Training as a tool for increasing manpower productivity

Adhir Singhal Dy General Manager, ALTTC, BSNL

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Agenda

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Importance of Training Who Will Do the Training How Employees Learn Best Developing a Job Training Program Retraining Overcoming Obstacles to Learning

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‡ THERE IS NOTING TRAINING CAN NOT DO; NOTHNG IS ABOVE ITS REACH;IT CAN TURN BAD MORALS TO GOOD, IT CAN DESTROY BAD PRINCIPLES and CREATE GOOD ONES, IT CAN LIFT MEN TO ANGELSHIP. Mark Twain

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AND OF COURSE A PICTURE«

The training these days is just so high tech but still inefficient!

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DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY

³Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn´ - Benjamin Franklin

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The Workplace Skills Strategy 
Human capital is increasingly regarded as one of the major drivers of productivity, economic growth and competitive advantage.  Recognizing the importance of human capital, the training manpower sets out to generate:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ A skilled, adaptable, motivated and resilient workforce A flexible, efficient labour market A responsive strategy to meet employers needs for skilled workers A learned employee can retain customers and increase business & market share thro¶ proper behavior and good public relations
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As a demand-driven approach to human resource and skills development, the Training will build and strengthen relationships with and among workplace partners and better engage employers, unions to respond to the challenges of workplace skills development.

An organization is only as good as it¶s employees.
‡ In order for an organization to produce professional career minded employees an investment has to be made.

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What type of investment must an employer offer employees to gain this?
‡ An investment in training and education is a sure payoff.

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Trends in Proportions Viewing Skill Shortages as a µSerious Problem¶
70% 60% 50% 40%
30% 48% 55% 57% 60% 55% 58% 59% 61 %

1996
31 %

30% 20% 10% 0% Private Managers Public Managers Private Labour Public Labour

2002 c 20% 2005
1 6%

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Importance of Training Managers: Importance to overall business strategy Labour leaders: Importance to collective bargaining issues

50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% n o t/s lig tly im p o rta n t im p o rta n t ve ry im p o rta n t cru cia l 5% 9% 22% 29% 30% 25% m a n a g e rs la b o u r 44% 37%

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Examples of Training Investments Industry and government in the United States spend approximately $90 billion each year on employee training and education. Average Japanese companies spends about 6% of budget on training. Study of major automobile manufactures found U. S automakers spend about 40 hours training new employees compared to 300 hours for Japanese automakers. Motorola·s CEO required all divisions to spend at least 2% of budget on training. Over next 7 years, profits increased 47% and it was estimated that each $1.00 in training yielded $30.00 in return.
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TRAINING ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE

ALIGNED WITH OVERALL OBJECTIVE OF THE ORGANISATION,
WITH A MEANINGFUL EMPHASIS ON

VALUE ADDITION TO OUR HUMAN RESOURCES.

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Case Study in Training to Support Industry Standards
The British Health Service Project

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The British National Health Service
‡ 1.3 million employees needed basic IT skills training Main objectives: ‡ Address productivity issues ‡ Prevent resistance to change by preparing for it ‡ Effect a change of behaviour and change of attitude
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Factors to consider
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Training to benefit organisation Training to benefit employees Training to benefit the industry Provide a good return on investment?

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Results - Independent Survey
‡ 99% rated training experience as µvery¶ or µquite¶ worthwhile. ‡ 83% wanted to progress to further training ‡ 94% ³much more´ or ³more´ confident in use of ICT ‡ Positive attitude to new systems up from 30% to 74% ‡ Negative attitude to new systems down from 30% to 3%
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Return on Investment
Hours spent learning less than hours saved by use of new skills
H our
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& H our

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(

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8 6

Ho u r Ho u r S

r i

i l lli N r S rt Pri r

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Investment
‡ To invest properly, the employer must provide training as one of the needed tools for employees to get the job done.

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Why Training?
‡ The sharing of information through training is our most valuable tool to develop our most valuable asset«our employees.

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Once employees have proper ³tools´ in their toolbox
‡ They will come to work on a daily basis, with enthusiasm and the positive attitude to give a full days work for a full days pay.

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TRAININGS SHOULD AIM AT
‡ EMPOWERING THE EMPLOYEES ‡ INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY ‡ MAKING THE PROCESSES MORE EFFICENT AND EFFECTIVE so as to ENSURE ULTIMATE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IMPROVE THE OVERALL 21 PERFORMANCE OF THE ORGANISATION.

Importance of Training ± contd«
1. Respond to technology changes affecting job requirements. . Respond to organizational restructuring. . Adapt to increased diversity of the workforce. . upport career development. . Fulfill employee need for growth.

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Importance of Training and Development
‡ Maintain skill levels ‡ Advance skill and knowledge to improve
± Performance (efficiency) ± Service delivery (error rate) ± Profitability (productivity, manpower)

‡ Integrate new technologies into work ‡ Establish standards for work practices
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Benefits of Training Individuals
‡ Do job more efficiently ± learn new methods ‡ Professional approach to work, engaged in best practice routines ‡ Personal satisfaction ± felt valued ‡ Recognised qualification to add to CV

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The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales
‡ What Does Employee Training Do For Your Business?
± Keeps Good Employees ± Expands Your Offerings = Business ± Provides Better Customer Service ± Makes you MONEY!!
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The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ Keeps Good Employees
± No training program says to your employees:
‡ you¶re not worth it ‡ you can¶t be trained

± Training programs say:
‡ We value you enough to put some time (money!) into making you better! ‡ We value your thinking

³Employees don¶t quit companies, They quit bosses!´

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The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ³We¶re in this thing together´

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The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales
‡ Expands your offerings - your business:
± training = thinking ± training exposes employees to:
‡ ³how we do it´ = in-house training ‡ ³how others do it´ = outside training

± Well trained, thinking employees can provide a fresh outlook =
‡ new business opportunities ‡ better ways of doing things
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The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales
‡ Customer Service: Is it Selling or Marketing??
Selling: providing a product to customers for money Marketing: convincing customers they need the product

+

=
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The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales
‡ Better Customer Service:
± Direct Customer interaction changes as a business grows ± With a small business, the chance of interacting may be 100%

customer

owner

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The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales
‡ What are your employees saying to the customers?
I require«!!

We don¶t know

We can¶t help you We don¶t sell anything like that

customer
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The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales
‡ Good Employees ‡ Expanded Business ‡ Better Customer Service ‡ Makes you MONEY!!

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The Benefits of Training
‡ Gives the supervisor more time to manage, standardized performance, less absenteeism, less turnover, reduced tension, consistency, lower costs, more customers, better service ‡ Gives the workers confidence to do their jobs, reduces tension, boost morale and job satisfaction, reduces injuries and accidents, gives them a chance to advance. ‡ Gives the business a good image and more profit.
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Benefits of Training-a summary
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Improved customer service and public relations Fewer complaints Better morale and attitudes Less turnover and absenteeism More involved and caring employees Proactive vs. reactive employees

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‡ MANAGEMENT¶s ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS IS TO TRAIN PEOPLE FOR THEIR JOBS.

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Then why is training often neglected?
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Urgency of need Training time Costs Employee turnover Short-term worker Diversity of worker Kinds of jobs (simple-complex) Not knowing exactly what you want your people to do and how
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Attitudes to training
Individual: ‡ How is that related to what I do? ‡ ³I¶m good at my job and anyway, I have no time´ ‡ ³I suppose that¶s my weekends shot for months!´ ‡ ³Are they trying to get rid of me?´ Employer: ‡ How can I be sure the organisation will benefit? ‡ Training is so expensive ± how will I know if it has been effective? ‡ Will this effect the goal of developing and implementing standards and protocols for the organisation? ‡ ³If I train them, they¶ll 37 leave´

Our front-line employees are often ³good´ will ambassadors.
‡ Yet they are the ones who hold the most ³thankless´ job. Their role and their understanding of their role is the vital key towards their development and their ability to provide excellent customer service.

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Importance of Training Teaching people How to do Their Jobs:
‡ There are three kinds of training: Job Instruction, Retraining, and Orientation. ‡ The big sister/ big brother system is when a old hand dominates a newcomer. ‡ When good training is absent there is likely to be an atmosphere of tension, crisis, and conflict because nobody knows what to do.
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Training Process Model
II. Developing & Conducting Training

I. Needs Assessment

III. Evaluating Training
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I. Needs Assessment 1. Organizational Level 2. Job Level 3. Individual Level
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1. Organizational Level
‡ Technology change. ‡ Organizational restructuring. ‡ Change in workforce. ‡ Marketing Plans. ‡ Productivity measures
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2. Job Level
‡ Job and task analysis. ‡ Identify Key areas. ‡ Review procedural and technical manuals.
Design Training Program
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3. Individual Level
Determine who needs training and what kind.

‡ Tests. ‡ Prior training and experience. ‡ Performance review. ‡ Career assessment.
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II. Developing and Conducting Training
1. Determine location and who will conduct the training.
o Onsite facilities vs. offsite. o Inside training staff vs. outside vendors.

. Develop training curricula.
Based on job/task analysis and individual needs.

. elect training methods.
o Considering learning principles. o Consider appropriateness and cost.
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Developing a Unit Training Program
‡ This is taught in several sessions. ‡ It should provide check points to measure progress. ‡ Should include two elements: 1. Showing and telling the employee what to do. 2. Having the employee do it (right). ‡ Location should be ambient. ‡ Training materials should be the same as used on the job.
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Who will do the Training?
‡ The magic apron method: people train themselves the easiest ways to get the job done. ‡ The person that is leaving trains: teaches shortcuts and ways of breaking the rules. ‡ Big sister, big brother method: passes on bad habits and may resent new person as a competitor. ‡ The logical person to train new workers is The employer!
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How do Employees Learn the Best?
‡ Learning is the acquisition of skills, knowledge, or attitudes. ‡ The adult learning theory is a field of research that examines how adults learn. A number of the following tips come from the adult leaning theory.
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How employees learn the best:
‡ When they are actively involved in the learning process-(to do this choose a appropriate teaching method). ‡ Training is relevant and practical. ‡ Training material is organized and presented in chunks. ‡ Training is in an informal, quiet, and comfortable setting. ‡ When they have a good trainer. ‡ When they receive feedback on performance. ‡ When they are rewarded.

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How do Employees Learn the Best?

³Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn´ - Benjamin Franklin

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Kinds of training
‡ Informal ± on the job, ³phone a friend´ ‡ Formal ± ³attendance´ or ³completion´ ‡ Formal ± certified, vindicated
± Evidence of Return on Investment ± Must be planned ± Allows for customisation, relates to workplace standards
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Job Instruction Training (JIT)
‡ Also called on the job training. ‡ Consists of 4 steps: 1. Prepare the learner 2. Demonstrate the task 3. Have the worker do the task 4. Follow through: put the worker on the job, correcting and supporting as nessicary.
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Classroom Training Skills
‡ Be aware of appropriate body language and speech. ‡ Watch how you talk to employees. Covey respect and appreciation. ‡ Handle problem behaviors in an effective manner. ‡ Avoid time wasters. ‡ Facilitate employee participation and discussion. ‡ Use visual aids to avoid constantly referring to notes.
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DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY
MAKE IT FUN ± RULES FOR LEARNING: 1. ASK QUESTIONS  The only dumb questions are the ones you don¶t ask! 2. MAKE MISTAKES  Training is a great place to make mistakes. The you won¶t make as many at work in the li e en ironment!

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DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY
MAKE IT FUN ± RULES FOR LEARNING 3. HAVE FUN  This rule is ery important 4. CHEAT  Watch how other people do things or yell for help

Continued«

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Types ofof Training 3. Types Training
1. Skills Training. 2. Retraining. 3. CrossFunctional. 4. Team Training. 5. Creativity Training. 6. Literacy Training. 7. Diversity Training. 8. Customer Service.

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1. SKILLS TRAINING Focus on job knowledge and skill for: ‡ Instructing new hires. ‡ Overcoming performance deficits of the workforce.
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2. Retraining Maintaining worker knowledge and skill as job requirements change due to: ‡ Technological innovation ‡ Organizational restructuring
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3. Cross-Functional Training

Training employees to perform a wider variety of tasks in order to gain: ‡ Flexibility in work scheduling. ‡ Improved coordination.
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4. Team Training Training self-directed teams with regard to: ‡ Management skills. ‡ Coordination skills. ‡ Cross-functional skills.
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5. Creativity Training Using innovative learning techniques to enhance employee ability to spawn new ideas and new approaches.

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6. Literacy Training
Improving basic skills of the workforce such as mathematics, reading, writing, and effective employee behaviors such as punctuality, responsibility, cooperation,etc.
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7. Diversity Training
Instituting a variety of programs to instill awareness, tolerance, respect, and acceptance of persons of different race, gender, etc. and different backgrounds.
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8. Customer Service Training Training to improve communication, better response to customer needs, and ways to enhance customer satisfaction.

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Training Methods
Classroom Video

Computer Assisted Instruction Simulation On-the-Job
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1. Classroom Instruction
PROS CONS

‡ Efficient dissemination of large volume of information. ‡ Effective in explaining concepts, theories, and principles. ‡ Provides opportunity for discussion.

‡ Learner does not control pace or content ‡ Does not consider individual differences. ‡ Limited practice. ‡ Limited feedback. ‡ Limited transfer to job.
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2. Video and Film
PROS ‡ Provides realism. ‡ Adds interest. ‡ Allows scheduling flexibility. ‡ Allows exposure to hazardous events. ‡ Allows distribution to multiple sites. CONS ‡ Does not consider individual differences. ‡ Limited practice. ‡ Limited feedback. ‡ Adds additional cost. due to: * Script writers * Production specialists 67 * Camera crews

3. Computer Assisted Instruction
PROS CONS

‡ Efficient instruction. ‡ ‡ Considers individual ‡ differences. ‡ ‡ Allows scheduling flexibility. ‡ Allows active practice ‡ for some tasks. ‡ Allows learner control. ‡ Provides immediate feedback to tasks.

Limited in presenting theories and principles. Limited discussion. Transfer depends on particular job. (Good for computer work.) High development cost (40-60 hours per hour of instruction at approx Rs. 10,000 per hour.)
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5. Simulation
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ PROS Provides realism. ‡ Allows active practice. Provides immediate ‡ feedback. ‡ Allows exposure to hazardous events. High transfer to job. No job interference. Lowers trainee stress. CONS Cannot cover all job aspects. Limited number of trainees. Can be very expensive (for example, ´aircraft simulatorsµ and ´virtual realityµ simulators).

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6. On-The-Job Training
PROS

‡ Provides realism. ‡ Allows active practice. ‡ Provides immediate feedback. ‡ High motivation. ‡ High transfer to job. ‡ Lowers training cost.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

CONS Disruptions to operations. May damage equipment. Inconsistent across departments. Inadequate focus on underlying principles. Lack of systematic feedback. Transfer of improper procedures. Trainee stress.

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Overcoming Obstacles to Learning
‡ Reduce fear with a positive approach (convey confidence in the worker). ‡ Increase motivation: emphasize whatever is of value to the learner, make the program form a series of small successes, build in incentives and rewards. ‡ Limited abilities: adjust teaching to learners level. ‡ Laziness, indifference, resistance: May mean a problem worker. 71

Overcoming Obstacles to Learning
‡ Teaching not adapted to learners: Deal with people as they are (teach people not tasks), keep it simple, involve all the senses. ‡ Poor training program: revise to include objectives. ‡ Poor instructor: The trainer needs to know the job, be a good communicator + leader, sensitive, patient, helpful, etc.
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III. Evaluating Training Effectiveness
‡ Formal evaluation: uses observation, interviews, and surveys to monitor training while its going on. ‡ Summative evaluation: measures results when training is complete in five ways: 1. Reaction 2. Knowledge 3. Behavior 4. Attitudes 5.Productivity

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Types of Evaluation Designs
Train Measure

Post Test Only. Cannot tell if there is a change in knowledge or skill. Measure Train Measure

Pre-test with Post-test. Detects a change, but cannot tell if training was responsible.
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Types of Evaluation Designs
Measure Measure Train No Train Measure

Measure

Scientific Method: Training Group and Control Group. Compare performance of Training Group and Control Group after training. If Training Group has higher performance, it can be attributed to a training effect.
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IV. Transfer
Transfer refers to the trainee¶s application of knowledge and skills gained in training on the job. It is affected by:
‡ Relevance and effectiveness of the training ± readiness, practice, and feedback principles. ‡ Follow-up instruction and support. ‡ Reinforcement to use new knowledge and skills.

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