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Practical Hydraulics

# Practical Hydraulics

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01/24/2014

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## Sections

• 1.1Introduction
• 1.2.1SI units
• 1.2.2Dimensions
• 1.3Velocity and acceleration
• 1.4Forces
• 1.5Friction
• 1.6Newton's laws of motion
• 1.7Mass and weight
• 1.8Scalar and vector quantities
• 1.9Dealing with vectors
• 1.10.1Work
• 1.10.2Energy
• 1.10.3Power
• 1.11.1The astronaut's problem
• 1.11.2Rebounding balls
• 1.12.1Density
• 1.12.2Relative density or specific gravity
• 1.12.3Viscosity
• 1.12.4Kinematic viscosity
• 1.12.5Surface tension
• 1.12.6Compressibility
• 2.1Introduction
• 2.2Pressure
• 2.3Force and pressure are different
• 2.4Pressure and depth
• 2.5Pressure is same in all directions
• 2.6.1The bucket problem
• 2.6.2The balloon problem
• 2.8Atmospheric pressure
• 2.9.1Gauge and absolute pressures
• 2.9.2Bourdon gauges
• 2.9.3Piezometers
• 2.9.4Manometers
• 2.10Designing dams
• 2.11Forces on sluice gates
• 2.12.1Floating objects
• 2.12.2Applying the principle
• 2.12.3Drowning in quicksand: myth or reality?
• 2.13Some examples to test your understanding
• 3.1Introduction
• 3.2Experimentation and theory
• 3.3Hydraulic toolbox
• 3.4Discharge and continuity
• 3.5.1Pressure energy
• 3.5.2Kinetic energy
• 3.5.3Potential energy
• 3.5.4Total energy
• 3.6.1Pressure and elevation changes
• 3.6.2Measuring velocity
• 3.6.3Orifices
• 3.6.4Pressure and velocity changes in a pipe
• 3.7.1Flow through narrow openings
• 3.7.2How aeroplanes fly
• 3.7.3Carburettors
• 3.7.4Fluid injectors
• 3.7.5Strong winds
• 3.7.6Measuring discharge
• 3.8Momentum
• 3.9.1Taking account of energy losses
• 3.9.2Cavitation
• 3.9.3Boundary layers
• 3.10Drag forces
• 3.11Eddy shedding
• 3.12Making balls swing
• 3.13Successful stone-skipping
• 3.14Some examples to test your understanding
• 4.1Introduction
• 4.2A typical pipe flow problem
• 4.3.1Laminar and turbulent flow
• 4.3.2A formula for turbulent flow
• 4.4.1Smooth and rough pipes
• 4.4.2A physical explanation
• 4.6Energy loss at pipe fittings
• 4.7Siphons
• 4.8.1Using hydraulic design charts
• 4.8.2Sizing pipes for future demand
• 4.9Pipe networks
• 4.10Measuring discharge in pipes
• 4.11Momentum in pipes
• 4.12.1Specifying pipes
• 4.12.2Materials
• 4.13Pipe fittings
• 4.14Water hammer
• 4.15Surge
• 4.16Some examples to test your understanding
• 5.1Introduction
• 5.2Pipes or channels?
• 5.3Laminar and turbulent flow
• 5.4.1Continuity
• 5.4.2Energy
• 5.4.3Using energy and continuity
• 5.4.4Taking account of energy losses
• 5.5.1Channel shapes
• 5.5.2.1Area and wetted perimeter
• 5.5.2.3Slope
• 5.5.2.4Roughness
• 5.5.3.1Chezy formula
• 5.5.3.2Manning formula
• 5.5.4Using Manning's formula
• 5.5.5Practical design
• 5.7.1.1Sub-critical flow
• 5.7.1.2Super-critical flow
• 5.7.1.3General rules
• 5.7.1.4Spotting the difference
• 5.7.1.5An airflow analogy
• 5.7.1.6Back to water
• 5.7.1.7The finger test
• 5.7.2Froude Number
• 5.7.3Specific energy
• 5.7.4Critical depth
• 5.7.5Critical flow
• 5.7.6.1Sub- to super-critical flow
• 5.7.6.2Super- to sub-critical flow (hydraulic jump)
• 5.7.6.3Creating a hydraulic jump
• 5.7.6.4Calculating energy losses
• 5.8.1Channel bends
• 5.8.2Siting river offtakes
• 5.8.3Bridge piers
• 5.8.4Vortices at sluice gates
• 5.8.5Tea cups
• 5.9Sediment transport
• 5.10Some examples to test your understanding
• 6.1Introduction
• 6.2Describing waves
• 6.3Waves at sea
• 6.4.1Surges
• 6.4.2Bores in tidal rivers
• 6.5Flood waves
• 6.6.1Density currents
• 6.6.2Waves in harbours
• 6.6.3Tsunami wave
• 6.7Tidal power
• 7.1Introduction
• 7.2Orifice structures
• 7.3Weirs and flumes
• 7.4.1Rectangular weirs
• 7.4.2Vee-notch weirs
• 7.4.3Some practical points
• 7.5.1Determining the height of a weir
• 7.5.3Crump weirs
• 7.5.4Round-crested weirs
• 7.5.5Drowned flow
• 7.6.1Parshall flumes
• 7.6.2WSC flumes
• 7.6.3Combination weir-flumes
• 7.7Discharge measurement
• 7.8Discharge control
• 7.9Water level control
• 7.10.1Stilling basins
• 7.10.2Drop structures
• 7.11.1Black-water siphons
• 7.11.2Air-regulated siphons
• 7.12Culverts
• 7.13Some examples to test your understanding
• 8.1Introduction
• 8.2Positive displacement pumps
• 8.3.1Centrifugal pumps
• 8.3.2Axial flow pumps
• 8.3.3Mixed flow pumps
• 8.4.1Suction lift
• 8.4.2Delivery
• 8.4.4Cavitation
• 8.5Energy for pumping
• 8.6Power for pumping
• 8.7.2Discharge and power
• 8.7.3Discharge and efficiency
• 8.8Choosing the right kind of pump
• 8.9Matching a centrifugal pump with a pipeline
• 8.10Connecting centrifugal pumps in series and in parallel
• 8.11Variable speed pumps
• 8.12.1Centrifugal pumps
• 8.12.2Axial flow pumps
• 8.13.1Internal combustion engines
• 8.13.2Electric motors
• 8.14Surge in pumping mains
• 8.15Turbines
• 8.16Some examples to test your understanding
• 9Bathtub hydraulics
• 10water 10whisky

When dealing with solid objects their mass and weight are important, but when dealing with
fluids it is much more useful to know about their density.There are two ways of expressing
density; mass densityand weight density. Mass density of any material is the mass of one cubic
metre of the material and is a fixed value for the material concerned. For example, the mass
density of air is 1.29kg/m3

, steel is 7800kg/m3

and gold is 19 300kg/m3
.

Mass density is determined by dividing the mass of some object by its volume:

Mass density is usually denoted by the Greek letter (rho).
For water the mass of one cubic metre of water is 1000kg and so:

1000kg/m3

Density can also be written in terms of weight as well as mass. This is referred to as weight
density
but engineers often use the term specific weight(w). This is the weight of one cubic
metre of water.

density (kg/m3

) mass (kg)
volume (m3
)

16Some basic mechanics

Newton's second law is used to link mass and weight:

weight density (kN/m3

) mass density (kg/m3

) gravity constant (m/s2
)

For water:

weight density 1000 9.81

9810 N/m3

(or 9.81kN/m3
)

10kN/m3

(approximately)

Sometimes weight density for water is rounded off by engineers to 10kN/m3

. Usually this
makes very little difference to the design of most hydraulic works. Note the equation for weight
density is applicable to all fluids and not just water. It can be used to find the weight density of
any fluid provided the mass density is known.
Engineers generally use the term specific weight in their calculations whereas scientists tend
to use the term gto describe the weight density. They are in effect the same but for clarity,

gis used throughout this book.

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