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ON

IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM

AND

FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS

SUBMITTED TO :- SUBMITTED BY:-

DR. KARMPAL SIR PRAMOD LEGA

SONU SAINI

RUCHIKA RA1PAL

ROHTASH

A1IT

KUSUM LATA

PINKY

Meaning

Research is an endeavour to discover answers to intellectual and practical

problems through the application of scientific method.

~Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge.

-Redman and Mory.

Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information

(data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about

which we are concerned or interested.

Objectives of Research

The purpose of research is to discover answers through the application of

scientific procedures.

The objectives are:

To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it -

Exploratory or Formulative Research.

To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual. situation

or a group - Descriptive Research.

To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is

associated with something else - Diagnostic Research.

To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables - Hypothesis-

Testing Research.

RESEARCH PROCESS RESEARCH PROCESS

Define

Research

Problem

Review

Concepts

And

theories

Review

Previous

Research

findings

Formulate

hypothesis

Design

Research

(Including

Sample

Design)

Collect

Data

(Execution)

Analyse

Data

(Test

Hypothesis

if any)

Interpret

and

report

FF

F

F F

FF

I

II

III IV V

VI VII

F

FF

Feed Back

Feed Forward

Review the literature

I1I1^1I1O^ I1I1^1I1O^

OI I11 OI I11

)1^1/)(1 ))O1^ )1^1/)(1 ))O1^

RESEARCH PROBLEM RESEARCH PROBLEM

What is a research problem? What is a research problem?

%he term problem` means a question or issue to be %he term problem` means a question or issue to be

examined. examined.

Research Problem reIers to some diIIiculty /need Research Problem reIers to some diIIiculty /need

which a researcher experiences in the context oI either which a researcher experiences in the context oI either

theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a

solution Ior the same. solution Ior the same.

HOW DO WE KNOW WE HAVE A HOW DO WE KNOW WE HAVE A

RESEARCH PROBLEM? RESEARCH PROBLEM?

ustomer complaints ustomer complaints

onversation with company employees onversation with company employees

Observation oI inappropriate behaviour or conditions Observation oI inappropriate behaviour or conditions

in the Iirm in the Iirm

Deviation Irom the business plan Deviation Irom the business plan

Success oI the Iirm`s competitor`s Success oI the Iirm`s competitor`s

Relevant reading oI published material (trends, Relevant reading oI published material (trends,

regulations) regulations)

ompany records and reports ompany records and reports

%he Iirst step in the research process %he Iirst step in the research process deIinition deIinition

oI the problem oI the problem involves two activities: involves two activities:

IdentiIication / Selection oI the Problem IdentiIication / Selection oI the Problem

Formulation oI the Problem Formulation oI the Problem

IDENTIFICATION / SELECTION OF THE IDENTIFICATION / SELECTION OF THE

RESEARCH PROBLEM RESEARCH PROBLEM

%his step involves identiIication oI a Iew %his step involves identiIication oI a Iew

problems and selection oI one out oI them, aIter problems and selection oI one out oI them, aIter

evaluating the alternatives against certain selection evaluating the alternatives against certain selection

criteria. criteria.

SOURCES OF PROBLEMS SOURCES OF PROBLEMS

Reading Reading

Academic Experience Academic Experience

Daily Experience Daily Experience

Exposure to Field Situations Exposure to Field Situations

onsultations onsultations

Brainstorming Brainstorming

Research Research

Intuition Intuition

CRITERIA OF SELECTION CRITERIA OF SELECTION

%he selection oI one appropriate researchable %he selection oI one appropriate researchable

problem out oI the identiIied problems requires problem out oI the identiIied problems requires

evaluation oI those alternatives against certain evaluation oI those alternatives against certain

criteria. %hey are: criteria. %hey are:

Internal / Personal criteria Internal / Personal criteria Researcher`s Interest, Researcher`s Interest,

Researcher`s ompetence, Researcher`s own Researcher`s ompetence, Researcher`s own

Resource: Iinance and time. Resource: Iinance and time.

External riteria or Factors External riteria or Factors Researchability oI the Researchability oI the

problem, Importance and Urgency, Novelty oI the problem, Importance and Urgency, Novelty oI the

Problem, Feasibility, Facilities, UseIulness and Social Problem, Feasibility, Facilities, UseIulness and Social

Relevance, Research Personnel. Relevance, Research Personnel.

DEFINITION / FORMULATION OF THE DEFINITION / FORMULATION OF THE

RESEARCH PROBLEM RESEARCH PROBLEM

Formulation is the process oI reIining the research Formulation is the process oI reIining the research

ideas into research questions and obiectives. ideas into research questions and obiectives.

Formulation means translating and transIorming the Formulation means translating and transIorming the

selected research problem/topic/idea into a selected research problem/topic/idea into a

scientiIically researchable question. It is concerned scientiIically researchable question. It is concerned

with speciIying exactly what the research problem is. with speciIying exactly what the research problem is.

Problem deIinition or Problem statement is a clear, Problem deIinition or Problem statement is a clear,

precise and succinct statement oI the question or issue precise and succinct statement oI the question or issue

that is to be investigated with the goal oI Iinding an that is to be investigated with the goal oI Iinding an

answer or solution. answer or solution.

%here are two ways oI stating a problem: %here are two ways oI stating a problem:

1) 1) Posting question / questions Posting question / questions

2) 2) Making declarative statement / statements Making declarative statement / statements

PROCESS INVOLVED IN DEFINING THE PROCESS INVOLVED IN DEFINING THE

PROBLEM PROBLEM

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM IN A STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM IN A

GENERAL WAY. GENERAL WAY.

UNDERSTANDING UNDERSTANDING THE THE NATURE NATURE Of Of

PROBLEM PROBLEM

SURVEYING SURVEYING THE THE AVAILABLE AVAILABLE

LITERATURE LITERATURE

DEVELOPING IDEAS THROUGH DEVELOPING IDEAS THROUGH

DISCUSSIONS DISCUSSIONS

REPHRASING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM REPHRASING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

CRITERIA OF A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM CRITERIA OF A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM

lear and Unambiguous lear and Unambiguous

Empirical Empirical

VeriIiable VeriIiable

Interesting Interesting

Novel and Original Novel and Original

Availability oI Guidance Availability oI Guidance

Statement of

Research Objectives

Defining Problem. Results in

Clear Cut Research Objectives..

AnaIysis of

the Situation

Symptom Detection

ProbIem Definition

IO)^+/I1O^ IO)^+/I1O^

OI OI

1)OI11^1^ 1)OI11^1^

HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS

A hypothesis is an assumption about A hypothesis is an assumption about relations relations

between between variables. variables.

Hypothesis can be deIined as a logically coniectured Hypothesis can be deIined as a logically coniectured

relationship relationship between two or more between two or more variables variables expressed expressed

in the Iorm oI a testable statement. in the Iorm oI a testable statement.

Relationships are coniectured on the basis oI the Relationships are coniectured on the basis oI the

network oI associations established in the network oI associations established in the theoretical theoretical

Iramework Iramework Iormulated Ior the research study. Iormulated Ior the research study.

VARIABLES VARIABLES

Anything that can vary can be considered as a variable. Anything that can vary can be considered as a variable.

A variable is anything that can take on diIIering or A variable is anything that can take on diIIering or

varying values. varying values.

For example; Age, Production units, Absenteeism, For example; Age, Production units, Absenteeism,

Sex, Motivation, Income, Height, Weight etc. Sex, Motivation, Income, Height, Weight etc.

Note: Note: %he values can diIIer at various times Ior the %he values can diIIer at various times Ior the

same obiect or person (or) at the same time Ior diIIerent same obiect or person (or) at the same time Ior diIIerent

obiects or persons. obiects or persons.

Variable / Attribute Variable / Attribute

A variable is a characteristic that takes on two or more A variable is a characteristic that takes on two or more

values whereas, an attribute is a speciIic value on a values whereas, an attribute is a speciIic value on a

variable (qualitative). variable (qualitative).

For example; For example;

%he variable SEX/GENDER has 2 attributes %he variable SEX/GENDER has 2 attributes - - Male Male

and Female. and Female.

%he variable AGREEMEN% has 5 attributes %he variable AGREEMEN% has 5 attributes

Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly

Disagree. Disagree.

Types of Variables Types of Variables

Explanatory vs Extraneous Variable Explanatory vs Extraneous Variable

%he variables selected Ior analysis are called explanatory %he variables selected Ior analysis are called explanatory

variables and all other variables that are not related to the purpose variables and all other variables that are not related to the purpose

oI the study but may aIIect the dependant variable are extraneous. oI the study but may aIIect the dependant variable are extraneous.

Dependant vs Independent Variable Dependant vs Independent Variable

%he variable that changes in relationship to changes in %he variable that changes in relationship to changes in

another variable(s) is called another variable(s) is called dependant variable dependant variable..

%he variable whose change results in the change in another %he variable whose change results in the change in another

variable is called an variable is called an independent variable independent variable..

OR OR

An independent variable is the one that inIluences the An independent variable is the one that inIluences the

dependant variable in either a positive or negative way. dependant variable in either a positive or negative way.

HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS

Research Hypothesis is a predictive statement that Research Hypothesis is a predictive statement that

relates an relates an independent variable independent variable to a to a dependant dependant

variable. variable.

Hypothesis must contain atleast one independent Hypothesis must contain atleast one independent

variable and one dependant variable. variable and one dependant variable.

HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis are tentative, intelligent guesses as to the Hypothesis are tentative, intelligent guesses as to the

solution oI the problem. solution oI the problem.

Hypothesis is a speciIic statement oI prediction. It Hypothesis is a speciIic statement oI prediction. It

describes in concrete terms what you expect to happen describes in concrete terms what you expect to happen

in the study. in the study.

Hypothesis is an assumption about the population oI Hypothesis is an assumption about the population oI

the study. the study.

It delimits the area oI research and keeps the It delimits the area oI research and keeps the

researcher on the right track. researcher on the right track.

PROBLEM (VS) HYPOTHESIS PROBLEM (VS) HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis is an assumption, that can be tested and Hypothesis is an assumption, that can be tested and

can be proved to be right or wrong. can be proved to be right or wrong.

A problem is a broad question which cannot be A problem is a broad question which cannot be

directly tested. A problem can be scientiIically directly tested. A problem can be scientiIically

investigated aIter converting it into a Iorm oI investigated aIter converting it into a Iorm oI

hypothesis. hypothesis.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS

onceptual larity onceptual larity - - It should be clear and precise. It should be clear and precise.

SpeciIicity SpeciIicity - - It should be speciIic and limited in scope. It should be speciIic and limited in scope.

onsistency onsistency - - It should be consistent with the It should be consistent with the

obiectives oI research. obiectives oI research.

%estability %estability - - It should be capable oI being tested. It should be capable oI being tested.

Expectancy Expectancy - - It should state the expected relationships It should state the expected relationships

between variables. between variables.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS

Simplicity Simplicity - - It should be stated as Iar as possible in It should be stated as Iar as possible in

simple terms. simple terms.

Obiectivity Obiectivity - - It should not include value iudgments, It should not include value iudgments,

relative terms or any moral preaching. relative terms or any moral preaching.

%heoretical Relevance %heoretical Relevance - - It should be consistent with a It should be consistent with a

substantial body oI established or known Iacts or existing substantial body oI established or known Iacts or existing

theory. theory.

Availability oI %echniques Availability oI %echniques Statistical methods should Statistical methods should

be available Ior testing the proposed hypothesis. be available Ior testing the proposed hypothesis.

Discussions with colleagues and experts about the Discussions with colleagues and experts about the

problem. its origin and objectives in seeking a problem. its origin and objectives in seeking a

solution. solution.

Examination of data and records for possible trends. Examination of data and records for possible trends.

peculiarities. peculiarities.

Review of similar studies. Review of similar studies.

Exploratory personal investigation / Observation. Exploratory personal investigation / Observation.

Logical deduction from the existing theory. Logical deduction from the existing theory.

Continuity of research. Continuity of research.

Intuition and personal experience. Intuition and personal experience.

SOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS SOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS

Descriptive Hypothesis

These are assumptions that describe the characteristics

(such as size. form or distribution) of a variable. The

variable may be an object. person. organisation. situation

or event.

Examples:

~Public enterprises are more amenable for centralized

planning.

TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS

Relational Hypothesis [Explanatory Hypothesis]

These are assumptions that describe the relationship

between two variables. The relationship suggested may be

positive. negative or causal relationship.

Examples:

~Families with higher incomes spend more for recreation.

Causal Hypothesis state that the existence of or change

in one variable causes or leads to an effect on another

variable. The first variable is called the independent

variable and the latter is the dependant variable.

Null Hypothesis

Null hypothesis is the hypothesis which means there is

no difference`. no relationship` hypothesis. ie.. It states

that. no difference exists between the parameter and

statistic being compared to or no relationship exists between

the variables being compared.

It is usually represented as H

0 .

Example: H

0

: There is a no-relationship between family`s

income and expenditure on recreation.

Alternate Hypothesis

It is the hypothesis that describes the researcher`s

prediction that. there exist a relationship between two

variables or it is the opposite of null hypothesis. It is

represented as H

1.

Example:

H

1

: There is a definite relationship between family`s

income and expenditure on recreation.

FORMS OF FORMS OF RELATIONSHIPS RELATIONSHIPS

NON NON- -DIRECTIONAL DIRECTIONAL

W W %here IS a relationship %here IS a relationship

between between

W W X & Y X & Y

W W X..linked..Y X..linked..Y

Vs DIRECTIONAL Vs DIRECTIONAL

W W II X goes up, Y .. II X goes up, Y ..

W W or or

W W As X increases, Y. As X increases, Y.

W W X Independent X Independent

W W variable variable

W W Y Dependent variable Y Dependent variable

DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESES DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESES- -

~X causes ~Y to change ~X causes ~Y to change

W W II X changes II X changes

W W (increases (increases

W W decreases) decreases)

W W then then

W W Y will Y will

W W (increase or (increase or

W W decrease) decrease)

W W a causal link a causal link

DIRECTION OF RELATIONSHIP DIRECTION OF RELATIONSHIP

W W II X increases, Y increases II X increases, Y increases

W W A A POSITIVE POSITIVE relationship relationship

W W II X increase, Y decreases II X increase, Y decreases

W W A A NEGATIVE NEGATIVE or or INVERSE INVERSE

relationship relationship

W W As X changes, Y does NO% change...~ As X changes, Y does NO% change...~

W W No hange...~ No hange...~NO RELATIONSHIP NO RELATIONSHIP

Positive correlation Positive correlation

W W When the values oI When the values oI

W W %WO variables %WO variables

W W go together go together

W W or or

W W values on X & Y values on X & Y

W W change in SAME change in SAME

W W DIRE%ION DIRE%ION

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Hr

work

Earnin

gs

CORRELATIONAL RELATIONSHIP CORRELATIONAL RELATIONSHIP

Negative Correlation Negative Correlation

W W When the values oI When the values oI

two variables two variables

W W O O- -VARY VARY

W W in Opposite direction in Opposite direction

W W (as one goes up, (as one goes up,

W W the other goes down) the other goes down)

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Hrs

work

Earnin

gs

FUNCTIONS OR ROLE OF HYPOTHESIS FUNCTIONS OR ROLE OF HYPOTHESIS

It gives a deIinite point to the investigation and

provides direction to the study.

It determines the data needs.

It speciIies the sources oI data.

It suggests which type oI research is likely to be more

appropriate.

It determines the most appropriate technique oI

analysis.

It contributes to the development oI theory.

Chi square test Chi square test

Chi square test is a very important test

amongst the several test of significance,

development by stasticians.

t is a statistical measures used in context

of sampling analysis for testing the

significance of a population variance.

As a non parametric test,it can be used as

a test of indpendence attributes.

%ypes of chi square test %ypes of chi square test

Chi square test as a test for population

variance.

Chi square test as a non parametric test.

Chi square test as a test for Chi square test as a test for

population variance population variance

Chi sqqare test used to test the

significance of population variance that is

we can use this test to judge if a random

sample has been drown from a normal

population with mean and with a spcified

varance.

!rocdure !rocdure to set up the to set up the hypothsis hypothsis

1. Set up the null hypothesis: H0 :

2. We copmute by using any one of the following

formula _

chi square= (X- X)

3. %o calculate degree of freedom

v=n-1

4. %o check the table value and critical value

xample xample

Random sample of 10 is drawn randomly

from a certain population. the sum of the

squared deviation from the mean of the given

sample is 50. %est the hypothesis variance of

the population is 5.

Sol. n=10,

Chi-square = 50/5 = 10

Degree of freedom = 10-1=9

Critical value = 16.92

Since the calculated value of chi-square is

less than the critical value.

t means we accept the null hypothesis

and conclude that the variance of

population is 5.

Chi Chi- -Square test as a non Square test as a non- -

parametric test parametric test

As a test of goodness of fit

As a test of independence attributes.

example example

A dice is thrown 180 times with the following

results.

No. of turn up : 1 2 3 4 5 6 %otal

Frequency : 25 35 40 22 32 26 180

%est the hypothesis that die is unbiased

1. We set up the null hypothesis that die is

unbiased

2. We calculate the expected frequency =

180/6=30

Applying the Chi Applying the Chi- -square test square test

E E (E)2

(E)2/E

25 30

-5

25 0.833

35 30 5 25 0.833

40 30 10 100 3.33

22 30 -8 64 2.133

32 30 2 4 0.133

26 30 -4 16 0.533

=7.798

Degree of freedom 6-1 = 5

Critical value is 11.07

We Calculated value is less than the

critical value it mean we accept the null

hypothesis and conclude that die is

unbiased.

Chi Chi- -Square test as an Square test as an

independent attributes independent attributes

xp. A survey among the women was

conducted to study the family life. %he

observation are as follows

Happy Not Happy TotaI

ducated 70 30 100

Not ducated 60 40 100

%otal 130 140 200

11 = 100*130/200 = 65

65 35 100

65 35 100

130 70 200

0 E (E)2 (E)2/E

70 65 25 0.385

60 65 25 0.385

30 35 25 0.714

40 35 25 0.714

=2.198

Degree of freedom (2-1)(2-1)=1

%he critical value is 3.84.

%he calculated value is less than the

critical value so can accept the null

hypothesis and conclude that No

association between family and life and

education

Alternative formula for finding the value of

Chi-square in (2*2)

a B A+b

c D C+d

A+c B+d N

Chi-Square=N*{ad-bc2}/ (a+c)(b+d)(a+b)(c+d)

Where n=a+b+c+d

Formula of t Formula of t- -test test

3

$

9

3

X = Mean

= population mean

S= Sample Deviation

N= Sample Size

Summary Summary

n this topic restricted to setting up a

confidence interval around the sample mean

to estimate the population mean, to chi-

square tests to test for significance in the

analysis of frequency distributions, and to Z-

test to test hypotheses about sample

proportion when the sample sizes are

large,and t-test when sample no is less than

30.. As our discussion of the population

proportion suggests, there are other

hypothesis tests concerning population

parameters estimated from sample statistics.

%HANK YOU

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