Eve Monique Sabaricos Chemistry August 09, 2011

a. What is gene mutation? A gene mutation is a change in an organism's genetic material. Genemutations can occur for a variety of reasons, and have a range of effects, from benign to malignant. Benign mutations in genetic material explain why people look very different, for example, while cancer is caused by malignant genetic mutations. Using genetic testing, doctors and researchers can identify individual points in an organism's DNA where agene mutation has occurred, and learn more about the process of mutations. b. What is chromosome mutation? A chromosome mutation is generally classified based on the particular structural change made to the chromosome or chromosomes. One type of mutation, for instance, is a fusion; it occurs when two different chromosomes or chromosome segments fuse together into one. Researchers actually believe that the human second chromosome is a fusion of two chromosomes possessed by pre-human ancestors. Another type of chromosome mutation is referred to as an inversion and occurs when a segment of a chromosome is inverted. Inversions often do not cause any visible mutations to the organism, as all of the genetic information is generally intact and unaltered — though this is not always the case.

Source:

http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-gene-mutation.htm http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-chromosome-mutation.htm

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