38 Lightning. the brass oil drain connection. In 1918. The engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14. Diesel ships and locomotives with turbochargers began appearing in the 1920s.4 Aviation During the First World War French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbo chargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success. . His patent for a turbocharger was applied for use in 1905.The turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi. B-17 Flying Fortress.5 Design And Installation 7. On the right are the braided oil supply line and water coolant line connections. and P-47 Thunderbolt all used turbochargers to increase high altitude engine power. 7. Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines in the 1930s before World War II.5. 7.300 m) to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power losses usually experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude.1 Components: Fig. The primary purpose behind most aircraft-based applications was to increase the altitude at which the airplane could fly.000 feet (4.
The turbine (almost always a radial turbine) and impeller/compressor wheels are each contained within their own folded conical housing on opposite sides of the third component. the center housing/hub rotating assembly (CHRA). Fig. .28 Turbine side housing removed. Fig.27 Compressor impeller side with the cover removed.29 A wastegate installed next to the turbocharger: The turbocharger has four main components.Fig.
The CHRA may also be considered "water cooled" by having an entry and exit point for engine coolant to be cycled. Manifold pressure should not be confused with the volume of air that a turbo can flow. a smaller sharper angled one for quick response and a larger less angled one for peak performance. Measurements and shapes can vary. The size and shape can dictate some performance characteristics of the overall turbocharger. Often the same basic turbocharger assembly will be available from the manufacturer with multiple housing choices for the turbine and sometimes the compressor cover as well. Water cooled models allow engine coolant to be used to keep the lubricating oil cooler. This allows the designer of the engine system to tailor the compromises between performance. Atmospheric pressure is approximately 14. and the relative efficiency at which they operate. The turbine and impeller wheel sizes also dictate the amount of air or exhaust that can be flowed through the system.5 psi or 1. the larger the turbine wheel and compressor wheel. In the automotive world. Variable geometry turbochargers are further developments of these ideas. avoiding possible oil coking from the extreme heat found in the turbine. allowing it to rotate at very high speed with minimal friction. psi or possibly kPa. Generally. For instance. and efficiency to application or preference. The level of boost may be shown on a pressure gauge. .0 bar. boost refers to the increase in pressure that is generated by the turbocharger in the intake manifold that exceeds normal atmospheric pressure. The center hub rotating assembly (CHRA) houses the shaft which connects the compressor impeller and turbine. in automotive applications the CHRA typically uses a thrust bearing or ball bearing lubricated by a constant supply of pressurized engine oil. the larger the flow capacity. as well as curvature and number of blades on the wheels. This is representative of the extra air pressure that is achieved over what would be achieved without the forced induction. The development of air-foil bearings has removed this risk. and anything above this level is considered to be boost. Twin-scroll designs have two valve-operated exhaust gas inlets.The housings fitted around the compressor impeller and turbine collect and direct the gas flow through the wheels as they spin. It also must contain a bearing system to suspend the shaft. response. usually in bar.
The ICAO standard atmospheric pressure is 29. head-gasket. Premium gasoline or racing gasoline can be used to prevent detonation within reasonable limits. methanol. liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and diesel fuels allow higher boost than gasoline.5. fuel injectors. inside its thermal and mechanical design operating range. The speed and thus the output pressure of the turbo is controlled by the wastegate. the turbo is only designed to hold a pressure in the intake manifold equal to sea-level pressure as the altitude increases and air pressure drops. Absolute pressure is the amount of pressure above a total vacuum.In contrast. Since a turbo can spin to RPMs far beyond what is needed. including the turbo. the compressor turbine draws in a large volume of air and forces it into the engine. This is called turbo-normalizing. a bypass which shunts the gases from the cylinders around the turbine directly to the exhaust pipe. and head bolts. air pressure in the intake system begins to build. Most modern aviation turbochargers are not designed to increase manifold pressures above this level. and is often further augmented by an electronic or manual boost controller. To obtain more power from higher boost levels and maintain reliability. The speed at which the assembly spins is proportional to the pressure of the compressed air and total mass of air flow being moved.2 Wastegate By spinning at a relatively high speed. pre-ignition. Boost pressure is limited to keep the entire engine system. As the turbocharger's output flow volume exceeds the engine's volumetric flow. valves. many engine components have to be replaced or upgraded such as the fuel pump. and detonation. The maximum possible boost depends on the fuel's octane rating and the inherent tendency of any particular engine towards detonation. because of these fuels' combustion characteristics. A wastegate is the most common mechanical speed control system.92 inches (760 mm) of mercury at sea level. 7. or of what it is safely capable of. The main function of a wastegate is to allow some . the speed must be controlled. pistons. as aircraft engines are commonly air-cooled and excessive pressures increase the risk of overheating. the instruments on aircraft engines measure absolute pressure in inches of mercury. Instead. Ethanol.
3 Anti-Surge/Dump/Blow off Valves: Turbocharged engines operating at wide open throttle and high rpm require a large volume of air to flow between the turbo and the inlet of the engine. possibly damaging the turbocharger.5. bypass. These are known as an anti-surge. Excessive charge air temperature can lead to detonation. it is common practice to fit the engine with an intercooler. Passenger cars have wastegates that are integral to the turbocharger. It is basically a pressure relief valve. 7. which is extremely destructive to engines. blow-off valve (BOV) or dump valve.5. In cases where an intercooler is not a desirable solution.4 Charge cooling: Compressing air in the turbocharger increases its temperature. If the pressure rises high enough. 7.e. Recycling back into the turbocharger inlet is required on an engine that uses a massairflow fuel injection system.of the exhaust to bypass the turbine when the set intake pressure is achieved. The air is usually recycled back into the turbo inlet but can also be vented to the atmosphere. a type of heat exchanger which gives up heat energy in the charge to the ambient air. it is common practice to introduce extra fuel into the charge for the . The primary use of this valve is to maintain the turbo spinning at a high speed. the air has nowhere to go). a compressor stall will occur. which can cause a number of problems. When the throttle is closed compressed air will flow to the throttle valve without an exit (i. and is normally operated by the excess pressure in the intake manifold. because dumping the excessive air overboard downstream of the mass airflow sensor will cause an excessively rich fuel mixture. In order to prevent this from happening. This causes a surge which can raise the pressure of the air to a level which can damage the engine. where the stored pressurized air decompresses backwards across the impeller and out the inlet. A dump valve will also shorten the time needed to re-spool the turbo after sudden engine deceleration. When a turbocharger is installed on an engine. a valve is fitted between the turbo and inlet which vents off the excess air pressure. The reverse flow back across the turbocharger causes the turbine shaft to reduce in speed quicker than it would naturally.
as there is often little room to fit a large engine. • Diesel engines are optimized to operate within a relatively narrow rpm range. performance characteristics which are normally poor in nonturbocharged diesel engines. Diesels are particularly suitable for turbocharging for several reasons: • Turbocharging can dramatically improve an engine's specific power and powerto-weight ratio. diesel engines can use much higher boost pressures than spark ignition engines. Small cars in particular benefit from this technology. limited only by the engine's ability to withstand that pressure. The evaporated fuel holds this heat until it is released in the exhaust stream. reducing problems with turbo lag and compressor stall caused by sudden accelerations and decelerations. it absorbs and carries away heat when it changes phase from liquid to vapor. the manufacturer can offer two different power outputs with only a fraction of the development and production costs of designing and installing a different engine. .sole purpose of cooling. the turbo Porsche 944's acceleration performance was very similar to that of the largerengined non-turbo Porsche 928. • Diesel engines are not prone to detonation because diesel fuel requires much higher pressures to detonate than gasoline does. By providing naturally-aspirated and turbocharged versions of one engine. Saab. and Subaru have produced turbocharged cars for many years. Today. The compact natures of a turbocharger mean that bodywork and engine compartment layout changes to accommodate the more powerful engine are not needed or minimal. The extra fuel is not burned. turbochargers are most commonly used on gasoline engines in high-performance automobiles and diesel engines in transportation and other industrial equipment. The turbocharger's small size and low weight have production and marketing advantage to vehicle manufacturers. Parts commonality between the two versions of the same engine reduces production and servicing costs. and Chrysler Corporation built numerous turbocharged cars in the 1980s and 1990s. Because of this. Volvo. This thermodynamic property allows manufacturers to achieve good power output by using extra fuel at the expense of economy and emissions. Instead.
5 Sand Box: Locomotives always carry sand to assist adhesion in bad rail conditions.5.7. Sand is not often provided on multiple unit trains because the adhesion requirements are lower and there are normally more driven axles. .
30 bogie function Bettendorf-style freight car truck displayed at the Illinois Railway Museum. It can be fixed in place. as on a railway carriage or locomotive. hence. as on a cargo truck. Fig. To ensure ride comfort by absorbing vibration. or simply truck in the USA and Canada as well as Mexico. mounted on a swivel. attached to a vehicle. In mechanics terms. and minimizing centrifugal forces To minimize generation of track irregularities and rail abrasion when the train runs on curves at high speed . or sprung as in the suspension of a caterpillar tracked vehicle. wheels) are attached through bearings. This one uses journal bearings. Bogies serve a number of purposes: • • • • To support the rail vehicle body. a bogie is a chassis or framework carrying wheels. or a wheel truck. To run stably on both straight and curved track.Chapter-7 _ Truck Frame Or Bogie _______________________________________________________________________ A bogie (pronounced /bogie/) is a wheeled wagon or trolley. Archbar type truck with journal bearings as used on some steam locomotive tenders. is a structure underneath a train to which axles (and. A bogie in the UK.
The connection of the bogie with the rail vehicle allows a certain degree of rotational movement around a vertical axis pivot (bolster). wagon or locomotive. A more modern design uses solid rubber springs. Usually the train floor is at a level above the bogies.Usually two bogies are fitted to each carriage. Suspension to absorb shocks between the bogie frame and the rail vehicle body. which places the bogies under the connection between the carriages or wagons. instead taking advantage of the sideways movement of the suspension to permit rotational movement. • • Brake equipment. At least one wheelset composed of an axle with a bearings and wheel at each end. Key components of a bogie include: • • • • The bogie frame itself. and sliders to prevent lateral movement. usually an electrically powered the tread of the wheel. one at each end. but some cars designed for extremely heavy loads have been built with up to five axles per bogie. some form of transmission. such as for a double decker train to increase interior space while staying within height restrictions. Two main types are used: brake shoes that are pressed against In powered vehicles. More modern bolster less bogie designs omit these features. The axle box suspension usually consists of a spring between the bogie frame and axle bearings to permit up and down movement. . and disc brakes and pads. An alternate configuration often is used in articulated vehicles. with side bearers preventing excessive movement. but the floor of the car may be lower between bogies. Most bogies have two axles as it is the simplest design. frame. Heavy-duty cars may have more than two bogies using span bolsters to equalize the load and connect the bogies to the cars. stepless-entry low-floor trains. Axle box suspension to absorb shocks between the axle bearings and the bogie Common types are coil springs. or in easy-access. traction motors or a hydraulically powered torque converter. or rubber airbags.
which was rated to run at 90 mph (145 km/h). . Each spring was connected to the outermost edge of the axle by means of a roller bearing contained in oil filled axle box. The simple design involved the bogie resting on four leaf springs (one spring per wheel) which in turn were connected to the axles. avoiding the need to maintain axle box oil levels. The leaf springs were designed to absorb any movement or resonance and to have a damping effect to benefit ride quality.2 Commonwealth bogie: Fig. The leaf springs were replaced with coil type springs (one per wheel) running vertically rather than horizontally. 7.1. There was also a heavy-duty version designated BR2. The SKF or Timken manufactured Commonwealth bogie was introduced in the late 1950s for all BR Mark 1 vehicles.1. The oil in these boxes had to be topped up at regular maintenance times to avoid the bearing running hot and from seizing. The bogie was a heavy cast steel design weighing 6.1 BR1 bogie: The British Railways Mark 1 coach brought into production in 1950 utilized the BR1 bogie.1 Types of Bogie 7. The wheels were cast as a one-piece item in a pair with their axle. 31 Commonwealth bogie as used on BR Mark 1 and CIE Park Royals.75 ton with fitted sealed roller bearings on the axle ends. being rated for 100 miles per hour (160 km/h).7. The advanced design gave a superior ride quality to the BR1.
The side frame of the bogie was usually of bar construction.3 B4 bogie: B4 bogie as used on BR Mark 2 and Irish Cravens. 7. The effect was to allow the bar to act as a compensating lever between the two axles and to use both springs to soften shocks from either axle. Only a very small amount of Mark 1 stock was fitted with the B4 bogie from new. Each wheel is separately connected to the bogie by a swing-arm axle.1. The bogie had a conventional bolster suspension with swing links carrying a spring plank. . Some of the B4 fitted Mark 2s.1. Axle/spring connection was again with fitted roller bearings. particularly of the wheel profile. It also had a speed rating of 100 miles per hour (160 km/h). with simple horn guides attached. it being used on the Mark 1 only to replace worn out BR1 bogies. the B5. 7. However. It was a fabricated steel design as versus cast iron and was hence 1. weighing in at 5. A heavier duty version. and more frequent exams. The British Rail Mark 2 coach however carried the B4 bogies from new. The BT10 bogie was introduced on the British Rail Mark 3 coach in the 1970s. Some Mark 1 catering cars had mixed bogies—a B5 under the kitchen end. was standard on Southern Region Mk1 based EMUs from the 1960s onwards. The bar had two steel coil springs placed on it and the bogie frame rested on the springs. as well as many B4 fitted Mark 1 BGs were allowed to run at 110 miles per hour (180 km/h) with extra maintenance. and a B4 under the seating end. The B4 bogie was introduced in 1963.4 BT10 Bogie BT10 High speed bogie as used on MK3. now two coil springs rather than one were fitted per wheel.2 tons. The axle boxes had a cast steel equaliser beam or bar resting on them.55 tons lighter than the Commonwealth. allowing the axle boxes vertical movements between them.
Trucks used in the USA include AAR type A switcher truck. Bloomberg B.There is dual suspension • • Primary suspension via a coil spring and damper mounted on each axle. HT-C truck and Flexicoil. A constant coach height is maintained by air valves. Secondary suspension via two air springs mounted on the pivot plank. Most diesel locomotives and electric locomotives are carried on bogies (UK) or trucks (US). . This is connected to the bogie by pendulum links.
These links allow the locomotive to swing from side to side. and at high speeds. Fig. Below the pivot is a huge leaf spring that rests on a platform. This isolates the body of the locomotive from the bump. rather than tires like a car? It's to reduce rolling friction.Chapter-8 Suspension _____________________________________________________________ The trucks also provide the suspension for the locomotive. which connect to the truck assembly. which uses a lot of energy.32 Suspension System The weight of the locomotive rests on the leaf springs. The platform is suspended by four. The amount of energy used by the tires is proportional to the weight that is on them. round bearing. The links allow the trucks to move from side to side with fluctuations in the track. the small variations in the track would make for a rough ride if the trucks could not swing laterally. giant metal links. this amount of . reducing wear on the tracks and wheels 8. The weight of the locomotive rests on a big. which compress when it passes over a bump. Since a car is relatively light. The track is not perfectly straight. The system also keeps the amount of weight on each rail relatively equal. When your car is driving on the freeway. something like 25 percent of the engine's power is being used to push the tires down the road.1 Wheels Ever wonder why trains have steel wheels. which allows the trucks to pivot so the train can make a turn. Tires bend and deform a lot as they roll.
Since a train weighs thousands of times more than a car. In the next section. But in order for it to use this thrust effectively. 8. The train has an electronic traction-control system that automatically starts the sand sprayers when the wheels slip or when the engineer makes an emergency stop. a train is about the most efficient way to move heavy goods.000 pounds of thrust. the amount of deformation is minimized.energy is acceptable (you can buy low rolling-resistance tires for your car if you want to save a little gas). But traction when braking and accelerating is an issue. The steel wheels on the train ride on a tiny contact patch -. The sand dramatically increases the traction of the drive wheels. The locomotive uses a neat trick to increase the traction. In fact. which reduces the rolling resistance. the rolling resistance is a huge factor in determining how much force it takes to pull the train. we'll discuss the interesting solution to this problem. the eight wheels on the locomotive have to be able to apply this thrust to the track without slipping. In front of each wheel is a nozzle that uses compressed air to spray sand. .the contact area between each wheel and the track is about the size of a dime. By using steel wheels on a steel track. The downside of using steel wheels is that they don't have much traction. which is stored in two tanks on the locomotive. The system can also reduce the power of any traction motor whose wheels are slipping. This locomotive can generate 64.2 Traction: Traction when going around turns is not an issue because train wheels have flanges that keep them on the track.
Most diesel locomotives use electric transmission and are called "diesel-electric" locomotives.Chapter-9 Transmission Like an automobile. a diesel locomotive cannot start itself directly from a stand.9. a mechanical transmission on a diesel locomotive consists a direct mechanical link between the diesel engine and the wheels. Fig. Most of the parts are similar to the diesel-electric locomotive but there are some variations in design mentioned below. Mechanical and hydraulic transmissions are still used but are more common on multiple unit trains or lighter locomotives. hydraulic or electric. It will also be necessary to vary the power applied according to the train weight or the line gradient.1 Mechanical Transmission A diesel-mechanical locomotive is the simplest type of diesel locomotive. In the example below. As the name suggests. so it needs some form of transmission system to multiply torque when starting. There are three methods of doing this: mechanical. the diesel engine is in the 350-500 hp range and the transmission is similar to that of an automobile with a four speed gearbox.33 diesel mechanical locomotive . It will not develop maximum power at idling speed.
it did not work well in heavy or express locomotive designs and has largely been replaced by diesel-electric transmission. When the train speed has increased sufficiently to match the engine speed. The design was poplar in Germany (the V200 series of locomotives. . However. Gear change is manual. The output from the 4speed gearbox is coupled to a final drive and reversing gearbox which is provided with a transverse drive shaft and balance weights. Higher speed locomotives use two or three torque converters in a sequence similar to gear changing in a mechanical transmission and some have used a combination of torque converters and gears. Some designs of diesel-hydraulic locomotives had two diesel engines and two transmission systems.4 Hydraulic Transmission Hydraulic transmission works on the same principal as the fluid coupling but it allows a wider range of "slip" between the engine and wheels. It varies the gear ratio between the engine and the road wheels so that the appropriate level of power can be applied to the wheels. The wheels are coupled to each other to provide more adhesion. one for each bogie.9. It is virtually direct because the coupling is usually a fluid coupling. 9.2 Gearbox This does the same job as that on an automobile.3 Final Drive The diesel-mechanical locomotive uses a final drive similar to that of a steam engine. It is known as a "torque converter". 9. for example) in the 1950s and was imported into parts of the UK in the 1960s. There is no need for a separate clutch because the functions of a clutch are already provided in the fluid coupling. to give some "slip". the fluid is drained out of the torque converter so that the engine is virtually coupled directly to the locomotive wheels. This is connected to the driving wheels by connecting rods.
Dynamic braking takes advantage of the fact that the traction motor armatures are always rotating when the locomotive is in motion and that a motor can be made to act as a generator by separately exciting the field winding. . The prime mover RPM is increased and the main generator field is excited.Chapter-10 Dynamic braking _______________________________________________________________________ _ A common option on Diesel-electric locomotives is dynamic (rheostat) braking. the traction control circuits are configured as follows: • • • The field winding of each traction motor is connected across the main generator. The armature of each traction motor is connected across a forced-air cooled resistance grid (the dynamic braking grid) in the roof of the locomotive's hood. When dynamic braking is utilized. Fig 34 air brake system The aggregate effect of the above is to cause each traction motor to generate electric power and dissipate it as heat in the dynamic braking grid. Consequently. Forced air-cooling is provided by a fan that is connected across the grid. causing a corresponding excitation of the traction motor fields. the fan is powered by the output of the traction motors and will tend to run faster and produce more airflow as more energy is applied to the grid.
dynamic brakes are usually applied in conjunction with the air brakes.Ultimately. Needs high tech electronics with use of ac generators and motors. • • • • • No gear shifting. Therefore. helping to prevent a "run-in. and is operated by the levers (grey) on the left . Disadvantages: • More weight. Less maintenance with modern ac generators and motors without commutators.1 BRAKE: A traditional clasp brake: the brake shoe (brown) bears on the surface (tyre) of the wheel (red). Constant availability of maximum diesel generator power. the traction motors impose drag and the locomotive acts as a brake." an abrupt bunching of train slack that can cause a derailment. No backlash and breaking of couplings during shifting. where there is always the danger of a runaway due to overheated friction brakes during descent (see also comments in the air brake article regarding loss of braking due to improper train handling). Advantages: • Regenerative braking. As speed decreases. • • Less efficient in fuel use. 10. the source of the energy dissipated in the dynamic braking grid is the motion of the locomotive as imparted to the traction motor armatures. depending on the gear ratio between the traction motors and axles. the braking effect decays and usually becomes ineffective below approximately 16 km/h (10 mph). In such cases. Blended braking is also commonly used with commuter trains to reduce wear and tear on the mechanical brakes that is a natural result of the numerous stops such trains typically make during a run. The use of blended braking can also assist in keeping the slack in a long train stretched as it crests a grade. the combined effect being referred to as blended braking. Easy addition of multiple power units. Dynamic braking is particularly beneficial when operating in mountainous regions.
operational features are more complex because of the need to control trains. and an early development was the application of a steam brake to locomotives. While the principle is familiar from road vehicle usage. All the brakes at this stage of development were applied by operation of a screw and linkage to brake blocks applied to wheel treads. Some railways fitted a special deep-noted brake whistle to locomotives to indicate to the porters the necessity to apply the brakes. where “porters” or. braking technology was primitive. . As train speeds increased.35 brake Brakes are used on the vehicles of railway trains to slow them. but “assistant guards” who travelled inside passenger vehicles. and who had access to a brake wheel at their posts supplanted them. in the United States brakemen.Fig. 10. and these brakes could be used when vehicles were parked. In the earliest times. described as a continuous brake because it would be effective continuously along the length of the train. traveling for the purpose on those vehicles operated the brakes. i. multiple vehicles running together. The braking effort achievable was limited. or to keep them standing when parked. and to be effective on vehicles left without a prime mover.e. where boiler pressure could be applied to brake blocks on the locomotive wheels.2 Early days: In the earliest days of railways. The first trains had brakes operative on the locomotive tender and on vehicles in the train. the porters travelled in crude shelters outside the vehicles. it became essential to provide some more powerful braking system capable of instant application and release by the train driver.
such as the Heberlein brake.However there was no clear technical solution to the problem. The chief types of solution were: • The chain brake. in which a chain was connected continuously along the train. and because of the necessity to add and remove vehicles from the train at frequent points on the journey. unit trains were a rarity). (At these dates. except that the creation of vacuum in the train pipe exhausted vacuum reservoirs on every vehicle and released the brakes. This system was very cheap and effective. Being an automatic brake. If the driver applied the brake. An ejector on the locomotive created a vacuum in a continuous pipe along the train. When pulled tight it activated a friction clutch that used the rotation of the wheels to tighten a brake system at that point. • The automatic vacuum brake. Its disadvantage is that the large vacuum reservoirs were required on every vehicle. This system was similar to the simple vacuum system. and of achieving good adjustment. and the vacuum operated brake cylinders on every vehicle. his driver's brake valve admitted atmospheric air to the train pipe. and their bulk and the rather complex mechanisms were seen as objectionable. this system has severe limitations in length of train capable of being handled. and this atmospheric pressure applied the brakes against the vacuum in the vacuum reservoirs. this system applies braking effort if the train becomes divided or if the train pipe is ruptured. because of the necessity of achieving a reasonably uniform rate of braking effort throughout a train. Fig. but it had the major weakness that it became inoperative if the train became divided or if the train pipe was ruptured. • The simple vacuum system.36 Rotair Valve Westinghouse Air brake Company .
In this system. air reservoirs are provided on every vehicle and the locomotive charges the train pipe with a positive air pressure. 10. this required a large reciprocating steam air compressor. an air compressor is required to generate the compressed air and in the earlier days of railways. and this was regarded by many engineers as highly undesirable. and relied on the brake force from the locomotive and tender. However. However from about 1930 semi-fitted trains were introduced. These trains. The Westinghouse system uses smaller air reservoirs and brake cylinders than the corresponding vacuum equipment. because a moderately high air pressure can be used. If the driver applies the brakes. Early goods vehicles had brake handles on one side only. and the brake van – a heavy vehicle provided at the rear of the train and occupied by a guard. but from about 1930 so-called "either-side" brake handles were provided. in which some goods vehicles were fitted with continuous brakes. and goods and mineral trains ran at slower speed. his brake valve releases air from the train pipe. applying the brakes. These hand brakes were used where necessary when vehicles were parked. and triple valves at each vehicle detect the pressure loss and admit air from the air reservoirs to brake cylinders. the train then stopped before descending. but also when these trains needed to descend a steep gradient. only passenger trains were fitted with continuous brakes until about 1930. and a proportion of such vehicles marshalled next to the locomotive gave sufficient brake power to run at somewhat higher speeds than unfitted trains. Goods and mineral vehicles were provided with hand brakes. and random alignment of the vehicles gave the guard sufficient braking. not fitted with continuous brakes were described as "unfitted" trains and they survived in British practice until about 1985. .3 Later British practice: In British practice. which releases the vehicle brakes and charges the air reservoirs on the vehicles.• The Westinghouse air brake system. by which the brakes could be applied by a hand lever operated by staff on the ground. and the guard walked forward to pin down the handles of sufficient brakes to give adequate braking effort.
The earliest type of continuous brake was the chain brake which used a chain. so the driver could apply or release the brakes with a single valve in the locomotive. though faulty closure of hose taps can lead to accidents such as the Gare de Lyon accident. These brakes used hoses connecting all the wagons of a train. Simple non-automatic brakes are thus useless when things really go wrong. which was often the case. a purpose-built brake tender was attached to the locomotive to increase braking effort when hauling unfitted trains. significantly better continuous brakes started to appear. The standard Westinghouse Air Brake has the additional enhancement of a triple valve. . Non-automatic brakes still have a role on engines and first few wagons. running the length of the train. reducing the time that it takes to release the brakes as not all pressure is voided to the atmosphere. which applies the brakes if pressure/vacuum is lost in the train pipe. as is shown with the Armagh rail disaster. and local reservoirs on each wagon that enable the brakes to be applied fully with only a slight reduction in air pressure.4 Continuous brakes: As train loads. to operate brakes on all vehicles simultaneously. With simple brakes. so that the driver could still see the line and signals ahead if the brake tender was propelled (pushed) ahead of the locomotive. pressure is needed to apply the brakes. Automatic brakes on the other hand use the air or vacuum pressure to hold the brakes off against a reservoir carried on each vehicle. These continuous brakes can be simple or automatic. The chain brake was soon superseded by air operated or vacuum operated brakes. 10. gradients and speeds increased. braking became a problem. the essential difference being what happens should the train break in two. Automatic brakes are thus largely "fail safe". and all braking power is lost if the continuous hose is broken for any reason. as they can be used to control the whole train without having to apply the automatic brakes. The brake tender was low. In the late 19th century.In the early days of diesel locomotives.
Therefore. With a vacuum system. less at altitude). Air Brake System: Most air brake equipped vehicles on the road today are using a dual air brake system. However. the maximum pressure differential is atmospheric pressure (14. the main reservoir pipe is also used to supply air to operate doors and air suspension.10. with more reservoir capacity .g.1 Air versus vacuum brakes: In the early part of the 20th century. It is actually two brake systems in one. in Argentina and in South Africa. The much higher effectiveness of air brakes and the demise of the steam locomotive have seen the air brake become ubiquitous.5 Types Of Brakes 10. This air pressure can also be used to operate loading and unloading doors on wheat wagons and coal and ballast wagons. It also accommodates the need for a modulated braking system should either one of the two systems fail. On passenger coaches. air brakes can be made much more effective than vacuum brakes for a given size of brake cylinder. many British railways employed vacuum brakes rather than the air brakes used in America and much of the rest of the world.5. The system has been developed to accommodate a mechanically secured parking brake that can be applied in the event of service brake failure. Peru and Switzerland where today vacuum brakes are used by secondary railways. This advantage of air brakes increases at high altitude.7 psi or 101 kPa at sea level. however. The main advantage of vacuum was that the vacuum can be created by a steam ejector with no moving parts (and which could be powered by the steam of a steam locomotive). whereas an air brake system requires a noisy and complicated compressor. An air brake compressor is usually capable of generating a pressure of 90 psi (620 kPa) vs only 15 psi (100 kPa) for vacuum. vacuum braking is still in use in India. but this will be declining in near future. 10.2 Air brake enhancements: One enhancement of the automatic air brake is to have a second air hose (the main reservoir or main line) along the train to recharge the air reservoirs on each wagon.5. e. an air brake system can use a much smaller brake cylinder than a vacuum system to generate the same braking force.
37 Compressor In the illustration. On a two–axle vehicle.resulting in a much safer system. As its name suggests. one circuit operates the rear axle and the other circuit operates the front axle. the dual system is two systems or circuits in one. If one circuit has a failure. Pressurized air moves from the supply/wet reservoir to the primary/dry reservoir (8) (green) and the . it becomes quite simple. Fig. but if you understand the basic air brake system described so far. There are different ways of separating the two parts of the system. and if the dual system is separated into basic functions. the other circuit is isolated and will continue to operate. the dual system might seem complicated. At first glance. air is pumped by the compressor (1) to the supply/wet reservoir (5) (blue). which is protected from over pressurization by a safety valve (4).
passes through the foot valve and is passed on to the front brake chambers. the vehicle will continue to have braking ability. When a brake application is made.4 Electronically controlled pneumatic brakes: Electronically controlled pneumatic brakes (ECP) are a development of the late 20th Century to deal with very long and heavy freight trains. The foot valve is similar to the one described earlier in the basic air brake system. One section of this dual foot valve controls the primary circuit and the other controls the secondary circuit. the dual circuits start. At the same time. but is divided into two sections (two foot valves in one). from mild to severe. as the electrical control signal is propagated effectively instantly to all vehicles in the train. Air is also directed from the secondary/dry reservoir to the foot valve. air is also drawn from the secondary reservoir. and allows the driver greater control over the level of braking used.secondary/dry reservoir (10) (red) through one–way check valves (7). It also allows for faster brake application. with the brakes controlled electrically with a 3-wire control circuit. At this point. This system is not however used on freight trains due to cost. If there is air loss in either circuit. whereas the change in air pressure which activates the brakes in a conventional system can take several seconds or tens of seconds to propagate fully to the rear of the train.5. air is drawn from the primary reservoir through the foot valve and is passed on to the rear brake chambers.5. The primary and secondary circuits are equipped with low air pressure warning devices. the other will continue to operate independently. and are a development of the EP . which greatly increases passenger comfort. Air from the primary/dry reservoir is directed to the foot valve (31). 10.3 Electro pneumatic brakes: A higher performing EP brake has a train pipe delivering air to all the reservoirs on the train. which are triggered by the low air pressure indicator switch (9) and reservoir air pressure gauges (29) located on the dash of the vehicle. Unless air is lost in both circuits. This can give seven levels of braking. The system adopted on the Southern Region of British Railways in 1950 is more fully described at Electro-pneumatic brake system on British railway trains 10.
10. so that the brakes on all wagons can be applied simultaneously rather than from front to rear. one by New York Air Brake and the other by Wabtec.5. It can provide the engineer or mechanics with information that can help diagnose problems. this may mean that a fuel filter is clogged. With ECP. This prevents wagons at the rear "shoving" wagons at the front. At the same time. and it is intended that the two types be interchangeable. The engineer also has a host of other controls and indicator lights. In addition. For instance. Fig. if the pressure in the fuel lines is getting too high.5 Brake Control: The brake control varies the air pressure in the brake cylinders to apply pressure to the brake shoes. it blends in the dynamic braking. using the motors to slow the train down as well. There are two brands of ECP brakes under development. and results in reduced stopping distance and less equipment wear. a power and control line is installed from wagon to wagon from the front of the train to the rear. . Electrical control signals are propagated effectively instantaneously. 38 The brake and throttle controls A computerized readout displays data from sensors all over the locomotive.brake with even higher level of control. A single standard is desirable. information about the operation of the brakes on each wagon can be returned to the driver's control panel. as opposed to changes in air pressure which propagate at a rather slow speed limited in practice by the resistance to air flow of the pipe work.
It enjoyed a brief period of adoption in the USA. primarily on narrow gauge railroads.7 Vacuum brake: The vacuum brake is a braking system used on trains. wagons are operated in sets. It was first introduced in the mid 1860s and a variant. although their direction changes at the balloon loop at the port. and in those countries influenced by British practice.Fig.5. supplanted in the main by air brakes. An exception would be made for locomotives which are often turned on turntables or triangles. The ECP connections are on one side only and are unidirectional 10. the automatic vacuum brake system became almost universal in British train equipment. . such as in Tasmania. The vacuum brake system is now obsolescent.5. On the new Fortescue railway opened in 2008.6 Reversibility: Brake connections between wagons may be simplified if wagons always point the same way. in the United Kingdom from the 1970's. 39 This computerized display can show the status of systems all over the locomotive. it is not in large-scale use anywhere in the world. Its limitations caused it to be progressively superseded by compressed air systems. 10.
When air is admitted to the train pipe. at the end of the train. with flexible vacuum hoses at each end of the vehicles. connected by rigging to the pipe.8 How the automatic vacuum brake works: Fig40 Vacuum brake cylinder in running position: the vacuum is the same above and below the piston Fig. A vacuum is sustained on the other face of the pistons. brake shoes on the vehicle.the train pipe -. The fittings to achieve this are therefore: • A train pipe: a steel pipe running the length of each vehicle. In normal running a partial vacuum is maintained in the train pipe. 41 Air at atmospheric pressure from the train pipe is admitted below the piston. and coupled between adjacent vehicles. so that a net force is applied.10.5. which is forced up In its simplest form. and to admit air to the train A brake cylinder on each vehicle containing a piston. to create vacuum in the train pipe. these may be separate controls or a combined brake valve.running throughout the length of the train. the air pressure acts against pistons in cylinders in each vehicle. the automatic vacuum brake consists of a continuous pipe -. and the brakes are released. the final hose is seated on an air-tight plug. controls for the driver to bring the ejector into action. A mechanical linkage transmits this force to brake shoes which act by friction on the treads of the wheels. • • • An ejector on the locomotive. and .
The piston in the brake cylinder has a flexible piston ring that allows air to pass from the upper part of the cylinder to the lower part if necessary. air is admitted to the train pipe. If the driver now moves his control to the "brake" position. Air in the upper part of the brake cylinders is also exhausted from the train pipe. and the pressure differential forces the piston upwards. The cylinder rocks slightly in operation to maintain alignment with the brake rigging cranks. When the vehicles have been at rest. According to the driver's manipulation of the control.• A vacuum (pressure) gauge on the locomotive to indicate to the driver the degree of vacuum in the train pipe. and the vacuum pipe connection to it is flexible. Later Great Western Railway practice was to use a vacuum pump instead of the small ejector. Practical considerations: The automatic vacuum brake as described represented a very considerable technical advance in train braking. When a locomotive is coupled to the vehicles. In practice steam locomotives had two ejectors. The brake cylinder is contained in a larger housing . The ball valve closes and there is a higher air pressure under the brake pistons than above it. so it is supported in trunnion bearings. applying the brakes. creating a partial vacuum. Graduable brake valve (right) and the small (upper) and large ejector cocks from a GWR locomotive .this gives a reserve of vacuum as the piston operates. the brake pistons will have dropped to their lower position in the absence of a pressure differential (as air will have leaked slowly into the upper part of the cylinder. the driver moves his brake control to the "release" position and air is exhausted from the train pipe. destroying the vacuum). through the ball valve. some or all of the vacuum will be destroyed in the process. The driver can control the severity of the braking effort by admitting more or less air to the train pipe. a small ejector for running purposes (to exhaust air that had leaked into the train pipe) and a large ejector to release brake applications. so that the brake is not charged.
usually by manually pulling a cord near the cylinder. which used 25 inches. This time consuming process was not infrequently seen at large GWR stations such as Paddington and Bristol Temple Meads. and the passenger communication apparatus (usually called "the communication cord" in lay terminology) also admitted air into the train pipe at the end of coaches so equipped. When a locomotive is first coupled to a train. when operated.4 Torr). to ensure that the brake pipes are connected throughout the entire length of the train. as the new engine's large ejector would sometimes not be able to fully release the brakes on the train. the Great Western Railway adopted 25 inches of mercury (635 Torr) as its standard degree of vacuum. Every guard's compartment had a brake valve. In the United Kingdom the pre-nationalization railway companies standardized around systems operating on 21 inches of vacuum. In this case the release valves on each vehicle in the train would have to be released by hand. This is called pulling the tail. a brake continuity test is carried out. The provision of a train pipe running throughout the train enabled the automatic vacuum brake to be operated in emergency from any position in the train. The ejectors on steam locomotives are set to create a certain degree of vacuum in the train pipe. in British practice a full release is 21 inches of mercury (533. air is admitted to the upper part of the brake cylinder on that vehicle.The driver's brake valve was usually combined with the steam brake control on the locomotive. depending on atmospheric conditions. with the exception of the Great Western Railway. Release valves are provided on the brake cylinders. for example if it is to be steam ejector shunted. An absolute vacuum is about 30 inches of mercury (760 Torr). . This could cause problems on long distance crosscountry services when a GWR locomotive was replaced with another company's engine. This is necessary to release the brake on a vehicle that has been uncoupled from a train and now requires to be moved without having a brake connection to another locomotive. or if a vehicle is detached or added.
An accident took place near Ilford in the 1950's. when a proportion of the British ordinary wagon fleet was fitted with vacuum brakes in the 1950's.Limitations: The progress represented by the automatic vacuum brake nonetheless carried some limitations. American and continental European practice had long favoured compressed air brake systems. A rolled newspaper was discovered in the train pipe. This has a number of advantages. The blockage should have been detected if a proper brake continuity test had been carried out before the train started its journey. On steam engines this was usually a reciprocating steam pump. However the system requires an air pump. and a considerable volume has to be exhausted to release the brake (if for example a signal at danger is suddenly lowered and the driver requires to resume speed). while the air is traveling along the train pipe. the leading pattern being a proprietary Westinghouse system. but those at the tail will respond much later. a considerable volume of air has to be admitted to the train pipe to make a full brake application. and admitted atmospheric air directly to the underside of the brake cylinder. leading to undesirable longitudinal forces in the train. • The existence of vacuum in the train pipe can cause debris to be sucked in. due to inadequate braking effort in the train. chief among these were: • The practical limit on the degree of vacuum attainable means that a very large brake piston and cylinder are required to generate the force necessary on the brake blocks. • For the same reason. fitted to every brake cylinder. A development introduced in the 1950's was the direct admission valve. including smaller brake cylinders (because a higher air pressure could be used) and a somewhat more responsive braking effort. and it was quite . In extreme cases this has led to breaking couplings and causing the train to divide. on a very long train. the brake pistons at the head of the train have responded to the brake application or release. These valves responded to a rise in train pipe pressure as the brake was applied. the physical dimensions of the brake cylinder prevented the wagons from operating in some private sidings that had tight clearances. effectively isolating the rear part of the train from the driver's control.
Train crew need to take note that the wrong-fitted wagons do not contribute to the braking effort and make allowances on down grades to suit. Many of the earlier classes of diesel locomotive used on British Railways were fitted with dual systems to enable full usage of BR's rolling stock inherited from the private companies which had different systems depending on which company the stock originated from. for example in old films. It was possible to provide through pipes for the braking system not fitted to any particular vehicle so that it could run in a train using the "other" system. 10. allowing through control of the fitted vehicles behind it.42 Dual Brake System When spring brakes are added to a dual air brake system. It was also standard on the Isle of Wight rail system. the Great Eastern Railway. In the UK. the same type of dash control valve discussed previously is used.6 Dual brakes: Vehicles can be fitted with dual brakes. It is much easier to fit one kind of brake with a pipe for continuity of the other. but of course with no braking effort of its own. the North Eastern Railway.bulky. Fig. vacuum and air. the London Brighton and South Coast Railway and the Caledonian Railway adopted the Westinghouse system. Its distinctive shape and the characteristic puffing sound when the brake is released (as the train pipe has to be recharged with air) make steam locomotives fitted with the Westinghouse brake unmistakable. provided that there is room to fit the duplicated equipment. Blended air is used to supply the spring parking brake . Inevitably this led to compatibility problems in exchanging traffic with other lines.
control valve (27). Blended air is air taken from the primary and secondary circuits through a two–way check valve (26). With this piping arrangement the vehicle can have a failure in either circuit without the spring brakes applying automatically. If air is lost in both circuits, the spring brakes will apply. Air brakes need a tap to seal the hose at the ends of the train. If these taps are incorrectly closed, a loss of brake force may occur, leading to a dangerous runaway. With vacuum brakes, the end of the hose can be plugged into a stopper which seals the hose by suction. It is much harder to block the hose pipe compared to air brakes. 10.6.1 Twin pipe: Vacuum brakes can be operated in a twin pipe mode to speed up applications and release. Braking is provided by a mechanism that is similar to a car drum brake. An air-powered piston pushes a pad against the outer surface of the train wheel.
Fig.43 The brakes are similar to drum brakes on a car.
In conjunction with the mechanical brakes, the locomotive has dynamic braking. In this mode, each of the four traction motors acts like a generator, using the wheels of the train to apply torque to the motors and generate electrical current. The torque that the wheels apply to turn the motors slows the train down (instead of the motors turning the wheels, the wheels turn the motors). The current generated (up to 760 amps) is routed into a giant resistive mesh that turns that current into heat. A cooling fan sucks air through the mesh and blows it out the top of the locomotive -- effectively the world's most powerful hair dryer. On the rear truck there is also a hand brake -- yes, even trains need hand brakes. Since the brakes are air powered, they can only function while the compressor is running. If the
train has been shut down for a while, there will be no air pressure to keep the brakes engaged. Without a hand brake and the failsafe of an air pressure reservoir, even a slight slope would be enough to get the train rolling because of its immense weight and the very low rolling friction between the wheels and the track. The hand brake is a crank that pulls a chain. It takes many turns of the crank to tighten the chain. The chain pulls the piston out to apply the brakes. 10.7 Vacuum brakes in 2007: Today's largest operators of trains equipped with vacuum brakes are the Railways of India and Spoornet (South Africa), however there are also trains with air brakes and dual brakes in use. Other African railways are believed to continue to use the vacuum brake. Other operators of vacuum brakes are narrow gauge railways in Central Europe, largest of them is Ferrovia Retica. Vacuum brakes have been entirely superseded on the National Rail system in the UK, although they are still in use on most heritage railways. They are also to be found on a number (though increasingly fewer) main line vintage specials. C & E has developed the automatic vacuum brake and designed it in its simplest form; the automatic vacuum brake consists of a continuous pipe -- the train pipe -- running throughout the length of the train.
Chapter-11 _ 11.1 Engine Control Development:
So far we have seen a simple example of diesel engine control but the systems used by most locomotives in service today are more sophisticated. To begin with, the drivers control was combined with the governor and hydraulic control was introduced. One type of governor uses oil to control the fuel racks hydraulically and another uses the fuel oil pumped by a gear pump driven by the engine. Some governors are also linked to the turbo charging system to ensure that fuel does not increase before enough turbocharged air is available. In the most modern systems, the governor is electronic and is part of a complete engine management system. 11.2 Power Control: The diesel engine in a diesel-electric locomotive provides the drive for the main alternator which, in turn, provides the power required for the traction motors. We can see from this therefore, that the power required from the diesel engine is related to the power required by the motors. So, if we want more power from the motors, we must get more current from the alternator so the engine needs to run faster to generate it. Therefore, to get the optimum performance from the locomotive, we must link the control of the diesel engine to the power demands being made on the alternator. In the days of generators, a complex electro-mechanical system was developed to achieve the feedback required to regulate engine speed according to generator demand. The core of the system was a load regulator, basically a variable resistor which was used to very the excitation of the generator so that its output matched engine speed. The control sequence (simplified) was as follows: 1. Driver moves the power controller to the full power position
Engine speed is measured like modern speedometers. The lever (mentioned in 2 above) is used to reduce the pressure of the governor spring.2. The governor weights drop and cause the fuel rack servo system to actuate. which closes a switch to supply a low voltage to the load regulator motor. The load regulator motor moves the variable resistor to increase the main generator field strength and therefore its output. 7. it and the generator will be producing more power. On locomotives with an alternator. 4. An air operated piston actuated by the controller moves a lever. 6. The load on the engine increases so its speed falls and the governor detects the reduced speed. When the engine has responded to the new control and governor settings. 5. . in this case. the load regulation is done electronically. The fuel rack moves to increase the fuel supplied to the injectors and therefore the power from the engine. by counting the frequency of the gear teeth driven by the engine. Oil pressure can be monitored and used to regulate the engine power in a similar way. the starter motor gearwheel. Overheating can be controlled by electronic monitoring of coolant temperature and regulating the engine power accordingly. Electrical control of the fuel injection is another improvement now adopted for modern engines. 8. 3.
My Activities I joined my training on_____. It was my first chance to get knowledge about different machines used for the maintenance of engines. . different manufacturing process. use of gauges and measuring instruments and added a lot to our knowledge. I used to observe the working of machines.
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