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Dr.

Qais Abdul Mageed

Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Text Book: Elementary Theory of Structures, 2nd Edition, by: YUAN-YU HSIEH
References:
1. Elementary Structural Analysis, by: NORRIS, WILBAR UTKU.
2. Statically Indeterminate Structures, by: CHU-KIA WONG.
3. Indeterminate Structural Analysis, by: KINNEY
First Semester:
4.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.

Stability and Determinacy of Structures:


Stability and Determinacy of Beams.
Stability and Determinacy of Trusses.
Stability and Determinacy of Frames.
Stability and Determinacy of Composite Structures.

5.
5.2.
5.3.

Axial Force, shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams:


Axial Force, shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams for Frames.
Axial Force, shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams for Arched
Frames.
Axial Force, shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams for Composite
Structures.

5.4.
6.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.

Statically Determinate Trusses:


Types of Trusses.
Stability and Determinacy of Complex Trusses.
Examples on Solving and Analyzing Trusses.

7.
7.2.
7.3.
4.2.1.
4.2.2.

4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4.7.

Influence Lines for Statically Determinate Structures:


Influence Lines for Statically Determinate Beams.
Maximum Effect of a Function due to external loading:
Due to Concentrated loading.
Due to Distributed loading.
Distributed Dead Load.
Distributed Live Load (occupying any length of the structure).
Distributed Live Load (of a specific length).
Influence Lines for Girders with Floor Systems.
Influence Lines for Statically Determinate Frames.
Influence Lines for Girders in Trusses.
Influence Lines for Statically Determinate Composite Structures.
Maximum Effect of a Function due to Multiple External Moving Loads.

5.

Absolute Maximum Moment for Simply Supported Beams.

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Dr. Qais Abdul Mageed

6.
6.1.
6.2.
6.2.1.
6.3.
6.4.

Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Elastic Deformation of Structures (Deflection & Rotation).


Conjugate Beam Method.
Deflection of Beams and Frames.
Unit-Load Method (Virtual Work Method).
Deflection and Rotation of Trusses.
Deflection and Rotation of Composite Structures.

Second Semester:
1.
Approximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures:
1.1.
Approximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Trusses.
Trusses with Double Diagonal System.
Trusses with Multiple Systems.
1.2.
Approximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Portals.
1.3.
Approximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Frames.
Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads Only.
Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads Only.
2.

Symmetry and Anti-Symmetry of Structures.

3.

Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Method of


Consistent Deformations.

4.

Fixed End Moments of some Important Beams with Constant EI.

5.

Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Beams and Rigid Frames by the


Slope-Deflection Method.
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Beams by the Slope-Deflection
Method.
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Rigid Frames without joint translation
by the Slope-Deflection Method.
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Rigid Frames with One Degree of
Freedom of joint translation by the Slope-Deflection Method.

5.1.
5.2.
5.3.

6.
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.

Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Beams and Rigid Frames by the


Moment Distributed Method.
Fixed-End Moments.
Stiffness, Distribution Factor and distribution of External Moment Applied
to a Joint.
Distributed Moment and Carry-Over Moment
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Rigid Frames with One Degree of
Freedom of joint translation by the Moment Distributed Method.

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Dr. Qais Abdul Mageed

(2008-2009)

Theory of Structures

Review:
1) Roller: One unknown element.

90o


(2 Degree of Freedom)
2) Link or strut: One unknown element.

Link 1

Link 2

R1

R2

F.B.D
(Two Degree of Freedom)

3) Hinge: Two unknown elements.


Rx
R

Ry

(One Degree of Freedom)


4) Fixed: Three unknown elements.
M

Rx

R
Ry

(Zero Degree of Freedom)

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Dr. Qais Abdul Mageed

(2008-2009)

Theory of Structures

1.

Stability and Determinacy of Structures:

1.1.

Stability and Determinacy of Beams.


(r) = no. of reactions
(c) = The total no. of equations of conditions.
(Where: c=1 for an internal hinge, c=2 for an internal roller and c=0 for
beams without internal connection)
(c + 3) = The total no. of the equilibrium equations.
The beam is set to be:
Unstable if ( r < c + 3 )

R1
R2

R2

R1

R3

R1
R2
r = 3, c = 0
But Unstable

Determinate if Stable if ( r = c + 3 )
R1
R3
R2
r = 3, c = 0
Stable & Determinate

Indeterminate if Stable if ( r > c + 3 )


The degree of indeterminacy (m) can be obtained by:
m = r (c + 3)
R3
R1
R2

r =7, c = 2
R4

R5

R6

R7

7 >c + 3 = 2+ 3 = 5
7 > 5, m = 2

Stable & Indeterminate to the 2nd degree

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1.2.

(2008-2009)

Theory of Structures

Stability and Determinacy of Trusses.


(b) = no. of bar elements of truss
(r) = no. of reactions
(j) = no. of joints.
The truss is set to be:
Unstable if ( b + r < 2 j )

r = 2, b = 5, j = 4
b+ r =7, 2 j = 8
7<8

(Unstable)

Determinate if Stable if ( b + r = 2 j )

r = 3, b = 9, j = 6
b + r = 12 , 2 j = 12
Stable & Determinate

Indeterminate if Stable if ( b + r > 2 j )


The degree of indeterminacy (m) can be obtained by:
m = (b + r ) 2 j

( )

r = 4 , b = 13 , j = 7
b + r = 17 , 2 j = 14
m=3
Stable & Indeterminate to the 3rd degree

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1.3.

(2008-2009)

Theory of Structures

Stability and Determinacy of Frames.


(b) = no. of frame members
(r) = no. of reactions
(j) = no. of joints.
(c) = The total no. of equations of conditions.
(Where: c=1 for an internal hinge, c=2 for an internal roller and c=0 for
beams without internal connection)
(c = no. of members connected at joint 1)
The frame is set to be:
Unstable if ( 3b + r < 3 j + c )
Determinate if Stable if ( 3b + r = 3 j + c )
Indeterminate if Stable if ( 3b + r > 3 j + c )
The degree of indeterminacy (m) can be obtained by:
m = (3b + r ) 3 j + c

Frame

10

10

3b+r

39

39

3j+c

Classification

27

Indeterminate
to the 12th
degree

33

Indeterminate
to the 6th
degree

Unstable

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1.4.

(2008-2009)

Theory of Structures

Stability and Determinacy of Composite Structures.


(E) = no. of equilibrium equations
(U) = no. of unknowns
The structure is set to be:
Unstable if ( U < E )
Determinate if Stable if ( U = E )
Indeterminate if Stable if ( U > E )
The degree of indeterminacy (m) can be obtained by:
m =U E
Composite Structure

2.

Classification

10

10

Determinate

11

Indeterminate to the
2nd degree

Axial Force, shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams:

Sign convention:
N: Axial Force (tension +ve, compression ve)
V: Shear Force (turning structure clockwise +ve, counter clockwise ve)
M: Bending Moment (compression outside of structure and tension inside
+ve, otherwise ve)
2.1.

Axial Force, shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams for Frames.

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Theory of Structures

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2.2.

Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Axial Force, shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams for Arched
Frames.

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Theory of Structures

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2.3.

Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Axial Force, shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams for Composite
Structures.

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Theory of Structures

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3.
3.1.

(2008-2009)

Theory of Structures

Statically Determinate Trusses:


Types of Trusses.
A truss may be defined as a plane structure composed of a number of
members joined together at their ends by smooth pins so as to form a rigid
framework. Each member in a truss is a two-force member and is subjected
only to direct axial forces (tension or compression).
A rigid plane truss can always be formed by beginning with three bars
pinned together at their ends in the form of a triangle.
Common trusses may be classified according to their formation as simple,
compound and complex.
Simple Truss: ( )
A simple truss is formed by a basic triangle; each new joint is connected to
the basic triangle by two new bars.

Compound Truss: ( )
A compound truss is formed from two or more simple trusses connected
together as one rigid framework either by three links neither parallel nor
concurrent, or by a link and a hinge.
Link
Link

Link

Link

Hinge

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Theory of Structures

Complex Truss: ( )
The truss which is neither simple nor compound is called a complex truss.
h1
g
h2

3.2.

Stability and Determinacy of Complex Trusses.


For the shown complex truss there are two
cases:
1. If h1=h2=h, then the truss is unstable.
2. If h1h2, then the truss is stable.

h1
g
h2

3.3.

Examples on Solving and Analyzing Trusses.

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Theory of Structures

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4.

Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Influence Lines for Statically Determinate Structures:

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Theory of Structures

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4.1.

Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Influence Lines for Statically Determinate Beams.

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4.2.

Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Maximum Effect of a Function due to external loading:

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4.3.

Theory of Structures

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Influence Lines for Girders with Floor Systems.

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4.4.

Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Influence Lines for Statically Determinate Frames.

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4.5.

Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Influence Lines for Girders in Trusses.

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4.6.

Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Influence Lines for Statically Determinate Composite Structures.

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4.7.

Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Maximum Effect of a Function due to Multiple External Moving Loads.

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5.

Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Absolute Maximum Moment for Simply Supported Beams.

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Theory of Structures

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)(2008-2009

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Theory of Structures

)( Conjugate Beam Method



:
(

) (

wl 4
(
) ( P )
8 EI
) .( Conjugate Method
MA=wl2/2 w

wl 4
= B
8 EI

dx

RA=wl/2

y
wl/2

Shear Force Diag.


Bending Moment Diag.

wl
2

= MA

) (
) ( Curvature :

d2y
M
=
2
dx
EI
:
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)(2008-2009

Dr. Qais Abdul Mageed

Theory of Structures

dy
= tan
dx
:

dy
=
dx
d d 2 y
M
= 2 =
dx dx
EI
:

M
dx
EI

)------ (1

dy
) ( )
dx

(:

dy
M
= =
dx
dx
EI
M
dx dx
EI

dy = dx =

:
)------ (2

M
dx dx
EI

y = dx =

) (dx ) (
:

dV
= w dV = w dx V = w dx
dx
dM
= V dM = V dx M = V dx = w dx dx
dx
:
)------ (
)------ (4

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V = w dx
M = V dx = w dx dx

)(2008-2009

Dr. Qais Abdul Mageed

Theory of Structures

) (Conjugate beam

M
) ( )
EI

) (-b
) ( V ) ( M ) ( w ) ( ) (

M
)
EI

( :

M
dx
EI
M
M =
dx dx
EI

V =

)------ (5
)------ (6

(w) per unit length

)(Conjugate Beam

MB

)(a

l
A

(3 / 4 ) l

wl 2
2 EI

)(b

wl 2 l wl 3
=
= Re sul tan t
2
EI

3 6 EI

) - (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
:
.

) ( = V
) (Actual Beam
) (Conjugate Beam .

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Dr. Qais Abdul Mageed

Theory of Structures
.

) ( y = M ) Actual
(Beam
) (Conjugate Beam .

) (Conjugate Beam ) Actual


(Beam .

) (Conjugate Beam

) .(Actual Beam )(
:
Free End
Simple End
Interior Support

Fixed End
Simple End
Interior Connection

) (
Conjugate beam
)(subjected to Elastic Load
Free End
Fixed End
Simple End
)(hinge or roller
Interior Connection
)(hinge or roller
Interior Support
)(hinge or roller

V =0
M =0
V 0
M 0
V 0
M =0
V 0
M =0
V 0
M 0

Actual Beam
)(Subjected to applied Load

=0
=0

Fixed End

0
0

Free End

0
=0

Simple End
)(hinge or roller

0
=0

Interior Support
)(hinge or roller

0
0

Interior Connection
)(hinge or roller

(Sign Convention ) :
:
) (x
.
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Theory of Structures

):(Conjugate Beam Method


( ) (BMD .
( .
( ) (BMD ) (
.
(
.
(
.
:
Conjugate beam
)(subjected to Elastic Load

Actual Beam
)(Subjected to applied Load

a
a

)(c

b
b

)(b

)(a

b
a

)(d

)(e

)(f

) (
).( b-
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Theory of Structures

( B) (Actual Beam )
B

: ( B ) ( Conjugate Beam )

wl 3 3
3 wl 4
wl 4
l=
=
MB =
6 EI 4
24 EI 8 EI
wl 4
B =
8 EI
- :(Conjugate Beam Method)
1) Using the (Conjugate Beam Method), find ( B ) for the loaded beam shown
below:
P

MA=Pl

(a) Actual Beam

RA=P

B =

x
3

Pl
3 EI

y
(b) S.F.D

(c) B.M.D

-Pl

RA=P
MA=Pl
A

(d) Conjugate Beam

Pl/EI

l/3

2/3l

y
()
- :
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Theory of Structures

( ) (BMD .
(

) (EI ).(
( .:
2
1
Pl Pl
= ) (l
= Re sul tan t
2
EI 2 EI

* ] [2 l / 3
] [l / 3 .
( ) (B
.

Pl 2 2
= B = M B
l
2 EI 3
Pl 3
= B
3 EI

)(Down
:


.
2) Find the absolute maximum deflection in portion AB using the Conjugate
Beam Method.
)(EI constant
- :
( ) (BMD .
(

) (EI .
( AB .:
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Dr. Qais Abdul Mageed

Theory of Structures

2
1
PL PL
= ) (2 L
= Re sul tan t
2
EI EI

* ] [2 L / 3 A ] [L / 3 .B
( ) (A B .

P
C

3
P
2

2L

1
P
2

Conjugate
Beam

PL
EI

B.M.D
PL

PL
EI

PL2
3 EI
PL2
EI

=0

)M

PL2 1
(2 L ) R A ( 2 L ) = 0
EI 3
1 2 PL3 PL2

=
= RA
2 L 3 EI
3 EI

) x . A

1 Px
PL2
=V
x
=0
2 2 EI
3 EI
2
=x
L
3
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Theory of Structures

(2008-2009)

Mmax
Mmax

2 2
P
L L
2
Px2 x PL2
3 3 PL 2
)=
x=

4EI 3 3EI
4EI
3
3EI 3
2PL3
2PL3
2PL3
6 PL3
4PL3
)=

=
9 3EI 3 3EI 9 3EI 9 3EI
9 3EI

M max

6.

4 PL3
)=
9 3 EI

Elastic Deformation of Structures (Deflection & Rotation).

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