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Functional elements of GIS Data input: bringing data in the GIS environment.

. Data manipulation: allowing alteration of primary data. Data output: moving data (or analysis results) out of the GIS. Data management: controlling access to data and ensuring data integrity and storage efficiency. Data retrieval: calling data from a stored format into use. Data display: visualising primary or derived data. Data analysis and modelling: gathering insights into relationships in the data, and modelling spatial phenomena.

What are the functional elements of GIS? Explain. There are five functional elements of GIS acting as a continuous process andguiding principle for the analyst to develop an end to end model, which are as follows: Data Acquisition :It is the process of identifying and gathering the datarequired for application which involves a number ofprocedures to gather new data by preparing scaledmaps. Preprocessing : It is the manipulation of data in several ways so that it may be entered into GIS. Two of the principal tasks of preprocessing include: y data format conversion and identifying the locations of objects in the original data in a systematic way. y to establish a consistent system for recording and specifying the locations of objects in the datasets. Data Management :It governs the creation of, and access to, the database itself. It provides consistent methods for data entry, update, deletion, retrieval, and security. Manipulation & Analysis:It focuses on system analytical operators that work

with database contents to derive new information. It is often related with geo-processing. Product Generation :It is the phase where final outputs from the GIS arecreated, which include statistical reports, maps, andgraphics of various kinds. These products may be softcopy or hard copy.