Job Satisfaction - Introduction

The father of scientific management Taylor's (1911) approach to job satisfaction was based on a most pragmatic & essentially pessimistic philosophy that man is motivation by money alone. That the workers are essentially 'stupid & phlegmatic' & that they would be satisfied with work if they get higher economic benefit from it. But with the passage of time Taylor's solely monetary approach has been changed to a more humanistic approach. It has come a long way from a simple explanation based on money to a more realistic but complex approach to job satisfaction. New dimensions of knowledge are added every day & with increasing understanding of new variables & their inter play, the field of job satisfaction has become difficult to comprehend. The term job satisfaction was brought to limelight by Hoppock (1935). He reviewed 32 studies on job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 & observed that job satisfaction is a combination of psychological, physiological & environmental circumstances that cause a person to say. 'I am satisfied with my job'. Locke defines job satisfaction as a "pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences". To the extent that a person's job fulfils his dominant need & is consistent with his expectations & values, the job will be satisfying.

Job Satisfaction - Theory
One way to define satisfaction may be to say that it is the end state of feeling. The word 'end' emphasises the fact that the feeling is experienced after a task is accomplished or an activity has taken place whether it is highly individualistic effort of writing a book or a collective endeavour of constructing a building. These activities may be minute or large. But in all cases, they satisfy a certain need. The feeling could be positive or negative depending upon whether need is satisfied or not & could be a function of the effort of the individual on one hand & on the other the situational opportunities available to him. This can be better understood by taking example of a foreman in an engineering industry. He has been assigned the task to complete a special order by a certain, deadline. Person

The two sets are unidirectional.Hygiene Theory : This theory was proposed by Herzberg & his assistants in 1969.may experience positive job satisfaction because he has been chosen to complete the task.group theory. Similarly.Hygiene theory. he established that there are two separate sets of conditions (and not one) which are responsible for the motivation & dissatisfaction of workers. that is. The same could be the sources of his dissatisfaction if he does not like rush work. (iii) Social reference . Theories of Job . (i) Herzberg's Motivation . On the basis of his study of 200 engineers and accountants of the Pittsburgh area in the USA. (ii) Need fulfilment theory. when another set of conditions (called hygiene factors) is absent in the organisation. called satisfaction. their effect can be seen in one direction only. It gives him a special status & feeling that he has been trusted and given a special task. he likes such kind of rush job and it may get him extra wages. the workers feel dissatisfied but its presence does not motivate them. When one set of conditions (called 'motivator') is present in the organisation. Each one of these variables lead to an end state of feeling. has no need for extra wages. Herzberg's Motivation . workers feel motivated but its absence does not dissatisfy them. Sinha (1974) defines job satisfaction an 'a reintegration of affect produced by individual's perception of fulfillment of his needs in relation to his work & the situations surrounding it'. . According to Herzberg following factors acts as motivators: • Achievement.Satisfaction : There are 3 major theories of job satisfaction.

• Personal life. • Possibility of growth. Hygiene factors are : • Company policy & administration. • Work itself. Herzberg used semi-structured interviews (the method is called critical incident method). • Working Conditions.• Recognition. In this technique subjects were asked to describe those events on the job which had made them extremely satisfied or dissatisfied. • Salary. . • Technical supervision. & • Responsibility. peers & Subordinates. Herzberg found that events which led people to extreme satisfaction were generally characterised by 'motivators' & those which led people to extreme dissatisfaction were generally characterized by a totally different set of factors which were called 'hygiene factors'. • Advancement. & • Status. • Job security. • Inter-personal relations with supervisors.

better education & prospects for children & desire for improving one's own work performance. In pleasant situations motivators appear more frequently than hygiene factors while their predominance is reversed in unpleasant situations.content factors. social achievement & for influence. Hence they are also known as job . the more satisfied he is when he gets it & the more dissatisfied he is when he does not get it. increased national prosperity. c) Need for influence : . they are also known as job . The theory postulated that motivators and hygiene factors are independent & absence of one does not mean presence of the other. Needs may be need for personal achievement. Hence.context factors.centered. a) Need for personal achievement : Desires for personal career development. Motivators are factors which result in psychological growth.environment or job . Need Fulfillment Theory : Under the need-fulfillment theory it is believed that a person is satisfied if he gets what he wants & the more he wants something or the more important it is to him. They are mostly job .Hygiene factors are those factors which remove pain from the environment. improvement in one's own life standards. b) Need for social achievement : A drive for some kind of collective success is relation to some standards of excellence. It is indexed in terms of desires to increase overall productivity. better life community & safety for everyone.

In the works situation. Such groups are defined as the 'reference-group' for the individual in that they define the way in which he should look at the world and evaluate various phenomena in the environment (including himself). attitude and job satisfaction : . Social References . we can say. according to this theory that if a job meets the interest. he will like it & if it does not. It would be predicted. desires and requirements of a person's reference group. thus provides strong evidence that such frames of reference for evaluation may be provided by one's social groups and general social environment.L. He measures the effects of community characteristics on job satisfaction of female clerical workers employed in 300 different catalogue order offices. it means to have power status & being important as reflected in initiative taking and participation in decision making. He found that with job conditions held constant job satisfaction was less among persons living in a well-to-do neighborhood than among those whose neighborhood was poor.A desire to influence other people & surroundings environment. A good example of this theory has been given by C. To sum up. In summary. or is positively related to the degree to which one's personal & social needs are fulfilled in the job situation.Group Theory : It takes into account the point of view & opinions of the group to whom the individual looks for the guidance. Relationship among motivation. this theory tell us that job satisfaction is a function of. Hulin. Job satisfaction is a function of or is positively related to the degree to which the characteristics of the job meet with approved & the desires of the group to which the individual looks for guidance in evaluating the world & defining social reality. Hulin. he will not like it.

In this respect. e) actually promote the interest of the organization and f) are satisfied with their job. However a closer analysis may reveal that perhaps. implies a positive emotional state which may be totally unrelated to productivity. Job satisfaction. b) want to remain with organization. they measure two different anchor points. Similarly in the literature the terms job attitude and job satisfaction are used interchangeably. They are precursors to behaviour & determine its intensity and direction. Satisfaction. According to this description of morale. c) act effectively in crisis. Attitudes are predispositions that make the individual behave in a characteristic way across the situations. morale is a condition which exists in a context where people are : a) motivated towards high productivity. on the other hand. d) accept necessary changes without resentment or resistance. But if we freeze behaviour. Relationship Between Morale & Job Satisfaction : According to Seashore (1959). on the other hand is an end state of feeling which may influence subsequent behaviour. A person may be talented and equipped with all kinds of abilities & skills but may have no will to work. job attitude and job satisfaction may have something in common. attitude would initiate it which job satisfaction would result from it. .Motivation implies the willingness to work or produce. job satisfaction is an important dimension of morale itself.

On the other hand. adjustments. the level of job satisfaction seems to have some relation with various aspects of work behaviour like absenteeism. incorrect or uncontrolled event in which either his action or the reaction of an object or person may result in personal injury. it is not quite clear whether these relationships are correlative or casual. In other words. An individual is satisfied with his job to the extent that his job provides him with what he desires. Job satisfaction is closely affected by the amount of rewards that an individual derives from his job. Relationship Between job satisfaction and work behaviour : Generally. accidents. Job satisfaction and productivity : Experiments have shown that there is very little positive relationship between the job satisfaction & job performance of an individual. job satisfaction refers to a general attitude towards work by an individual works.Morale is a general attitude of the worker and relates to group while job satisfaction is an individual feeling which could be caused by a variety of factors including group. In other words. It should be ensured that the poor . and he performs effectively in his job to the extent that effective performance leads to the attainment of what he desires. This means that instead of maximizing satisfaction generally an organisation should be more concerned about maximizing the positive relationship between performance and reward. whether work behaviour make him more positively inclined to his job and there would be a lesser probability of getting to an unexpected. morale is group phenomenon which emerges as a result of adherence to group goals and confidence in the desirability of these goals. productivity and union recognition. while his level of performance is closely affected by the basis for attainment of rewards. This point has been summarized by Sinha (1974) when he suggests that industrial morale is a collective phenomenon and job satisfaction is a distributed one. Although several studies have shown varying degrees of relationship between them and job satisfaction. This is because the two are caused by quite different factors.

Few attempts are made by the organization to retain them. Job Satisfaction and absenteeism : One can find a consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism. it is likely to affect his work life. So. Organizations that provide liberal sick leave benefits are encouraging all their Sales Persons.performers do not get more rewards than the good performers. Yet. again. e. Just the opposite tends to apply to poor performers.g. other factors such as labour market conditions. that job satisfaction is more important in influencing poor performers to stay than superior performers. While it certainly makes sense that dissatisfied Sales Persons are more likely to miss work. but the correlation is stronger than what we found for absenteeism. most psychologists and . therefore. outside factors can act to reduce the correlation. and length of tenure with the organization are important constraints on the actual decision to leave one's current job. when a better performer gets more rewards he will naturally feel more satisfied. expectations about alternative job opportunities. other factors have an impact on the relationship and reduce the correlation coefficient. Thus. Although it is difficult to define adjustment. to take days off. but the correlation is moderate-usually less than 0. Specifically. Evidence indicates that an important moderator of the satisfaction-turnover relationship is the Sales Person's level of performance. Job Satisfaction and Turnover : Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover. So one could expect. level of satisfaction is less important in predicting turnover for superior performers because the organization typically makes considerable efforts to keep these people.40. including those who are highly satisfied. Job Satisfaction and Adjustment : It the Sales Person is facing problems in general adjustment.

has a little more clearer base. Anxiety usually shows itself in such mental state as depression. It is generally seen as a mental state of vague fear and apprehension which influences the mode of thinking. Adjustment problems usually show themselves in the level of job satisfaction. Determinants of Job Satisfaction : According to Abrahan A. on the other hand. emotional stress. job tensions. impulsiveness. there are two types of variables which determine the job satisfaction of an individual. People with lower level of anxiety and low neuroticism have been found to be more satisfied with their jobs. Most literature. and 2) Personal Variables. While everyone aspires for a perfect state of peace and tranquility. excessive worry and nervousness. it is very difficult to know what causes. anxiety or any such sources could be a source of neuroticism. Korman. Organisational Variable : . both theorists and practitioners have been concerned with Sales Persons' adjustment and have provided vocational guidance and training to them to minimise it's impact on work behaviour. For long.organisational behaviourists have been able to narrow it down to what they call neuroticism and anxiety. Family tensions. social isolation. fear. Though it may be easy to identify symptoms of neuroticism. Anxiety. generally suggests a positive relationship between adjustment and job satisfaction. These are : 1) Organisational variables . the fact is that some anxiety is almost necessary for an individual to be effective because it provides the necessary push for efforts to achieve excellence. in this area. Generally deviation from socially expected behaviour has come to be identified as neurotic behaviour.

and (c) It facilitates the achievements of goals. 4) Pay and Promotional Opportunities : All other things being equal these two variables are positively related to job satisfaction.1) Occupational Level : The higher the level of the job. This is because higher level jobs carry greater prestige and self control. (b) It results in being accepted by others . 3) Considerate Leadership : People like to be treated with consideration. Personal Variables : . 2) Job Content : Greater the variation in job content and the less repetitiveness with which the tasks must be performed. Since this permits the ready calculability of the others behaviour and constitutes a validation of one's self . Hence considerate leadership results in higher job satisfaction than inconsiderate leadership. 5) Interaction in the work group : Here the question is : When is interaction in the work group a source of job satisfaction and when it is not ? Interaction is most satisfying when (a) It results in the cognition that other person's attitudes are similar to one's own. the greater is the satisfaction of the individual. the greater is the satisfaction of the individual involved.

sex. it appears most jobs will be dissatisfying irrespective of the organisational condition involved. holding such factors as occupational level constant. educational level. seems to indicate that there is generally a positive relationship between the two variales up to the pre-retirement years and then there is a sharp decrease in satisfaction. . An individual aspires for better and more prestigious jobs in later years of his life. considering the generally low occupational aspiration of women. the higher the reference group which the individual looks to for guidance to evaluate his job rewards. etc. (4) Sex : There is as yet no consistent evidence as to whether women are more satisfied with their jobs than men. One might predict this to be the case. Job satisfaction is determined by this factor also. The higher the education. holding such factors as job and occupational level constant. (1) Age : Most of the evidence on the relation between age and job satisfaction. (3) Role Perception : Different individuals hold different perceptions about their role. the greater his satisfaction. are responsible for this difference. i. the kind of activities and behaviours they should engage in to perform there job successfully. (2) Educational Level : With occupational level held constant there is a negative relationship between the educational level and job satisfaction. Personal variables like age. whereas for others. The more accurate the role perception of an individual.For some people. Finding his channels for advancement blocked. his satisfaction declines.e. most jobs will be satisfying.

Includes looking for a new position as well as resigning. or shirk a part of their work responsibilities. For example. Active Exit Destructive neglect loyalty Passive Voice Constructive . How Sales Persons Can Express Dissatisfaction Sales Person dissatisfaction can be expressed in a number of ways. rather than quit. In the following figure.Some other determines of job satisfaction are as follows: (i) General Working Conditions. (iii) Fair evaluation of work done. (v) Company prestige. (iv) Job security. steal organisational property. (ii) Grievance handling procedure. four responses are given along to dimensions : Constructiveness / Destructiveness and Activity / Passivity. be insubordinate. Sales Persons can complain. These are defined as follow : Exit : Behaviour directed towards leaving the organisation. (vi) Working hours etc.

and (3) Satisfaction on the job carries over to the Sales Person's life outside the job. Exit and neglect behaviours encompass our performances variables-productivity. (2) It has been demonstrated that satisfied Sales Persons have better health and live longer . . discussing problems with superiors. Managers should be concerned with the level of job satisfaction in their organisations for at least three reasons: (1) There is clear evidence that dissatisfied Sales Persons skip work more often and are more likely to resign . Includes chronic absenteeism or lateness. Satisfied Sales Persons have lower rate of both turnover and absenteeism. Neglect : Passively allowing the conditions to worsen. and some forms of union activity. absenteeism and turnover. Although satisfaction and absence are also negatively related. and increased error rate. constructive behaviours that allow individuals to tolerate unpleasant situations or to revive satisfactory working conditions.Voice : Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions includes suggesting improvements. The importance of high job satisfaction : The importance of job satisfaction is obvious. Includes speaking up for the organisation in the face of external criticism and trusting the organisation and its management to 'do the right thing'. Loyalty : Passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. But this model expands Sales Person response to include voice and loyalty. conclusions regarding the relationship should be more guarded. reduced effort. satisfaction is strongly and consistently negatively related to an Sales Person's decision to leave the organisation. Specifically.

there are benefits for society in general. absenteeism. a satisfied work force translates into higher productivity due to fewer disruptions caused by absenteeism or good Sales Persons quitting. Several studies have shown that Sales Persons who are dissatisfied with their jobs are prone to health setbacks ranging from headaches to heart disease. Satisfaction on the job carries over to the Sales Person's off the job hours. it improves their lives off the job. For managers. These people will hold a more positive attitude towards life in general and make for a society of more psychologically healthy people. Job satisfaction's importance is its spin off effect that job satisfaction has for society as a whole. For management. Additionally. When Sales Persons are happy with their jobs. the goal of a satisfied work force might be jutificable because it would reduced medical costs and the premature loss of valued Sales Persons by way of heart disease or strokes. Adjustment & How Sales Persons Can Express Dissatisfaction Pages : 73 . Satisfied Sales Persons are more likely to be satisfied citizens. this means that even if satisfaction did not lead to less voluntary turn over and absence. Project Description : Title : Project Report on Job Satisfaction of Employees Project Description : MBA Project Report on Job Satisfaction of Employees Theory of Job Satisfaction. Relationship Between job satisfaction and work behaviour. the dissatisfied Sales Person carries that negative attitude home. So job satisfaction is very important. Some benefits of job satisfaction accure to every citizen in society. Turnover. So the goal of high job satisfaction for Sales Persons can be defended in terms of both money and social responsibility.An often overlooked dimension of job satisfaction is its relationship to Sales Person health. In contrast. productivity. as well as into lower medical and life insurance costs.

Category : Project Report for MBA .

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