Experiment No.

8 Acid-Base Titration

De Jesus, Nicolle Dela Cruz, Maria Margarita Dela Cruz, Paula Mae Dongon, Marinelle

1NUR-3 Group 4

the standard solution is a solution whose exact concentration is known. The endpoint is indicated by the change in colour of an appropriate indicator. It can be written as: Acid + Base Salt + H2O This reaction is used in titration. The equivalence point is the point at which all the acid (or base) in the sample has completely reacted with the standard solution of base (or acid). Upon reaching the endpoint. strong acids with weak bases need an indicator that changes colour below 7. The indicator should change its hue at about pH 7. The appropriate indicator for titration depends on the strength of the acid and the base reacting. The equivalence point is also the endpoint of titration. The analyte is placed in an Erlenmeyer flask and the standard solution is gradually added from a burette until complete neutralization has been reached. it .Introduction The reaction between a base and an acid involves neutralization. the number of equivalents of the acid is equal to the number of equivalents of the base. a quantitative analytical method.0. In a neutralization reaction. the pH at the endpoint is 7. For weak acids with strong bases. On the other hand. In acid-base titration.0. Equivalents are the quantities of substances that have the same combining capacity in chemical reactions. The analyte is a measured volume of unknown solution. The objective is to determine the concentration of an acid or base. For titrations of strong acids and bases. the analyte is made to react with the standard solution. On the other hand. the indicator should change colour at a pH above 7.0.0.

Of replaceable H+ GEWbase = molar mass of the base / no. N = no. Molarity. Of OH. VaNa = VbNb Where: Va = Volume of an acid Na = Normality of an acid Vb = Volume of a base Nb = Normality of a base Normality is the number of equivalents of a solute per liter of solution. N = g of solute GEW (Lsolution) GEWacid = molar mass of the acid / no.is the mass of acid that yields 1 mol of H + or the mass of base that reacts with 1 mol of H+. At the endpoint of titration. and Percentage. . the concentration of the unknown solution can be solved for either in one of the following: Normality. Of equivalents is equal to the grams of solute/gram-equivalent weight (GEW). For this experiment. Of equivalents of Solute Volume of Solution in Liters Since the no. the percent concentration of the unknown solution will be determined.ions If the given concentration of the standard solution is normality.

• The students should be able to work efficiently and use critical thinking.Objectives • • Students should be able to perform an acid-base titration. They should be able to use the gathered data to solve for the concentration of an unknown solution. .

Observations/Results A.2 mL Trial 2 46.9% . Analysis of commercial Vinegar 1 (Datu Puti) – Group 5 Specific Objective: To determine the concentration of vinegar by performing an acid-base titration.6 mL 33.9 mL 30.5 mL 8.2 mL Trial 2 45.35 4. Analysis of commercial Vinegar 2 (Silver Swan) – Group 1 Specific Objective: To determine the concentration of vinegar through acid-base titration.2 mL 0 47.5 mL Trial 2 14. NaOH: 0.5 mL 0 mL 8.4 mL 13.2 mL Weight of Acid Sample %w/v of Acid in Sample Mean % w/w: 4.7 .34 5.12 .2 mL 0 mL 29.1229 N Final Reading Initial Reading Volume NaOH used: Sample Used: Vinegar Final Reading Initial Reading Volume Sample used: Trial 1 8.67 B.6 mL 14.1229 N Final Reading Initial Reading Volume NaOH used: mL Sample Used: Silver Swan Vinegar Trial 1 29. NaOH: 0.5 mL 6 mL Trial 1 47.

Determining the Strength of Antacid .23 g 4.023 g 0.1229 N Final Reading Initial Reading Volume NaOH used: Sample Used: Fruit juice Trial 1 3.22 g 4. NaOH: 0.8 mL 29.6% C.5% 0.5 mL Trial 2 32.028 g 0.9 mL Final Reading Initial Reading Volume Sample used: Trial 1 35 mL 25 mL 10 mL Trial 2 45 mL 35 mL 10 mL Weight of Acid Sample %w/v of Acid in Sample 0.28% Mean %w/v: 0.5 mL 0 mL 3.9 mL 2.4 % 0.26% 0.Final Reading Initial Reading Volume Sample used: Trial 1 45mL 50mL 5mL Trial 2 40mL 45mL 5mL Weight of Acid Sample %w/v of Acid in Sample Mean % w/v: 4.23% D. Analysis of commercial Fruit juice – Group 2 Specific Objective: To determine the concentration of fruit juice by performing an acid-base titration.

85 x 10-3 4.5 mL 3.Specific Objective: To be able to observe changes in acid-base titration and gather data to determine the concentration of an Antacid Sample Used: NaHCO3 No.3 g 67. Determining the Strength of Mefenamic Tablets: .1141 N (For Mefenamic Acid: NaOH: _____ N) Final Reading Initial Reading Volume used: Trial 1 30. Of Base/Acid Not in tablet (step 3) Equiv.0269 L Trial 2 25 mL 0 mL 0.42 x 10-3 0.9 x 10-4 2.9 mL 4 mL 0.68 x 10-3 2.5 x 10-3 L Equiv.07 x 10-3 3.3 x 10-4 2.76% E.2 x 10-3 L Trial 2 7 mL 3. Of mg: 300 mg HCl: 0.2 mL 28 mL 3.025 mL NaOH: 0. Of Base/Acid (step 2) Equiv. Of Base/Acid in tablet (step 2 – step 3) Weight of Base/Acid Sample %w/w of Base/Acid in Sample Mean % w/w: 71.4% 3.1229 N (For Mefenamic Acid: _____ N) Final Reading Initial Reading Volume used: Trial 1 31.04% 0.3g 75.

93 x 10-3 1.8 mL 0.8 mL 3.07 % Mean % w/w: 59.1 mL Trial 2 24.98 % Discussion .1141 N (For Mefenamic Acid: NaOH: _____ N) Final Reading Initial Reading Volume used: Trial 1 40.Specific Objective: To be able to observe changes in acid-base titration and gather data to determine the concentration of a Mefenamic tablet.4 mL 2.9 mL NaOH: 0.05 x 10-3 1. Sample Used: Generic Mefenamic acid tablet No.0 mL 24. of Acid in tablet (step 2 – step 3) 3.8 mL 15.2 mL Trial 2 19.35 x 10-3 3.5 mL 16.0 mL 24.53% 0.12 x 10-3 Weight of Acid Sample %w/w of Acid in Sample 0.1229 N (For Mefenamic Acid: _____N) Final Reading Initial Reading Volume used: Trial 1 28.7 mL 25.73 x 10-3 1. of Base(step 2) Equiv. of Acid Not in tablet (step 3) Equiv. Of mg: 500 mg HCl: 0.8 mL Equiv.5 g 65.08 x 10-3 1.5 g 53.

we added the two percents and divided them to two. was added. The added HCl should be recorded. Antacid (NaHCO3) An antacid tablet was weighed and recorded as 300 mg.2x10-3. % mass was then calculated by subtracting Eq of titrant minus Eq of backtitrant. The number of equivalents of the backtitrant was calculated as 3. more HCl should be added.9x10-4 by multiplying the amount of backtitrant with the normality of NaOH which is 0. HCl. If a pink color developed. The solution should be permanently colourless by now.07x10-3 by multiplying the volume in liters by the normality of HCl which is 0. The weight of the acid sample is calculated by multiplying the Normality of the base to the Volume of Base in Liters and to the GEW (gram-equivalent weight).1229 N. In getting the mean % w/v. The stirring rod was rinsed within the flask. The antacid was made to dissolve with the titrant using a stirring rod. The % m/v of acid in sample was obtained by dividing the mass of the sample to the volume sample in millilitres and multiplying it to 100. The amount was recorded as 0. The excess titrant or acid was then neutralized using a backtitrant NaOH and the recorded amount was 3. The number of equivalents of excess titrant was then calculated to be 3. This was then multiplied .0269 L. the titrant. It was placed in an Erlenmeyer flask. Two drops of the indicator was mixed in.Vinegar (CH3COOH) The volume of the NaOH and vinegar used was obtained by subtracting the initial reading in the burette from the final reading.1141 N. It was added until a permanent faint pink color was evident.

The solution should be permanently pink by now. Dividing it by the mass of the tablet in g which is 0.1141 N. The stirring rod was rinsed within the flask. The mean of these is 71.3 g and multiplying it by 100.76%. The added NaOH should be recorded. This was then multiplied by GEW of mefenamic acid which is 241. The excess titrant or base was then neutralized using a backtitrant HCl and the recorded amount used was . more NaOH should be added. The amount was recorded as 0.04% Another trial was then made and the calculated %mass was 67.0152L . Two drops of the phenolphthalein indicator was mixed in. The mean of these is 59.1229 N.73x10-3 by multiplying the amount of backtitrant with the normality of HCl which is 0.by GEW of NaHCO3 which is 84. The number of equivalents of excess titrant was then calculated to be 3.0251 L. It was made to dissolve with the titrant using a stirring rod. If a pink color developed. the answer is 65. It was placed in an Erlenmeyer flask.4% Mefenamic Acid A generic mefenamic acid tablet was weighed and recorded as 500 mg. was added. % mass was then calculated by subtracting Eq of titrant minus Eq of backtitrant. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH).98%.08x10-3 by multiplying the volume in liters by the normality of NaOH which is 0. It was added until a permanent light pink color was evident. Dividing it by the mass of the tablet in g which is 0.53% . the answer is 75. the titrant.07% Another trial was then made and the calculated %mass was 53.5 g and multiplying it by 100. The number of equivalents of the backtitrant was calculated as 1.

The glass tips should be completely filled because the liquid that it will hold is also included in the measuring the acid and taking its initial reading. The burette is rinsed with the solution to be placed in it after rinsing with distilled water. bases are placed in rubbertipped burettes to prevent formation of sticky substance due to reactions of glass and a base. therefore. Care should be taken to prevent spilling of any liquid because it will have a greatly affect the weight and concentration of the liquids present. the glass tips of the burette should be completely filled with the solution. Acids corrode rubber. The experiment. Acids are placed in burettes with glass stopcocks to prevent corrosion. Acids are placed in burettes with glass stopcocks while bases are placed in rubber-tipped burettes.Study Guide Questions and Answers 1. Care should be taken not to spill any liquid from the flasks or burettes before the end point is reached. cannot be considered accurate. b. This is done to prevent the solution from getting stuck to the sides of the burette. d. Before the initial reading is taken. c. Discuss briefly why the following procedure must be observed during titration: a. . On the other hand.

b. d. More distilled water was added to the flask than what was required in the procedure. decreased or No effect at all). Rinsing the sides of the Erlenmeyer flask with the distilled water before the end point is reached. It’s because when the NaOH decreases. .e. c. 2. The base burette was not rinsed with the standard base before filling it with the standard solution. The glass tips of the burettes were not filled with the sample solutions when the titration was started. Decreased. the percentage of acid will decrease. What is the effect of the following condition on the calculated percentage of the acid sample? (Increased. a. No effect because distilled water is neutral that’s why it won’t affect the acidity nor the basicity of the sample solution. The standard base was allowed to flow down the sides of the flask leaving some drops unreacted until the endpoint is reached. Increase because an increase of NaOH will increase the percentage of acid sample. We rinse the sides of the Erlenmeyer flask so all the analyte will react with the standard solution. No effect because the basic solution and the acidic solution will not mix.

Describe the action of mefenamic acid and NaHCO3 in our body. An aqueous solution can be administered intravenously for cases of acidosis (low pH). Acid + Base  Salt + H2O 4. Mefenamic acid may also work by preventing the action of prostaglandins after they have already been formed. Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is used as an antacid to treat acid indigestion and heartburn. The droplets of NaOH mixed with the acid sample making it more basic. the sides of the flask were rinsed with is much distilled water that droplets of the standard solution adhering it the side combined with the solution being titrated.e. or when there are insufficient sodium or bicarbonate ions in the blood. Prostaglandins are hormones produced by the body in response to injury and certain diseases and conditions. some of which are known as prostaglandins. 3. Increased. Mefenamic acid works by blocking the action of a substance in the body called cyclo-oxygenase (COX). Cyclo-oxygenase is involved in the production of various chemicals in the body. Write the general equation for an acid-base titration. swelling and inflammation. Just before the end point is reached. and cause pain. Mefenamic acid blocks the production of these prostaglandins and is therefore effective at reducing inflammation and pain. Here’s an example of its chemical reaction: HCl+NaHCO3 NaCl+CO2+H2O .

Define an equivalent of an ion. GEWacid = molar mass of the acid / no. One of the cations present in the body is Ca2+. A small unit is used in specifying electrolyte concentrations.5. How is a concentration of milliequivalents per liter converted to millimoles per deciliter? Equivalent (Eq) of an ion is the molar concentration of that ion needed to supply one mole of (+) or (-) integer. 1 milliequivalent = 10-3 equivalent 7. Of replaceable H+ GEWbase = molar mass of the base / no. What is the relationship between an equivalent and a milliequivalent. The electrolyte in body fluids is measured in terms of an equivalent at milliequivalent. How many milliequivalents of Ca2+ are present in 100 ml of a 0. which is the milliequivalent unit. Of OH. The reason why is because of the relatively low concentrations of ions present in body fluids.1% (w/v) Ca2+ solution? .ions Eq weight= molar mass/ionic valence 6. An equivalent (Eq) of an ion is the molar amount of that ion needed to supply one mole of positive or negative charge. Give the formula needed to calculate the equivalent weight of an ion.

What is this concentration on millimoles/liter.8. (Shugar & Ballinger) – pp. (Stoker) – pp. concentrations of electrolytes are expressed as mEq. 605-610.L. Third Edition. 172-181 3. (Henrickson.250 g of the sample in 20. and Biological Chemistry. 94 mEq/L x 1Eq/1000mEq x 1 mole/ 1 Eq x 1000 mmol/ 1 mole = 94 mmol/L 9. Its molecular formula is C9H8O4. What is the 5 by mass of acetylsalicylic acid in the pain reliever? References 1. Organic. 620-627 2.L. A laboratory for General.0 mL of 0. Exploring General. Chemical Technician’s Ready Reference Handbook.10 N NaOH and bactitrating the excess base using 0. Fourth Edition. and Biochemistry. 144-149 4.120 N HCl solution. Solve the following problem: Aspirin contains a monoprotic called acetylsalicylic acod. A patient’s chart shows that his serum chloride ion concentration is 94 mEq. Organice. (Silberberg) – pp. Byrd. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change. 376-379 . & Hunter) – pp. Fourth Edition. The backtitration process required 805 mL of HCl. A certain pain reliever was analyzed by dissolving 0. In body fluids. Philippine Edition.

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