GCE Ordinary Level (Syllabus 4038) CONTENTS
Page

GCE ORDINARY LEVEL MATHEMATICS 4038 MATHEMATICAL FORMULAE MATHEMATICAL NOTATION

1 8 9

recognise and use connections among mathematical ideas. 3. develop the mathematical thinking and problem solving skills and apply these skills to formulate and solve problems. 8. 1 . and to learn cooperatively and independently.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS O LEVEL (2012) ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS GCE Ordinary Level (Syllabus 4038) AIMS The syllabus is intended to prepare students adequately for A Level H2 Mathematics and H3 Mathematics. The O Level Additional Mathematics syllabus assumes knowledge of O Level Mathematics. make effective use of a variety of mathematical tools (including information and communication technology tools) in the learning and application of mathematics. develop positive attitudes towards mathematics. 7. 5. The general aims of the mathematics syllabuses are to enable students to: 1. to communicate mathematically. produce imaginative and creative work arising from mathematical ideas. 6. and between mathematics and other disciplines. acquire the necessary mathematical concepts and skills for continuous learning in mathematics and related disciplines. 2. develop the abilities to reason logically. and for applications to the real world. 4. develop the necessary process skills for the acquisition and application of mathematical concepts and skills. where a strong foundation in algebraic manipulation skills and mathematical reasoning skills are required.

including manipulation of algebraic expressions. and proofs. solve higher order thinking problems. interpret mathematical results and make inferences. organise and analyse data and information.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS O LEVEL (2012) ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES The assessment will test candidates’ abilities to: AO1 AO2 understand and use mathematical concepts and skills in a variety of contexts. AO3 2 . formulate problems into mathematical terms and select and apply appropriate techniques of solution. arguments. reason and communicate mathematically through writing mathematical explanation.

Angles in degrees should be given to one decimal place.m. 3. the calculator value for π or π = 3. by 15 15.15 a. In the 24-hour clock.g. Candidates are required to answer all questions.m. 5. 8. 4. 5 m/s for 5 metres per second. 3. e. Unless the question requires the answer in terms of π. Both the 12-hour and 24-hour clock may be used for quoting times of the day. 3. 7. Unless stated otherwise within a question. three-figure accuracy will be required for answers. Relevant mathematical formulae will be provided for candidates. 3 . 2.15 p. Candidates are expected to be familiar with the solidus notation for the expression of compound units. Some questions may integrate ideas from more than one topic of the syllabus where applicable. SI units will be used in questions involving mass and measures. 100 56% NOTES 1. for example. Scientific calculators are allowed in both Paper 1 and Paper 2. 6.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS O LEVEL (2012) SCHEME OF ASSESSMENT Paper Duration Description Marks Weighting Paper 1 2h There will be 11–13 questions of varying marks and lengths testing more on the fundamental skills and concepts. Candidates are required to answer all questions. noon by 12 00 and midnight by 24 00.142 should be used. will be denoted by 03 15. 80 44% Paper 2 2½ h There will be 9–11 questions of varying marks and lengths. Omission of essential working will result in loss of marks.

1 Algebra Quadratic equations and inequalities Include: conditions for a quadratic equation to have: (i) two real roots (ii) two equal roots (iii) no real roots and related conditions for a given line to: (i) intersect a given curve (ii) be a tangent to a given curve (iii) not intersect a given curve • solution of quadratic inequalities. and the representation of the solution set on the number line • conditions for ax 2 + bx + c to be always positive (or always negative) • relationships between the roots and coefficients of the quadratic equation ax 2 +bx+c = 0 • Content 1. by substitution • expressing a pair of linear equations in matrix form and solving the equations by inverse matrix method • 1. but it may be required indirectly in response to questions on other topics. Topic/Sub-topics 1 1.3 Polynomials 1.4 Simultaneous equations in two unknowns 1.2 Indices and surds Include: • four operations on indices and surds • rationalising the denominator • solving equations involving indices and surds Include: • multiplication and division of polynomials • use of remainder and factor theorems • factorisation of polynomials • solving cubic equations Include: solving simultaneous equations with at least one linear equation.5 Partial fractions Include cases where the denominator is no more complicated than: (ax + b)(cx + d ) • • • (ax + b)(cx + d )2 (ax + b)( x 2 + c 2 ) 4 .4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS O LEVEL (2012) CONTENT OUTLINE Knowledge of the content of the O Level Mathematics syllabus is assumed in the syllabus below and will not be tested directly.

quadratic or trigonometric solving simple equations involving exponential. y = a sin  x  + c. logarithmic and modulus functions 1. cosA = cotA. y = a cos  x  + c and y = a tan(bx).   b where a and b are positive integers and c is an integer • use of the following ∗ sinA = tanA. identities and equations Include: six trigonometric functions for angles of any magnitude (in degrees or radians) • principal values of sin−1 x. cos( A ± B ) and tan( A ± B ) the formulae for sin2A . log a x . 60°) or ( π .   b • y = a cos(bx) + c. cosA sinA sec2A = 1 + tan2A. cosec2A = 1 + cot2A ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ the expansions of sin( A ± B ) . π ) 6 4 3 • amplitude.6 Binomial expansions Content Include: • use of the Binomial Theorem for positive integer n n • use of the notations n ! and   r   n  n −r r • use of the general term   a b .1 Geometry and Trigonometry Trigonometric functions.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS O LEVEL (2012) Topic/Sub-topics 1. tan−1 x • exact values of the trigonometric functions for special angles (30°. π . In x and their graphs laws of logarithms equivalence of y = a x and x = log a y change of base of logarithms function x and graph of f( x ) . 45°. periodicity and symmetries related to the sine and cosine functions • graphs of y = a sin(bx) + c. e x . logarithmic and modulus functions • • • • • • 2 2. cos2A and tan2A the formulae for sinA ± sinB and cosA ± cosB the expression for a cosθ + b sinθ in the form R cos(θ ± α ) or R sin(θ ± α ) 5 .7 Exponential. where f( x ) is linear.0<rYn r  Exclude: • proof of the theorem • knowledge of the greatest term and properties of the coefficients Include: functions a x . sin2A + cos2A = 1. cos−1 x.

intersecting chords theorem and tangent-secant theorem for circles • use of above properties and theorems • 3 3.3 Proofs in plane geometry Include: symmetry and angle properties of triangles. ex and ln x. tan x.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS O LEVEL (2012) Topic/Sub-topics • • • Content simplification of trigonometric expressions solution of simple trigonometric equations in a given interval proofs of simple trigonometric identities Exclude general solution of trigonometric equations 2. special quadrilaterals and circles♦ • mid-point theorem and intercept theorem for triangles • tangent-chord theorem (alternate segment theorem). dy . cos x.2 Coordinate geometry in two dimensions Include: condition for two lines to be parallel or perpendicular mid-point of line segment finding the area of rectilinear figure given its vertices graphs of equations ∗ y = axn. sin x. for any rational n. to linear form to determine the unknown constants from the straight line graph • • • • Exclude: • finding the equation of the circle passing through three given points • intersection of two circles 2. f′′(x). d y [= d ( dy )] d x dx 2 d x dx • • • • • • derivatives of xn. sums and differences derivatives of composite functions derivatives of products and quotients of functions increasing and decreasing functions stationary points (maximum and minimum turning points and stationary points of inflexion) ♦ These are properties learnt in O Level Mathematics. 6 . together with constant multiples.1 Calculus Differentiation and integration Include: derivative of f(x) as the gradient of the tangent to the graph of y = f(x) at a point • derivative as rate of change 2 • use of standard notations f′(x). where n is a simple rational number ∗ y2 = kx • coordinate geometry of the circle with the equation ( x − a)2 + ( y − b)2 = r 2 and x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 • transformation of given relationships. including y = axn and y = kbx.

together with constant multiples. sec2 x and ex. velocity and acceleration of a particle moving in a straight line with variable or constant acceleration Exclude: • differentiation of functions defined implicitly and parametrically • finding the area of a region between a curve and an oblique line. or between two curves • use of formulae for motion with constant acceleration 7 . sin x.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS O LEVEL (2012) Topic/Sub-topics • • • • • • • • • • Content use of second derivative test to discriminate between maxima and minima applying differentiation to gradients. sums and differences integration of (ax + b)n for any rational n. connected rates of change and maxima and minima problems integration as the reverse of differentiation integration of xn for any rational n. sin(ax + b). cos x. tangents and normals. cos(ax +b) and e(ax + b) definite integral as area under a curve evaluation of definite integrals finding the area of a region bounded by a curve and lines parallel to the coordinate axes finding areas of regions below the x-axis application of differentiation and integration to problems involving displacement.

where n is a positive integer and n  = r   n(n _ 1). ALGEBRA Quadratic Equation For the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 x= _ b ± b2 _ 4ac 2a n n _ r a br r   Binomial expansion (a + b)n = an +   n n _1 n _ a b +   a n 2b2 1  2     +..(n _ r +1) n! _ r )! = r! r !(n 2.4038 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS O LEVEL (2012) MATHEMATICAL FORMULAE 1. Identities TRIGONOMETRY sin 2 A + cos2 A =1 sec2 A =1+ tan 2 A cosec2 A =1+ cot 2 A sin( A ± B) = sinA cosB ± cosA sinB cos( A ± B) = cosA cosB m sinA sinB tan( A ± B) = tanA ± tanB 1 m tanA tanB sin2 A = 2sinA cosA cos2 A = cos2 A _ sin 2 A = 2cos2 A _ 1 =1 _ 2sin 2 A 2tan tan2 A = _ A 1 tan 2 A sinA + sinB = 2sin 1 ( A + B)cos 1 ( A _ B) 2 2 sinA _ sinB = 2cos 1 ( A + B)sin 1 ( A _ B) 2 2 1 ( A + B)cos 1 ( A _ B) cosA + cosB = 2cos 2 2 cosA _ cosB = _ 2sin 1 ( A + B)sin 1 ( A _ B) 2 2 Formulae for ∆ABC a = b = c sinA sinB sinC a2 = b2 + c2 _ 2bc cosA ∆ = 1 ab sinC 2 8 .........+  +…+ bn .......

±3. …} the set of rational numbers the set of positive rational numbers. {x ∈ »: x ğ 0} the set of real numbers the set of positive real numbers. {x ∈ »: x > 0} the set of positive real numbers and zero. to examinations at all other levels. where relevant. Set Notation ∈ ∉ is an element of is not an element of the set with elements x1. 2. the set of all x such that the number of elements in set A the empty set universal set the complement of the set A the set of integers. {x ∈ »: x=ğ 0} the real n tuples the set of complex numbers is a subset of is a proper subset of is not a subset of is not a proper subset of ∪ ∩ union intersection the closed interval {x ∈»: a Y x Y b} the interval {x ∈»: a Y x < b} the interval {x ∈»: a < x Y b} the open interval {x ∈»: a < x < b} {x1. b) (a. x2. 1. {1. ±2. {x ∈ »: x > 0} the set of positive rational numbers and zero. …} the set of positive integers. b) 9 . x2. Although primarily directed towards A Level. {0. b] (a.MATHEMATICAL NOTATION MATHEMATICAL NOTATION The list which follows summarises the notation used in the Syndicate’s Mathematics examinations. the list also applies. ±1. 3. …} {x: …} n(A) ∅ … A′ » » + » » » » » + + »0 n + + »0 `= ⊆ ⊂ [a. b] [a.

for n. is not less than infinity ∞ 3. a/b ∑a i =1 n a1 + a2 + . — > [.. a:b a plus b a minus b a multiplied by b a divided by b the ratio of a to b i a b . ab.(n − r + 1) . + an the positive square root of the real number a the modulus of the real number a √a a n! n factorial for n ∈ »+ U {0}. 0 Y r Y n r! (n − r )! n(n − 1).. r ∈ »+U {0} r! 10 .MATHEMATICAL NOTATION 2.b a ÷ b. Operations a+b a–b a × b.. is not greater than is greater than is greater than or equal to. – is equal to is not equal to is identical to or is congruent to is approximately equal to is proportional to is less than is less than or equal to. Miscellaneous Symbols = ≠ ≡ ≈ ∝ < Y. for n ∈ ». r ∈ »+ U {0}. a. (0! = 1) the binomial coefficient n   r n! ..

…. cos–1. gf –1 function f the value of the function f at x f is a function under which each element of set A has an image in set B the function f maps the element x to the element y the inverse of the function f the composite function of f and g which is defined by (g o f)(x) or gf(x) = g(f(x)) the limit of f(x) as x tends to a an increment of x the derivative of y with respect to x the nth derivative of y with respect to x the first. sec. cosec. second. cot–1 } the circular functions } the inverse circular functions 11 . second. exp x log a x ln x lg x x base of natural logarithms exponential function of x logarithm to the base a of x natural logarithm of x logarithm of x to base 10 6. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions e e . tan–1 cosec–1. tan. Functions f f(x) f: A →B f: x y f g o f. f(n)(x) ∫ ydx ∫ ydx b a & x x . cot sin–1. f′′(x). … 5. … nth derivatives of f(x) with respect to x indefinite integral of y with respect to x the definite integral of y with respect to x for values of x between a and b the first. && . sec–1. δx dy dx dn y dx n f'(x). …derivatives of x with respect to time lim f(x) x→ a ∆x . Circular Functions and Relations sin.MATHEMATICAL NOTATION 4. cos.

Re (x + iy) = x the imaginary part of z. Matrices the real part of z. (x + iy)* = x – iy M M–1 M T a matrix M the inverse of the square matrix M the transpose of the matrix M the determinant of the square matrix M det M 9. Im (x + iy) = y the modulus of z. Complex Numbers i z square root of –1 a complex number. arg(r(cos θ + i sin θ )) = θ .MATHEMATICAL NOTATION 7. z = x + iy + = r(cos θ + i sin θ ). x + iy = √(x2 + y2).b aP b 12 . j. r (cosθ + i sinθ ) = r the argument of z. r ∈» 0 Re z Im z z arg z z* 8. –π < θ Ğ π the complex conjugate of z. Vectors a AB â the vector a the vector represented in magnitude and direction by the directed line segment AB a unit vector in the direction of the vector a unit vectors in the directions of the cartesian coordinate axes the magnitude of a the magnitude of AB the scalar product of a and b the vector product of a and b i. r ∈» 0 + = reiθ. k a AB a.

B. parameters n and p Poisson distribution. G(x)… E(X) E[g(X)] Var(X) B(n. R. f 2 . 1) corresponding cumulative distribution function linear product-moment correlation coefficient for a population linear product-moment correlation coefficient for a sample 13 . the event ‘not A’ probability of the event A given the event B random variables value of the random variables X. A∪B A∩B P(A) A' P(A | B) X. Probability and Statistics A. etc. events union of events A and B intersection of the events A and B probability of the event A complement of the event A. p 2 … the value of the probability function P(X = x) of the discrete random variable X probabilities of the values x1 .MATHEMATICAL NOTATION 10. C.… x2 …occur p(x) p1 . p) Po(µ) N(µ. σ ) µ σ σ 2 2 the value of the probability density function of the continuous random variable X the value of the (cumulative) distribution function P(X Y x) of the random variable X expectation of the random variable X expectation of g(X) variance of the random variable X binominal distribution. R. etc. etc. y. x 2 . x1 . Y. 2 x s2 s2 = 1 2 ∑( x − x ) n −1 φ Φ ρ r probability density function of the standardised normal variable with distribution N (0. Y. g(x)… F(x). mean µ normal distribution. mean µ and variance σ population mean population variance population standard deviation sample mean unbiased estimate of population variance from a sample. …of the discrete random variable X f(x). x1. r. x 2 . … f1 . etc. observations frequencies with which the observations. x.