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: MOHD IZWAN BIN ABD WAHID / 2008543089 MOHD ZULFADHLI BIN FAIZOL AZMI / 2008504423 NUR SYAFIQA BINTI AMAN / 2008511857 PUTERI NURULBAITY BINTI MEGAT YUNUS / 2008548465 EXPERIMENT DATE PERFORMED SEMESTER : LAB 1 (HEAT OF NEUTRALIZATION) : 21st JULY 2009 : JULY 2009 - NOVEMBER 2009
PROGRAMME / CODE : DIPLOMA IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING / EH110 No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Remarks: Title Abstract Introduction Objective Theory Apparatus Methodology Results Discussion Calculation Conclusion Recommendation Reference Total Allocated marks (%) 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 20 10 5 5 5 90 Marks (%)
and if heat is absorbed. In this experiment. “Heat capacity of the calorimeter” means the amount of the heat (that is the number of joules) required to raise its temperature 1 Kelvin. If heat is evolved. is equal to the negative product of the temperature change. the reaction is exothermic (∆H < 0). The symbol ∆H (the symbol ∆ means “change in”) is used to denote the enthalpy change. the heat of neutralization (or the enthalpy of neutralization) will be measured when an acid and a base react to form water. no heat would be radiated to the laboratory. The change in the enthalpy. In this experiment. which is the same as 1˚C. The energy changes of neutralization by using a calorimeter was used by thermometer at three times to get the average of the temperature. the amount of heat absorbed by the calorimeter must be known. ∆H. If the calorimeter were perfect. The energy change of a reaction that occurs at constant pressure is termed the heat of reaction of the enthalpy change. the reaction is endothermic (∆H > 0). usually in the form of heat.Checked by: by: (MISS HAMIZURA BINTI HASSAN) Rechecked ABSTRACT The objective of this experiment was to determine the energy changes accompanying neutralization reactions by using a calorimeter. the temperature of the calorimeter and its contents is measured before and after the reaction. the experiment was successful. This quantity of heat is measure experimentally by allowing the reaction to take place in a thermally insulated vessel called a calorimeter. times the heat capacity of the calorimeter and its contents: . INTRODUCTION Every chemical change is accompanied by a change in energy. From the graft given. ∆T. The concern in this experiment is with the heat of the reaction and because some heat is absorbed by the calorimeter itself. This requires the determination of the heat capacity of the calorimeter. The heat liberated in the neutralization will cause an increase in the temperature of the solution and of the calorimeter.
if T1 equals the temperature of a calorimeter and 50 mL of cooler water.184 J/K-g. then the heat lost by the warmer water is heat lost by warmer water = (T2 – Tf) X 50 g X 4. and if Tf equals the temperature after mixing. THEORY The heat capacity of the calorimeter is determined by measuring the temperature change that occurs when a known amount of hot water is added to a known amount of cold water in the calorimeter. and the density of water is 1.∆H = -∆T (heat capacity of calorimeter + heat capacity of contents)  Note that the numerical difference on the Celsius scale is the same as the numerical difference on the Kelvin scale where ∆T is the difference between the final and initial temperatures: ∆T = T f – Ti.18 J/K-g  . Because ∆H is negative for an exothermic reaction whereas ∆T is positive. For example. if T2 equals the temperature of 50 mL of warmer water added to it. The heat gained by the cooler water is heat gained by cooler water = (Tf – T1) X 50 g X 4. the energy changes accompanying neutralization reactions. using a calorimeter. The heat lost by the warm water is equal to the heat gained by the cold water and the calorimeter (assume no heat is lost to the laboratory). a negative sign is required is Equation .00 g/mL. OBJECTIVES To measure.18 J/K-g  The specific heat of water is 4.
18 J/K-g] – [(Tf – T1) X 50 g X 4. the heat capacity of the calorimeter can be calculated from Equation . Once the heat capacity of the calorimeter is determined.18 J/K-g] = (Tf – T1) X heat capacity of calorimeter  Note that the heat lost to the calorimeter equals its temperature change times its heat capacity. Thus by measuring T1. Equation  can be used to determine the ∆H for the neutralization reaction.The heat lost to the calorimeter is the difference between heat lost by the warmer water and that gained by the cooler water: (heat lost by warmer water) – (heat gained by cooler water) = heat gained by the calorimeter Substituting Equations  and : [(T2 – Tf) X 50 g X 4. T2. APPARATUS & CHEMICALS Thermometers (2) Styrofoam cups (2) 50 mL graduated cylinder (2) Square cardboard with hole in center 1 M HCl 1 M NaOH 1 M acetic acid (HC2H 3O2) Split one hole stopper 250 mL beaker (2) 400 mL beaker Hot plate . and Tf.
0 mL of tap water was placed exactly in the calorimeter cup. 50.0 mL of water was placed exactly in a 250 mL beaker and the water was heated with a low flame until the temperature is approximately water will be lost.METHODOLOGY Part A.e. The thermometer should not touch the bottom of the cup. quickly record its temperature i. 3. 50. The hot water was allowed to stand for a minute or two. t0 = 0 s (to the nearest 0. A calorimeter was constructed similar to the one shown if Figure 1 by nesting two Styrofoam cups together. The entire apparatus was rested in a 400 mL beaker to provide stability. Temperature after thermal equilibrium is reached = TEquilibrium. 4. A cork borer was used to make a hole in the lid just big enough to admit the thermometer and slip the thermometer into a split one-hole rubber stopper to prevent the thermometer from entering too deeply into the calorimeter. A temperature-versus-time curve was constructed from the data in Table 1. leading to an erroneous . The temperature was recorded as a function of time i.e.1˚C) and pour it as completely as possible into the calorimeter. Heat Capacity of Calorimeter 1. 5 to 10 minutes was allowed for the system to reach thermal equilibrium. 2. the first 3 temperature readings are taken every 5 seconds and for the next two minutes the temperature readings was taken every 15 seconds. then the temperature (to the nearest 0.1˚C) was recorded. result. The lid was replaced with the thermometer and the water was carefully stirred with the thermometer. and the cover and thermometer was replaced.
A wet sponge or paper towel may be used to clean up any spills. but substitute 1.0 M HCl was measured out exactly into a dry beaker. 2. Allowed it to stand near the calorimeter for 3 to 4 minutes. 50. 3. Heat of Neutralization of HCL-NaOH 1.0 M NaOH was carefully measured and added it to the calorimeter. . adjust the temperature of the HCl by either warming it by holding the beaker in your hands or cooling the outside of the beaker with tap water until the temperature of HCl is within 0. Then. The lid was lift and carefully added the 1. To have the same density and specific heat as water. The thermometer with tap water was rinsed. Be careful not to splash any on the upper sides of the cup.5˚C.0 mL of 1.Part B. The lid was placed on the calorimeter but leave the thermometer out. The NaCl solution may be assumed. Waste Disposal Instructions The stock solutions were handled carefully. t 0 = 0 s was recorded. and wipe dried.5˚C of that of the NaOH. The same procedure as in Part B was followed.e. 50. The temperature of the acid (THCl) was measured and recorded. The reaction mixtures produced in the Styrofoam cups contain harmless salts. They should be disposed of in the designated receptacles. A temperature-versustime curve was construct from the data in the Table 2.0 mL of 1. The temperature of the NaOH solution i. The thermometer was insert into the calorimeter and the temperature of the NaOH solution was measured. Part C. The calorimeter and the thermometer were dried with a towel.0 M HCl.5˚C. for the next 3 minutes the temperature readings were taken every 15 seconds. The temperatures of the NaOH and the HCl should not differ by more than 0.0 M HC 2H3O2 in place of 1. Heat of Neutralization of HC2H3O2–NaOH 1. If the difference is greater than 0. The solution was stirred gently with the thermometer and the first 3 temperature readings were recorded as the function of time every 5 seconds.0 M HCl all the once.
0 15 36.0 34.5 35.0 135 36.0 35.0 27.5 37.0 35. s ˚C (1) ˚C (2) ˚C (3) 26.0 35.0 35.0 34.0 35.0 40.0 5 38.0 40.0 90 36.0 35.0 34.0 60 36.0 35.0 35.0 34.0 35.5 10 36.0 34.0 30 36.0 40.0 37.0 34.0 37. Temperature.0 35.0 Temperature.0 35.0 35.0 25.0 35.0 .0 35. Temperature.0 34. Temperature.0 34.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 120 36.0 34.0 105 36.0 0 40.0 35.0 35. ˚C (Average) 26.0 34.0 45 36.RESULTS & CALCULATIONS Results for Part A Table 1: Data for experiment of Heat Capacity of Calorimeter Notation TEquilibrium t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 Results for Part B Table 2: Data for experiment of Heat of Neutralization of HCl-NaOH Time.0 75 36.
0 33.0 0 26.0 28.0 33.0 33.0 28.0 27.0 75 28.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 28.0 28.0 33.0 33. ˚C (Average) 27.0 10 33.5 26.0 28.5 26.0 26.0 33.0 15 28.0 28.0 28. Temperature.Notation THCl t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 Time.0 33.0 28.0 29.5 5 30.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.5 26.0 135 28.0 33.0 26.0 28.0 28.0 33.0 27.0 33.0 90 33.0 45 33.0 45 28.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 28.0 26.0 135 33.0 31.0 33.0 33.0 28.0 28.0 33.0 26.0 33.0 15 33.0 75 33.0 27. Temperature. s ˚C (1) ˚C (2) ˚C (3) ˚C (Average) 27.0 105 33.0 33.0 60 28. Temperature.0 28.0 Temperature.0 33.0 28.0 28.0 Results for Part C Table 3: Data for experiment of Heat of Neutralization of HC2H3O2–NaOH Notation THC2H3O2 t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 Time.5 5 28.0 28.0 28.0 .0 28.0 33.0 60 33.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 90 28.0 0 26.0 28.0 28.0 120 28.0 33.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 33.0 30 28.0 120 33.0 33.0 28.0 33.0 105 28.0 28. Temperature. Temperature.0 10 28.0 33.5 30. s ˚C (1) ˚C (2) ˚C (3) 27.0 30 33.0 29. Temperature. Temperature.0 33.0 33.
Other than that. . for instant. This is because. such as entered the laboratory not at the time or not punctual must not be happened. Then. Moreover.DISCUSSION The need to repeat the experiments or the readings of the temperature differently is required. Then. we can get the accurate readings by the average of the temperature readings. any unexpected behavior. do not play with the chemicals especially the things which is easy burning. And always practice the safety first that is required during the experiment and while we entered the laboratory. the delinquency. if there are any mistakes during the first experiment can be seen and will be corrected. students should not play and must be serious during the experiment.
2.5 ˚C – 26 ˚C ) x 50g x 4.18 J/K-g = 2403.14 J/K-g = ( 40 ˚C .18 J/K-g = 522.37.CONCLUSIONS Part A.5 J 26 ˚C 40 ˚C 39 ˚C 522. 3.5 J 5. Temperature of calorimeter and water before mixing Temperature of warm water Maximum temperature determined from the curve Heat lost by warm water = ( T2 – Tf ) x 50g x 4.5 J 6. 4. Heat Capacity of Calorimeter Determine ∆T from the curve and calculate: 1. Heat gained by cooler water = ( Tf – T1 ) x 50g x 4.18 J/ K-g = ( 37.5 J .5 ˚C) x 50g x 4. Heat gained by the calorimeter = ( heat lost by warmer water ) – ( heat gained by cooler water ) -1941 J 2403.
Heat gained by calorimeter the heat gained by the calorimeter .8 J/K Part B. is 1K x ( -168. 6.8 J/K -168. Heat capacity of calorimeter = heat gained by the calorimeter ( Tf – T1 ) = -1941___ ( 37.5 J + (-168.8 J/K) = -168.8 J 26.5 J – 2463.18 J/K-g = 418 J 4. 7. Heat of Neutralization of HCl-NaOH Determine ∆T from the curve and calculate: 1.8 J 5.5 – 26 ) = -168. Total joules released by reaction ( + ) 2403.0 M HO (show calculations) 0.= 522. where ∆T = 28 ˚C 1K x 100g x 4. Temperature of calorimeter and NaOH ∆T determined from curve after adding HCl to the NaOH Heat gained by solution the heat gained by the solution .5 ˚C 28 ˚C 418 J . 3.7 J -168. 2.5 J = -1941 J 7. where ∆T = 28 ˚C – 27 ˚C.05mol HCL No of moles = MV 1000 2234.8 J) = 2234 J Complete this reaction: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O The number of moles of HCl in 50 mL of 1.
= ( 1. 7. Joules released per mole of water formed = 2234.1 mol -506.4 5.0 M NaOH (show calculations): 0. 2.05 mol HCL x 1 mol H2O 1 mol HCL 9.05 mol HCL 8. 6.8 J/K ) = -506.05mol H2O Part C.0 m ) ( 50 ml ) 1000 = 0.5 J + (-168.7 J 0.5 ˚C 30 ˚C 1254 J . Total joules released by reaction ( + ) 2403.18 J/K-g = 1254 J 4.0 M NaOH (show calculations): No of moles = MV 1000 = (1. where ∆T = 30 ˚C – 27 ˚C 3K x 100g x 4. The number of moles of H2O produced in reaction of: 50 mL 1. Heat of Neutralization of HC2H3O2 –NaOH 1.0 M HC2H3O2 and 50 mL 1.4 J 26. where ∆T = 30 ˚C – 27 ˚C 3K x ( -168.0 M HCl and 50 mL 1.05mol = 45294 J/mol 45294 J/mol 0.8 J) = 2234 J Complete this reaction: HC2H3O2 + NaOH NaC2H3O2 + H2O The number of moles of H2O produced in reaction of: 50 mL 1.0M)(100mL) 1000 0. Temperature of calorimeter and NaOH ∆T determined from curve after adding HC2H3O2 to the NaOH Heat gained by solution The heat gained by the solution . Heat gained by calorimeter The heat gained by the solution . 3.
Joules released per mole of water formed = 2234.1 mol 8.7 J 0. we must make sure that the observation that cause errors during the experiment. Moreover. such as parallax erratum. did not happened.= 0.1 mol = 22347 J/mol 22347 J/mol RECOMMENDATION The recommendations of this experiment are the technique and apparatus should be improved. REFERENCES Eng Ngnang Heng / Focus Super Chemistry / 2007 Raymond Chang / Chemistry Ninth Edition / 2008 Douglas C Giancoli / Sixth Edition Physics / 2005 .
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