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Chap 005

Chap 005

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  • 5-1CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-2CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-3CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER APPLICATION
  • 5-4CONSUMER BEHAVIOR DEFINITION
  • 5-5PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS DEFINITION
  • 5-6PROBLEM RECOGNITION APPLICATION
  • 5-7PROBLEM RECOGNITION DEFINITION
  • 5-8PROBLEM RECOGNITION CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-9PROBLEM RECOGNITION CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-10INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-11INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-12INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-13INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-14INFORMATION SEARCH APPLICATION
  • 5-15INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-16INTERNAL SEARCH DEFINITION
  • 5-17INTERNAL SEARCH APPLICATION
  • 5-18INTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-19EXTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-20EXTERNAL SEARCH DEFINITION
  • 5-21EXTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-22PERSONAL SOURCES DEFINITION
  • 5-23PUBLIC SOURCES DEFINITION
  • 5-24MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES DEFINITION
  • 5-25MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-26ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION APPLICATION
  • 5-27EVALUATIVE CRITERIA DEFINITION
  • 5-28EVALUATIVE CRITERIA DEFINITION
  • 5-29EVALUATIVE CRITERIA CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-30EVOKED SET DEFINITION
  • 5-31EVOKED SET CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-32EVOKED SET APPLICATION
  • 5-33PURCHASE DECISION CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-34PURCHASE DECISION CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-35POSTPURCHASE BEHAVIOR CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-36INVOLVEMENT DEFINITION
  • 5-37INVOLVEMENT DEFINITION
  • 5-38INVOLVEMENT DEFINITION
  • 5-39INVOLVEMENT APPLICATION
  • 5-40ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION
  • 5-41ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION
  • 5-42ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-43ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION
  • 5-44LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION
  • 5-45LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION
  • 5-46LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION
  • 5-47LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION
  • 5-48EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-49EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION
  • 5-50EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-51SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION
  • 5-52SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION
  • 5-53SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PURCHASE TASK CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-54SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: SOCIAL SURROUNDINGS CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-55SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PHYSICAL SURROUNDINGS CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-56SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: ANTECEDENT STATES CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-57SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: TEMPORAL EFFECTS CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-58PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION
  • 5-59PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION
  • 5-60MOTIVATION DEFINITION
  • 5-61MOTIVATION APPLICATION
  • 5-62MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-63MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-64MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION
  • 5-65MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION
  • 5-66MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION
  • 5-67MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-68MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION
  • 5-69MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION
  • 5-70MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION
  • 5-71MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION
  • 5-72MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION
  • 5-73MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION
  • 5-74PERSONALITY DEFINITION
  • 5-75PERSONALITY DEFINITION
  • 5-76PERSONALITY: SELF-CONCEPT DEFINITION
  • 5-77SELF-CONCEPT APPLICATION
  • 5-78ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-79ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT APPLICATION
  • 5-80PERCEPTION DEFINITION
  • 5-81SELECTIVE PERCEPTION DEFINITION
  • 5-82SELECTIVE PERCEPTION APPLICATION
  • 5-83SELECTIVE PERCEPTION CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-84SELECTIVE EXPOSURE DEFINITION
  • 5-85SELECTIVE EXPOSURE APPLICATION
  • 5-86SELECTIVE EXPOSURE CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-87SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION DEFINITION
  • 5-88SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION APPLICATION
  • 5-89SELECTIVE RETENTION DEFINITION
  • 5-90SELECTIVE RETENTION CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-91PERCEIVED RISK DEFINITION
  • 5-92PERCEIVED RISK APPLICATION
  • 5-93PERCEIVED RISK CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-94LEARNING DEFINITION
  • 5-95BEHAVIORAL LEARNING DEFINITION
  • 5-96BEHAVIORAL LEARNING CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-97BEHAVIORAL LEARNING APPLICATION
  • 5-98BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: DRIVE DEFINITION
  • 5-99BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE APPLICATION
  • 5-100BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE DEFINITION
  • 5-101BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: RESPONSE DEFINITION
  • 5-102BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT APPLICATION
  • 5-103BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT DEFINITION
  • 5-104BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT DEFINITION
  • 5-105BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-106BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-107BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION DEFINITION
  • 5-108BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION DEFINITION
  • 5-109BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-110BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-111BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION APPLICATION
  • 5-112COGNITIVE LEARNING DEFINITION
  • 5-113COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLICATION
  • 5-114COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLICATION
  • 5-115BRAND LOYALTY DEFINITION
  • 5-116BRAND LOYALTY CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-117BRAND LOYALTY CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-118ATTITUDE CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-119ATTITUDE DEFINITION
  • 5-120BELIEFS DEFINITION
  • 5-121ATTITUDE CHANGE CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-122ATTITUDE CHANGES APPLICATION
  • 5-123ATTITUDE CHANGE APPLICATION
  • 5-124ATTITUDE CHANGE APPLICATION
  • 5-125LIFESTYLE DEFINITION
  • 5-126PSYCHOGRAPHICS DEFINITION
  • 5-127LIFESTYLE CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-128LIFESTYLE APPLICATION
  • 5-129LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-130LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-131LIFESTYLE: PRINCIPLE-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION
  • 5-132LIFESTYLE: STATUS-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION
  • 5-133LIFESTYLE: ACTION-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION
  • 5-134LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS DEFINITION
  • 5-135LIFESTYLE: STRUGGLERS DEFINITION
  • 5-136LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS APPLICATION
  • 5-137PERSONAL INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-138PERSONAL INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-139OPINION LEADERS DEFINITION
  • 5-140OPINION LEADERS APPLICATION
  • 5-141WORD OF MOUTH DEFINITION
  • 5-142WORD OF MOUTH CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-143REFERENCE GROUPS DEFINITION
  • 5-144REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP DEFINITION
  • 5-145REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-146REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION
  • 5-147REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP DEFINITION
  • 5-148REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP DEFINITION
  • 5-149REFERENCE GROUPS: DISASSOCIATIVE GROUP DEFINITION
  • 5-150REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION
  • 5-151REFERENCE GROUPS APPLICATION
  • 5-152REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION
  • 5-153FAMILY INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-154CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION
  • 5-155CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION
  • 5-156CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-157FAMILY LIFE CYCLE DEFINITION
  • 5-158FAMILY LIFE CYCLE CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-159FAMILY LIFE CYCLE APPLICATION
  • 5-160FAMILY DECISION MAKING CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-161FAMILY DECISION MAKING CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-162FAMILY DECISION MAKING CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-163FAMILY DECISION MAKING CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-164FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION
  • 5-165FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION
  • 5-166FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION
  • 5-167SUBCULTURE DEFINITION
  • 5-168AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-169AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-170HISPANIC BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-171ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-172ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS APPLICATION
  • 5-173ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: ASSIMILATED ASIAN DEFINITION
  • 5-174ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: NONASSIMILATED ASIAN DEFINITION
  • 5-175VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS, INC. CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-176VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS, INC. CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-177PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS APPLICATION
  • 5-178PROBLEM-SOLVING VARIATIONS CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-179SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION
  • 5-180SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES APPLICATION
  • 5-181SELECTIVE PERCEPTION CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION
  • 5-182LEARNING CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-183ATTITUDE CHANGE DEFINITION/APPLICATION
  • 5-184LIFESTYLE CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-185OPINION LEADERS APPLICATION
  • 5-186CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION/CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-187FAMILY LIFE CYCLE CONCEPTUAL
  • 5-188SUBCULTURE CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION
  • 5-189SUBCULTURE APPLICATION

Chapter 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Test Item Table

Major Section of the Chapter Level 1: Definition (Knows Basic Terms & Facts) Savvy Automakers Know Thy Custom(h)er (pp. 99-100) Consumer Purchase Decision Process (pp. 100-104) Psychological Influences on Consumer Behavior (pp. 104-111) Level of Learning Level 2: Conceptual (Understands Concepts & Principles) 1, 2 Level 3: Application (Applies Principles) 3

Sociocultural Influences on Consumer Behavior (pp. 112-117) Video Case: Ken Davis Products. Inc.: Barbecue Sauces for Nonimprovisers (pp. 118-119)

4, 5, 7, 16, 20, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 30, 36, 37, 38, 41, 43, 46, 49, 51, 52, 179 58, 59, 60, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 73, 74, 75, 76, 80, 81, 84, 87, 89, 91, 94, 95, 98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 107, 108, 112, 115, 119, 120, 125, 126, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 183 139, 141, 143, 144, 147, 148, 149, 154, 155, 157, 167, 173, 174, 186

8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 21, 25, 29, 31, 33, 34, 35, 42, 48, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 178 62, 63, 67, 78, 83, 86, 90, 93, 96, 105, 106, 109, 110, 116, 117, 118, 121, 127, 129, 130, 181, 182, 184

6, 14, 17, 26, 32, 39, 40, 44, 45, 47, 177, 180 61, 70, 71, 72, 77, 79, 82, 85, 88, 92, 97, 99, 102, 111, 113, 114, 122, 123, 124, 128, 136, 181, 183

137, 138, 142, 145, 153, 156, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168, 169, 170, 171, 186, 187, 188 175, 176

140, 146, 150, 151, 152, 159, 164, 165, 166, 172, 185, 188, 189

Note: Bold numbers indicate short essay questions.

252

CHAPTER 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
5-1 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER Which of the following statements about how women buy cars today is true? a. b. c. d. e. Women have no particular likes or dislikes which makes it very difficult to view them as a viable target market. Most women actually enjoy the price negotiation process. To accommodate women customers, automobile dealers have not changed the way they sell cars in the last three decades. Women are most likely to make their car purchase selection as a result of information provided by a friend or a relative. Women rely more heavily on promotional information to make their final car purchase decision than men do. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: d Page: 99 Rationale: Choice d is a correct statement. Regarding the incorrect choices, recognition of women as purchasers and influencers in car and truck buying has altered the behavior of dealers, including doing away with negotiation. Women look at promotional material, but do not rely on it to make their final decision. 5-2 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER Who buys 60 percent of all new cars and light trucks? a. b. c. d. e. Men Women Teens People representing ethnic minority groups None of the above. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: b Page: 99 Rationale: Women buy about 60 percent of new cars and light trucks. As a group, they spend over $81 billion on new cars and trucks for their personal use, and influence 80 percent of all new car sales.

253

5-3 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER

APPLICATION

When General Motors started selling its Saturn cars, it announced that the cars would have a nonnegotiable price. A customer who wanted to buy a Saturn would pay the posted price. General Motors probably adopted this pricing policy because: a. b. c. d. e. the industry was discussing the abandonment of self-regulation practices. women have an intense dislike of the car-buying process, yet still want to buy a car. many recent immigrants into the United States were not accustomed to negotiation. research showed that price negotiation was socially irresponsible. a sluggish economy guaranteed that negotiations would produce a less than adequate return on investment.

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: General Motors, like the other car manufacturers, was aware that women buy 60 percent of all new cars and light trucks. Additional research had shown them that 78 percent of women disliked the car-buying process and often refuse to negotiate the price. (Many of the recent immigrants to the U.S. come from countries where negotiations are expected for each purchase.) 5-4 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR DEFINITION

__________ describes the actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services. a. b. c. d. e. Marketing Market research Consumer behavior Consumer management Purchase development

Answer: c Page: 100 Other Location: web Rationale: Key term definition—consumer behavior 5-5 PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS DEFINITION

The stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products and services to buy is called the: a. b. c. d. e. situational analysis sequence. VALS inventory. purchase decision process. hierarchy of learning. routine response sequence.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: Key term definition—purchase decision process

254

The new substance not only absorbs shock better. Nike is confident consumers will have a relatively favorable evaluation of the shoe. make a purchase decision. b. Nike believes this new characteristic—promoted as reflex response—will make the new shoe a superior product.5-6 PROBLEM RECOGNITION APPLICATION Nike has developed a new cushioning substance for use in the soles of athletic shoes. experience problem recognition. Due to increased costs of materials and production. To have a favorable evaluation. a buyer passes through five stages of the purchase decision process when making choices about which products and services to buy. c. consult a personal source of information. Answer: a Page: 100. the price will be about $150. The initial step in the process is problem recognition. Figure 5-1 Rationale: As Figure 5-1 illustrates. it rebounds more completely. Figure 5-1 Rationale: Text term definition—problem recognition 255 . thereby improving the wearer's speed and jumping ability. e. problem recognition alternative evaluation cognitive dissonance routine response behavior post purchase behavior Answer: a Page: 100. consult a public source of information. b. a person at the __________ stage will realize that the difference between what he or she has and what he or she would like to have is big enough to actually do something about it a. d. d. c. e. consumers must first: a. experience cognitive dissonance. Based on responses of people who have tried the new product. 5-7 PROBLEM RECOGNITION DEFINITION During the purchase decision process.

c. d. Information search Problem recognition Purchase behavior Alternative evaluation Pre-purchase cognition Answer: b Page: 100 Other Location: web Rationale: During the purchase decision process. he realized that he ought to buy a calculator or else he would be unable to do his assignments. an individual at the problem recognition will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations as big enough to trigger a decision. d. Purchase decision Alternative evaluation Information search Problem recognition Postpurchase behavior Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: During the purchase decision process. yields brand names that might meet the criteria. 5-9 PROBLEM RECOGNITION CONCEPTUAL When Marty attended his first statistics class. b. 5-10 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL Which stage in the consumer purchase decision process suggests criteria to use for the purchase. c. and develops consumer value perceptions? a. c. In which stage of the consumer purchase decision process was Marty when he made this realization? a. e.” she was entering which stage of the consumer decision process? a. Marty realized that he was unable to do his assignments without a calculator. d. The student perceives she would be unable to get to class on time without a car. e. “It's really hard for me to get to class on time without a car. an individual at the problem recognition stage will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations as big enough to trigger a decision. b. a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem. b.5-8 PROBLEM RECOGNITION CONCEPTUAL When the marketing student said. e. 256 .

c. a. b. problem recognition information search alternative evaluation purchase decision All of the above. 257 . Problem recognition Evaluation of alternatives Purchase decision Information search Post purchase evaluation Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: After a consumer has recognized a problem. d. and the cost of gathering information is low. a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. In which step of the purchase decision making process is Eddie engaged? a. b. a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. c. an avid football fan. 5-13 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL Eddie. the risk of making a bad decision is high.5-11 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL The question “How long is the warranty for this CD player?” would be asked during the __________ stage in the consumer purchase decision process. e. the consumer may seek information from external sources. e. d. He thinks games would be more enjoyable on a big screen television. When past experience or personal knowledge does not provide adequate information upon which a consumer can make a decision. c. b. Primary external sources of information for many consumers are family and friends. "Is installation included in the price of this air conditioner?" a. e. the next step in the decision making process is to search for information. is glued to the television every Sunday afternoon as he watches his favorite teams. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Evaluation Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem. 5-12 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL In which stage in the consumer purchase decision process would a consumer ask. Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem. d. Eddie started talking with his friends to learn more about the various brands of big screen televisions.

5-14 INFORMATION SEARCH

APPLICATION

When an elementary school teacher needed to buy poster board for her class, she remembered that she had found some poster board at three stores: her local 99 Cents Only store, Walgreen’s, and at her Family Dollar Store. What term best describes the information search method used by the teacher? a. b. c. d. e. Personal external source Public external source Market-dominated external source Internal search Market-dominated internal source

Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. 5-15 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Thao's friend Mike turns 21 next week and will have a party. Thao decided to purchase a CD as a present. Because they like the same music, Thao scanned her memory for various CD options. This is an example of what action in the consumer purchase decision process? a. b. c. d. e. Memorization External search Evaluative criteria Antecedent states Internal search

Answer: e Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search such as Thao recalling various CD options. 5-16 INTERNAL SEARCH DEFINITION

A(n) __________ in the consumer purchase decision process occurs when consumers scan their memory for previous experiences with products or brands. a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition internal search external search purchase task antecedent state

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: Text term definition—internal search

258

5-17 INTERNAL SEARCH

APPLICATION

A mother of two toddlers would most likely use an internal search process exclusively when purchasing: a. b. c. d. e. a gift for a best friend. a DVD player. disposable diapers. perfume. a weekend getaway.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. Because diapers are frequently purchased items, the mother would likely recall from memory which brand she prefers. 5-18 INTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Amy is an avid mystery reader and has decided to purchase a mystery book for her best friend. Since the two friends enjoy the same types of mysteries, Amy will know exactly which book her friend would like. When Amy was scanning her memory for various mystery book options, she was engaged in: a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition. an internal search. an external search. a purchase task. the creation of an antecedent state.

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. 5-19 EXTERNAL SEARCH An external search for product information is especially important when: a. b. c. d. e. the cost of gathering information is low. review of past experience provides adequate information. the risk of making a wrong purchase decision is low. the item is frequently purchased. any of the above conditions exist. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: a Page: 100 Rationale: An external search for information is especially needed when past experience is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low.

259

5-20 EXTERNAL SEARCH

DEFINITION

In the consumer purchase decision process an external search for product information occurs when: a. b. c. d. e. the consumer gathers information from outside sources. the consumer gathers information from friends. the consumer gathers information from product-rating organizations. the consumer gathers information from advertising. any of the above conditions exist.

Answer: e Page: 100 Rationale: Text-term definition—external search 5-21 EXTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Christina wants to purchase a new computer. She is unsure about what hardware and software she will need. As a result, she has begun asking for advice from friends and relatives. In addition, she has talked to several computer salespeople and has looked at some websites. Christina is engaging in: a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition. an internal search. an external search. a purchase task. the creation of an antecedent state.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: Christina is externally searching for information about computers. An external search is especially important when the cost of gathering information is low, when past experience is insufficient and when the risk of making a wrong decision is high. 5-22 PERSONAL SOURCES DEFINITION

Examples of personal sources of information for an external information search include: a. b. c. d. e. advertising. Consumer Reports magazine. sales personnel. friends and relatives. point of purchase displays.

Answer: d Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—personal sources

260

e. point of purchase displays. e. and point-of-purchase displays in stores. consumer programs on talk radio stations. b. c. Consumer Reports magazine. point of purchase displays. 261 . Marlon's information search was shorted by the appearance of a __________ source. private information consumer-controlled public information family marketer-dominated Answer: e Page: 101 Rationale: Marketer-dominated sources of information originate with the sellers of products and services. and include advertising.5-23 PUBLIC SOURCES DEFINITION An example of a public source of information for an external information search is: a. salespeople. a. friends and relatives. b. Answer: e Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—marketer-dominated sources 5-25 MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES CONCEPTUAL Marlon was hungry. d. personal experience. b. sales personnel. but he couldn't decide what he wanted to eat. advertising. c. friends and relatives. d. When Marlon saw the television ad for chocolate-stuffed Oreo cookies. d. he knew exactly what he wanted. Consumer Reports magazine. c. Answer: b Page: 101 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—public sources 5-24 MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES DEFINITION An example of a marketer-dominated source of information for an external information search is: a. e.

a. temporal states. hot buttons informational alternatives evaluative criteria buying decision-makers consumer attributes Answer: c Page: 101 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—evaluative criteria 262 . e. but the Cadillac has front and back stereo speakers. She was overheard telling a co-worker." In which stage of the purchase decision process is Keisha? a. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: The problem recognition stage was prompted by the need for appropriate transportation. b. which represent both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones you use to compare different products and brands. c. b. d. information sources. b. evaluative criteria. the evoked set. 5-27 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA DEFINITION The objective and subjective attributes of a brand consumers use to compare different products are called: a. the bucket seats or an exceptional stereo represent the alternatives that need to be evaluated. Answer: d Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—evaluative criteria 5-28 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA DEFINITION When you set out to buy a DVD player for yourself. e. "The Volvo has reclining bucket seats.5-26 ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION APPLICATION Keisha is in the process of buying a new car appropriate to her role as the newest vice president at her company. d. antecedent states. c. factors you might consider before purchase are called __________. In this case the purchase will be a car. the alternative evaluation stage provides evaluative criteria by which to make a decision. c. the information search stage helped the consumer to collect needed information to use to seek value. e. d.

a. b. c. e. c. b. alternative selection group. d.5-29 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA CONCEPTUAL When Judy decided to buy an electric can opener as a wedding present. 263 . e. evoked set. c. evolved set. and Wheaties. evaluative set. d. b. hot buttons informational alternatives evaluative criteria buying decision-makers consumer attributes Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: Evaluative criteria represent both the objective attributes of a brand (the ability to attach under a cabinet) and the subjective ones (sleek styling) a person uses to compare different products and brands. she wanted to buy a brand name opener that attached under a cabinet and that had sleek styling. Collectively. such as the different unsweetened flake cereals. A value group An evoked set An evaluative criterion An impulse set A discriminative group Answer: b Page: 101 Rationale: The evoked set is the group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in a product class. You can think of three brands that you consider acceptable from among all the brands of which you are aware: Post Toasties. These are __________ Judy used during the alternative evaluation stage of the purchase decision process. what is this group of cereal brands called? a. aspiration group. e. d. Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—evoked set 5-31 EVOKED SET CONCEPTUAL You want to buy some dry breakfast cereal and you are in the mood for unsweetened flakes. Kellogg's Corn Flakes. 5-30 EVOKED SET DEFINITION The group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware is the: a.

which stabilizes the board's sleek design and allows for greater control around sharp curves. e. “Thank you for taking my call so quickly. such as exhibition skateboarding. creating personality profiles for skateboarders. b. e. it most likely should focus on: a. Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: The key influence in determining the products in the evoked set is to have a set of important attributes. The most important evaluative criteria establish the brands in consumers' evoked set. d. I'd like to order number 1284H. Therefore. In this case. c.5-32 EVOKED SET APPLICATION BMW StreetCarver is a skateboard that features BMW's technology in its wheel suspension. Problem recognition Alternative evaluation Information search Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: Having examined the alternatives of the evoked set. reducing the post-purchase dissatisfaction that may result from purchasing its product. 264 . 5-33 PURCHASE DECISION CONCEPTUAL Raul overheard one of his co-workers in a phone conversation say.” The co-worker was in which stage in the consumer purchase decision process? a. the consumer makes a purchase decision. as illustrated in Figure 5-1. BMW is concerned with making sure its skateboard is in the evoked sets of potential skateboard buyers. trying to determine the most important evaluative criteria skateboarders use when judging the product. by identifying the most important attributes a firm can design a product. which matches consumers' interests. b. making sure its advertisements get on the air during sporting events. d. the 12 inch covered omelet pan and use the easy pay plan. c. which matches the evaluative criteria employed by consumers. making appeals directed towards motivational ego needs.

5-36 INVOLVEMENT DEFINITION A consumer's __________ refers to the personal. The act of picking a brand is the result of the purchase decision. a consumer compares the purchased product with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied. d. c. Figure 5-1 illustrates the consumer purchase decision process. e. d.5-34 PURCHASE DECISION CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about the purchase stage of the consumer purchase decision process is true? a. I haven't seen another phone with that feature. Two choices remain in this step: 1) from whom to buy and 2) when to buy. e. involvement aspiration acculturative response motivation selective perception Answer: a Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definition—involvement 265 . 5-35 POSTPURCHASE BEHAVIOR CONCEPTUAL Maria has just told her supervisor. d. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Postpurchase behavior Answer: e Page: 102 Rationale: During the postpurchase stage. All of the above statements about the purchase stage of the consumer purchase decision process are true. Satisfied buyers tell three other people about their experience and dissatisfied buyers tell nine people about their experience. The purchase stage requires choosing from whom to buy. consumers are almost ready to make a purchase decision. I have really enjoyed the fact that its stream service gives me an always-on connection to the Internet. a. “I'm so glad I bought the Motorola P280 phone rather than those other models I was looking at. and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer. c. Figure 5-1 Rationale: Having examined the alternatives in the evoked set.” Which stage of the consumer purchase decision process is demonstrated by Maria's conversation? a. e. The purchase stage includes deciding when to buy. b. c. b. Answer: e Page: 102. social. b. The purchase stage follows the alternative evaluation stage in the consumer purchase decision process.

be characterized by none of the above. Make the purchase decision high involvement. d. reflect one’s social image. Make good use of Dasani stock-outs. c. social.5-37 INVOLVEMENT DEFINITION The personal. c. Do any or all of the above Answer: c Page: 102 Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options. b. c. How can a marketer convince people to buy Dasani instead of one of the numerous other brands displayed on retailers' shelves? a. e. b. and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer is called: a. be expensive. motivation. selective perception. Answer: a Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definition—involvement 5-38 INVOLVEMENT High-involvement purchases tend to: a. Persuading retailers to stock only one brand is unlikely unless they are paid. Convince retailers to only offer Dasani water. be characterized by all of the above. e. making good use of Dasahi stock-outs does not make sense. avoiding stock-out decisions would benefit Dasani. involvement. culture. d. e. Offer coupons for Dasani bottled water. The decision is and will remain a low-involvement one. aspiration. DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definition—involvement 5-39 INVOLVEMENT APPLICATION The purchase of a bottle of water is a low-involvement purchase. b. 266 . have serious personal consequences. d.

c. consumers recognize a problem. frequently purchased products. e. 267 . unlimited problem solving situations. limited problem solving situations. These behaviors are characteristics of routine problem solving. b.5-40 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Which problem solving variation would normally be used to purchase such items as toothpaste. The college students are involved in: a. e. c. 5-42 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL Between classes. is virtually a habit. or chewing gum? a. d. and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives. a. intensive problem solving situations. Their choices are generally made quickly and with little or no effort to consider alternative product offerings. extensive problem solving situations. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced. routine problem solving uses minimal time spent searching. d. c. Consumers typically spend very little effort or time seeking or evaluating alternatives. b. Routine problem solving Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving Answer: a Page: 103 Other Location: web Rationale: For these types of products. make a decision. e. soda. called __________. d. many college students stop at conveniently located vending machines for their favorite candy bar and soft drink. The purchase process for such items. Answer: b Page: 103. b. 5-41 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION Consumers spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives in the purchase of soap and milk. and typifies low-involvement decision-making. routine problem solving situations.

c. d. 5-44 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION A typical consumer would most likely use __________ in choosing a blender. c. consumers typically seek some information. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced. a.5-43 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION The purchase process used when consumers spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives is called __________. a restaurant for dinner. is virtually a habit. e. There is little time or effort used in researching options in these situations. routine response behavior limited problem solving extended problem solving simulated selection classical conditioning Answer: b Page: 103. b. There is little time or effort used in researching options in these situations. or a pair of sandals. c. b. from a few number of external information sources to help them evaluate alternatives. and typifies low-involvement decision-making. consumers typically seek some information. in limited problem solving. frequently purchased products. Routine response behavior Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving Answer: b Page: 103. b. 5-45 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Which problem solving variation would likely be used for clothing. 268 . Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. d. d. from a few number of external information sources to help them evaluate alternatives. a. sheets and towels. or electric can openers? a. in limited problem solving. e. e.

c. e. e. c. automobiles. Routine response behavior Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving Answer: c Page: 103. consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives. b.5-46 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION Consumers seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives when they are engaged in a __________ process. 5-47 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Elizabeth has decided to purchase a radar detector and plans to call several friends for information about alternative brands. 5-48 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL Which problem solving variation would likely be used for real estate. as long as she receives a very liberal return policy should anything go wrong. or personal computers? a. b. d. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. She is NOT concerned about where she buys it. b. extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: In limited problem solving. e. c. Limited Extended Habitual Classical Routine Answer: a Page: 103: Figure 5-3 Rationale: In this case the person seeks some information but has little interest in spending time or effort in searching out the right place to purchase the item. These are characteristics of limited problem solving. d. a. 269 . which are illustrated in Figure 5-3. d. In making her decision Elizabeth will engage in which of the following problem solving methods? a.

if needed. a. limited problem solving. marketing mix influences psychological influences situational influences sociocultural influences evaluative criteria Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Text term definition—situational influences 270 . extended problem solving. routine response behavior. and antecedent states are all examples of __________. e. e.5-49 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION When consumers use each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process in the purchase of a product. b. physical surroundings. c. temporal effects. social surroundings. She started looking for the gift last month and expects to spend another couple of months. d. which affect the purchase decision process. c. d. Robin is engaging in: a. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Extended problem solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process. b. integrated problem solving. d. and considerable time and effort is spent on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. they are using which of the following? a. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. 5-51 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION The purchase task. c. e. to find a gift they both will like. Answer: c Page: 103. 5-50 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL Robin wants to find the perfect gift for her grandparents' 50th wedding anniversary. simulated selection. b.

dependent variables. 271 . Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: The reason for engaging in the decision process (the son’s first birthday) is called the purchase task. e. d. physical surroundings. looking at possible combinations." which situational influence has he demonstrated? a. b. antecedent states. e. e. temporal effects. Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: Text term definition—situational influences 5-53 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PURCHASE TASK CONCEPTUAL When a man picks up a teddy bear in a toy store and tells the clerk. and asking each other. independent variables. c. spatial surroundings.5-52 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION The five situational influences that have an impact on a consumer's purchase decision process are the purchase task. b. including other people present when a purchase decision is made. frame of mind. social surroundings. d. d. “How do you think this outfit looks?" This situation is most closely related to which of the following situational influences? a. "This is for my son's first birthday. may affect what is purchased. and: a. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: Social surroundings. c. b. 5-54 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: SOCIAL SURROUNDINGS CONCEPTUAL Three teenaged girls spent hours at the store trying on various outfits. c.

c. but are unable to do so because the retailer won't accept a check without several forms of identification. "Nothing in this store is logically arranged. a. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: d Page: 103 Rationale: Temporal effects. b. d. e. As a result of __________.” Their conversation illustrates which situational influence? a. 5-56 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: ANTECEDENT STATES CONCEPTUAL The ads for Visa debit cards show people who need to make a purchase quickly. c. b. Which situational influence is Visa using to show the benefits offered by its debit cards? a. b. Carlos thought.” Then he banged his cart into the side of a display because the aisle was so crowded. 5-57 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: TEMPORAL EFFECTS CONCEPTUAL Two colleagues discuss where to go for lunch. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: e Page: 103 Other Location: web Rationale: Antecedent states. he has vowed never to shop at that store again. so we could take an extra hour and relax a bit. e. so most of the restaurants will be crowded. purchase task social surroundings physical surroundings temporal effects spatial surroundings Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Physical surroundings such as decor. which include the consumer's mood or amount of cash on hand. can influence purchase behavior and choice. One says to the other. music in retail stores. “Its noon. But the boss is out of town. will influence where consumers have breakfast and lunch and what is ordered 272 . d. e. such as time of day or the amount of time available. d.5-55 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PHYSICAL SURROUNDINGS CONCEPTUAL As he hunted for tomato juice. c. and crowded aisles may alter how purchase decisions are made.

e. and lifestyle are useful for interpreting buying processes. social influences. learning. d. b. rational influences. situational influences. Antecedent states are a situational influence. c. and attitudes. motivation personality perception antecedent state lifestyle DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 104. beliefs. d. attitudes. Figure 5-4 Rationale: The five psychological influences are: motivation and personality. perception. Answer: b Page: 104 Rationale: Psychological concepts such as motivation and personality. psychological influences. c. b. attitudes. routine problem solving influences. and lifestyle are called: a. e.5-58 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES Which of the following is NOT considered a psychological influence? a. and lifestyle. 5-60 MOTIVATION __________ is the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need. Selective perception Antecedent state Motivation Cognitive dissonance Perception DEFINITION Answer: c Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definition—motivation 273 . 5-59 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION The concepts useful for interpreting buying processes and directing marketing efforts such as motivation and personality. perception. values. values. beliefs. learning. values. c. e. b. a. perception. beliefs. d. learning.

followed by safety. physiological. Once the physiological needs are met. e. physiological. b. what category of needs is of the highest order? a. Motivation Learning Perception Antecedent states Lifestyle Answer: a Page: 105 Rationale: The slogan suggested that the Army could satisfy an individual's need for selfactualization. social. social. and social Answer: b Page: 105. and personal Self-actualization. Figure 5-5 Other Location: web Rationale: People have both physiological needs and learned needs. and self-actualization Safety. d. Personal. Army former advertising theme. and physiological Safety. self-actualization. personal. 5-62 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following lists the hierarchy of needs in its correct order. with self-actualization needs at the top. psychological. "Be all that you can be" relied on which of the psychological influences on behavior? a. personal. e. b. c. people seek to satisfy their learned needs. The hierarchy of needs pyramid is illustrated in Figure 5-5. social. b. c. 5-63 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL The most basic of our needs are physiological. beginning with the most basic? a. personal. d. and personal type needs. social. 274 . According to the hierarchy of needs. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Figure 5-5 illustrates the hierarchy of needs. social. c. safety. safety. and self-actualization. e.5-61 MOTIVATION APPLICATION The U.S. and safety Physiological. d. physiological. Intellectual needs Emotional needs Self-actualization needs Domination needs Psychological needs Answer: c Page: 105.

b. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—safety needs. personal needs. e. physiological safety social personal psychological Answer: a Page: 105. b. c. d. self actualization needs. c. physiological needs. social needs. a. physiological safety social personal self actualization Answer: b Page: 105. d. food. safety needs. b. c. and shelter would be considered __________ needs. DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 105. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—physiological needs 5-66 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION In the hierarchy of needs. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—physiological needs 5-65 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION In the hierarchy of needs water. 275 . e. self-preservation and physical well-being would be examples of __________ needs. e.5-64 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Those needs which are basic to survival and which must be satisfied first are: a. d. a.

d. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—social needs 5-69 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION Those needs that are represented by the need for achievement. c. d. physiological safety social personal self actualization Answer: c Page: 105. e. 5-68 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION Those needs that are concerned with love and friendship are __________ needs. e.5-67 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL A magazine ad shows a cherubic baby sitting inside an automobile tire. The ad copy touts the dramatically improved traction of Michelin radial tires in rain and snow and informs parents of the ways in which the tires will help them protect and ensure the well-being of their children. b. a. physiological safety social personal self-actualization Answer: b Page: 105 Rationale: The Michelin tire ad seeks to appeal to parents' needs to ensure the safety of their children. a. d. physiological safety social personal self actualization Answer: d Page: 105 Rationale: Text term definition—personal needs 276 . e. c. c. and self-respect are __________ needs. b. The marketers of Michelin tires are attempting to appeal to consumers' __________ needs. prestige. b. status. a.

Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: The school wants the parents to know that the school will make sure that each student achieves as much as possible. physiological safety social personal psychological Answer: d Page: 105 Rationale: Personal needs are needs that are represented by the need for achievement. safety needs. 277 . a private academy for children. d. personal needs. and self-respect. a. Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Personal needs Self actualization needs Answer: b Page: 105 Rationale: Safety needs involve self-preservation and physical well being. e. The ad is intended to appeal to which of the needs in the hierarchy of needs? a. b. “How do you plan on supporting your family after you pass away?” The ad shows a tombstone with a sign that offers the face of the stone as ad space. c. c. “Living Up to Their Potential. d. d. e. 5-72 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION An ad for The King's Daughters' School. c. e. Self-actualization needs involve personal fulfillment.” This ad is appealing to the parents' desire to satisfy their children's: a. social needs. has the headline. status. self actualization needs. “Go in the Direction of Your Dreams. b. physiological needs. prestige. 5-71 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION An ad for Conesco's life insurance asks the question.5-70 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION An ad for Acura is headlined by a quote from Henry David Thoreau. b. Providing security for one's family would help to satisfy that need.” This ad is most likely to appeal to people's __________ need.

b. physiological needs safety needs social needs personal needs self actualization needs DEFINITION Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: Text term definition—self-actualization needs 5-74 PERSONALITY DEFINITION Someone’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations refer to his or her: a. not important to consumer behavior. d. d. DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definition—personality 278 . someone’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations. c. motivation. purchase process. culture. based on perception. needed to achieve prestige. c. Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definition—personality 5-75 PERSONALITY Personality is: a.5-73 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Which of the following needs involves personal fulfillment? a. essential to developing culture. c. e. b. personality. b. perception. d. e. e.

d. Subliminal messages are illegal in the United States. b. Feeling young may be an important element of a person’s self-concept. c. e. c. e.5-76 PERSONALITY: SELF-CONCEPT DEFINITION __________ is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) supports the usage of subliminal perception. Subliminal messages are legal in the United States. c. The use of subliminal messaging is monitored by the Better Business Bureau. self-concept greed lust avarice hedonism Answer: a Page: 106 Rationale: Self-concept is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them. 279 . e. 5-78 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT Which of the following statements about subliminal perception is true? a. b. d. a. “How old will you be when you stop feeling 29?” The ad is using __________ to appeal to its target market. the FCC has denounced subliminal messaging as deceitful. No organizations have used subliminal messages since the time people used to regularly go to drive-ins to watch movies. Self-evaluation Self-concept Aspirational concept Individualized perception Personal perception Answer: b Page: 106 Rationale: Text term definition—self-concept 5-77 SELF-CONCEPT APPLICATION The ad for Dove body wash asks the question. b. There is no substantive scientific support for the concept of subliminal perception. d. CONCEPTUAL Answer: d Page: 106 Other Location: web Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options. a. The text gives an example of a current Times Warner CD game that uses subliminal messaging.

selective perception. b. b. b. Answer: d Page: 106 Rationale: Text term definition—selective perception 280 . selective exposure. c. 5-80 PERCEPTION DEFINITION __________ is the process by which an individual selects. Which of the following is the strongest argument that such a marketing strategy would be unethical? a. Children might be watching the program. d. selective attention. c. d. The soft drink company may not have paid a fair price to have the images of its logo placed in the movie. selective retention. The images of the product logo might interfere with the plot and impact of the movie. organizes. In other words. c. The soft drink company would be attempting to influence the behavior of the consumers in a manner the consumers might object to if they were aware of what was occurring. and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world. d. Answer: c Page: 106 Other Location: web Rationale: The strongest ethical argument against subliminal advertising is that it exploits a psychological vulnerability in human perception to persuade consumers to act in a manner they might not if they were consciously making the choice. if it did have any effect on behavior. a. e. Motivation Attitude formation Conformance Perception Illumination Answer: d Page: 106 Rationale: Key term definition—perception 5-81 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION DEFINITION Because the average consumer operates in a complex information-rich environment. Soft drinks can cause tooth decay.5-79 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT APPLICATION Suppose a soft drink company sponsored a made-for-television movie with the understanding that subliminal images of its product logo would be interspersed throughout the program. e. subliminal advertising might rob the consumer of the freedom to make a choice. the human brain attempts to organize and interpret information with a process called: a. stimulus discrimination. e.

The selective perception process filters the information so that only some of it is understood. stimulus discrimination. or made available to the conscious mind. selective retention. 281 . side impact bars. c. once he read an article about palindromes for his English class. The selective perception process filters the information so that only some of it is understood. e. c. While Marshall was unaware of the term. and they are unable to respond to all stimuli to which they are exposed. or made available to the conscious mind. b. and they are unable to respond to all stimuli to which they are exposed. 5-83 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION CONCEPTUAL You watch a television commercial for a new automobile and you do not notice it has dual airbags. e. and antilock brakes. remembered. he saw the term three more times that week. d. This is an example of __________ perception. selective attention. as indicated in the film footage. selective perception. This is probably the result of: a. d. remembered. b.5-82 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION APPLICATION Many have described 2002 as the year of the palindrome—a word or phrase that reads the same whether read from right or left. selective intuition. But you do notice that it has a high-performance engine that can take it to high speeds. retentive interpretive reclusive selective subliminal Answer: d Page: 107 Rationale: Selective perception occurs because consumers operate in a complex environment. a. Answer: d Page: 107 Rationale: Selective perception occurs because consumers operate in a complex environment.

c. selective exposure. Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs. she did not see a recent report by the New England Journal of Medicine that suggested that some fat in our diet is healthy. d. b. selective comprehension. selective comprehension. This is an example of: a. 5-86 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE CONCEPTUAL Charlie needs to purchase an automobile to drive to his new job in the city center. but the reason Marla did not see it is probably the result of: a. e. e. 282 . such as information that some fat is healthy when Marla is so committed to a fat-free diet. selective exposure. Answer: c Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definition—selective exposure 5-85 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE APPLICATION Because Marla is so strongly committed to a fat-free diet. b. subliminal perception.5-84 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE DEFINITION The tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent is called: a. d. selective retention. He begins to notice ads for many cars he wasn't aware of previously. selective retention. stimulus discrimination. d. selective perception. Answer: c Page: 107 Rationale: Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent. such as the need for a new car. stimulus discrimination. c. retention. and to ignore messages that are inconsistent with one’s attitudes and beliefs. selective perception. e. tuning out. behavioral learning. The report was contained in the newspaper that Marla reads daily. c. b. selective exposure.

5-87 SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION DEFINITION Interpreting information so that it is consistent with your attitudes and beliefs is called: a. Due to __________. selective comprehension. d. Tyler will not purchase this product. a. consumers do not remember all the information they see. b. c. b. 5-89 SELECTIVE RETENTION DEFINITION As a result of __________. selective exposure. or hear even minutes after exposure to it. selective retention selective comprehension selective exposure selective analysis stimulus discrimination Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: A consumer using selective comprehension is interpreting information so that it is consistent with his or her attitudes and beliefs. e. c. Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definition—selective comprehension 5-88 SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION APPLICATION Tyler was offended by the brand name of a new product for women. selective retention. e. e. b. c. selective analysis. d. selective retention selective comprehension selective exposure selective perception subliminal discrimination Answer: a Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definition—selective retention 283 . stimulus discrimination. d. a. read. She believes that the name is demeaning to women and that its use means the manufacturer is unsympathetic to women.

5-91 PERCEIVED RISK DEFINITION The anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase. Wearing the new outfit represents a perceived risk as she does not know how she may be thought of at her new job based on how she looks in her new outfit. 284 . but believes there may be a negative consequence is called: a. b. CONCEPTUAL hiring well known celebrities to sponsor their products. but believes there may be a negative consequence associated with making the wrong purchase decision. or read. temporal uncertainty. c.5-90 SELECTIVE RETENTION Retailers can reduce problems associated with selective retention by: a. hear. even minutes after exposure to it. offering extended service warranties. Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Key term definition—perceived risk 5-92 PERCEIVED RISK APPLICATION For which of the following products is perceived risk likely to be the greatest for a female who has just taken her first job after college graduation? a. e. e. Answer: c Page: 107 Other Location: web Rationale: Selective retention means consumers do not remember all they see. A magazine subscription to Glamour A cell phone Flowers to decorate her new apartment A new outfit for her first day at work A pair of jeans to wear on weekends Answer: d Page: 107 Other Location: web Rationale: Perceived risk is the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase. b. c. buyers' remorse. spatial uncertainty. using a more convoluted store layout. e. d. d. c. providing brochures for consumers to take home. b. perceived risk. d. adopting advertising campaigns that use bright colors and/or snappy background music. Furniture and automobile retailers often give consumers product brochures to take home after they leave the showroom to help them remember. a negative antecedent.

companies develop strategies to make consumers feel more at ease about their purchases. b. Obtain seals of approval for products Secure endorsements from influential people Provide trial usage of the product Provide warranties and guarantees All of the above Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Recognizing the importance of perceived risk. Psychosocial perception Acculturation Attitudinal identification Dynamic growth Learning Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Key term definition—learning 5-95 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING DEFINITION __________ learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a type of situation built up through repeated exposure to it. a. e. a. e. c. c. Perceptual Retentive Functional Motivated Behavioral Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—behavioral learning 285 . e.5-93 PERCEIVED RISK CONCEPTUAL Which of the following is a method marketers can use to reduce perceived risk for consumers? a. d. d. b. b. 5-94 LEARNING DEFINITION __________ refers to those behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning. d. c.

Leather. cognitive dissonance. Because repeated exposure to these scents have made people connect them with some important event or memory. attitude. d. cognitive learning. Dandelion. This is what the classic Pavlov experiment proved. This experiment is an example of: a. DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—drive 286 . e. 5-98 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: DRIVE A need that moves an individual to action is a(n): a. but only one that breaks down fragrances into elements so people can wear the particular scents with which they have emotional ties. c. selective learning. e. behavioral learning. even when food was not presented. Brownie.5-96 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING CONCEPTUAL The famous experiment wherein Dr. Changing antecedent states The scientific method Tone as a motivator Cognitive dissonance Behavioral learning Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it. b. d. Sugar Cookie. d. drive. Pavlov presented dogs with food at the same time he rang a bell resulted in dogs that salivated when the bell was rung. e. 5-97 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING APPLICATION There are many perfumes on the market. functional adaptation. b. Woodsmoke. cue. c. Lobster. reinforcement. The perfume's manufacturer is Demeter and it makes over 150 different fragrances with names like Dirt. and Turpentine. c. the appeal of the scent is due to: a. Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it. b. response.

c. e. d. Sugar Cookie. b. d. but only one that breaks down fragrances into elements so people can wear the particular scents with which they have emotional ties. e. 5-100 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE A(n) __________ is a stimulus or symbol that one perceives. drives. drive cue attitude response reinforcement DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—cue 5-101 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: RESPONSE A(n) __________ is the action taken to satisfy a drive. cue demotivator motivation response stimulus DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—response 287 . Dandelion. responses. The maker of Demeter perfumes treats smells as if they were: a. a. reinforcements. Brownie. attitudes. d. a. b. e. and Turpentine. c. c. Woodsmoke. b. and it makes over 150 different fragrances with names like Dirt. Leather. The perfume's manufacturer is Demeter. Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: A cue is a stimulus (in this case a smell) perceived by consumers. cues. Lobster.5-99 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE APPLICATION There are many perfumes on the market.

b. a. a. preference. d. achievement drive. e. d. reinforcement. c. d. c. In terms of behavioral learning.5-102 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT APPLICATION Joan is hungry (drive). cue reinforcement motivation response stimulus DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—reinforcement 5-104 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT DEFINITION ___________ has occurred if what the consumer experiences upon responding to a stimulus is not pleasant. goes to the store and buys the product (response). the great taste of the food is a(n): a. A negative cue A demotivator Negative reinforcement Negative response Negative stimulus Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—negative reinforcement 288 . c. 5-103 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT A(n) __________ is the reward for satisfying a drive. prestige. b. she sees an advertisement (cue). Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: The reinforcement is the reward. b. e. e.

e. and Law & Order: Criminal Intent). The consumer would have the same feelings toward one Law & Order series as for another. d. Using the same brand name to launch new products is one common application of this concept.5-105 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION CONCEPTUAL Using the same brand name for different products is an application of which concept from behavioral learning theory? a. it relies on __________ to convince fans of the original show that the new shows will be equally well crafted. c. d. c. b. d. 5-107 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION DEFINITION __________ occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus is generalized to another stimulus. 5-106 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION CONCEPTUAL When the television production company that produces the Law & Order series uses the Law & Order name on two other series (Law & Order: Special Victim’s Unit. Selective comprehension Selective retention Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus is generalized to another stimulus. a. e. even before the new show was seen. Stimulus discrimination Stimulus generalization Reinforcement Behavioral learning Selective retention Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—stimulus generalization 289 . a. selective comprehension selective retention stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination routine response behavior Answer: c Page: 108 Other Location: web Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to another stimulus. c. e. b. b.

If they are to be believed. selective retention. e. a. d. Stimulus discrimination Stimulus generalization Reinforcement Behavioral learning Selective retention Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—stimulus discrimination 5-109 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION CONCEPTUAL Consumers' ability to perceive taste differences in chocolate bars is an example of: a. b. b. c. c. e. while Tom does not. such as chocolate bar tastes. Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to one’s ability to perceive differences among similar products. selective comprehension. b. such as fat-free and regular cheese. a. 5-110 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION CONCEPTUAL Betty contends that she can taste the difference between fat-free cheese and cheese with regular fat content. stimulus discrimination. Betty exhibits __________. cognitive dissonance selective retention selective comprehension stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to one’s ability to perceive differences among similar products. stimulus generalization. cognitive dissonance. Tom says that he cannot tell a difference between the two products. 290 . d. e. d.5-108 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION DEFINITION __________ refers to a person’s ability to perceive differences among similar products. c.

e. b. Marketers who use comparative advertising are trying to use __________ to make consumers believe that its product is better than the other one. the authors describe how marketing is not something alien to you like Shakespeare or physics—it is something you are already very familiar with because you observe marketing throughout many different facets of life. c. b. cognitive dissonance selective retention selective comprehension stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination Answer: e Page: 111 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to a person's ability to perceive differences among similar products. Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Brand loyalty Stimulus generalization Behavioral learning Answer: b Page: 108 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—cognitive learning 5-113 COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLICATION In the first chapter of this text. c. d. 291 . b. a. c. a. e. The authors hoped you would use __________ to conclude marketing is an interesting subject and worthy of your time and effort. d. d. e.5-111 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION APPLICATION Comparative advertising in which one brand is compared to another is intended to cause consumers to perceive differences between the products featured in the advertising. cognitive learning cognitive dissonance behavioral learning functional adaptation selective learning Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Cognitive learning involves making the connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others’ behavior and adjusting your own accordingly. 5-112 COGNITIVE LEARNING DEFINITION Making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjusting one's own behavior accordingly is what type of learning? a.

Brand bias Brand discrimination Brand loyalty Behavioral learning Selective perception Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definition—brand loyalty 5-116 BRAND LOYALTY Which of the following statements about brand loyalty is true? a. Brand loyalty results from the positive reinforcement of previous actions. c. b. e. e. Betty Crocker is linking a box mix to home cooking. The incidence of brand loyalty is declining in North America. Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Brand loyalty Stimulus generalization Behavioral learning Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Marketers attempt to influence cognitive learning by linking a brand with an idea. c. In this case. e. Learning is closely connected to brand loyalty because habits are learned. b. it is influencing which type of learning? a. c. Brand loyalty is accurately described by all of the above. CONCEPTUAL Answer: e Page: 109 Rationale: Brand loyalty is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time. b.5-114 COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLICATION When Betty Crocker advertises that baking a cake from one of its mixes tastes just like homemade. d. d. d. 5-115 BRAND LOYALTY DEFINITION __________ is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time. 292 . a. Brand loyalty can reduce the perceived risk associated with the buying of certain products.

and there is a close link between habits and brand loyalty. CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: An attitude is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. limited problem solving. high-involvement problem solving. consumers have strong preferences for specific brands of these products. c. extended problem solving. 5-118 ATTITUDE A learned predisposition to be thrifty or patriotic reflects a(n): a. Such products include cigarettes.5-117 BRAND LOYALTY CONCEPTUAL Considerable research has documented that in many product categories. value. b. b. perception. even when prices are similar. c. e. This strong brand preference is the result of: a. e. attitude. b. a. consumers are unable to distinguish among brands when given blind tests (i. motivation. d. 5-119 ATTITUDE DEFINITION A(n) __________ is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. belief value attitude motivation perception Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definition—attitude 293 . beer. e. Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Habit formation is the basis of routine problem solving. routine problem solving. taste or use of the products without labels). personal problem solving. d. and cosmetics. Nonetheless. c.e. belief. liquors. d.

e. Cell phones that can be connected to computer modems and used to upload or download information are commonplace. Answer: e Page: 110 Rationale: Marketers use all of the first three approaches in attempts to change consumer attitudes. stimulus generalization. reducing perceived risk. d. Companies have spent millions of dollars in their attempts to change consumer attitudes. Beliefs Values Attitudes Predispositions Opinions Answer: a Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definition—beliefs 5-121 ATTITUDE CHANGE CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about changing consumer attitudes is true? a. 294 . but slow. b. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by changing the perceived importance of attributes. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by adding new attributes to a product. a. Marketers spend lots of money on activities to change attitudes. c. changing beliefs about a specific attribute. d. Answer: c Page: 110 Rationale: Adding a new attribute--always-on feature—is one of three methods of attitude change available to marketers. c. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes. d. changing the importance of a specific attribute. 5-122 ATTITUDE CHANGES APPLICATION Cell phones have been available for quite awhile and Motorola is a recognized brand name of cell phones. e. All of the above statements about changing consumer attitudes are true. because it is so difficult to do. adding a new important attribute. c.5-120 BELIEFS DEFINITION __________ are one’s perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes. Motorola joined with VoiceStream to create a phone that has an always-on Internet connection. b. b. Promoting a new benefit of continuous Internet connection should lead to a favorable attitude toward the cell phone by: a. e.

By focusing on this attribute. what they consider important in their environment. and what they think of themselves and the world around them. e. b. culture subculture social class lifestyle reference group Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: Text term definition—lifestyle 295 . e. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes. lowering the price. it is hoped consumers will have a more favorable attitude towards Tums. lowering the price. 5-125 LIFESTYLE DEFINITION A __________ is a way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources. b. d. changing the basic product. adding a new attribute to the product. Answer: a Page: 110 Other Location: web Rationale: P&G had to change consumers' beliefs that the spray was deadly to their pets before consumers could see the value of its odor controlling capabilities. The new promotion is trying to change the attitude toward Tums by: a. Answer: a Page: 110 Rationale: Tums is trying to change the perceived importance of consuming calcium. b. adding a new attribute and re-positioning the product. a. It also stresses the health benefits of calcium. d. d. c. Most people already know Tums contains calcium. When Febreeze was introduced. adding a new attribute to the product. e. P&G had to spend lots of money debunking the false claim and request help from the ASPCA before consumers would purchase the product in the numbers expected.5-123 ATTITUDE CHANGE APPLICATION Tums antacid stresses the fact that it is a calcium supplement in its advertisements. This promotion to debunk a false claim changed consumers' attitudes by: a. adding a new attribute and re-positioning the product. Since consumers know Tums already contains calcium. it was tagged as a pet killer. c. changing the perceived importance of the attribute. changing the basic product. 5-124 ATTITUDE CHANGE APPLICATION Febreeze is an odor-controlling spray manufactured by Procter & Gamble. a new attribute had not been added. c.

c. c. and what they think of themselves and the world (opinions). d. demographics.5-126 PSYCHOGRAPHICS Another name for the analysis of consumer lifestyle is: a. 5-128 LIFESTYLE APPLICATION Ads depicting happy families in Red Lobster restaurants are segmenting the market based on: a. sociographics. psychographics. e. b. family life cycle. or psychographics? a. d. e. lifestyles. d. which is identified by how people spend their time. cognitive learning level. c. Interests Activities Opinions Norms Hobbies Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: Lifestyle is a way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources (activities. Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: One aspect of lifestyle is way of living. b. 296 . stage of the decision process. b. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 110 Rationale: Text term definition—psychographics 5-127 LIFESTYLE CONCEPTUAL Which of the following is NOT a good measure of consumer lifestyle. social statistics. including eating out. including hobbies). consumer socialization. e. physiological needs. what they consider important (interests).

5-131 LIFESTYLE: PRINCIPLE-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION According to the VALS program. c. c. purchasing behavior studies. CONCEPTUAL Answer: b Page: 110 Other Location: web Rationale: VALS stands for Values and Lifestyles. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definition—principle-oriented consumers 297 . Principle-oriented consumers are members of Generation X. 5-130 LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM Which of the following statements about the VALS program is true? a. d. Experiencers and Makers are both classified as action-oriented consumers. c. b. d. studies on the hierarchy of effects. Principle-oriented consumers are older consumers. language study programs. and Learned Suppositions. Principle-oriented Status-oriented Action-oriented Reward-oriented Achievement-oriented Answer: a Page: 110. learning theories studies. Experiencers and Makers are both classified as status-oriented consumers. d.5-129 LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM The SRI's VALS Program is one of the most prominent examples of: a. Believers and Fulfilleds are both classified as principle-oriented consumers. The acronym VALS stands for Value. CONCEPTUAL Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: The most prominent example of lifestyle (or psychographic) analysis is the VALS program. Attitudes. developed by SRI International and currently run by SRI Consulting Business Intelligence. The VALS program seeks to explain why and how consumers make purchase decisions. e. e. b. e. Believers and Fulfilleds are both classified as action-oriented consumers. lifestyle analysis programs. b. which consumer group tries to match their behavior with their views of how the world is or should be? a.

Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definition—action-oriented consumers 5-134 LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS DEFINITION According to the VALS profile. action-oriented. status-oriented. c. Figure 5-6 Rationale: These are all characteristics of actualizers. fulfillers. actualizers. believers. b. reward-oriented. c. status-oriented.5-132 LIFESTYLE: STATUS-ORIENTED CONSUMERS Consumers who are motivated by the actions and opinions of others are: a. principle-oriented. Answer: a Page: 111. action-oriented. Figure 5-6 illustrates the complete VALS psychographic segmentation. and are risktakers are: a. consumers who account for eight percent of the population and are successful. take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources are called: a. achievement-oriented. active. e. principle-oriented. d. achievers. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 110. reward-oriented. b. achievement-oriented. strugglers. enjoy variety. 298 . Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definition—status-oriented consumers 5-133 LIFESTYLE: ACTION-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION Consumers who are intensely involved in social and physical activity. e. d. sophisticated. Answer: c Page: 110. c. e. d. b.

5-137 PERSONAL INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL A consumer's purchases are often influenced by the views. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Actualizers enjoy the finer things in life and are receptive to new products. d. 5-136 LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS APPLICATION Dutch tulip growers have developed pre-sprouted bulbs. 299 . c. achievers. c. d. often uneducated and frequently concerned about their well-being are called: a. e. Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth activity influences others through conversation. d. b. word-of-mouth activity and psychographics. consumers who are poor. b. b. actualizers. believers. psychographics and demographics. which will bloom in consumers' gardens just a few weeks after spring planting so people who didn't or couldn't plant bulbs in the fall will have spring flowers. Figure 5-6 illustrates the complete VALS psyhchographic segmentation. fulfillers. Strugglers Believers Makers Actualizers Experiencers Answer: d Page: 111. c. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Members of the strugglers segment have the least resources and are poor. e. lifestyle and motivation. They also have the most resources to spend on things they value. Nurseries plan to promote the pre-sprouted tulips to people who appreciate “finer things” and will pay the premium. and frequently concerned about their well-being. personality and lifestyle. opinion leadership and word-of-mouth activity. Which of the following VALS segments would be most suitable for their product? a. or behavior of others. often uneducated. opinions. Answer: e Page: 111. strugglers. e.5-135 LIFESTYLE: STRUGGLERS DEFINITION According to the VALS profile. Two important aspects of personal influence are: a.

d. 300 . opinions. b. b. e. This group consists of __________ for activewear clothing. DEFINITION Answer: e Page: 112 Rationale: Key term definition—opinion leaders 5-140 OPINION LEADERS APPLICATION Your company is introducing a new line of activewear for teenagers and invites the members of the cheerleading squad to a private display of the line. parental guidance peer pressure opinion leadership government regulation pricing levels Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth activity influences others through conversation. opinion leaders. a. a reference group. decision makers. c. c. e. 5-139 OPINION LEADERS Individuals who have social influence over others are called: a.5-138 PERSONAL INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL A consumer's purchases are often influenced by the views. a. brand loyal consumers. b. or behaviors of others. syncratic decision makers aspirational opinion leaders autonomous leaders joint decision makers Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders are individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others. c. achievers. d. Two aspects of personal influence that are important to marketing are __________ and word of mouth activity. They are more likely to be important for products that provide a form of self-expression. d. e.

c. opinion making. publicity. 5-143 REFERENCE GROUPS DEFINITION __________ are people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards. Action-oriented consumers Principle-oriented consumers Suncultures Social classes Reference groups Answer: e Page: 113 Rationale: Key term definition—reference groups 301 . e. word of mouth. c. misinformed business strategy. Febreeze could have been deleted from the P&G product line as a result of: a. d. which is people influencing each other in personal conversations. negative word of mouth.5-141 WORD OF MOUTH People influencing each other during conversations is called: a. b. action-oriented communication. Answer: a Page: 112 Rationale: The rumor is an example of negative word of mouth. DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 112 Rationale: Key term definition—word of mouth 5-142 WORD OF MOUTH CONCEPTUAL Febreeze is an odor-controlling spray that is manufactured by Procter & Gamble. When Febreeze was introduced. e. b. b. a. consumer ethnocentrism. it was tagged as a pet killer by people in a chat room and the rumor spread. cultural insensitivity. a lack of back translation. personal selling. d. d. c. e. If Procter & Gamble had not been so convinced it was a potentially very successful product.

achieving aspiration dissociative pressure involvement Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: An aspiration group is one to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be identified with. c. b. e. a. c. 302 . primary reference membership aspiration disassociative integrated Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—membership group 5-145 REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP CONCEPTUAL Students who wear sweatshirts displaying the Greek letters for fraternities or sororities to which they belong are demonstrating pride in a(n) __________ group a. a golf club would focus its marketing efforts on people who view the current members as a (n) __________ group. c. d. dissociative aspiration membership identification political Answer: c Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Consumers have many reference groups. A dissociative group is one that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors. but three groups have clear marketing implications. An aspiration group is one to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be identified with. b. e. A membership group is one to which a person actually belongs.5-144 REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP DEFINITION A reference group to which a person actually belongs is called a(n) __________ group. 5-146 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION To attract new members. d. new members should view the golf club members as an aspiration group. Besides wanting the chance to play. e. b. a. d.

a.5-147 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP DEFINITION A reference group to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be associated with is called a(n): __________ group. c. d. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—aspiration group 5-149 REFERENCE GROUPS: DISASSOCIATIVE GROUP DEFINITION A reference group that a person wishes to maintain distance from because of differences in values or behaviors is called a(n) __________ group. primary reference membership aspiration disassociative integrated Answer: d Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—disassociative group 303 . that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors. c. e. b. d. b. including fraternities and social clubs. to which a person belongs. that a person feels is excessively high above him or her socioeconomically. that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with. c. e. that a person knows he or she can never really fit into because of basic cultural differences. a. e. preference membership aspiration disassociative integrated Answer: c Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—aspiration group 5-148 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP An aspiration group is a group: a. b. d.

c. potential new members should view the fraternity as an aspiration group. membership aspiration dissociative reference involvement Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Since a fraternity is a membership group. c. 5-151 REFERENCE GROUPS APPLICATION Frank Wright is a stereo buff who will go to great lengths when making stereo equipment purchases. d. 304 . d. a. 5-152 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION If a fraternity wanted to attract new members. and your market was primarily made up of people just like Wright. Aspiration group Dissociative group Secondary reference group Integrated group Membership group Answer: a Page: 113 Rationale: An aspiration group is one that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with. Inc. it should focus on people who viewed the current members as a(n) __________ group. Situational influences Perceptual risk influences Self-concept influences Reference group influences Cognitive dissonance influences Answer: d Page: 113 Rationale: Reference groups have an important influence on the purchase of luxury products but not of necessities—groups exert a strong influence on the brand chosen when its use and consumption is highly visible to others.5-150 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION The American Express advertising claim that "membership has its privileges" creates which type of reference group? a.. If you were the marketing VP for Quality Electronics. e. He believes having the right equipment is important because many people will see the stereo when they visit his home. b. e. e. b. c. b. which influence source would you most likely build into your promotional messages? a. d.

important to being able to know the manager at the point of sale when they go shopping. a. b. a. Answer: e Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—consumer socialization 305 . passage through the family life cycle. e. necessary to spot special sales and report them to other retailers. b. c. and decision-making within the family. knowledge. and decision-making within the family or household. c. necessary to earn the approval of their family. 5-154 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION __________ is the process by which people acquire the skills. d. d. Consumer acclamation Consumer socialization Consumer enculturation Purchasing socialization Purchasing enculturation Answer: b Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—consumer socialization 5-155 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills. required to get along with other consumers at the supermarket and in other retail outlets. passage through the family life cycle. and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. b. d. and attitudes: a. c. Functional Demographic Family Social Personal Answer: c Page: 113 Rationale: Family influence on consumer behavior results from three sources: consumer socialization. knowledge. necessary to function as consumers. e.5-153 FAMILY INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL __________ influences on consumer behavior result from consumer socialization. e.

consumer socialization. Young singles represent a target market for recreational travel. e. b. Then she takes Megan shopping and allows her to select what she wants to buy. The majority of households today are composed of traditional families. pay for it herself. and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. purchasing enculturation. d. and consumer electronics. d. In this way.5-156 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION CONCEPTUAL Beth gives Megan $2 allowance a week. The most financially secure of any of the family groups is singles with children. Young marrieds with children are the most likely group to buy life insurance. knowledge. consumer enculturation. automobiles. she is allowed to make her own selection. and engage in interaction necessary with the sales clerk. 5-157 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE DEFINITION The family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through. The family life cycle concept describes a continuum along which developing families can be arbitrarily placed. b. d. e. CONCEPTUAL Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options. from __________. Megan's mother suggests she save her money until she has enough saved to pay for the desired item. 306 . c. Singles with children are the least financially secure of households with children. Only 23. Young singles are more likely to buy life insurance than any other group. c. e. c. each bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. birth to death formation to retirement the birth of children to retirement the birth of children until children leave home marriage to retirement unless a divorce occurs Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Key term definition—family life cycle 5-158 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE Which of the following statements about the family life cycle is true? a. If the item desired costs more than $2. the family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through from formation to retirement. purchasing socialization. b. a. Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills. When Megan purchases the item. consumer acclamation. Megan's mother encourages the development of: a.5 percent of all households today are composed of traditional families.

Answer: e Page: 114 Rationale: Since family life cycle concept describes the stages a family progresses through from formation to retirement. The two types of family decision making are joint and autonomous. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 114 Rationale: As a rule. Young married couples with children are heavy users of her company’s products. c. Wives typically make decisions about food and medicine. each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. joint decision making increases with the education of the spouses. Spouse dominant decisions are those for which either the husband or wife is responsible. both the husband and the wife make most decisions. With autonomous decision making. medicine. the information in answer e is most likely to be in the report. With a joint decision-making style. e. the husband would make all the decisions about groceries. and homes. 5-160 FAMILY DECISION MAKING The two major styles of family decision making are: a. b. Which of the following is most likely to be present in this report? a. The two types of family decision making are joint and spouse-dominant. vacation. She has just received a research report using family life cycle related data. CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 114 Rationale: Two decision-making styles exist: spouse dominant and joint decision-making. joint and family-integrated. and homes are typically made jointly. and car maintenance. The use of joint decision making is related to the educational levels achieved by the spouses. c. Her company sells products that are likely to produce cognitive dissonance. c. spouse-dominant and spouse-submissive. e. b. With autonomous decision making. d. 5-161 FAMILY DECISION MAKING Which of the following statements about family decision making is true? a. d. Decisions about cars. Only introverts use competitors’ products. joint and judgmental. Middle class customers will be very receptive to the firm’s promotional campaigns. e. most decisions are made by the male.5-159 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE APPLICATION Cathy is the director of marketing for a manufacturer of laundry detergent. d. vacation. democratic and autocratic. joint and spouse-dominant. 307 . The firm’s customers have very active life-styles. Husbands tend to make all decisions about cars. b.

Keith did not take on the role of decision maker. Mrs. 308 . he told Keith to do that. and decision makers. a user. influencer. 5-163 FAMILY DECISION MAKING CONCEPTUAL Which type of purchase is most likely to be the result of joint family decision making? a. Mr. Monroe suggested the new computer needed an ergonomic keyboard. Monroe acted as an information gatherer. and a gatekeeper. b. and user. 5-164 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION When Keith Monroe told his father the family needed a new computer. Family members assume different roles for different products and services and this knowledge is important to marketers. influencer. Mr. Answer: d Page: 114 Rationale: The five roles are information gatherer. that role was taken by his father. c. information gatherer. d. opinion leader. purchaser. opinion leader. e. e. b. decision-maker. influencer. because she was having some problems with her wrists. Wendy Monroe asked that the new computer have a faster modem for her chat room visits. belonger. decision-maker.5-162 FAMILY DECISION MAKING The five roles of individual family members in family decision making are: a. Answer: d Page: 114 Other Location: web Rationale: Mrs. Which of the following sentences BEST describes the roles the individual family members played in making this decision? a. decision-maker. e. CONCEPTUAL membership group. sustainer. and user. Monroe took on all of the roles. purchaser. Monroe and Wendy acted as users and influencers. and user. purchaser. decision-maker. Mr. and decision-maker. opinion leader. achiever. d. an influencer. Wendy acted as a user and an influencer. Mrs. Monroe did not engage in information gathering. emulator. aspiration group. c. b. d. and user. outer directed. Monroe said what they bought would depend on what Keith learned. experiential. the father told Keith to determine what features were needed and some costs. Gatekeeper is not one of the five roles listed in the text. inner directed. c. Monroe and Wendy acted as information gatherers. Keith took on all the roles except that of purchaser. Car tires Children's toys Family vacations Medicine All of the above Answer: c Page: 114 Rationale: Family vacations are typically selected jointly. Mrs. users. need driven.

d. The father wants to stay home this year and use the vacation money to work on the house. e. user. gatekeeper. influencer. Because the father asks her to find out the cost and accommodations for a trip to New York.5-165 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION It is time for the Ramirez family to plan its annual vacation. b. d. Which of the following sentences BEST describes the roles the individual family members played in making this decision? a. c. want to go to the beach. decision maker. he has taken on all of the roles. c. e. b. The father asks his mother to determine how much a trip to New York would cost the family and if they could stay with relatives while they were there. The grandmother plays the roles of user. and information gatherer. Answer: e Page: 114 Rationale: The grandmother is an influencer. In terms of the roles played by individual family members. Since the father will make the final vacation decision. 5-166 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION The Lee family is composed of five children. they are the only ones to have the role of user. a mother. influencer. Therefore. 309 . given her choice to go to New York. Mary. who lives with them. There is no family member serving as information gatherer. a father. Answer: a Page: 114 Rationale: The grandparents are the only people who will be living in the assisted living facility. The only role played by the mother and the grandmother is influencer. The mother and the daughter. the grandparents are the only family members who will have the role of: a. The paternal grandmother. The family has to decide to move the grandparents to an assisted living facility. The females in the family only play two roles—users and influencers. wants to visit relatives in New York. and one set of grandparents. she is also an information gatherer. information gatherer.

and telephone services.5-167 SUBCULTURE DEFINITION Subgroups within the larger. Recent research indicates that while African-Americans are price conscious. c. African-Americans respond more to products that appeal to their heritage. 5-169 AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about African-American buying patterns is true? a. The typical African-American family is five years older than the typical white family. All of the above statements about African-American buying patterns are true. There are no differences between African-Americans buying patterns and white buying patterns. b. subcultures. they are strongly motivated by quality and choice. ideas. all of the alternatives describe consumption patterns that differ between African-Americans and whites. culture with unique values. or national. Answer: e Page: 115 Rationale: Although similarities outweigh differences. African-Americans are strongly motivated by quality and choice. disassociative groups. b. Answer: d Page: 115 Other Location: web Rationale: Key term definition—subculture 5-168 AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about African-American buying patterns is true? a. d. 310 . e. normative groups. All of the above statements about African-American buying patterns are true. While African-Americans are price conscious. b. e. African-American men spend more on health and beauty products than white men. they are strongly motivated by quality and choice. African American women spend three times more on health and beauty products than while women. reference groups. For example. and attitudes are referred to as: a. d. e. African-Americans spend more than whites on children’s apparel. d. c. family life-cycle stages. footwear. African-American women spend more on health and beauty products than white women. c. While price-conscious. The typical African-American family is five years younger than the typical white family. Answer: d Page: 115 Rationale: There are differing consumption patterns between African-Americans and whites.

d.5-170 HISPANIC BUYING PATTERNS Which of the following statements about Hispanic buying patterns is true? a. Answer: e Page: 116 Rationale: Research on Hispanic buying practices has uncovered each of the buying patterns described in a. Assimilated Asian-Americans exhibit buying patterns very much like the typical American consumer. Generalizations about buying patterns of Asian-Americans are difficult to make because there is great diversity among its members. b. Convenience of use is not an important product attribute to Hispanic homemakers. Asian-Americans are the slowest growing racial/ethnic subculture. c. 5-171 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS Which of the following statements about Asian buying patterns is true? a. Hispanic buying preferences are strongly influenced by family and peers. Asian-Americans are the fastest growing racial/ethnic subculture. and recent immigrants. with respect to food preparation or consumption. e. Assimilated Asian-Americans exhibit buying patterns very different from the typical American consumer. b. All of the above statements about Asian-American buying patterns are true. Consumer research on Asian-Americans suggests that individuals and families divide into assimilated and non assimilated. b. and d. d. Consumer research on Asian-Americans suggests individuals and families divide into three groups—assimilated. CONCEPTUAL Hispanics are willing to pay a premium price for premium quality and are brand loyal. c. non-assimilated. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 116 Rationale: The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great that generalizations about buying patterns of this group are difficult to make. All of the above statements about Hispanic buying patterns are true. e. c. 311 . Hispanics consider advertising a credible product information source.

The family is likely to exhibit which of the following Asian buying patterns? a. George. d. b. c. c. is in medical school. Susan is a concert pianist at the age of 21. b. highly educated. c. Non-assimilated Assimilated Recent Typical Atypical Answer: b Page: 116 Rationale: Text term definition--assimilated 5-174 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: NONASSIMILATED ASIAN DEFINITION __________ Asian Americans are recent immigrants who still cling to their native languages and customs. The oldest son. 5-173 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: ASSIMILATED ASIAN DEFINITION __________ Asian Americans are conversant in English. e. requiring eight different varieties of California-grown rice. hold professional and managerial positions. d. each with a different Asian label The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great the generalizations about the buying patterns are difficult to make All of the above Answer: b Page: 116 Rationale: Assimilated Asian-Americans are conversant in English. Non-assimilated. and exhibit buying patterns very like other typical American consumers. d. and exhibit buying patterns very much like the typical American consumer. a. Fred is a second-year business student.5-172 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS APPLICATION An Asian family living in San Francisco for four generations has three children. exhibiting buying patterns very much like other typical American consumers Recent immigrants. highly educated. b. e. e. Non-assimilated Assimilated Recent Typical Atypical Answer: a Page: 116 Rationale: Text term definition—nonassimilated 312 . a. clinging to their ancestral language and customs Assimilated.

INC. its entrance into electronic technologies.. 5-176 VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS. Inc.? a. 313 . e. Inc. Inc. d. the case indicates that the primary form of market research conducted by Ken Davis Products. the efficiency of its national distribution. Inc. b. e. the variety of its products. none of the above. is focus group studies. INC.. Mail surveys Telephone surveys In-depth personal interviews Focus group studies The firm does not do market research Answer: d Page: 119 Rationale: Although Barbara Davis solicits informal feedback from current and potential customers. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 118 Rationale: Barbara Davis attributes the success of Ken Davis Products. c. c. CONCEPTUAL What is the primary form of market research conducted by Ken Davis Products. b. to: a. to its being a local company. its being a local company. Barbara Davis attributes the success of Ken Davis Products.. d.5-175 VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS.

CHAPTER 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS 5-177 PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS APPLICATION You will be graduating soon and have been offered your dream job. Give an example of when each might be used. models. The new position requires some traveling.) Page: 103 314 . Extended problem solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process because the item to be purchased is expensive. or could reflect on the consumer's image. limited. You currently do not have one. 4) Purchase decision: decision made after judging the alternatives. Little effort is made to seek information or evaluate alternatives. 3) Alternative evaluation: consider objective and subjective attributes from evoked set. 2) Information search: check internal and external sources for information about different car makes. 5) Post-purchase evaluation: evaluate car in terms of expectations. This process may apply to the purchase of a toaster or a decision on a restaurant. has social consequences. automobiles. frequently purchased products such as toothpaste or milk. Page: 100-102 5-178 PROBLEM-SOLVING VARIATIONS CONCEPTUAL Compare and contrast routine problem solving. Using the five steps in the purchase decision process. Answer: This purchase would require five purchase decision stages: 1) Problem recognition: the car is needed for the new job. so you will need a car. and extended problem solving. Routine problem solving is used for low-priced. Products such as stereo equipment. In limited problem solving. (Student examples will vary. limited problem solving. and investments typically require extended problem solving. Answer: Routine. consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help evaluate alternatives. and features. and extended problem solving are three general variations in the consumer purchase decision process. or situations where little time or effort is possible. describe the process you will go through to make this purchase.

Having her sister with her while she is shopping relates to the social surroundings. Since she won't have any time between work and the shower. Answer: Situational influences are: 1) the purchase task. 3) physical surroundings. too.5-179 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION Name and briefly describe the five situational influences that affect the purchase decision processes. Ruth knows she will be ready to buy every baby thing she sees because she wishes so much that she were pregnant. The fact that she has limited shopping time is the temporal effect. she must shop today during her lunch break. and crowding in retail stores that may alter how purchase decisions are made. include surroundings such as décor. 2) social surroundings. include the consumer’s mood or the amount of cash on hand which influence purchase behavior and choice. who has no children. 4) temporal effects. which is this evening. Page: 103 315 . Identify each of the situational influences that are described in this question. The only situational influence not mentioned is physical surroundings. wants to buy a special baby gift for her best friend's baby shower. She is planning on taking her sister with her to help make the selection. the reason for engaging in the decision in the first place. Page: 103 5-180 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES APPLICATION Ruth. Her desire to have a baby of her own is an antecedent state. music. 5) antecedent states. Which situational influence was not described? Answer: The purchase of a special baby gift for a best friend is the purchase task. such as time of day or the amount of time available that may influence consumer purchase decisions. include the other people present when a purchase decision is made and may also affect what is purchased.

This might occur when a radio talk show had a caller whose political views were contrary to those of the listener. the viewer might be unable to name the advertiser. Consumers learn which information sources to use." and therefore as having no effect on gaining weight. and hope consumers will perceive this new attribute favorably. when the caller finished the listener might say that the caller made no sense at all. read. For example. Selective comprehension involves interpreting information so it is consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs.5-181 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION How do selective perception. a person who was trying to lose weight might interpret a "low fat" mayonnaise as "no fat.) Page: 106-107 5-182 LEARNING Why is learning important to marketing? Answer: Learning is important to marketing because much consumer behavior is learned. Selective retention means consumers do not remember all the information they see. selective comprehension. but shortly after it was over. Page: 108 5-183 ATTITUDE CHANGE DEFINITION/APPLICATION CONCEPTUAL What are the three approaches marketers use to change consumers attitudes? How might Ford Motor Company apply these three methods in its marketing activities? Answer: 1) Changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attitudes—Ford may emphasize quality control in its ads to reduce consumers concerns about reliability. 2) Changing the perceived importance of attributes—Ford might try to increase the perceived importance of pollution control in automobiles and then create awareness of Ford's pollution control characteristics. selective exposure. which evaluative criteria to use when assessing alternatives. however logical the message had actually been. or hear. Selective exposure occurs when people pay attention to messages that are consistent with their attitudes and beliefs and ignore messages that are inconsistent. in general. and selective retention differ? Provide an example to illustrate each. For example. a loud and intrusive television commercial for a used car lot might attract the attention of a viewer. such as a video tape player for people in back seat. Page: 110 316 . 3) Adding new attributes to the product—Ford might add a new attribute. Learning is also important because it relates to habit formation which is the basis of routine problem solving and brand loyalty. Answer: The human brain employs a process called selective perception to organize and interpret information. and. how to make purchase decisions. even minutes after exposure to it. (Student examples will vary.

Pepper because of Brooks’ endorsement of the product.5-184 LIFESTYLE What does lifestyle mean and why is it important to marketers? CONCEPTUAL Answer: Lifestyle is a way of living that is identifiable by how people spend their time (activities). and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. Page: 113 317 . Pepper hope that consumers are influenced to buy Dr. As early as age two. In other words. The analysis of consumer life-styles (also called psychographics) has produced many insights into consumer's behavior. knowledge. he was selected for the Dr Pepper ads with the hope he would act as an opinion leader—an individual with a social influence over other people. Page: 112 5-186 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION/CONCEPTUAL What is consumer socialization? How do children learn how to purchase? Answer: Consumer socialization is a process by which people acquire the skills. Page: 110 5-185 OPINION LEADERS APPLICATION Why would Dr Pepper select country music performer Garth Brooks to appear in an ad campaign? How would he be a sociocultural influence on consumer behavior? Answer: Garth Brooks is a famous country music performer and he would have a personal influence on consumers. 2) their own purchasing and product usage experiences. Children learn how to purchase by: 1) interacting with adults in purchase situations. children may develop brand preferences which may last a lifetime. the makers of Dr. Because he is famous and many people regard him favorably. lifestyle analysis has proven useful in segmenting and targeting consumers for new and existing products. For example. what they consider important in their environment (interests). and what they think of themselves and the world around them (opinions).

or Asian American. ProLine beauty products for Blacks. For example. whereas people of Hungarian ancestry may prefer carp soup and lots of paprika in their stews. types of music enjoyed. Page: 115-117 318 . ideas. while young married couples without children typically purchase home furnishings and gifts for each other. Hispanic. Therefore. all of which affect consumer marketing significantly. Variations in American subcultures also involve styles of dress. Companies recognize that the norms and values of subculture also affect purchasing behavior. and special Campbell's soups for the Southwest. and attitudes within the larger. subculture is frequently used to target markets. the importance of subcultural differences becomes apparent. and home decor. A Pennsylvania-Ohio subculture can favor scrapple for breakfast. From this observation comes the family life cycle concept. Examples of some marketing efforts directed at American subcultures include McDonald's promotions in Spanish. culture. and attitudes of a particular American subculture can affect the marketing of a product.) Page: 115-117 5-189 SUBCULTURE APPLICATION From your own experience.5-187 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE How is the family life cycle related to marketing? CONCEPTUAL Answer: Consumers act and purchase differently as they go through life. or from what you have heard from a friend or relative. (Student examples will vary. young singles' buying preferences are for nondurable items. but may include the observation that a subculture made up of people of English ancestry may like creamed fish and minced beef in a cup of Yorkshire pudding. Answer: Student example will vary. ideas. whereas Texans may prefer chicken fried steak. Page: 113 5-188 SUBCULTURE CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION What is a subculture? What are some examples of products targeted at American subcultures? Answer: Subculture refers to a subgroup with unique values. When one recognizes that one in four Americans today is African American. among many other factors. each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. describe how the values. which holds that each family progresses through a number of distinct phases from point of formation to retirement. These differences can be observed on the menus of restaurants and in the product inventories of grocery stores where such subcultures represent a significant portion of the local population. or national.

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