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Best Practice Guide CFD 3

Best Practice Guide CFD 3


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Published by: sandiphirade on Sep 24, 2008
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Concerning the longitudinal extension of the domain the region in front of (approach
flow) and the region behind (wake) the built area have to be discerned. For a single


building a distance of again 5H between the inflow boundary and the building is
recommended if the approach flow profiles are well known (Hall, 1997; Cowan et al.,
1997; Scaperdas & Gilham, 2004). Bartzis et al. (2004) even recommend 8H. If the
approach flow profiles are not available, then an even larger distance should be used
to allow for a realistic flow establishment (Bartzis et al., 2004).
Contrary to the recommendation of 5H, VDI (2005) suggests blockage and building
type dependent distances. If a single building with little blockage is considered, the
inflow is suggested to be 2H from the building. When the flow is blocked to a larger
extent (e.g. 10%), a distance of 8H is recommended.
The region behind the built area is terminated by the outflow boundary. In the case of
a single building this boundary should be positioned at least 15H behind the building
to allow for flow re-development behind the wake region, as fully developed flow is
normally used as a boundary condition in steady RANS calculations (Cowan et al.,
1997; Scaperdas & Gilham, 2004; Bartzis et al., 2004).
For urban areas with multiple buildings a smaller distance between the outflow
boundary and the built area surrounding the region of interest can be used. The
distance depends on the type of boundary condition used at the outflow. For steady
RANS simulations, open boundary conditions (either a constant pressure or so called
outflow condition, see section 5.6.5) are normally applied with commercial codes,
These boundary conditions in principle allow fluid to enter through the outflow
boundary. Flow entering the domain through the outflow boundary should be avoided
(Casey & Wintergerste, 2000) as this can negatively impact on the convergence of
the solution or even allow no converged solution to be reached at all.

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