Genre, ragam teks dan peruntukannya | Cardiovascular Diseases | Taste

Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

Genre, ragam teks dan peruntukannya
Teks membentuk wacana . Wacana yang terwujud dalam suatu teks memiliki tujuan komunikatif. Berdasatkan tujuan komunikatif yang hendak dicapai, teks dikelompokkan ke dalam berbagai jenis. Untuk mencapai tujuan komunikatif tersebut, teks disusun dengan struktur tertentu dan direalisasikan dengan ciri-ciri bahasa tertentu. Struktur suatu teks yang satu dengan yang lain tidak selalu sama, melainkan bervariasi. Dalam mencapai tujuannya, suatu jenis teks lazimnya memiliki unsur minimal. Misalnya, sebuah resep memasak setidak-tidaknya akan menyodorkan unsur bahan dan cara membuat. Unsur lain seperti cara menyajikan dapat pula diulas, akan tetapi ini tidak ahrus ada—karena merupakan unsur tambahan. Unsur minimal inilah yang membuahkan ragam teks. Di bawah ini dikupas ragamragam teks beserta perntukkannya dan unsur minimal yang dimilikinya.

Description
Teks description bertujuan untuk menggambarkan seseorang, sesuatu, suatu tempat, seekor binatang. Teks description meng-highlight satu orang/benda/tempat/binatang secara khusus. Teks description menyodorkan banyak informasi tentang orang/benda/tempat/binatang tertentu secara gamblang, [sering] rinci, [acapkali] dapat divisualisasikan. Teks description umumnya memiliki struktur: - identification, pengenalan subjek atau hal yang akan dideskripsikan. - description, penginformasian ciri-ciri subjek—misalnya sifat-sifat psikologis, perilaku, tampilan fisik, fitur-fitur khas, kualitas, dan sejenisnya. Teks description sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - noun yang spesifik, misalnya father, school, my dog, dll. - simple present tense - detailed noun phrase, kata benda yang mendapatkan perian kata sifat, misalnya: an intelligent tall student perian noun a big large beautiful wooden house perian noun - beragam jenis adjective yang bersifat describing, numbering, calssifying; misalnya: three tall buldings sharp white fang - relational process, menggunakan kata kerja yang dapat menggambarkan keadaan participant, dan atau mengisyaratkan kepemillikan. My car has four doors. My father is really handsome. - figurative language, menggunakan bahasa figurative seperti simile atau metapor sebagai cara untuk memberi ilustrasi perbandingan My throat is as dry as a dessert. Her skin is white as cloud, and smooth as water.

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

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Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

Contoh:

Lyme Regis is a beautiful old seaside town, with a lively little harbour, beaches, and lovely walks, either by the sea or in the country nearby. For children there is the Marine Aquarium and Dinosaur land, and in summer you can escape from the crowds and relax in the Jane Austen Gardens with beautiful views over the sea. There are many interesting old streets

My Toy I have a toy. It is a doll, a bear doll, and I call it Teddy. Teddy Bear is an American origin. My dad bought it as a present for my tenth birthday anniversay last year. The doll is small, fluffy, and cute. It has got thick brown fur. When I cuddle it, the fur feels soft. Because my Teddy bear is a doll, I don’t need to feed it. I wash it at the loundry at least once a month. Every night Teddy accompanies me sleeping. When I am at school, Teddy stays in my bed. Teddy Bear is really a nice, adorable, and charming toy. I love my Teddy Bear very much.

My Best Friend I have a lot of friends. But, my closest friend is Prabu Perdana. Prabu is my classmate. He is so handsome and cute. He has short wavy but rather blonde hair, which is always combed neatly. His skin is white. He has bluish back eyes with thick eyebrows and outstanding eyelashes. His round face makes him more impressive. Although Prabu is not so tall, he has a well-built body. People frequently think he is a European or American offspring, but he is actually a Sundanese genuine. He looks more handsome when he is smiling. Prabu is a pleasing peer. I am happy to spend my time with him. He is always available to help his friends who are in trouble. He is never angry with any friends who try to annoy him. Because he is so smart, most of his classmates seek him to explain any difficulties in any school subjects. I am proud of having such best friend.

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

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Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

Report
Teks report mengupas suatu hasil pengamatan, penelaahan, penelitian, observasi, atau studi tentang benda, binatang, orang, atau tempat. Participant pada report cenderung general. Data yang tersaji umumnya berupa simpulan umum akan karakteristik, ciri, dan atau keberadaan dan keadaan participant. Tujuan teks report adalah untuk menggambarkan participant apa adanya. Bila yang dibicarakan suatu benda, teks report lebih menyoroti fungsi dari benda tersebut. Teks report lazimnya menyodorkan suatu generalisasi akan participant yang diulas; generalisasi ini umumnya didapat lewat membandingkan yang satu dengan yang lain yang tergolong participant sejenis. Teks report umumnya memiliki struktur: - general classification, pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya. - description, penginformasian ciri-ciri umum/generalisasi yang dimiliki subjek—misalnya sifatsifat psikologis, perilaku, tampilan fisik, fitur-fitur khas, kualitas, dan sejenisnya. Teks report sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - general noun, kata yang merujuk pada sesuatu secara umum; misalnya: Tigers are wild animals. (harimau yang mana saja) Birds can fly. (burung manapun). - relational process, menggunakan kata kerja yang dapat menggambarkan keadaan participant, dan atau mengisyaratkan kepemillikan. Birds have wings. An elephant is a big animal. - simple present tense, untuk menyatakan suatu kebenaran umum atau fakta ilmiah. A baby of the blue whale generally weighs more than 500 kilograms. Contoh:

Snakes are reptiles. These cold-blooded creatures belong to the same group as lizards. Snakes have no legs, but a long time ago they had claws to help them slitter along. Snakes often sunbathe on rocks in the warm weather. This is because snakes are cold-blooded and they need the sun’s warmth to heat their body up. Most snakes live in the country. Some types of snakes live in trees, some live in water, but most live on the ground in thick, long grass and in old logs.

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

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Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

The sense of taste is one of a person's five senses. We taste with the help of taste-buds in the tongue. There are four main kinds of taste: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. All other tastes are just mixtures of two or more of these main types. The surface of the tongue has more than fifteen thousand taste-buds (or cells). These are connected to the brain by special nerves which send the so-called 'tastes messages.' When the tongue comes into contact with food of any kind, the tastebuds will pick up the taste. The nerves then send a message to the brain. This will make us aware of the taste. All this happens in just a few seconds. There are four kinds of taste-buds, each of which is sensitive to only a particular taste. These four groups are located in different parts of the tongue. The taste-buds for salty and sweet tastes are found round the tip of the tongue and along its sides. Sour tastes can be picked up only at the sides of the tongue. The taste-buds for the bitter taste are found at the innermost edge of the tongue. There are taste-buds at the centre of the tongue. The senses of smell and sight can affect taste. The good smell of food increases its taste. Similarly, attractive colours can make food appear tastier and more delicious. If food does not smell good or is dull-coloured, it will look tasty and may not taste good at all. Very hot or cold sensations can make the taste-buds insensitive. Food that is too hot or too cold, when placed in the mouth, will have no tastes at all.

The white pelican is one of the most successful fish-eating birds. The success is largely due to its command hunting behavior. A group, perhaps two-dozen birds, will gather in a curved area some distance offshore. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish, the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. As the birds lift their head, the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds, fossils of this genus have been found dating back 400 million years.

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

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Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

Description Vs Report
Acapkali jenis teks desciptive dan report memiliki persamaan, dan juga perbedaan. Persamaannya adalah keduanya dapat menggambarkan benda/binatang/orang/tempat, serta keduanya banyak menggunakan relational process. Perbedaanya dapat dilihat atau dikaji dari salah satu atau gabungan sudut pandang seperti terpetakan dalam bagan berikut: Descriptive specifik, tertentu Participant Data/informasi: untuk tahu tidak perlu pengamatan, sekali ciri/keadaan participant lihat langsung tahu tidak menggunakan jargon Language ilmiah Perhatikan komparasi berikut: My Pet I have a pet. It is a dog and I call it Brownie. Brownie is a Chinese breed. It is small, fluffy, and cute. It has got thick brown fur. When I cuddle it, the fur feels soft. Brownie does not like bones. Every day it eats soft food like steamed rice, fish or bread. Every morning I give her milk and bread. When I am at school, Brownie plays with my cat. They get along well, and never fight maybe because Brownies does not bark a lot. It treats the other animals in our house. descriptive For many years people believed that the cleverest animals after man were the chimpanzees. Now, however, there is proof that dolphins may be even cleverer than these big apes. Although a dolphin lives in the sea it is not a fish. It is a mammal. It is in many ways, therefore, like a human being. Dolphins have a simple language. They are able to talk to one another. It may be possible for man to learn how to talk to dolphins. But this will not be easy because dolphins cannot hear the kind of sounds man can make. If man wants to talk to dolphins, therefore, he will have to make a third language which both he and the dolphins can understand. Dolphins are also very friendly toward man. They often follow ships. There are many stories about dolphins guiding ships through difficult and dangerous waters. report Report general, umum lewat pengamatan, observasi, studi [lazimnya] menggunakan jargon ilmiah

Teks ‘my pet’ dianggap descriptive, karena: 1) participant (yang diperbincangkan) spesifik, yakni anjing bernama Brownie; 2) untuk mengatakan Brownie lucu (cute), kecil (small), dan lembut (fluffy) sepertinya tidak harus mengamati dulu, kita bisa langsung tahu keadaan Brownie seperti yang digambarkan hanya dengan sekali lihat. Begitu juga untuk mengetahui kebiasaan Brownie seperti yang tergambar pada paragraf 2 tidak perlu suatu penelitian. 3) tidak nampak adanya jargon ilmiah. Teks ‘dolphins’ dianggap report, karena: 1) participant (yang diperbincangkan) general/umum, dolphin secara umum; kita tidak tahu dolphin mana yang dimaksud; 2) untuk mengatakan dolphins punya bahasa (have a language), bisa ngobrol (can talk), tidak dapat mendengar suara manusia (cannot hear the sound man can make), dan berperilaku baik

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

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Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

terhadap manusia (very friendly toward man) sepertinya tidak bisa sekali lihat langsung tahu, akan tetapi perlu pengamatan, penelitian, penelaahan, atau studi. 3) nampak adanya jargon ilmiah: mammals.

Explanation
Teks explanation bertujuan untuk menerangkan proses sesuatu ada/terbentuk, atau membahas suatu teori, faham, fenomena, definisi, ideologi, dan hal yang bertali dengan fenomena alam. Teks explanation juga dapat digunakan untuk menggambarkan atau menerangkan fungsi dari suatu benda atau alat. Teks explanation umumnya memiliki struktur: - general statement, pernyataan umum berupa pendapat penulis atau fenomena yang terjadi di alam ini, atau suatu hal yang secara umum sudah diketahui. - penjelasan proses, mengapa dan bagaimana sesuatu bisa ada/terjadi. Teks report sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - general dan abstract noun, misalnya earthquake, chopping, speech, dsb. - action verbs - simple present tense - passive voice Contoh:

Silkworms live for only two or three days after laying eggs. About 36,000 to 50,000 eggs are laid, and these are carefully stored at the silkworm farm until they are ready to hatch. The eggs hatch into caterpillars, which feed on mulberry leaves. Soon, the caterpillars are ready to spin their cocoons. Not all caterpillars can spin silk cocoons. Only the caterpillars of a silkworm moth known as 'Bombyx mori' can do such spinning. This caterpillar has special glands which secrete liquid silk through its lower lip. The liquid produced later hardens to form fine strands. The caterpillar makes its cocoons using these strands. The threads on the outside of the cocoon are rough, while those inside are soft and smooth. Some fully-spun cocoons are heated. This kills the pupa inside. The cocoons are then put into hot water to loosen the fine threads. Finally, these threads are reeled off the cocoons. The length of unbroken thread produced by a single cocoon measures about one-and-a-half kilometers. Being twisted together several of these threads make single woven materials.

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

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Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

A Brief Summary of Speech Production
Speech production is made possible by the specialized movements of our vocal organs that generate speech sounds waves. Like all sound production, speech production requires a source of energy. The source of energy for speech production is the steady stream of air that comes from the lungs as we exhale. When we breath normally, the air stream is inaudible. To become audible, the air stream must vibrate rapidly. The vocal cords cause the air stream to vibrate. As we talk, the vocal cords open and close rapidly, chopping up the steady air stream into a series of puffs. These puffs are heard as a buzz. But this buzz is still not speech. To produce speech sounds, the vocal tract must change shape. During speech we continually alter the shape of the vocal tract by moving the tongue and lips, etc. These movements change the acoustic properties of the vocal tract, which in turn produce the different sounds of speech.

Explanation Vs Report
Sering jenis teks explanation dan report memiliki persamaan, dan juga perbedaan. Persamaannya adalah keduanya dapat membicarakan hasil pengamatan/observasi/penelitian/studi. Perbedaannya adalah dalam explanation, yang ditonjolkan adalah ‘proses’ sesuatu bisa ada atau terbentuk; di lain pihak, dalam report, yang ditonjolkan adalah keadaan atau unsur-unsur yang dimiliki participant. Manakala yang dibicarakan benda, report lebih menyoroti fungsi atau kegunaan dari benda/alat tersebut; di lain pihak, explanation lebih menyoroti asal-usul benda tersebut bisa ada. Perhatikan komparasi di bawah ini:

Whales
Whales are sea-living mammals. They therefore breathe air but cannot survive or land. Some species are very large indeed and the blue whale, which can exceed 30m in length, is the largest animal to have lived on earth. Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important difference in its external structure; its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lies a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to 30m in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body fluids.

report

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

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Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

From Cushion to Future Bear Where did the bears come from? Bear as we know him has not existed on this earth for a very long period of time, but his predecessors may go back many hundreds of years. Most authorities now believe that the handsome, two-legged bear of today evolved from a single-celled organism—a speck of dusk perhaps. Then gradually, throough natural selection and survival of the fittest speck, cotton wool balls developed. We do not know exactly when the first soft furnishings appeared on earth, but they must have been very simple beings. In the beginning was the cushion. Not very impressive object—simply a lump of padding material held together with some sort of covering—but this inauspicious start developed two reptilian forms that were the ddirect ancestors of modern bear. One of the first evolutionary steps occurred when a mutant, misshapen Cushion was created. He must have appeared very strange to his fellow Cushions, but he was the first Bean Bag Frog. Filled with beans, rice or other non-toxic substance, he has two eyes and four legs. Bean Bag Frogs, however, were pretty useless on land, being incredibly floppy, and in water they tended to sink. At about the same time as the Bean Bag Frog was emerging, the Cushion was developing a long different lines into the Drought Excluder. At first merely a long thin Cushion, it gradually evelolved eyes, a forked tongue and a patterned body. Its tendency to lie along the bottom of draughty doors perhaps points to the lack of an efficient body cooling mechanism. From this rather basic creatures the first Toy Dog developed. Long and thin like a Draught Excluder, and with four legs like a Bean Bag Frog, he still had difficulty in moving about owing to his very short sppendages. Movement became easier with the invention of the wheel. Dog-on-Wheels was a very successful species for many years but is now threatened with extinction. A few remain in captivity but they appear to have difficulty reproducing themselves under these circumstances. When the first soft toy stood up and walked on two legs instead of four, modern (Teddy) bear was born. 

explanation

Penjelasan: - Teks Whales dianggap report karena lingkup pemaparan lebih menonjolkan keadaan dan unsur atau bagian serta behavior dari participant. - Teks From Cushion to Future Bear dianggap explanation karena pemaparannya lebih menonjolkan bagaimana evolusi atau proses Teddy Bear bisa ada.

Exposition
Teks exposition bertujuan untuk menyodorkan pendapat/ide/pandangan/argumen penulis akan suatu perkara/topik/permasalahan/fenomena. Terdapat dua varian dari teks exposition: 1) analytical exposition, dan 2) hortatory exposition. Dalam analytical exposition penulis menyodorkan pandangan/ide/opini/pendapat bahwa suatu topik atau fenomena atau masalah perlu mendapat perhatian, ulasan, atau penjelasan, atau uraian,

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

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Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

atau data penguat—tanpa dimunculkannya usaha untuk mempengaruhi/membujuk pembaca untuk memiliki sikap pro-kontra terhadap sesuatu. Sebaliknya, dalam hortatory exposition, penulis menyodorkan pandangan/ide/opini/pendapat untuk mempengaruhi/membujuk pembaca untuk memiliki sikap pro-kontra terhadap sesuatu, dan atau mengajak pembaca untuk melakukan sesuatu. Analytical exposition juga dikenal dengan istilah argumentative, sementara hortatory exposition dapat disebut juga dengan istilah persuasive. Teks analytical exposition umumnya memiliki struktur: - thesis, pernyataan pendapat penulis akan suatu kasus/fenomena. - argument, terdiri dari point atau inti masalah/perbincangan atau hal yang menjadi concern, dan elaboration, penjelasan atau pemaparan dari point. - Reiteration, penguatan pernyataan. Teks analytical exposition sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - general noun misalnya pollution, car, dsb. - abstract noun misalnya policy, government, dsb. - jargon, misalnya species, mammal, dll. - modals misalnya must, should, dll. - bahasa evaluatif, misalnya necessary, important, significant, valuable. - kalimat pasif Teks hortatory exposition umumnya memiliki struktur: - thesis, pernyataan pendapat penulis akan suatu kasus/fenomena; atau issue, hal yang dipersoalkan. - argument, alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan, dan mengarah pada saran atau rekomendasi. - recommendation, pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya seautu ada atau dilakukan Teks hortatory exposition sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - abstract noun misalnya policy, government, dsb. - jargon, misalnya species, mammal, dll. - modals misalnya must, should, dll. - bahasa evaluatif, misalnya necessary, important, significant, valuable. - kalimat pasif - thinking verb, misalnya I believe, I think

Contoh:

English is the most important language in the world. It is the language spoken at the United Nations; it is also the official language of diplomacy. In addition, English is useful in many occupations. For example, air traffic controllers all over the world must be able to speak English. Since English is so important, it is a compulsory subject in any level of school in Indonesia.
Analytical Exposition

I think Indonesian president should be a male, over forty years old, a retired military, and handsome. He should be wise and has a good image among ordinary people. I believe you’ll agree that the only person who meets those qualifications is SBY. So, there is no reason not to elect SBY as our president; only the fool will choose other candidates.
Hortatory Exposition

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

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Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

Teks di sebelah kiri dianggap analytical exposition karena yang nampak hanya pandangan penulis bahwa bahasa Inggris itu merupakan bahasa paling penting di dunia dan alasan yang melatar belakanginya serta dampak dari fakta tersebut. Teks di sebelah kanan dianggap hortatory exposition karena selain pandangan penulis akan figur presiden, juga nampak ajakan/bujukan penulis pada pembaca untuk memilih figur presiden seperti yang dikemukakannya. Berikut contoh-contoh teks analytical exposition: In Australia there are three levels of government, the federal government, state government and local government. All of these levels of government are necessary. This is so for a number of reasons. First, the federal government is necessary for the big things. They keep the economy in order and look after things like defense. Similarly, the state governments look after the middle-sized things. For example they look after law and order, preventing things like vandalism in schools. Finally, local governments look after the small things. They look after things like collecting rubbish, otherwise everyone would have diseases. Thus, for the reasons above we can conclude that the three levels of government are necessary.

Tomatoes are full of nutrients and are an especially good source of antioxidant vitamins. In fact, one serving of tomato will give you 40% of your recommendation daily allowance of vitamin C. Diets rich in fruit and vegetables are associated with lower risks of many diseases and a diet which includes high intake of tomatoes has been shown to protect against prostate cancer. Tomatoes are by far the richest source of lycopene, a powerful antioxidant, which gives tomato its red colour. No other food contains this high level of antioxidant. Lycopene is highest in processed tomato foods, such as tomato puree, because they are concentrated.

While fats have lately acquired a bad image, one should not forget how essential they are. Fats provide the body’s best means of storing energy, a far more efficient energy source than either carbohydrates or proteins. They act as insulation against cold, or cushioning for the internal organs, and as lubricants. Without fats, energy would have no way to utilize fat-soluble vitamins. Furthermore, some fats contain fatty acids that contain necessary growth factors and help with the digestion of other foods.

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

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Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

Heart disease is Western society's number-one killer. It accounts for one-third of all deaths in America and for well over half the deaths among middle-aged men. Heart disease was relatively rare in America at the turn of the century, but it has risen dramatically since then, with a slight downturn in 1960. Heart disease is often viewed as a disease of modern living, spurred on by the habits and the stress of industrialized society. Evidence for this idea comes from the fact that non-Western societies have relatively low rates of heart disease. And there is a higher rate of heart disease among immigrants to America, such as Japanese Americans and Chinese—Americans, than among those who remain in their native country, suggesting that something about the Western environment promotes the development of the disease. Heart disease usually involves the formation of a fatty substance called plague in the walls of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart. If the arteries become narrowed enough or blocked, the person may suffer a heart attack, that is death of a region of heart muscle tissue. Among the many factors that have been found to be related to the risk of developing heart disease are high blood pressure, a history of heart disease among one's close relatives, cigarette smoking, being relatively overweight, and a high level of a fatty substance called cholesterol in the blood. In addition to all of these well-established risk factors, it is now clear that stress can have a major impact on the development of heart disease. People who continually undergo a great deal of stress—and who lack the ability to control it—are at a significantly greater risk for disease than people who undergo less stress or who can manage stress successfully. Jobs that impose high psychological demands but they provide the worker with the little control—such as a cook, waiter, and hospital orderly—seem to be heart disease.

Berikut contoh-contoh teks hortatory exposition:

If students are to succeed in tomorrow's world, their education must encourage them to have the desire to keep learning throughout their lives. For at least a decade now, experts have been telling us that to prosper in the future, countries need to make much better use of their human resources. This means not allowing people to stop learning at age 10 or 20 or 30. It means pushing skill-growth rates up rather than allowing children and adults to lose interest in learning. Although following this advice is not easy, we should keep the following in mind; If we do not go this route, vast numbers of people in the world may do poorly in a global market, while a few people do exceptionally well. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor will grow and grow ⎯ until something explodes.

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Genre

Country Concern
In all the discussion over the removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and the country. While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the county, where you only see another car very five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. Those who want to penalize older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don’t seem to appreciate that, in the country, there is no public transport to fall back upon and one’s own vehicle is the only way to get about. I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live in the city.

To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school, a number of dust bins should be increased. When we look at classrooms, school corridors and school yard, there are papers, mineral water cups, straws, and napkins here and there. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease, especially empty plastic cups or glasses. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. Besides, these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything if litters are scattered everywhere. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for their school environment. They put their litters on the proper places. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. The numbers of dust bins in our schools are not enough. More dust bins should be put beside each of steps, outside of the classrooms, and some more along the corridors. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. So when students want to throw away their litters, they can find the dust bins easily. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins, we do not have problems of filth and discomfort any more. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study.

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

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Genre

Continued progress in advanced technology is not necessary. Already the technical progress in our world has caused severe pollution in the air and in the water. Although the technical progress in previous years has been helpful, recent technology has significantly increased pollution. Another reason to stop technical progress is that many inventions which were developed for good causes are now also used for powerful weapons or have been found to have serious side effects. For example, pesticide put inside particle boards to prevent termites has now been found to be toxic to human life. Technology does not always bring good effects; for example, computers do much work faster than man, but then man loses his job to a machine. Because no man can guarantee that technology will have only good effects and will be used only for the benefit of man, we should delay the continued development of technology.

Discussion
Teks discussion bertujuan untuk menyodorkan dua atau lebih pendapat/ide/pandangan/argumen akan suatu perkara/topik/permasalahan/fenomena. Lazimnya teks discussion menyuguhkan dua atau lebih perspektif yang berbeda akan suatu persoalan. Diantara ciri teks discussion adalah dipergunakannya conjunctions: on the other hand, however, but, yet, while, meanwhile, dan nevertheless. Teks discussion umumnya memiliki struktur: - issue, topik yang menjadi perhatian. - argument, terdiri pro and kontra. * pendapat pertama diikuti elaborasi (uraian) * pendapat yang berseberangan dengan yang pertama diikuti elaborasi. - conclusion atau recommendation, simpulan atau saran. Teks discussion sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - general noun misalnya pollution, car, dsb. - abstract noun misalnya policy, government, dsb. - modals misalnya must, should, should have been, perhaps,dll. - bahasa evaluatif, misalnya necessary, important, significant, valuable. - contrastive conjnction, misalnya on the other hand, however, but, yet, while, meanwhile, nevertheless, dan similarly. - Adverbials of manner, misalnya hopefully, deliberately, dl. - thinking verb, misalnya I believe, I think

Contoh:

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The study of genetic is today so far advances that we shall soon be able to produce a kind of genetically perfect ‘superman’, using technique known as ‘genetic engineering’. At first this may seem an attractive possibility, but when we consider it in detail, we find there are many problems involved. A distinction is usually made between ‘negative’ and ‘positive’ genetic engineering. In negative engineering we try to eliminate harmful genes to produce genetically normal people. The aim is of course a desirable one; however, it does pose the problem of what a harmful gene is. Genes are not really either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. The gene which causes certain forms of anemia, for example, can also protect against malaria. If we eliminate this gene, we may get rid of anemia, but we increase the risk of malaria. In positive genetic engineering we try to create better people by developing the so-called ‘good’ genes. But although this form of genetic engineering will give us a greater control over mankind’s future, there are several reason for caution. First, there is no possibility of mistakes. While accepting that geneticists are responsible people, we must also admit that things can go wrong, the result being the kind of monster we read about in horror stories. Secondly, there is the problem of deciding what make a ‘better’ person. We may feel, for example, that if genetic engineering can create more intelligent people then this is a good thing On the other

Technology brings problems as well as benefits to humankind. Since Henry Ford began mass-producing them in 1908, automobiles have provided us with a cheap and convenient means of transportation. However, they also brought us traffic jams and air pollution. A technological development that is changing our lives as much as the automobiles is the personal computer. Since the 1980s, personal computers have become common in homes, schools, and businesses, and just as automobiles have brought unexpected problems, so have personal computers.

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To begin with, communication by computer has caused some problems. Although we can easily send a message to hundreds of people in an instant, we can also receive hundreds of message, both wanted and unwanted, in just a few minutes. It took several hours to read all of them. The lack of censorship in cyberspace is another problem that no one has solved yet. Our expanded ability to communicate means that anyone with a computer can communicate anything to anyone on any subject at any time. Therefore, a computer-literate child can receive pornographic photos and listen to chat-room conversations about sex. In addition to problems in communication, computers have also caused problems in business. They have created excellent opportunities for computerized crime. Computer criminals use their skills to obtain secret business information and to steal money. Moreover, the use of computers has depersonalised business. People are no longer customers: they are account numbers. Face-to-face business transactions are no longer necessary, you can buy almost anything you need by computer, phone, or fax. Also, as telecommunicating becomes more common, workers in the same company interact with each other less and less. Someday it may be possible to have a company of people who have never met face-to-face. It is clear that personal computers have made our lives easier, but they have done so at a cost. As with every new invention, there have unforeseen consequences. It is up to us to find the solutions to the problems as well as to enjoy the conveniences of the new tool.

Gene Splicing
Genetic research has produced both exciting and frightening possibilities. Scientists are now able to create new forms of life in the laboratory due to the development of gene splicing. On the one hand, the ability to create life in the laboratory could greatly benefit mankind. For example, because it is very expensive to obtain insulin from natural sources, scientists have developed a method to manufacture it inexpensively in the

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Another beneficial application of gene splicing is in agriculture. Scientists foresee the day when new plants will be developed using nitrogen from the air instead of from fertilizer. Therefore food production could be increased. In addition, entirely new plants could be developed to feed the world’s hungry people. Not everyone is excited about gene splicing, however. Some people feel that it could have terrible consequences. A laboratory accident, for example, might cause an epidemic of an unknown disease that could wipe out humanity. As a result of this controversy, the government has made rules to control genetic experiments. While some members of the scientific community feel that these rules

Discussion Vs Exposition
Dalam beberapa sudut, teks discussion memiliki banyak kemiripan dengan exposition; keduanya menyodorkan opini, pendapat, pandangan, dan argumentasi akan suatu hal. Akantetapi, teks exposition hanya menyodorkan satu sudut pandang; di lain pihak, teks discussion mengkontraskan dan mempersandingkan dua sudut pandang akan suatu persoalan. Cars should be banned in the city. As we know cars create pollution and cause a lot of deaths and other accidents. Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute a lot of the pollution in the world. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illness as bronchitis, lung cancer, and triggers asthma. Some of these illnesses are so dangerous that people can die from them. Secondly, the city is very busy. People wander everywhere and cars commingle with pedestrians in the city, which cause the accidents. Cars today are our roads biggest killer agents. Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in city you may find it hard to sleep at night and concentrate on your homework, and talk to someone. In conclusion, cars should be banned in the city for the reasons listed. Exposition
Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

Conflict within an organization is not always viewed as undesir-able. In fact, various managers have divergent ideas on the value that conflict can have. According to the traditional view of conflict, conflict is harmful to an organization. Managers with this traditional view of conflict see it as their role in an organi-zation to rid the organization of any possible source of conflict. The interactionist view of conflict, on the other hand, holds that conflict can serve an important function in an organization by reducing complacency among workers and causing positive changes to occur. Managers who hold an interactionist view of conflict may actually take steps to stimulate confllict within the organization.
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Penjelasan: - Teks di sebelah kiri dianggap exposition karena hanya menunjukkan satu sudut pandang, yakni ketidaksetujuan akan bertambahnya jumlah mobil. - Teks di sebalah kanan dianggap discussion karena memperlihatkan dua sudut pandang akan konflik, yakni sudut pandang kelompok tradisional dan kelompok interaksionis— yang keduanya berkontradiksi.

Procedure
Teks procedure bertujuan untuk memberi petunjuk tentang langkah-langkah/metode/cara-cara melakukan sesuatu. Teks procedure umumnya berisi tips atau serangkaian tindakan atau langkah dalam membuatu suatu barang atau melakukan suatu aktifitas. Teks procedure dikenal juga dengan istilah directory. Teks procedure umumnya memiliki struktur: - goal, tujuan kegiatan. - materials, bahan-bahan yang dibutuhkan untuk membuat suatu barang/melakukan suatu aktifitas, sifatnya opsional. - steps, serangkaian langkah. Teks procedure sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - imperative, kalimat-kalimat perintah, misalnya go, sit, don’t put, don’t mix, dsb. - action verb, kata kerja yang berhubungan dengn aktifitas fisik atau intelektual, misalnya mix, turn, don’t, put, dsb. - connective of sequence, misalnya then, while, next,dll. - numbering, nagka-angka yang menynjukkan urutan kegiatan, misalnya first, second, third, dst. Contoh:

How to Make a Cheese Omelet
Ingredients: 1 egg, 50 g cheese, cup milk, 3 tablespoons cooking oil, a pinch of salt and pepper. Utensils: Frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl, plate. Method: 1. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. Add milk and whisk well. 4. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. Pour the mixture in a frying pan 7. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns. 8. Cook both sides. 9. Place on a plate; season with salt and pepper. 10. Eat while warm.

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Procedure Vs Explanation
Teks berbentuk procedure dan explanation dapat sama-sama membicarakan suatu proses; akan tetapi, teks procedure membicarakan suatu proses yang dapat diikuti atau dipraktikan. Di lain pihak, teks explanation membicarakan proses yang terjadi secara mungkin alami atau hal yang bukan untuk diikuti—pembaca hanya dapat berperan sebagai pengamat atas proses tadi, tidak untuk dipraktikan.

Here are tips on how to charm a girl: First, send her bunch of flowers at least every weekend. Second, ring her up everyday, at least asking ‘how are you?’. Third, try to like or enjoy what she likes or enjoys. Fourth, be frequent to say ‘I love you’ in any chance you are encountering for saying it.
Procedure

How are sedimentary rocks formed? Sedimentary rock is formed by the compassion of layers of particles into a solid form. Sediments such as sand and mud settle onto the floor of oceans and lakes. Over a long period of time, several layers of sediments collect on the floor. These layers are pressed together for many thousands of years, fusing the small solid particles of mud and sand to form solid rock. This type of rock is called sedimentary rock.

Explanation

Penjelasan: - Teks di sebelah kiri dianggap procedure karena menyodorkan proses, tips atau cara-cara yang kita dapat praktikan. Dalam teks ini, penulis mencoba berbagi cara bagaimana menaklukan seorang perempuan. - Teks di sebelah kanan dianggap explanation karena proses yang dibahas tidak mungkin kita dapat lakukan atau praktikan. Dalam teks ini, penulis hanya berbagai hasil pengamatan tentang proses bagaimana batuan sedimen terbentuk.

Review
Teks review bertujuan memberi ulasan tentang suatu karya seperti film, musik, buku, pameran dan sejenisnya. Dalam teks review umumnya tersajikan kritik atau apresiasi akan karya bersangkutan. Teks review boleh menyodorkan paparan/ulasan, telaahan, pendapat, perbandingan pendapat, atau saran/usul. Ini berarti teks review cara penyajiannya dapat seperti desription, report, explanation, exposition, ataupun discussion, akan tetapi asalkan kontennya mengupas suatu karya, maka harus dianggap teks review. Teks review umumnya memiliki struktur:

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orientation, pengelanalan karya yang akan diulas. interpretative recount, rangkuman plot atau alur cerita atau konten. evaluation, penilaian atau interpretasi atau tafsir penulis akan karya bersangkutan. evaluatif summation, rangkuman akan penilaian atau interpretasi atau tafsir yang dilakukan penulis tentang karya itu.

Teks discussion sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - particular participant, terfokus pada partisipan (karya) tertentu yang spesifik. - perspective adjective, menggunakan kata sifat yang menunjukkan sikap atau penilaian, misalnya good, bad, wonderful, extraordinary, dsb. - long and complex sentences, banyak menggunakan kalimat-kalimat panjang dan berstuktur kompleks. - bahasa metafor, misalnya pingponged, dll. Contoh:

Final Destination 3 After a high school senior, Wendy Christento (Mary Elizabeth Winstead), has a fatal premonition of a disastrous roller-coaster accident that involves her and her friends and others of the roller-coaster before it sets off, it crashes just like in he premonition, soon she steams up with a friend, Kevin Fischer (Ryan Merriman) as well as many others, some including Erin (Alexz Johnson) and Ian (Kris Lemche) to try and cheat death. Will they succeed or will they learn a lesson that you can’t cheat death? This NEW LINE CINEMA’s sequel movie deserves ‘two thumbs up’.

Narrative
Teks narrative merupakan jenis teks berupa cerita atau dongeng yang bertujuan menghibur pembaca. Ciri utama teks narrative adalah terdapatnya masalah (atau hal yang dianggap masalah atau pelik) dan langkah yang diambil untuk merespon masalah tersebut—ini umumnya berupa solusi atau penyelesaian. Konten teks narrative dapat berupa cerita khayalan atau kisah nyata yang mendapatkan bumbu-bumbu perekayasa.

Teks narrative umumnya memiliki struktur: - orientation, pendahuluan atau pembuka berupa pengelanalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat. - complication/crisis, pengembangan konflik atau pemunculan masalah. - resolution, penyelesaian konflik atau langkah yang diambil untuk merespon masalah. - reorientation, penutup—ungkapan-ungkapan yang menunjukkan cerita sudah berakhir, ini sifatnya opsional.

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- coda, perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita; sifatnya opsional. Teks narrative sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - noun tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan, dan benda dalam cerita, misalnya stepmother, household, dsb. - indidual participant, terfokus pada kisahan partisipan (pelaku) tertentu yang spesifik. - past tense, menggunakan kata kerja bentuk lampau, misalnya went, ran, ate, dsb. - time connective dan conjunction untk mengurutkan kejadian, misalnya after, before, soon, then, after that,dsb. - action verbs, kata kerja yang menunjukkan peristiwa atau kegiatan, misalnya stayed, climbeb, killed, dll. - saying verb dan thinking verbs, kata kerja yang menunjukkan pelaporan atau ujaran, misalnya said, told, promised, thought, understood, dsb.

Contoh:

Snow White Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead. One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White. Snow White did not want he Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt an Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods. She was very tired and hungry. Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. The went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, what is your name? Snow White said, ”My name is Snow White.’ Doc said, ‘if you wish, you may live here with us’. Snow White said, Oh, could I? Thank you’. Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the seven dwarfs lived happily ever after.

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The Frog Prince Long ago there was a king who had a beautiful daughter. He loved her very much. Everyday the Princess would sit by the old palace well and toss a golden ball high in the air and let it drop. She loved to play this game. One day she accidentally tosses her ball too high. When it came down she could not catch it. It fell deep into the well. The Princess began to cry. “Why are you crying?” said a voice behind her. The Princess looks down. She saw a frog. “Oh, please, Frog”, said the princess, “I lost my ball down the well. If you bring it back to me, I will do anything you want.” “Anything at all?” asked the frog. “Yes, anything”, said the princess. So the frog dived into the well and gave the ball back to the princess. “I don’t want money or property”, said a frog. “Let me live with you and be favourite friend.” The princess did not really want to let the frog came and live with her as her favourite friend but she was an honest princess. When she made a promise she kept it. So the frog came back with her to the palace. One day the princess discovered that the frog had turned into a handsome prince so they got married and live happily ever after.

Spoof
Teks twist pada dasarnya sama dengan teks narrative yakni merupakan jenis teks berupa cerita atau dongeng yang bertujuan menghibur pembaca, hanya saja ditambah unsur lucu atau hal yang di luar dugaan. Ini berarti teks spoof merupakan bentuk narrative plus—yaitu plus unsur lucu. Teks spoof umumnya memiliki struktur: - orientation, pendahuluan atau pembuka berupa pengelanalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat. - events, rangkaian kejadian/peristiwa. - twist, akhir yang lucu atau tidak terduga. Teks spoof sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - noun tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan, dan benda dalam cerita, misalnya a pinguin, a farmer, dsb. - indidual participant, terfokus pada kisahan partisipan (pelaku) tertentu yang spesifik. - past tense, menggunakan kata kerja bentuk lampau, misalnya went, ran, ate, dsb. - time connective dan conjunction untk mengurutkan kejadian, misalnya after, before, soon, then, after that,dsb. - action verbs, kata kerja yang menunjukkan peristiwa atau kegiatan, misalnya stayed, climbeb, killed, dll. - saying verb dan thinking verbs, kata kerja yang menunjukkan pelaporan atau ujaran, misalnya said, told, promised, thought, understood, dsb.

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Contoh: Some time ago the ruin of an unfortunate Adam Air was found. The only passenger found ‘still alive’ was a monkey. Surprisingly, the monkey could speak using ‘Tarzan’s language’ to the investigators, when it was interrogated about what really happened just before the accident. When the investigators asked “What were the pilot and stewardess doing at that time?”, the monkey touched the fingers of the left hand to the fingers on the right signaling that they were dating and ‘kissing’. The investigators continued asking “What were the passengers doing?”. The monkey held both its hand palms under its cheek, signaling that they were sleeping. The investigators wondered “And what were you doing at that time?”. The monkey raised both hands and showed its fists as though it had been holding the steering wheel, signaling that the monkey itself drove the plane!!

Penguin in the Park
Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. He took him to a policeman and said, ‘I have just found this penguin. What should I do? The policeman replied, ‘Take him to the zoo!’ The next day the policeman saw the same man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked, ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo?’ ‘ I certainly did,’ replied the man, ‘and it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it, so today I’m taking him to the movies!’

Recount
Teks recount merupakan jenis teks yang kontennya melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian, atau kegiatan yang menimpa seseorang, atau berupa pengalaman seseorang. Tujuan teks recount adalah untuk memberitahukan atau hiburan. Teks recount umumnya memiliki struktur: - orientation, pendahuluan atau pembuka berupa pengelanalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat. - events, rangkaian kejadian/peristiwa.

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- reorientation, penutup—ungkapan-ungkapan yang menunjukkan peristiwa/kejadian/kegiatan sudah selesai. - komentar pribadi akan peritiwa yang diutarakan, sifatnya opsional. Teks recount sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - noun tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, misalnya Otong Setiawan, Seanu Prabu, Ratu Kadita, Eha, Djuharie, dsb. - indidual participant, terfokus pada kisahan partisipan (pelaku) tertentu yang spesifik. - past tense, menggunakan kata kerja bentuk lampau, misalnya went, ran, ate, dsb. - time connective dan conjunction untk mengurutkan kejadian, misalnya after, before, soon, then, after that,dsb. - action verbs, kata kerja yang menunjukkan peristiwa atau kegiatan, misalnya stayed, climbeb, killed, dll. - adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk menunjukkan tempat, waktu, dan cara, misalnya, yesterday, last week, at home, slowly, carefully, dll. Contoh:

On Friday we went to the blue mountains. We stayed at David and Della’s house. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and tennis court. On Saturday we saw the Three sisters and went on the scenic railway. It was scary. Then, Mummy and I went shopping with Della. We went to some antique shops and tried on some old hats. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. We saw cockatoos having a shower. In the afternoon we went home.

Dear Ratu, I’m writing to you concerning of my last day in Jogya. I just got back from Borobudur, the wonderful temple I’ve ever seen. weather is fine. We are now staying in a hotel. The It is not far from

Malioboro. We are treated well here. It has many excellent staff who serve the customers. We plan to go around Malioboro after the children take a short nap. We want to enjoy having “lesehan” there. It is a kind of a restaurant but we sit on the ground. Many kinds of local handicraft are sold along Malioboro street. Both domestic and foreign tourists are interested in them. I want to buy
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Anecdote
Teks anecdote pada dasarnya mirip dengan teks recount, yakni jenis teks yang kontennya melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian, atau kegiatan yang menimpa seseorang, atau berupa pengalaman seseorang; akan tetapi teks anecdote diakhiri hal-hal lucu atau plesetan. Teks anecdote, bila tidak memiliki usur lucu, harus berisikan pengalaman/peristiwa/kejadian aneh atau lain dari pada yang lain—unik. Tujuan teks anecdotet adalah untuk berbagi pengalaman lucu atau aneh.

Teks anecdote umumnya memiliki struktur: - abstract, berupa isyarat akan apa yang diceritakan berupa kejadian yang tidak lumrah, tidak biasa, aneh, atau berupa rangkuman atas apa yang akan diceritakan atau dipaparkan teks; sifatnya opsional. - orientation, pendahuluan atau pembuka berupa pengelanalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat. - events, rangkaian kejadian/peristiwa. - crisis, pemunculan masalah. - reaction, tindakan atau langkah yang diambil untuk merespon masalah. - coda, perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita; sifatnya opsional. - reorientation, penutup—ungkapan-ungkapan yang menunjukkan cerita sudah berakhir, ini sifatnya opsional. Teks anecdote sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - noun tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, misalnya Otong Setiawan, Seanu Prabu, Ratu Kadita, Eha, Djuharie, dsb. - indidual participant, terfokus pada kisahan partisipan (pelaku) tertentu yang spesifik. - past tense, menggunakan kata kerja bentuk lampau, misalnya went, ran, ate, dsb. - exclamation, seruan/kata seru, sperti So this!, sifatnya opsional. - rethorical question, pertanyaan retorik, seperti And do you know what?, It’s funny, isn’t it?, dll. Sifatnya opsional. - time connective dan conjunction untk mengurutkan kejadian, misalnya after, before, soon, then, after that,dsb. - action verbs, kata kerja yang menunjukkan peristiwa atau kegiatan, misalnya stayed, climbeb, killed, dll. - adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk menunjukkan tempat, waktu, dan cara, misalnya, yesterday, last week, at home, slowly, carefully, dll. Contoh:

Snake in the Bath How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! We had just moved into a new house, which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna and decided we would clean the bath first, so we set to, and turned on the tap. Suddenly to my horror, a snake’s head appeared in the plug hole. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath, spitting and hissing at us.
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For an instant I stood there quite paralyzed. Then I yelled for my husband, who luckily came running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom. Anna, who was only three at the time, was quite interested in the whole business. Indeed I had to pull her out of the way or she’d probably have leant over the bath to get a better look! We found out later that it was a black mamba, a poisonous kind of snake. It had obviously been fast asleep, curled up as the bottom of the nice warm water-pipe. It must have had an awful shock when the cold water came trickling down! But nothing to the shock I got! Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly before running the bath water.

A young boy was playing with a ball in the street. He kicked it too hard, and it broke the window of a house and fell inside. A lady came to the window with the ball and shouted at the young boy, so he ran away, but he still wanted his ball back. A few minutes later he returned and knocked at the door of the house, and when the lady answered it, he said, “My father’s going to come and fix your window very soon.” After a few minutes a man came to the door with tools in his hands, so the lady let the boy take his ball away. When the man finished fixing the window, he said to the lady, “That will cost you exactly sixty thousand rupiahs.” “But aren’t you the father of the young boy?” the woman asked, looking surprised. “No,” he answered, equally surprised. “Aren’t you his mother?”

News item
Teks news item merupakan teks yang kontennya memberitakan peristiwa atau kejadian yang dipandang layak diketahui publik—bermuatan berita. Pada dasarnya teks news item adalah bagian dari jenis teks recount, hanya saja cara penulisannya berbeda; yakni news item lazimnya diwali tempat kejadian/peristiwa dan diikuti nama media pelapornya, baru kemudaian paparan/informasi peristiwa, kejadian, atau kegiatan. Tujuan teks news item adalah agar publilk tahu akan suatu peristiwa penting. Teks news item umumnya memiliki struktur: - newsworthy event, kejadian inti. - background events, latar belakang atau pemicu kejadian; elaborasi kejadian, orang yang terlibat, tempat kejadian, dan lain sebaainya. - sources, komentar saksi kejadian, pendapat para ahli dsb. - crisis, pemunculan masalah. Teks news item sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain:

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headline, informasi singkat akan peristiwa. action verbs, kata kerja yang menunjukkan peristiwa atau kegiatan, misalnya innagurated, signed, killed, dll. saying verb, kata kerja pelaporan, misalnya said, witnessed, told,dll.

Contoh: Town ‘Contaminated’ Moscow (JP)– A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence at another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of Shkotovo-22 near Vladivostock. The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radio active fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the then Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean-up operation to remove more than 600 tons of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

MELBOURNE, Jan 22 (UPI) — Fire authorities in four Australian states are to control bushfires fanned by strong winds and searing temperature. The Australian reported Sunday that blazes continued in south Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia and Victoria, where up to six homes have destroyed. In South Australia, much of Adelide is engulfed in thick smoke. The firefighters who are confronted by blast-furnace winds try to bring the flames under control. At Robertstown in the state’s mid-north, more than 2,500 acres have already burned. Another bushfire, started by lightening, charred the earth near Mouth Flat on the southern side of Kangoroo Island, while Ngarkat Conservation Park, in the State’s upper-southeast, is also a blaze. A 7,500-acre fire at Mount Agnew in Zeehan, in the state’s west, broke containment lines Saturday afternoon, jumping a road and coming close homes. The most serious fires were in Voctoria, where up to six homes were destroyed by a fire near the town of Anakie, 36 miles west of Melbourne. In Tasmania, falling temperatures and patchy rain brought some relief to firefighters, who continued to monitor 22 blazes across the state.

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

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