Revolutionary War in Kentucky

George Rogers Clark was born in Albemarle County, Virginia, not far from the home of young Thomas
Jefferson. Little is known of Clark's schooling, but he went to live with his grandfather so he could attend Donald Robertson's school with James Madison and John Taylor of Caroline. He was also tutored at home, as was usual for Virginian children of the period, eventually becoming a farmer and surveyor. In 1772, as a twenty-year-old surveyor, Clark made his first trip into what would become Kentucky, one of thousands of settlers entering the area as a result of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1768. Indians living in the Ohio Country had not been party to that treaty, which ceded their Kentucky hunting grounds. The violence that resulted eventually culminated in Lord Dunmore's War, in which Clark played a small role.

Revolutionary War
During the Revolutionary War, the Kentucky settlements were simultaneously at war with the British and with Native Americans in the Ohio Country, particularly the Shawnee, Mingo and Wyandot. Working for the Kentucky pioneers who saw themselves as citizens of Virginia, Clark helped to raise a militia and to organize the defense of the region. Kentucky had no official status within Virginia, so the settlers had to work unofficially. Their leaders informally chose the 24-year-old Clark as a "delegate" (really a lobbyist) to the Virginia General Assembly. When Clark and a friend arrived in the Virginia capital with the news from Kentucky, they created a sensation. The revolutionary state government, under Governor Patrick Henry, was almost insolvent at the time, but Virginia agreed to admit Kentucky into the state as a county and issued Clark 500 pounds of black powder, which Clark carried over the Cumberland Gap to the settlements; the ammunition was used to repel attacks on Harrodsburg, Kentucky, in 1777. As a leader of the defense of Kentucky's frontier, Clark gathered intelligence pointing to the British role as sponsor of the Indian warfare. The British Army, from a base in Detroit, Michigan, was encouraging the Native warriors, and British-Canadian fur traders in the Illinois Country were supplying the hostile forces. In response, Clark asked for permission to lead a secret expeditionary force to capture southern Illinois. Governor Henry quietly commissioned Clark as a lieutenant colonel and authorized him to raise seven companies totaling 350 men. Clark held this commission from Virginia, not from the United States, and Virginia still had little money. Clark could raise only 175 volunteers for the secret mission. In 1778, Clark led his small troop westward from Fort Pitt. The force passed down the Ohio River along the northern border of Kentucky to the Falls of the Ohio with his troops and many families who joined the military convoy for security and protection from Indian reprisals. On May 27, 1778, Clark chose an island he named Corn Island to set up camp at the falls. It was the founding of a settlement which was later named Louisville. After successfully passing over the white water of the Falls of the Ohio, Clark and his troops beached their vessels on June 24, 1778, at the abandoned Fort Massac, near the current site of Metropolis, Illinois. Seeking to surprise the

British soldiers occupying Fort Kaskaskia, they walked overland and arrived at Kaskaskia on the night of July 4. They captured the fort and city without firing a shot. Clark dispatched French Priest Father Pierre Gibault to the trading village of Vincennes, Indiana, to influence the inhabitants of Vincennes and secure nearby Fort Sackville. Clark then placed Captain Leonard Helm in command of Fort Sackville.

The Fall of Fort Sackville by Fredrick C. Yorn Early in 1779, Clark received word from Fort Sackville that the Lieutenant Governor of Canada, Henry Hamilton, had retaken that outpost for Great Britain. With friendlier relations with the Indians of the Ohio River Valley than Clark enjoyed, Hamilton knew that time was on the British side. Native American warriors would gather around the British leader. Clark, by contrast, knew that if he remained in southern Illinois, he would likely be overwhelmed. The only alternative was to strike at Hamilton and Vincennes from an unexpected direction. The open country between Kaskaskia and Vincennes, which would later become southern Illinois, was then prairie wetland, with an endless succession of rivers and sloughs. On February 6, 1779, Clark led 172 volunteers from Fort Kaskaskia 210 miles (340 km) eastward through "drownded country" in "the depth of winter." Over a period of 17 days, his small detachment marched and waded through southern Illinois to Vincennes. By means of some byplay with the excess Virginia company flags that Patrick Henry had authorized, Clark convinced the frightened and confused Hamilton that the Virginian troop totaled not 172 men, but 600 men. Clark's riflemen then practiced sharpshooting against the Fort Sackville palisade. The rebel Virginia colonel sent a message to the fort, threatening to storm it and give no quarter. The demoralized Hamilton formally surrendered on February 25. This daring winter expedition was Clark's most notable achievement and made him a legend of the early American frontier. Clark's ultimate goal during the Revolutionary War was to seize the British stronghold of Fort Detroit and claim all lands west of the Appalachians for the American Revolutionaries (or perhaps for Virginia), but he could never recruit enough men to make the attempt. The Kentucky militiamen generally preferred to defend their homes by staying closer to Kentucky, rather than making a long and potentially perilous expedition to Detroit. However, Clark's capture of Governor Hamilton and occupation of the Illinois Country helped to reduce British effectiveness in the Northwest Territory. The frontier raids against Kentucky continued. In June 1780, a mixed force of British and Native Americans from Detroit under Captain Henry Bird invaded Kentucky, capturing the fortified settlements of Ruddel's Station and Martin's Station. In August 1780, Clark led a retaliatory force which won a victory near the Shawnee village of Pekowee (near present Springfield, Ohio). [1] At the Treaty of Paris (1783) that ended the Revolutionary War, Great Britain ceded the entire Northwest Territory to the United States. Many traditional accounts credit Clark's efforts with helping to cause this momentous result. However, some historians have since questioned whether there is any textual evidence that Clark's activities played any significant role in the treaty negotiations. The cession included regions that Clark never saw, such as Michigan Territory and Wisconsin Territory. Later, Clark helped negotiate the Treaty of Fort McIntosh in 1785 and led an unsuccessful expedition against Native Americans in the Northwest Indian War in 1786.

[edit] Later years
After the Revolutionary War, Clark was granted 8,049 acres (32.6 km²) of land in southern Indiana, comprising what is now the city of Clarksville, Indiana, and its environs, north of Louisville. He was also appointed as a principal surveyor for the lands west of the Appalachians issued as bounties in lieu of military pay to the Virginians who had served in the Revolution. With this position and assets, Clark's friends believed that he was assured of enjoying a prosperous and happy prime of life. However, such was not to be the case.

Locust Grove, George Rogers Clark's last residence Clark had financed the majority of his military campaigns with borrowed funds. When creditors began to dun him for these unpaid debts, he was not able to obtain recompense from Virginia or the United States Congress. After a few years, the lenders and their assigns closed in and deprived the veteran of almost all of his property. Clark was left with a small plot of land in Clarksville, containing a small gristmill which he worked with two African American servants. In the humble standing of a miller, Clark lived for another two decades. He never married. In 1809, this austere life ended when the aging warrior suffered a severe stroke. Falling into an operating fireplace, he suffered a burn on one leg so severe as to necessitate the amputation of the limb. It was impossible for Clark to continue to operate his mill, so he became a dependent member of the household of his brother-in-law, Major William Croghan, a planter at Locust Grove farm eight miles (13 km) from the growing town of Louisville. After a second stroke, Clark died at Locust Grove in 1818. General Clark's nephew was George Croghan, a U.S. Army officer who defended Fort Stephenson, in present-day Fremont, Ohio, during the War of 1812.

Treaty of Fort Stanwix
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search The Treaty of Fort Stanwix is actually two treaties between Native Americans and European-Americans which were signed at Fort Stanwix, located in present-day Rome, New York.

[edit] The Fort Stanwix Treaty of 1768

In 1768, Sir William Johnson and representatives of the Six Nations negotiated an important treaty at Fort Stanwix between the British government and the Iroquois. The purpose of the conference was to adjust the boundary line between Indian lands and white settlements set forth in the Proclamation of 1763. The British government hoped a new boundary line might bring an end to the rampant frontier violence, which had become costly and troublesome. Indians hoped a new, permanent line might hold back white colonial expansion. The final treaty was signed on November 5 with one signatory for each of the Six Nations and in the presence of representatives from New Jersey, Virginia and Pennsylvania as well as Johnson. The Indians received £10,460 7s. 3d. sterling. The treaty established a Line of Property which extended the earlier proclamation line much further west. The Iroquois had effectively ceded Kentucky to the whites. However, the Indians who actually used the Kentucky lands, primarily the Shawnee, Delaware, and Cherokee, had no role in the negotiations. Rather than secure peace, the Fort Stanwix treaty of 1768 helped set the stage for the next round of hostilities along the Ohio River, which would culminate in Dunmore's War. The treaty also settled land claims between the Six Nations and the Penn family, the proprietors of Pennsylvania. Due to disputes about the physical boundaries of the settlement, however, the final treaty line would not be fully agreed upon for another five years. The final portion of the Line of Property in Pennsylvania, called the Purchase line in that State, was fixed in 1773 by a representatives from the Six Nations and Pennsylvania who met at a spot called Canoe Place at the confluence of West Branch of the Susquehanna River and Cushion Creek in what is now Cherry Tree, Pennsylvania.

The Fort Stanwix Treaty of 1784
Another treaty was conducted at the fort between the United States and Native Americans in 1784, one of several treaties signed after the American victory in the Revolutionary War. Signed by Seneca Chief Cornplanter, the Iroquois Confederacy ceded all lands west of the Niagara River to the United States.

References

"The Documentary History of the State of New York", by E.B. O'Callaghan, M.D.; Albany: Weed, Parsons & Co., 1850 (Vol. 1 pp. 379-381 text of treaty of 1768; also extensive correspondence of Sir William Johnson)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Fort_Stanwix" Categories: Legal history of Canada | History of Pennsylvania | United States and Native American treaties |

Dunmore's War

Dunmore's War (or Lord Dunmore's War) was a war from 1773 to 1774 between the Colony of Virginia and the Indian nations of the Shawnee and Mingo. The Colonial legislature was asked by Lord Dunmore, the British Royal Governor of Virginia, to declare a state of war with the hostile Indian nations and order up an elite vollunteer militia force for the campaign. The context of the conflict resulted from escalating violence between British colonists who in accordance with previous treaties were exploring and moving into land south of the Ohio River—modern West Virginia and Kentucky—and American Indians who held treaty rights to hunt there. As a result of successive attacks by Indian hunting and war bands upon the settlers, war was declared to pacify the hostile Indian war bands. The war ended soon after Virginia's victory in the Battle of Point Pleasant on October 10, 1774. As a result of this victory, the Indians lost the right to hunt in the area and agreed to recognize the Ohio River as the boundary between Indian lands and the British colonies. Although the Indian national chieftains signed the treaty, conflict within the Indian nations soon broke out between more radical tribesmen who felt the treaty sold out their claims and tribesmen who felt another war would mean only further losses of territory to the more powerful British colonists. When war broke out between the British colonists and the British government, the war parties of the Indian nations quickly gained power and mobilized the various Indian nations to attack the British colonists during the Revolutionary War.

Bird's invasion of Kentucky
Bird's invasion of Kentucky during the American Revolutionary War was just one phase of an
extensive series of operations planned by the British in 1780, whereby the entire West, from Canada to Florida, was to be swept clear of both Spaniards and colonists.

Background: British western campaign of 1780
British authorities, during the spring of 1780, were prepared to carry out a comprehensive plan for the recapture of the Illinois Country and to attack St. Louis, New Orleans and other Spanish posts on the Mississippi River. Spain, allied with France, was then the enemy of Great Britain. Four simultaneous movements were begun. Capt. Henry Bird with a force from Detroit was directed to "amuse" George Rogers Clark at the Falls of the Ohio. General John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll, from Pensacola, after taking New Orleans was to proceed up the Mississippi to Natchez where he was to be joined by a force which was to have captured St. Louis. Capt. Charles de Langlade was to advance down the Illinois River while another party was ordered to watch Vincennes. No part of the plan proved successful. Capt. Bird, after taking two small posts in Kentucky, retreated. General Campbell, frightened at the display of strength by Governor Bernardo de Galvez at New Orleans, remained at Pensacola. A force of British and Indians from Michilimackinac, after their first repulse at St. Louis, withdrew. Capt. Langlade retreated precipitately upon learning of the approach of Illinois cavalry.

Campaign
From Fort Detroit, Captain Henry Bird of the 8th Regiment of Foot led an American Indian army of 100 men, accompanied by a 150 white men (Detriot Volunteers and bombadiers of the Royal Regiment of Artillery), against the settlers of Kentucky. The settlements of Martin's Station and Ruddle's Station were easily overwhelmed but lack of provisions compelled a retreat. Over 300 prisoners were carried back to Detroit.

References
Source: Dictionary of American History by James Truslow Adams, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1940

Simon Kenton

Simon Kenton (April 3, 1755 - April 29, 1836) was a famous
United States frontiersman and friend of the renowned Daniel Boone and the infamous Simon Girty.

Family and early life
Simon Kenton was born in the Bull Run Mountains, Fauquier County, Virginia to Mark Kenton, Sr. and Mary Miller Kenton. In 1771, at the age of 16, thinking he had killed a man in a jealous rage, he fled into the wilderness of Kentucky and Ohio, and for years went by the name "Simon Butler." In 1782, when he learned that the victim was still alive, he returned to Virginia and readopted his original name.

Noted activities
Kenton served as a scout against the Shawnee in 1774 in the conflict between Native Americans and European settlers later labeled Dunmore's War. In 1777, he saved the life of his friend and fellow frontiersman, Daniel Boone, at Boonesborough, Kentucky. The following year, Kenton was in turn rescued from torture and death by Simon Girty. Kenton served on the famous 1778 George Rogers Clark expedition to capture Fort Sackville and also fought with "Mad" Anthony Wayne in the Ohio Indian Wars in 1793-94. Kenton moved to Urbana, Ohio in 1810, and achieved the rank of brigadier general of the Ohio militia. He served in the War of 1812 as both a scout and as leader of a militia group in the Battle of the Thames in 1813. Kenton died in New Jerusalem, Ohio (in Logan County) and was first buried there. His body was later moved to Urbana, Ohio. Kenton, Ohio, seat of Hardin County, in northwest Ohio was named in honor of Simon Kenton. A local school for the developmentally disabled in Hardin County is named Simon Kenton. Simon Kenton High School is in Independence, Kentucky. Kenton County, Kentucky is also named for Simon Kenton. The Simon Kenton Council is the name of a geographical division of the Boy Scouts of America, spanning from

Central Ohio to northern Kentucky.

[edit] References

• • •

Eckert, Allan W. The Frontiersmen: A Narrative; Originally published 1967; 2001 paperback reprint edition, Jesse Stuart Foundation; ISBN 0-945084-91-9. Popular history in novelized form; usually considered to be fiction by academic historians. Kenton, Edna. Simon Kenton: His Life and Period, 1755-1836. Originally published 1930; reprinted Salem, NH: Ayer, 1993. Crain, Ray. Simon Kenton: The Great Frontiersman. Available in either hardback or paper back; Published June 1, 1992; ISBN 0-9641149-5-X Clark, Thomas D. Simon Kenton: Kentucky Scout; Originally published 1943; 1971 paperback reprint edition, Jesse Stuart Foundation; ISBN 0-945084-39-9.

[edit] Trivia

• •

In Eckert's The Frontiersman, there is a story that Kenton and a companion killed four guards and stole a British Cannon during Captain Henry Bird's 1780 Invasion of Kentucky. However this report is Folklore for the following reasons: • See Bird's Invasion of Kentucky Link to 1951 article: The British had to abandon their 6 lb. and 3 lb. cannon; Footnotes in above 1951 account regarding Kenton do not mention capturing any cannon; In link to George Rogers Clark on Battle of Piqua, Clark mentioned having captured British cannon from Vincennes capture; likewise Clark's official 1780 report on Battle of Piqua does not mention receiving any cannon from Kenton.

[edit] External links

The Official Simon Kenton page

The British Invasion of Kentucky
During the summer of 1779, as the slowly-moving American Revolution was dragging along into its fifth year, the cause of the British arms was beginning to look desperate and the red-coated soldiery of King George III had gained but few foot-holds in the revolted colonies. To bolster their war effort, the British high command adopted an overall strategy which, among other things, called for an all-out campaign against the American frontier settlements in the West. Added to the British failure in their struggle against the colonies was Spain's intervention in the war with England. In June of this year (1779), His Most Catholic Majesty allied his government with that of France and the United States, at the same time declaring war against the much harassed George III. The Spanish Dons were eager to recover property formerly seized by the predatory British, and especially to retake the rich lands of the Mississippi Valley. The Spaniards would, as the War Office assumed, quickly launch campaigns against the English posts on the Gulf. Another cause for British alarm was the rapid influx of "rebel" settlers into the Kentucky region, or the "County of Kentucky"-a vast area beyond the Alleghenies which the state of Virginia had erected by an act of her Legislature nearly three years before. A new and improved Virginia land act of 1779 provided far better pre-emption rights for settlers and more secure land tenure than had previously existed. During the fall, winter and spring of 1779-1780, an unprecedented flow of immigrants came to Kentucky, "with a view of exploring the country, so as to enable them to locate their warrants to the greatest advantage," [1] before the land office (at Wilson's Station, near Harrodsburg) was scheduled to open on May 1st, 1780. This large transmontane immigration from the states of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia caused undue apprehension among the British officers and greatly accelerated their war activity. In May, 1780, Major Arent S. De Peyster, Lieutenant-Governor of Canada and commander of the British forces at

Detroit, wrote to General Frederick Haldiman, Governor-General of Canada, at Montreal, giving information on the alarming conditions in the Western Country: "The Delawares and Shawnese are . . . daily bringing in scalps & prisoners . . . those unhappy people being part of the one thousand families who to shun the oppression of Congress are on their way to possess the country of Kentuck[y]. where if they are allowed quietly to settle, they will soon become formidable both to the Indians & to the Posts."[2] and ten days later, he wrote to Lieut. Col. Mason Bolton, Deputy Indian Agent, at Montreal, telling of the rapidity with which the settlers were gaining foot-holds in the territory beyond the Allegheny Mountains. "They report that the Rebels . . . have now surrounded the Indian hunting ground of Kentuck[y], having erected small Forts at about two days journey from each other." Major De Peyster added, in closing, that this was "the finest country for new settlers in America, but it happens unfortunately for them to be the Indians best hunting ground, which they will never give up, and in fact, it is our interest not to let the Virginians, Marylanders & Pennsylvanians get possession there, lest in a short while they become formidable to this [Detroit] Post."[3] Thus, by reason of the foregoing circumstances, the British authorities in Canada and Detroit, headquarters for the Northwest, began lavishing large sums of money and presents on the Indians in order to satisfy their evergrowing demands and prepare them to assist in carrying out another part of the comprehensive plan for the conquest of the West. The Indians, in turn, seeing their favorite hunting grounds being taken over by the white settlers, turned to the British for help and Major De Peyster set about retaining their good will on an ambitious scale, as some of his bills for "Indian goods" show. One account for 12,185 pounds included: "750 lb. vermilion [paint] 750 pounds 8000 lbs. powder 2000 pounds 14,975 ball, lead & shot 1123 pounds 476 doz. scalping knives 428 pounds 188 tomahawks 119 pounds"[4] And in another account, labeled "Goods suitable for the Indian trade", there is listed a large quantity of vermilion paint, "New Pinsilvania rifles" and "scalping knives [with] good blades & solid handles."[5] Armed with these formidable presents and inspired by rewards of others, the Indians stepped up their scalp-hunting trips to Kentucky. All along the lonely trails, scores of hapless men, women and children were ambushed, murdered and scalped.[6] Their fiendish work done, the savages with such captives as they saw fit to take, would hasten back to Detroit to collect from the British government, money or presents for each scalp or prisoner delivered. Meanwhile, the British grand strategy provided for a series of far-reaching military operations in the West, embracing the whole area from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. Their gigantic plan called for the capture of the stations in Illinois and Indiana, including Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Vincennes, as well as the settlements at the falls of the Ohio; moreover, it contemplated the taking of Fort Pitt (on the Ohio) and Fort Cumberland (on the Potomac); and, furthermore, it involved seizure of the Spanish strongholds along the Mississippi, the principals of which were St. Louis and New Orleans. However, the prosecution of this ambitious project could not match the boldness of the plan, and it broke down in almost every part. The only successful campaign in 1780 was under the direction of Captain Henry Bird,[7] of His Majesty's 8th Regiment of Foot. And even this enterprise, as executed, was not contemplated in the original planning since the object of the campaign was to attack and capture George Rogers Clark's fort (Tort Nelson) at the falls of the Ohio, after which it was confidently expected that all Kentucky could be swept clear of settlers. Bird, who had served a number of years in the British army, came to Detroit from Niagara in 1778, and, on May 11th of that year, was promoted to the rank of captain.[8] Later, he assisted in the laying out of a fort on the elevated ground in the rear of the village where the present-day streets of Fort and Shelby intersect. For the next year or so, Captain Bird was stationed at Sandusky, charged with the duty of stirring up Indian war-parties to raid the Ohio frontier and other settlements. In the spring of 1780 he was ordered to lead an expedition against the exposed Kentucky settlements on the American frontier, as a part of the overall British strategy for the conquest of the straggling colonists. It is apparent that the British knew that the secret plans of their Kentucky invasion had spread throughout the Western Country, as evidenced by one of Captain Bird's letters to his superior officer, Major De Peyster. On May 21st, 1780 he

wrote: "Col. [George Rogers] Clarke is advised of our coming, tho' ignorant of our numbers and artillery. There are ten or fifteen forts near each other, houses put in the form of a square. I keep the little gun [three pounder] for quick transportation from one [place] to the other ... Col. Clarke says he will wait for us, instead of going to the Mississippi. His numbers do not exceed two hundred. His provisions & ammunition [are] short . . . "[9] On May 25th, 1780, Captain Bird left Detroit with an army of 150 whites and one hundred lake Indians. From the accounts of Macomb, Edgar & Macomb,[10] fiscal agents to the British Government at Detroit, one may read the names and rates of pay of the Detroit volunteers who joined Bird's army of invasion. These were chiefly Frenchmen, since Detroit was still a French settlement "overlaid with a thin veneer of British officialdom." Captain Louis J. Chabert and Lieutenant Jonathan Schieffelin headed the list of the militia muster, with four sergeants and three corporals. Of the 150 white men in the expedition, only thirty appear to have been volunteers; the rest were "ordered out," proving that so far as the French settlers were concerned, they had but little desire to fight the Americans. Bird's motley force left Detroit by water; descended the Detroit River in sailing vessels, bateaux and birch canoes; paddled across Lake Erie to the mouth of the Maumee; rowed up that river to the portage; transported to the Great Miami and dropped down that stream to the Ohio. Bird had considerable trouble in bringing the artillery up shallow rivers in canoes and then portaging the guns over wilderness roads, with so few pack-horses that they had to make several trips back and forth over the portage. Reaching the mouth of the Miami early in June, the main body camped there to await the arrival of certain chiefs from Chillicothe. By this time the expedition had gathered a large body of Indians from the various nations-Ottawas, Hurons, Shawnees, Chippewas, Delawares and Mingoes. It was unusual in that it carried along two field-pieces, a threepounder and a sixpounder, with a detachment of bombardiers from the Royal Regiment of Artillery to fire them. With such equipment, the British believed the small Kentucky stockades could be smashed with solid shot and the whole thing quickly ended with tomahawk and scalping knife. Numbered among the white men in this British expedition were several renegade Americans, already notorious on the American frontier: Simon Girty (the "white savage") and his two brothers, George and Thomas; Matthew Elliott and Captain Alexander McKee,[11] renowned like the Girtys for their skill in handling the Indians and exciting them to war against the Americans; also Jacques Duperon Baby, an influential French citizen of Detroit, Philip le Due, Duncan Graham and several others employed by the British Indian department. Captain Bird's rendezvous at the mouth of the Miami continued for some days; the Indian allies first were late in arriving and then mutinous. In fact, the British themselves were worried over Bird's personal safety at their hands, and General Haldimand, Commander-in-Chief in Canada, expressed concern over "the fickleness of the Indians and their aversion to controul." Captain McKee, a trusted agent of the British and second in command, caught up with Bird's war party on May 31st. Next day a band of 300 warriors joined him and on June 5th there was to be a general rendezvous of all the tribes, from a number of different places on the Ohio River. On June 3rd, Bird was still delayed at the mouth of the Miami River waiting for the Chillicothe chiefs, though in the meantime a third band of warriors had brought his force of red men up to about seven hundred. He now received information that General Clark with most of his effective fighting force had recently left Fort Nelson, at the falls of the Ohio, and gone down the Mississippi River several miles below the mouth of the Ohio, to erect a fort (Fort Jefferson) at the Iron Banks.[12] Both Captains Bird and McKee were therefore eager to press on to the falls, hoping to capture it before Clark's return. The former wrote his superior officer in Detroit that it would be "possible for us to get to the Falls by the 10th of the month [June], certain[ly] by the 14th, the Indians have their full spirits, the ammunition & every thing plenty, and in the state we could wish it. After taking the Falls," continued Bird, "the country on our return, will be submissive & in a manner subdued, but if we attack the nearer forts first, the ammunition is wasted, or expended, and our People far from fresh."[13] A week later, on June 9th, 1780, Bird's army reached the banks of the Ohio River, opposite the mouth of the Licking and went into camp on the present site of Cincinnati. Here again trouble developed between the British officers and their Indian allies. The braves were not convinced that the powerful "Chief" of the "Long Knives" would not be at the falls to greet them and therefore took refuge in delay. A series of powwows and council fires lasted for two or three

days. Clark's wide reputation as an Indian fighter seems to have thrown a great scare into the Indians, who now flatly refused to descend the Ohio River to the falls (Fort Nelson), the site of Louisville. Instead, they insisted on ascending the Licking River and attacking the interior settlements of Kentucky, or "the forts on Licking creek," which promised less fighting and more booty than the prospect held out at Fort Nelson. Then too, the chiefs gave as their reason for their opposition to the falls venture that it would leave their own villages on the Ohio "naked & defenseless" in the neighborhood of these forts. Pointing to the fact that several Kentucky stockades lay on Licking River, they contended that settlers from these forts might attack their Ohio villages with success should Bird and his men move down the Ohio. Though warmly pleading the falls venture, neither Bird nor McKee could shake the braves' determination not to attack it. Apparently helpless to do otherwise and thoroughly disgusted, Bird reluctantly consented to the Indian plan of operations. "After two days councilling whether they would proceed immediately by the Falls, or attack the forts on Licking Creek," wrote Captain Bird to Major De Peyster, "the Indians have determined for Licking Creek & tomorrow [June 12th] by day break we move up that stream. I confess to you," continued Bird the British commander, "my patience have [has] received very severe shocks, and would have long ago [been] exhausted, had I not so excellent an example before me as the one Capt. [Alexander] McKee sets, indeed he manages the Indians to a charm ... it is now sixteen days since I arrived at the Forks, [the place] appointed by the Indians to meet, and by one ridiculous delay & the other, they have prolonged or retarded [the expedition[ to this day."[14] Above the forks of the Licking River were two fairly strong stations, or pioneer stockades-Ruddell's and Martin's. The first, misnamed "Riddles" by John Filson on his 1784 map of Kentucky, was a stockaded log settlement of the type common in early Kentucky and contained "at least 18 or 20 families, with block-houses and pickets."[15] This station was located on the north bank of the south fork of Licking, three miles below the juncture of Stoner and Hinkston's forks, in present-day Harrison County.[16] It had been established during the year 1775 by John Hinkston, who remained there more than a year, during which time a little community grew up. However, this station was abandoned in the summer of 1776, when Indian raids threatened. In April, 1779, Captain Isaac Ruddell rebuilt the old station, it being variously known as Fort Licking; as Fort Liberty, but most of the time as Ruddell's Station. Martin's Station[17] was named for John Martin[18] who had erected a cabin on the site in 1775. It was located on a rising plot of ground in a horseshoe bend on the north bank of Stoner Creek, in present Bourbon County, about three and a half or four miles northwest of Paris, Kentucky. In 1779 numerous settlers came in which led to the building of a stockade there, similar in construction and size to that of near-by Ruddell's Station. By June of 1780, perhaps upwards of three hundred to three hundred and fifty persons resided in the Ruddell's-Martin's community. This increased population was prompted, no doubt, by the new Virginia land act, previously mentioned. It is interesting to note that many of the settlers were Pennsylvania Germans and that some were loyalists, whom the British contended, had moved to Kentucky to escape persecution or the possibility of taking up arms against the British crown. For the most part, the new settlers were not warlike and apparently had little military aptitude. The taking up of land, building homes and tending crops constituted their principal interest, despite the fact that the American Revolution was in full progress and the threat of death from Indian raids and forays ever present. As previously stated, Captain Bird's discordant party left their camp on the Ohio River in the early morning hours of June 12th, and began paddling up the swollen Licking, or the Nepernine, as the Indians termed it. Their slow trip up that stream in pirogues and canoes, which consumed over a week to the forks, has been vividly described by a modern writer: "There were no curious eyes to gaze upon this host on rapine, plunder and massacre bent, as it paddled and pushed its slow way up the Nepernine ... A British officer of the King's Regiment, with McKee, a despised and worthless renegade who had deserted his cause and his people, in command of a foreign soldiery-Canadian woodsmen, trappers and regular soldiers and a horde of savages, intolerant of discipline, giving ear to their white leaders only to learn the way to a harvest of bloody scalps, and plundered homes, seen only by the wild deer and the slinking fox, a hundred and fifty years and more ago, they came at last to the forks of the river, and here they landed."[19] On June 20th, the invaders reached the forks of the Licking, now the present site of Falmouth, in Pendleton County. There was then no settlement in this part of Kentucky. Here the entire force, because of shallow water, was obliged to disembark, where they erected temporary huts and shelters for their boats and stores. Then the army began a slow and tedious overland march to Ruddell's Station, distant forty-five miles, laboriously cutting as they went, a wagon-road

sufficiently wide over which the two pieces of cannon were dragged. Judging by the speed of the movement after the 20th, this project along the south fork of the Licking was executed with tremendous vigor. Captain Alexander McKee, second in command, with a force of about 200 Indians formed an advance unit and surrounded sleeping Ruddell's Station before daylight on the morning of June 24th. In consequence of the rainy season which had lasted for many days, "the men at Ruddle's and Martin's stations, who were accustomed [hunting] to be in the woods, had all come in,"[20] and no scouts had been sent out for several days past. This may account for the fact that, although the British-Indian force had been thirteen days enroute from the mouth of the Licking (a distance of 76 miles), the settlers were entirely unaware of the movement until an Irishman, named McCarty, in Bird's command, disobeying orders, shot into the stockade at dawn.[21] Firing commenced shortly thereafter on both sides and the little fort defended itself vigorously until noon. About that time, Captain Bird arrived with the rest of his force and the smaller of the two field-pieces, the three-pounder. Two discharges of this gun were sent against the wooden fort, which did nothing more than knock in one of the logs of a corner block-house. The settlers were not too impressed by the small cannon, even less after it had been fired with little effect. But when the large six-pounder was wheeled in sight of the startled Kentuckians and made ready for firing, they realized it was now only a matter of minutes before their stockade would be pounded to pieces and a breach opened for Bird's wild and blood-thirsty Indians. At this point Captain Bird sent Simon Girty with a flag of truce demanding the surrender of the fort. According to Girty's story, "many rifles were pointed at him as he entered the stockade." He declared he kept cool, and informed those inside the pickets that, "unless they surrendered, they would all be killed; a determination they clearly saw would be carried out in the event of longer resistance, as the other [six-pounder] field-piece was now brought up and the two would soon batter down the frail stockade."[22] Conscious of their serious predicament, the Americans asked for time to consider the matter and the request was granted. Captain Ruddell and the settlers vigorously discussed the question of defending the fort; some voted for immediate capitulation while a number of others favored making a death stand. At length, however, -it was voted to surrender and the white flag was raised. For the first time in history a Kentucky fort had capitulated. Captain Bird in his official report gives a graphic account of the engagement: "We arrived before Fort Liberty [on] the 24th of June . . . the three-pounder was not sufficient, our People raised a battery of Rails & Earth within 80 yards of the Fort-taking some advantage of a very violent storm of rain which prevented them being clearly seen -they stood two discharges of the little gun, which only cut down a spar & stuck the shot in the side of a house-when they saw the six-pounder moving across the field, they immediately surrendered, they thought the three-pounder a swivel the Indians and their department had got with them. The conditions granted [were] that their lives should be saved, and themselves taken to Detroit. I forewarned them that the savages would adopt some of their children. The Indians gave in consent the cattle for the good of our people & the prisoners, and were not to enter [the fort] till the next day-But whilst Capt. McKee & myself were in the fort settling these matters, they rush'd in, tore the pore children from their mother's breasts, killed a wounded man and every one of the cattle, leaving the whole [of the carcasses] to stink. We had brought no pork with us & were now reduced to great distress, & the poor prisoners in danger of being starved."[23] Several versions of the action at Ruddell's Station are extant. James Trabue, present in the fort and captured, stated in 1781 to his brother, Daniel, who wrote a diary, that after Bird arrived with his cannon, a flag was sent in and surrender demanded. This being refused the cannon was fired twice, doing little damage. Trabue declared that Captain Ruddell advocated capitulation while he (Trabue) and Captain John Hinkston strongly insisted on defending the station. "At length," Trabue declared, "Capt. Ruddle got a majority on his side and petitioned Col. Byrd to capitulate." He recalled that the flag was sent "back and forth several times" before "the articles [of surrender] were signed and agreed to." Trabue, who wrote the capitulation agreement, declared that Captain Bird promised that he and his white soldiers would protect the captives who would be held under British protection, march them safely to Detroit and keep the Indians away from them. He said it was even agreed that "the people's clothing and papers should be kept secured to themselves with some little exception."[24] There seems to be no disagreement about the statement, that when Bird and McKee were yet in the fort signing the papers, the savages charged through the open gates and fell upon the defenseless prisoners. "The Indians came rushing in," Trabue declared, "and plundered the people and they even stripped their clothes off them and divided the prisoners

among the Indians." Continued Trabue, "In a few minutes the man did not know where his wife or child was, nor the wife know where her husband or either of her children was, nor the children where their parents or brothers or sisters were."[25] Each Indian seemed bent upon snatching a prisoner, articles of clothing and trinkets. James Trabue declared that all his clothing was pulled off and that he was given "one of their ragged lously shirts to put on" which failed to prevent the sun from burning his skin. What happened to Trabue happened to the other men also. The wild scene was almost indescribable; mothers hysterical with fright frantically screaming for their children and the pitiful crying of children for their parents. A number of the settlers were killed and mangled on the spot. Following the savage orgy at Ruddell's, mild-mannered Bird chided the red men for having broken their promise, and Ruddell himself remonstrated against the British commander for the treatment his people had received, but to no avail. In order "to prevent jealousies & dissatisfaction," the leading chiefs agreed to an equal distribution of the plunder, clothes and trinkets. "But the violence of the lake Indians," noted McKee, "in seizing the prisoners, contrary to agreement, threw everything in confusion." However, continued McKee, "the other nations next morning returned all they had taken [prisoners], back to Capt. Bird's charge."[26] Next day after Ruddell's Station was taken, Captain McKee sent out scouts in the afternoon "towards the enemies second [Martin's] fort," and captured two men "going express to alarm the other forts of our approach."[27] The information received from the prisoners prompted Bird and McKee, and their red allies, to march at once against this stockade, some five miles distant. It was not however, until Bird had exacted another promise from the chiefs that prisoners taken should be entirely under his control and the Indians entitled only to the plunder. With this assurance from Blue Jacket and the other chiefs, Bird's force set out for Martin's Station and reached it next morning (June 26th) about ten o'clock. One of the prisoners taken the day before was sent in to the fort, under a flag of truce, "to inform them of their situation" and to carry Bird's demand for capitulation. After a brief consultation, held in the absence of Captain John Martin who was away on a hunting trip, the defenders of the fort agreed that it would be useless to fight against such odds. The little garrison surrendered without firing a shot. All the settlers were led out "under a guard of the [white] troops"; the Indians divided the spoil among themselves and Captain Bird took charge of the prisoners. The carnage at Ruddell's and Martin's stations on those hot June days was no doubt more ghastly than would be depicted by Captain Bird, who could not be expected to dwell too much on the matter of slain settlers, although he thoroughly detested and distrusted his Indian allies. Simon Kenton stated that he and Charles Gatliff passed these two stations soon after the tragedy and found "a number of people lying about killed & scalped."[28] Jeremiah Morrow, whose father, James, was one of the captives, related to Lyman C. Draper, that "the Indians entered the fort [Ruddell's] & commenced a terrible slaughter ... some 20 were tomahawked in cold blood," he declared.[29] The disgusted Captain Bird wrote a further account after the fall[30] of Martin's Station: "The same promises were made & broke in the same manner, not one pound of meat & near 300 prisoners-Indians breaking into the forts after the treaties were concluded."[31] At Martin's, Bird insisted that the Indians deliver all prisoners with at least a suit of clothes left them and then quietly told the Kentuckians to put on as many clothes as they could wear, one suit over the other. In spite of this measure, prisoners were knocked down and stripped. When the prisoners were removed under the protection of the white troops, the Indians became indignant, "and the great propensity for plunder," observed McKee, "again occasioned discontent amongst them and several parties set out toward the adjacent forts to plunder horses." Two other small forts, or groups of cabins, whose settlers had fled and left everything, were burned. Before the savages could satisfy their innate thirst for blood and pillage, they "heard news of Col. Clarke's coming against them & [some of the less daring] proposed returning -which indeed," wrote Bird, "had they not proposed, I must have insisted on, as I had then fasted some time & the prisoners in danger of starving."[32] Captain McKee, agreeing with Bird, saw that the large number of prisoners "now amounting to between three & four hundred" was presenting "many other insurmountable difficulties," and this especially with the great scarcity of provisions. The larger body of the Indians, however, elated at the ease with which the two stations had been captured and caring less for the fate of the prisoners, now pressed Captain Bird to go forward and assist them in taking Bryan's Station and Lexington, some 25 to 30 miles to the southeast. To this proposal, the British commander declined, giving as his reasons the improbability of success; the great necessity for and impossibility of securing provisions for the prisoners already taken and the difficulty of transporting their artillery further inland. As an additional argument against their plan, Bird pointed out the necessity of a quick return on the Licking River before the waters fell, which might be

expected to take place in a few days.[33] These arguments finally prevailed and the invaders, with Simon Girty as the chief interpreter, retraced their steps to Ruddell's, probably to pick up some of their ill-gotten plunder. While resting here, one of their scouts came in with a prisoner from the fort at the falls of the Ohio, with the news that "Col. Clarke was daily expected there & was to command an army against the Indians." Bird would have liked to have moved down the Licking and Ohio rivers, and attack the fort at Louisville, but this was out of the question. His supply of provisions was nearly exhausted, and there was danger of the prisoners starving -all because of the wanton destruction of the cattle at Ruddell's by the Indians. There was no other alternative, but to return, as quickly as possible to Detroit. After it was decided not to attack Bryan's and the other settlements in central Kentucky, the expedition started back to Canada with its captives, loaded down with their own household goods. Several days were consumed in the overland march back to the forks of the Licking, where Bird and his men had left their boats and baggage. At this place, the Indians deserted the British and took with them the whole of the prisoners captured at Ruddell's Station. However, Captain McKee, who was now ready to leave with the Indians, "engaged a few of the chiefs to stay with Capt. Bird," for as he wrote, "more would be useless & troublesome to him," and especially as there "could be no apprehension of danger immediately from the enemy."[34] In a short while Bird and his white men and a few of the Indians succeeded in getting their military supplies together and "with all possible dispatch [they] got their artillery and military stores on board, and moved off " down the Licking River, "& having a very high flood would be able to reach the big Miami in a very short time." The Indians, under Captain McKee, with their captives pushed on ahead of Bird's party, as they seemed morbidly fearful of being overtaken by the "Chief" of the "Big Knives," as General Clark was known on the frontier. Moreover, they were eager to reach Detroit to sell to the British and French those captives not wanted as slaves, and to collect on the scalps[36] they had taken at Ruddell's and Martin's. Their general policy seems to have been to sell the men, make slaves of the women and adopt the children into their tribes." A number of the captives, unable to endure the killing-pace required, were dispatched with the tomahawk while enroute.[37] In fact, the entire journey was, for the captives, one of suffering and horror, made so by the rapid pace set, the brutality of the savages[38] and the scarcity of provisions.[39] Bird realized that if his own prisoners were to reach Detroit alive, the utmost speed in traveling was necessary. Reaching the "Ohio River, opposite Licking Creek" on July first, the Captain sent De Peyster news of his slow progress homeward: "I marched the poor women & children 20 miles in one day over very high mountains, freightening them with frequent alarms to push forward, in short, Sir, by water & land we came with all our cannon, &c, 90 [761 miles in 4 days, one day out of which we lay by entirely, rowing 50 miles the last-we have no meat & must subsist on flour if there is nothing at [Pierre] Lorimier's.[40] I am out of hope of getting any Indians to hunt, or to accompany us, however, George Girty 1 detain to assist me -1 could Sir, by all accounts have gone through the whole country [Kentucky] without any opposition, had the Indians preserved the cattle. Everything is safe so far, but we are not as yet out of reach of pursuit ... "[41] Three weeks later, on July 24th, Bird and the prisoners reached the "Ottawa Village, first landing on the [Auglaize] Glaize," and reported that "we have made out so far very well ... with fourteen days hard working arrived at the Standing Stone,[42] which is one hundred and twenty miles against a very bad & rappid river. All other delays were occasioned by the transportation of the artillery, stores, &c, which we have got to Monsr. Lorimier's by going & returning with the few horses Capt. Hare brought us." When Captain Bird, after ascending the Big Miami, reached the trading-post of Loramie, he was forced to leave his two cannon there to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy. William Homan, one of the bombardiers in Bird's outfit, was greatly distressed because the Americans were advancing so rapidly (Clark's retaliatory campaign)[43] that he could not withdraw the guns which had compelled the two Kentucky stations to surrender. He had been left only one horse by the Indians. However, he "drew the Gun a considerable way into the wood, not near any road & digged a hole & buried it so securely, that no one could even suspect of such a thing being concealed there. The smaller ordnance [3 pounder], loose shot, and shells, &c, we concealed in different parts of the woods."[44] Continuing his slow march, Bird and his nondescript army reached Detroit on the morning of August 4th, 1780, "with about one hundred and fifty prisoners, mostly Germans who speak English,"[45] and some two hundred more were on the way in the hands of the Indians; all of whom were "greatly fatigued from travelling so far, some sick & some wounded." Not all of the group that left Kentucky some five weeks before reached Detroit alive. However, strange as it

may seem, many of those that survived the dreadful march were not downcast by any means. Captain Bird stated that of his group of captives, "I don't believe we have more than two families that are really Rebels, their names McGuire and Mahon." Most of the prisoners, he thought, are "good farmers with industrious families who are desirous of being settled in Detroit with some good land." Of these, he reported, some fled "from persecution & declare if [our] Government will assist them to get on foot as farmers, they will, as military, faithfully defend the country that affords them protection."[46] This simply means, as mentioned before, that a good many of the prisoners taken at Ruddell's and Martin's stations were not ardent patriots to begin with; they were simply land seekers and happened to find it in Kentucky. Their lack of attachment to the cause of the colonists is further revealed by the fact that thirteen of the men captured, promptly enlisted in the British rangers at Detroit for service against the American frontier.[47] Two daughters of Pierre Faure (or Foree) who were captured in Ruddell's Station later became the wives of British officers, by name Wycoff and Smith.[48] Most of the Kentucky prisoners remained in British custody for the next two and one-half years. A number of Negro slaves were among the captives from Ruddell's and Martin's stations and these, it seems, were bought for the most part by British officers and French traders. Many of the white men were put to work at small pay; others were kept in jails. Still others escaped and some were ransomed. On August 31, 1782, Colonel Benjamin Logan, County Lieutenant of Lincoln County, advised the Governor of Virginia of the sad fate of the remaining Kentucky prisoners, stating that "many of the men were taken to Detroit & their wives retained among the Indians as slaves.[49] Some of the men are now at Montreal," continued Logan, "and others in different parts toward the [Great] Lakes."[50] Governor Benjamin Harrison, on October 25th, 1782, relayed these facts to General George Washington, calling attention to an existing cartel "for the exchange & relief of prisoners taken in the Southern department," by which "these poor people [the Kentuckians] have a just cause to their release."[51] However, nothing came of the matter until a preliminary treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States was signed at Paris, France, on November 30th, 1782.[52] Under this treaty, the prisoners taken at Ruddell's and Martin's stations were finally released. On December 7th, 1782, Governor Harrison wrote that the Virginia Assembly had made an appropriation "for the relief of 200 men, women & children, taken prisoners from Kentucky," who "were now on their way home."[53] After many hardships and untold sufferings, a considerable number of the former captives returned to the settlements of Kentucky, including Captain Isaac Ruddell,[54] commander of the ill-fated garrison. There were a few others, however, who had been adopted into the Indian tribes and were not released until the signing of Wayne's treaty, at Greenville, in 1795. Bird's excursion was the most successful of all the military expeditions to the Western Country and but for the intractability of his Indian allies, the whole region of Kentucky might have been depopulated. While this frontier disaster changed in no perceptible manner the course of the American Revolution, yet it affected the lives and property of hundreds of hapless victims and wrote a lurid chapter against British arms in the thrilling story of the winning of the West.

NOTES
1. G. W. Stipp, The Western Miscellany, or, Accounts Historical, Biographical, and Amusing (Xenia, 0., 1827), p. 52. This work contains twenty-two of John Bradford's "Notes on Kentucky," which appeared serially in the Kentucky Gazette, beginning August 25, 1826. 2. The original correspondence of Captain Henry Bird, Major De Peyster, General Frederick Haldiman and other high officials of this period is in the British Museum, London, England. Copies, in the Canadian Archives at Ottawa, are calendared in the Reports of the Public Archives of Canada, 1884-1889. The portions relating to American history, or the "Haldimand Papers," have been published in the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, 38 vols. (Lansing, 1874-1912). These are hereafter cited as Canadian Archives or Michigan Pioneer. De Peyster's letter herewith cited appears in Michigan Pioneer, X, p. 396. 3. De Peyster to Bolton, May 27, 1780. Michigan Pioneer, XIX, P. 519. 4. Canadian Archives, B. 100, p. 103; Michigan Pioneer, XX, p. 271.

5. John Bakeless, Daniel Boone, Master of the Wilderness (New York, 1939), p. 247. 6. "Whole families are destroyed without regard to age or sex. Infants are torn from their mothers arms & their brains dashed out against trees, as they are necessarily removing from one fort to another for safety ... not a week passes without some of our distressed inhabitants feeling the fatal effects of the infernal rage and fury of those exercrable Hell hounds," wrote Col. John Floyd, who moved with his family to Kentucky in the fall of 1779. Draper Mss. No. 17CC130-132. 7. Henry Bird was born in England and served as subaltern, captain and lieutenant colonel in his Majesty's 8th, 31st and 54th Regiments of Foot, for a space of thirty-six years, eighteen of which were spent in America. He died in 1800 while serving in the British expedition to Egypt under Sir Ralph Abercrombie. 8. Letter to the author from William K. Lamb, Dominion Archivist, Ottawa, Canada, May 18th, 1951. 9. Bird to De Peyster, May 21, 1780. Michigan Pioneer, XIX, p. 524. 10. Original in the Burton Historical Collection, Detroit Public Library, titled: "Pay Roll of Volunteers with Capn. Bird, from the 25th May to the 4th August, 1780." The total cost of Bird's expedition to Kentucky amounted to 1079 pounds, 12 shillings and 3 pence. Photostat copy in author's collection. 11. McKee, a native of Pennsylvania, sided with the British at the beginning of the Revolution and was quite influential in handling the Indians. The English authorities made him captain in the Indian department and after 1778, deputy agent. He died of lockjaw in Malden, Ontario, in 1799. 12. Clark stressed the need of a fort "to command the navigation of both rivers [Kentucky and Ohio], to defend our trading boats and stop the great concourse of Tories and deserters that pass down the river to our enemies." Clark to Thomas Jefferson, September 23, 1779. Draper Mss. No. 58J99-101. 13. Bird to De Peyster, June 3rd, 1780. Michigan Pioneer, XIX, pp. 528-529. 14. Bird to De Peyster, June 11th, 1780. Michigan Pioneer, XIX, pp. 533-534. 15. L. C. Draper interview with Peter Smith. Draper Mss. No. 18S113-115. 16. An eight foot marble shaft marks the site of Ruddell's Station on the farm known as "The Cedars," or the old John Lair property, now owned and occupied by Claude S. Franklin. it is about one mile below the mouth of Townsend Creek and one and one-fourth miles above the present Lair's Station on the L. & N. Railroad. 17. This station was about one mile northwest from the ParisCynthiana pike and on the rear of the farm now owned by Mr. Beverly Brown, of Charleston, West Virginia. In 1921, the Jemima Johnson Chapter D.A.R., erected a marker to preserve the site, which is several hundred feet east of "Fairfield," the old two-story stone house of Gen. James Garrard, the second son of Governor James Garrard, who lived across Stoner Creek at Mt. Lebanon. 18. John Martin was born in Orange County, New York, in 1736, and early in 1775 he went down the Ohio River with Captain John Hinkston and others to Kentucky. He took part in the defense of Logan's (St. Asaph) Station when attacked by the Indians in June, 1778. "During the winter of 1779-80 he erected Martin's Station, a [3] mile below the present town of Paris, on the Licking, but was not there when it was captured the ensuing year." Draper Mss. No. 4-B90 1. 19. Shelly Rouse, "Pioneer Forts Sacked by Byrd," Falmouth Outlook, July 9, 1937. 20. Stipp, op. cit., p. 59; Draper Mss. No.17CC130-132. 21. Bird to De Peyster, July lst, 1780. Michigan Pioneer, XIX, pp. 538-539. 22. Consul W. Butterfield, History of the Girtys (Cincinnati, 1890), P. 119. 23. Bird to De Peyster, July Ist, 1780. Michigan Pioneer, XIX, pp. 538-539. 24. "Recollections of Daniel Trabue, Bird's Expedition." Draper Mss. No. 57J51-63. 25. Ibid., Draper Mss. No. 57J51-63. 26. McKee to De Peyster, July 8th, 1780. Michigan Pioneer, XIX, pp. 541-543. 27. Ibid., XIX, pp. 541-543.

28. Lyman C. Draper interview with Simon Kenton. Draper Mss. No. 26JA12. 29. Draper interview with Jeremiah Morrow. Draper Mss. No. 29J23. 30. There is some controversy about the date Martin's Station was captured. Several accounts have it on June 24th; others on June 26, and one a week later. James Trabue in the Journal of the Virginia Land Commission, states that "he was captured with Ruddle's & Martin's Stations, 24th & 26th, June, 1780." Draper Mss. No. 6OJ375. This date (June 26th, 1780) is in accordance with Captain McKee's report to Major De Peyster. 31. Bird to De Peyster, July Ist, 1780. Michigan Pioneer, XIX, pp, 538-539. 32. Bird to De Peyster, Ibid., XIX, pp. 538-539. 33. Stipp, op. cit., p. 61. 34. McKee to De Peyster, July 8th, 1780. Michigan Pioneer, XIX, p. 542. 35. Mrs. James Breckinridge testified that the British authorities in Detroit paid five pounds "for a scalp, or a prisoner either." Draper Mss. No. 11CC35. 36. Two small sons of Capt. Ruddell, who were taken prisoners when the station surrendered, were adopted into Indian tribes and later took Indian wives. One of the sons, Stephen, became a missionary from Cooper's Run Meeting House, in Bourbon County, which was a short distance from Martin's Station. 37. When old Mrs. Burger, a Dutch woman captured at Ruddell's, was unable to keep up with the Indians, "they finished her & scalped her and then raised a dreadful yell." Trabue's Narrative, Draper Mss. No. 57J51-63. 38. "On the return of Bird's army from capturing Martin's & Ruddell's stations, some of the weak children were taken aside & tomahawked & scalps produced." John D. Shane's interview with Mrs. Ledwell, Draper Mss. No. 17S200. 39. "As we were travelling in, Capt. Bird was very ungenerous to us. He measured out to the men only a cup of flour, and the women & children only half a cup. Nor would they allow back rations. We traveled by water, or when by land, had to walk." John D. Shane's interview with Mrs. Wilson, of Woodford County. Draper Mss. No. 11CC276-280. 40. Pierre Loramie (or Lorimier) was a French-Canadian trader, who in 1769 established a frontier trading-post on the banks of Loramie's Creek, fourteen miles from the confluence of this stream and the Great Miami River. During the Revolutionary War, Loramie was in full sympathy with the British and many a savage incursion to the borders was fitted out from his supply of war materials. So noted had his place become as the headquarters "for spies, emissaries & savage borderers," that General George Rogers Clark attacked and destroyed it in the fall of 1782. 41. Bird to De Peyster, July 1st, 1780. Canadian Archives, B. 100, p. 401. 42. A conglomerate outcropping (no longer in existence) on the Great Miami River near the mouth of Loramie's Creek and in the vicinity of the Upper Piqua Indian village. It was about fourteen miles from Loramie's trading-post and a well-known landmark or rendezvous for hunters, traders and frontiersmen. 43. "Clark came and took command of us & led us on to Chillicothe," stated Simon Kenton. "We found the town & fort on fire, and staid near there that night. Next morning we pursued on to a place called Piqua Town, and there the Indians embodied us & fought us all day, and we whipped them. On our return, we stopped and cut down all their corn at Chillicothe, & then returned back to Kentucky." Draper Mss. No. 26JA12. 44. William Homan to Captain Bird, August 15, 1780. Canadian Archives, B. 100, p. 523. 45. De Peyster to Lieut. Col. Mason Bolton, August 4th, 1780. Michigan Pioneer, XIX, p. 553. 46. Bird to De Peyster, July 24, 1780. Michigan Pioneer, XIX, pp. 545-546. 47. De Peyster to Bolton, supra. 48. John M. Gresham, Biographical Cyclopedia of the Commonwealth of Kentucky (Philadelphia, 1896), p. 299. 49. "The mother Mrs. [Joseph] Honn was placed in Blue Jacket's family & kept the cows and made butter. She esteemed it a blessing that she was thus placed there instead of in some other Indian family." Draper Mss. No. 17S200. 50. Benjamin Logan to Benjamin Harrison. James A. James (editor), George Rogers Clark Papers 1781-1784 (Springfield, Ill., 1926), Vol. XIX, p. 104.

51. Benjamin Harrison to George Washington, October 25, 1782. Draper Mss. No. 10S81-83. 52. Samuel F. Bemis, The Diplomacy of the American Revolution (New York, 1935), p. 239. 53. Statement of Governor Benjamin Harrison. Draper Mss. No. 10S93. 54. There is no evidence to indicate that Captain Ruddell was not a loyal "rebel"; in fact, circumstances point to his loyalty. He was confined as a prisoner of war on Hogg Island, near Detroit, for the full time of his captivity which lasted until his release. After his return from Canada, he settled at Ruddell's Mills (about 3 miles distant from Ruddell's Station) in Bourbon County and died there about 1808. He is buried near his home in the old Stonermouth Presbyterian Cemetery where a government-issue tombstone marks his last resting place, with the inscription: "Isaac Ruddle, Va. Mil. Rev. War." 55.

Daniel Boone and the American Revolution

Violence in Kentucky increased with the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). Native Americans who were unhappy about the loss of Kentucky in treaties saw the war as a chance to drive out the colonists. Isolated settlers and hunters became the frequent target of attacks, convincing many to abandon Kentucky. By late spring of 1776, fewer than 200 colonists remained in Kentucky, primarily at the fortified settlements of Boonesborough, Harrodsburg, and Logan's Station.[17]
This 1877 illustration, entitled The rescue of Jemima Boone and Betsey and Fanny Callaway, kidnapped by Indians in July 1776, is one of many depictions of the famous event.

On 14 July 1776, Boone's daughter Jemima and two other teenage girls were captured outside Boonesborough by an Indian war party, who carried the girls north towards the Shawnee towns in the Ohio country. Boone and a group of men from Boonesborough followed in pursuit, finally catching up with them two days later. Boone and his men ambushed the Indians while they were stopped for a meal, rescuing the girls and driving off their captors. The incident became the most celebrated event of Boone's life. James Fenimore Cooper created a fictionalized version of the episode in his classic book The Last of the Mohicans (1826).[18] In 1777, Henry Hamilton, the British Lieutenant Governor of Canada, began to recruit American Indian war parties to raid the Kentucky settlements. On 24 April, Shawnees led by Chief Blackfish attacked Boonesborough. Boone was shot in the ankle while outside the fort, but he was carried back inside the fort amid a flurry of bullets by Simon Kenton, a recent arrival at Boonesborough. Kenton became Boone's close friend as well as a legendary frontiersman in his own right. While Boone recovered, Shawnees kept up their attacks outside Boonesborough, destroying the surrounding cattle and crops. With the food supply running low, the settlers needed salt to preserve what meat they had, and so in January 1778 Boone led a party of thirty men to the salt springs on the Licking River. On 7 February 1778, when Boone was hunting meat for the expedition, he was surprised and captured by warriors led by Blackfish. Because Boone's party was greatly outnumbered, he convinced his men to surrender rather than put up a fight. Blackfish wanted to continue to Boonesborough and capture it, since it was now poorly defended, but Boone convinced him that the women and children were not hardy enough to survive a winter trek. Instead, Boone promised that Boonesborough would surrender willingly to the Shawnees the following spring. Boone did not have an opportunity to tell his men that he was bluffing in order to prevent an immediate attack on Boonesborough, however. Boone pursued this strategy so convincingly that many of his men concluded that he had switched his loyalty to the British.
Illustration of Boone's ritual adoption by the Shawnees, from Life & Times of Col. Daniel Boone, by Cecil B. Hartley (1859)

Boone and his men were taken to Blackfish's town of Chillicothe where they were made to run the gauntlet. As was their custom, the Shawnees adopted some of the prisoners into the tribe to replace fallen warriors; the remainder were taken to Hamilton in Detroit. Boone was adopted into a Shawnee family at Chillicothe, perhaps into the family of Chief Blackfish himself, and given the name Sheltowee ("Big Turtle"). On 16 June 1778, when he learned that Blackfish was about to return to Boonesborough with a large force, Boone eluded his captors and raced home, covering the 160 miles to Boonesborough in five days on horseback and, after his horse gave out, on foot.[19] During Boone's absence, his wife and children (except for Jemima) had returned to North Carolina, fearing that he was dead. Upon his return to Boonesborough, some of the men expressed doubts about Boone's loyalty, since after surrendering the salt making party he had apparently lived quite happily among the Shawnees for months. Boone responded by leading a preemptive raid against the Shawnees across the Ohio River, and then by helping to successfully defend Boonesborough against a 10-day siege led by Blackfish, which began on 7 September 1778. After the siege, Captain Benjamin Logan and Colonel Richard Callaway—both of whom had nephews who were still captives surrendered by Boone—brought charges against Boone for his recent activities. In the court-martial that followed, Boone was found "not guilty" and was even promoted after the court heard his testimony. Despite this vindication, Boone was humiliated by the court-martial, and he rarely spoke of it.[20] After the trial, Boone returned to North Carolina in order to bring his family back to Kentucky. In the autumn of 1779, a large party of emigrants came with him, including the grandfather of Abraham Lincoln. Rather than remain in Boonesborough, Boone founded the nearby settlement of Boone's Station. Boone began earning money at this time by locating good land for other settlers. Transylvania land claims had been invalidated after Virginia created Kentucky County, and so settlers needed to file new land claims with Virginia. In 1780, Boone collected about $20,000 in cash from various settlers and traveled to Williamsburg to purchase their land warrants. While he was sleeping in a tavern

during the trip, the cash was stolen from his room. Some of the settlers forgave Boone the loss; others insisted that he repay the stolen money, which took him several years to do. A popular image of Boone which emerged in later years is that of the backwoodsman who had little affinity for "civilized" society, moving away from places like Boonesborough when they became "too crowded". In reality, however, Boone was a leading citizen of Kentucky at this time. When Kentucky was divided into three Virginia counties in November 1780, Boone was promoted to lieutenant colonel in the Fayette County militia. In April 1781, Boone was elected as a representative to the Virginia General Assembly, which was held in Richmond. In 1782, he was elected sheriff of Fayette County.[21] Meanwhile, the American Revolutionary War continued. Boone joined General George Rogers Clark's invasion of the Ohio country in 1780, fighting in the Battle of Piqua on 7 August. In October, when Boone was hunting with his brother Ned, Shawnees shot and killed Ned. Apparently thinking that they had killed Daniel Boone, the Shawnees beheaded Ned and took the head home as a trophy. In 1781, Boone traveled to Richmond to take his seat in the legislature, but British dragoons under Banastre Tarleton captured Boone and several other legislators near Charlottesville. The British released Boone on parole several days later. During Boone's term, Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown in October 1781, but the fighting continued in Kentucky unabated. Boone returned to Kentucky and in August 1782 fought in the Battle of Blue Licks, in which his son Israel was killed. In November 1782, Boone took part in another Clark expedition into Ohio, the last major campaign of the war.

On a more personal note some of these folks were my ancestors (John and Elizabeth (BRIDGEWATER) CONWAY and son John Conway, Jr.). Here is my family's account (somewhat condensed): There had been a lot of rain that Spring and the settlers were not expecting an attack from the North. They did get a warning of potential indian trouble and Monday June 30, 1780 gathered in Ruddles Station. Tuesday, some of the boys were sent across the creek to drive some stray cows into the Stockade. Heavy rain had fallen the night before the settlers thought it would delay any attack. Unfortunately McKee and his Indians and cannon had landed at Falmouth and had arrived early that morning. The boys were making a lot of noise and Joseph Conway was climbing up the opposite bank when he was shot and scalped. The wound was not fatal and after an hour or two managed to crawl across the creek and into the Stockade. The attack resumed at one when Byrd and the rest of the British and Indians arrived. The settlers defended themselves vigorously. After two shots from the cannon broke the forts walls in, it was clear they could not hold out. They were promised they would not be killed if they surrendered. They surrendered, and the indians promptly set on them tomahawking and scalping the old people and infants. Everything in the fort was stolen or destroyed and by 4pm, the remainder of the captives were begun on the long walk to Detroit. Among them the Conway family. This was the first Kentucky fort to surrender. The next morning, Joseph's scalped head was bleeding badly. A woman noticed and reached down into an old tree stump and got a handful of spider webs and matted them on the wound, which stopped the bleeding and saved the boy's life... Draper Manuscript Collection, 24S:169-171, Draper's interview with Samuel Conway, St. Louis Co., MO. From Samuel Conway, St. Louis Co., MO born in St. Louis Co. - in 1799. Ruddell's Station Taken, 1780. - Joseph Conway (informant's father) was born in Greenbriar Co., Va, in 1763 - Early moved to Kentucky with his father's, Samuel Conway's family, and settled in Ruddell's Station. Henry Groff, one Purseley and others also resided there. About 200 Indians came and attacked the fort - found one side of the fort unfinished; and the whites hastened and finished it, putting up pickets; and that evening the Indians made a violent attack, and whites returned the fire; none were injured in the fort, and not certain that they killed any Indians. Next morning the Indians had retired, and the whites found many articles which they had dropped. The Indians continued to hover around for a couple of weeks

altogether, and then retired. Joseph Conway and two others went out about a mile and a half reconnoitering, when Conway was shot by a party of their Indians, and wounded in the left side, and was caught and tomahawked, breaking his skull, and scalped, and left for dead. The others escaped unharmed. The reports of the guns were heard at the fort, and a party went out and met the two fugitives returning, who reported that Conway was killed; they went on, and brought in Conway, who was gradually recovering, when the indians sent to detroit for reinforcements and cannon. Two weeks after Conway was wounded, Colonel Bird and party appeared, with cannon. They first fired a cannon shot and missed; then a second shot, which knocked out one of the corners of a block-house, and then the inmates concluded the British and Indians could take the place, and listened to terms. The British pledged protection to the prisoners and their property, and were not to be surrendered to the Indians; but no effort was made by the British to fulfill their pledge. Conway with his head bandaged was taken by an old Indian and his son, who were really kind to him; they also took an unmarried sister of Conway's, older than he was, who dressed his head. Before leaving Ruddell's, one Indian tore off the bandage from Conway's head, but he was repelled by the old Indian and his son as interferring with their prisoner. They were taken direct to Detroit, and turned over to the British there, and remained there four years. Conway was placed in the hospital, and when recovered, was placed on the limits, and permitted to work as he could get employment. The rest of the Conway family, father, mother and two daughters, with their son and daughter already there, all got together at Detroit. Joseph Conway returned to Licking River and went out on Harmar's and Wayne's campaigns. [The rest of the narrative deals with Joseph Conway's life in Missouri.] There are several conflicting dates for the attacks on Ruddle's and Martin's Stations. Ardery says June 24, 1780 for Martin's. Coleman says Byrd arrived in Cinc'y on June 9 and June 26 for Martin's. In another of Coleman's books, he says June 24th for Ruddle's. Drake/Wilson/Ardery, say June 22, 1780 for both. For Ruddle's (4 or 5 miles from Martin's), Mann says June 1780 on a Sunday morning for the first attack, then "2 or 3 days later" finally captured and then Martin's that same day. "History of Bourbon County" says June 1780 as does Ardery. Diane Perrine Coon suggests 19 June 1780. My family account says Tuesday, July 1, 1780; and the initial attack, capture and then Martin's taken on the same day. The KY Encyclopedia just says 1780. Note: June 19 was on a Monday. June 22 was a Thursday, June 24, Saturday and the 26th Monday. July 1 was on a Saturday. Here is William Perrin's account from "History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties." Ruddel's Station, which some authorities locate in Bourbon County, and others just over the line in what is now Harrison County, [fort location in present-day Harrison, was Bourbon] in 1780 by a large force of Canadians and Indians, under the notorious Col. Byrd, a British officer. His force amounted to some six hundred men-white and red-with six pieces of artillery, said to be the first cannons that ever awoke the echoes of the Kentucky hills. On the 22d of June (1780), this formidable force appeared before Ruddel's, and Col. Byrd demanded its surrender to His Britanic Majesty's forces, at discretion. Capt. Ruddel complied on the condition that the prisoners be placed under charge of the English instead of the savages. But when the gates were thrown open, the Indians rushed in, seized the first white person they met, claiming them as individual prisoners. When Col. Byrd was remonstrated with by Capt. Ruddel for this disregard of the conditions of surrender, he acknowledged his inability to control his savage allies. The scenes which ensued after the capture are almost indescribable and are unsurpassed except, in savage warfare. Wives were separated from their husbands. and mothers from their young children without hope of ever being re-united. After the prisoners were secured and the booty divided, the savages proposed to move against Martin's

Station in Bourbon County, but Col. Byrd refused, unless the prisoners should be given into his charge--the Indians to take for their share the property, which was agreed to. Martin's Station was then captured without opposition. The savages were so elated with these successes, that they were anxious to proceed at once against Bryant's Station and Lexington, but for some inexplicable reason Col. Byrd refused, and the expedition returned north of the Ohio River. After the Conway family was released from captivity they returned to their home in Kentucky. Joseph's brother, John Jr. married Anne Sutton in 1790, remained on the same farm and reared their family. John & Ann Conway were my g...grandparents. Some of the Conway descendents and associated families were OVERBEY, MULLIKIN, WELLS & CRAIG. The above account was taken from John & Ann's grandson, Richard (& Jane Mullikin) Overbey. Richard's grandson Oscar P. Overbey was a Corporal in the Civil War, CSA 3rd Battalion Mounted Rifles. Oscar's granddaughter was Miriam Wells Craig who was my grandmother. -Jon Another family taken were the James Ruddell family who later married into the Mullikin family. Margy Miles is a descendant of Capt. Charles Gatliff. Margy sends in an interview taken from Captain Gatliff: "In 1778 in the month of June I commenced as an Indian Spy, the first tours with different mates. I served upwards of 5 months. I assisted in erecting Ruddle's Fort in KY. in 1779. I volunteered in Capt. Haggan's Company and was on Bowman's Company, had a battle at Chillicotha with the Shawnees, we got but one scalp but lost 10 or 12 men. After our return I engaged to hunt game to supply Ruddle's Fort. I continued until I concluded to build another fort, called since Martin's Fort. I hunted for Martin's Fort sometime. Isaac Reace, my hunting mate being killed, I took such others as I could get to serve. When I was absent the fort was taken by the British and Indians and its inhabitants, made prisoners amongst whom was my wife and four children..." "In 1783 I met my family below Staunton who had been taken prisoners from the Martin's Station in Ky. and with them returned to Ky. in the month of May."

I also have the privilege of claiming the friendship of a modern-day frontersman, Jason W. Gatliff (aka "Pilgrim") who is a direct descendent of Captain Charles Gatliff. Jason is heavily involved in trekking.
Photo: from left to right - Scott Singer, myself & Jason. Taken at Fort Boonesborough 1999 - frontier scout conference. Click on photo to enlarge.

Posted By: Katherine Southard Subject: Re: Capt. Charles Gatliff daughter's death Post Date: April 24, 2000 at 12:07:18 Forum: Gatliff Family Genealogy Forum I received the letter on the Berry email list. I thought if someone here is in this Gatliff line they might like the entire letter. It is mostly about what the Berry family went through, but the Gatliff family went through it too. It is an incrediable letter.

Adelaide Berry Duncan to George F. Duncan Sept. 11th, 1893 Dear George: Your papa’s grandfather and grandmother, John and Nellie Duncan, and (my) grandfather and grandmother Frank and Sally Berry, moved from Virginia during the Revolutionary War to Kentucky. I don’t know just where, but it was somewhere in the best part of the state. There was quite a little colony of them but I do not know the names of any except these two families. They took up claims of land and complied with what was necessary to secure their claims. I don’t know what it was, nor how long they had been there till they were compelled to move for safety to a fort or block-house, where they were taken by British officers and soldiers who had Indians with them to whom the British gave all their household goods except two suits of clothes and two blankets to each man and the same to each woman. I remember hearing my grandmother tell how the Indians would toss the pillows in the air after they had ripped the ticking to make the feathers fly in the wind, and how they would laugh. They wanted the cloth but not the feathers. They then started their march to Detroit, where they stayed awhile, and then on to Montreal, where they stayed till peace was declared. They were liberated, to get back as best they could. There was one family along who had a young woman – a daughter who complained of a toothache for some weeks , when someone examined her mouth and found a cancer had eaten through her cheek, all but the skin. She died soon after and the officers only allowed them to stop long enough to pile up a few rocks on her body. Charles Gatliff was her father’s name. He came back to Kentucky and I saw him after he was eighty years of age. I also saw his sons: Moses, Aaron, Riece, Jim and Cornelious. I also saw two of his daughters: Betsey Martin and Sally Faris. I suppose Joe remembers having seen one of his grandsons, Charles Gatliff, who moved to Missouri a short time before we left Iowa for Princeton. His wife was papa’s cousin, Polly Early, and your uncle, Harvey Green Duncan, married their daughter Lillian. I heard grandmother say she saw the Indians kill two children. It was very cold for part of their journey and once when a great fire of logs was burning where they camped, an Indian picked up a child that was standing near and threw it in the fire. No one dared to try to get it out. On another occasion, a woman was carrying a little babe, and she was almost exhausted, when an Indian jerked it from her arms and thrust his tomahawk in its head, threw the child to one side of the road, and drove her on. While they were in Montreal, the men were made to repair the British ships, and the women cooked and washed for the English officers. On one occasion the men found a cask of wine in the ship and drank the wine. The officers put them in prison or a guardhouse, and my grandmother Berry went to the guardhouse and begged for their release until they were released. I don’t know what their punishment would have been. I don’t know if any of the young men were put on the British ships to make them fight against their own country or not, but your grandfather (John Jr.) Duncan and four other young men were going to be put on a man-of-war in the morning and your grandfather’s oldest sister (Elizabeth) baked bread and fixed up some provisions. They stole a canoe and crossed the St. Lawrence to the American side and got away. They traveled through the hostile Indian country till they reached the settlement in Pennsylvania. In the outskirts of the settlement, they found a deserted place, an iron pot and a potato patch.

I heard your grandfather tell how they boiled potatoes and ate with such appetite. Your grandmother Duncan told me that their friends did not know till after peace and they returned from Montreal, whether these young men were drowned in the St. Lawrence, whether they were killed by Indians, whether they were lost in the wilderness and perished, or whether they were safe. She did not know the name of a single one of her husband’s companions, and I never heard her say who they were. I am very sorry that I did not ask your Uncle Harve Duncan for he may have known. I do not know whether there was any fighting at the fort or not, in Kentucky, or whether they surrendered to the greater number without fighting. All the way I can approximate the time they moved from Virginia to Kentucky. My grandfather (Francis) Berry fought in the battle at King’s Mountain, and he also was a scout before they moved to Kentucky. After my papa (Lafayette Berry) got to practicing law. He got a pension for a Duncan McFarlain, who was a scout with my grandfather. I remember how the hair seemed to stand on my head as I lay in my trundle-bed and listened to McFarlain tell papa of their exploits. At one time he and Charles Miller ran, with the Indians after them, thirty miles to a blockhouse. As the prisoners were leaving Canada, they crossed some lake in a ship which was very crowded and manned by French-Canadian sailors. A storm arose and the sailors got frightened, and quit work. They started to pray, and cross themselves, when an Englishman, perhaps an officer, came on them and cursed and swore and ripped and tore around and kicked them, and made then get to work. Finally they got safely to land. I remember hearing my father tell of hearing his father laughing about it. Grandmother said there were piles of feathers floating in the eddies on the lake shore that looked like houses – the shedding of many waterfowls on the lake. My uncle Lewis Berry was born in Montreal. He died in the American army in the War of 1812. As our ancestors were coming home they passed near Niagra Falls. All heard the roar and some of the men went to see it but the women and children were too weary to go. They went back to Kentucky to where they had been captured and found men on their claims. Both your great-grandfather John Duncan, Sr. and (your grandfather) Frank Berry sued at law for their claims but lost the suit. Berry’s long tongue made him say the Judge was a perjured scoundrel. The Judge sued him for slander and got judgement for eight hundred dollars. Then the poor weary souls went back to Virginia where they had lived before they went to Kentucky and they raised their families there. Quite a number of their children afterwards moved to Whitely County, Kentucky, where your papa and I were born and raised and married. My grandmother (Sally) Berry, in her old age, came there and died in 1834. I only remember of having seen your grandfather (John, Jr.) Duncan twice. Alec Laughlin, your papa’s cousin, married in Whitely County, and moved to Tennessee where his daughter Eleanor Litton was born. He came back on a visit and stopped at his uncle’s (your grandfather Duncan’s) and they both came to Watt’s Creek where my papa (Lafayette Berry) and your papa’s uncle, Thanny Laughlin, lived. They stopped at our house, and it was a hot day, and your Aunt Candace and I had taken off our dresses and were running around in our Chemises, which were long and long-sleeved. They came on us unaware and we went to the back of the house and sat on a chest, while they laughed at us. I remember how your grandfather’s (Duncan) shoulders shook. He was very much the make and size of your papa but his hair was black and I think his eyes were blue. I afterwards saw him riding past our house on a white horse. He wore a high bell-crowned hat, and a blue jeans frock coat. (I have seen the

hat and coat after I was married and have ridden the white mare, it was, whose name was Ginger). He was a dear nephew to my grandmother (Sarah Sharp Berry, whose sister Elinor “Nellie” Sharp was the mother of John Duncan, Jr.), and I know she loved him, and I know my papa loved him. He (John Duncan, Jr.) died from dry salivation by taking a dose of calomel measured out on a case knife blade by an old woman who had more confidence in herself than good sense. I remember when word came that Johnny Duncan was dying, my papa hurried off and took a handful of nails. Mama asked him what he did that for. He said to put in the coffin. Years afterwards I learned that was an old country superstition but its meaning I never heard. He got there in time to write his will before he died, and he moved him after his death. He had been dead six years when I and your papa were married – that would make his death to have occurred in 1832. Your papa (Dixon Green Duncan) and I lived with your grandmother (Mary “Polly”) Duncan the first year after we were married and she loved to talk about him. She said he was a remarkably strong man for his size. When he was a young man, it was the custom for the neighbors to all unite and help each other cut the small grains with sickles and the young women would do the cooking, and sometimes they would go to the fields and use the sickles to good purpose. Then at night they would have a dance. Your grandmother said your grandfather worked all day, and danced all night, for two days and two nights, without any sleep. I don’t believe his sons or grandsons, or great-grandsons could do that, even if they can ride a bicycle. I don’t know whether the Gatliff family moved from Virginia or Tennessee to Kentucky, or not. I only know that they were together in their captivity. I don’t know whether the British gave them any money to get home or not. My grandfather Berry never paid that eight hundred dollars. He somehow got a farm in Sullivan County, Tennessee, where his family were raised, but it was always in the name of Billy King, grandmother’s sister’s husband. (This was Elizabeth Sharp who married William King). My papa (Lafayette Berry) said your grandfather (John, Jr.) Duncan was so near gone when he got there that he was in no condition to make a will, but your uncles Harvey and Joe Duncan said for your grandmother’s sake, to have it done, to not add to her distress by breaking up her home, by taking two-thirds of everything and dividing it amongst the children, as they knew your uncle Joe Sullivan (husband of Narcissa Duncan) would insist on doing if there was no will. So the will was written, giving your grandmother everything – the farm, the Negroes, and everything else, as long as she lived, and at her death all to be divided equally amongst the children. I guess it was pretty hard for Sullivan to not to try to break the will, for after I was married I heard your Aunt Narcissa say: “The children ought to have had the little that was coming to them a long time ago.” But he knew that your Uncle Harvey and Uncle Joe would not give him any child’s play if he undertook the law with them. They were the executors. If I were back to ten or twelve years of age, and knew more than I did then, how I would ply my grandmother and parents with questions. I guess I will close my pioneer stories. Nellie Duncan and Sallie Berry were sisters – Sharp was their name before they were married. Much love to all. Mother

People Taken Captive at Ruddle's and Martin's Stations
BARTON, Daniel

*BEARD, ANDREW SR. (cl730----) He may have been the Andrew "Bartle" who served under Captain Isaac Ruddell in 1779 at Ruddell's Station. He was wounded at Ruddell's Station during the March 10, 1780 Indian attack and it was Captain Ruddell that removed the bullet. He was listed with his family in a prisoner return dated 1782 as residing in St. Lawrence suburbs near Montreal. BEARD, MAGDALENA (c.1739--) Wife of Andrew Beard was born about 1739. She was listed with her family in a prisoner return dated 1782 as residing in St. Lawrence suburbs near Montreal. BEARD, ANDREW JR (c.1768--) Son of Andrew beard Sr. was born about 1768. He was listed with his family in a prisoner return dated 1782 as residing in St. Lawrence suburbs near Montreal. He married Sarah Thornhill 1801 in Bourbon Co., KY. BEARD, MICHAEL (c.1769--) Son of Andrew Beard Sr. was born about 1769. He was listed with his family in a prisoner return dated 1782 as residing in St. Lawrence suburbs near Montreal. BEARD, BARBARA (c1771--) Daughter of Andrew Beard was born about 1771. She was listed with her family in a prisoner return dated 1782 as residing in St. Lawrence suburbs near Montreal. BEARD, GEORGE (c.1771--) Son of Andrew beard was born about 1771. He was listed with his family in a prisoner return dated 1782 as residing in St. Lawrence suburbs near Montreal. BEARD, JOHN (c.1781----) Son of Andrew beard was born about 1781 in Canada. BURGER, JOHN Sr. He served at Logan's Station beginning October 7, 1779 then was transferred to captain Ruddell's company. He also served from March 10 to June 24, 1780 at Ruddell's Station. After his return from captivity he married Catherine Eddleman. Refer to Land Acquisition *BURGER, MRS. (--1780) Mrs. Burger was possibly the wife of John Burger. Daniel Trabue wrote about the death of this woman and said "they killed old Mistress Barger, an old Dutch woman who we were acquainted with. As one company of Indians marched along, this old woman behind, one Indian behind her he would jump up and wave his tomahawk and cut a number of capers and then killed her. The blow came when this old lady was not expecting it. They finished her and scalped her and then raised a dreadful yell." BURGER, JOHN Jr. Son of John Burger. He served at Logan's Station beginning October 7, 1779 then was transferred to captain Ruddell's company. He also served from March 10 to June 24, 1780 at Ruddell's Station. He may be the same who married Caty Zumwalt May 1, 1788 in Bourbon Co., KY. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. Jno Martin) John Burger Jun'r this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on Hingstons branch of Licking Creek about 8 Miles from Riddles Station lying on the Trace that leads from Licking to Lexington including a Spring by making an Actual settlement in March 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the S'd Burger Jun'r has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly Refer to Land Acquisition. BURGER, ANN MARY. Daughter of John Burger who later married Christian Spears. BURGER, BARBARA. According to an August 23, 1783 issue of the Pennsylvania Gazette, "Barbary" was listed as a prisoner among the Indians. Many others in the list were from Ruddell's and Martin's Stations, but its not certain she is related to John Burger of Ruddell's Station. BURGER, HENRY He served at Logan's Station beginning February 20, 1779 then was transferred to Captain Isaac Ruddell's company. He also served from March 10 to June 24, 1780 in Captain Ruddell's company. Henry may be the same who married Elizabeth Maitzy May 12, 1797 in Bourbon Co., KY. BYRD, JOHN. In 1819 John Byrd deposed that "he came to Ky. in fall of 1779, settled at Ruddle's Station and remained in Station until June 1780; that in Feb., 1780, he went from said station in company with Isaac Ruddle and Wm. Marshall and came to a cabin and remained all night; that Ruddle had a warrant to lay on some land for the father of the deponent. He served at Ruddell's Station in 1779 and 1780. (was in Dunmore's War in 1775, 1776 - A John BYRD enlisted, 9 Mar 1776, and served as a

private in Capt. Jonathan CLARK's company, Col. Muhlenberg's Virginia regiment, was at the battles of Brandywine and Germantown. He was allowed pension on his application executed, 30 Mar 1819, at which time he was aged about sixty years. He resided then in Bourbon County, Kentucky.) CLOYD, JOHN "JACK" He served as drummer in Captain Ruddell's company in 1779 and from March 10 to June 24, 1780. COIL, MARTIN. Son of Valentine "Felty" and Margaret Coil. He was a captive among the Indians in 1782. COIL, BARBARA. Wife of Martin Coil and a captive of the Indians in 1782. COIL, VALENTINE "FELTY" (c.1768-1853) Son of Martin and Barbara Coil was born about 1768 in Virginia. He died November 28, 1853 in Fayette County, Ohio. COIL, MARY "POLLY" (c.1762-1857) Daughter of Martin and Barbara Coil was born about 1762 in Virginia. She died November 28, 1857 in Fayette County, Virginia. COIL, CHRISTIAN. Son of Martin and Barbara Coil and a captive among the Indians. COIL, BARBARA. Daughter of Martin and Barbara Coil. (This interesting story was sent to me by Pamela Rooney a Coil researcher. There were four Coils listed in the 1783 Indian captives list; Martin, Barbary, Cristin and Barbury. Martin may have been Valentine "Felty" Coils father. Felty had a grandfather of the same name who had a son named Martin. The Draper papers mention a Kyles family being at Ruddell's. This is a spelling that has been seen in other records for the Coil family. A brother of Martin Coil, Jacob, settled in Bourbon county and some of his descendants married into the Spears and Lail families.Also Martin Tofflemire's daughter (who?) was married to a "Mr. James Coyles," I'm not sure if there is a connection. Jim Sellars Pam wrote: VALENTINE (FELTY) COIL was captured at Ruddles Station, in Bourbon Co., KY, June 22, 1780. It is said that he was about 2 years of age at the time. However, his date of death is recorded as 28 Nov 1853, and that he was 85years old at the time. This makes him born 1768, therefore, when he was captured in 1780 by Indians, he was actually 12 years of age which makes it more understanding that he was able to retain knowledge of his family and the desire to return home to them someday. In the "History of Fayette county, Ohio" (by Frank M. Allen, editor, Indianapolis, IN., 1914) on page 284, Felty (Valentine) Coil was noted as one of the earlier settlers of the Washington Court House neighborhood of Fayette County, Ohio. The following is his story as it appeared: "During the early Indian wars ( about mid-1780's ) when he was about two years of age (should read 12 years of age), he and his sister (Polly b. ca.1762VA-d. 28 Nov 1857OH?), were taken captive at RUDDLE'S STATION (VAKY?) by the Indians and Canadians under Colonel Byrd. They were carried across the Ohio at Cincinnati to Niagara Falls, thence to Canada where he was adopted by a squaw who had lost a son. He lived with her until his marriage to an Indian. "It is said that the notorious Simon Girty, who had been among his captors, met Felty at a public house in Canada and after inviting him to drink, and when under the influence of "fire water, Felty bantered Girty for a fight. Girty refused but grew very talkative, revealing the whereabouts of his friends. On the strength of The Girty information, Coil returned to Kentucky where he found an uncle, who went with him to Virginia (Pendleton Co.) and found his mother who had married a man named HENDRICKS. "When she saw her long lost son, she did not recognize him until by means of a mark he was made known. At the end of his visit, Felty returned to his wife and children in Canada. "After his wife's death, he left Canada, joining his white brothers in Fayette Co., Ohio. In Canada, Valentine had learned the art of whisky making, making it for the English Fur Trading Company. He followed this trade here for a time, setting up a distellery near Washington C. H. He eventually abandoned the whisky business and moved into town." ) CONWAY, JOHN Sr. (c.1710-1801) He was born near Dublin, Ireland about 1710. He married Elizabeth Bridgwater about 1752 in Henrico Co., Virginia and had ten children. He died December 4, 1801 in Bourbon County, KY. Refer to Land Acquisition CONWAY, ELIZABETH (BRIDGEWATER) (c.1735-1809) She was born about 1735 in England. Wife of John

Conway. She died July 30,1809 in Bourbon Co., KY. CONWAY, SARAH "SALLY" (1773-1845) Daughter of John and Elizabeth Conway was born June 25, 1773. She married Nathaniel Underwood February 14, 1793 in Bourbon Co., KY. She died September 19,1845 in Sangamon Co., IL. CONWAY, JOHN Jr. (1758-1837) Son of John and Elizabeth Conway was born August 10, 1758 in Henrico Co., VA. He married Anna Sutton April 15, 1790 in Bourbon County, KY and they had six children. He died June 15, 1837 in Nicholas Co., KY. CONWAY, JOSEPH (1763-1830) Son of John and Elizabeth Conway was born December 14,1763 in Greenbriar Co., VA. He married Elizabeth Caldwell February 23, 1792 in Bourbon Co., KY. He and his wife had I I children. He died December 27 1830 in St. Louis, MO. CONWAY, JESSE (1761-1840) Son of John and Elizabeth Conway was born December 17,1761, Fincastle Co., VA. Jesse married three times. His first wife was Hanna Tharp who he married May 18, 1789 in Bourbon Co., KY. His second wife was Elizabeth McCall and they were married December 25, 1807 in Barren Co., KY. He married Margaret __________November 7, 1825 in Madison Co., IL. He died October 9, 1840 in Green Co., IL. He received a pension in 1832. CONWAY, NANCY (1770-c.1840) Daughter of John and Elizabeth Conway was born January 28, 1770. She married Basil Wells June 6, 1786 in Bourbon Co., KY. She died after 1840 in Gallatin Co., KY. (John Conway [Other spellings: Conover, Conovery.] Ruddles Fort researchers, This the deposition of John Conover found in Fayette County Court order Book p.318. James Sellars p. 318, deposition of John Conover [written Conovery] taken at Paris, June 6, 1808, before Thomas Hughs): Deponent came to Kentucky in 1777 and lived at Boonesborough one an one half years. In the year 1779 I traveled with about 25 men the road from Boonesborough to the Lower Blue Licks. In the spring of 1779 deponent settled at Riddle's station and lived at said station until June 1780. I followed hunting in early times. I was taken [prisoner] at Riddle's station by the British and Indians in June 1780 and carried to Detroit and stayed there until the fall of 1784 and then returned back to Kentucky. At the time I went from Boonesborough to Lower Blue Lick I recollect we crossed Hingston fork and went into big buffalo road that led from Grant's station to the lower Blue Lick at the place known by the name of Ready Money Jack's. I recollect at this time that Colonel Richard Calloway, Colonel Daniel Boone, Cyrus Boone, Joseph Drake, Ephriam Drake, William Buckhammer, Flanders Calloway, Samuel Henderson, James Bell, George Linch, Wiliam Hancock, Jeremiah Price, Thomas Foote, James Mankins were with me on trip to Lower Blue Lick. We returned home on trace that crossed Hingston where Millersburg now stands, and where Grant's station now stands. Conway Family Letters Transcribed and submitted by Sherida Dougherty Thank you so much Sherida, what a wonderful contribution and a special thank you to Millie Belew for sharing this wonderful information! Henry C. Ogle, Sr. was the son of Jesse and Elizabeth Conway Ogle. Elizabeth was the daughter of John and Anna Sutton Conway, Jr. and John, Jr. the son of John and Elizabeth Bridgewater Conway. These letters have proven to be an invaluable resource for genealogists and historians. Most of the letters were written to George Pohlman, Jr. who was married to another Conway descendant. There is, however, a letter written to Dr. Samuel Conway, another greatgrandson of John and Elizabeth Conway. Also included, is a letter written by George Pohlman to the Wisconsin State Library summarizing information he had collected from various sources but referring to the letters of Mr. Ogle. The reader is encouraged to read all of the letters in their entirety. Although some of the information may seem repetitive, new facts are frequently added in the different writings. Also, there are some inconsistencies among the letters so a complete reading is necessary to avoid erroneous conclusions. The letters presented were written between 1903 to 1917. Researchers have since been able to clarify facts and add new information.

The letters were originally handwritten by Mr. Ogle and have been transcribed here from typed copies that were generously passed along by Mrs. Millie Belew; who, in turn, received them from a Conway family researcher. Although spelling and typing errors have been corrected, proper names remain as they appeared. The grammar and content has not been changed. The reader will also note that terms which are considered “politically incorrect” now but which were acceptable in the early 1900s have not been altered. To change the grammar and language of these letters would negate the original tone of the writers. Sherida Dougherty. From letter of Joe Conway to his son. January 28, 1881. It was while collected together in a fort in Kentucky, a sufficient defense against the attack of Indians called “Ruddles Station” or Fort that he ventured too far out from the fort that he fell into an ambush selected by the Indians and was shot, tommy-hawked and scalped. The ball entering near the left nipple and passing out near the spine. It was then that he received the only wound that he ever received and was probably insensible to any pain or suffering. The shooting was heard in the Fort and he was brought in supposed to be dead and remained insensible several days. It was only inferred that they took more than one scalp from the head from the fact that the whole head was striped and ever after remained bare of hair except a narrow strip extending from the right temple around to the back of the head. The cut in the scull was evidently made with a sharp hatchet or other sharp instrument near the center of the head and was about three inches long, and though one side of the bone was depressed to nearly the thickness of the bone, yet he never suffered from compression on the brain to any serious extent. This accident (if there are accidents in providence) saved his life soon after. Six weeks afterwards, the Fort was surrounded and attacked by a small body of English soldiers with one small piece of cannon sent from Detroit to animate and encourage the Indians, who hitherto had failed to capture any of the surrounding Forts upon which they had made attempts. The British Officer in command demanded surrender. They refused. The fight continued and they again pressed upon them to surrender stating that if they did not, the Indians were so numerous that when they did storm and take the Fort, as they could easily do when they should bring their cannon to bear upon its slender stockade defenses, that then they might not be able to restrain their savage ferocity and that then they would all be murdered or made prisoners of the Indians. A council was held, a strong party opposed, believing that all would be murdered if they did so, but finally consented to do so on the agreement and stipulation that they were to be held as British prisoners of war and not to fall into the hands of the savages, but be sent to Detroit subject to exchange. Upon these terms the gates were opened and the Indians rushed in and an indiscriminate slaughter commenced and was continued without any interference or attempted restraint by the English until all capable bearing arms were slaughtered and the women and youth and children were parceled out as prisoners among the Indians. My father was only fifteen and when the Indian who claimed him was leading him out, noticing the bandages about his head tore them off roughly causing the unhealed wound to bleed so freely that he pushed him away and would not have him and he then ran and took shelter among a squad of British soldiers standing near the gate and was saved. Here the Indians separated from their British allies and hurried across the Ohio River with their prisoners and booty, and the British returned directly to Detroit with their one prisoner only, if I remember correctly. My father was placed in one of the wagons belonging to the train and conveyed to Detroit where he was kept a prisoner but treated humanely until the peace of 1781. Some members of the family and other prisoners captured at the same time were afterwards brought in and the British officers would buy them out of sympathy when the Indians would sell them and pay for them in guns, blankets and trinkets, so that when peace was concluded, there was quite a little squad made their way back again to the “Dark and Bloody Ground.” Such prisoners as gave out on the way or could not travel fast enough were dispatched and gotten rid of. COPY: Original copy written in longhand on foolscrap paper sent from Covington, Ky., by letter to Mrs. Fannie Daugherty, DeMossville, Pendleton Co., Ky., March 7, 1894. Later part of this history was destroyed by fire. [Possibly written by Henry Ogle] John Conway emigrated from Ireland to Virginia in 1730

He was married in Virginia to Elizabeth Brisgewater, an English woman. He was the father of ten children, four sons and six daughters. The sons were names; Samuel, John, Jessie and Joseph. The daughters were; Elizabeth, Polly, Sallie, Dulcinea and the two other names forgotten. Samuel married Miss Clemens. He lived at the mouth of Harris Creek in Pendleton County in 1818. From there he moved to Marion Co., Mo. Jessie settled in Kenton Co., Ky. But in 1809 moved to Illinois Joseph married Miss Caldwell of Bourbon Co., Ky. He moved from there to St. Louis C., Mo. Then called the Spanish Territory, in 1798. John married Miss Aulck Shelton [Anna Sutton] of Bourbon Co., Ky. He lived in Nicholas Co., Ky. Till his death in 1836. He had three sons and two daughters. John, William and Nathel [Nathaniel] S. Conway were the sons. The girls were Elizabeth and Polly. Elizabeth married Jesse Ogle of Harrison County. She died 1872. She left three children; Sarah, Elizabeth and Henry C. Sarah married Mr. A. F. Tyler. She and her husband are both dead. Elizabeth married her first cousin, N. Perry Overbay. He died in 1875. Polly Conway married Henry Overbay of Nicholas Co. in 1806. She was the mother of one daughter and six sons. The daughter was called Elizabeth. The sons were; John E., Harvey H., Richard M., Beverly William, James and N. Perry Overbay. Referring to John Conway, and the grandfather, and the first named. His daughter Dulcinea married a Mr. Long of Va. Another sister (name not known) married his brother. Another (name not known) married Basil Wells. His daughter Elizabeth married William Daugherty of Va. William Daugherty was born in Ireland near the city of Dublin. He afterward moved to Ky. And lived and died in Pendleton Co. The other sister Polly Conway married Joseph Daugherty, a brother or William. He moved from Va. To Ky. Settled first in Bourbon County. From there in about 1810 or 19 he moved to the west. William Daugherty, who lived in Pendleton Co., was the father of three sons; Jonathan, Josepj and Jesse. Jesse married Betsy Overbay of Nicholas Co., a sister to the Henry Overbay, who married the daughter of his uncle John Conway. He had two sons and two daughters, Elizabeth and Eva. Joseph was born in Pendleton Co. in 1837. He lived in Pendleton Co. until 1872 when he moved to Grant Co., where he died in 1875. John Daugherty was born in 1819 (?) He married Emily Race in 1840, He died in 1872. Elizabeth married her cousin, John Daugherty. She had four children, two girls and two boys. She and her husband both died in 1851. Eva married William Frakes. She had two boys and two girls; Henry, Mary, Eliza and Joseph. Quote: “The underlined names are doubtful. The writing was so faulty the letters might easily be called Various names.” Letter to Dr. Samuel Conway of Lamonte, Mo. Paris, Ky. Jan. 2, 1903 Dear Sir: The history of the Conway family as related to me by my mother and my Uncle Nathaniel Conway begins as far as I can trace it with our Great grandfather John Conway, who came to Virginia when a young man from near Dublin, Ireland. This was probably about 1730 to 1735. He had a good education and devoted all his early life to teaching. His wife, Elizabeth, whom he married in Virginia, was a lady of English birth, whose maiden name was Bridgewater. They were the parents of ten children – four sons and six daughters. The sons were Samuel – the eldest – next Jesse – John and Joseph, he being the youngest of the boys. Of the daughters I can now remember the names of only three of them, Elizabeth, Dulcenea and Sally, she was the youngest of all the children. John was born in 1758, was my grandfather and Joseph was yours. Joseph, from incidents which I will hereafter relate, was born about 1765 (1763) and Sallie in 1774. I do not know the ages of the others. Of the daughters, two of them whose names I have forgotten, married brothers named Long. Elizabeth married William Daugherty, another whose name I have forgotten married John Daugherty, brother of William (this name is pronounced as if spelled Dority). Dulcinea married Basil Wells. Sallie, ----- Underwood. The first five sisters married in Virginia. Sallie married in Kentucky. Samuel’s wife was a Miss

Clemons. John’s a Miss Sutton (Anna). Joseph’s a Miss Caldwell. The last two brothers were married in Kentucky, but I do not know whether Samuel was married in Virginia or Kentucky. Of Jesse I know but little, except that he was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and was in the Battle of Eutaw Springs, The Cowpens, besides other minor engagements, and after the war left Virginia moving to Indiana or Illinois, I have forgotten which state. I leaned this some ten years ago from a letter written me by a cousin, T.J. Underwood of Sangamon Co. Ill. Mr. Underwood is a grandson of our great aunt Sally. I do not remember whether my mother or my uncle every told me about our great grandfather having any brothers besides himself coming with him to Va. But I am under the belief that he had. I met with an old gentleman of this name in Knox Co. Mo. Some 27 years ago – John Conway. He said that he was born in Eastern Ohio, but his father died when he was a small child, but his mother always told him his father came from Va. He had a married daughter living in the neighborhood with whom I became acquainted and she bore a striking resemblance to a Mrs. Bates whom I met in St. Louis Co, Mo. in 1875. I have now forgotten whether she was your sister or your cousin. I think it quite likely that this old gentleman must have been a grandson of a brother to your great grandfather. But I have strayed from my story. I will now take up the history of Samuel. He too was in the Revolutionary Service, but not as a soldier. He manufactured gunpowder for the army. Prior to the Revolution he was a soldier procured by Virginia against the Indians, commonly known as Dunmore’s War, and was in the sanguinary battle of Point Pleasant, where the whites were commanded by Col. Lewis and the Indians by Cornplanter (see Colonial History). After the Revolution he came to Kentucky, first settling in Bourbon Co. but after a few years, when wild game became scarce, he moved and settled on Main Licking River, about 40 miles south of Cincinnati, in what is now Pendleton Co. That portion of Ky. was at that time and for many years afterwards a veritable “Hunters Paradise”. The land with the exception of the wide river bottoms, is very broken and for many years after the settling of Ky. remained a dense almost impenetrable wilderness. Again in 1818, he sold out and moved to northeast Mo. settling in Marion Co. I don’t think he ever had but two sons, one named Ben and the other Sineon (Simeon) who died some 35 years ago in Lewis Co. Mo. And Benjamin died without children. I have met with a son of Sineon’s, Prof. D.M. Conway, at this time in chare of a high school in Shelbyville, Mo. but afterwards went down, I think to some school in southwest Mo. There were several daughters, the descendants of three of them now living in Pendleton Co. Ky. Husband of one of the daughters was Smith (so you see we have the honor to be related to the great Smith family.) Another to Mr. Beckett, another to Mr. Brownfield – this name in olden times was called Brumfield. John Daugherty and his family also moved to Ky. settling near Paris about 1810, but afterwards sold out and moved to Mo., I don’t know where. Of the two sisters who married the two Long brothers, I know nothing more of their history, nor of Dulcinea and her Husband Basil Wells. I will now take up the history of John, Joseph, Elizabeth, Sally and their parents and their removal to Ky. John first came in 1777 as one of a company of soldiers sent out by the garrison of Va. To guard the settlers about Boone’s Fort, or as it was commonly known as Boonesboro. This is in the present Co. of Madison on the Ky. River. He remained a year during which the fort was twice attacked by Indians and during on of these attacks besieged eight or ten days. In fact partied of Indians were frequently skulking about the country adjacent to the fort, watching for a chance to kill the whites, and many were waylaid and murdered. He returned to Va. in 1778 and in a short time afterward, probably 1779 he came to Ky. accompanied by his father and mother, his sister Elizabeth and her husband, Wm. Daugherty and one child, Joseph, and Sally. Also several other families. They settled about ten miles north of Paris, in the neighborhood of what was called Riddle’s Station. It was really a stockade or fort, built for the purpose of sheltering the settlers from attack by the Indians. Early in the spring of 1780 a number of the families in the neighborhood moved into the fort, also into another called Martin’s six or eight miles south of Riddle’s. The men would go out during the day to work, clearing land, breaking and preparing for planting their crops, and while some of them would be at this work others would be on guard around them with their guns to protect them against the Indians. Oh! but the early settlers of Ky. had terrible times. I enclose rough pencil sketch of fort and surroundings. In June 1780, one Sunday morning, three boys, Joseph Conway being one of them, were sent out early to drive in the cows for milking, they were found on the west side of the river, they started them back, but on crossing the river, which was a shallow ripple, they caught a large Logger head turtle and carried it back to the sandy beach on the west side and began to tease it with willow twigs, watching it snap at them. Some men from the fort were down at the edge of the water on the east side washing their hands and faces for breakfast. An Indian lying concealed in the bushes fired on Joseph, wounding him in the side, then rushed out on him, knocked him down, and tore off his scalp, then vanished from sight in the thick bushes. It was done

so quickly that the men on the other side could give no assistance. The alarm was given at the fort, the men rushed out with their guns and scoured the woods, but could find no trace of the Indian or any of his comrades. They carried the wounded boy into the fort. The wound from his head bled alarmingly. Finally an old lady named Wiseman succeeded, by using cobwebs, in stanching the blood. The wound in his side was a slight one, the bullet glancing off from his ribs. His head was bandaged the best they could. Two or three days afterwards the inmates of the fort were terribly alarmed one morning by hearing the report of a cannon near them, and were soon surprised by the appearance of a large force of British and Indians, several hundred. All were under the command of Col. Byrd of the British Army. They had come from Detroit which was then a British possession. They brought cannon with the, cutting a road through the forest and hauling them. They demanded the surrender of the fort, promising in the name of the English King to protect the inmates against the cruelty of the Indians. The walls of the fort, while proof against the common rifle balls, were not sufficient to resist cannon. Col. John Hinkston, the commander of the fort, agreed to surrender. The gates were opened, the Indians rushed in and at once commenced pillaging the fort of everything they could find in cooking utensils, bed clothing and the like. It was with the utmost difficulty that the British soldiers could prevent the Indians from wreaking their fury on the women and children. They would jerk the feather and straw ticks off the beds, empty them to get the ticking. While at their work they came to the bed where the wounded boy lay, and it happened to be the very Indian, as was learned afterwards, who had wounded him. He instantly raised his tomahawk to complete his work, but the English soldiers jerked him away. After robbing the fort of everything of value, they next put their prisoners under guard and then went on and capture Martin’s Fort. It was the intention, it was said, to go to all the other forts to capture them in the same manner, with their cannon, but the British commander was so shocked by the terrible barbarities of the Indians that he refused to go any farther, and started back toward Detroit. Many shocking cruelties were enacted by the Indians. A number of very old men and women, too feeble to travel as fast as their captors wanted, were tomahawked and scalped. My grandfather says that one of the men named Riddle had a stone bruise on his foot and limped badly, said he saw him lie down to drink at a spring, and while down an Indian drove his tomahawk into his brain and jerk off his scalp. A few minutes later the Indian passed him and the other prisoners and shook his poor victim’s bloody scalp at them as a warning of what would be their fate unless they hurried along. Many of the little boys would be so tired, when they came to a log they would climb up and roll over. One woman had a sick baby which kept crying. In passing along the bank of the river, an Indian jerked the baby from her arms and threw it far out into deep water. She tried to rush after in after it, but they caught and held her and she was compelled to witness the dying struggles of her child. At night the men prisoners were confined by driving stakes cross wise over their arms and legs, first extending them their full length, then passing a thong around their necks and tying this to another stake. The night after their capture a very heavy rain fell. Grandfather says they had not protection, the their faces and while bodies were thoroughly drenched. The rains raised the river very high. In crossing Main Licking in canoes two old ladies, a Mrs. Spears and Mrs. Eustin and a little child were drowned. During the confusion and trouble of the march, no effort could be made to dress the scalp wound on Joseph’s head, and the weather being hot, green flies made their appearance, and afterwards creepers. The same old lady Wiseman – who first stanched the blood, now again came in as a good Samaritan and picked the loathsome insects and dressed the boy’s head and continued to wait on him until the wound finally healed. Let the memory of this old woman never be forgotten by the descendants of Joseph Conway. One other incident I remember – Sally, then a little girl of six years, wore a nice little sunbonnet when capture, of which she was very proud. In crossing the river, one of the Indians jerked it off and threw it into the river. Another incident, some Indian squaws accompanied their husbands. On the first night during the heavy rains, these squaws came to our great grandmother and threw some blankets over her and the other women to try to shield them from the storm. When they reached Detroit, the prisoners were divided out among their captors, several small children separated from their parents and scattered out among the different tribes of Indians. Sally was adopted by an old Indian and his wife who had no children. All of the family four years after their capture were released and got back to Kentucky except Sally. Nine years after, a white man who had been among the prisoners, (a half grown boy when captured) managed to get away from them and returned to Ky. and told my grandfather where his sister was. He went back and found her about forty miles west of Detroit. At this time peace had been made with the Indians. He bought his sister from the old Indian by the payment of forty silver brooches. I have the story of her ransom in minutely written account from my kinsman, Mr. Underwood. It is a very affecting story. The men prisoners, after a while, were allowed to liberty of the town and to work for any of the citizens who would employ them. Detroit was quite a trading place then, the whites were a mixed race of French and English. The country all south of it was a very heavy forest, and in winter next to the town for some half mile or so covered with water some three or four feet deep. This was crossed by a causeway. My grandfather, Mr. Daugherty and Joseph would frequently go out in the forest during the winter to chop wood for the citizens – would also go out and kill hogs for them, they

fattened on acorns and hickory nuts and would soon become wild and had to be hunted with dogs and shot. On one occasion, while returning at night on the causeway, they met a drunken Indian whom they gathered in their arms and pitched out onto the thin ice and left him breaking through and floundering in the water. In what manner they traveled to get home I do not remember that my uncle ever told me. William Daugherty after his return to Ky. remained a few years in Bourbon Co. then went to Pendleton Co. in the same neighborhood where Samuel Conway settled, and remained there until his death. One of his sons, Jesse, born while he and his wife were prisoners in Detroit, was a gallant soldier in the war of 1812, and others of his sons and daughters have in the past been people of the best standing in the community where they lived, also grand children and great grand children. Our great grandfather died shortly after his return to Ky. but his wife lived a long time after, dying about 1808 at my grandfather’s from a cancer on her forehead. Aunt Sally after her return, also make her home with my grandfather until her marriage with Mr. Underwood. My mother says he was a worthless kind of man and after about two years of marriage went off and left his wife and infant son, Rueben. She then returned to my grandfather’s house, where she made her home until Reuben was grown and married. She then lived with him. He moved to Illinois about 1830 and settled in Sangamon Co. He died about 1840 but his mother lived five years longer. Joseph grew up to full manhood and for a number of years engaged as a spy to watch the Indians. Altho peace was made wit England in 1783, the Indians would still make raids into Ky. stealing horses and murdering settlers. The house of a settler named Shanks, living in Bourbon Co. was attacked in Feb. 1787, and the house was burned to the ground and all the family killed except on daughter, a widow Gillespie and her son. Your grandfather was at the house in the early part of the night, but he left shortly after dark. The attack was made about 10 o’clock. If you could manage to get hold of any of the histories of Ky. you will find a full account of this tragedy under the History of Bourbon Co. A party was hastily organized the next day to pursue them, a light snow fell and they had no trouble following them, your grandfather was one of the party. The over took them on the Licking Hills. Two of the Indians dropped behind and showed themselves and kept jumping from tree to tree, it was supposed to make the whites think there was a number of them. Your grandfather rushed up within shooting distance of them and got behind a tree. Putting his hat on a stick he slowly and cautiously poked it around the tree. The Indians thinking it was his head fired. He then rushed them and succeeded in killing one of the Indians. The other, with the rest escaped, he was a little too fast. When the Indians attacked the house, which was a double cabin, they managed to break into one of the rooms where a couple of grown sisters were weaving, and tried to carry them off. One of them defended herself with a knife which she used about her work on the loom, and killed one of the Indians. They then killed her and took the other girl captive. When they found the whites on their pursuit and about to overtake them, they sank their tomahawk into her head. Your grandfather, after his marriage, I don’t know what year he was married, settled on a fine farm on Cooper’s Run in Bourbon Co. but afterwards, about 1797 or 1798 removed to Mo. then called Louisiana Territory in 1803, the government made arrangements to send out two exploring companies to go across the great plain, the Rocky Mts. to the Pacific Ocean. These companies fitted up at St. Louis, and began the trip in 1804. The command of one of these companies was tendered by President Jefferson to your grandfather, but he declined to take it because of his limited education. Captain Clark commanded one of the companies and Capt. Lewis the other. The latter was a nephew of Jefferson. Some time when you are in a bookstore get a copy of the book called “The Lewis-Clark Expedition”. No more interesting book was ever published. I have heard my mother speak of seeing you grandfather once when she was a girl. He was on a visit to my grandfather’s. She said he took her on his lap and put her hand on his head to feel the place where the Indians scalped him. I have also heard her speak of one of your uncles coming on a visit to Ky. when she was about grown – Walter Conway. He spent some time at the home of my grandfather, and on his return one of my uncles accompanied him to his home in Mo. Your father told me when I was at his house in 1875 that he had a very vivid recollection of my uncle’s visit. Your father and my Uncle Nat Conway very much resembled each other, and seemed a good deal alike in disposition. I had two other uncles besides Uncle Nat, William and John, or as he was commonly called Jack. Both of them died before I was born. Uncle Jack was killed in his own home by lightening in 1833 while upstairs trying to close a window in a heavy storm. He was the grandfather of young Mr. Conway whom you met in Kansas City. I have given you a long and rambling sketch of the family history and could tell you much more, but wont just now. I am so nervous that I never use a pen in writing. You can perhaps decipher my letter. At you leisure you can get some one to give you a typewritten copy. I will write you again and give you names of younger branches of the family. Yours truly, Henry C. Ogle, Sr.

Chicago, Ill. July 2, 1912 Mr. Geo. Pohlman Jr. Macon, Missouri My friend and kinsman Mr. Charles Conway of this city handed me the enclosed letter with the request that I answer it. I am perhaps more familiar with the genealogy of the Conway Family from whom I am a descendant on my mother’s side than any of the other kin. In fact I undertook some 20 years ago to get up a History of the family and have it published in Book Form, but had to abandon it, partly from want of mean together with such poor encouragement on the part of other descendants from my ancestors. The first of the name came to America from whom I am descendant and of whom I have many accurate accounts listing was John Conway. He came from near Dublin, Ireland when a young man, and located in Virginia. I have not been able to learn what county, but think not far from Richmond. He was well educated and devoted all the early part of his life to the business of teaching. His wife, Elizabeth, whom he married in Virginia was a lady of English birth whose maiden name was Bridgewater. They were the parents of 10 children, 4 sons and 6 daughters. The sons were Samuel, Jesse, John and Joseph. Samuel was the oldest son Joseph the youngest. Of the daughters 2 of them married brothers named Long, 2 others married brothers named Daugherty. One of them married a Wells and the youngest, Sarah (or as she was always called, Sally) married Underwood. The first five of them married in Virginia, the last (Sally) married in Ky. She was the youngest of all the family. Samuel was married in Virginia to a Miss Clemmon. Jesse also married in Virginia but do not know the name of the family into whom he married. John and Joseph both married in Ky. The former to Miss Sutton and the latter to Miss Caldwell. I am descendant from John. I don’t know anything of the two Long brothers or there subsequent history. I have it that Jesse Conway moved direct from Virginia to Ill. and settled in Green Co. John was the first to come to Ky. This was in 1777. He came here as one of a company of soldiers sent out by the Governor of Virginia to the defense of the Fort of Boonesborough, but in 1778 he returned to Virginia. In 1779 he, together with his father, mother, his brother Joseph, sister Elizabeth, then the wife of Joseph Daugherty and his youngest sister Dally together with a number of other emigrants all moved to Ky. The Indians becoming so troublesome the settler moved into the fort for protection. In June 1780, this fort was besieged by a force of British soldiers, some 200 in number and 5 to 600 Indians and compelled to surrender. All the inmates taken to Detroit then a British Post. They were held 4 years and then released. One of these, Sallie, became separated from the others and remained prisoner among the Indians till she was fifteen years old. None of the family knew where she was until after Wayne’s Defeat of the Indians. A white man coming back to Ky. from captivity among the Indians told her father where she was and he went and brought her home, but he had to buy her from them. I enclose letter giving you account of this story, written to me in 1888 by her grandson Tho. J. Underwood. Be sure to return it to me as I value it highly. You can however have a copy of it taken and return. It is a very affecting story and I can hardly keep from crying whenever I read it. After her return home she married Mr. Underwood, but he proved to be a man of worthless character, who after the marriage, deserted her, leaving an infant boy whom she named Reuben. She lived with my grandfather. After the death of her father, until her son was grown and married. My mother always spoke in such endearing language of her. She said her mother’s health broke down after the birth of her last child and was never to do any housework. Aunt Sally Underwood took charge of the family and was second mother to her and all her brothers and sisters. Joseph Conway the youngest brother, in 1798 left Ky. and went to Missouri, settling in St. Louis Co. some 20 miles west of the city. His was a remarkable history indeed. My cousin Thomas Underwood has gotten hold of the right story about the scalping Joseph. After the surrender of the Fort the captors all started with their prisoners toward Detroit. One of them whose name was Riddle could not keep up in the march because of lameness from a stone bruise and he was the man tomahawked and scalped by the Indians and left for dead. Several days before the fort was attacked, Joseph, then a boy of 15 or 16 together with 2 other boys about the same age went out early in the morning to drive in the cows to be milked.

The crossed to the west side of the river, found the cows and started them across the river (South Licking) but spied on the ripple a large logger head turtle, caught it, carried it back to the sandy beach on the other side and were having sport with it by poking willow twigs toward its head watching it snap at them. An Indian lying concealed in the thick fringe of willow bushes along the bank shot at Joseph giving him a slight wound in the side, but instantly rushed out and with his tomahawk knocked him senseless and then cut and tore off his scalp. It was done in full view of several men of the Fort who were down at the river washing their hands and faces for breakfast, but done so quickly that the Indian got away before they could get to the scene. The alarm was given at the Fort and the men rushed out with their guns and scoured the woods for the Indian but he escaped all pursuit. The poor boy was carried back to the fort but still breathing. The wound on his head bled dreadfully but finally an old lady Wiseman succeeded in stopping the flow of blood by the application of cobwebs to the wound. The wounds were bandaged and the boy put to bed. In this wounded condition he was captured and taken to Detroit. While on the march the weather was very hot and the wound neglected and fly blown. This same old woman dressed the wounds, picking out the “creepers” and finally bot him well. He lived to a very old age. I heard my mother tell of her Uncle Joseph visiting my grandfather once from Missouri and his taking her on his lap and having her feel the top of his head where the scalp was taken. Samuel Conway, William Daugherty and Wells the last tow of his brothers-in-law came to Ky. after the Revolution and first settled in Bourbon Co. but moved from there shortly afterward and settled in Pendleton Co. Get a pocket map of Ky. where all counties are laid off. Look first for Bourbon Co. You will see on the map a stream running through Paris called Stoner. Another through Millersburg marked Hinkston and where the two streams join you will see Riddle’s Mills. 3 Miles below this junction on the East Bank of the stream, which takes the name of South Licking was the site of Riddle’s Fort. In the olden times it was called Riddle’s Fort. At the time of its capture Capt. Isaac Riddle was in command of the soldiers in the Fort assisted by Capt. John Hinkston. 5 miles below this is Cynthiana was the county seat of Harrison County. 18 miles further down where South Licking forms a junction with Main Licking you will find Falmouth the County seat of Pendleton County. 10 miles further down you will find a town marked Butler and near this at the mouth of a creek which comes from the west and empties into the River called Grassy Creek is where Uncle Samuel Conway lived together with his brothers-in-law Joseph and William Daugherty, Wells and his wife’s family, the Clemons and several families who came from Virginia. Of his history from 1818 you know what this is. I have often heard my mother and Uncle Nat Conway visiting at my grandfather’s house in Bourbon Co. and what a jolly old man he was. In fact I could write many pages telling of the varied experiences and incidents connected with his life and others of the old pioneers as often related by my mother and my uncle around the fireside during the long winter nights. I remember of my mother speaking of seeing 2 of the children of her Uncle Samuel who visited by gr. father. One a son named Benjamin and a sister, a widow then, Polly Brownfield. She also said there was one son named Simeon and 2 daughters that she remembered one of whom married a Smith, another a Becket, both of whom lived in Pendleton County. I have Samuel C. Smith, gr. son of the old man. Also a Mrs. -----, I have forgotten her name, a daughter of Mrs. Becket. My grandfather had 6 children, 3 daughters and 3 sons William, John and Nathaniel S., Polly, Anna, and Elizabeth. Polly was the oldest child of the family. Nathaniel S. the youngest. He was always called Nat, (Uncle Nat). He died in 1878. Uncle William died in 1832, Uncle Jack in 1833, Aunt Polly some time about 1824. My mother died in 1872. She remained a widow a long time. My father, Jesse Ogle, died in Harrison Co. Ky. in Dec. 1839 when I was only 11 months old. He was twice married. One of his sons by his first wife (Jesse) named for his father born in 1820, moved to Ralls Co. Missouri in 1846. He died there in 1870. His youngest son, Robert A. Ogle, was born in 1863, now lives there and is a member of a manufacturing firm, “The Ogle Construction Co.” He is president of the firm. My home is Paris, Ky. Bourbon County. I came here the 19th day of June on a visit to him and 2 of my cousins, Thomas and Charles Conway. They are the grandsons of my Uncle William Conway. Thomas and Charles are first cousins, Henry R. & James W. Conway being brothers and my first cousins. Of all the children of my grandfather that is the first generation of grandchildren, 29 in all, only 2 of us living, myself born in 1839 and my cousin James M. Conway born in 1843. He lives in the old house built by my grandfather in 1825 and my Uncle Nat in 1878. My cousin James M. Conway (as fine a man as ever lived) says he will never leave it until carried out to be buried and says he wants it to always remain in the hands of his children and grandchildren. I am writing this week to him asking him to send me his photograph, copy of a photograph of his house which he had taken many years ago. Will send it to you.

I am a widower, my wife died the 4th April, 1911. We were married September 1st 1864. I have 2 children, a son, Henry Conway Ogle and a daughter Virginia Ogle. Harry has one child only, a boy, Thornton Buckner Ogle, 9 years old or will be day after tomorrow (Independence Day). My daughter is the wife of Gilbert M. Thompson. They have three children. Virginia 9, Paul Stuart 7 and a dear little granddaughter 5 years old. Both my children live in Paris. My son is a traveling salesman for a wholesale grocery in Lexington. My son-in-law travels for sale of wire fencing, manufactured at Pittsburgh by the American Fence Co. Would be pleased to have you write me often and when you first write me ask your wife’s father to give me a full list of the names of this great gr. father Samuel Conway, his grandchildren and all the other descendants as far as he knows, their names and Post Office addresses. If I should get all the names of the descendants of the first Conway who came from Ireland together with their P.O. addresses it would fill a big book. To give you some idea of how the descendants multiply here’s one example. My Aunt Polly in 1806 married Henry Overby. They had 7 sons and one daughter. John Overby her first son had one son names Henry T. He had one son named John. John’s daughter, Idelia, married a Mr. Kane and they had 3 children. These are the gr.-gr.-gr.-grandchldren of Polly and Polly herself the gr. daughter of John my gr.-father and the gr.-gr.-gr.-gr.-grand children of John the first immigrant to America. I have written you a long and I fear a tiresome letter, but I could tell you much more if you wanted to hear it. If there is any part of it you want to preserve I suggest that you have a typewritten copy taken from it. I have a full list of all the children and grand children of my gr. father and many of the names of their gr. children and gr. grand children. Also the names of all the children of my great Uncle Joseph of St. Louis Co. Also several of his gr. children. I have several cousins of the same generation as Charles J. in Clay Co. Mo. Salina and Pettus. Some in Kansas City. I expect to visit some of them before returning to Ky. I am enclosing you my photograph. Yours very truly Henry C. Ogle, Sr. Paris, Ky. Sept. 5, 1912 Dear Mr. Pohlman: I will now after so long a time write in answer to your letters of July and August. This I ought to have done at an earlier date. I had to give over my intended trip to see my nephew, W.H. Tyler, in Topeka, Kansas. I wanted on my return to stop at Kansas City to see my cousin Galen L.Conway and Joseph T. Conway – also to stop both at Marshall, Lamonte and Liberty to see other Conway kin. I have another cousin on my father’s side, Thos. H. Jones in Lucerne, Putnam County, who I had purposed to visit, then to come to your house in Macon, thence to Hannibal, Mo., to see some more nephews, Jesse and Will Ogden. Macon is not an unknown city to me. I have been there perhaps a half dozen times from 1876 to 80, I was acquainted with some people who had gone there from Hanover County, Ky., the same county where I was raised. Among them I remember a lawyer, Judge John Henry. Have also been in Moberly and in “Old Bloomington” the ancient County Seat of Macon. I returned from Chicago on the 30th July. Since this I have been spending most of my time with my nephews and nieces in Robertson County, Ky. and about ten days with my first cousin, James M. Conway, near Millersburg, and twelve miles N.E. of Paris. He is the only one of my first cousins now living, and the youngest one – is 69 years old. He owns part of the old home of my grandfather, John Conway. The house is one of the oldest in Nickalas [sic] County built in a period between 1790 and 1800. The main part is a two story hewed log structure 20 ft. square and 20 ft. high, with a one story log room on each end; one of these rooms – 12 x 20 – built for a bedroom. The other 20 x 20 for a kitchen. Between the kitchen and the central room is a huge stone chimney 6 ft. thick, 10 ft. wide, with double fire places – one in the family room 4 ft wide and in the kitchen 6 ft. wide. From this description you may know that the people in olden time wanted plenty of room. The farm upon which the house stands is a part of a 400 acre tract that was patented by my gr. father by the state of Virginia in 1786. I am sending you a copy of the old patent deed. I wish you could see the original – it is written on

parchment and has attached to it the signature of the Governor of Virginia, signed by himself, the justly celebrated Patrick Henry. In this house your wife’s ancestor, Samuel Conway, has often been a guest also his daughter Polly Brumfield and one of his sons, Benjamin. I have often heard both my mother and Uncle Nat Conway speak of his visiting at my gr father’s. Both of them said he was a jolly old man, fond of joking. His brother Joseph, too, visited there once after his removal to Mo. My mother says she will remember him taking her on his lap and telling her to put her hand on the top of his head and to feel the bald place where the Indian scalped him. This house has also had an honored guest, the celebrated Simon Kenton, the last time in 1827. If you are in any manner familiar with the history of Kentucky in her first settlement you will know at once the part he filled in the first settlement of the state. Now I will take up another subject. (In one of the letters you wrote Charles J. Conway. You gave him the names of the different brothers and sisters as copied from the old Bible of Samuel Conway, now in the possession Mr. Miller. You give the names of four sons and five daughters.) Both my mother and Uncle Nat Conway always told me there were six daughters. My mother has often told me their names as well as the names of their husbands – but I can just now remember the names of only three of them. The youngest daughter as well as the youngest child was Sara (but always called Sally), Elizabeth and Dulcinea. Two of the daughters married brothers in Virginia named Long. Two others brothers named Daugherty. Elizabeth was the wife of Joseph Daugherty, and ------ the wife of John Daugherty. Another of the daughters married Basil Well. Am under the impression, but not sure that this was Dulcinea. All these marriages were formed in Virginia. Sally married in Kentucky to Mr. Underwood. Samuel and Jesse were both married in Virginia, or at last I think this was the case. Joseph and John married in Kentucky. John’s wife was Anna Sutton, born in Culpepper County, Virginia 1766. They were married in Bourbon County, Ky. 1790. Joseph Conway’s wife was Elizabeth Caldwell born in Virginia 1773. They were married in Bourbon County – 1791. Now I suppose you have the names of all of Samuel Conway’s children as well as most of his gr. and great grandchildren. It has been my good fortune to meet with and become acquainted with two of his grandsons, one of them Samuel Conway Smith whom I saw at the house of his son Jay smith in McKinneysburg, Pendleton County, Ky. in 1872. The old gentleman was then 65 years old, and a firm old man. The other gr son was Marion Conway, who from 1876 to 77 was living in Shelbyville, Missouri, as superintendent of the High School. If I mistake not he signed his name D.M. Conway. I took dinner with him one day. He was raised in Marion County. Told me his father’s name, but I have now forgotten it. He had in his possession and which he showed me his grandfather’s old Deer Gun, a Rifle of Large bore. Samuel was a soldier in the War of the Revolution, also a soldier under Col. Lewis in what was known as Dunmore’s War against the Indians. Was in the noted Battle of Point Pleasant, a sanguinary affair fought in 1774. A part of the time during the Revolution he was in the Service of the Government manufacturing powder for the army. After the war closed he moved to Kentucky, and first settled in Bourbon County. He was very fond of deer and turkey hunting and when these disappeared from Bourbon as a consequence of the thick settlement of this section, he went further North, and took up land in Pendleton County about 50 miles North of where he first settled. The land in this part of Kentucky was more broken and hilly and not so fertile as Bourbon, and for many years was thinly settled, - most of it a vast forest, and for this reason a “Hunter’s Paradise”. The old man was the owner of a very large bottom farm on Main Licking River. If you will examine any large map of Kentucky where the counties are shown see Grassy Creek marked in Pendleton County, right where it empties into Licking is where Samuel Conway lived. I have heard Uncle Nat tell of many happenings in that neighborhood as related to him by Uncle Sam as he always called him. One of them was quite amusing. A nephew of his, a young Daugherty, when about 19 went from Bourbon Co. to Pendleton to visit him and hunt deer. The day following his arrival Uncle Sam gave him his Deer gun and to go out in the edge of his bottom cornfield next to the timber and watch for deer. In about an hour he came funning back to the house, almost breathless and said he had shot at some kind of a wild animal, he did not know what it was, only it looked like an old “Nigger” running along trying to pull up his “britches”. Said it jumped on a log and he shot at it but then dropped his bun and took to his heels. His uncle and one of his boys went back with him and found the gun also the strange animal that he had shot, which proved to be a large Black Bear, he had killed it. (Part of the letter is missing here)

in readiness for the Tories”. He is mistaken in the name, it should have been Jesse. I know but little of his history except what I learned through this letter of Mr. Underwood. Mention is also made of him in a letter which I am enclosing you, written by my grandfather Conway to his nephew Joe Conway of St. Louis, letter dated 1834. Now as to the history of the other members of the family, this is so closely connected that it is a hard matter to tell them separately. To begin, however, John Conway, my gr father was the first to come to Kentucky. This was in 1777. He was one of a company sent out by the Governor of Virginia to help garrison the fort at Boonesborough. He stayed here a year and then returned to Virginia. The next year (1779) he returned to Kentucky with a number of emigrants, among whom was my great gr father and his wife, his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Joseph Daugherty, his son Joseph – then a boy of 14 – and his daughter Sallie a little girl of 5 years. The Indians being so troublesome then, all the settlers would stay in one body in stations or forts for mutual protection. The Conway family went to Riddle’s Station. This was located on the East bank of South Licking River – about 9 miles North of Paris. – See map of Kentucky. While the able bodied men and boys would be at work clearing the land and cutting it in crops of corn and vegetables during the day – another body would stay outside of these with their guns to guard the workers against the Indians. At night all of them wold return to the fort for safety. About the 10th of June 1780 – Joseph Conway the youngest son, and two other boys about his age were sent out early in the morning (it was on Sunday) to drive in the cows to be milked. They had gone over to the West side of the river, where was a large densely timbered bottom, they found them, and started them back across the stream. The water was low and on the ripple in crossing they caught sight of a large logger head turtle in the shallow water. They grabbed it and carried it back to a sandy beach near the bank on the west side, and boys like commenced to tease it by poking willow twigs at it, and watch it snap them. An Indian lying in ambush among the thick bushes on the bank fired on them, the bullet striking Joseph in the side, slightly wounding him but instantly rushed down on him struck him with tomahawk and scalped him and immediately disappeared in the bushes. The deed was done in full view of a number of men who were down on the river on the side opposite washing their hands and faces getting ready for breakfast. The alarm was given at the fort, and the men rushed out with their guns and scoured the woods, but could see no more Indians. They carried the boy to the fort. He was unconscious but still breathing. The wound on his head where he had been scalped bled dreadfully, but finally an old lady named Wiseman stopped the bleeding by applying cob-webs. The wounds were all bandaged and the boy put to bed, and by evening recovered conscious. About ten days after, a large force of British and Indians, some 6 or 700 in all mostly Indians, surprised the Fort one morning about daybreak, and commenced an attack on it. The men inside returned fire, and kept them at bay until they brought into action a cannon. They then displayed a white flag. The British officers, Col. Bird and McKee who were in command of the force, promised Capt. Riddle and Hinkston the officers in command of the fort that if they surrendered the fort without further resistance that he would promise them in the name of the British Government that the lives of all the inmates would be spared, and that they should be protected against vengeance of his Indian Allies – Said that unless they did surrender they would batter down the wooden walls of their fort with his cannon (He had three of these with him) and then turn them over to the fury of the Indians. On the solemn pledge of the British Officers that all their lives should be spared – they agreed to surrender. As soon as the gates were opened the Indians rushed in, and in spite of all the British soldiers could do to restrain them, they murdered a number of the wounded men, also commenced taking anything they could see in the shape of wearing apparel and bed clothing. They would grab the feather beds, rip them open and empty the feathers to get the ticking. They came to the bed where the wounded boy Joseph Conway lay with his head bandaged, and an Indian raised the tomahawk to kill him, but one of the British soldiers forced him away. They would grab the little children and take them away from their parents, many of them never again to be seen. Among them was little Sallie, their youngest child, then 6 years old – but enough of this frightful story. In all there was some 200 persons captured and carried off as possessions from this fort, and on the day following they captured another fort – Martins about 7 miles S.E. of this, in which were some 100 persons. All were taken to Detroit then a British Post, and kept prisoners for four years. Joseph was taken along with the others. During the march the wound on his head was neglected, the weather being hot, the “creepers” got in the wounds, but the same old lady Mrs. Wiseman picked them out and washed the wound till finally cured and healed up. On the march when any of the prisoners would become exhausted so that they could not travel fast enough to suit their guards they would tomahawk and scalp them. The incident related by Mr. Underwood about the man with the stone bruise being tomahawked and scalped because he could not keep up was true, but he was mistaken in the name. He says it was Joseph Conway, instead of this his name was Riddle. My grandfather says he saw Riddle kneel down at a spring to get a drink, and while he was down he saw an Indian in the act of striking him with his murderous weapon. A few minutes after, the Indian passed him and others with Riddle’s bloody scalp, and shook it in their faces, warning them that would be their

fate unless they kept up. I never heard that Riddle recovered, but it is possible that he did. I am preparing for the press in my rude way the full story of the British invasion of Ky. in June 1780 – and when I can get the story ready, will have it published. I could tell you of many such scenes as here related. Mr. Underwood is again mistaken as to the age of his grandmother when captured – He says 3 years. I don’t know whether he is now living. I shall write this week to him or some member of his family. His mother lived at my grandfather’s from the time of her return after her ransom, till her marriage. Her husband proved to be a worthless man, and deserted her shortly after the birth of her first and only child, a son, Reuben Underwood. She continued to live with my grandfather till her son was grown and married. My grandmother Conway had very feeble health after the birth of her last child, Uncle Nat and Aunt Sally Underwood was a mother and housekeeper to her nephews and nieces while small. My mother and my Uncle always spoke of her in endearing terms. Joseph Daugherty and his wife Elizabeth, after their return from captivity stayed a short time in Bourbon county, but when Uncle Sam moved to Pendleton County he went with him and settled in the same neighborhood, where he remained till his death. I have seen and formed the acquaintance of two or three of his grandsons. He has numerous descendants living in that county today, all of them people of thrift and honesty. Some of them Doctors, Lawyers and Politicians. Joseph Conway the youngest brother after his removal to Missouri became a man of note there when in 1803 or 04 the expedition was formed to explore the Louisiana Purchase, commonly known as the Lewis & Clark Expedition. President Jefferson offered the command of one of these companies to Uncle Joe, but he had to decline from want of sufficient education for the purpose. Two of his sons, Samuel and Joseph, for many years served as Sheriff of St. Louis County, and in 1857 Joseph was County Judge. I visited him in the summer of 187_. His brother, Samuel, was not then living. One of Samuel’s sons, E. Virgil Conway, is a man of fine education, and when Missouri held her last Constitutional Convention in 1874, he was one of the delegates representing St. Francios County. I am enclosing you a letter received from him in 1879, also letters from his cousin, Dr. Samuel Conway of Lamonte, Pettus County. I also enclose another letter – precious relic which I value very highly from my grandfather to his nephew, Joseph Conway, father of Dr. Sam Conway. You will see that the name of your wife’s ancestor has been kept alive in the families of his brothers and sisters. I had a first cousin died in Nickolas [sic] County, Ky. 12 years ago named Samuel F. Conway. He has a nephew at Liberty, Missouri, his brother’s son Samuel Conway, a man about 50 years of age and a bachelor I think. Now my friend, I think I have told you the whole story. If there is anything more you would like to know, write me and I will tell you. One thing has always been a source of anxiety with me to solve, and that was whether my great uncle had any brothers or sisters who came to this country with him. While in Chicago I went to one of her large libraries, Ewburry Library and spent nearly two days looking through the Books on Genealogy and found two large volumes on the Conways in America. Many of them settled in Virginia from 1610 to 1750. It told all their names and with whom they intermarried, but could find none who married with Bridgewater. Most of these families were from Ireland, some of them from England and many of them of titled birth. I find that the mother of President Madison was Nelly Conway. When you write me in answer to this send me a copy of the names in that old Bible – not only of the name and date of the different ones of the Conways, but also if there are nay of the marriages recorded in your Uncle Sam’s family, I would like to have them. That is his own marriage as well as those of his children. Please return me the letter of Thomas J. Underwood, but keep a copy of it. I suggest too, that such parts of this long letter as you want to preserve that you copy on a typewriter. Yours very truly, Henry C. Ogle, Sr. Would be glad to have your wife’s photograph together with the Baby is you have one. Also Mr. & Mrs. Miller. Paris, Ky. July 29th 1913 Dear Mr. Pohlman

After mailing letter to you yesterday I again went down to the Clerk’s office to make another Search of the records – I wanted to ascertain whether my Great Uncles Samuel, Jesse or Joseph Conway had ever owned land in Bourbon county. I have often heard the story from my mother and uncle Nat Conway that Uncle Samuel first lived in Bourbon Co. after he came from Virginia – but when game became scarce and as he was passionately fond of hunting he left the county and moved to Pendleton Co. which at this time and was for many years afterwards a dense unbroken forest – where Deer Elk Bear and Wild Turkeys were abundant. The land however in Pendleton County with the exception of the bottoms was poor and hilly and for many years the timbered lands could be bought at prices varying from 50 cents to $1.00 per acre. I have gotten off my subject I could not find where either Samuel or Joseph had bought land but did find where Jesse in 1792 bought 40 acres. This located about 7 miles N West of Paris – The grantors being Craig and Johnson the same men from whom Miles W. Conway bought his land. Although the land he bought lay in another part of the county S.E. from Paris – I don’t know how long Jesse Conway remained here I could not find any record of when he sold the land, but will have the Clerk make another Search. Now about Benjamin Conway – I remember of my mother telling me of seeing him and his sister Polly Brownfield on a visit at my Grandfathers when they were all young people. She also told me of Benjamin’s death which as she says was caused by being hurt with a pitchfork while working in his meadow. I am writing to-day briefly to my cousins Dempsy Conway and Silas Dean Conway of Ill. asking them about their brothers, sisters, fathers and aunts. They are of the same generation as myself, that is great gr sons of John the first emigrant to America – Your wife’s father Mr. Miller is gr great grandson and your wife a gr gr gr granddaughter of the first Emigrant. Tell your wife that she is entitled to enrollment among the Daughters of the American Revolution and if she will only write me tracing back the names of her family to Samuel Conway I will take pleasure in writing to the President of the Mo. branch of the order. The history of Samuel Conway’s connection with the army – I have assisted 3 different ladies to obtain a place in this honored order. In a former letter you told me Mr. Miller’s descent from Samuel Conway but I have misplaced the letter. Will you please write it out again? Tell me what additional facts you have learned from your search of Samuel Conway’s descendants – also from Jesse Conway’s people. I shall go down to-morrow to pay a visit to my esteemed cousin James M. Conway 12 miles N.E. of Paris in Nicholas Co. This originally was a part of Bourbon Co. He lives on the farm and in the old Log house occupied by my Grandfather and where my mother was born and raised. The same house in which my gr grandfather died in 1801 and also his wife in 1809. In this house from the time of his return from captivity till her son Reuben was grown and married Aunt Sally Underwood made her home. Yours Truly H.C. Ogle Sr. Paris – Oct. 3rd 1913 Dear Mr. Pohlman After a long silence I again write. One reason why I have not written sooner was the fact that I wanted to hear from Mr Clark of Falmouth Kentucky – At last he has written I now enclose his answer. After copying what you need from that portion of his Type written letter, you will please return it – but the penciled sheets you will keep. I find that 2 of the daughters of Samuel Conway Sr. marrid Smiths Elizabeth to James, 1808 and Sarah to Wm Smith 1811 – Samuel Conway Jr. to Mollie Gardner I do not find Benjamins marriage on the list – It is possible that he may have marred in another Co. – I have since I last wrote you examined further the marrige record of Bourbon Co. also Deed Books. I could not find where Samuel or Joseph Conway had ever bought any land in the county, although both of them lived here at one time. My uncle Nat Conway always told me that his uncles both became dissatisfied living here because game became scarce – that is Deer Elk Bear and wild Turkeys His uncle Joe moved to Missouri in 1797 – and Samuel Conway to Pendleton Co. The records show that Jesse Conway at an early date bought 50 acres of land but I could not find when he sold it – and don’t know where he went to after leaving Ky. The marrige records show that in May – 1789 he married Hannah Thorp Joseph his brother married Elizabeth Caldwell Feb 23rd 1792 John Conway to Ann Sutton Apr. 14th 1790 Sarah Conway to Nathan Underwood Feb 14 – 1793 I have never been able to find anything more of Miles Withers Conway – I know however from history that he was a delegate from Mason Co Ky in 1792 to the Constitutional Convention which met at Danville Ky – when Ky first became a state. Prior to 1790 Mason Co. formed a

part of Bourbon. I think it doubtfull too as to whether he ever lived here that is on the land he bought I think it very probable that he was either a brother of my great grandfather, or else his nephew – His name again appears as one of the Trustees of the town of Washington laid off about 1784 in Mason Co. I wish you would again copy that old Family record. Type written from the old Bible – you sent me 2 copies, one for my kinsman J. M. Conway and the other for myself – by some means my copy got so mutilated from frequent handling that the date of the different brths are obliterated. We now have a fairly satisfactory history of Samuel Jesse John and Joseph. Also Sarah and Elizabeth – but – know nothing of the history of the 2 sisters who married the 2 Long Brothers and the one who marred Wells – and the one who married John Dougherty brother of William Dougherty. I wish you would again explain Mr Millers descent from Samuel Conway – I cant exactly get that in my head Is he a grandson, or great grandson of Samuel? The letter you received from Mrs. Lyle through her nurse is an interesting one – Mrs Lyle is the daughter of Benjamin Conway – son of Samuel. You also spoke of John Conway of Edinburg Ind. A gr grandson of Samuel Sr. Have you heard from any other kinsman to whom you have been writing. Yours truly, H.C. Ogle Sr. Paris, Ky. Feb. 9th. 1917 Dear Mr. Pohlman:Today I have received your letter written on the 12th. of January. From this reading I find that in the long letter mailed you yesterday, I failed to answer several inquiries you made in one of those letters. This I am returning you with these questions marked. In answer to query in the 1st paragraph will say that gr. gr. father John Conway, his wife, his daughter, Elizabeth and her husband, William Daugherty, and his sons John and Joseph and youngest child Sarah, all came from Virginia to Ky. in 1779. My Uncle Nat Conway once told me that they came from near Richmond, Va. My grandfather was then about 21, Uncle Joe 14, Aunt Sallie 5 or 6. Don’t know the age of Elizabeth but her first born was less than a year old. My grandfather John having then first come to Kentucky 2 years prior to this date as one of a company of soldiers sent out by the governor of Va. to help defend the Fort called Boonesboro. But after serving one year, he returned to Virginia and brought back his father, mother and such other of the family as I have named. There were a number of other emigrants with them. I suggest that you write to the County Clerk of Henrico, Virginia and ask him to examine the marriage records and ascertain whether there are any marriages on record there between John Conway and Elizabeth Bridgewater between 1725-1750. Also Conway to Daugherty, Conway to Clemons, Conway to Wells and Conway to Long. Of course you must include stamps for answer. Find out also whether gr. grandfather owned land in Virginia at any time and if he did at what date the conveyance was made to him. Ascertain also whether John or William Daugherty were landowners. Or Basil Wells. The Daughertys must have been of Irish descent judging from the name. All the early Irish emigrants to Virginia and Pennsylvania were Protestants and most of whom were well educated for that period. Gr. grandfather all the early part of his life was a schoolteacher. As to the query about the place of their burial I cannot tell you with any certainty, but it must have been not far from where my gr. father lived as both of them died at his house 4 0 miles north of Millersburg in this county. The old man in 1801 and his wife in 1809. There is on my grandfather’s farm, a graveyard where he and his wife are buried. His 3 sons and his wife, Nat, William and John Jr. and their wives, also several of his grand children. Possibly this is the burial place of gr. grandfather and mother. Samuel Conway and his brother Jesse came to Kentucky after the close of the Revolutionary War. I am not able to tell you just when but he bought land in Bourbon Co. in 1791. As to the query whether I know of any member of the Conway family having been enrolled in the order of the D.A.R. Will say I know of one, Miss Hazel Overby of Paris, Ky. She is the Great great granddaughter of my grandfather John Conway. At her request a few years ago I wrote her lineage “Abstract of Title” as you Missouri people say about title to lands. She told me afterwards that she was enrolled.

I suggest that you write her. She is a sprightly young lady and good looking and finely educated. She will tell you about the order. Address – Miss Hazel Overby – Stenographer Paris, Ky. Her great grandmother was my mother’s sister. Yours truly H.C. Ogle Sr. Home of J.M. Conway near Millersburg, Ky. August 18, 1917 Mr. George Pohlman, Jr. Macon, Mo. My Dear Sir: I am here on a visit to my cousin James Conway who owns the old Conway home originally settled by my grandfather, John Conway over 100 years ago. The house built by him sometime between 1790 and 1800 is still in a fair state of preservation and if kept covered will last at least 100 years more. In this home your wife’s ancestor Samuel Conway has often been a guest. Also his brothers Jesse and Joseph & their sister Elizabeth, the wife of Wm. Daugherty. And in this house my great grandfather John Conway died in 1801 and my great grandmother in 1809. My mother had a very vivid recollection of her. She said she died from a cancer on her forehead. At another time I will tell you more of the history of our ancestors. I am planning to go on a visit next week to my nephews and nieces in Robertson Co. This is 12 miles N.E. of this place. I will remain there until after the 15th Sept. Would be glad to hear from you. My address will be Piquia, Robertson Co. Ky. I am enclosing herein part of a Cynthiana Ky. paper. In it you will find a very interesting article written by a Mr. McClintok who was raised in this neighborhood. Show it to the publisher of your county paper. Yours truly H.C. Ogle Sr. Macon, Missouri August 27, 1917 Wisconsin State Library Madison, Wisconsin Dear Sir: I am enclosing certain letters and copies of records of the Conway family. I have been making inquiry about this family for some years and I have had the benefit of all these records and hundreds of letters, and I feel that I am in position to make some comment on these papers that I am mailing to you in order that you may be understood in case they are ever referred to by one who is not posed on the history of the family. First the letter of Chas. J. Conway of Chicago, Ill. under the date of February 23rd, 1912, he was at that time Deputy County Clerk of Cook County, Illinois. He gives a short outlined history of his line of Conways. In the third paragraph of his letter he says that two of the sons were wounded at the Battle of Ruddle’s Mill and they left Kentucky and all trace of them was lost. That may have been so in part, but the two brothers that he refers to were Samuel Conway and his brother Jesse Conway. Samuel Conway settled in Pendleton County, Kentucky at the close of the Revolutionary War and later came to Missouri and finally settled in Marion County, Missouri about the year 1825, about four miles from Hannibal, Missouri, where he died in 1830 and lies buried in the old Bush Family cemetery.

The other brother, Jesse Conway, settled in Madison County, Illinois and has left numerous descendants there. The Conways of Arkansas are in no way related to our line I have just explained what happened to the two missing brothers. The John Conway that Chas. Conway mentions in the first paragraph of his letter as being the original emigrant, is the same on mentioned by Mrs. Rhoda Ground in Draper 29 J 18 as John Conoway. The accompanying record taken from the old Conway Bible now in our possession gives names and dates and births of all the children of John Conway and his wife Elizabeth Bridgewater. You will note he had a son John Conway, who was also made a prisoner at the Battle of Ruddle’s Mill at the same time his brother Joseph was taken prisoner. The next list gives the names and dates of birth of the family of Samuel Conway that I mentioned as having lived in Marion County, Missouri. My wife being a great-great granddaughter of the mentioned Samuel Conway. In this letter from Henry C. Ogle a Conway descendant through John Conway Jr., being a grandson, this letter dated July 2, 1912, he give a fuller history of the family, giving a good account of the capture of Ruddle’s Mill and the captivity of the Conway family, including Joseph Conway. At the bottom of page 1 and on page 2 he give an account of the life history of Joseph Conway. He mentions the fact that two daughters of John Conway and his wife Elizabeth, married brothers named Long, but all trace of them was lost. I feel certain that the John Long referred to in Draper Mss. 29 J 18 was a son-in-law of John Conway Sr. and that Mrs. Rhoda Ground was a daughter of John Long and a granddaughter of John Conway. Ogle also refers to the captivity of Sarah Conway, the youngest daughter and was seven years old at the time that the fort was taken and her life among the Indians, her subsequent rescue as told by her grandson, Thos. J. Underwood in his letter dated September 17th, 1888 to Henry Ogle of Paris, Ky. In the letter of July 2nd, 1912 to me Ogle corrects and explains some misstatements in the letter of Thos. J. Underwood. In that letter Ogle also tells me about the two Conway sisters marrying men named Long. You can easily connect that with the visit of Reuben and Lawrence Long to Missouri with Joseph Conway in 1796 as told in Draper Mss. 19 J 18. I feel certain that they were relatives of Conway. There were also some of the Long and Underwood family in Pike County, Missouri in a very early day. In the letter of September 5, 1912 to me, H.C. Ogle give a fuller history of the Conway family telling more about Joseph Conway and the capture of Ruddle’s Mill and also about Samuel Conway, the oldest son of the family and told about him and his family. He mentions “Polly Brumfield”, - this name should be “Polly or Mary Brownfield”. She was the oldest daughter of Samuel Conway and was the wife of John Brownfield, they lived near Urbana and Champaign, Illinois, and left numerous descendants there. She was born in April 1785. Then you will find a copy of an old letter in 1843 from John Conway and his wife Anna Conway to his nephew in St. Louis County, Missouri. This John Conway was the son of the original emigrant, John Conway, and was born in 1758. Married to Anna Sutton. The Joseph Conway to whom the letter was directed was a son of Joseph Conway who came to Missouri in 1796, and was a brother of Samuel Conway who gave Dr. Draper the interview in Draper 24 S 169-176. On the last page you will find a record of the family of Joseph Conway who was scalped by the Indians and settled in Missouri in 1797. Also have some more information about John Conway Jr. born in 1758 that I will send later as I cannot get it at the present time. Respectfully, George Pohlman Jr. 320 Lamb Ave. Macon, Missouri ) DAVIS, GEORGE. There was a George Davis who sold land in Rockingham County, VA in 1779 and could very well be the same man who was serving at Ruddell's Station from March 10 to June 26, 1780. DAVIS, THOMAS Born about 1768. He later married Sarah Ruddell. ( Thomas and Sarah (Ruddell) Davis Subject: Sarah RUDDELL and Thomas DAVIS Date: Sun, 14 Jun 1998 08:53:56 -0400 From: "Stephen Maul" <phc-mti@nb.net> To: "Bob Francis" <darby@visi.net> Thanks Bob for starting this list! Great idea.

My wife is related to Sarah RUDDELL and Thomas DAVIS who were both captured when they were about 12 years old. I think they were held captive for about 4 years. After their release they returned to VA. Some time later, 1791, they were married. They moved back into KY and later to MO. Some reports list Sarah as a daughter of Isaac RUDDELL, but this is an error. Isaac was her uncle, Archibald was her father. Thomas DAVIS's family presumably were settlers near the fort and had taken refuge at the fort. I know nothing about his family but I hope this list will help me find something. I accumulated the following from various sources: Sarah Ruddell was 12 years old as was Thomas Davis, whom she later married, when they were carried away, captive, by the British and Indians from Ruddle's Station in 1780. Just why she was there is a moot question. The Ruddells seem to have been a closely knit clan, her brother James, was in the garrison there, and it may be that she had come to visit him and her Uncle Isaac's family. (Sarah has been reported incorrectly to be the daughter of Isaac.) It is probable that Thomas and his parents were among the settlers living around Ruddle's Station., and that they hurried there for protection when the attack was imminent. Sarah and Thomas were led away captive. They remained among the Shawnee Indians for a number of years. Presumably they returned to VA when released; Thomas was still there when he married Sarah in 1791. Just when they left VA and moved to KY is not certain but, in 1802 Elizabeth their daughter was born in KY. They, with their children, moved to Pike Co., MO about 1825 - 1828. The 1830 census for Pike Co., MO listed Thomas Davis, 6070, with 1 male 15-20 (William?), 1 female 5-10 (a gr. dau.?) 1 female 20-30 (probably Sarah T. just prior to her marriage), and 1 female 60-70 (Sarah Ruddell Davis). *In 1850 census, Sarah, then age 82, living with her son William in Pike Co., MO. Sarah and Thomas's daughter, Sarah T. married Rev. Thomas Johnson, a Methodist preacher, who founded the Old Shawnee Mission in what is now Johnson County, KS. When she came to live with her daughter she found many Shawnees who had known in Ohio when in captivity. They were much attached to her before she was rescued and they were greatly pleased to have her with them there. She knew the Shawnee language as well as she knew her own and the Shawnees spent hours and hours talking to her about old times. ) DAVIS, JOHN Brother of Samuel Davis.. DAVIS, SAMUEL (1765--). Brother of John Davis. He was born in Pennsylvania. He came to Ruddell's Station from Rockingham County, Virginia in 1779. He enlisted in Captain Ruddell's company. A Samule Davis was listed as a prisoner among the Indians in 1783. After his captivity he lived in Mercer County, Kentucky. He received a pension in 1834 which stated "in 1779 soldiers father moved from Rockingham Cty VA to Riddle's Station in what is now Bourbon Cty KY (then in VA) & soldier lived there & enlisted there under his brother Lt John Davis & was taken prisoner by the Shawnee Indians & after his release he returned to KY & settled at Danville in Mercer Cty KY & lived there until the death of his wife about 1829 & had been living amongst his children of which some were in Mercer Cty KY some in Todd Cty KY & some in Henry Cty KY where he had been since Aug 1833, soldier was born 1765 in PA." DAVIS, WILLIAM He served at Ruddell's Station from March 10 to June 24, 1780 and was probably captured. DAVIS, ISAAC Captive of the Indians in 1782. DENTON, JOHN Sr. (c. 1742-1824) Son of Robert and Jane (Moon) Denton was born about 1742 in Hampshire Co., VA. He was held captive at Montreal with most of his family until their release in July of 1783.He was married to Elizabeth Johnson about 1767 in Virginia. After his return from captivity he and his family settled in Garrard Co., KY. He died 1824 in Miller Co., AR. John and his wife had one son named Henry Denton who was born about 1778 and does not appear on any prisoner return. It's possible he was captured with the family. John was the grandfather of noted frontiersman, John Bumard Denton, for whom Denton, Texas was named. Refer to Land Acquisition DENTON, ELIZABETH (JOHNSON) (c.1752--) Wife of John Denton Sr. was born about 1752. She was held captive with her family at Montreal until their release in July of 1783. DENTON, JAMES (1770-1827) Son of John and Elizabeth Denton was born 1770. He married Sarah Clarkson about 1794. He died 1827. The city and county of Denton in Texas is named after his son James B. Denton who was killed by the Indians. DENTON, MARY (c.1770--) Daughter of John and Elizabeth Denton was born about 1770 in hardy Co., VA. She was

held captive among the Indians and appeared in a list of prisoners held by the Indians in 1782. She later married John Burnside. DENTON, JANE (c.1775--) Daughter of John and Elizabeth Denton was born about 1775 in Hardy County, VA. She was held captive with her parents at Montreal until her release in 1782. She later married James Ball. DENTON, JOHN Jr. (c.1777-1821) Son of John and Elizabeth Denton was born about 1777. He was held captive with his parents at Montreal until their release in July of 1783. He married Nancy Arnold April 27, 1808 in Garrard Co., KY. He died in 1821. DENTON, PARTHANIA (c.1778-~--) Daughter of John and Elizabeth Denton was born about 1778. She was held captive at Montreal with her parents until their release in July of 1783. She later married John Stevens in 1800. DEWITT, HENRY DEWITT, MARGY (RUDDELL). WIFE, DAUGHTER OF ISAAC AND ELIZABETH RUDDELL DOUGHERTY, JOHN. Listed as a prisoner with Elizabeth Dougherty and Jesse Dougherty and sent from Detroit to Montreal for exchange. He may have been the husband of Elizabeth Conway and father of Jesse though family records indicated the husband of Elizabeth and father of Jesse was William Dougherty. DOUGHERTY, ELIZABETH (CONWAY) (1760----) Daughter of John and Elizabeth Conway was born April 16, 1760 in Virginia. She married William or John Dougherty about 1778 in Kentucky. Listed among prisoners sent from Niagra and arrived at Montreal, October 4, 1782. According to an August 23, 1783 issue of the Pennsylvania Gazette, "Betsy Dougherty" was also listed as a prisoner among the Indians. Many others in the list were from Ruddell's and Martin's stations including her sister Mary (Conway) Long. DOUGHERTY, JESSE (1781----) Son of William (or John) and Elizabeth Dougherty and was bom about 1781 in Detroit while his parents were prisoners. EDDLEMAN, CATHERINE. Widow of David Eddleman. The Moravian Diaries report on 1776 July 31, "Mr. Edelman came from Holston's River to take his wife and children thither from Abbott's Creek. He said there was much unrest on account of the Indians, but the people were not frightened and thought they could protect themselves against the enemy." The Eddleman's came to Kentucky about 1778 and the family settled at Logan's Station where David served in Captain Richard May's company. In April of 1779 he was transferred to Captain Isaac Ruddell's company and followed them to the Licking River and started construction on Ruddell's Station. David was in service at Ruddell's station throughout 1779 and probably died during the winter. His wife was received a settlement certificate for land in Kentucky which said the land was settled in 1778. She is listed among the prisoners taken by the Indians reported in the Pennsylvania Gazette, August 13, 1783. Catherine after her captivity married John Burger a fellow captive at Ruddell's station. She died in Indiana. Refer to Land Acquisition EDDLEMAN, JOHN (c.1776-c.1839) Son of David and Catherine Eddleman was born about 1776 in North Carolina. He married Mary Zumwalt March 4, 1799 in Bourbon Co., KY and they had several children. John moved to Indiana in 1811, buying 160 acres that year from the U.S. Government. The land was located in Harrison Co., IN where Buffalo Trace crossed Little Indian Creek. He built a sawmill and later a grist mill on that farm. He died about 1839. EDDLEMAN, DANIEL (c.1779-1867) Son of David and Catherine Eddleman was born May 31, 1769. He married Sarah Rich April 7, 1798 in Bourbon Co., KY. "Daniel Eddleman, with his mother and brother, was sheltered in a strong cabin... and while there they were attacked by Indians and Daniel was taken by Indians to near Lafayette, where he was kept until 12 years old, when he was returned to Kentucky and claimed by his mother. He is listed among the prisoners taken by the Indians reported in the Pennsylvania Gazette, August 13, 1783. It is thought Daniel's brother James was killed or burned to death by the Indians. Daniel died in Jackson County, Indiana, aged 98. He was a hunter, trapper, and loved hunting better than farming. He learned the Indian method of counting on fingers: 'nequita, nesway, netheny, narroway, nollony, cutatha, nesothy, sathaky, sockaty, and metathy' and then up to 100 or more by doubling the hands, etc. Eddelmans came to Decatur County in early twenties and settled in Jackson Township. Their log cabin was replaced..." (History of Decatur Co., IN) He died 1867 in Decatur Co., IN aged 98 years. FISHER~ MARY (c.1747----) Born about 1747 according to British prisoner returns, she was captured at Ruddell's Station. She was sent from Detroit to Montreal May 16, 1782 and released from captivity in August of 1782. She may have been the wife of Jacob Fisher who served at Ruddell's Station in 1779.

FISHER, ELIZABETH. According to an August 23, 1783 issue of the Pennsylvania Gazette, Elizabeth was listed as a prisoner among the Indians. Many others in the list were from Ruddell's and Martin's stations, but its not certain she is related to Mary Fisher of Ruddell's Station. FISHER, FREDERICK. According to an August 23, 1783 issue of the Pennsylvania Gazette, Frederick was listed as a prisoner among the Indians. Many others in the list were from Ruddell's and Martin's stations, but its not certain she is related to Mary Fisher of Ruddell's Station. GOODNIGHT ISAAC When the Indians killed Isaac's father, Michael Goodnight, Elizabeth, his mother, was expecting him.
They had returned to NC to get their household effects. They were a part of a caravan composed of other pioneer families who were guarded by 30 armed men. No serious mishap befell the train until the train was within half a day's journey of the fort at Harlan's Station. All seemed secure, but at midnight, Sep. 1, 1781 the fearful cry of the savage was heard followed by gun shot, screams and confusion. Michael Goodnight was killed in the first onslaught and his son, John was severely wounded, but he succeeded to make his escape. Mrs. Goodnight, who was in a delicate condition at the time, fled into the dark forest. Many of the emigrants were massacred, but a few escaped to the fort where the alarm was given. A party was made up to search for Mrs. Goodnight and she was found two days later in the woods lying prostrate upon the ground in a semi-conscious state, her face covered with a blanket. She was taken to the fort and four months later, Jan 1, 1782, Isaac Goodnight was born. A curious circumstance, preserved in the family traditions, is that from his birth until the day of his death, Isaac could never go to sleep without a cover over his face. SOURCE: The Louisville Times Newspaper, Sep. 5, 1903 furnished by D. Collins. NOTE: Isaac Goodnight was traveling with Daniel Boone at the time he was killed and had gone back and forth from North Carolina to Kentucky several times. He had gone back to get his family and household goods.

GOODNIGHT GEORGE (c.1707-1780) A native of Germany he was born "Gerik Gudknecht" in 1707. He came to Philadelphia aboard the ship Recovery on October 25, 1754. He was killed on June 24, 1780 during the raid on Ruddell's Station. GOODNIGHT, CATHERINE. Wife of George Goodnight. GOODNIGHT, JOHN (c.1760-c.1820) Son of George and Catherine Goodnight was born about 1760 in Rowan County, North Carolina. He died about 1820 in Casey County, Kentucky. Refer to Land Acquisition (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to John Smith) John Goodnight this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on Hingstons fork about 5 Miles from the Mouth thereof and about 4 Miles from Riddles Station by making an Actual Settlement in April 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Goodnight has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. GOODNIGHT, CHRISTINA (c.1762--) Daughter of George and Catherine Goodnight was born about 1762 in Rowan County, North Carolina. She married Thomas Station. GOODNIGHT, PETER (c.1764-1844) Son of George and Catherine Goodnight was born about 1764 in Rowan County, North Carolina. He died in 1844 in Hamilton County, Illinois. He married Nancy Forhan. GOODNIGHT, DAVID (c.1765-c.1819) Son of George and Catherine Goodnight was born about 1765 in Rowan County, North Carolina. He never married and died about 1819 in Fayette County, Kentucky. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Jno Smith) David Goodnight this day claimed a preemption of 404) Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky lying on Johnson Creek about 3 Miles from the Mouth thereof upon the North East side of Licking Creek & six miles below the blue lick by making an Actual settlement April 1779. satisfactory proof proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Goodnight has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert issue accordingly. GOODNIGHT, MICHAEL (c.1766-1851) Son of George and Catherine Goodnight was born about 1766 in Rowan County, North Carolina. He died August 1851 in Muhlenburg County, Kentucky. GOODNIGHT, ELIZABETH (c.1770-c.1859) Daughter of George and Catherine Goodnight was born about 1770 in Rowan County, North Carolina. Elizabeth remained a prisoner until she was 22 years old. She died about 1859 in Ripley County, Indiana. GOODNIGHT, S. CATHERINE (c.1777----). Daughter of George and Catherine Goodnight was born about 1772 in Rowan County, North Carolina. She married a British officer in Canada. She died in England.

GROFF, HENRY. No further record. (Listed in Maud Lafferty's article.) HARLAN, SILAS. Silas Harlan, a pioneer, was born on March 17, 1753 in Berkeley County, West Virginia, the son of George and Ann (Hurst) Harlan. Journeying to Kentucky with James Harrod in 1774, Harlan served as scout, hunter, and military leader of the rank of major. Harlan assisted Harrod's party in Harrodsburg to pick up gunpowder to be delivered to the Kentucky settlers to assist them against the British in the Revolutionary War. Harlan built a log stockade with the help of his uncle Jacob and his brother James near Danville known as "Harlan's Station." Harlan served under George Rogers Clark in the Illinois campaign of 1778-79 against the British. He also commanded a company in John Bowman's raid on Old Chillicothe in 1779, and assisted Clark in establishing Fort Jefferson at the mouth of the Ohio River in 1780. Silas Harlan died leading the advance party at the Battle of Blue Licks on August 19, 1782. At the time of his death Harlan was engaged to Sarah Caldwell, who later married his brother James and became the grandmother of U.S. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan. [The British Captain William Caldwell had gathered a band of some 500 Indians and led raids on several unprotected outpost settlements including Bryan's Station, located five miles northeast of Lexington. After three days of futile fighting, the Indians began a retreat to the Ohio border. The Kentucky volunteers followed in pursuit and were ambushed at Blue Licks in a short battle, being outnumbered three to one. Sixty men were killed including three of the commanders, Colonels Todd and Trigg and Major Silas Harlan (see story of Silas Harlan in “Who’s Who in Harlans”), and Daniel Boone's second son. Silas was buried on the south side of the Licking River at the Blue Licks, so named for a fine salt spring. (from http://www.harlanfamily.org)] HINKSON, JOHN (c.1729-1789) A native of Ireland, he was born about 1729, the son of John and Agnes Hinkson. The Hinksons settled in Cumberland Co., PA at an early day and about 1765 John returned to Ireland where he married Margaret McCracken. He settled in Westmoreland Co., PA at an old Delaware Indian town called Squirrel Hill about 1769. He and James Cooper were well known as the murderers of the aged Delaware Indian named Joseph Wipey in 1774 and the same year he volunteered as a lieutenant in Lord Dunmore's War. He served as captain of a company of rangers during the American Revolution and participated in General Edward Hand's unsuccessful campaign of 1778 known as the "Squaw campaign." He made two trips to Kentucky in 1775 and 1776 where he and others made improvements near the future site of Ruddell's station later called Hinkson's Station. He returned again in 1780 with his family leaving them at Louisville while he went to Ruddell's Station. After his capture he made a daring escape and brought the first news of the station capture to the settlers at Lexington. After the Revolution he settled in Bourbon Co., KY where he served as a militia officer in the county eventually attaining the rank of colonel. In 1789 he went to the Spanish territory of Missouri to look at the land in where he sickened and died. John and his wife, Margaret, had nine children. HON, MARIA (KNODLER) (c. 1744-1834) Wife of Joseph Hon (Indian captive in Blue Jacket's family) was born about 1744 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She married Joseph Hon Sr. January 27, 1765 in Philadelphia, PA. Maria's husband was away from the fort when she and her children were captured. She was a captive of the Indians and was adopted into the family of Chief Blue Jacket were she was a cook for the tribe. She died September 20, 1834 in Powell County, KY. HON, CATHERINE (c.1768-c.1853) Daughter of Joseph and Maria Hon was born about 1768 in Pennsylvania. She was a prisoner among the Indians and was ransomed at Detroit by a Mr. Fry who may have been Ensign Philip Fry, an ensign in Bird's army and surveyor on Grosse Ile. She married first to Charles Monger and may have had one child, Joseph Munger. She married second to Joseph Ferriss about 1790. She died about 1853 in Colchester, Essex Co., Ontario, Canada. HON, JOSEPH Jr. (1774-1859) Son of Joseph and Maria Hon was born May 18, 1774 in Pennsylvania. He was a captive among the Indians and was given the Indian name Katch-e-ka-be. Joseph Hon and Eleanor Cave were married on August 25, 1795 in Clark County, Kentucky and they had several children. He died June 6, 1859 in Montgomery County, KY. HON, MARGARET. Daughter, born in Pennsylvania, married Mr. Sip. HON, MARY "POLLY." Daughter, born in Pennsylvania, married Mr. Miller.

KARSNER, CASPER (cl750-1797) He served in Captain John Hopkin's company during Lord Dunmore's War in 1774. He came to Kentucky about 1778 and and served in Captain Benjamin Logan's company at Logan's Station in 1779. He he later served in Captain Isaac Ruddell's company at Ruddell's Station until his capture in 1780. He was sent to Fort Ticonderoga July 18, 1783 where he was released from captivity. He married Eva Lail about 1786 in Kentucky after his return from captivity. Refer to Land Acquisition KRATZ, JOHANN LEONARD (1756-1829) Born February 17,1756, Duedenhofen, Germany, and died August 12, 1829 in Essex County, Ontario, Canada. KRATZ, MARIA (MANGER) (c.1758-c.1840) Wife, daughter of William Monger (Indian captive), born about 1758, in Frederick County, Virginia and died about 1840 in Essex County, Ontario, Canada. KRATZ, PETER (c.1779-1780) He was the son of Leonard and Mary Kratz and was just an infant when the Indians killed him during the march northward to Detroit. LAIL, PETER Sr. Son of Hans Georg and Maria Elizabeth (Ruedes) Lohl (George Lail Sr.) who came to the American Colonies in 1737. The Indians killed him when Ruddell's station was captured. LAIL, MARY (-----c.1821) She was wife of Peter Lail and was adopted into and Indian family. John Tofflemire related to draper the following, "A young Dutch woman was solicited to marry a very ugly looking Indian, and she at first stoutly refused, and as a punishment for her unfeeling obstinacy, the Indians forced her to swallow a pint of bear's oil, which she was afraid might kill her; and she was finally compelled to accept of the chosen Indian husband, and had a son by him. She finally got away from the Indians, leaving her boy behind, and married a German named Jacob Markle [Miracle], probably a captive from Ruddell's Station, and settled in Canada, and both lived to be very aged, and died in Colchester." (Draper 20S:218) From the Kentucky Gazette, addressed to Peter "Lale," Kentucky: "COLCHESTER, (U.C.) August 7, 1821. "My Dear Sir -- I was taken .... Fort Licking, commanded by Capt. Ruddle, and was ransomed by Col. Magee, and brought into Upper Canada, near Amherstburg, [Fort Malden] where I now live, and after having been 10 years among the Indians. Your eldest sister is now living in Sandwich, but the youngest I never hear of. Now, my dear son, I would be very glad to see you once more before I die, which I do not think will be long as I am in a very bad state of health and have been this great while. I am married to Mr. Jacob Miracle, for whom you can inquire. Your affectionate mother, MARY MIRACLE" (Painesville, Ohio Telegraph, 1822 LAIL,__________ Daughter of Peter and Mary Lail who married and lived at Sandwich, Canada. LAIL, CATARINAH. Daughter of Peter and Mary Lail. Catarinah may have been the young girl who was recovered from the Indians in 1786. She was mentioned as "Ladle" and it mentioned her father was killed when the station was attacked and her mother was a prisoner among the Indians. She later married William Boyd. LAIL, PETER Jr. Son of Peter and Mary Lail. No further record. LAIL, GEORGE Jr. (1737-1797) Son of Hans Georg and Maria Elizabeth (Ruedes) Lohl born January 6, 1737 in Germany. He died August 7, 1797 in Bourbon Co., KY. Refer to Land Acquisition LAIL, MARGARET (1736-1815) Wife of George Lail. She was born May 5,1736 in Germany and died June 8, 1815 in Bourbon Co., KY. LAIL, MARGARET (c.1762--) Daughter of George and Margaret Lail. She later married Andrew Charles Zumwalt. LAIL, EVELEAS "EVA" (1766--) Daughter of George and Margaret Lail was bom 1766 in Rowan Co., NC. Eva was a prisoner among the Indians on Mad River and after several months made her escape and returned to Lexington. She married Casper Karsner a fellow captive about 1786. She was married second to William Dunlap on August 7, 1797. LAIL, ELIZABETH (c.1756-c. 1832) Daughter of George and Margaret Lail was bom about 1768 in Rowan Co., NC. She married John Martin Franks at Detroit, MI. LAIL, GEORGE III (1773-1853) Son of George and Margaret Lail was born in 1773 in Mecklenburg Co., NC. He died in 1853. He married Louisa Wolf.

LAIL, JOHN (1776---) Son of George and Margaret Lail was born February 16, 1776 in Mecklenburg Co., NC. He married Mary Susan Williams about 1799 in Harrison Co., KY. He married second to Mary Baxter Brown. LAIL, HENRY (c.1753-c.1830) Son (or nephew) of Hans Georg and Maria Elizabeth (Ruedes) Uhl. He may have married a Shawnee woman and had two son named George W. and John. He returned to North Carolina eventually moving to Tennessee then Arkansas where he died. LAYSON, ROBERT. LEONARD, MICHAEL (1766--). Bom in the spring of 1766 in Rowan Co., NC. He came to Ruddell's Station in 1779. He was taken to the Shawnee Indian town and was compelled to run the gauntlet. He said that an Indian became angry at him one day at breakfast and hit him in the head with a tomahawk which nearly killed him. He was eventually taken to Detroit and remained a prisoner until 1783 when he was set free. He returned to Kentucky in 1784 and settled in Bourbon Co. He applied for a pension in 1835 while he lived in Grant Co., KY. LEONARD, __________ (--1780). Husband of Katrina Leonard. He was killed by the Indians during-the attack on Ruddell's Station. LEONARD, KATRINA "KITTY." Wife of __________Leonard and was recovered from the Indians in 1786. LINK, JOHN Sr. (c.1742-~--) Son of John and Margaret (Zumwalt) Link, natives of Germany, and he was born about 1742. John's father was killed by the Indians at Link's blockhouse, PA in 1781. The Link family was sent from Detroit to Montreal by order of Arent Schuyler De Peyster on May 16, 1782. John appeared on a prisoner return dated November 3, 1782 where it mentioned that he "remains on an island at Coteau du Lac where he has obtained permission to build a house." LINK, MARGARET (c.1747--) She was the wife of John Link. LINK, JOHN Jr. (c.1770----) Son of Johan and Margaret Link was bom about 1770. (He may be the same John Link who married Mary Funkhouser December 8, 1800 in Shenandoah Co., VA.) LINK, CATHERINE (c.1773-c.1856) Daughter of John and Margaret Link was born about 1773. She married Michael Copp December 29, 1791 in Shenandoah Co., VA. She died about 1856. LINK, MOLLY (c.1775--) Daughter of John and Margaret Link was born about 1775. LINK, SARAH (cf.1777) Daughter of John and Margaret Link was born about 1777. LONG, JONATHAN. Jonathan Long and his wife were listed as prisoners among the Indians in 1782. He was captured with his wife and five children. LONG, MARY (CONWAY) (1755--) Daughter of John and Elizabeth Conway was born January 11, 1755. She was listed with her husband as a prisoner among the Indians in 1782. LONG, MARY (c.1778-1857) Daughter of Jonathan and Mary Long was a small child when captured and remained a prisoner of the Indians. She died in 1857. LONG, RHODA (1779-1863) Daughter of Jonathan and Mary Long was born July 29,1779 in Kentucky. She married Robert Ground November 24, 1798 in Mercer Co., KY. She died November 17, 1863 in Warren Co., KY. LONG, WILLIAM. No further record. MCCUNE, WILLIAM (c.1751-1830) Son of John and Agnes (Hinkson) McCune was born about 1751 in Cumberland Co., PA. He was the half-brother of John Hinkson and settled near him in Westmoreland Co., PA about 1769. He accompanied Hinkson's party to Kentucky in 1780 leaving his family at Lousville, KY. He attempted to escape from his captors during the march to Detroit, but it was foiled where he was then put in irons for the remainder of the journey. He was married to Elizabeth McClintock before 1770 and they had six children. He settled in Harrison Co., KY after his release then moved to Pike Co., MO where he died on December 6, 1830. MCDANIEL, ENEAS (c.1724-1802) He was born about 1724 (prisoner lists in Canada showed his birth around 1718). He was married to Sydney and settled in the Ligonier Valley in Westmoreland Co., PA. He followed Captain John Hinkson's company to Kentucky in 1776 where he and his sons made land improvements on Townsend Creek. He returned again to Kentucky in 1780 and was captured with his two sons Robert and Alexander. Eneas and his sons were kept at Montreal until October of 1782 where they were sent to America and paroled in November. He later married

Isabella and settled in Bourbon County on land he had previously surveyed. He died in September of 1802 in Bourbon County, Kentucky. MCDANIEL, ROBERT (c.1760-) Son of Eneas and Sydney McDaniel was born about 1760. On April 23, 1834 deposed "he was living in Captain Isaac Ruddle's Station when he was taken by the British and Indians on the 24th day of June 1780 and... carried to Detroit, where [they were] kept as prisoners until the month of October 1782 when he was liberated." MCDANIEL, ALEXANDER (c.1764--) Son of Eneas and Sydney McDaniel was born about 1764. He is listed among the captives released in the month of October 1782. MCFALL, JOHN Sr. (c.1728-c.1807) John McFall is listed among the prisoners "taken from their farms" during the attacks on Ruddell's and Martin's forts. MCFALL, BARBARA. Mrs. McFall was the wife of John McFall and was captured with her family at Ruddell's Station. She was liberated in 1782 during George Rogers Clark's raid into Ohio. She is listed alongside her husband, John, in the Pennsylvania Gazette article, dated August 13, 1783, as a prisoner of the Indians. In the 1846 History of Ohio, the reminiscences of Abraham Thomas were published and said "a party of Indians on horseback with their squaws came out of a trace that led to some Indian villages near the present site of Granville. They were going on a frolic, or powwow, to be held at Piqua, and had with them a Mrs. McFall, who was some time before taken prisoner from Kentucky; the Indians escaped into the woods leaving their women, with Mrs. McFall, to the mercy of our company. We took those along with us to Piqua and Mrs. McFall returned to Kentucky. MCFALL, JOHN Jr. Son of John and Barbara McFall. He is listed in the Pennsylvania Gazette article, dated August 13, 1783, as a prisoner of the Indians MCFALL, PATRICK (c.1767--) Son of John and Barbara McFall was born about 1767. Patrick McFall is listed among the prisoners "taken from their farms" during the attacks on Ruddell's and Martin's forts. MCFALL, JOSEPH (c.1769-1821) Son of John and Barbara McFall was born about 1769. He was held captive with his father at Montreal and was released with him. He returned to Kentucky and married Mary "Polly" Marsh October 5, 1793 in Bourbon Co., KY. He died in 1821 in Bartholomew Co., IN. MCFALL, MARGARET (c.1771--) Daughter of John and Barbara McFall was born about 1771. She was held captive with his father at Montreal and was released with him. MCFALL, SARAH (c.1773-) Daughter of John and Barbara McFall was born about 1773. She was held captive with his father at Montreal and was released with him. MCMULLEN, WILLIAM (c.1726--) He was 54 when he was captured at Ruddell's Station in 1780. William Craycraft, son of Major Charles Craycraft, wrote his remembrances of his father's acquaintances with McMillen while they were captives at Detroit and Montreal. MAKEMSON, JOHN. He lived at Ruddell's Station in 1780, but it's not certain he was present when the station was captured. He eventually settled in Harrison Co., KY. MANGER, JOHANN WILHELM (1720-1786) He was born in Waltzheim, Germany and was the son of Johan David and Susanna (Weyss) Manger. In America the Manger family were known as "Monger." He was an early blacksmith in Watlzheim and immigrated to Philadelphia in 1749 aboard the ship Dragon. He married Susanna Brodbeck on November 21, 1742 in Waltzheim. William settled in Frederick Co., VA before 1755 and was a blacksmith in the town of Winchester. During the French and Indian War he was a blacksmith for George Washington's army. In 1762 he moved his family to Naked Creek near the present day town of Elkton. He died in 1786 on Hog Island, Michigan Territory. MANGER, SUSANNA (BRODBECK-) (1723-c.1795) Daughter of Johann Wilhelm and Barbara (Deimer) Brodbeck) was born in Waltzheim, Germany. She died after 1792 in Canada. MANGER, HEINRICH WILHELM (1762-1819) William was born in Augusta (now Rockingham) Co., Virginia. He followed his parents to Kentucky in 1779 and served in Captain Isaac Ruddell's company. After his capture he was taken to Detroit where he joined Colonel Butler's Rangers. He served in the rangers for three years. He settled on Grosse Ile about 1787 and later received land grants in the Colchester, Canada area. He died in in Essex Co., Ontario, Canada leaving two daughters.

MANGER, JOHANN KARL (1764-1794) Charles was born in Augusta (now Rockingham) Co., Virginia. He followed his parents to Kentucky in 1779 and served in Captain Isaac Ruddell's company. After his capture he was taken to Detroit where he joined the rangers. He settled at Grosse Ile about 1787. He married first to Catherine Hon and had one son. He later married Christena Sycks about 1790 and had three daughters, one of whom died young. He died in 1794 during the Battle of Fallen Timbers. MARKLE, JACOB. MARSHALL, WILLIAM. William was taken to Montreal as a prisoner. MARSHALL, JOHN. No record (listed in Maud Lafferty's article). PURSLEY, MR. (----1780) Killed by the Indians and may have been the husband father of the listed Pursley individuals. PURSLEY, MRS. "The paternal great-grandmother of our subject was a woman of courage, and during the Revolutionary War when her husband was wounded by Indians in the British service, she hurried to his side, lifted him up on the horse she rode and although under constant fire from the enemy, escaped from the field. He was destined, however, to meet his death at the hands of the hostile Indians, who afterwards effected their purpose - killing him." (Portrait and Biographical Album of Washington, Clay and Riley Counties Kansas) PURSLEY, ELIZABETH ANN (1764-1857) Born July 5,1764 in Virginia. She married George Ludwig Rupert January 1, 1786 in Fayette Co., KY. She died January 6, 1857 in Fayette County, Ohio. Her obituary made mention of her capture in 1780, "Mrs. Rupert was taken prisoner by the Indians, at Riddle's Station, Kentucky, when quite a small girl - about twelve years old. Although some of her friends who were captured at the same time were cruelly treated and killed, yet she was treated kindly by them, and after six months was taken to Detroit and exchanged. She then returned to her friends." PURSLEY, JOHN GEORGE (c.1770-1853) Born about 1770. He married Sarah Jones about 1792 in Harrison Co., KY. "Grandfather Pursley, his brother Benjamin and sister Sarah, were captured by the Indians when the former was seven years old and held in captivity seven years. Upon being released he in 1798 removed to Missouri with Daniel Boone when the city of St. Louis was but a French trading post. Both he and grandfather George Zumwalt were pioneers together and settled near the present city of St. Charles, whose site at that time was marked by a fort [Fort Zumwalt] built as a protection against Indians." (Portrait and Biographical Album of Washington, Clay and Riley Counties Kansas) He died February 3, 1853 in Robertson, Franklin County, Missouri. PURSLEY, JACOB (c.1778-1856) Mentioned as being taken captive by the Indians with his father. He was present at Elizabeth Pursley's marriage to George Rupert in 1786. Jacob was born about 1778 in North Carolina or Kentucky, he married Rachel Rankin on January 1, 1796, Harrison Co., KY. They moved to Fayette Co., OH. No further record. PURSLEY, BENJAMIN. Mentioned as being taken captive by the Indians with his father. No further record. PURSLEY, SARAH. Mentioned as being taken captive by the Indians with her father. No further record. READING, JOHN MULLEN (1760-1833). Son of George and Rebecca (Mullen) Reading was born February 4, 1760 in Hunterdon, Co., New Jersey. His father, Colonel George Reading, wrote many letters back to N.J., copies of which are in Josiah Granville Leach's Memorials of the Reading, Howell, Yerkes, Watts, Latham and Elkins Families. In one letter dated July 16, 1779 he writes: "I purpose sending John down to Kentucky and the falls of the Ohio, in a month or six weeks to take up and secure land. We have the most favorable account of that country. It is land to be desired, where the winter (not like Pharaoh's lean kine) don't devour the summer; withal very healthy... where I hope to... MY days." In several letters he refers to the "long captivity" of his son John, and the pension records of John Mullin Reading state that he was taken prisoner by the Indians at Ruddell's Station and held until May 1783. He married Mary - on August 31, 1787 in Glouchester, New Jersey. He died June 27, 1833. His wife received a pension in 1838. RUDDELL (RIDDLE), ISAAC Sr. (c.1729-1812) Son of John and Mary (Cook) Ruddell was born about 1729 in Culpepper Co., VA. He was married to Elizabeth Bowman about 1756 in Virginia. Captain Isaac Ruddell commanded the fort which bore his name. He and some of his family were taken captive to Montreal. He died February 1812 in Bourbon Co., and is buried in the Old Stonermouth Presbyterian Cemetery, Ruddell's Mills, Kentucky. RUDDELL (RIDDLE), ELIZABETH (BOWMAN) Daughter of George and Mary (Hite) Bowman and wife of Isaac

Ruddell. Taken captive and sent to Montreal. RUDDELL (RIDDLE), JOHN (c.1752-c.1800) Son of Isaac and Elizabeth Ruddell was bom about 1752 in Virginia. Taken captive and sent to Montreal. He died about 1800 in Bourbon Co., KY. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &e pd D. D.) John Riddle by Isaac Riddle this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky lying on licking Creek adjoining the lands belonging to Riddles Station above by the s’d Riddles settling in the Country in the year 1779 in the Month of April satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Riddle has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. RUDDELL (RIDDLE), ISAAC Jr. (c.1754-c.1794) Son of Isaac and Elizabeth Ruddell was born about 1754 in Virginia. He married Nancy Foster June 22, 1790 in Bourbon Co., KY. He died about 1794 in Bourbon Co., KY. RUDDELL (RIDDLE), STEPHEN (1768-1845) Son of Isaac and Elizabeth Ruddell was born September 19,1768 in Frederick Co., VA. He was married four times, first to an Indian while he was captive. He married second to Catherine Kingrey October 02, 1797 in Bourbon Co., KY and then to Susan David July 06, 1809 in Bourbon Co., KY and Rachel Wood April 06,1834 in Lincoln Co., MO. He died October 12, 1845 in Adams Co., IL. (Indian captive, named Sinn-ama-tha "Big Fish") RUDDELL (RIDDLE), ABRAHAM (1774-1841) He was born August 3,1774 in Frederick County, Virginia the son of Isaac and Elizabeth Ruddell. He married Mary Culp August 21, 1797 in Bourbon Co., KY. He died February 25, 1841 in Independence County, Arkansas. RUDDELL (RIDDLE), ELIZABETH (1776--) Daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth Ruddell was born August 26, 1776 in Virginia. She married John Mulherin January 31, 1789 in Bourbon Co., KY. She died in Pike Co., Mo. RUDDELL (RIDDLE), GEORGE (1757-1846) Son of Isaac and Elizabeth Ruddell was born February 14,1757 in Frederick Co., VA. Along with his brother Stephen, George was captured and lived amongst the Indians form many years. He eventually returned and married Theodosia Lynn April 12, 1779 in Kentucky. He died March 10, 1846 in Independence Co., AR. RUDDELL (RIDDLE), THEODOSIA (LYNN) (c.1760-1830) Theodosia died in 1830, the Little Rock Arkansas Gazette took note of her passing. She Was a native of Pennsylvania, it said, "and among the first settlers of Kentucky. ... She was taken prisoner at the siege of Ruddell's Station, by the British and the Indians, in 1772 [1780], and continued with them about two years, in Upper Canada, undergoing many privations and difficulties without a murmur. She received a slight wound during the above siege, while engaged in preparing balls for her husband and others, but this did not deter her from the arduous task, which she had undertaken." RUDDELL (RIDDLE), SARAH (1781-c.1839) Daughter of George and Theodosia Ruddell was born May 17, 1781 at Hog Island near Detroit. She married Nicholas Anger, August 12, 1797 and then to Summers after 1811. She died about 1839. RUDDELL (RIDDLE), JAMES (1758-1835) Son of Archibald Ruddell and was bom August 20,1758 in Shenandoah Co., VA. He returned from captivity in October 1782. He married Jane Mulherin December 29, 1788 in Bourbon Co., KY. He died before 1840 in Boone Co., KY. He received a pension in 1833. RUDDELL (RIDDLE), SARAH (1768-1837) Daughter of Archibald Ruddell and was born October 15, 1768 in Virginia. She married Thomas Davis February 21, 1791 in Shenandoah Co., VA., and died May 15, 1865 in Johnson Co., KS. SELLERS, JOHN (c.1750-1812) Son of Samuel and - (Finley) Sellers was born about 1750 at Shippensburg, Cumberland Co., PA. He married Mary Woods about 1774 in Cumberland Co., PA and soon after moved his family to Westmoreland Co., PA near the Hinksons and McCunes. He served as lieutenant under Captain Hinkson from 1777 until 1780 and served in General Edward Hand's unsuccessful campaign of 1778 known as the "Squaw campaign." He accompanied Hinkson and others to Kentucky in 1776 and made land improvements along the South Fork Licking River four miles north of the site of Ruddell's Station. He brought his family out to Kentucky in 1780 leaving them at Louisville while he went on to Ruddell's station with John Hinkson, William McCune and others. After his capture at the station, he was the first prisoner who made a daring escape before they reached the Ohio River. After the Revolutionary War he settled in Woodford Co., KY with his family. He was a farmer a tanner in Woodford County until his death on January 5, 1812.

SMITH, JOHN Sr. (cl747--) He served at Logan's Station beginning October 7, 1778 then was transferred to Captain Isaac Ruddell's company until August of 1779. He and his family were imprisoned at Montreal, Canada until 1782. Refer to Land Acquisition SMITH, JOHN Jr. (c.1767--) SMITH, PETER (c.1769--) SMITH, MAGDALENA (c.l772--) SMITH, ELIZABETH "LISSY" (c.l775--) SPEARS, CHRISTIAN (--c.1811) As the story goes, Christian Spears and his wife, went to the Fort for protection from the Indians. Prior to being captured she put her wedding ring on her toe and began the march to Detroit. She drowned crossing a river. Christian then marries Ann Mary Burger, daughter of John Burger. Their daughter, Katherine married Abram Warth. Refer to Land Acquisition SPEARS, MRS. wife, died enroute to Detroit. TOFFLEMIRE, MARTIN (c.1749-c.1830) Born 1749 in Maryland, and died about 1830, Essex Co., Ontario. TOFFLEMIRE, ANNA EVA (MANGER) (1748-c.1830) Daughter of Johann Wilhelm and Susanna (Brodbeck) Manger, baptized December 26, 1748, Waltzheim, Germany, died about 1830, Essex Co., Ontario, Canada. The wife of Martin Tofflemire. TOFFLEMIRE, HENRY. son TOFFLEMIRE, JACOB. son TOFFLEMIRE, ABRAHAM. son TOFFLEMIRE,__________ daughter, Mrs. Coyle of Cincinnati, child returned to Kentucky TOFFLEMIRE, WILLIAM. son TOFFLEMIRE, MARY. daughter TRABUE, JAMES (1746-1803) Son of John and Olympia (Dupuy) Trabue was born January 29,1746 in Chesterfield County, Virginia. He made his escape at Montreal in the fall of 1780. He died December 23, 1803 in Charlotte County, Virginia. WILSON, DAVID (c.1747-1821) He was born about 1747 in Pennsylvania. He served as ensign in Captain John Hinkson's company of rangers in Westmoreland Co., PA. He accompanied Hinkson and others to Kentucky in 1780 and was subsequently captured. He was married to Patsy - and died in Bourbon Co., KY about 1821. ZINN, JOHN (1763-1847) He was born June 21, 1763 in Berks Co., PA. He came to Kentucky with his uncle John Link. He married Elizabeth Kiser in Pendleton County, Kentucky on August 10, 1795. He died in Grant County on April 17, 1847. He received a pension in 1834.

Martin's Station
BERRY, FRANCIS (c.1750-1816) Died in 1816 in Knox County, Kentucky. He married Sarah Sharp, about 1775 in Virginia. Francis and Sarah had one son, John Wesley, who was left with Sarah's brother when they left for Kentucky in 1779. Taken prisoner and marched to Detroit. Francis Berry--(Cert issd for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Jas Dunkin) Francis Berry by John Haggen this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on the Middle fork of Cuppers (Coopers) run about 1 Miles up the s'd Fork by making an Actual settlem't in March 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Berry has a right to a preempt. of 400 Acres of Land to include the above location & that a cert. issue accordingly. Refer to Land Acquisition. BERRY, SARAH "SALLY" (SHARP) (1753-1834) Born January 18,1753 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,

daughter of John and Jane (Hamilton) Sharp. She died May 13, 1834 in Whitely County, Kentucky. Taken prisoner and marched to Detroit. BERRY, ISABELLE (1777-1858) Daughter of Francis and Sarah Berry was born March 10, 1777 in Virginia. She died November 26, 1858 in Johnson County, Arkansas. Taken prisoner and marched to Detroit. BERRY, LEWIS (1781-1812) Son of Francis and Sarah Berry was born November 2, 1781 in Montreal, Canada. He died in 1812. Taken prisoner and marched to Detroit. BERRY, THOMAS. A possible brother of Francis Berry. BRECKENRIDGE, JAMES (1754-1848) DUNKIN, ELIZABETH (ALEXANDER) (c.1720-1816) She was born about 1720 in Scotland and Married Thomas Dunkin in Ireland. She emigrated to the Colonies with her husband where they settled in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Her husband died in 1760. She was the mother of Captain John Dunkin and was held captive with him in Montreal. She died in 1816 in Washington County, Virginia. Taken Prisoner. DUNKIN, JOHN (1743-1817) Born 1743 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, the son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Alexander) Dunkin. He married Eleanor Sharp August 27, 1761 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. He died October 27, 1817 in Washington County, Virginia. Taken Prisoner. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &e pd D. D.) John Dunkin this day claimed a preempt don of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on Hinkstons Mill run & about 1 Mile below a Covered Cabbin built by one Townsend by making an Actual settlement in the year 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Dunkin has a right to a preempt of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a cert. iss'd accordingly. Refer to Land Acquisition DUNKIN, ELEANOR "NELLIE" (SHARP) (1740-c.1816) Wife of John Dunkin, was born October 28, 1740 in Pennsylvania. She was the daughter of John and Jane (Hamilton) Sharp. She died about 1816, Holstein Valley, Tennessee. Taken Prisoner. DUNCAN, ELIZABETH (1762--) Daughter of John and Eleanor Dunkin was born July 14,1762 in Lancaster County Pennsylvania. She married Thomas Laughlin, in 1787. She died near Powell's Valley in Virginia. Taken Prisoner. DUNCAN, JOHN Jr. (1765--) He was born February 25, 1765 in Washington County, Virginia, son of John and Eleanor Dunkin. He escaped at Montreal in 1781. He was married to Mary "Polly" Laughlin about 1786. He removed to Kentucky about the time my father died, and died in Whitley Co. near Williamsburg on his farm, now owned and occupied by Judge Tunstall Quarles, a number of years since, and his widow, and nearly all her children-all except onenow live in Missouri, not far from Wm. Martin. Taken Prisoner. DUNCAN, MARGARET "PEGGY" (1767-c.1820) Daughter of John and Eleanor Dunkin was born February 8, 1767 in Washington County, Virginia. One of my mother's sister, Peggy, not mentioned before in connection with her marriage, removed to Ohio just before the late war, with her husband, John Laughlin, called Big John, who was a son of my grandfather's brother, James, and who was not herein mentioned in connection with his brothers, James and Alexander, whose deaths are mentioned at page 20 ante. This John Laughlin and his wife both died in Ohio before 1820. Taken Prisoner. DUNCAN, JOSEPH (1769-1847) Son of John and Eleanor Dunkin was born March 16,1769 in Washington County, Virginia. Joseph, my other uncle of my mother's brothers, as before stated, lives in Coffee County, Tennessee, where his wife Ann (a daughter of my grandfather's brother James Laughlin) died about 16 years since. He married Ann Laughlin in 1792 in Tennessee. He died May 16, 1847 in Coffee County, Tennessee. Taken Prisoner. DUNCAN, MARY "POLLY" (1771-1843) Daughter of John and Eleanor Dunkin was born October 15, 1771 in Washington County, Tennessee. She married James Hignight about 1795 in Washington County, Tennessee. She died November 5, 1843 in Warren County, Tennessee. Taken Prisoner. DUNCAN, SARAH (1773---). Daughter of John and Eleanor Dunkin was September 3, 1773 in Washington County, Virginia. She was the eldest daughter of John and Eleanor Dunkin, who was nearly grown at the time of the Canadian captivity, after the return of the family, about the year 1782. She married Thomas Laughlin September 3 1793 in

Washington County, Virginia. Taken Prisoner. DUNCAN, ANNE (1775-1856) Daughter of John and Eleanor Dunkin was born November 18, 1775 in Washington County Virginia. Anne, an older sister than the last mentioned, married William Martin in Washington, Va. some time before the year 1797, and in 1798 removed with my father from Virginia, and Uncle Thomas, to what was then Knox County, Ky. She married William Martin September 5, 1797 in Washington County, Virginia and died August 1, 1856 in Livingstone County, Missouri. Taken Prisoner. DUNCAN, FAITHFUL (1778-1845) Daughter of John and Eleanor Dunkin. She was born March 18, 1778 in Washington County, Virginia. Faithful married Abram Locke, who in 1820 removed from Lee Co. Va. to Chariton, Missouri, where and his wife both died near the close of the year 1843 or early in 1844, leaving a large family and a handsome estate in lands. She died November 20, 1845 in Clarington County, Missouri. Taken Prisoner. DUNCAN, ELEANOR (c.1781----) Born in Canada while her parents were prisoners. Eleanor, another, and the youngest of my mother's sisters, married Samuel Campbell August 29, 1805 in Wasington County, Virginia. Removed to Chariton, Missouri, with my uncle Locke, and he and his wife, surrounded by numerous children, some married, still reside there. She died in Chariton County, Missouri. Taken Prisoner. FORE, HEZEKIAH (1749-1848) Son of Peter and Marie (Gaudwin) Fore and was born December 29, 1749 in Prince Edward County, Virginia. He died December 19, 1848 in Jefferson County, Kentucky. The Fore family name has also been spelled Faure, Foree and Ford. Taken Prisoner. FORE, ELIZABETH (c.1752-) Wife of Hezekiah Fore, born about 1752. Taken Prisoner. FORE, MARY (c.1775-) Daughter of Hezekiah and Elizabeth Fore, born about 1775. FORE, DOSHA (c.1777-) Daughter of Hezekiah and Elizabeth Fore, born about 1777. Taken Prisoner. FORE, JUDITH (1782-) Daughter of Hezekiah and Elizabeth Fore, born about January 1782 in Canada. Born in captivity. FORE, MARY "POLLY" Daughter of Peter and Marie Fore and was married to John Dulin. Its not certain if she was married before her captivity or during. She and John had a soon Jesse who was born in Canada. Taken Prisoner. FORE, MARTHA. Daughter of Peter and Marie Fore remained in Canada and married a British officer named Smith. FORE, KEZIAH (c.1762-1830) Daughter of Peter and Marie Fore was born about 1762 in Prince Edward County, Virginia. She married a fellow captive Joseph Wyckoff in Montreal. She died August 14, 1830 in Seneca County, New York. Taken Prisoner. FORE, JOHN (c.1764----) Son of Peter and Marie Fore was born about 1764 in Prince Edward County, Virginia. He died in Georgia. Taken Prisoner. FORE, JUDITH (1742-1780) Daughter of Peter and Marie Gaudwin Fore was born November 3, 1742 in Henrico County, Virginia. She was killed by the Indians during the march to Detroit. FOREE, SILAS (1766-1859) Son of Peter and Marie Fore was born January 1, 1766 in Prince Edward County, Virginia. Taken Prisoner. GATLIFF, CHRISTIANA (MCGUIRE) (1755-1807) Born February 10, 1755 in Virginia. She married Charles Gatliff December 31, 1772 in Botetourt County, Virginia. Her husband was a captain in command of Martin's Station when it was captured in 1780, but was away with some men who had gone to a salt lick. She died October 15, 1807 in Whitley County, Kentucky. Taken Prisoner. Refer to Land Acquisition GATLIFF, JOHN SPEED (1774----) Son of Charles and Christiana Gatliff was born March 5, 1774 in Botetourt County, Virginia. GATLIFF, JAMES (1775-1846) Son of Charles and Christiana Gatliff was born July 1, 1775 in Botetourt County, Virginia. He married Molly Langford and died in July of 1846 at Williamsburg, Kentucky. Taken Prisoner. GATLIFF, CORNELIUS (1777--) Son of Charles and Christiana Gatliff was born March 25, 1777 in Botetourt County, Virginia. May be "Corn Gatliff" on prisoner list. GATLIFF, REECE (1779-) Son of Charles and Christiana Gatliff was born February 2, 1779 in Virginia.

GATLIFF, “SIS” (-1780) A daughter of Charles and Christiana Gatliff sickened and died during the march to Detroit. HARGIS, JOHN He served at Martin's Station from March 10 to June 26, 1780 when the station was captured. HURT, WILLIAM. Served at Martin's Station in 1780 and remained as a prisoner at Detroit with his wife and seven children. LITTON, SOLOMON (1751-1843) He was born December 22, 1751 in Fincastle County, Virginia the son of John Richard and Sarah (Wilcoxen) Litton. He died February 24, 1843 in Russell County, Virginia and is buried at Solomon Litton Hollow in Russell County. Commissioned an Ensign of Militia, Washington Co, Feb 26 1777; promoted to 2nd Lt., served with Capt. John Duncan's Company. Fought against British and Indians, captured at Martins' Station while serving as Ensign under Captain Charles Gatliff (near present Paris) KY, taken to Fort Quebec, Canada. He married Martha Dunkin on May 24, 1774 in Washington County, Virginia. Taken Prisoner. Refer to Land Acquisition LITTON, MARTHA (DUNKIN) (1756-1821) Wife of Solomon Litton was the daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Dunkin. She was bom September 27, 1756 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. She married Solomon Litton. Taken Prisoner. LITTON, JOHN (1775-) Son of Solomon and Martha Litton was born November 11, 1775 in Russell County, Virginia. Taken Prisoner. LITTON, THOMAS (1777-1804) Son of Solomon and Martha Litton was September 7, 1777 in Russell County, Virginia. He died September 23, 1804 in Russell County, Virginia. Taken Prisoner. LITTON, BURTON (1780-1852) Son of Solomon and Martha Litton was born April 2, 1780 at Martin's Station. He died April 25, 1852. Taken Prisoner. LITTON, SOLOMON Jr. (1782-1861) Born August 28, 1783 [1782] at Montreal, Canada. He died August 15, 1861 in Russell County, Virginia. Taken Prisoner. LITTON, ELIAS (c.1778-) Son of Burton Litton Sr. (brother of Solomon Litton) born about 1778 in Virginia. Taken Prisoner. LAFORCE, AGNES (MOSEBY) (c.1728-c.1810) Widow of Rene Laforce who was accidentally killed by his son during the trip to Kentucky. She was born about 1728 and died about 1810. Taken Prisoner. LAFORCE, WILLIAM (1756-c.1830) Son of Rene and Agnes Laforce was bom August 27, 1756 in Goochland Co., VA. A 1780 prisoner return at Montreal had him listed as 16 years old. He died about 1830 in Claiborne Co., TN. Taken Prisoner. LAFORCE, ANNE (1 758--) Daughter of Rene and Agnes Laforce was bom August 14, 175 8. She later married James McGeorge. Taken Prisoner. LAFORCE, JUDITH (1765--) Daughter of Rene and Agnes Laforce was bom September 8, 1765 in Goochland Co., VA. She married Thomas McGeorge. Taken Prisoner. LAFORCE,__________. A daughter of Rene and Agnes Laforce was mentioned as being captured with the family, but no name was mentioned. LOVELESS, JOHN (c.1730-c.1808) He was born about 1730 and died about 1808 in Ross Co., OH. He married first to Hannah then to Rachel Vanhook in 1777. "Family 'stories' have a newborn being “brained” against a tree as a quick death by the Indians so that the baby wouldn't burden down Rachel on her trek to Canada. The older baby, Joseph Loveless was the 'full' son of Rachel and John and was hauled to Canada. He was carried in a papoose sling on his mother's back most of the way and was so hungry that he gnawed through her shoulder. There were older half-brothers that were also supposed to be taken captive at this time." There were nine members of the Loveless family captured at Martin's Station. Refer to Land Acquisition LOVELESS, RACHAEL (VANHOOK) (c.1760-c.1830) Daughter of Samuel and Hannah Vanhook was born about 1760 in NC. She died after 1830 in Clark's Hill, IN. LOVELESS, GEORGE. Son of John Loveless was born about September 5, 1760. He died February 26, 1833. He received a pension in 1832 while living in Trumbull Co., OH.

LOVELESS, ISABEL (1763--) Daughter of John and Hannah Loveless was bom March 24, 1763. LOVELESS, SARAH (1765--) Daughter of John Loveless was born February 1, 1765. She was adopted into a Wyandotte family and given the name "Soharass" or "Tall Tree." She later married an Indian agent named Isaac Williams and they settled in Ohio. After the Treaty of September 29, 1817, held at the "foot of the Rapids" of the Miami River she and her children received 160 acres of land in the Williams reserve north of Fremont, OH. Isaac had left Sarah on the reserve and he rejoined the tribe at Upper Sandusky. He later moved west to Kansas with the Indians. LOVELESS, JOHN (1770-c.1832) Son of John and Hannah Loveless was born March 19,1770. he died after 1832 in Mahoning Co., OH.LOVELESS, JOSEPH (1778-1829) Son of John and Rachel Loveless was born March 12, 1778 in Washington Co., VA. He died April 22, 1829 in IL. LOVELESS, NATHAN (c.1780--) Son of John and Rachel Loveless was bom about 1780 in Kentucky. LOVELESS, __________. Unnamed child of John Loveless was also captured. MCGUIRE, WILLIAM (1748-1834) Born March 12,1748. He married Mary Shirley. He died in 1834 and is buried in the Horse Mountain cemetery in Bedford County, Tennessee. Taken Prisoner. MCGUIRE, MARY (SHIRLEY) (1762-1845) The wife of William McGuire was born February 17, 1762 and died in 1845. She is buried with her husband in the Horse Mountain Cemetery. Taken Prisoner. MCGUIRE, MICHAEL (c.1778--) Son of William and Mary McGuire was bom about 1778 in Virginia. Taken Prisoner. MCGUIRE, THOMAS (c.1781--) Son of William and Mary McGuire was born about 1781 in Montreal, Canada. Taken Prisoner. MCGUIRE, THOMAS (c.1750--) Possibly a brother of William McGuire and Christiana Gatliff. According Margaret Paulee Erskine, who was captured by the Indians in 1779, she said the following: “About a year after I had been taken, I met with a young man named Thomas McGuire, who had previously been taken by the Indians, but got out of their hands by joining a company of rangers...” MAHAN, PATRICK (c.1730-1780) He was born in Scotland and came to the American Colonies settling first at Fagg's Manor in Pennsylvania. He later moved to Hartford Co., MD and then to Botetourt Co., VA. On August 25, 1779 he sold his land and in October left Virginia for Kentucky, but didn't arrive until after the New Year. Patrick was very sick during the march northward to Detroit and begged his children to leave him at one of the Indian towns. His children refused to leave him behind and carried by two sons arrived at Detroit August 4, 1780. He died several weeks later August of 1780. Captain Henry Bird wrote in a letter to Arent De Peyster that there were only two families really rebels, one being the Mahan family. MAHAN, ISABELLA (c.1732--) Wife of Patrick Mahan was born about 1732. She remained as a prisoner at Detroit them the St. Lawrence suburbs in Montreal, Canada with her children until her release in 1782. She died near Paris, KY. Taken Prisoner. MAHAN, JANE (1764-1854) Daughter of Patrick and Isabella Mahan and wife of James Breckenridge (1754-1848). MAHAN, JOHN (c.1753-c.1798) Son of Patrick and Isabella Mahan was bom about 1753 in Virginia. He married Agnes Mahan June 21, 1778 in Botetourt Co., VA. He came out to Kentucky about 1779 and settled at Ruddell's Station where he served as ensign in Captain Ruddell's company. He moved with the rest of the family to Martin's Station in the spring of 1780. He served at Martin's Station as lieutenant in Captain Charles Gatliff s company up to the time he was captured. He died about 1798 in Bourbon Co., KY. (1) Taken Prisoner. MAHAN, AGNES (LAFORCE) (1760--) Daughter of Rene and Agnes Laforce was bom November 10, 1760 in Goochland Co., VA. She was the wife of John Mahan. She married again after her husband's death to John Clarkson July 24, 1799. Taken Prisoner. MAHAN, RENE LAFORCE (1779--) Son of John and Agnes Mahan was bom 1779 in Botetourt Co., VA. He married Mary "Polly" Morin in August 1, 1801 in Bourbon Co., KY. Taken Prisoner. May be "Randal" Mahan on captive list. MAHAN, ELIZABETH (1782--) Daughter of John and Agnes Mahan was bom 1782 at Montreal just before her parents were released from captivity. She married Charles Clarkson September 19, 1799 in Bourbon Co., KY. MAHAN, THOMAS (1758-1814) Son of Patrick and Isabella Mahan was bom December 25, 1758. He came out to

Kentucky about 1779 and settled at Ruddell's station with his brother John. He served as a private in Captain Ruddell's company and after he moved to Martin's station he served in the same capacity in captain Charles Gatliff s company until he was captured. He married Margaret Hawkins June 8, 1797 in Bourbon (or Harrison) Co., KY. He and his wife had seven children. He died April 22, 1814 in Harrison Co., KY. Taken Prisoner. MAHAN, ISABELLA (c.1762--) Daughter of Patrick and Isabella Mahan was born about 1762. Taken Prisoner. MAHAN, WILLIAM (c.1763-1783) Son of Patrick and Isabella Mahan was born about 1763. He kept a journal during the march and it was a favorite mode of entertainment with his family and the other captives. He died at Wilson's Station, Mercer Co., KY in 1782 not long after his return from captivity. Taken Prisoner. MAHAN, ELIZABETH (c.1767--) Daughter of Patrick and Isabella Mahan was born about 1767. She married Arthur McNickle December 25, 1788 and then to Henry Wilson January 1796. Taken Prisoner. MORROW, JAMES Sr. (c.1754-1821) Son of James and Mary Morrow, natives of Ireland, was born about 1754 in Virginia. He married Margaret Mahan March 8, 1779 in Botetourt Co., VA. He married a second time to Jane Ludington July 10, 1791. He died November 10, 1821 in Jackson Co., OH. Taken Prisoner. MORROW, MARGARET (MAHAN). Daughter of Patrick and Isabella Mahan was born about 1759 in Virginia. She was the wife of James Morrow and died before 1791. Taken Prisoner. MORROW, JAMES Jr. (c.1781-c.1860) Son of James and Margaret Morrow was born about 1780-82 in Canada. He married Polly Ludington April 8, 1800 in Grennbriar Co., WV and then to Mary Hollingshead in Mills County, IA. He died before 1860 in Mills Co., IA. Born in captivity. PORTER, SAMUEL Sr. (c.1750-1820) Born in Ireland, Samuel married Elizabeth Dunkin about 1775. He died at Castlewoods, Russell County, Virginia in 1820. PORTER, ELIZABETH (DUNKIN) (c.1750-1845) Born about 1750 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, hse was the daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Dunkin. She was the wife of Samuel Porter and died April 11, 1845 in Jackson County, Missouri. PORTER, MARGARET. Daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth Porter born in Russell County, Virginia. She married James Dickenson. PORTER, HUGH. Son of Samuel and Elizabeth Porter, he was born before 1780 in Russell County, Virginia and later married Mary Laughlin. PORTER, SAMUEL Jr. Son of Samuel and Elizabeth Porter, he was born before 1780 in Russell County, Virginia. He married May 16, 1806 to Jane Laughlin in Rutherford County, Tennessee.RICE, "MAIDEN." Possible wife of Isaac Rice who was killed while hunting for Martin's Station in 1780. She was a prisoner at Detroit with four children. TINSLEY, RANSOM (c.1760-1845) Son of Thomas and Mary (Ransom) Tinsley was born about 1760 in Amelia County, Virginia. He returned to Kentucky August 14, 1784 after four years as a prisoner at Detroit. He married Sally Foster about 1788. He lived for a while in South Carolina where he was a militia captain. He then moved to Clark County, Kentucky in 1797 and then to Christian County, Kentucky in 1818. He died October 31, 1845 in Todd County, Kentucky. VANHOOK, SAMUEL (1733-1809) He was born November 15, 1733. The Indians killed his wife in March of 1780. He died November 13, 1809 in Harrison Co., KY. Refer to Land Acquisition WHITE, DAVID Sr. (1749-1838) Born November 1, 1749 in Amelia County, Virginia. He married Susannah in 1774. In his pension statement dated 1836 he stated his family were "made prisoners and lost all their property; were with other prisoners marched to the Forks of Licking, embarked on canoes, and in the descent the canoe in which this applicant and family were, overset, and the few articles they were permitted to bring with them and one child were lost. Arrived at Detroit, August 3, 1780, after enduring great hardships and privations." He died July 27, 1838 in Shelby County, Kentucky. He received a pension in 1836. WHITE, SUSANNAH. Wife of David White. In her husbands pension she stated in August of 1838 "that they left Detroit, October 16, 1783 and passed safely through the Indian country by means of a pass from Colonel De Peyster, the British commanding officer at Detroit, and reached the Falls of the Ohio about Christmas. WHITE, __________(----1780) A child of David and Susannah White drowned when their canoe overturned on the

Licking River during the trip northward to Canada after capture. WHITESIDE, WILLIAM He served at Martin's Station from March 10 to June 26, 1780.

Slave Captives at Ruddell's and Martin's Forts
Several slaves were captured at Ruddell's and Martin's Stations, but only a few of their names have been preserved. The Mahan family had several slaves captured and the Dunkin family had about ten to twelve slaves captured. SELAH Slave of James Trabue who accompanied him to Ruddell's Station the day before it was captured. Selah was recovered during Wayne's Treaty in 1795. DINAH Slave of Captain John Dunkin. She was returned from captivity during Wayne's Treaty of 1795. BETTY (BESS) Slave of Agnes Laforce. After capture she was taken into possession of the Indians. SCIPIO (SIPPIO) Slave of Agnes Laforce and son of Betty. After capture he was taken into possession of Simon Girty an Indian interpreter. JAMES (TIM) Slave of Agnes Laforce and son of Betty. After capture he was taken into possession of Philip Le Duc an Indian interpreter. ISHMAEL (ISHNER) Slave of Agnes Laforce and son of Betty. After capture he was taken into possession of Philip Le Duc. STEPHEN Slave of Agnes Laforce and son of Betty. After capture he was taken into possession of Captain Duncan Graham. JOSEPH (JOE) Slave of Agnes Laforce and son of Betty. After capture he was taken into possession of Captain Matthew Elliott. KIJAH (KEGGY) Slave of Agnes Laforce and daughter of Betty. After capture she was taken into possession of Captain Matthew Elliott. HANNAH Slave of Agnes Laforce and daughter of Betty. After capture she was taken into possession of Frederick Fisher. KANDIS (CANDIS) Slave of Agnes Laforce and daughter of Hannah. After capture she was taken into possession of Captain Alexander McKee. This interview is from a microfilm copy found in the "Draper Manuscript Collection". The original manuscript is owned and housed by The State Historical Society of Wisconsin. The interview was taken by Lyman C. Draper between 6 Jul and 30 Oct 1863 and can be found in Series S, Volume 17, pp 281-2. The Draper Collection is contained on 116 rolls of microfilm and is a collection of historical materials, documents and personal interviews covering American History from 1740-1891 by Lyman C. Draper (1815-1891). INTERVIEW OF RACHEL RENO by LYMAN C. DRAPER "And now RACHEL RENO-now over 86 years old - an African woman, born in BLUE JACKET'S TOWN near Bellefontaine, her mother having been captured in Kentucky by the Shawanoes, - having early went to live with the Col. Alex McKEE family a little below Sandwich, Canada : Col. McKEE often spent some of his winters on the river Thames, he had many pet animals including deer; a pet deer hooked and gored him in the leg and he died of Lockjaw. He left one or two sons and Mrs. McKEE, part Indian, Col. McKEE having a Shawanoe wife. SIMON GIRTY was good to prisoners - often saved them - having got cut and hacked over the head in forcibly rescuing them. BLUE JACKET lived and died near Br ... was a good Indian, had a son named GEORGE BLUE JACKET. RACHEL RENO said of her own accord that SIMON KENTON'S Indian name was Cut-Ta-Ho-Tha which meant to be "blackened" or "condemned man" prepared for burning at the stake. Notes: Bellefontaine is located in Logan County, OH, Shawanoes are often referred to as Shawnees, Col. Alex McKEE was a British Loyalist and Indian Agent, Simon GRITTY and Simon KENTON were Frontiersmen and Pioneers who

helped in the settlement of Kentucky and what later became the Northwest Territory. George BLUE JACKET is reputed to have attended a school run by Indian Agent Col. Johnston, near Piqua, OH in Miami County. If Rachel was over 86 years of age in 1863, she would have been born ca 1777. We believe her mother was a slave named Candis and was owned by the family of Rene LaForce, a French Huguenot, who migrated from Goochland County, VA into Kentucky. There is an account of LaForce's two daughters and a slave girl being captured in a raid of Shawanoes, supposedly led by a Capt. Alex McKEE, with the daughters and the slave girl going to Canada with McKEE. JOB Slave of Agnes Laforce and son of Hannah. After capture he was taken into possession of Jacques Duperon Baby an Indian interpreter. GRACE Slave of Agnes Laforce and daughter of Hannah. After capture she was taken into possession of the Indians. RACHEL Slave of Agnes Laforce and daughter of Hannah. After capture she was taken into possession of the Indians. PATRICK Slave of Agnes Laforce and son of Hannah. After capture he was taken into possession of the Indians. ESTHER Slave taken at Martin's Station and taken into possession of Captain Henry Bird. In 1791 she and her son were later given to William Lee for his services in clearing 16 acres of land for Captain Bird.

Captain Henry Bird
He was born in England during the 1740s. He was serving as lieutenant in the army in 1764. He was listed as lieutenant in the 8th Regiment on February 22, 1768 and the following May was ordered to Canada. He served at the cedars and in the Oriskany Campaign in 1777. In September of 1777 he and 100 men of the 8 th Regiment were ordered to Detroit. He went to Sandusky, Ohio in 1778 with the duty of stirring up Indian War parties. He was promoted to captain May 11, 1778. Bird was described as a very ugly man. He was afflicted with smallpox when young and his face was severaly scarred. He also was said to have been nearsighted, had a hair-lip and talked with a lisp. He courted a girl at Detroit by the name of Sally Beaton, but was "cut out by a nice little merchant" named William Macomb. The affair caused a good deal of tricking and fun among the officers of the regiment, which made Bird almost mad. He wanted to get away from his tormentors and asked Colonel De Peyster for a detachment for the expedition to Kentucky, which was granted. He married at Detroit to a prisoner and received land from the government, but lost it in 1794 when Fort Ameherstbugh was ordered to be built on the site. He left Canada before 1796 and returned to England. Bird served in the 3 I'st and 54'th Regiments of foot eventually attaining the rank of Colonel. He served in the 1798 campaign to quell the Irish Rebellion. He died in 1801 while serving the British expedition to Egypt under Sir Ralph Abercrombie. Ohio River, June 11th, 1780 Sir: After two days councilling whether they would proceed immediately to the Falls, or attack the Forts on Licking Creek, the Indians have determined for Licking Creek, & tomorrow by day break, we move up the Stream. I confess to you, my patience have received very severe shocks, and would have been long ago exhausted, had I (p. 408) not had so excellent an example before me as the one Capt. McKee sets - indeed he manages Indians & [ ??] - I never saw his fellow. It is now 16 days since I arrived at the Forks, appointed by the Indians to meet, & by one ridiculous delay or the other, they have prolonged or retarded to this day. Mons. Le Duc has behaved extremely well in every respect, and has been very serviceable in making shafts & repairing carriages, in which matters he offered his services. You seemed, Sir, to have an inclination to serve him on our leaving Detroit. I don't doubt that you will on his return find him worthy your notice. There has not a man in the Party proved of more service than Mr. Reynolds - civil in every respect - and attentive - an excellent woodsman & no doubt a good soldier. He was before quite out of his element.

Mr. Baby delivered me on setting out three or four strands, some worsted, three glasses, and some other little things for Logan, which by bringing in a blanket so far got all broke & spoiled; they wont never have answered as a present. What was good of the shirts, strands or blankets, (p. 409) I gave to different Indians, and told Logan what you intended, but the inconvenience of carriage in our present situation made you defer it, till his return to Detroit. I hope, Sir, my next will inform you of success in our undertakings, 'tho their attack on the little forts, their number being so great, is mean of them. The old prisoner, the bearer of this, is given up by the Shawanese - He endeavoured to escape and give intelligence of our approach to the Rebels. Nothing but our presence saved his life. After the treatment he got from us, he proved himself a deceitful old villain. Capt[ain] McKee begs his compliments. I am, Sir, with respect Your most obedient and Most Humble Servant (signed) Henry Bird Major De Peyster F315 Endorsed: Copy of a Letter from Major De Peyster To Lt. Col. Bolton, dated at Detroit June 27th 1780, also, another Dated the 4th July - Likewise Copy of a Letter from Capt. Bird to Major De Peyster, dated Ohio River June 11th 1780. No. 6. # Letter from Capt. Henry Bird To Major De Peyster From the Ohio, opposite Licking Creek July 1st, 1780 Source: National Archives of Canada Copied from British Library (formerly British Museum) Haldimand Papers MG21, Add. Mss. 21760 (B-100), pp. 410-413 Submitted by Lois Sutherland Wark, Philadelphia, 28 June 1999 From the Ohio, opposite Licking Creek, July 1st 1780 Sir, After fatigues, which only those that were present can entertain a proper idea of, we arrived before Fort Liberty the 24th [of] June. I had before that day entreated every Indian officer that appeared to have influence among the savages to persuade them not to engage with the Fort untill the Guns were up - fearing, if any were killed, it might exasperate the Indians & make them commit cruelties when the Rebels surrendered. Poor McCarty, in every other respect an extreme, attentive, serviceable fellow, perished by disobeying this order. An Indian was shot through the arm. The Three Pounder was not sufficient - our People raised a battery of rails & earth, within 80 yards of the Fort, taking some advantage of a very violent storm of rain, which prevented them being seen clearly. They stood two discharges of the little gun, which only cut down a spar and stuck the shot in the side of a house. When they saw the Six Pounder moving across the field, they immediately surrendered - they thought the 3Pounder a swivel the Indians & their (p. 411) Department had got with them. The conditions granted - that their lives should be saved, and themselves taken to Detroit - I forewarned them that the Savages would adopt some of their children. The Indians gave in Council the cattle for Food for our People, & the Prisoners - and were not to enter till the next day: But whilst Capt[ain] McKee and myself were in the Fort settling these matters with the poor People, they rushed in, tore the poor children from their Mothers' breasts, killed a wounded man, and every one of the cattle, leaving the whole to stink.

We had brought no pork with us, & were now reduced to great distress, & the poor Prisoners in danger of being starved. I talked hardly to them of their breach of promise. But however, we marched to the next fort, which surrendered without firing a gun. The same promises were made & broke in the same manner. Not the pound of meat & near 300 Prisoners. Indians breaking into the Forts, after the Treaties were concluded. The Rebels ran from the next fort, and the Indians burnt it. They then heard news of Col. Clark's coming against them & proposed returning, which indeed (p. 412) had they not proposed, I must have insisted on, as I had then fasted some time & the Prisoners in danger of starving. Mud and rains rotted our people's feet. The Indians almost all left us within a day's march of the enemy. It was with difficulty I procured a guide thro the woods. I marched the poor women & children 20 miles in one day over very high mountains, frightening them with frequent alarms to push them forward. In short, Sir, by water and land, we came with all our cannon &c. 90 miles in four days, one day out of which we lay by entirely, rowing 50 miles the last day. We have no meat, and must subsist on flour; if there is nothing for us at Lorrimers, I am out of hope of getting any Indians to hunt or accompany us. However George Girty I detain to assist me. I could, Sir, by all accounts have gone through the whole country without any opposition, had the Indians preserved the cattle. Everything is safe so far, but we are not yet out of reach of pursuit, as a very smart fellow escaped from me within 26 miles of the enemy. Provisions and peraugues we (p. 413) shall want at the Glaize, and the vessel at the mouth of the Miami. I refer you to the bearer for particulars &c. I am, Sir, with respect Your most obedient Servant (Signed) Henry Bird Major De Peyster # Extract of a letter from Capt. Bird to Major De Peyster dated Ottawa Village first landing on the Glaize. 24th July 1780. Grey arrived here this day, we have made out so far very well, having left the Forks within a day's march of the Fort we took the first of July, and with fourteen days hard working arrived at the Standing Stone, which is an hundred and twenty miles against a very bad and rappid River. All the other delays were occasioned, by the Transportation of the Artillery Stores &c. which we have got to Monsr Lorimiers by going and returning with the few horses Capt. Hare brought us. The provisions we had were of infinite service - three days after we arrived at Standing Stone our Provisions were out. His stock will serve us to the entrance of the Miamis, where your goodness, Sir, has provided for us. The Waters are so low they will not furnish sufficient for a Bark Canoe within 50 miles of Monsr Lorimiers. I have left Bombardiers Robinson, Crow & Gallougher, who stay Volunteers with the guns - until rains make the waters sufficient for their transportation, there are two paragues here for them. Col. Clarke arrived within a day or so of the time I marked for his certain arrival. Capt. Hinxon who made his escape from us, had candour sufficient to tell Col. Clarke, he and the Prisoners were treated in so different manner from what they expected, that had not his Family been at the Falls, he would have preferred going with us to Detroit. I have much news from the private conversation with the Prisoners, and other means, respecting the situation of the country, their Force and manner of making Levies &c. &c. many of the Prisoners would not take the oath to Congress, I don't believe we have more than two Families really Rebels, their names McGuire and Mahon - the rest are composed of good Farmers with extreme industrious Familes who are desirous of being settled in Detroit with some Land. They fled, they say, from persecution, & declare if Government will assist them to get them on foot as Farmers, they will, as Militia, faithfully defend the country that affords them protection. [B100, p 436]

Major Arent De Peyster

In spite of his unusual name, de Peyster was a British subject. His family were of French Protestant descent, and fled to Holland at the Massacre of St Bartholomew in 1572. (The history of the family is traced by John Malcolm Bulloch in the Bums Chronicle, 1930.) The Colonel's grandfather, Colonel Abraham de Peyster, married a Dutch kinswoman, Catherine de Peyster, in 1684. Their seventh son, Pierre, married Catherine, daughter of Arent Schuyler, one of the sons of Philip Schuyler. The elder of their two sons was Bums's friend, Arent Schuyler de Peyster. He seems to have spent his boyhood partly in Britain, partly in Holland, though brought up on British traditions. He joined the British Army in 1755. His regiment, the 50th Foot, had been raised in America in 1748, by the Governor of Massachusetts, William Shirley, who, in 1745, had directed the siege of Louisberg with de Peyster's uncle, Colonel Peter Schuyler. Next, de Peyster held a commission in the 51st Foot, also a regiment raised in America and which at one time had three Schuylers in it. Forty-seven years of his service, however, were spent in the 8th Foot, later the King's Liverpool Regiment. With it, de Peyster campaigned in Germany during the Seven Years War. His main service seems to have been in Canada. From 1768 to 1785, he apparently did service as a Military Administrator, handling the Indians with such tact that when he was about to return to England, they sent him a letter, thanking him, for all that he had done for them. The last seven years of his service were spent in England and Ireland. He retired to Dumfries in April 1794. He had married Rebecca Blair, sister of John M'Murdo's wife, Jane, and, like her, a daughter of Provost Blair of Dumfries. On his retirement, de Peyster settled at Mavis Grove, on the Nith, three miles from Dumfries. There, he threw himself eagerly into the Volunteer movement, becoming Major Commandant of the Dumfries Company of which Bums was a member in 1795. Colonel de Peyster must have been physically tough, but 'beneath a rugged exterior he concealed a warm and affectionate heart', as one Bums editor put it. Burns is generally considered to be the author of a letter bearing twenty-five signatures, including his own, asking Colonel de Peyster to suspend asking a public subscription 'for defraying the exps of our Association. That our Secretary should have waited on those Gentlemen and others of that rank of life, who from the first, offered pecuniary assistance, meets our idea as highly proper but that the Royal Dumfries Volunteers should go abegging, with the burnt out Cottager and Shipwrecked Sailor, is a measure of which we must disapprove.' Please then, Sir, to call a meeting as soon as possible, and be so very good also as to put a stop to the degrading business, untill the voice of the Corps be heard.' De Peyster led his Volunteers on the occasion of Burns' funeral. In 1813, he published in Dumfries a book of verse, Miscellanies by an Officer, only three copies of which are still known to exist, all of them in America. According to Bulloch, this includes 'threnodies on Nelson, Sir John Moore, the Marquis of Comwallis, and Mrs de Peyster's parrot'. He died as the result of an accident, and was given a large funeral. He is buried in St Michael's Churchyard. His wife died in 1827. In Sketches from Nature, published in 1830, John McDiarmid, who knew de Peyster, wrote: 'No man ever possessed more of the principle of vitality. Old age, which had silvered his hair and furrowed his cheeks, made so little impression on his inner man that... up to... his last illness his mind appeared as active and his intellect as vigorous as they had ever been. When the weather permitted, he still took his accustomed exercise, and walked round the billiard table or bestrode his gigantic charger, apparently with as little difficulty as a man of middle age.' Historical Collections of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, vol. 9. De Peyster, Arent S. Letter to Sinclair, March 12, 1780. pp. 378-379. Submitted by James Sellars, July 4 1999 DETROIT the 8 March 1780. SIR, I think it necessary to send the Express by Land, to acquaint your Excellency with my having received a Letter, from Mons Louis Chevallier of St Joseph's (brought by his son Aimable) acquainting me with the Rebels having totally evacuated the Illinois country. Thirty Indians also arrived from the Omat, and Post Vincent, in consequence of my Invitation, they are now on their way back, having promised that the Rebels shall not recross the Wabash.

Lieut Caldwell of the King's Regt Capt McKee, Mr Elliot, the three Girtys, & about fifty Indians, consisting of the principal chiefs of the Mingoes, Shawnese & Delawares are also arrived, who reports that the Rebels failed in their attempt to establish a Fort at Cooshocking, but that they had quite surrounded the Indian Hunting ground of Kintuck, by having built small Forts at two days journey from each other as will appear by the Indian Map of that country. The Indians further say that the rebels intend to cross the Ohio in the spring, & build a fort at two days journey from their principal Village on the Little Miami. They therefore require of their Father to fulfill the promise made by former Commandants who assured him that when the Enemy should approach their Villages, Troops should be sent to their assistance, they produced Lt. Governor Hamilton's Belt and other strings to this effect, as a proof of their assertion, saying that it was now time to fulfill the promise, or they would be shortly under the disagreeable necessity of falling back and thereby become a burden to their father or else quit their ground & go to the Southward. The principal Chiefs of the Hurons, Pottawatamies, Chippawas, Ottawas, Ouiattons, Miamis, Ouiats and the Pirorias, with the Keekapoos, being present in Council declared, that if I would send a few Soldiers, 'till a larger body could be spared, they would all rise & assist their elder brothers, and act in conjunction in future for the good of the King's Service. I see the necessity of sending some soldiers & I therefore propose to send one Capt. one Lieut. & about fifty men with two small pieces of ordnance to help them to knock down the Pickets of the first Fort. To this party I shall add all the Indian officers and as many volunteers as may offer from the Settlement- this may for a while keep up the spirits of the Indians, 'till your Excellency's pleasure is further known. Their route shall be up the Glise and down the Great Miamis to the Ohio. I flatter myself that this early movement, if accompanied by the great number of savages I expect, will facilitate Lt. Gov'r Sinclair's partys in their enterprises down the Mississippi, divert the attention of many from Niagara & be of some use to B. Gen. Campbell, if he has not already taken New Orleans. An Express is arrived from Michilimackinac, which I have the honour to forward. I am Sir, with great respect Your Excellency's most humble & obed't Serv't At. S. DE PEYSTER To His Excellency the Comm'd in Chief. endorsed:- A 1780. From Major De Peyster 8th March Rec'd 17th May By Express [B 122 p 467] # Historical Collections of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, vol. 9. De Peyster, Arent S. Letter to Sinclair, March 12, 1780. pp. 580-581. Submitted by James Sellars, July 4 1999 DETROIT 12th March 1780 DEAR SIRI am favoured with your letters of 15th Feb'y. Missabogs arrived on the 7th Inst. with Thebault. I have detained him whilst I could dispatch an express to Niagara, in hopes also that my express might return from thence in time to send with him, but I have given over hopes therefore least Assin grow impatient, I now dispatch your Courier. If it was in my power to send or encourage Artificers to go to Michilimackinac, I would readily do it, but I am at a loss for a number sufficient to carry on the necessary works here. I have passed the word for Cannon & ammunition &

Capt. Grant has forwarded your letter to Lt. Col. Bolton, and to the Commissioner without whose order, nothing more than a supply of Pitch, Oakum & such trifles, for the repairing Batteaus, or the vessels stationed at your Post, can be sent. When I Commanded I was never able until the last year to obtain wherewith to repair a Batteau, I wish you better luck. I am sorry to hear that the *Wiandot has not yet arrived at Michilimackinac, should she still make her appearance, you will then have more than your Proportion of Rum, but should she be lost on short notice you shall have some sent to you. * a ship. Your movements down the ------- shall be seconded from this place, by my sending a part of the Garrison with some small Ordnance. All the Indian officers, & as many volunteers as can be got, Joined by a very considerable body of Indians. Their Route shall be to the Ohio, which they shall cross & attack some of the Forts, which surround the Indian Hunting ground in Kentuck. I have had the Wabash Indians here by invitation, they have promised to keep Clarke at the Falls, about sixty of the Michilimackinac Indians have been here upon a visit, some of them have engaged to join the Wabash Indians. It would be therefore wrong in me to send any message to La Fourch. As I am convinced you will see more of them in the Spring than can possibly...... [the rest not included] # Letter from Major Arent De Peyster To Lt. Col. Bolton Dated at Detroit, May 16th, 1780 Source: National Archives of Canada Copied from British Library (formerly British Museum) Haldimand Papers Letters from Officers commanding at Niagara, n.d., 1777-1780 MG 21, Add. Mss. 21760, (B-100), pp. 370-373 Submitted by Lois Sutherland Wark, Philadelphia, 28 June 1999 Detroit 16 May 1780 Sir: After the most severe winter ever remembered at Detroit, this is the earliest we think prudent to venture a vessel for Fort Erie. Captain Bird left this [sic] on the 12th of April, I received letters from him yesterday dated the 9th [of] May, when he expected to pass the carrying place in four or five days. Enclosed you have a copy of a letter from Capt[ain] McKee to Capt[ain] Bird. The letters came by Lieut. Hamilton of the 47th Regmt., who offered to go a volunteer, which I granted upon receiving a letter from Capt[ain] Aubrey, who seemed desirous Mr. Hamilton should go. I the more readily consented, from the scarcity of officers in garrison and from assurances from Lt. England that you wished the difference subsisting between those Gentlemen might be accomodated. Mr. Hamilton returning from the Glaisse was owing to sickness. Capt[ain] Bird is delighted with the activity of Mr. Cruck (?) upon all occasions, and says he supplys the want of an officer so well that it will not be felt. Lieut. Caldwell will deliver (p. 371) you this letter, who goes as far as Niagara, to solicit your further leave, agreeable to the promise I made him the last Fall. He will be able to give you or his excellency a satisfactory account of the Shawanesse Country, having wintered with them.

The Prisoners daily brought in here are part of the Thousand Families who are flying from the oppression of Congress, in order to add to the number already settled at Kentuck, the finest country for new settlers in America, but it happens unfortunately for them, to be the Indians best hunting ground, which they will never give up. And in fact, it is our interest not to let the Virginians, Marylanders, & Pennsylvanians get possession there, lest in a short time they become formidable to this Post. A Brother of Mons. De Quindre arrived here yesterday from St. Josephs, to which place all the Pottawatamies had returned, not daring to advance too near Post Vincennes, after having been told by a Canadian trader that it was garrisoned by 4000 French troops, and that Count D'Estaing had sent the cannon from (p. 372) Jamaica thither, which he had taken, and that the Governor of New Orleans had taken all the English settlements on the Mississippi. It is cruel that a single lying rascal, however improbable his story, should stop three hundred Indians; but this will ever be the case whilst Post Vincennes exists. A few of the Indians went on his order to see their old friends the French, but only found the Place Garrisoned by Twenty Three Rebels. Capt[ain] Grant has my leave to wait upon you at Niagara, he will give you a clear account of the state of the Navy. I must observe that he has been indefatigable the whole winter, whereby he has caused much work to be put out of hand, which will be a considerable saving to Government. The new fort will be constant employment for this Garrison for some time to come - the ditches filling faster than we can sod (?), owing to severe weather, and springs breaking out in all parts, which brings down the earth in great clods. I am, this instant, agreeably surprized to hear that (p. 373) the Wyandot is hauled up on the east shore of Lake Huron, with all her cargo safe, if what the Indians report be true, for there is no letter from the Master. I have the honor to be Sir, Your most Humble & Obedient Servant (signed) A. S. De Peyster Lieut. Col. Bolton P. S. Monsr. Maisonville is a Capt. of Militia at this place, and the only man of the Canadians who is really serviceable to Government in that line. I beg leave to recommend him to your notice. F286 Endorsed: Copy of a Letter from Major De Peyster to Lt. Col. Bolton, dated At Detroit May 16, 1780 #Letter from Major De Peyster To Lt. Col. Bolton, Dated at Detroit the 4th July 1780, enclosing copy of a letter From Capt. Bird to Major De Peyster, Dated Ohio River June 11th, 1780 Source: National Archives of Canada. Copied from British Library (formerly British Museum) Haldimand Papers MG21, Add. Mss. 21760, (B-100), pp. 407-409 Submitted by Lois Sutherland Wark, Philadelphia, 28 June 1999 Detroit July 4th, 1780 Sir: This instant I received the enclosed from Capt. Bird, which I send to overtake the sloop. You see that my little expedition will have missed of doing great things, from the want of resolution in the Indians, who are not fond of going in search of Rebel troops. A Prisoner Woman just brought in from the Falls declares that two thirds of the People there wished for Capt[ain]

Bird's arrival, in order to join him, being sick of oppression. I am Sir Your Humble & Obedient Servant (Signed) A. S. De Peyster Lieut. Col. Bolton # Letter from Major Arent De Peyster To Col. Bolton From Detroit, August 4th, 1780 Source: National Archives of Canada Copied from British Library (formerly British Museum) Haldimand Papers MG21, Add. Mss. 21760 (B-100), pp. 441-442 Microfilm Reel H-1446 Submitted by Lois Sutherland Wark, Philadelphia, 28 June 1999 From Detroit, August 4th, 1780 Sir, I have the pleasure to acquaint you that Capt[ain] Bird arrived here this morning with about one hundred & fifty prisoners, mostly Germans who speak English, the remainder coming in. For in spite of all his endeavours to prevent it, the Indians broke into their Forts and seized many. The whole will amount to about three hundred & fifty. Their chief desire is to remain and settle at this place as you will see by the enclosed letter received two days ago from Captain Bird, which I now send to give you his opinion of those people. Thirteen have entered into the Rangers and many more will enter, as the prisoners are greatly fatigued with travelling so far, some sick and some wounded. I shall defer sending them down least it be attended with bad consequences. The remainder to save provisions I shall distribute in different farm houses to help in the harvest. In the mean time we shall be able to know His Excellency's Pleasure before the subject should it be approved of to settle them. I have a grant from the (p. 442) whole Pottewattamies Nation of Five Thousand Acres of excellent land upon the river from near the River Rouge to the Pottewattamies Village, exclusive of other lands heretofore granted to different people, which they are desirous to have settled. In a former letter to the Commander in Chief, I observed that it would be dangerous having so many Prisoners here but I then thought those small Forts were occupied by a different set of People. I have the Honor to be Sir Your most obedient &c. Most Humble Servant (Signed) A. S. DePeyster (Duplicate) Col. Bolton P. S. Please excuse the hurry of this letter. The Indians engross my time. We have more here than enough. Were it not absolutely necessary to keep in with them, they would tire my patience. BRITISH AGENTS BABY, JACQUES DUPERON (1731-1789) Bom January 4,1731 and died August 2,1789 married November23, 1760 to Susanne Rheaume. He was the son of Pierre and Marie Anne (Creiver) Babie. Montreal Canada. Duperon Baby was

a Shawnee interpretor for the Indian Department in Canada. He married (1) SHAWNEE WOMAN'. He married (2) ANGELIQUE CREVIER'. He married (3) SUZANNE REAUME1 November 23, 1760 in Detroit, MI. They had 21 children. BIRD, HENRY. (c.1745-1801) (See above) DE PEYSTER, ARENT SCHUYLER (1736-1822) (See above) ELLIOTT, MATTHEW (1749-1814) Born 1749, served as captain in the Royal Indian Department, 1777-1784, and fought at the Battle of Blue Licks and Sandusky in the Indian massacres of the Revolution. He died near Burlington Heights on May 7, 1814, aged 75 years. His wife was Marie Louise Sans Chagrin, who died July 9, 1826, aged 60 years. He was a native of Ireland who removed at an early age to Pennsylvania. He became an Indian trader, and early in the Revolution was carried prisoner to Detroit by a band of Wyandot. He thereupon allied himself with the British cause and later claimed he had gone voluntarily to Detroit. At first the British doubted his fidelity but he lived down the suspicion and became one of the most noted British agents on the frontier. How the Kentuckians regarded him was shown in 1814, when, on the capture of Amherstburg after Perry's victory on Lake Erie, they completely wrecked his house and furniture. "Of Elliot... I have but an indistinct recollection... [he was a man] of only ordinary size, having nothing remarkable in [his] appearance. Elliot's hair was black, his complexion dark, his features small; his nose, I recollect, was short, turning up at the end, his look was haughty and his countenance repulsive." "which leading to a more general conversation, drew from Elliott many ungentlemanly remarks and disparaging observations about the Americans." An excellent book has been written about Elliott by Reginald Horsman titled Matthew Elliot, British Indian Agent. Publisher: Wayne University Press, Detroit, 1964. GIRTY, SIMON (1741-1818) Son of Simon and Mary (Newton) Girty was born 1741, Lancaster Co., PA. He was said to have married about 1779 to a daughter of Cooh-coo-cheeh, a princess of the Wolf tribe of the Iroquois Nation. Coohcoo-cheeh had a grandson who was reputed to be the son of Simon Girty. O.M. Spencer described him as "very sprightly, but withal passionate and willful, a perfectly spoiled child." His mother gave the child the Mohawk name of Ked-zaw-saw, while his grandmother called him Simo-ne. Simon eventually married in Canada about 1782 to a prisoner named Catherine Mallott. Spencer described him this way, "One of the visitors of Blue Jacket (The Snake) was a plain, grave chief of sage appearance; the other Simon Girty, whether it was from prejudice, associating with his look the fact that he was a renegade, the murderer of his own countryman, racking his diabolic invention to inflict new and more excruciating tortures, or not; his dark shaggy hair, his low forehead; his brows contracted and meeting above his short flat nose; his gray sunken eyes, averting the ingenuous gaze; his lips thin and compressed, and the dark and sinister expression of his countenance, to me seemed the very picture of a villain. He wore an Indian costume, but without any ornament; and his silk handkerchief, while it supplied the place of a hat, hid an unsightly wound on his forehead. On each side, in his belt, was tuck a silver-mounted pistol, and at his left hung a short broad dirk, serving occasionally the uses of a knife." He died February 18, 1818, Essex Co., Ontario, Canada. GIRTY, GEORGE (1745-1796) Born 1745, Lancaster Co., PA, died February 24,1796, Maumee, Ohio GIRTY, JAMES (1743-1817) Born 1743, Lancaster Co., PA, died April 15, 1817, Essex Co., Ontario, Canada MCKEE, ALEXANDER (c.1745-1799) A native of Pennsylvania, sided with the British at the beginning of the Revolution and was quite influential in handling the Indians. The English authorities made him captain in the Indian department and after 1778, deputy agent. He died of lockjaw in Malden, Ontario, in 1799. An excellent book has been written about McKee by Larry L. Nelson titled A Man of Distinction Among Them: Alexander McKee and the Ohio Country Frontier; 1754-1799. Publisher: The Kent State University Press, Ohio, 1999. LE DUC, PHILIP (1735-1784) Born 24 Oct 1735 died 15 Jul 1784 married Marie Joseph Peltier 7 Jan 1764. She was born 7 Jul 1745. All dates in Detroit. Son of John and Catherine Descary Le Duc. GRAHAM, DUNCAN HARE,

SANDERS, SAMUEL

Chief Logan
From " A Man of Distinction Among Them, Alexander McKee and the Ohio Country Frontier" by Larry L. Nelson, pp. 78-81. The violence unleashed by Creasap's men spread unabated across the region, culminating in an incident that, even by frontier standards, was distinguished by its cold-blooded brutality. in 1773, a Mingo headman named Johnny Logan and a small band of followers had established a village thirty miles north of Wheeling, near the mouth of Yellow Creek (close to present-day Wellsville, Ohio). Logan was the oldest son of Johnny Shikellamy, and both father and son were well known along the western border for their steadfast loyalty to the British. During the Seven Years War, Shikellamy and his family had sought refuge at Thomas McKee's trading post. There can be little doubt that Logan and Alexander McKee knew one another well, but the extent of their contact during the spring of 1774 is unknown. Logan's home lay opposite the site of Joshua Baker's Virginia homestead and trading post. Baker and the Mingos had lived peacefully ever since Logan's arrival. But in early May, a group of Virginians, led by Daniel Greathouse, methodically lured ten members of the Mingo village to Baker's trading post where, over the course of the afternoon, they were murdered. Among the dead were several members of Logan's immediate family, including his mother and brother. Greathouse and his companions also killed Logan's sister as she carried her newborn infant on her back. The incident began on May 1, when two men asked Capt. Michael Myers of Washington County, Pennsylvania, to guide them over to the west side of the Ohio River where they wished to travel up Yellow Creek and examine some land a few miles from the stream's confluence with the Ohio. Myers's party did not have permission to be in Indian territory and crossed the Ohio at dusk to avoid detection. Camping for the night a short distance from their destination, Myers and the two men were wakened later that evening by the loud rattling of a bell attached to one of their horses. Investigating, they discovered an Indian apparently in the act of stealing the animal. Myers shot and killed the Indian. A short while later, a second Indian, drawn to the site by the report of Myers's rifle, also was executed. Frightened, Myers and his two companions fled back to Virginia and Baker's trading post. Worried that their actions would prompt a retaliatory raid from the Yellow Creek Indians, Myers sent word to Greathouse and other neighbors within the vicinity to assemble at Baker's and prepare an ambush. Although Baker was not present, by dawn, thirty-two men were lying in wait. The following morning, unaware that the perpetrators of the previous evening’s violence awaited them, eight members of Logan's band crossed the river to Baker's. Among the group were four men and three women, including Logan's brother, mother, and sister who carried her two-month-old infant on her back. Logan's band had frequently visited Baker's post and usually spent their time buying liquor, milk, and other small items. Today, Nathaniel Tomlinson, Baker's brother-in-law, was more generous than usual with his liquor and eventually invited the Indians to take part in a shooting match. As the contest began, one of the Indians, John Petty, who was somewhat intoxicated, wandered through the trading post. Coming upon Tomlinson's regimental coat and hat, he put them on and swaggered through the house claiming, "I am a White Man." The action insulted Tomlinson, and when the Indians discharged their weapons at a target, he grabbed his rifle and shot Petty as he stood in the doorway. The shot was a signal for Greathouse and the others to come out of hiding and attacked the remainder of the Mingos. The attack was swift and brutal. John Sappington, one of the Virginians, shot and killed Logan's brother and then scalped him. For years after, Sappington took particular delight in boasting of the feat and de- scribed the trophy, which still was adorned with trade silver, as a "very fine one." Logan's sister was panic stricken; she ran across the courtyard in front of the trading post and stopped six feet in front of one of Greathouse's men. in the split second that their eyes met, he put a bullet into her forehead. Grabbing the infant from her cradleboard, he took hold of its ankles and was about to dash its brains out when one of his companions intervened to save the child's life. The remaining Indians also were shot or tomahawked. Within seconds, all the Mingos were dead. The savagery of the attack was astounding, and even James Chambers, a neighbor of Baker's who was not present, declared that the murderers "appeared to have lost, in a great degree, all sentiments of humanity as well as the effects of civilization." Alarmed by the gunfire from across the river, seven other members of Logan's camp started across the Ohio in two

canoes to investigate. Greathouse and his men spread out in the underbrush on the eastern shore and fired on the Mingos as they neared land, killing two and sending the others back in retreat. A second group of Mingos attempted another landing, but like the first, was turned away by Greathouse and his companions. McKee learned of the Yellow Creek murders on May 3, and he immediately called Connolly, Kayashuta, a deputation from the Six Nations, and members of the local militia together for a meeting at Croghan's home, where he informed them of the Mingos' deaths. McKee assured his guests that the incident was the act of "a few rash and inconsiderate White People, and not by the intention or Knowledge of any of our Wise People"; he promised them that Dunmore, after he learned of the murders, would surely take every step to rectify the situation. In the meantime, McKee urged all parties to remain calm and to keep the peace. Two days later, on May 5, McKee met again with many of the same representatives. He performed the condolence ceremony, "covering the Bones of their deceas'd Friends with some Goods suitable to the Occasion and agreeable to their Custom," and he dispatched several messages to the western tribes "to convince those People to whom they were to be delivered, of our Sincerity, And That We did not countenance these Misdemeanors." McKee had responded appropriately and energetically to the dangerous situation. But the viciousness of the murders that had precipitated the crisis, when combined with the long-standing grievances of the western tribes, meant that a peaceful resolution would be difficult to obtain. Word of the murders raced through the western border settlements and with it the fear of Indian retaliation. Many fled, abandon- ing their homes and their possessions. "The panic becoming universal, claimed Connolly, "nothing but confusion, Distress and Flight was conspicuous." The frightened settlers were more than warranted in their apprehension. The Shawnees and Mingos had often disagreed over policy in the Ohio Country, yet Michael Creasap's adventuring and the Yellow Creek murders had been enough to bring the two tribes together for a council along the Scioto River. The two nations listened to the message sent from McKee on May 5. While dismissing McKee's words as lies, the Shawnees refused for the moment to go to war with the Virginians. But fifteen to twenty Mingos under Logan set off for the Ohio Valley to seek retribution for the loss of their family and friends." By late May, only Logan's Mingos were at war. McKee, with Croghan's assistance, had fashioned a fragile peace that greatly restricted the scope of open warfare along the Ohio frontier. As the month drew to a close, Connolly, who had seemed to support McKee's efforts up to that time, began to take a much harder diplomatic stance, possibly at Dunmore's instruction. He called out the local militia, ordered needed repairs to Fort Dunmore, and sent a party of soldiers to patrol the Ohio River below Pittsburgh, hoping to engage and defeat one of the hostile bands that roamed the area. Clearly, Virginia sought to widen the conflict, hoping that a victory over the western tribes would legitimize Virginia's claims to the region. On June 10, realizing that the local situation was well beyond his ability to influence, McKee wrote to Johnson and advised the superintendent that only the reimposition of imperial or Pennsylvanian control could halt the violence. It was impossible to predict, wrote McKee, whether the worsening situation around Pittsburgh would result in a general Indian war. But despite the violence perpetrated by natives and whites alike, there seemed to be a temporary lull in the hostilities. Now was the time that "some wise interposition of Government is truly necessary, and would undoubtedly restore peace," claimed the agent. "Without it it is impossible, and thousands of the inhabitants must be involved in misery and distress." Speaking of the Indians living in the Ohio Country, McKee wrote that "they have given great proofs of their pacific disposition, and have acted with more moderation than those who ought to have been more rational." A war to chastise them ,would be ineffective and would inevitably lead to the "destruction of this country."

CHIEF BLUE JACKET
PALEFACED SHAWNEE As the son of white settlers Blue Jacket grew to become a great leader to the Shawnee of Southeast Ohio Story by Ryan Wilson Artwork by Jill Howell "When Colonel Butler casually asked him who taught him to speak and write English so well, Blue Jacket smiled faintly and replied only that his teachers had been good but that he had later come to despise them."---from Allan W.

Eckert, The Frontiersman Though Allan Eckert's historical novel is dramatic, no amount of literature can truly capture Chief Blue Jacket's contempt toward the white man of the late 18th century frontier. Imagine your home stripped from you, along with your sustenance and pride. Anger, then arms, became the Shawnee reaction toward the oncoming white man. However, Blue Jacket's defiance existed outside the parameters of race. Blue Jacket was a white man. We read in history texts about the conflicts between Shawnee and white settlers. Like Eckert, other writers and historians characterize the era through names like Daniel Boone, Tecumseh, and Simon Kenton. But we rarely read about Marmaduke "Duke" Van Swearingen, a white man who transcends the image of white settlers at the time. Long before Kevin Costner became Dances with Wolves in Hollywood, Marmaduke became Blue Jacket in Southeast Ohio and led his adopted people to first war then peace. Marmaduke Van Swearingen was born on January 2, 1753, on a thousand-acre farm in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, according to a copy of his birth record at the Chillicothe Historical Society in Ross County. His parents were John and Katherine Stoll Swearingen, and he was the fourth son of fourteen children. Writer John Bennett's 1943, Blue Jacket, War Chief of the Shawnee, the first official biography of Blue Jacket, describes the Swearingen family as noted frontiersmen, traveling to Virginia, Carolina, Kentucky, and Ohio. Growing up, Marmaduke had a first hand account of the biased attitudes and experiences of the white settlers. But Marmaduke seemed destined to breach the boundary between the settlers and the Shawnee. He had an intense curiosity about the Indian way of life. Their respect for the land and boldness engrossed him. Marmaduke eventually trained himself to become a Shawnee. He learned the Shawnee language from an old trapper, who lived among the Ohio Shawnee. Bennett states that Marmaduke, like many frontier youth, became fond of the wild, savage like. But unlike most boys, Marmaduke sympathized with the plight of the Native American and often expressed his desire to live their free life when he reached manhood. In 1769, as researched by descendant Lola Thoroughman Van Swearingen, Marmaduke's sympathy evolved into a kinship with the Shawnee people. While hunting in what is now West Virginia with his younger brother Charles, the 17-year-old Marmaduke encountered a Shawnee hunting party. His knowledge of the Shawnee language was useful in avoiding a fight. After talking for over an hour, it was arranged for Charles to return home unharmed if Marmaduke willingly accompanied the Shawnee to their tribe. There, he was initiated into the Shawnee and given the name Blue Jacket, derived from his blue linsey jacket. Marmaduke never lived within the white world again. Instead, he became one of the most feared Shawnee warriors and, remarkably, one of the eight outstanding chieftains in Ohio history. The Indian captive O.M. Spencer described Chief Blue Jacket as "the most noble in appearance of any Indian I ever saw. His person, about six feet high, was finely proportioned, stout, and muscular; his eyes large, bright, and piercing; his forehead high and broad ... and his countenance open and intelligent, expressive of firmness and decision ..." Marmaduke fit so well within the Shawnee nation, he was never identified as a white man. His size, endurance, and intelligence helped him withstand the severe tests of initiation into his Shawnee tribe. And to Lola Van Swearingen, his enthusiasm, cheerfulness, and absolute loyalty made him very popular within his new family. Blue Jacket's specific adopted tribe was the Kispokotha tribe. The Kispoko village had approximately 900 Shawnee and dwelt along the Scioto just north of Chillicothe (Chalahgantha). Elsie Johnson Ayres, in her book Hills of Highland, estimates that there were less than 15,000 Shawnee set along the Scioto and Paint Creek rivers at the beginning of the American Revolution. Continuously pushed westward, The Shawnee were in Southeast Ohio when the first settlers arrived. Fiercely, they defended their hunting ground. A son of white settlers joining a people with an extreme rage toward all white invaders seems incredible to us today. The connection reflects well on both participants. But the relationship between Marmaduke and the Shawnee was more than an understanding. Blue Jacket flourished within the Shawnee nation, contributing in the councils and war campaigns from the beginning of his tribal occupancy. Finally in the most ground breaking event, he was named chief of his tribe. In his Blue Jacket biography, Bennett explains that this "is all the more remarkable in that the Shawnee seldom or never permitted a white prisoner to engage with or lead a war party, for fear of betrayal." Blue Jacket never hinted deception. Instead his reputation as a Shawnee warrior spread throughout the Ohio Valley. His first major battle occurred on October 10, 1774, at Point Pleasant. though he was only in his early twenties, Blue Jacket

served as second in command. Until 1795, according to Bennett, Blue Jacket led his Shawnee people in a defensive war against the invading white man. During this time, his activities ranged from taking up the coat of a British officer to various run-ins with the famous frontiersman, Daniel Boone. But despite his respect for Boone and others understanding his Shawnee life, Blue Jacket's contempt for the American invasion grew. At a governor's council he was quoted as saying, "From all quarters we receive speeches from the American, and no two are alike. We suppose they intend to deceive us ..." The most remarkable account of Blue Jacket's savageness as a warrior is at the battle of St. Clair in which he fought valiantly. Ironically, a Van Swearingen was killed in the battle. This was Blue Jacket's cousin, a captain of the American forces, according to Lola Van Swearingen. The same motive which led Blue Jacket to war, however, eventually led him to seek a peace with the American government. The good of his people was all important. After a staggering defeat as the commander at the battle of Fallen Timbers, Blue Jacket realized that American occupancy in Ohio was inevitable. He became an emissary to those tribes still hostile. He even took up the blue coat of an American officer and helped orchestrate the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, a bond between the Americans and the Indian people that lasted fifteen years. He then relinquished all leadership and retired to Bellefontaine, Ohio, where he died on June 26, 1810. There is no evidence of Blue Jacket ever revealing his nativity to his adopted people, nor is there any evidence of him returning to European life. He did, however, marry a white woman named Margaret Moore, taken captive by the Shawnee at the age of nine. She and Blue Jacket had one son, Joseph, and one daughter, Nancy, before she returned to her native home in Virginia. But while the woman he loved returned to the white world, Blue Jacket's heart remained with the Shawnee. He remarried the Indian Clearwater Baby and, as researched by Lola Van Swearingen, had many more children. Blue Jacket returned only once to his original adopted home on the Scioto River. In 1803 a delegation of great chiefs went to the Chillicothe capital at Adena. In the course of the delegation, Blue Jacket met his distant cousin Eleanor Swearingen, the wife of United States Senator Thomas Worthington. Of course neither relative recognized the other. But the incident illustrates the different paths taken by two people of the same race, opportunity, and family. Their lifestyles were determined only by the diversity of their decisions. Blue Jacket's unique path to greatness among the Shawnee people is still remembered today. Eckert romanticizes Blue Jacket's life in his novels The Frontiersman and A Sorrow in Our Heart. There is also the annual outdoor drama, Blue Jacket, near Xenia, Ohio. These constant remembrances of Marmaduke Van Swearingen do more than just commemorate the great chief Blue Jacket. They stand as reminders that one white man saw more than just greed for land in 18th century Ohio. Blue Jacket saw what was right and wrong. And, most important, he took action by giving his lifetime to the Shawnee.

Articles and Source Material Relating to Ruddell's and Martin's Forts

Background Information on the Forts
Martin's Fort Hinkson's/Ruddell's Fort

Articles About Invasion
Destruction of Ruddle's and Martin's Forts by Maude Lafferty Bradford's Notes on Kentucky The Taking of Ruddell's and Martin's Fort from "History of the Girties"

"The British Invasion of Kentucky" by J. Winston Coleman "Ruddles' Fort and the British Invasion of Kentucky," a lecture by Richard Bean Draper Manuscript Collection Excerpts from "Collins History of Kentucky" Milo M. Quaife's "When Detroit Invaded Kentucky" Excerpts from "Benjamin Logan: Kentucky Frontiersman" Excerpts from "Frontier Kentucky" by Otis K. Rice "Chronicles of Border Warfare" by Alexander Scott Withers

Official Correspondence
American Correspondence Concerning the Captives

Other Source Material
George Rogers Clark Papers Land Acquisitions in Vicinity of Ruddell's and Martin's Forts

Other Articles or Information of Interest
Spencer Records' Memoir of the Ohio Valley Frontier 1766-1795 Simon Kenton James Sellars Correspondence

Maps
Map from Lair, Kentucky, to Ruddell's Fort Close-up of Ruddell's Fort Filson's Map of Kentucke

Land Acquisitions in the Region What Would Become Bourbon County, Virginia (Kentucky) 1779-1780
The following information is taken from the "Certificate Book of the Virginia Land Commission, 1779-1780," compiled by S. Emmett Lucas, Jr. (Southern Historical Press, Easly, South Carolina). Following are a few of the many land acquisitions found in this book. Bob Francis, March, 2003 At a Court continued & held for adjusting disputed titles to the Kentucky lands at the Falls of the Ohio the 2oth day of Nov'r 1779--Present Will 'm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent'n (Cert iss’d for 1000 fees &c pd P. D.) John Townsend this day claimed a settlement and preemption to a tract of Land lying on a branch of Licking Creek known by the name of Townsends fork about 3 Miles from Redills (Riddles?)- Fort

by making an actual settlement in the year 1775 & raising a Crop of Corn on the premises satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Townsend has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of Land to include the said settlement & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 fees &c pd D. D.) John Martin this day claimed a settlement & preemption to a tract of Land lying on the south fork of Licking Creek on the South side thereof about 5 Miles from Riddes Station with the letters IM on a Tree at a small spring by improving the same and raising a Crop of Corn in the year 1775 and residing in the Country ever since satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Martin has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of Land-including the said improvement & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining and that a Certificate issue accordingly (Cert iss’d for 1000 fees &e pd D. D.) William Lynn this day timed a preemption of 1000 Acres of land at the State price lying on the South aide of licking Creek known by the name of the Big Blue Lick to include the said Lick lying in a short bend of the said Greek by improving the same in the year 1775 by building a Cabbin on the premises satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Lynn has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres of land to include to said improvement & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1000 fees &c pd D. D.) Andrew Lynn by Win Lynn this day claimed a preemption of 1000 Acres of land at the State price lying on the Most North Easterly branch of Hinkstons Fork of Licking about 5 or 6 Miles above the Mouth of said branch where there is a remarkable large Bend at the Mouth by improving the same & building a Cabbin on the premises in the year 1775 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Lynn has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres to include the said improvement and that a Certificate issue accordingly. ----At a Court continued & held at Boonesborough for adjusting disputed titles to the Kentucky lands the 21st day of Dec'r 1779--Present Will'm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent'n (Cert iss'd for 1400 by order of Court at Bryants) Moses Thomas Asses of William Cradlebaugh this day claimed a settlement & preemption to a tract of Land in the district of Kentucky lying on Stoners fork at the Mouth of a Creek called Wolf Creek branch of Licking by the said Cradlebough improving the same and raising a Crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Thomas has a right to -a settlem't of 400 Acres of land including the s'd improvement & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining -Cert- not to issue until the further order of this Court. (Cert iss’d for 1400 fees &c pd P. P.) Nathaniel Hart this day claimed a settlement & preemption to a. tract of land in the District of Kentucky lying on a branch of Silver Creek on Boons Old Trace joining Squire Boons Stockfield Track by improving the same & raising a Crop of Corn in the year 1775 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Hart has a right to a settlement of 400 acres of land to include the s'd improvement & the preemption of 1000 Acres of Land adjoining & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 fees &c pd D. D. to Capt. Hart) David Hart by Nath 'l Hart this day claimed a settlement & preemption to a tract of land in the District of Kentucky lying on the Waters of Silver Creek joining on the North & North West side of Hughs land by raising a Crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 Satisfactory being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said P. Hart has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of land including the above location & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cent, issue accordingly. ----At a Court continued & held for adjusting disputed titles to Unpatented Land in District of Kentucky, at Boonsborough this 27th day of Dec'r 1779--Present Will 'm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent'n (Cert iss'd for 1400 by order of Court at Bryants.) Barlett Searcy this day claimed a settlement & preemption to a tract of land in the District of Kentucky lying on the North side of the Kentucky river on a small branch caned Blockhouse about 4 Mile from the river by the said Seamy settling in the Country in the year 1777 & residing ever since

satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Searcy has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining Certificate not to issue untill the further Order of this Court. (Cert iss’d for 1400) Rich'd Searcy by Barlett Searcy this day claimed a Settlement & preemption to a tract of land in the district of Kentucky lying on the head of a branch of Howards creek joining the lands of William Cothenworth on the Western side thereof by making An Actual Settlement in 1779 & residing ever since satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Searcy has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of land including the above location & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert-issue accordingly. (Cert iss'd for 1400 by ord'r of Court at Bryants) Reuben Searcy this day claimed a settlem't & preemption to a tract of land in the District of Kentucky lying on Stoners fork of licking at Martins Cabbin by settling in the year 1777 & residing ever since satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Searcy has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of land including the above location & the preemption of 1000 Acres Adjoining Cert. not to issue untill the further order of this Court. (Cert iss’d for 1000 Acres fees pd D. D) John Strode this day claimed a preemption to 1000 Acres of land at the State pre in the District of Kentucky lying on the So. fork of licking near the lead thereof to include his Station on the premises and running up the said Creek for quantity by marking & improving the same in April 1776 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Strode has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres of land including the above location Cert. to issue accordingly. (Cert iss'd for 1000 fees &c pd D. P. to Jn Strode) James Strode by John Strode this day claimed a preemption of 1000 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky lying on the head of Howards Creek joining on the East side of John Strodes land by marking & improving the same in the year 1776 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Strode has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres of land to include the said improvement & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss'd for 1000 fees &e pd to J. Strode) Benedick Couchman by John Strode this day claimed a preemption of 1000 Acres of land in the district of Kentucky lying between the head of Howards Creek & two Mile Creek by improving & marking the same in the year 1716 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Couchman has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres of land to include his improvement and that a Certificate issue accordingly. ----At a Court Continued & held at Boonsborough by the Commissioners for Adjusting the disputed titles to the Kentucky lands the 29 day of December 1779. Present Wm. Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent'n John Convey (Conway) Jun 'r this day claimed a settlem't & preemption to a tract of land in the district of Kentucky by settling in the Country in the year 1777 & residing in the Country ever since satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Conway has a right to a settlement & preemption. ----At a Court held by Commissioners of the Kentucky district for Adjusting title to unpatented lands at Bryants Station on Elkhorn. Jan’y 3d 1780. Present Wm. Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent'n

(Cert iss'd for 1400 fees &c pd D. D.) Isaac Riddle this day claimed a settlem't and preemption to a tract of land in the District of Kentucky lying on flat run a branch of licking Creek that runs into the said Creek about 3 Miles above the forks & about 1 1/2 Miles above the Mouth of the said run to include his improvement by Settling in the Country in the year 1777 & residing ever since satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Riddle has a right to a settlem't of 400 Acres of land to include his improvement & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss'd for 1400) Thos. Shores by Levi Todd this day claimed a settlem’t & preemption to a tract of land in the District of Kentucky lying on Haskins run about 5 Miles from Riddies Station including an improvement by making a settlement in the Country in the year 1775 & residing untill the year 1777 when he was taken prisoner satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Shores has a right to a settlem't of 400 Acres of land to include the said improvement & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 fees &c pd D.D.) George Riddle by Isaac Riddle this day claimed a settlement & preemption to a tract of land in the district of Kentucky lying on the South West side of licking & in the forks of the Creek for quantity about 3 Miles above Riddles Station by settling in the Country in the year 1777 & residing ever since satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Riddle has a right to the settlem't of 400 Acres to include the above location & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss'd for 400 fees &ce pd D.D.) Cornelious Riddle by Isaac Riddle this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on flat run joining above Isaac Riddles lands by making a settlement in the Country in the year 1778 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Cornelias Riddle has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert. Iss’d for 1400) James Sadowski this day claimed a settlem't & preemption to a tract of land in the district of Kentucky lying on a branch of Coopers Bun a branch of licking Creek on the West side of the road leading from Boonsborough to the Blue licks and a mile from Randolphs lick to include his improvement by raising a Crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1775 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that settlem’t of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & the preemption of 1000 Acres Adjoining & that a Certificate issue Accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &e pd D. D.) John Riddle by Isaac Riddle this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky lying on licking Creek adjoining the lands belonging to Riddles Station above by the s’d Riddles settling in the Country in the year 1779 in the Month of April satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Riddle has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D.) James Riddle this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on licking Creek joining John Riddles claim of land above by making a Settlement in Apr in 1779 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Riddle has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400) John Haggin this day claimed a settlem't and preemption to a tract of land in the district of Kentucky lying on the Waters of Coopers run on the North side thereof & about 1 1/2 Miles No. of Grotts land to include a spring & his improvement by raising a Crop of Corn in the year 1775 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Haggin has a right to a settlem’t of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Certificate issue accordingly. ----Commissioners of the District of Kentucky for adjusting disputed Titles to the Kentucky lands 7th day of Jan'y 1780. Present Wm. Fleming Stephen Trogg & Edmund Lyne Gent 'n

(Cert iss’d for 400 fees &e pd D. D. to Capt Holder) (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &e pd D. D. to Col. Logan) George Sumwalt by Cob. Logan this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on Green Creek joining James Parberrys Assee of Estis Land extending towards McMullens Spring for quantity by making a settlem’t in April 1779 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Sumwalt has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to cob Logan) Stuffel Sumwalt by Cob Logan this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on Green Creek a branch of licking Creek joining Geo 'e Sumwalts land below by making a settlem't in April 1779 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Sumwalt has a right to a preempt. of 400 Acres of land to include the s'd location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. Aquilla White this day claimed a preempt'n of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky Witnesses being sworn & examined the Court are of Opinion that the s’d claim be rejected as it Appeared to the Court that he had disposed of his claim to Patrick Donielson. (Cert iss'd for 1000 fees &c pd D. D. to Mr Hunter) Joseph Kennady this day claimed a preemption of 1000 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky lying on a branch of Stoners fork of licking Creek running on the So. side thereof about l 1/2 Miles above John Kennadys land by Marking & improving the same in the year 1776 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Oñinion that the Said Kennady has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres of land to include the S’d improvements & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss'd for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Mr Hunter) James Key this day claimed a preemption to 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on a So. fork of a branch of Stoners fork of licking Creek running in on the So. side thereof about 1 Miles below Joseph Kennadys land by making Actual settlement in April 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Key has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Jno. Martin) ----At a Court continued & held by the Commissioners for adjusting disputed titles to unpatented lands at Bryants Station on Elkhorn Creek this Eleventh day of Jan’y 1780. Present Wm. Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent'n John Burger this day claimed a preemption to 400 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying about 6 Miles from Riddles Station a South course on the dividing ridge between hinkstones branch & coopen run Waters of licking Creek including a Sinking Spring by settling in the Country in the year 1778 satisfactory proof being made to the court they are of Opinion that the s'd Burger has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. Jno Martin) John Burger Jun'r this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on Hingstons branch of Licking Creek about 8 Miles from Riddles Station lying on the Trace that leads from Licking to Lexington including a Spring by making an Actual settlement in March 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the S'd Burger Jun'r has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly (Cert had for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Jno Martin) Christopher Spear this dray claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on Hingstons branch on Licking Creek adjoining John Burger Jun'r Land on the So. side by making an Actual Settlem't in the year 1778 satisfactory proof being made to the Court

they are of Opinion that the s’d Spear has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of Land to include the above location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &e pd D. D. to Jno Martin) Casper Karsner this day claimed a preempt 'ii of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky lying on the North branch of the North fork of Elkhorn Creek including a small sinking spring on the south side of the s'd branch and about two miles up the said branch from the licking Trace a North E. course by Making an actual Settlem't in the year 1778 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Karsner has a right to a preempt of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. ----At a Court continued & held for adjusting disputed titles to Unpatented Lands by the Commissioners of Kentucky District at Bryants Station on Elkhorn Creek this 12th day of Jan’y 1780. Present Wm. Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent'n (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to John Smith) John Goodnight this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on Hingstons fork about 5 Miles from the Mouth thereof and about 4 Miles from Riddles Station by making an Actual Settlement in April 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Goodnight has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Jno Smith) David Goodnight this day claimed a preemption of 404) Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky lying on Johnson Creek about 3 Miles from the Mouth thereof upon the North East side of Licking Creek & six miles below the blue lick by making an Actual settlement April 1779. satisfactory proof proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Goodnight has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D.) John Smith this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of Land at the State price in the District of Kentucky lying on broad run Waters of the South fork of licking Creek adjoining Sam'l McMullens below & Isaac Riddle above by making an Actual Settlement in 1778 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Smith has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D.) John Smith Assee of Frederick Tanner this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on the North fork of Licking in the forks 8 Miles above the fork on a small run by the s'd Tanner making an Actual settlement in 1778 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Smith has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D.) George Layell by John Smith this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land in the district of Kentucky at the State price lying on a small run Waters of the North Fork of Licking about 1 Mile below John Smiths Assee of F Tanner land on the s'd run by making an Actual settlement in the year 1778 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Layall has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of Land to include the above location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &e pd D. D. to Jno Smith) Catherine Edleman by John Smith this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of Land at the State price in the District of Kentucky lying on the East side of the So. fork of licking Creek 1/2 Miles from John Martins land & running Eastwardy for quantity by Settling in the Country in the year 1778 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Edleman has a right to a preempt of 400 Acres of land to include the above location and that a Certificate issue accordingly.

----At a Court Continued & held for adjusting disputed Titles to unpatented land by Commissioners of Kentucky district this 14th day of Jan 'y 1780 at Bryants Station on Elkhorn Creek Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent'n (Cert S’d for 1000 fees &c pd D. D. to H Shannon) John Shannon by Hugh Shannon this day claimed a preemption of 1000 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on Shannons run Waters of the S. fork of Elkhorn Creek Adjoining John Blackburns land on the South side by Marking & improving by building a Cabbin & on the premises in the year 1776 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Shannon has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres of land to include the above Improvement & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 fees &c pd D. D.) Hugh Shannon this day claimed a settlem't & preemption to a tract of land in the district of Kentucky lying on the Middle Road leading to Larence run & building a Cabbin in the fork of a run about 9 Miles from the lower Blue lick by raising a Crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 & residing 12 Months before the year 1778 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Shannon has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that & Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1000 fees &c pd D. D. to Hugh Shannon) Wm Shannon this day claimed a preemption of 1000 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on the South fork of Elkhorn Creek about 2 Miles below the Mouth of Lindsey run by Marking & improving the same in the year 1776 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Shannon has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres of Land to include the above Location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &e pd D. D. to Levi Todd) Wm Anderson this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky lying on the waters of Hickmans Creek on the West side of the Creek about 7 Miles South from Cole. John Todds land by making & Actual Settlement in April 1779 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Anderson has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & that a Cert. iss accordingly. ----At a Court Cont'd & held at Bryants Station on Elkhorn Creek for adjusting Titles to unpatented Lands by the Commissioners of Kentucky District this 15th day of Jan'y 1780 Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent'n (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &e pd D. D.) John Dunkin this day claimed a preempt don of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on Hinkstons Mill run & about 1 Mile below a Covered Cabbin built by one Townsend by making an Actual settlement in the year 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Dunkin has a right to a preempt of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a cert. iss'd accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1000 fees &c pd D. D. to B. Patterson) James Duncan by Robert Patterson this day claimed a settlement & preemption to a tract of land in the district of Kentucky lying on the North fork of Lindseys ran the waters of the South fork of Elkhorn Creek by settling in the Country & residing 12 Months before the year 1778 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s!d Duncan has a right to a Settlem’t of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & the preempt of 1000 acres adjoining & that a Cert issue accordingly. Francis Berry--(Cert issd for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Jas Dunkin) Francis Berry by John Haggen this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on the Middle fork of Cuppers (Coopers) run about 1 Miles up the s'd Fork by making an Actual settlem't in March 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Berry has a right to a preempt. of 400 Acres of Land to include the above location & that a cert. issue accordingly.

(Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D.) Solomon Letten this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on the Middle fork of Coopers run above F. Berrys claim to lands by making an Actual settlem’t in the Month of March 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Letten has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert issue Accordingly. (Cert S’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Jas Dunkin) Joseph Lovlass by John Haggin this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on the West fork of Coopers run adjoining William McGee on the s’d Fork by making an Actual settlement in the Month of March 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Lovelass has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Jas. Dunkin) Charles Gatliff by John Haggen this day claimed a preempt of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying Hingstons Mill run about 3 Miles above John Dunkin claim by making an Actual settlement in the Month of March 1779 Satisfactory proof being made for the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Gatliff has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & that a Cert. issue accordingly, (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. Thomas Mehan this day claimed a preempt of 400 Acres at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on the Middle fork of Coopers run joining Solomon Littens up the s'd run above the s'd Littens Claim by making an Actual settlement in the Month of March 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Meehan has a right to a preempt. of 400 Acres of laid to include the above location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. ----At a Court Cont'd & held at Bryants Station on Elkhorn Creek by the Commissioners for adjusting Titles to the Kentucky Lands this 17th day of Jan'y 1780 Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent'n (Cert ised for 1400 fees &c pd D. D.) It Appearing to the Court that John Conway Jun'r made it appear that he was in titled to a settlem’t & preempt'n at Boonsborough the 29th day of Dec'r 1779 but did not locate the same Now comes into Court & locates the same on the Buffaloe road leading to the lower Salt Spring from Riddles Station including Tree Marked & running Eastwardly for Quantity-that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert id for 1400 fees &e pd D. D.) John Conway Sen 'r this day claimed a settlem’t & preemption to a tract of Land in the district of Kentucky lying on a branch of the Middle fork of Licking Creek near a Buffaloe road that leads to the lower Blue licks joining Jacob Sadowski on the North Eastwardly including a lick & Cabbin by settling in the Country in the year 1777 & residing ever since Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Conway has a right to a settlem't of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & the preempt of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cent iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D.) Sam'l Vanhook this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on the South fork of licking Creek adjoining Sam'l Dennis's land below by making an actual settlem’t in the Month of March 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Vanhook has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D.) Sam'l Vanhook Jr this day claimed a preempt. of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying about l 1/2 Miles N. E. of the buffaloe road leading from Riddles Station to the lower Blue licks & 5 Miles from the s'd Station by making an Actual Settlement in the Month of March 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Vanhook has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of Land to include the above location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Jun Martin) Thomas Foster this day claimed a preempt. of 400 Acres of land in

the District of Kentucky at the State price lying about 1k Mile above John Martin Land on licking Creek by making an Actual Settlem’t in the Month of March 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Foster has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Jno Martin) Joel Will this day claimed a preempt'n of 400 Acres of Land at the State price in the District of Kentucky lying adjoining Thos. Fosters land on licking Creek by making an Actual settlem't in the Month of April 1779 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Will has a right to a preempt'n of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Jno Martin) Ica Rice this day claimed a preempt of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on licking Creek adjoining Joel Wills land by making an actual settlement in the Month of April 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Rice has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &e pd D. D.) John Denton this day claimed a preempt'n of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on a North branch of the Middle fork of Licking Creek adjoining the Lands s'd to be claimed by Alexander Poeg by making an actual settlem't in the Month of April 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Denton has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of Land to include the above location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &e pd D. D.) George Davis this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on the waters of the Middle fork of Licking Creek adjoining the lands of John Denton to the Westward by making an actual settlement in the Month of April 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Davis has a right to a preempt of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Geo. Davis) John Davis this day claimed a preempt of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on the waters of Licks adjoining the Lands of Charles Gatliff by making all actual settlement in the month of April 1779 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Davis has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert lose accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Geo. Davis) Joseph Essex this day claimed a preempt'n of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky lying on the Middle fork of Licking creek on the North side thereof Adjoining John Gallaways by making an Actual settlem't in the year 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Essex has a right to a preempt, of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D.) Wm. Morris this day claimed a preempt'n of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on the Water of licking Creek about 1 Mile E. of John Martins land by making an Actual settlement in the Month of October 1778 satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Morris has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400) Peter Fare this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying in the forks of the North Fork of the South Fork of Licking including his improvement & by making an Actual settlement in the month of April 1779 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Pare has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 fees &c pd D. D.) James Haggin by John Haggin this day claimed a settlement & preemption to a tract of Land in the district of Kentucky lying on the South fork of licking Creek on the South side thereof about 3 Miles below Riddle Station by Having Wm Sheald to raise a crop of Corn in the Country for his use in the year 1775 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Haggin has a right to a settlem't of 400 Acres of Land to include the above location & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert issue accordingly.

(Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to E. Smith) Reuben Procter this day claimed a preemption of 400 acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky lying on the E. Side of Stoners fork of Licking Creek and about 2 Miles above Bramblets Lick by making an Actual settlem't in the year 1778 Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Procter has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly. ----At a Court Cont'd & held at Harrodsburg for adjusting Titles to Kentucky Lands by the Commissioners of Kentucky District this 29th day of Jan'y 1780 Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent'n (Cert iss’d for 1400 fees &c pd D. D.) John Mchan this day claimed a settlem't & preemption to a tract of Land in the district of Kentucky on Aee 't of raising a crop of Corn in the year 1776 lying between the Land of John Dunkin & Charles Gatliff on Hingstons Creek of Licking Creek satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Mchan has a right to a settlem’t of 400 Acre of Land to include the above location & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D. to Col. Logan) John McKeny this day claimed a preempt 'n of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of making an Actual settlem't in May 1779 lying on the So. fork of licking Creek on the South side thereof about 2 Miles above John Martins Land to include an improvement in a Bottom Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd MeKenny has a right to a preempt. of 400 Acres of land to include the s’d improvement & that a Certificate issue accordingly. ----At a Court Cont'd & held at Harrodsburg for adjusting Titles to unpatented land by the Commissioners of Kentucky District this 31st day of Jan'y 1780 Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent'n (Cert iss’d for 1000 fees &c pd D. D.) The Heir of Reuben Waits Dec'd by Elizabeth Waits this day claimed a preemption of 1000 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of the s’d decedents Marking & improving the same in the year 1776 lying on Coopers run a branch of Licking Creek about 2 Miles from the head thereof to include the s’d Decedents Cabbin Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Heir &c has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres of land to include the s’d Cabbin & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400 fees &c pd D. D.) Nathan Linn this day claimed a preemption of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky On Ace 't of Making an Actual settlement in the Month of May 1779 lying on the Waters of Hingston fork of Licking Creek about 5 Miles below Andrew Guns (linns?) land Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Linn has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. ----At a Court Cont'd & held at Harrodsburg this 9th day of Feb’y 1780 for adjusting titles to unpatented lands by the Commissioners of Kentucky. Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gents (Cert iss’d for 1400 fees &c pd D. D. to Wm. Lynn) The Heir of Silas Train dec’d this day claimed a settlement preemption to a tract of land (by Win Linn) in the district of Kentucky on Ace 't of the s’d deed raising a Crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1775 lying on Hingstons Mill Seat Creek about 3 Miles from Riddles Station on a Buffaloe path to include his improvement satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Heir &e has

a right to a settlem't of 400 acres of land to Include the above location & the preempt of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert issue accordingly. ----At a Court Cont'd & held by the Commissioners of Kentucky District for adjusting titles to unpatented lands at Harrodsburg this 14th day of Feb’y 1780. Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent. (Cert iss’d for 1400 to Edw'd Hammond) Jno Hinkston by Jno Haggen this day claimed a settlement & preempt'n to a tract of Land in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of raising a crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1775 & 1776 lying on the South side of the South fork of Licking Creek adjoining the Land of Riddles Station to include his improvement satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Hinkston has a right to a settlem't of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & the preempt of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 to Edw'd Hammond) Jno Wood by Jan Haggen this day claimed a settlem’t & preemption to a tract of Land in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of raising a Crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 tying on a large Buffaloe Road on the Waters of the South fork of Licking Creek adjoining the Lands of Jno Hingston on the South West to include his improvement satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Wood has a right to a settlem’t of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 Edw'd Hammond) John Sillars by Jno Haggin this day claimed a settlement & preempt'n to a tract of Land in the District of Kentucky on Acc't of raising a Crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 lying on the North side of the South fork of Licking Creek about 4 Miles below Riddles Station to include his improvement satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Sillas has a right to a settlem’t of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & the preempt of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert. issue accordingly, (Cert iss’d for 1400 to Edward Hammond) William McCune by John Haggin this day claimed a settlem't & preempt'n to a tract of Land in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of raising a crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 lying near the head of Hingstons Creek waters of the South fork of Licking Creek on the road leading from Riddles Station to Elkhorn satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd McCaun has a right to a settlem't of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & the preempt'n of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert. issue accordingly. ----At a Court Cont'd & held by the Commissioners of Kentucky District for adjusting titles to unpatented lands at Harrodsburg this 17th day of Feb’y 1780. Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent. (Cert iss’d for 1000 pd &e) James Batterton by Rich'd Masterson this day claimed a preemption of 1000 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky on Acc't of marking & improving the same in the year 1776 lying on Mill Creek waters of the North fork of Licking Creek about 2 or 3 Miles from the Mouth of the s'd Creek to include his improvement satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Batterton has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres of Land to include the said improvement. ----At a Court Cont'd & held by the Commissioners of Kentucky District for adjusting titles to unpatented lands at Harrodsburg this 21st day of Feb’y 1780. Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent. (Cert iss’d for 1000 Pd &e) James Trabue by Dan'l Trabue this day claimed a preemp'n of 400 Acres of Land at the

State price in the District of Kentucky on Acc't of Making an Actual settlement in the year 1778 lying on the head of the West branch of Gilhens Creek to include his improvement satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Trabue has a right to a preempt of 400 Acres to include the above Location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. Wm Steel by Win Stewart this day claimed a settlement & preemption to a tract of Land in the District of Kentucky on Acc't of residing in the Country 12 Months before the year 1778 lying on the North side of the North fork of Elkhorn Creek on the waters of a Creek that runs into Elkhorn opposite to McClellens fort in the fork to include two Cabbins one built by Wm Stewart the other Jun Gabriel Jones Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd ----At a Court Cont'd & held by the Commissioners of Kentucky District for adjusting titles to unpatented lands at Harrodsburg this 24th day of Feb’y 1780. Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent. (Cert iss’d for 1400 pd &c) Wm Steele by Jno Martin this day claimed a settlement & preempt'n to a tract of Land in the District of Kentucky on Acc't of raising a Crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 lying on the North side of Middle fork of Licking Creek between a large But mice road & the creek to include his improvement satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Steele has a right to a settlem't of 400 Acres of land to include the above location & the preempt of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 pd &c) Wm Miller by Jno Martin this day claimed a settlement & preempt'n to a tract of Land in the District of Kentucky on Acc't of raising a crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 lying on the Waters of the Middle fork of Licking Creek on a large Buffaloe road to include his improvement satisfactory proof being made to the court they are of Opinion that the s'd Miller has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & the preempt of 1000 Acres adj'g & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 pd &c) Jno Miller by Jno Martin this day claimed a settlement & preempt 'n to a tract of land in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of raising a Crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 lying on the North side of the Middle fork of Licking Creek to include his improvement adjoining the Lands of Alexander Polock Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Miller has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & the preempt of 1000 Acres of Land adjoining & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 pd &c) Alexander Pollock by Jno Martin this day claimed a settlement & preempt to a tract of land in the district of Kentucky on Ace 't of raising a Crop of Corn in the year of 1776 lying on the North side of the Middle fork of Licking Creek adjoining the lands of Jno Miller to include his improvement satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Pollock has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & the preempt of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cent issue accordingly, (Cert iss’d for 1400 pd &c) Wm Nisbit by Jun Martin this day claimed a settlement & preempt'n to a tract of land in the district of Kentucky on Acc 't of raising a crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 lying on the North side of the Middle Fork of Licking Creek between a buffaloe Road & the s’d Creek adjoining of the Lower side of Wm Steeles land to include his improvement Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Nisbit has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & the preemption of 1000 Acres of land adjoining & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 pd &e) Sam’l Nisbit by Jno Martin this day claimed a settlement & preempt to a tract of land in the district of Kentucky on Acc’t of raising a crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 lying between the Middle & South fork of Licking creek on a bufaloe path on a branch of the Middle fork to include his improvement Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion. that the s'd Nisbit has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of Land & the preempt of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert. issue accordingly, (Cert iss’d for 1400 pd &c) Sam'l Wilson by Jno Martin thin day claimed a settlem’t & preempt 'n to a tract of land in

the district of Kentucky on Acc’t of raising a Crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1775 lying on the North side of the Middle Fork of Licking Creek about 3 Miles from Riddles Station to include his improvement satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Wilson has a right to s’d settlement of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1000 pd &c) Jno Lacey by Jno Martin this day claimed a preempt'n of 1000 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Ace 't of marking & improving the same in the year of 1775 lying on the South side of the South fork Licking Creek including a Spring on a High Bank and his improvem't Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Lacey has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres to include the s’d improvement & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 pd &c) Archabald Martin by Jno Martin this day claimed a preempt of 1000 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Arc 't of marking & improving the same in the year 1775 lying on the South side of the South fork of Licking Creek about 2 Miles from Jno Martins Land to include a Spring & improvem't satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Martin has a right to a preempt of 1000 Acres of Land to include the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 pd &c) Jno Dunley by Jim Martin this day claimed a settlement & preempt to a tract of Land in the District of Kentucky on Acc't of residing in the Country 12 Months before the year 1778 lying West of the Sycamore Forest on a Branch of Licking Creek includ'g Locust ridge Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Dunley has a right to a settlem't of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & the Preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert issue accordingly. ----At a Court Cont'd & held by the Commissioners of Kentucky District for adjusting titles to unpatented lands at Harrodsburg this 25th day of Feb’y 1780. Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent. (Cert iss’d for 400) Michael Goodnight this day claimed a preempt of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky on Acc 't of making an Actual settlement in Feb'y 1779 lying at the Mouth of the Doctors fork of Chaplins fork of Salt River on both sides of the s’d Creek Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the said Goodnight has a right to a preempt of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d D. D.) Arch'd McKenney came into Court & moves to alter his location & his former one was taken from him by a prior improvement which is granted him lying on Stoners fork of Licking Creek above Stoners Land at a Buffalos path runfling North for quantity Ordered that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400) Jno Todd Jun'r by Wm Stafford this day claimed a preempt'n of 400 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of making an Actual settlement in the year 1778 lying on the head waters of the South fork of Harrods Creek including his spring & improvement made by Moore & Hughs Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Todd has a right to a preemption of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400) Jno Todd Jun'r Asses of Dan'l Griffin this day claimed a preempt of 400 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of Marking and improving the same in the year 1779 lying on the waters of the Mulberry fork of Beargrass Creek adjoining the Lands of Jim Floyd on the North to include an improvement made by One Hughes satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Todd &e has a right to a preempt of 400 Acres of Land to include the above location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 400) Jno Todd Jun'r Assee of '50Patrick Owens this day claimed a preempt of 400 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Acet of the s’d Owens making an Actual settlement in May 1779 lying on the head waters of the main fork of Cain Run on the South end of a tract of Land marked for him in the year 1775

adjoining McConnells Land on the North including an improvem't by Rob't Patterson Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Todd has a right to a preempt of 400 Acres of Land to include the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400) Jno Todds Jun'r Assee of Jno May this day claimed a settlm't & preemption to a tract of Land in the district of Kentucky on Acc’t of the S'd Jno May raising a Crop of Corn in the Country at his expence in the year 1775 lying on the head waters of the South Fork of Elkhorn at MeConnells Fork including a Cabbin made by 158Jno McCracken about 1 Mile North Wt of Mansfield satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Todd has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of land to include the above Location & the preemption of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert issue accordingly. Jno Todd Jun'r made application to the Court for a preempt of 1000 Acres of land on Asees of Wm. Shields & it appearing to the Court that a Certain Jas Higgins has already Obt'd a Cert. for settlem't & preemption for the same service it is the Opinion of the Court that they cannot now (enter) into and examination of both parties cannot be present & that the s'd Todd can only set the Cert aside in General Court. ----At a Court Cont'd & held by the Commissioners of Kentucky District for adjusting titles to unpatented lands at Harrodsburg this 26th day of Feb’y 1780. Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent. (Cert iss’d for 400 pd &c D. D.) Sam'l Porter came into court & moves to alter a Location he made the 25th Inst sufficient cause appearing for the same it is granted him Now locates lying on the North side of Kentucky on the first Bottom below Millers Creek to include an improvement made by Jno Martin Order'd that a Cert. issue accordingly ----April 19th, 1780 Wm. Hoy by Dan'1 Gass this day claimed a settlem’t & preemption in the district of Kentucky to a tract of Land the Testimony being heard the Court are of Opinion that the claim be rejected. John Keller this day claimed a preemption of 1000 Acres of Land in the district of Kentucky on Acc’t of marking & improving the same in the year 17__ lying on the last fork of Coopers run on one of the head Springs thereof on the East side of a branch near a large Cane break to include his improvement satisfactory proof Jacob Froman by John Keller this day claimed a settlement & preempt 'U' to a tract of Land in the district of Kentucky It not being made appear to the Court that the s’d Froman had taken the Oaths of Fidellity & Alligence to the State the claim was not further enquired into. Joseph Keller by John Keller this day claimed a preemption of 1000 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky. Rejected. Samuel Lyon Heir at Law to Dan'l Lyon dec 'd this day claimed a settlement & preempt'n to a tract of Land in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of improving Lands in the year 1776 & residing 12 Months in the Country before the year 1778 postponed until tomorrow or next day. ----At a Court Continued and held by the Commissioners of Kentucky District for Adjusting titles to unpatented Lands at St Asaphs the 20th day of April 1780. Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Dyne-Gent.

(Cert iss’d for 1400) Sam'l Lyon Heir at Law to Dan'l Lyon Dec’d this day claimed a settlement & preemption to a tract of Land in the District of Kentucky on Acct of improving lands in the year 1776 and residing in the Country twelve Months before the year 1778 Thos. Cartmot came into Court and Alleged that he purchased the ad Deceased Right in his lifetime of him whereupon witnesses were sworn and examined in consideration of which the Court are of Opinion that the s'd Sam'l Lyon has a right to a settlement of 400 Acres of Land & preempt 'n of 1000 As heir at Law to the said decedents lying on the Waters of Hingstons fork of Licking Creek on a branch that empties in about 8 miles above the s'd Hingstons fork on the same side known by the name of Mortons Creek joining the Lands of Patrick ____den and Mathew Sullever including John Lyons improvement and three big springs Ordered that a Cert. issue accordingly, ----At a Court Continued and held by the Commissioners of Kentucky District for Adjusting titles to unpatented Lands at St Asaphs the 21st day of April 1780. Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Dyne-Gent. (Cert iss’d for 1000) John Lyon by Sam'l Lyon this day claimed a preemption of 1000 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Acc 't of Marking & improving the same in the year 1776 lying on the South Branch of Licking Creek known by a Creek called Martins Creek to include his improvement Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Lyon has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres to include the above Location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. ----At a Court Continued and held by the Commissioners of Kentucky District for Adjusting titles to unpatented Lands at St Asaphs the 22nd day of April 1780. Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Dyne-Gent. (Cert iss’d for 1000) James Gallaway this day claimed a preempt 'n of 1000 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of marking & improving the same in the year 1776 lying on Stoners fork of Licking Creek adjoining the lands of 21Michel Stoner on the No. to include a spring & his improvem’t satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Gallaway has a right to a preempt 'n of 1000 Acres of land to include the above location & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1000) John Reed by James Gallaway this day claimed a preempt'n of 1000 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of Marking & improving the same in the year 1776 lying on Stoners fork of licking Creek about 4 or 5 Miles below Stoners settlem’t opposite the Mouth of the first large Creek that runs in below the s’d settlement to include a large Spring on the side of the s'd fork & his improvem't on the No. side Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion ----At a Court Continued and held by the Commissioners of Kentucky District for Adjusting titles to unpatented Lands at St Asaphs the 25th day of April 1780. Present Wm Fleming Stephen Trigg & Edmund Lyne-Gent. (Cert iss’d for 1400) William McClellan by Jno Miller this day claimed a settlem't & preempt'n to a tract of Land at the State price in the District of Kentucky on Acc’t of raising a Crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 lying on the North fork of the South fork adjoining the land of Win Miller and on a Buffaloe Road to include a spring on the s'd

Road & his improvem't Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd McClellen has a right to a settlement of 400 Acre of land to include the above Location & the preempt of 1000 Acres adjoining & that a Cert. issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1000) James Kelly this day claimed a preempt'n of 1000 Acres of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Aec 't of marking & improving the same in the year 1776 lying on Hingston fork of Licking Creek about 7 Miles above the said Hingstons adjoining the Lands of Vim Steele to include a large Blue Spring and his improvement Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Kelly has a right to a preempt of 1000 Acres of land to include the above Location & that a Cart issue accordingly. (Cert for 1000) Henry Dickerson by Geo'e Cullom this day claimed a preempt'n of 1000 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky on Acc't of marking & improving the same in the year 1776 lying on Hingstons fork of Licking Creek about 1 Miles above the Lands of James Kelly to include his improvem't Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Dickerson has a right to a preempt'n of 1000 Acres of land to include the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cart issue for 1000) Thomas Dickerson by Geo'e Cullom this day claimed a preempt'n of 1000 Acres of land at the State price in the District of Kentucky on Acc't of marking & improving the same in the year 1776 lying on Hingstons fork of Licking Creek about 1 Miles from the lands of Henry Dickerson to include his improvem't Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Dickerson has a right to a preempt 'n of 1000 Acres of Land to include the above Location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. ----At a Court continued and held by the Commissioners for adjusting Titles to unpatented lands in the district of Kentucky at St. Asaphs the 26 day of April 1780 Present William Fleming Stephen Trigg Edmund Lyne (Cert iss’d for 1400) Jno Kenny by Jas. Kenny this day claimed a settlem't & preempt'n to a Tract of land in the district of Kentucky on Ace 't of raising a Crop of Corn in the year 1776 lying on Coopers run waters of licking Creek below & adjoining Wm. McGee's Land & on both sides of the s’d run Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Kenny has a right to a preemp'n of 1000 Acres of Land to include the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1000) Benj'n Harrison this day claimed a preempt'n of 1000 ores of land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of Marking & improving the same in the year 1776 lying at the head of the West fork of Licking Creek about 3 Miles from Jno Morgans Cabbin on a branch which empties into the Creek & about 1 quarter of a mile above the s'd Cabbins to include his improvement & 2 springs one on each side of the s'd Branch Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s’d Harrison has a right to a preempt of 1000 Acres of land to include the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1000) Jno Hedges Jun'r by Jno Crittenden this day claimed a preempt'n of 1000 Acre of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Acc’t of Marking & improving the same in the year 1776 lying on the Ohio River beginning 200 Poles above the Mouth of Turkel Creek & running down the river 400 poles & back for quantity to include his improvem't which is about 50 Miles above the Mouth of Licking satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Hedges has a right to a preempt of 1000 Acres of Land to include the above Location & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1400 Wm Brent by Hugh Forbes this day claimed a settlem't & preemption in the district of Kentucky on Acc't of raising a crop of Corn in the Country in the year 1776 on the West fork of Licking Creek on a small branch that runs in on the East side above the lands claimed by Benj'n Harrison to include his improvement Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Brent has a right to a settlem't of 400 Acres of Land to include

the above Location & the preempt of 1000 Acres of land adjoining & that a Certificate issue accordingly. (Cert iss’d for 1000 Acres) Charles Gatliff heir at Law to Squire Gatliff this day claimed a preemption of 1000 Acres of Land at the State price in the district of Kentucky on Acc 't of mark'g & improving the year 1773 lying on the Ohio River on the 3d Large Bottom above the Mouth of Sioto to include his improvement Satisfactory proof being made to the Court they are of Opinion that the s'd Gatliff has a right to a preemption of 1000 Acres of Land to the above Location & that a Cert issue accordingly.

Prisoners of the Indians
August 13, 1783 The Pennsylvania Gazette PHILADELPHIA, August 13. Captain Dalton, Superintendant of Indian affairs for the United State, arrived here last week from Canada, which he left about a month since, in company with 200 Americans, who are at length happily liberated from a cruel captivity with the savages. But he is sorry to inform us that there are a number of unfortunate fellow sufferers, who are still retained as prisoners by the Indians. The sufferings of Captain Dalton and his lady have been very great, both having been many years prisoners with the enemy, and forced to endure the most cruel treatment from their captors. For the satisfaction of their friends, Captain Dalton has given a list of the unhappy people who are confined chiefly among the six nations , viz. the Shawanese, Delaware, Munseys, Ouiactenaws, Putawawtawmaws, &c. &c. The List is as follows: James Grey, Jonathan Gold, James Stuart, George Fulks ,Elizabeth Fulks, Mrs. Brown and three children ,Jonathan Long ,Mary Long ,Barbara McFall ,John McFall ,Lucy Linn ,Hugh Stear, Thomas Williams ,Katy Dundas ,John Jones ,Mary Jones ,Mary McLee ,Susy McLee ,Ann McLee ,Abraham Whiteker ,Kenmit Morris ,Hannah Burk ,William Morgan ,James Rogers, Jonathan Trimble, William Hitchkok ,Edmund Keer ,Sarah Wilson ,Nicholas Wilson ,Nicholas Oatman ,Margaret Sheerer ,John Turney ,Joseph Wilson ,William Bangle ,John Barton ,Adam Shoemaker ,John Dumford ,Ambrose White ,Jonathan Troy ,Adam Brown ,Francis Colaway , James Barley ,Abraham Coone ,Mary Emerick ,Silvester Ash ,George Ash ,Henry Ash ,Abraham Ash ,Isaac Ash ,Jesse Bland ,Betsey Poke ,Isaac Davis ,Mary Denton ,George Lech ,Valentine Lawrence ,Jonathan Hicks ,Martin Coile ,Barbury Coile ,Cristin Coile ,Barbary Coile ,Margaret Baker ,Betsey McCormick ,James Cooper ,Benjamin Brooks ,Polly Francis ,Betsey Plumer , Nancy Dalton ,Mary Kennedy and two children ,Peggy Pauland ,Katy Sicks ,Katy Etelmaw , David Etelmaw ,Daniel Etelmaw ,Elizabeth Fisher ,Frederick Fisher ,George Mawfit ,Henry Calaway ,Polly Whiteman and her sister ,Barbary Burger ,Jonathan Calaway ,Jones Hoy ,Peggy Paulin ,Charles McLane ,Timothy Dormin and his wife ,Jonathan Wilson ,Jonathan Hanna , Rachel McKutchy ,Darkey Miller ,Nancy Martin ,James McSwine ,Becky Lee ,Sally Lee ,, Thomas Lee ,Jonathan Delong ,James Crawford ,Betsey McCaumin and son ,James Cain ,----- Miller ,----Whitts ,----- Calaway ,----- Ward ,Samuel Davis ,Isaac Riddle and two brothers , Elizabeth Turner ,Charles Mitchell ,Polly Mitchell ,Sally Whitenire ,Andrew Armstrong and his sister Lasley Malone ,Robert Nealie ,Elijah Mathews ,Stephen Parish ,James Davison ,Henry Licters ,Jacob Vingordor ,Alexander Thomson ,Jonathan Reddock ,William Benjamin ,Robert Cruders ,Elijah Hunt ,Adam Templeman ,Jonathan Shull ,----- Pankburn ,Samuel Proctor ,Joseph Newman ,Zephar Hawkins ,Rudolph House and his brother ,Nelly Smith ,Katy Rinkle ,Betsey Doherty ,Polly McCurdy ,Mrs. Hersler and four children ,Joseph Smith ,David Price ,Kijah Patterson. Captain Dalton says, that on their way home, through Canada, they experienced the most polite treatment from the English officers, but were more than once abused by different parties of those wretches who had fled to Canada from the back parts of the United States, to avoid the vengeance of their countrymen, for the many horrid murders and burnings committed by them in conjunction with the English and Indians. As Captain Dalton has been among the savages for many years, has now given his friends and the public an estimation

of the different savage nations they had to encounter with, the number of warriors annexed to each nation that were employed by the British, and have stained their tomahawks with the blood of Americans, viz. Chactaws, 6008 Oneidas 160 Chickisaws, 400 Tuskeroras, 200 Cherokees, 500 Onondagas, 300 Creeks, 700 Cayugas, 230 Frankishaws, 400 Jeneckaws, 400 Oniactinaws, 300 Suiz and Southuze1300 Kickapoes, 500 Putawawtawmas, 400 Munseys, 150 Fulawain, 150 Delaware, 500 Muskulthe or Nation Shawanaws, 300 of Fire, 250 Mohickons, 60 Reinars or Foxes 300 Uchipweys,3000 Puyon, 150 Ottawaws, 300 Sokkie, 350 Mowhawks, 300 Abbinokkie, on the Oneidas, 150 St. Lawrence 200 ---------8160Warriors11690 A small vessel from one of the eastern ports arrived at Quebec a little time before Captain Dalton left it; but the Captain being abused for keeping the American colours flying, and not suffered to enter, he left the port without breaking bulk, notwithstaning the articles he had to dispose of were much in demand at Quebec, and he was offered a great price for them.