BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS
Foreign Minister Secretary General
Ambassador Celso Amorim Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães
ALEXANDRE DE GUSMÃO FOUNDATION
Ambassador Jeronimo Moscardo
BUREAU OF DIPLOMATIC PLANNING Ambassador Maria Laura da Rocha Eugênio Vargas Garcia Patrícia Wagner Chiarello Camilo Licks Rostand Prates Henri Yves Pinal Carrières Christiana Lamazière Filipe Nasser
All rights reserved. Ministry of External Relations Bureau of Diplomatic Planning Esplanada dos Ministérios Palácio Itamaraty, Brasilia – DF CEP 70170-900 Telephones: (5561) 3411-6105/6106/8029 Fax: (5561) 3411-6993 E-mail: email@example.com
BRAZILIAN MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS BUREAU OF DIPLOMATIC PLANNING
BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Copyright © Ministry of External Relations
Printed in Brazil 2008 Brasil. Ministério das Relações Exteriores. Secretaria de Planejamento Diplomático. Brazilian Foreign Policy Handbook / Brazilian Ministry of External Relations, Bureau of Diplomatic Planning. - Brasília : Alexandre de Gusmão Foundation, 2008. 348 p. ISBN 978-85-7631-109-6 1. Política externa – Brasil. I. Ministério das Relações Exteriores (Brasil). II. Título. CDU 327 (81)
Book cover: Arthur Luiz Piza, Ovo, s.d., relevo sobre madeira pintada, 30 x 20cm Technical Advisors: Lílian Silva Rodrigues Maria Marta Cezar Lopes Graphic Project and diagram: Cláudia Capella e Paulo Pedersolli
All rights reserved. Ministry of External Relations Bureau of Diplomatic Planning Esplanada dos Ministérios Palácio Itamaraty, Brasilia – DF CEP 70170-900 Telephones: (5561) 3411-6105/6106/8029 Fax: (5561) 3411-6993 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Foreword ........................................................................................ 13 Principles and guidelines for Brazilian foreign policy ................. 15 International Politics – Overview ................................................ 29 South America ............................................................................... 41 South American Integration – Overview .................................. 43 The South American Community of Nations (CASA) and The Union of South American Nations (UNASUL) ................. 47 Infrastructure and energy ............................................................ 49 Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) ............. 52 Argentina ...................................................................................... 54 Malvinas / The Falkland Islands ................................................. 56 Paraguay ........................................................................................ 57 Uruguay ......................................................................................... 58 Venezuela ...................................................................................... 60 Bolivia ........................................................................................... 64 Mercosur ........................................................................................ 69 The Mercosur Parliament ........................................................... 76 Dealing with Asymmetries ........................................................... 78 The Mercosur Structural Convergence Fund (FOCEM) .. 78 Paraguay ............................................................................... 79 Uruguay ................................................................................ 80
Central America, the Caribbean and Mexico ............................... 81 Haiti .............................................................................................. 86 Cuba .............................................................................................. 88 Mexico ............................................................................................ 91 North America ............................................................................... 93 The United States .......................................................................... 95 Canada .......................................................................................... 98 Multilateral Regional Fora ........................................................... 101 Organization of American States (OAS) ............................... 103 Hemispheric security .......................................................... 104 Democracy .......................................................................... 106 Human Rights .................................................................... 108 The Rio Group............................................................................ 108 The Ibero-American Conference ............................................... 110 Europe ........................................................................................... 113 The European Union .................................................................. 115 The Latin American and Caribbean – European Union Summit (LAC-EU) .................................................................... 118 Bilateral relations/Strategic partnerships ................................. 120 Germany ............................................................................. 120 Spain .................................................................................... 121 France .................................................................................. 123 Italy ..................................................................................... 125 Portugal ............................................................................... 126 The United Kingdom ......................................................... 128
............................................................................... 133 Forum for East Asia – Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC) ... 155 Africa ........................................................................................ 163 Africa – Overview ............................................................................................................................................................... 129 Scandinavian countries ......... 135 China ............ 153 India................. 146 East Timor ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 168 The African Union .............................................................. 153 New Zealand ............................................................... 152 Oceania .............. 170 Nigeria ...... 172
........................................................................................................................................ 131 Asia .................................... 147 Central Asia .......................... 141 Japan .....Russia...... 150 The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) .... 149 Kazakhstan . 136 Taiwan .............. 153 Australia ................... 169 South Africa .................................. 165 Africa–South America Summit (AFSA) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 149 Afghanistan ...... Brazil and South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA) .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 150 The Republic of Korea ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 140 India ..............
....................................................................................................................... 213 Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 175 Mozambique ............................... 176 Guinea-Bissau .............................. 195 Iraq ................................................................. 189 Lebanon .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 201 Reform of the United Nations – Overview .................................... 191 Iran .............................................................................................................. 177 Western Sahara ...................................................... 178 Algeria ... 210 Peace keeping Operations/ United Nations Mission to Stabilize Haiti (MINUSTAH) ............... 203 General Assembly ......... 186 Israel .................................................................................................................................. 181 South American and Arab Countries Summit (SAAC) ..................... 179 The Sudan– Darfur .................................. 216 Peacebuilding Commission ........... 179 The Middle East .................................................................. 177 Morocco ..................................................................................................... 220
................................................................ 196 United Nations .......... 173 Angola ........................... 205 G-4 ........Comununity of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP) . 184 The Palestine Question .................................................................................................................................... 218 Refugees ................................................................................ 204 Security Council ...............
............................................. 258 Mercosur – The South African Customs Union (SACU) India ...... 257 Mercosur ................................................................................................................................................................ 236 International Finances and Economic Organizations ............................................................................................................. 258 The Free Trade Area of the Americas – (FTAA) ...................................... 241 Internationl Monetary Fund (IMF) ........................................................................ 253 Mercosur – The European Union .......................... 249 Mercosur – The Andean Community (CAN) ........International Criminal Court (ICC) ........ 221 International Trade......... 259
............................................................... 255 Mercosur – The Gulf Cooperation Council (CCG) ......................................................................... 245 Trade Negotiations.................................................................................................................... 230 G-20 .... 239 The World Bank ........................................... 225 The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism ............ 229 The Doha Round ........................................................... 242 The Inter-American Development Bank ........................... 233 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD ............................................................................................................. 256 Mercosur – Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) ...India ................................................... 243 Intellectual Property Rights– World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) ................................................. 243 G-8 ................. 223 World Trade Organization (WTO) – Overview ...........................
... 284 Fighting hunger and poverty................ 295 Council of Human Rights (CHR) ................................................................................................. 273 Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) ...... 281 International Whaling Commission ........................................................... 287 Innovative Mechanisms .. 284 The Antarctic ..................................................... 313
... 301 Fight Against Racism and Discrimination ........................................................................................... 269 Climate Change ..................................................................................................................... 280 Biological Diversity ....... 279 Tropical Forests – Amazonia ............................................................................. 304 Women ........................................................ 297 Committee Against Torture (CAT) ........................................................................................... 306 International Labor Organization (ILO) ............................... 293 Human Rights and social issues ............... 263 Biofuels...........................Energy .............................. 302 Millennium Development Goals ....................... non-proliferation and security ............... 311 Disarmament – Overview ....................................................................................................... 309 Disarmament................. 301 National Commission for the Promotion & Implementation of Humanitarian Law ....................................... 265 The Environment ............................................................................................. 277 The Montreal Protocol ........................................................................................................ 292 United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) ...................................................................................................... 305 Health ............................................................
.............................................................................................. 320 Triple Frontier (Brazil ......... 330 Technical........................................Argentina – Paraguay) ............................ 322 Transnational Crime .. 327 The United Nations Educational........................................................................................................................................ scientific and technological cooperation ................ 333 Space cooperation ................... 319 Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) ............... Scientific & Cultural Organization (UNESCO) ................................................................................ 325 Cultural diplomacy – Overview ............................................. 320 Terrorism ........................................................................................ 338 Assistance to Brazilians abroad ....... 341
... 316 Additional Protocol of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAAE) ....................................Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) .. 322 Cultural issues ....................................................
December. Brasilia. articles by and interviews with high level authorities. 2007
. This compilation is by no means a definitive account nor does it cover the whole range of issues that are part of the daily agenda of the Ministry of External Relations. Brazil’s coming of age in world politics has made it necessary for the country’s diplomatic agenda to become broader and more complex. This document was put together in order to fulfill that task. within and outside Itamaraty. joint communiqués and press releases. That is why it has become a real challenge to systematically keep track of the positions defended by Brazil abroad. amongst others. Its aim is to make a composite view of the main positions defended by Brazilian diplomacy in recent years available to interested members of the public. All sources used were public and official documents: speeches.FOREWORD
This collection of statements aims at presenting an overall view of Brazilian foreign policy guidelines in regard to a wide variety of international issues.
PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY
January 1. In my Government.Brasilia. nor can it be restricted to one single dimension. Through foreign trade. We must use this same posture of responsible action at the level of our foreign relations. created under a tropical sky. through capacitybuilding in advanced technologies and by seeking productive investments. Brazil can. defending. whenever necessary. raising income levels and generating dignified employment. as an instrument for national development.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY
This Nation. *** The Brazilian people have shown a great example of their self-respect by demonstrating their belief in the power to bring about change through creative means. We will not turn back from our main commitment. Inaugural Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the National Congress. doing justice to the struggle for the survival in which its children are engaged. our national interests and the values that inspire us. needs to state what it stands. 2003. Our foreign policy shall also reflect the desire for change expressed by the ordinary people in the street. Brazilian external relations should contribute towards improving the living conditions of Brazilian women and men. above all. (…) Our external policy cannot be limited to a single region. Brazilian diplomatic efforts will be guided by a humanistic perspective and will be used. affirming its sovereign and creative presence in the world. and must contribute towards
for negotiated solutions to international conflicts and towards the intransigent defense of our national interests. It is also imperative for rationality. friendship and
. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the 33rd Economic World Forum . *** Our foreign policy is firmly oriented towards the search for peace. 2003. economic and cultural importance.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
the construction of a peaceful and harmonious world order. Our national program is not xenophobic. conscious of its demographic. *** Brazil has consistently endeavored to carry out the principles it defends. This is why we defend the position that conflicts should be resolved by pacific means and under the auspices of the United Nations. founded on the Rule of Law and on the principles of multilateralism. hunger and misery are very often the cultural broth in which fanaticism and intolerance are developed. Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of External Relations. Preserving national interests is not incompatible with cooperation and solidarity. and of its vocation to become a great democracy in the process of social transformation. it is universalistic. January 26. Peace is not just a moral objective. territorial.Davos. January 1. 2003. The new relationship we are establishing with our South American neighbors is based on mutual respect. We must recognize that poverty.
New York. We do not believe in interfering
. September 23. I will also use to seek international partnerships. Whenever we have been called on. Brazil has helped to overcome the crises that threaten the constitutional order and stability of countries we regard as our friends. at the University of Beijing. (…) Democratic dialogue is the most effective instrument of change of all. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the conference “Brazilian Foreign Policy in the 21st century and the role of the Sino-Brazilian Strategic Partnership”. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 58th United Nations General Assembly . so as to attain a steady level of development and a peaceful. 2004. With the same determination that my companions and I are using to make Brazilian society more just and humane. and to the extent of our possibilities. tolerant and harmonious world. The instances of instability in the region have been resolved by respecting institutions. *** We are learning that development and social justice should be sought with determination and an open attitude towards dialogue. guided by the principle of non-intervention as well as by a position of “non-indifference”. May 25. 2003.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY
cooperation. *** The growing approximation and the consolidation of Brazilian relations with (its) region require that situations of instability in countries on this Continent receive closer attention on the part of the Brazilian Government.
Rio de Janeiro. at once universal and humanistic. 2004. September 27. 2004. India. Brazil changed the tone of its foreign policy. our countries play a fundamental role in forming new international economic and trade geography. *** When President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva took office. We need to take control of our development as an independent Nation and reduce our dependency on the economic vulnerabilities imposed from outside.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
in the internal affairs of other countries. (…) We have fulfilled our promise to imprint a sense of strategy in our approximation with great emerging countries like China. firmly anchored in the interests of the Brazilian Nation and in the integration of South America. September 21. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 59th United Nations General Assembly .New York. *** During the last two years. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at “The Actuality of San Tiago Dantas” Seminar . without succumbing to the temptations of isolationism. All this has been achieved without prejudicing the excellent level of relations we have always maintained with our great partners from
. nor do we hide behind omission and indifference when facing problems that affect our neighbors. a policy that is concerned with the country’s sovereign insertion. Russia and South Africa. we have sought to redefine Brazil’s place in the world.
President Lula’s government has adhered to this basic principle with an attitude we refer to as “non-indifference”. June 6. cannot aspire to becoming a full player at a global level. Some countries in the region have experienced recurring difficulties because of serious economic and social problems. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the 35th General Assembly Meeting of the OAS .Fort Lauderdale. 2005. just because of its vast territory.) The second mistake is to think that.. published in El País.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY
the developed world: the United States. January 21. the European Union and Japan. (. Brazilian diplomacy is based on the principle of noninterference in the internal affairs of other countries. *** The expression “global player” can create misunderstandings. a country with social problems and without effective means to project itself as an international military power. We have always provided our help and active solidarity in situations of crises.
. as sanctioned by our Charter. Brazil will automatically be given a relevant role in an international sphere. *** Democracy cannot be imposed. it is borne through dialogue. Excerpt from the article “Brazil in the new international scene” by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. abundant natural resources and numerous population. The first one is to believe that Brazil. which still persist on our continent (…).. whenever we have been called upon and whenever we feel this may achieve positive results. 2005.
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Fortunately. where the correlation of forces is adverse to the legitimate aspirations of developing countries. wherever these may be. cooperation and trade. We have developed diverse partnerships and more balanced relations with all the regions of the world. Brazil is far from either of these two extreme perspectives. the ways through which Brazil can help construct a new relation of international forces.
. (…) To give up the idea of “global action” would amount to leaving the future in the hands of market trends — where enormous economic and financial disorder proliferate — or yielding to the whims of the politics of power. *** Our diplomatic conduct is based on the defense of principles. and assert. 2005..Paris. It has a utopian dimension without losing its pragmatism. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the debate “Brazil: A Global Player”. dominated by unilateral positions.. we have done this without pointless confrontations and by recognizing the importance of maintaining indispensable relationships with traditional partners in the industrialized world. July 13. The challenge we face is to attempt to understand. (…) Brazilian foreign policy has reached a new level of maturity. Let alone fall into a state of submission. According to the best traditions of our diplomacy. as a few like to advocate in the name of a questionable form of realism. Our diplomacy is experienced. We live in a difficult world. We cannot allow ourselves to fall into a state of inertia or inactivity. well prepared and sufficiently lucid to be neither timid nor foolhardy (. We are exploring opportunities for dialogue. We are no longer limited by imaginary boundaries or ready-made formulas. but also on a search for results.
The South is not an amorphous complex of underdeveloped and dependent countries that have nothing to offer other than raw materials to wealthy countries. November 25. *** The South-South relationship is not only possible. “Foreign Policy in the Lula Government – Two Years”. a more intense. (…) Now. *** Brazilian diplomacy is presently going through a period of great dynamism. with a view to securing an international regulatory area that is fair and balanced. article by Minister Celso Amorim. in accordance with priorities established by President Lula’s Government: to expand the geographical reach of Brazil’s foreign relations.. and to adopt a firm and active position in multilateral as well as regional negotiations. not only through the growth of our trade. but also by participating more actively in economic and political forums. Plenarium Magazine. more creative and a stronger relationship between countries of the South. where questions of great interest to humanity are discussed. does not mean that we will abandon our relations with
. such as the World Trade Organization and the United Nations. it is also necessary. Underlying such objectives is the need to preserve our sovereign right to define the model of development that we wish for our Country. 2005.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY
Speech given by President Lula at the graduation ceremony of the “Celso Furtado” Class at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) Brasilia. (…) Together we can become stronger. to update elements that are part of our universalistic vocation. 2005. September 1.
Let’s do what developed countries do. The main lines of conduct are contained in the Constitution. 2006. take advantage of all opportunities and make our union our strength.Algiers. Politics change according to the moment. Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Tiradentes Medal Award ceremony at the Legislative Assembly of the State of Rio de Janeiro. A country’s foreign policy goes beyond its circumstances. Assets of intangible value and symbolic elements are factors that should not be underrated in international relations. it is in fact an area that overcomes outside conditioning. April 3. A determined political attitude can make all the difference. The Itamaraty (Brazilian Ministry of External Relations) has always had a very good perception of how to defend national interests. in the ‘Webberian’ sense of the word.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
developed countries. *** Brazil has international credit because the Country is not afraid to fight for its rights and because it believes that its options are not pre-determined. The Itamaraty is a very qualified bureaucracy. which are also important to all of us.
. *** There is a difference between the principles of international relations and the definition of foreign policy. 2006. Press conference given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to media organizations in Algeria . February 7.
Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Expresso newspaper .Lisbon.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY
Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim . July 27. January 1.Brasilia.Carta Capital magazine. which is the cause of some pride due to the excellent results it has brought to the Nation. *** Foreign policy is not just a question of focusing on short-term objectives. 2006. May 15. at the same time. *** Strengthening our democratic system will further enhance Brazil’s presence in the world scene. was defined by a clear choice for multilateralism. Inaugural Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the ceremony of Constitutional Commitment at the National Congress . at the same time. economic and trade relations with the great world powers and. not lose sight of its essential goals. 2007. with economic and social development for all. required for the establishment of a world of peace and solidarity. 2006. foreign policy has to be ambitious and. to give priority to our ties with the Southern countries of the world. For a country the size of Brazil and with its variety of interests and needs. This choice enables us to maintain excellent political. which are the same as those of our domestic policy: to guarantee the wellbeing of our people. Our foreign policy. ***
February 26. Secretary-General of the Ministry of Exter nal Relations. economic and social rights are respected. where economic differences between States are reduced. by observing the fundamental principles of self-determination and nonintervention as inscribed in the United Nations Charter. 2007. to economic and social development. where each individual may develop his or her full potential. to the Folha de S. *** The rich and varied agenda which marked the meeting (between Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and George W. where the environment is preserved. It is precisely because Brazil has a sovereign and universalistic foreign
. where human. President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Minister Celso Amorim have defended the democratization of international decision-making instances. This was not achieved by supposedly “changing course” in our foreign policy. where the principles of International Law are obeyed by the great powers. political. With these objectives in mind. to the construction of democracy at an international level. Interview given by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. where poverty and misery are abolished. in such a way that each society.Paulo newspaper .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Brazil can contribute towards preserving peace. A better world is one where disarmament pledges are delivered. Bush) reflects a mature partnership. without either side having to renounce their respective viewpoints. Brazilian diplomacy has not altered its position nor changed the priorities established by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva from the first day of his Government. such as the United Nations Security Council and the G-8. may move forward in its historical evolution. without any sort of grievances or demands being made.São Paulo.
*** We want a foreign policy that reflects the special characteristics of Brazil. amongst others. the
.PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES OF BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY
policy. that it also be a consubstantial element of our project for national development. but also respect for other countries. May 2. Issues such as multilateral trade negotiations. the environment. “Brazil and the USA: the reasons behind the visit”. that the country is so respected by both developing as well as developed countries. 2007. It is therefore of fundamental importance that our foreign policy be in tune with the concerns of our people. the fight against hunger and poverty. human rights. be they small or large. sustainable development. that it be more than just a way of projecting ourselves in the world. Maintaining a dialogue with social movements. article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de S. *** The diplomatic agenda is becoming more complex every day. The democratic Brazil we are constructing.Paulo newspaper . rich or poor. so as to defend our national interests. (…) We have to take our rightful place in the world. This requires commitment and selfreliance. recognized both within the country and abroad. 2007.Brasilia. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the graduation ceremony of the 2004-2006 Class of the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) .São Paulo. are matters that increasingly affect the lives of each citizen. This is the great lesson of Camp David. the press. April 8.
. 2007. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . May 4.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
National Congress and the units of the Federation helps make the actions of the Ministry of External Relations more representative of national aspirations.Brasilia. Strategic Guidelines of the Ministry of External Relations.
INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW
Brasilia. International crises such as those in the Middle East should be resolved by peaceful means and through negotiation. through perseverance. suddenly intensify. 2003. to represent our interests and values in points on the international agenda. fed by intolerance and fanaticism. Terrorist acts of indescribable barbarism provoke reactions and give rise to attitudes
. Resolutions taken by the Security Council should be faithfully observed.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW
The democratization of international relations that are free of any hegemony is as important for the future of mankind as it is for the consolidation and development of democracy within each State. At a political level. (…) We face the present challenges of terrorism and organized crime through international cooperation and based upon the principles of multilateralism and International Law. the markets of developed countries continue to be closed to most of our products. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at his the National Congress . *** As President Lula has already said. conflicts that seemed to be on their way to being resolved. which has the prime responsibility of maintaining international peace and security. Let us recognize the value of multilateral organizations. The context in which we have to carry out this task is a complex one and not always a friendly one. January 1. Predatory commercial practices by wealthy countries deprive us of the benefits of our competitiveness. we need. especially the United Nations. (…) Despite many promises.
it is necessary that these should prevail in relations between countries and societies. an attitude of political intelligence. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 33rd World Economic Forum . as the President (Lula) has said in his letter to the Pope.
. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
that can potentially affect the principles of multilateralism. but also. those who have access to education and humanity’s cultural heritage from those who are submerged in illiteracy and in situations of absolute alienation from society.Davos. It is not merely enough to proclaim values of humanism.Brasilia. 2003. January 26. It is also necessary to establish a new code of ethics. moral and even spiritual leadership. negotiation. January 1. those who have jobs from the unemployed. *** History confronts us with serious responsibilities regarding the reorganization of international relations. those who live with dignity from those who live on the streets or in squalid shanty towns. many “walls” still exist that separate those that have food from the hungry. *** The construction of a fairer and more democratic new international economic order is not only an act of generosity. financial and political crises. political. All this is reflected in economic. and principally. diplomacy. This moment demands dialogue. 2003. More than ten years after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The risk of war once again haunts the world. which tend to be more serious in poorer countries.
. We need to demand that greater concern be shown for the situation of those who are destitute. *** At the level of international relations. that trade regimes be more equitable. By doing this. September 18. *** We need to fight for a fairer international system. 2003. multilateralism represents an advancement comparable to that of democracy in national terms.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW
(…) Our hopes for peace and solidarity must come as a result of our concern for the deprivations of those who are less fortunate. June 1. we will be defending our own interests in a world better prepared for peace and development. To recognize its value is an obligation of all nations committed to the progress of civilization. 2003. that greater respect be shown for International Law. irrespective of their economic dimensions and political and military weight. Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at a luncheon offered to graduates of the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) . 2003. “Diplomacy in the Lula Government”.Brasilia. lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) .Evian.Brasilia. that decisive procedures be more democratic. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the extended talks at the G-8 Summit . April 10.
between humanitarian intervention -involving potentially very high human and material costs and with questionable stabilizing effects – and. article by Minister Celso Amorim. (…) This century. in which the United Nations plays a central role. *** We need to distinguish. so promising from a technological and material point of view.New York. legitimate and representative. September 23. out of the dismantling of deadly arsenals and. presented during the series of debates on the modernization of Brazilian thinking in defense and security issues. the notion of collective responsibility on a humanitarian level – with which we fully identify ourselves. outwardly. decisive procedures are transparent. Every nation that is committed to democracy internally must also ensure that. The capacity of States to provide assistance should be encouraged in an atmosphere of international cooperation. It is our duty to construct. on the one hand. on the other hand. and not by the imposition of force. cannot sink into a process of political and spiritual retrogression. out of the final eradication of hunger. out of respect for international law. an international climate of peace and unity. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 58th United National General Assembly . above. The tragedies of Iraq and the Middle East will only be resolved within a multilateral process. 2003. under the strengthened leadership of the United Nations. Real peace will grow out of democracy.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Improving the multilateral system is a necessary counterpart of democratic relations within each nation. “Brazil and new concepts of global and hemispheric security”.
signed by Presidents Lula and Néstor Kirchner. with self-appointed military alliances for collective defense. possibilities and challenges that are unique to our countries at the beginning of the 21st century. 2003.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW
organized by the Ministry of Defense . but. We watch the escalation of ethnic-religious conflicts. sovereignty. October 11 and 12. the intensification of terrorism. has generated models of economic concentration never seen before. consecrated notions about legitimate defense. the expansion of transnational organized crime.Itaipava. October 16. *** Now that we are no longer under the illusion that the end of the Cold War will usher in an era of growing peace and development. we are forced to admit that we live in a period of great instability. at the same time. The Consensus of Buenos Aires. 2003. in a world context characterized by an accelerated process of globalization that has expanded the horizon of human possibilities. our nations must define their future within the ambit of an agenda that answers the needs. doctrines that cause dangerous disorder. We are experiencing a serious
. (…) At the political and strategic level. humanitarian tragedies. territorial integrity and the authority of the United Nations Security Council. *** We would like to express our conviction that.Buenos Aires. allowing for fairer revenue and taxation procedures. We are committed to putting into effect public policies that will lay the foundations for sustainable growth and an equitable division of its benefits. we are concerned about new roles that are being played in the area of security.
encouraging sustainable development should be the concern of every country including. *** Globalization is not synonymous with development.Mexico City. superimposes itself upon elected government. providing that its benefits are divided equally. and demands the renouncement of legitimate national development projects. the wealthiest ones. reducing poverty. *** Powerful and omnipresent. this system revokes democratic decisions. 2003. June 14. Eliminating hunger. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the 11th UNCTAD . Globalization is no substitute for development. 2004. social welfare and development Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the general debate at the OAS Special Security Conference . October 28. Often.World War II period to promote peace and security. During the last decades.São Paulo. squeezes dry the sovereignty of States. an invisible apparatus commands the new order at a distance. in particular. But globalization can be an instrument of development. an asymmetric globalization has enhanced the devastating legacy of misery
. The logic of draining the deprived to irrigate the privileged has been maintained.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
crisis of global governance. This is absolutely essential if we are to guarantee peace and the effective fulfillment of human rights. which requires a collective reflection regarding the mechanisms that we are creating in the post.
is to believe that everyone has the right to be a player. 2005. ***
. then we should build it. from the people and their leaders. Only the values of Humanism. reduces international relations to mere expressions of military force. can hold back this savagery. September 21. The situation demands. 2004. It is a demand imposed by the world we live in. that each player has their reasons and that. If we really want to eliminate violence. In order to establish democracy at an international level. To be a democrat at a global level. in the end.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW
and social retrogression that is coming apart at the seams on the agenda of the 21st century.New York. it is necessary to recognize that the plurality of views is legitimate and that increasing space should be given to diplomatic actions. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the Debate “Brazil – Global Player” .Paris. a new sense of individual and collective responsibility. *** A plural world – or a “multi-polar” world. then it we need to remove its deeper causes with the same tenacity that we confront the agents of hatred. If we really want peace. (…). Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 59th United Nations General Assembly . claimed as being a “realist” viewpoint. it is not always the reason of the strongest that is the strongest of reasons. practiced with common sense and determination. as it is sometimes called – is not just the earnest desire of diplomats or idealistic intellectuals. To deny the plurality of opposites. July 13.
In international politics. The increased participation of developing countries in the decisionmaking processes of the United Nations and other international organizations is essential to guarantee that more balanced and legitimate results are achieved. centered on achieving duly evaluated.St. Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim during the award ceremony to present the Tiradentes Medal at the Legislative Assembly of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Petersburg. And refusing to give up the principles and values that we espouse. Brazil. the Republic of the Congo . China. In this respect. presented at Gleneagles last year. *** Present global challenges in the areas of energy security. Mexico. to establish new forms of international cooperation. 2006. India. Allow me to disagree. 2006. July 15-17. we reiterate our proposal. to be realistic means having the courage to defend national interests with serious attitudes and consequential actions. April 3. ***
. That it is useless to try and transform things. and taking into full account the perspectives and needs of developing countries. education and infectious diseases can only be properly faced through more intense international coordination and cooperation. concrete results. South Africa. Document stating the position of developing countries participating in the Broad Dialogue at the G-8 Summit Meeting.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
There are those who say that to be a realist is to accept things as they are.
sensitive to the needs of developing countries.New York. 2006. There is no better way to bring States together. Permanent solutions to resolve poverty are only going to come about if the poorer countries have the opportunity to achieve progress through their own efforts. (…) Fair trade. and a transparent World Trade Organization. promote sustainable development and construct negotiated settlements for common problems. The United Nations represents another pillar in the area of international peace and security.
.INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – OVERVIEW
The fight against hunger and poverty also involves establishing a world order that treats economic and social development as a first priority of concern. are the pillars that support the new world order we defend. November 19. maintain peace. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 51st United Nations General Assembly . founded on a solid and consensual basis. Brazil is a firm defender of multilateral organizations as the forums for cooperation and dialogue. protect human rights.
If called upon. cultural and scientific-technological dimensions in the process of integration. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at his Inaugural Ceremony. Several of our neighbors are today facing difficult situations. We will support all necessary institutional arrangements. based on dialogue. We will encourage joint ventures and stimulate a dynamic intellectual and artistic interchange among South American countries. (…) We will also take care of the social. *** We believe it is essential to consolidate the integration among South American countries on many different levels. based on democratic ideas and on social justice. we will contribute towards finding peaceful solutions to resolve these situations of crises. so that a true Mercosur and South American sense of identity may flourish. January 1. will have positive repercussions internally. National Congress . 2003. Several of our
SOUTH AMERICAN INTEGRATION – OVERVIEW The main priority of my Government’s foreign policy is to construct a South America that is politically stable. prosperous and united. based on free trade and projects of infrastructure.Brasilia. as well as in the region’s relationship with the rest of the world. and with the means that are available to us. democratic principles and on the constitutional precepts of each country. The formation of a unified economic area.
in the same way that we defend our right to be respected by others.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
neighbors are experiencing difficult situations or even moments of crisis. *** The construction of a democratic and prosperous South America is a prime objective of my government’s foreign policy. but also because it is a means to ensure our own progress and welfare. 2004. 2003. The integration of the twelve countries on this continent will be based on establishing ever stronger ties between Governments and societies. provided that we are invited to do so and only when we believe that we may play a useful role. A South America that is politically stable. Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim during the ceremony on taking office as Minister of External Relations. socially just and economically prosperous is an objective worth pursuing. January 1. not only as a normal expression of solidarity. But we will not balk at making our contribution towards finding solutions for situations of conflict. ***
. taking into account the primacy of democracy and constitutional principles.Brasilia. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Conference “Brazilian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century and the Role of the Sino-Brazilian Partnership “ University of Beijing. increasing the flow of trade and seeking solutions to common problems. We earnestly respect the principle of non-intervention. The democratic process of change that Brazil is presently going through under the Lula Government may serve as an element of inspiration and stability to the whole of South America. May 25.
) In short. which will have a powerful repercussion for our populations.. but of the Ministry of External Relations (the Itamaraty) as a whole. industrial development. one that is not homogeneous.. social development. organized crime. as well as a proposal. 2006. and which will naturally help us to live and position ourselves in a world that is not easy. *** The integration of South America is our principal priority. And it is not a priority of just this government or my own. I want to say that we see the integration of South America as a necessity. but one that also has the possibility to form a great union with the ability to negotiate. This is why the entry of Venezuela into the Mercosur was so important.SOUTH AMERICA
Integration will come. There is one superpower. Talk given by Minister Celso Amorim during the closing speech at the Course for South American Diplomats Brasilia. (. a world that can often be very hostile. I think this is the real question. The question is what type of integration we should have. which has its own conflicts. The question is what type of integration will come. And it is very useful when you can transform a necessity into a project. And the question is whether this integration will come through drug trafficking. other developing countries and even some very small and poor nations. South America must be our priority because the world is uniting in blocs. and the Americas have not yet formed a bloc. smuggling and guerilla warfare or if we are going to become integrated through economic development. based on global reality. It is not a question of why we should have integration. Mercosur is not only formed
. August 25. But South America could be a bloc of nations. Because then you have something that is a truly profound reality. and technological development.
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by South Cone countries and could become a bloc of nations representing countries from the Caribbean to Patagonia. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening ceremony of the Second Meeting of Heads of State and Government of the South American Community of Nations (CASA) . (…) The stability and development of the region are conditions that are essential for Brazil. This is a commitment that has enabled us to intensify political dialogue and trade cooperation among South American countries. *** In accordance with the Government’s Strategic Guidelines. capable of reducing differences among our countries. 2006 *** We want a South America that is politically more united. December 8. (…) South American integration only makes sense if it is embraced by all members of society and if it extends its human and solidarity dimensions. stronger and more coordinated on an economic and trade level. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to IstoÉ magazine. the strengthening of South American integration is our prime objective. Above all. closer to their people and sensitive to the Continent’s cultural diversity. 1936. Brazil seeks a real and effective form of integration in South America. issue No.Cochabamba. we want a South America that is just. 2006. Bolivia. helping to overcome the great afflictions that exist on our Continent: poverty and social exclusion. which can provide conditions for the development of all countries in the region. union with South
. November 29. A policy of pro-integration.
food resources and multiple energy sources. We have centers of teaching and universities that produce scientific and technological innovations of considerable importance.
THE SOUTH AMERICAN COMMUNITY OF NATIONS (CASA) AND THE UNION OF SOUTH AMERICAN NATIONS (UNASUL) The South American Community of Nations is much more than a political and legal edifice. but also an undeniable determination to resolve these. Brazil respects the choices made by neighboring countries and does not interfere in the sovereign right of each country to seek solutions for the problems they face. from the heights of the Andes to the Patagonian Plains. whenever it is called upon to do so and in so far as it is within its possibilities. A region that is bathed by the Atlantic. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 Brasilia. 2007. May 4. from the exuberance of the Pantanal to the lunar landscapes of the Bolivian and Chilean deserts. We have a complex and diversified Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of more than one trillion dollars. determined to attain our full potential in a region endowed with immense natural and human resources. Brazil is ready to collaborate in helping friendly countries in situations of political or social conflict. At the same time. A vast and diversified territory that extends from the Amazon to Tierra del Fuego. Strategic Guidelines for the Brazilian Ministry of External Relations. (…) We have serious social problems. We have at our disposal three assets that are essential to the future of humanity: water. or the fruit of volunteerism. is a long-term national interest. the Pacific and Caribbean. We want to transform our Continent into a region of peace that is able
American partners. We have a competitive industrial position in the world and our agriculture has the capacity to become the granary of the planet. We are 350 million men and women.
2005. This is why we have worked together in Mercosur. South America must be able to negotiate in the world. I believe that Brazil will not fully exist unless it is part of a union.Brasilia. this is why we have also pushed forward the South American Community. it is just a small one in a world such as ours. in order to establish the physical integration of our region.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
to resolve its differences by using instruments of political negotiation. I do not believe so.Santiago. ***
. South America can join other great geographical groups in the world. (…) In all sincerity. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Third Meeting of Foreign Relations Minister of the South American Community of Nations . used to say that Brazil was condemned to be a solitary giant in international relations. November 24. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the opening ceremony of the First Meeting of Heads of State of the South American Community of Nations . And we are well aware of this. Like the United States of America. because we are not willing to speak only for ourselves (…). who was also a businessman. which we helped to create with other regions that are in attendance here. of our Continent. September 29. all of which have mechanisms at their disposal for political and economic deliberation. A former Brazilian Minister of Foreign Relations. This is our viewpoint. even though Brazil is a large country. Chile. *** We have to do in South America in the 21stI century what North America did in the 19th century. I have to say that. 2006.
We must value existing integration mechanisms. December 8. We are jointly committed to the future of Central America and the Caribbean countries. ***
. We are members of Mercosur. The South American Community is not a substitute for these efforts. Peru. 2004. We have historical affinities and close economic ties with the Andean Community of Nations. however large or expressive its economy may be. with the full participation of all South American countries. Our integration is achieved on various levels. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening ceremony of the Second Meeting of Heads of State of the South American Community of Nations . No country. It is also a condition for our Continent to participate more competitively in a globalized economy.SOUTH AMERICA
The present world is becoming increasingly more complex and competitive. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the announcement of the Inter-Oceanic Highway Cusco. There is no space for isolation. We belong to the Rio Group and the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA). December 8. As we integrate inwardly. can promote its national objectives in isolation. we will also be integrating with the world.
INFRASTRUCTURE AND ENERGY The integration of the physical infrastructure of South America does not only represent new opportunities for trade and closer relations between our countries. 2006.Cochabamba. of the Plata Basin Treaty and the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization. The construction of the South American Community of Nations is not a project of exclusion.
such as ethanol.. For South America. First.) ensure that Mercosur is seen as a truly extended economic region. will be one of the driving forces behind the South American Community of Nations. biodiesel and H-bios. these two pillars have the same meaning as coal and steel had for the integration of Europe in the 1950’s. *** We should support industrial. (…) Our agenda should initially include three fundamental aims.Brasilia. multiplying jobs and improving our capacity to play a leading role in the world.Montevideo. common industrial policy. December 9. together with matters related to infrastructure. (…) The integration of energy in South America should be based on guaranteed access. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Second Meeting of Heads of State of the South American Community of Nations . *** We must (. fair payment. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 29th Mercosur Summit . These and other incentives will help to give new economic dynamism to the region. to coordinate efforts for the exploitation and distribution of petroleum and gas. where investment and partnerships are part of a consolidating. to expand the power grid between our countries. September 29. a concern for the preservation of the environment. social inclusion and the stability of juridical relations. so that everyone
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The integration of energy.. technological and infrastructure projects to overcome our production bottlenecks. 2005. and to enhance cooperation in matters of renewable energy sources. 2005.
economic and social integration of South America. as well as any other South American country that wishes to take part in this project. The energy belt project is emblematic of our political determination. In order to do this. environmental and economic viability of this project has been guaranteed. (…) Once the technical. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the closing ceremony of the 30th Mercosur Heads of State Summit . thereby reaffirming our social commitment to areas affected by the project. Our cooperation projects involving biofuels open up entirely new horizons that will boost the competitive advantages that our region has to offer. The next stages will include Argentina. The Great Southern Gas Pipeline is an all-embracing and unifying project for energy integration in the region. The important advances that we are making in the coordination of energy policies open up promising prospects. The proposed course of the pipeline should be located near areas already impacted by man. Paraguay and Uruguay. July 21. a decision will be taken as to the starting date for construction. as is already reflected in the growing interchange of students among our countries.Cordoba.
. *** The conclusion of the Great Southern Gas Pipeline represents a strategic commitment between Venezuela and Brazil and a decisive step towards the energy. such as existing highways.SOUTH AMERICA
may benefit from economic growth. we will reinforce regional cooperation in the areas of science and technology. Bolivia. thus preserving the natural environment. as well as the strengthening of the South American Community of Nations and of the Petrosur initiative. 2006. which could be completed in four years.
. In this respect. 2007. Press release. “The Secretar y-General of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO). This will the Organization play a key role on an international level. Declaration of Margarita – Building Souther n Energy Integration. 2007. Venezuela. April 17. *** We (the South American Heads of State and Government) have agreed to underline that the energy integration of the South American Community of Nations should be used as an important tool to promote social and economic development and to eradicate poverty. final document at the South American Energy Summit . in defense of the interest of all Amazon countries. we reaffirm a commitment to the universal access to energy as a right of every citizen.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Brazil-Venezuela Declaration concerning the first stage of the Great Southern Gas Pipeline . as well as to improve political deliberations in environmental forums. Brazil is interested in strengthening ACTO. January 18.Island of Margarita.
AMAZON COOPERATION TREATY ORGANIZATION (ACTO) As the base for the ACTO headquarters.Rio de Janeiro. and boasting the largest area of the Amazon forest located within its territorial boundaries. reflecting the will of all Party States so as to promote a cooperation program for the sustainable development of the Amazon region.
May 4. (…) I would like to draw your attention. 2005. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the inaguration of the Permanent Headquarters of the Secretariat of ACTO . 2004. losing the strong. but from an excess of official instruments. After all. to
. The fundamental objectives (of this Organization) are international cooperation and the affirmation of the sovereign responsibility of the countries in the region to promote sustainable development. *** Today. and the early involvement of all these countries can only enrich the Organization. (…) Therefore.Brasilia. of course. takes Office”. these South American States – and I also include here France. we share several ecosystems. not from the lack of. (…) I feel that we have to work together. to how important it is for all other South American countries to participate. without. cultural and rich individual characteristics that are particular to the Amazon region.SOUTH AMERICA
Rosalía Arteaga. various river basins in the region are interconnected. because it is also part of this region – should consider themselves as associate States in practical terms. and I should go so far as to say within Latin America in a broader sense because these regions are not mutually exclusive. We really have to coordinate these instruments.Brasilia. January 11. *** The Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization establishes a juridical landmark that will guide cooperation among Amazon countries. not just as observers. as we have done in the past. but as members of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization. here in South America. we have a problem that results.
By these means. *** (Presidents Lula and Kirchner) Resolved to establish a system to exchange diplomatic civil servants between the Ministries of
. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Argentine Parliament during a ceremony to honor Brazil . “Ceremony to Commemorate the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization” Brasilia. 2005. the Member States decided to create the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
improve the quality of life for the populations of Amazonas and to defend their immense natural heritage.Buenos Aires. October 16. above all – summoning everyone to build a great community that will have as its principal asset the extraordinary quality of our people. 2003. including a Permanent Secretariat. Press release. ACTO is also one of the regional organisms that supported the creation of the Community of South American Nations (CASA). established in Brasilia in 2002. (…) Brazil and Argentina have the economic potential. In 1998. history. August 29.
ARGENTINA The true partnership that we will build between Brazil and Argentina will depend largely on our capacity to mobilize hearts and minds – of young people. intellectual reserves. ACTO was able to count on an institutional mechanism to accelerate the process of Amazon cooperation and integration. ethics and morals to move forward a great integration project that will preserve our identities while adding to them a new and enlightened dimension.
*** Relations between Brazil and Argentina are of vital necessity if the dream of an economically prosperous and socially just future is to become a tangible reality for everybody in this part of the world. Both realize the importance of establishing a mechanism for close cooperation between Diplomatic and Consular Representatives in both countries. March 16. To this end. which initiated the process of regional integration. in 1985. 2004. article by Minister Celso Amorim and
. to commemorate the meeting that was held on this date. signed by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Néstor Kirchner . in Foz do Iguaçu. “November 30 and the Friendship between Brazil and Argentina”. and to find a better way to settle issues in various areas of mutual interest. The Act of Copacabana. when they signed the “Iguaçu Declaration”. our respective Ministries of External Relations will instruct the acredited Heads of Mission to third countries to hold meetings every two moths to coordinate and exchange opinions and information. but we will also have made a valuable contribution towards the consolidation of Mercosur and helped accelerate the process of South American integration.SOUTH AMERICA
External Relations of both countries with the objective of facilitating and ensuring that dialogue is exchanged more rapidly between both Governments. we will not only have achieved a goal that is in both our national interests. If we are able to strengthen our relations even further.Rio de Janeiro. between Presidents Raúl Alfonsin and José Sarney. (…) We have agreed to establish a “Day of Argentina-Brazil Friendship” on November 30 of each year.
the stronger Argentina becomes. of Argentina. November 30.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Chancellor Rafael Vielsa. the stronger Argentina will become. November 30. attracting investments and internationalizing our business interests (. during the celebration of 20 years of approximation between Brazil and Argentina.Paulo newspaper . Likewise. the stronger Brazil is.) More than any other country. and the stronger Argentina and Brazil become... 2005.São Paulo. we are forging ties of integration that are centered on technological innovation and competitive gains. the stronger Paraguay will be. 2005. the stronger Bolivia will be and the stronger the whole of South America will become. the stronger Brazil will be. *** Brazil wishes to have a strong and confident Argentina as its partner. promoted by Presidents José Sarney and Raúl Alfonsín . in the Folha de S. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the signing of acts and delivery of a press statement. we bear in mind the regional interest in obtaining a rapid solution to the prolonged
. the stronger Uruguay will be. one that is guided by the creativity of its people and by the manufacturing talents and technical capacity of its industry. We want Argentina to be our partner in opening up new foreign trade frontiers. Argentina needs to recover the productive capacity it once had on our Continent and. By means of bi-national productive chains.
THE MALVINAS / THE FALKLAND ISLANDS We (the Presidents of the Rio Group) hereby reaffirm our support in favor of the legitimate rights of the Argentine Republic in the sovereignty dispute relating to the question of the Malvinas Islands.Puerto Iguazú.
PARAGUAY With regard to our relations with Paraguay. for us. working shoulder to shoulder with their Paraguayan brothers.Asuncion. have managed to transform a good part of the Paraguayan interior into one of the most promising agricultural regions of South America. an initial landmark in our process of integration. to our fellow-countrymen who live in this Country. and especially to those who come from the poorer social classes.SOUTH AMERICA
dispute between Argentina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with regard to the sovereignty of the aforementioned territories. it is there that Brazilian workers have established themselves in our common frontier region and who. November 5.Rio de Janeiro. 2003. Paraguay. without a doubt. 2004. Joint Communiqué by the Presidents of the Rio Group concerning the Malvinas Islands . ***
. through our diplomatic and consular channels. in accordance with the resolutions and declaration of the United Nations and Organization of American States (OAS). one of our major priorities is to provide assistance. there is little that can be said that will not sound commonplace. April 7. But it would not be too much to reaffirm again that. It is there that we have the Bi-national Itaipu (Hydroelectric Dam). Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the formal session at the Paraguyan Centre for International Studies . While we are grateful to the Paraguayan people for the fraternal hospitality that they have offered to Brazilians who work here with determination for the prosperity of the country. is a very close and special ally.
which have smaller economies. we also know – and I often say this when I am in Brazil – that Brazil has often seen itself as a smaller country than it really is – and in all regards. This alone would be enough to demonstrate that the relationship between Brazil and Paraguay must be a strategic one. on the other hand. November 23. to be forged more than ever in the intransigent defense of democracy. but an ever-present reality). Furthermore.Asuncion. 2006. the commitment to fight hunger and poverty and in the integration of our continent. We need only mention two things (…): the Itaipu (Hydroelectric Dam).000 Brazilians who live in Paraguay – the second largest Brazilian community outside Brazil. in the search for sustained development. that produces 25% of all electricity consumed in Brazil. and the 400.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Our relationship with Paraguay is of special strategic importance. from now on. it did not take on its responsibility — as the largest country. the protection of human rights. It was never very ambitious on a global level and. which is a historical alliance. Ambassador Rúben Ramírez . we are determined to offer a new quality to the relationship that exists between Brazil and Uruguay. With these principles in mind. a joint project (built in another era. Brazil and Uruguay will increasingly operate in a more coordinated way
. Opening statement by Minister Celso Amorim at a press conference held jointly with the Paraguayan Minister of External Relations. (…) I have no doubt that.
URUGUAY We want the alliance between Brazil and Uruguay. with the largest regional economy — with its partners.
If we want to ensure that biodiesel is transformed into the fuel energy matrix. then we must create the necessary conditions so that a part. If we want to create digital TV jointly with Uruguay.Brasilia.SOUTH AMERICA
at international forums and I would like to take advantage of this occasion to welcome the entry of Uruguay into the G-20. (…) Brazil must take on its responsibility as the largest economy in Mercosur and Brazil must therefore create conditions. Important foreign trade is not when one country gains a great advantage over another in matters related to the balance of trade. then we must ensure that our entrepreneurs also
. Our countries share a high level of interest in issues that are of the greatest importance.) If we want Uruguay to participate as a member of Mercosur. then we need to share this with our Uruguayan brothers. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the signing of acts during the State Visit of the President of Uruguay. part of this process must be carried out with the participation of Uruguay. but above all we need to buy. If we want to sell buses to Uruguay. Venezuela.. *** International politics is always a two-way road.Tabaré Vázquez . a component of these buses is produced here in Uruguay. 2005. without extending any favors. so that development will also be as fairly balanced as possible. to ensure that trade is as fairly balanced as possible.. we need to sell. thereby guaranteeing that the Mercosur (countries) speak with one voice in multilateral trade negotiations. (…). (. Bolivia and all other countries on an equal footing. or when one country is highly developed and the other is not. alongside Paraguay. April 1.
the United States of America. democratic. for Peace and Democracy in Venezuela” by the Government and the opposition. (…) The Group of Friends is concerned with any facts or attitudes that may bring negative influences to bear on the building of confidence between the Venezuelan Government and the opposition. so as to ensure a peaceful. formed by Brazil. “Communiqué from the OAS Secretary General’s Group of Friends of Venezuela”. The Group will continue to work to encourage the Government of Venezuela and the opposition to continue along a path of understanding. 2003. Chile. Spain. 2007.
VENEZUELA The OAS Secretary General’s Group of Friends of Venezuela has stressed that progress has been made on February 18. constitutional and electoral solution to the situation. and reiterates a call for moderate rhetoric and the avoidance of mutual recriminations. 2003.Estância de Anchor ena.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
understand that they need to find partners — mainly in sectors that may boost our technological know-how — so as to justify the political blocs that are being created throughout the world.
. February 28. Press release. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the signing of acts during his visit to Ur uguay . with the signing of a “Declaration against Violence. Ur uguay. *** The OAS Secretary General’s Group of Friends of Venezuela. February 26.
“Communiqué of the OAS Secretary General’s Group of Friends of Venezuela regarding the Agreement between the Government and the opposition’s Democratic Coordinator” .Brasilia. We have just recently outlined ambitious objectives in all these areas. and promoting an atmosphere of confidence that will contribute towards consolidating the democratic conviviality amongst the Venezuelan people. with regard to the implementation of this Agreement. We are establishing partnerships in the areas of oil
. Press release. May 27. The Group of Friends underlines the significance that this Agreement has in reinforcing a climate of peace and understanding in Venezuela. (…) The countries that form the Group of Friends reiterate their firm determination to continue to offer whatever support and collaboration that may be asked of them. expresses its great satisfaction with the conclusion of the Agreement between representatives of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and the political and social forces that support the government. What Petrobrás –(the Brazilian Petroleum Corporation) and PDVSA (the Venezuelan State Oil Company) can do together in Brazil. the increase in the trade of goods and services and the integration of infra-structure. has inestimable potential. within the ambit of the Negotiations and Agreement Table. and the political and civil society organizations that support the opposition’s Democratic Coordinator.SOUTH AMERICA
Mexico and Portugal. in Venezuela and in third countries. 2003. *** Our strategic alliance is solidly supported on three pillars: political dialogue. I wish to stress the enormous importance that our association represents in the field of energy.
refining. health. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the signing of Acts of Cooperation between Brazil and Venezuela. transport and commercialization. stable climates. (…) Extensive common frontiers. In order to achieve this. In contrast.. housing and access to cultural resources.Caracas. a plan and joint program that will satisfy the vital needs of their people. We will also explore in depth the complementary nature of our systems to generate hydroelectric energy. of economic. 2005. These include enough food to eat. We will work together to produce renewable fuels. a rich cultural foundation. such impressive physical and human potential today
. *** Brazil and Venezuela understand that the fundamental objective they have in common is to reduce and eliminate the poverty that affects thousands of their citizens and is the greatest obstacle to the strengthening and prosperity of our nations. extensive seas that open up routes of communication. education. social and political thought. This is our Great Homeland. natural resources. but also towards the joint development of science and technology. and all that which sums up the possibilities that exist for the prosperity of our people. February 14.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
exploration. (…) We also have significant plans for the aeronautic sector and a platform for cooperation in the military area. We will endeavor to cooperate not only in the surveillance and defense of the Amazon and its resources. such as biodiesel and ethanol. vast territorial areas crossed by important river systems. both Governments have agreed to implement a strategy. human potential that has been expressed throughout history in the fields of science. valuable energy resources.
The way to successfully face this challenge is to join forces to overcome and to triumph over these deprivations. (…) From a Brazilian point of view. the accession of Venezuela to Mercosur will add to the Venezuela-Brazil Strategic Alliance.something we especially value. We also want Venezuela to be part of Mercosur so as to contribute towards the present process to form a Community of South American Nations . This will help Mercosur to be seen as the spinal cord of South American integration.Caracas. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the signing of the Protocol of Accession to enable Venezuela to become a permanent Member of Mercosur . and in matters related to energy cooperation.SOUTH AMERICA
serves as a mere background to the poverty that afflicts our people. we will join our voices to help change the rules and procedures that do not meet the needs of our region. as well as to the exceptional growth of our nations in areas of trade. Joint Communiqué regarding the implementation of a Strategic Alliance between Brazil and Venezuela Caracas. such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization. This is the main challenge for our nations and leaders. 2006. The expansion of our political bloc of nations as far as the Caribbean reinforces the view that Mercosur is a Continental reality. February 14. July 4. on a path leading towards union and posterity. In international forums. 2005. *** The adherence of Venezuela to the Treaty of Asuncion is more that just a vote of confidence in the strength of our common project.
a country with which it has its most extensive borders. issues on the
.. Evo Morales. 2004. The frequent meetings held between officials from both countries testify to the importance of this relationship. Press release. as well as a technological cooperation project involving natural gas. *** President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva has received today (13/01) at the Planalto Presidential Palace the visit of the elected President of Bolivia. reciprocal access to ports and airports. The Brazilian Government has made efforts to consolidate its relationship with Bolivia in the field of energy. the Bolivian debt with Brazil will be officially pardoned. During the visit (of President Lula to Bolivia). amongst other matters. who has come to Brazil as part of a series of visits to different countries in the world. During this meeting. near the cities of Corumbá and Puerto Suárez. “Working Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Santa Cruz de la Sierra.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
BOLIVIA Brazil gives the highest priority to its relations with Bolivia.) The agenda for the President’s visit will also include the financing of infrastructure projects to promote physical integration. including the installation of a Center for Gas Technologies in Bolivia.. and legalization and migration issues. Bolivia” Brasilia. (. July 7. founded on a solid process of physical and energy integration. improvements in the living conditions of populations inhabiting towns along the border. There is a proposal to implement a construction project for a chemical-gas plant to be located in the border region. (…) The visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Santa Cruz de la Sierra therefore demonstrates the Brazilian Government’s interest in maintaining a preferential partnership with Bolivia.
(…) President Lula also told Evo Morales of his renewed determination to establish closer cooperation relations between Bolivia and Mercosur. transport and sale of these. The decision of the Bolivian Government to nationalize its rich underground resources and to control the industrialization. President Lula stressed the willingness of the Brazilian Government to consolidate this relationship. In accordance with the terms of its Constitution. Press release issued by the Planalto Presidential Palace. infrastructure. January 13. “President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Evo Morales renew the partnership between Brazil and Bolivia” Brasilia. so as to strengthen the industrialization of Bolivia and to turn gas into a means of generating employment and reducing the social inequalities that exist in both countries. The supply of gas to Brazil was highlighted as being strategic for the partnership that exists between both countries. 2006. Brazil also exercises full control over its own rich underground resources. The Brazilian Government will act with firmness and serenity in all tribunals. the expansion of investments and the development of social programs. as this involves an important element for the Brazilian energy matrix and for the development of Bolivia. agricultural cooperation.SOUTH AMERICA
bilateral agenda were advanced. such as those involving trade. *** The Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline has been in operation for seven years. On this occasion. is recognized by Brazil as being an inherent sovereign right. President Lula reiterated the efforts being made by the Brazilian Government to enhance its relations with Bolivia. in order to preserve the interests of Petrobrás – the Brazilian Petroleum Corporation. and to move forward with the necessary negotiations to guarantee an equal and
. as a result of negotiations undertaken by successive governments over the past fifty years.
May 2. we need to work on projects together. equality and progress for everyone and. it was clarified that the issue of the price of gas will be resolved by means of bilateral negotiations. *** If we want Bolivia to join Mercosur then it will certainly join Mercosur. the Bolivian people can count on. Finally. On this same occasion. September 14. (…) Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the session to constitute the Mercosur Parliament . we need to work on development. 2006. the Brazilian Government wishes to clarify that the supply of natural gas to its market is guaranteed by the political will of both countries. The Presidents (of Brazil and Bolivia) should meet during the next few days to carefully examine questions concerning the relationship between Bolivia and Brazil and energy security in South America..Brasilia. *** Bolivia and Brazil are moving forward together in the search for a model of development which ensures greater democracy. as well as by contractual precepts protected under International Law. Press release issued by the Planalto Presidential Palace . On this journey. for those who are excluded from society.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
mutually advantageous relationship for both countries. justice. above all. the solidarity and support of
. as has been reiterated by President Morales during a telephone conversation with President Lula. and will always count on.Brasilia. we have to be conscious of the fact that we need to help Bolivia. 2006.
Brazil to help them find their own course. 2007. Evo Morales . We have great potential for common initiatives that are yet to be explored.Brasilia.
. February 15. In such a strong relationship. But these are small differences compared with that which unites us. and not all our priorities and solutions will be the same. our points of view may not always coincide with one another. Press statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State visit of the President of Bolivia.
At the same time. Lecture by Minister Celso Amorim given by the interim Minister of State. and leads the movement for the liberalization and elimination of distortions in agriculture.Rio de Janeiro. with a view to promoting discussions for a regional industrial policy. in so far as the new leaders are demonstrating their commitment to Mercosur. The four members of Mercosur comprise the Cairns Group. As well as demonstrating democratic vitality within the ambit of the bloc. Brazil is prepared to do its part. the recent elections in Argentina and Paraguay may be considered as auspicious for the consolidation project to unify customs practices so as to form a common market. Mercosur has put forward joint proposals to negotiating groups such as those involved in agriculture and the service industry. 2003. May 21. we feel it is essential to preserve an adequate level of coordination among members of this bloc of nations in the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) negotiations. which brings together competitive agricultural exporters from the developed and developing worlds. (…). during the 15th National Forum .MERCOSUR
The strengthening of Mercosur. ***
. which is a priority in its own right and the foundation of the integration project for South America. Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. should also be reflected in a coordinated action of our political bloc of nations in negotiations with partners outside the region. by supporting substantial investments by Brazilian companies in the region. not allowing bureaucracy to overwhelm the politics involved in the process and. In the World Trade Organization. as the largest economy within Mercosur.
We should follow a path of articulation between our systems of production. *** We have always believed in Mercosur. This is the Mercosur that our people want. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 24th Mercosur Summit . (…) Mercosur is at the center of Brazil’s strategy to ensure our rightful place in the world. But Mercosur must also be a place for the coordination of issues involving industrial. and that guarantees the free circulation of our people. October 16. participative. agricultural. We should propitiate a profound system of integration between our universities and scientific institutions and encourage cultural contacts between our societies. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Argentine Parliamentary session in honor of Brazil Buenos Aires. of partnerships in the areas of education and culture within our bloc of nations. We understand that its success is a sign that it has fulfilled its role as a union of common customs practices. 2003. of well-coordinated social policies. And this is the Mercosur that we defended in our election campaign. This is the Mercosur that our people want. June 18. We have to make Mercosur into a participative democracy. that also takes on a social dimension.Asuncion. 2003. so that a true sense of identity with Mercosur can blossom amongst the citizens of our countries. ***
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We have to make Mercosur democratic. scientific and technological policies. We will enhance the creation of common institutions.
2005. as well as by allowing new countries to join (the organization). Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the Debate “Brazil: A Global Player” . traditions and a shared future. we would like to stress that South American integration should be promoted in the interests of all. on the contrary. In this respect. Greater autonomy of decision will enable us to face the destabilizing movements of speculative financial capital more effectively.Paris. thereby increasing our capacity for negotiation. social justice and the dignity of its citizens.Buenos Aires. it constitutes an area that brings together values. October 16. *** Mercosur cannot be reduced to just a free trade zone or even a unified Customs area. Mercosur is destined to become an effective area of economic. July 13. Consensus of Buenos Aires. signed by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Néstor Kirchner . 2003. our Governments are working to strengthen Mercosur by improving its trade institutions and political aspects. It is our understanding that regional integration is a strategic option that is needed to strengthen the inclusion of our countries on a world level. For these reasons. with the objective of establishing similar systems of development that are associated with growth. ***
. political and cultural integration and to construct new and wider forms of citizenship. as well as the opposing interests of more developed blocs of nations.MERCOSUR
We reaffirm our deep conviction that Mercosur is not just a trade bloc but. so that together our voices will be heard in various forums and multilateral organisms.
2006.Caracas. strengthening and expansion of Mercosur (…). financial and social areas directed towards the consolidation.. in support of the economic efficiency of the region as well as to improve the level of development of the respective economies.. which include coordinating and/or using the services of financing organisms for regional and national multilateral development. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the Signing of the Protocol of Accession for Venezuela to become a Full-Member of Mercosur . July 4. We recognize the particular importance of joint initiatives to consolidate financial strategies for our bloc of nations. Joint Communiqué from the Ministers attending the Meeting of Ministers of Finance of Member and Associate States of Mercosur . for regional production chains and to develop connected infrastructure projects.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Combined difficulties are inherent to all innovative projects. ***
. We reaffirm (…) our confidence in Mercosur as an instrument to stimulate sustainable economic growth and the distribution of income and the strengthening of regional democratic institutions. such as the integration of South America and especially Mercosur. 2006. *** The Ministers of Finance of the Member and Associate States of Mercosur reaffirm (. These should serve to stimulate our creativity and political intelligence.) the commitment of their respective countries to seek common denominators in economic. September 1.Rio de Janeiro.
not even the strongest of our countries is able to resolve by itself the contradictions which afflict our societies. *** Mercosur was created based on the conviction that. and cooperation in scientific and technological matters. social inclusion. social development. the prevention of conflicts. Our joint efforts are essential to promote development with decent employment. and are perhaps even more evident today. money laundering and other forms of transnational organized crime. 2006.Brasilia. drug trafficking and associated crimes. ***
. The reasons that gave rise to our association still remain at the forefront. the strengthening of multilateralism. 2007. cohesion and elimination of poverty. January 19. in particular within the ambit of the system of the United Nations. the promotion of international security.MERCOSUR
Political dialogue will include the following issues. justice and social inclusion. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the 32nd Mercosur Summit . Memorandum of Understanding to Establish a Mechanism for the Political Dialogue and Cooperation between Member and Associate States of Mercosur and the Federation of Russia . political and social point of view. in a complex and unequal world such as the one we live in. December 15. cooperation in the fight against terrorism. disarmament and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. peace and international stability. amongst others: an analysis of problems related to the defense of democracy and human rights. it was essential that countries such as ours joined together to face the difficulties imposed by asymmetric globalization from an economic.Rio de Janeiro. Our union is necessary.
We approved the first 11 projects within the ambit of the Mercosur Structural Convergence Fund (FOCEM). Rio de Janeiro played host to one of the most important Mercosur summit meetings ever held.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
A few days ago. which have had a spectacular increase in recent years. The presence of 11 South American Heads of State clearly demonstrates the priority that everyone gives to the process of integration. (…) The active participation of the Ministers of Finance gave a boost to discussions regarding the coordination of macroeconomic policies and the strengthening of regional financing mechanisms. We set up the Social Institute and the Training Institute. and possibly the most relevant one. with direct trade benefits. Important decisions were taken to strengthen and expand Mercosur. With the establishment of its Parliament.
. The significant investment provided by the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) to CAF will increase the number of projects directed towards the physical integration of South America. in December. 2007. January 29. thereby helping to tackle the regional imbalances among member countries.
THE MERCOSUR PARLIAMENT The creation of this Parliament is an initiative. Most of these projects will benefit Uruguay and Paraguay. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in Isto É magazine. to attain this level of approximation (within Mercosur). “Heading towards South American Integration”. and of the Social Summit meeting. involving a sum of approximately US$70 million. and has made a decisive step to place itself more and more at the service of its people. It represents a historical landmark in our bloc of nations. Mercosur is no longer limited by governments and bureaucracies.
it will make it much easier to incorporate Mercosur rulings into domestic juridical actions. It therefore reinforces a common identity of our association. this Parliament will help make this process of integration more legitimate and democratic. We know that the Mercosur Parliament will not have a legislative function. 2006.) This Parliament will also make an enormous contribution towards the creation of a common area that can express the political pluralism and cultural diversity of our region. we can move ahead with our plan for a supra-nationality. depending on how deep the roots of Mercosur are planted within our societies. It contributes towards the consolidation of a sense of regional citizenship. in the future.MERCOSUR
It helps strengthen the political dimension of integration. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the session to constitute the Mercosur Parliament .
. As we reflect upon the pluralism and the diversity of our peoples.. when legislative approval is necessary. at least not initially. It will serve as an important political laboratory so that. But it will play a decisive role in advancing the conciliation of national legislation in a variety of areas. It will not superimpose itself above the National Congresses of each Member State. following the great integration experiences that are taking place in the world today. inaugurated a new stage in the institutional history of our bloc of nations. bringing together the communities and institutions of our people. (. *** The establishment of the Mercosur Parliament. It will consolidate our regional citizenship. This Parliament will consolidate the representative democracy and social legitimacy of the efforts we have made towards integration.. December 14. on December 14 of last year.Brasilia. And.
its debates. using standards still to be determined simultaneously and by direct universal vote in all its Member-States. with its proposals. In 2010.Rio de Janeiro. which enabled Mercosur to have “its own identity”. on an executive level.Montevideo.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the 32nd Mercosur Summit . above all. Now we have created this Parliament. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Opening Session of the Mercosur Parliament . we can safely say that the recent meeting held in Ouro Preto marked an important moment
. Brazil will continue to work to strengthen the institutions that will enable Mercosur to become an ever present reality in the world and. we will elect its members according to the concept of citizen representation. 2007. We already have a Permanent Review Court (Olivos). We have the Mercosur Common Market Group . increasingly more palpable to our people. Brazil (…) will continue to do all that is within its power to help improve all instances of Mercosur.CMC and its multiple bodies. January 19. *** The (Mercosur) Parliament will increase the juridical (legal) security of the (integration) process and will contribute. in accordance with the will of society. The Mercosur Parliament is a reality in evolution. May 7. towards consolidating and perfecting our bloc of nations. We created the office of the President of the Commission of Permanent Representatives. 2007 DEALING WITH ASYMMETRIES THE MERCOSUR STRUCTURAL CONVERGENCE FUND (FOCEM) Summing-up the advances that have been made.
. particularly in the more deprived regions of our bloc of nations. will enable financing for projects. in the O Estado de São Paulo newspaper. Article by Minister Celso Amorim. December 28. (…) Occasional differences.MERCOSUR
in the consolidation of Mercosur. within the ambit of the Brazilian Program for the Competitive Substitution of Imports (PSCI). promote Paraguayan products on the Brazilian market. as well as stimulate Brazilian investments in Paraguay. and which can be summarized by the following sentence: “the solution for Mercosur problems should be sought by furthering Mercosur”.
PARAGUAY (The Presidents of Brazil and Paraguay) effected the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding for Trade Promotion and Investment between both countries. will help increase the entry of Paraguayan exports into Brazil. 2004. arising from economic imbalances. the development of competitiveness and promotion of social cohesion. Significant progress has been made in economic-trade and political-social areas. The Fund can also be used to help strengthen the institutional structure of Mercosur and to contribute towards the general process of integration. (the Presidents) expressed their hopes that the activities of the Working Group. will still be dealt with in the same spirit that has inspired us so far. to be created under this instrument. Bearing in mind the imbalances that exist in trade relations between Brazil and Paraguay. an initiative that has been recognized for the positive impact it has had on the bilateral economic agenda. “From Ouro Preto to Ouro Preto”. in the institutional field and in foreign relations. (…) The initiative to create the Mercosur Structural Convergence Fund (FOCEM) in turn.
at their earliest convenience. Joint Communiqué during the Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Uruguay – Montevideo. February 26. 2007. they noted with satisfaction the results of the First Meeting of the “Ad Hoc” Working Group.
. In this respect.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Joint Declaration during the Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Paraguay . 2006. held in Asuncion on February 7. (…) The Brazilian Government reiterated its proposal to make the original rules more flexible so as to favor the smaller economies of Mercosur. they stressed the importance that Party States present concrete proposals. to serve as a basis for the preparation of “Guidelines for a Plan to Overcome Asymmetries in Mercosur”.
URUGUAY (The Presidents of Brazil and Uruguay) reaffirmed their commitment to enhance the productive integration of Mercosur and to use efficient mechanisms to overcome any asymmetries.Asuncion. set up at the level of Vice-Ministers to discuss the matter . May 21. In the light of terms established in article 03 of CMC Decision 34/06.
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Brazil is very similar to the Caribbean: a land of many cultures. social inclusion and to reduce poverty in many poor countries of the world. (…) Brazil is prepared to move boldly forward. *** The increased use of biofuels will be an inestimable contribution to generate income. February 16. We have the second largest population of African descendents in the world. only second to Nigeria. Suriname. in the Caribbean countries and in Africa. (…) We are mature enough for an alliance that can help us achieve our cooperation potential in the fight for a fairer and more united world. with flexibility and generosity to further this association. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening session of the 16th Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community (Caricom) Paramaribo. Central America. Like the Caribbean. above all in South America. We will encourage the circulation of goods and services and we will seek greater inter-regional agreements on all levels.CENTRAL AMERICA. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO
I feel the time has come to establish a solid partnership between Brazil and the countries of the Caribbean. we are proud to have provided a refuge for a great many European and Asian immigrants. 2005. We will stimulate business and cooperation projects that go beyond our trade relations.
. Miscegenation and the harmonious co-existence (of our peoples) are a hallmark of our identities. We want to see biomasses generate sustainable development.
*** In addition to South America. An option that also extends to the whole of Latin America and the Caribbean.
. 2007. at the beginning of this year. April 26. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the closing session of the World Economic Forum on Latin America . George W. March 9. countries belonging to the Central American Integration System (SICA) and with Mexico. The universalistic mission of Brazilian foreign policy is reflected in the Brazilian Government’s interest in intensifying contacts and maintaining a mature and mutually beneficial relationship with countries of all regions. Bush Guarulhos. Brazil is making every effort to diversify its partners and to get closer to developing countries. one that is non-excluding and genuinely global. Therefore. South-South cooperation has a wider meaning: it helps to construct a new world geography. 2007. São Paulo.Santiago. Brazil wishes to have closer relations with the Caribbean Community (Caricom). I said that Brazil had made an option for South America.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Statement given to the press by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva after his visit to Transpetro with the President of the United States. I am convinced that our region is more and more prepared to deal with the challenges of globalization. We are conscious of the fact that the destiny of our countries is becoming more and more intertwined. As well as encouraging direct contact and bringing together countries that share common views and interests. *** In Davos.
that will take me to Jamaica and to Panama.Brasilia. 2007. with sacrifices. we no longer have the cold wars of the 20th century. in the 21st century. and without any bias against wealthy countries. we have conquered freedom.CENTRAL AMERICA. *** I said to President Calderon: if we look at the map of Latin America we will see that. Statement given to the Press by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. And it is now necessary to transform those magical words “freedom and democracy” into enough food to fill the bellies of the poor who live on our Continent. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO
Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines. during his visit to Honduras . August 7. with victims. And. the men who rule the world now. And therefore. into greater life and hope expectancy for our people. ***
. For once and for all. who joined our Continent. it was men who divided the Continent. we have to learn how to discover. more salaries and. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . into more education for poor people. we no longer have the same colonization policy of the 19th century. amongst ourselves. the opportunities that we have to offer each other. more jobs. above all. 2007. have to think differently from the men who ruled the world in the 19th century and in the 20th century. it was God. because I like all of them and want to maintain our good relations. at great cost.Tegucigalpa. These were the convictions that brought me to Honduras. And these same convictions will lead me to visit other countries during the next few months. that will take me to Nicaragua. or in the region of Panama. May 4. however narrow our map is in this region. After all. in all His omnipotence.
we want to govern by our own decisions. who conquered our independence. Instability. even when far away. we believe that the conditions required of a United Nations operation have been complied with. Brazil seeks to reflect the concerns of our region and interpret the interests of the Haitian people and of the international community. and this price is participation. 2007. you may be certain that Brazil can establish many partnerships with Nicaragua and.
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For my part. we want to maintain relations with all the countries in the world. without any hegemonic aspects involved. ends up generating a cost for us all. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during his meeting with the President of Nicarágua. because this history of hegemony is what led to our being colonized during so many centuries.Manágua.
HAITI1 Peace and democracy are achievements which the governments and people of Latin American should be proud of. Daniel Ortega . we want this to be viewed as a partnership. but above all. we are exercising our responsibility in an international context. We must only ensure that we do justice to our heroes. see article referring to the peace mission. This encourages us to work on the promotion of peace on a global level. In the case of Haiti. When we express ourselves in the face of a crisis such as is occurring in Haiti. We want our own sovereignty. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to mark the departure of (Brazilian) military
For further information about MINUSTAH. August 8. Maintaining peace has its price. As a member of the Security Council.
“The Foreign Policy of the Lula Government: Two Years”. November 25. 2004.CENTRAL AMERICA. There will be no reconciliation or peace in Haiti unless we adopt this integrated perspective. May 31. In addition. article by Minister Celso Amorim . This Stabilization Mission is different from previous ones. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO
troops on a peace mission to Haiti . The Brazilian Government has also urged other States to increase their cooperation with Haiti. Our main motivation in assuming the leadership of the military forces of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) was that Haiti. and. *** A concern for peace and social justice is reflected in the commitment undertaken by the Lula Government in support of the United Nations efforts in Haiti. The international community. should be based on three pillars: the promotion of stability.Plenarium Magazine. and the institutional. social and economic empowerment of the country. amongst others. technical training and the environment. *** Brazil has helped Haiti with bilateral cooperation in areas of food safety and security. should not be abandoned to a vicious circle of instability and conflict. public administration. the first black republic in the world. Brazil has mobilized efforts by regional and international organisms so that Haiti could obtain the necessary resources and support to resume its process of development. especially with development resources that will directly or indirectly benefit the poorer members of the Haitian population. in particular
. the establishment of dialogue between the different political factions. in our understanding.Brasilia. 2005.
We were very pleased to receive news of the normalization of relationships between Haiti and CARICOM. ***
. as a sovereign state.Santiago. . Brazil has made every effort to ensure that Haiti again resumes dialogue and cooperation with its neighboring countries. therefore. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the “High Level Seminar on Peace-Keeping Missions” . January 16.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Latin America and Caribbean countries. that dialogue is initiated with regard to this situation. the concept of a State.Brasilia.
CUBA Reference has been made here to an empty seat in our organization. *** We need to think of Haiti as a country. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 33rd OAS General Assembly . within the concept of a nation. with the support of other countries. February 5. and these projects should be included. 2007. as from July 2006. and not as a collection of projects. 2003. Press release “Brazil’s Participation in the United Nations Mission in Haiti” . has repeatedly shown its recognition and appreciation of Brazil’s contribution to MINUSTAH. We are convinced that no country can live isolated from the region in which it is located. which only the Haitians can decide themselves. 2006. Brazil therefore proposes. We also consider this to be an anomaly and we also lament the fact that this is so. June 9.Brasilia.
I have invited Brazilian entrepreneurs to visit Cuba. For this reason.) I believe that what we are doing in this Seminar is taking an exceptional step (forward) so that Cuba and Brazil can interact with all their (respective) scientific and technological knowledge. above all. so that we can increase. economically and industrially more developed. A policy of constructive cooperation is always better than one of isolation.CENTRAL AMERICA. July 24. We cannot substitute the Cuban people and their leaders. For example. but we can contribute towards (creating) a more positive atmosphere. as it stands now. we are against the death penalty. so that we can have the means to compete on a more equal footing with countries that are technologically. (…) The globalized world. their industrial development potential. During recent months. it requires the ability to bring together all that we have by way of our complementarities. THE CARIBBEAN AND MEXICO
The end of the United States embargo on Cuba would greatly help to open discussions concerning the re-democratization of that country. But there are certain limits that have to be respected. and their potential in the area of services and tourism. and build closer ties so as to mutually contribute towards the growth and development of both Cuba and Brazil.
. The more you isolate a country. for forty years has suffered an embargo with which we do not agree. 2003.Rio de Janeiro. We have discussed certain gestures. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the Jornal do Brasil newspaper . needs not only bolder trade policies but.. the more rigid their internal structures become. *** (. against summary judgments. we maintain a policy of solidarity with a Latin American country which..
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Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the Cuba-Brazil Meeting of Entrepreneurs - Havana, September 27, 2003. *** The Brazilian Delegation decided to abstain from voting on the Resolution L31 project because it understands that this resolution does not, in the present circumstances, genuinely contribute towards improving the situation of human rights in Cuba. (…) In this respect, we wish to express our concern that the Commission has been used by some member-countries to criticize others or to avoid criticisms of their own situations, which reduces the contribution that this Commission can make towards the progressive development of human rights. Brazil reaffirms the importance that all States should guarantee the strict enforcement of all human rights, in accordance with the commitment undertaken in the 1993 Declaration of Vienna, in favor of universality, inter-independence and the indivisibility of human rights. During the on-going dialogue with the Cuban Government, the importance invested in the full observance of these principles will be duly expressed. In this respect, the advances seen in Cuba in the field of economic, social and cultural rights have been duly registered, as well as the recent decisions taken by the Cuban Government to free political prisoners and to encourage new measures to be adopted to ensure that full human rights are enforced in economic, social and cultural, as well as in civil and political issues. Declaration of Brazil’s vote at the United Nations Human Rights Commission in Geneva, transcribed in a press release dated April 14, 2005.
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MEXICO The Presidents (Lula and Felipe Calderón) reiterate their firm disposition, as expressed throughout various meetings held during this year, to raise their bilateral relations to a new level, encouraging political dialogue and enhancing their relationship within the economic, financial, trade, legal, consular, cultural, academic, technical and scientific-technological spheres. In this respect, they expressed their satisfaction with the results achieved so far in several of these areas, and established follow-up measures with a view to achieving a successful outcome and consolidation of concrete objectives. They recognize the importance that this bilateral relationship has for both Brazil and Mexico, not only because of its impact on each individual country, but also as a basis for the significant role that both countries carry out on a regional and world level. In this respect, they reaffirmed the profound Latin American vocation of their countries and expressed a firm determination to give special attention to (establishing) friendship, dialogue, political reconciliation and cooperation with all countries in the region. Joint Communiqué during President Lula’s State visit to Mexico - Mexico City, August 6, 2007. *** We are megadiverse and megacultural countries. In both countries, our people have increasingly proven to be active participants in bringing about great social and political processes of change. (…) President Calderón and I agree that we should actively and work together with our Latin American and Caribbean neighbors. To this end, we can count on the long tradition of political understanding (that exists) in regional and sub-regional mechanisms in South America, Central America and the Caribbean. For our part, we have supported a process
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to create an economically integrated, socially united and politically democratic area within South America. Mexico has developed integration projects with its southern neighbors, with an emphasis on the creation of a physical infrastructure. Declaration by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the ceremony to mark the signing of acts and press conference - Mexico City. August 6, 2007.
THE UNITED STATES The fluid dialogue with the United States of America is of vital importance, not only in issues related to the economy and trade, which are of immediate interest to us, but also to ensure that we play a role in addressing the important issues on the international agenda, compatible with the size and values of our country. Speech given by Ambassador Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations Brasilia, January 1, 2003. *** I could not fail to make a special reference to our relationship with the United States, distinguished today by its sense of maturity. I met with President Bush when I was still President-elect. This year we were together in Evian and, more recently, we met in Washington for a bilateral meeting that was attended by our Ministers. During the talks we have had these last few days, my willingness to continue to cooperate with the United States was reinforced, in a spirit of pragmatism, frankness and loyalty that has been a distinguishing feature of the talks held between both Governments. (…) I even told President Bush that here in Brazil we are open to the idea of initiating talks (on trade negotiations) either tomorrow or the day after tomorrow. The only thing that we do not want is to be treated like second-class citizens. We want to be treated like equals. The same
Condoleezza (Rice) repeated the word “strategic” several times. If the United States of America felt there was an anti-American feeling. when referring to the relationship between the United States and Brazil. who witnessed the “Oil is Ours” campaign. *** Our attitude is a pragmatic one and we seek to defend Brazilian interests. But it is more than that. During this visit. do you think this would be the case? The facts speak for themselves. For those such as myself. *** The President of the USA. September 25. with a biofuel and biodiesel sticker on the back. There is no anti-American feeling. 2007. ethanol and biofuels were the focal point of interest. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the O Estado de S. are just as important as the interests of the United States are for the United States. (…) Symbolism is extremely important in politics. Quite the contrary. 2003. for Brazil.New York. Paulo newspaper . is the image that best summed up this visit.São Paulo.
. This was seen as an association that is important for both countries. wearing a Petrobrás hard hat. but a search for a dialogue about world matters.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
respect that we show others. February 11. for the global market and in matters of aid to other countries. it is the beginning of a great story. The search for partnerships is not just a discussion about bilateral agreements involving issues such as ethanol. because the interests of Brazil. we also want for ourselves. can appreciate the impact of this (image). It is also important that the Americans recognize the leadership of Brazil (in this area). Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Council on Foreign Relations .
cultural diversity. Press Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. *** Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and George W. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the O Globo newspaper .Camp David. 2007. which translate into a determination to increase bilateral cooperation. free trade. 2007. which is of interest to Brazil and certainly of interest to the United States. multilateralism.Camp David. *** I mentioned to President Bush the important role that the United States can play in South American countries. especially in those that need trade benefits. environmental protection. March 11. human rights. 31st March. We have to support them because this will guarantee regional stability.Rio de Janeiro. during his visit to the United States . Joint Declaration during the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the United States . Bush reaffirmed their commitment to furthering strategic talks between Brazil and the United States. March 31. It is extremely important that the United States support these countries. 2007. when seen in a long-term perspective. ***
. based on shared values at the level of democracy.NORTH AMERICA
The fact that Brazil is developing cooperation projects with the United States in Africa is important. the defense of peace and international security and the promotion of development with social justice.
Brasilia. Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the program “Breakfast with the President” . These efforts are crucial to guarantee the protection of food sources for large numbers of the world’s population. which in
CANADA Canada (. Another issue that unites Brazil and Canada is our firm commitment towards the environment.) is a decisive partner for Brazil in the search for sustainable development and equitable economic growth. Press statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to Brazil of Prime Minister Paul Martin . with Africa. November 23. we are now developing closer our ties with the United States.. 2004. with Latin America. I think that.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
My visit to Washington is almost a continuation of the visit that President Bush made to Brazil. which is something that I think in the next 15 to 20 years will change a little the history of humanity in matters related to fuels.. Our concern with sustainable development is reflected in our search for greater international coordination in the campaign to prohibit overfishing of world stocks. *** The Foreign Affairs Ministers view with satisfaction the dynamic nature of the economic relations between both countries. now that we have established good policies with South America. especially in the area of biofuels. with Asia and the European Union. April 2.Brasilia. 2007.
and that multilateralism should serve to protect human rights in its fullest sense. July 11. we have been able to overcome differences between our aeronautical industries and are now ready to build partnerships in strategic sectors. February 5. *** Canada has around US$ 7 billion invested in Brazil.. In this respect. Through a mature attitude.NORTH AMERICA
2006 recorded a significant increase of over 14% in trade exchange compared to 2005.. Michaëlle Jean . 2007.
. and with a considerable increase in the flow of investments. Peter MacKay Brasilia. the country in the region that receives their largest investments.Brasilia. they express the commitment of Brazil and Canada in their endeavors to join forces to further intensify their trade links and reciprocal investments. Press statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State visit to Brazil of the Governor-General of Canada. Joint Declaration during the visit to Brazil of the Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs. (. 2007.) Canada and Brazil have always conducted their international actions on the assumption that economic and social development is the greatest element of stability for peace and security.
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Quito. *** The Brazilian Government understands that the participation of the region. 2004. and will have. *** During the course of the work of the General Assembly the Brazilian delegation will reiterate. The OAS certainly has. Ecuador.Brasilia. 2003.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA
THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES (OAS) The Inter-American Juridical Commission (IJC) is the only body of the inter-American system based in Brasilia. especially of Latin America and the Caribbean. is essential to the resolution of problems that are at the root of the crisis in Haiti. June 7. The fact that space has been allocated for their headquarters within the Itamaraty Palace reflects the great importance that Brazil gives to OAS organisms as well as to the activities developed by that Commission. a role in this process. Press release “Minister Celso Amorim will inaugurate the new headquarters of the Inter-American Juridical Commission” . August 7. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 34th OAS General Assembly . before the community of countries in the Hemisphere. the importance of the project initiated by the Brazilian
and to the protection of refugees and those repatriated within the Americas. “Brazil and new Global and Hemispheric Concepts of Security”.Latin American Integration Association . in this respect. as the Organization’s highest political forum. that this matter requires a detailed examination on a political-diplomatic level. and not the IDC. should remain as the focal point of the entire Inter-American security system. Press release. against extreme poverty. and that the Hemispheric Security Commission. “36th Session of the OAS General Assembly” -Santo Domingo.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Government on issues related to the fight against racism and racial intolerance. without operational functions. however.Brazil defends that a clear distinction be made between defense and security matters and. has supported maintaining the Inter-American Defense Council as the military and technical advisory body of the OAS. Holding one more regular meeting of the General Assembly of the OAS.
HEMISPHERIC SECURITY Together with the countries comprising ALADI . will provide an opportunity to promote debates under the heading of pluralism in connection with issues of common interest for the whole Continent. organized by the Ministry of
. article written by Minister Celso Amorim and presented during the series of debates about contemporary Brazilian thought on matters related to defense and security. 2006. We are prepared to discuss a new contingent structure for the Inter-American Defense Council and to more clearly define its juridical links with the OAS. enabling Brazil to reaffirm its international commitments towards the consolidation of multilateralism on a regional sphere. June 1. We believe.
*** Since we have confirmed the existence of common threats and challenges and the need to face these in a concentrated and united manner. At that time. (…) The spirit of solidarity that exists in our hemispheric relations was quickly expressed in our response to the heinous terrorist attacks of September 11. which enjoys the legitimate and exclusive authority in such matters. Brazil wants to contribute towards the work of the Hemispheric Security Council in examining and evaluating this agreement. October 11 and 12. 2003. (…) We do not participate in military alliances whose scope of actions may conflict with the United Nations Security Council. Other instruments also require urgent reform.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA
Defense . that the ITRA. 2003. Over the last decades. should be reviewed. October 28. as well as promoting mutual confidence and transparency. Brazil took the decision to activate the mechanisms provided for in the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Aid (ITRA).Itaipava. however. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the general debate during the Special Security Conference. we should also recognize the importance of individual national characteristics. We were also pioneers in adopting instruments in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation. within the ambit of the OAS . State of Rio de Janeiro. 2001. which was formed under different historical circumstances.Mexico City. as well as regional and sub-regional. In accordance with the mandate that will be approved by us. We recognize. Latin America and the Caribbean have been part of a region that has spent less on armaments when compared to the rest of the world. ***
which sanctions the principle of civil supervision and the democratic reconciliation of its authorities.
DEMOCRACY Important advances have been recorded in our Continent in the area of democracy. in the person of General Armando Ribeiro. Non-governmental civil entities have begun to offer citizens greater recourse in the event of possible abuses by the State Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the 33rd OAS General Assembly Santiago. first President of the Inter-American Defense Council in its new phase. 2003. Speech by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. Institutions such as special magistrates. 2007. Here. to whom I offer my congratulations on the ability he has shown in conducting the process of transition of the Council to the regime under the new Statute. commissions and public attorneys for human rights have been created or consolidated. The era of privileged regimes has come to an end. we should highlight the work carried out by the Inter. June 4. January 9. the laws of many countries have incorporated important human rights principles and mechanisms to protect the individual and minority groups. Brazil also feels honored in being able to make its contribution.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
In the field of defense. ***
.Panama City. at the 37th OAS General Assembly. In support of this transformation. Secretar y General of the Ministr y of Exter nal Relations.American Defense Council during its first year under the regime of the new Statute.
2005. as I have already mentioned. and must. this is a document of essential value for the Inter-American system. value and strengthen institutions and support solutions that can. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the 35th OAS General Assembly . we need to encourage dialogue between the different social sectors. Secretary General of the Ministry of External Relations. From our point of view. Faced with such situations. We have provided support and solidarity in situations of crises. capable of complimenting and expanding values and principles established in the Democratic Charter. especially as the result of the serious economic and social problems that still exist on our Continent.
. be found on a national level. as sanctioned in our Charter.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA
Some of the countries in the region have experienced recurring difficulties. June 4. The Government of President Lula has associated this basic principle with an attitude that we describe as “non-interference”. we should reiterate Brazil’s commitment to a swift conclusion of the negotiations regarding the Social Charter of the Americas. at the 37th OAS General Assembly . *** In the context of the fight against social inequalities. whenever we have been called on and if we believe that this will help in a positive way. June 6. 2007. which is an essential aspect of the process to strengthen democracy.Fort Lauderdale. based on concepts already sanctioned in the OAS Charter and by other commitments undertaken by our Government.Panama City. Brazilian diplomacy is guided by the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs (of other countries). Speech given by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães.
at the 37th OAS General Assembly . at the same time. We have not relinquished our right to take the future into our own hands. thereby demonstrating its total conviction of the legitimacy and effectiveness of the decisions that they issue and. and constitutes an innovative instrument to increase knowledge about the system amongst those who practice Law. 2007. State officials and non-governmental institutions.Panama City.
THE RIO GROUP We accept our responsibilities. March 17. Brazil has recognized the controversial jurisdiction of the Inter-American Court since December 2006. the Brazilian Government has shown a high level of priority in maintaining intense and frank relations with its principal bodies – the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (CIHD). In order to achieve common
. Press release. June 4. 2006. Speech given by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães. and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights -. reaffirming its unequivocal support to the rulings of the American Convention on Human Rights. “Inter-American Court of Human Rights” Brasilia. *** Within the specific ambit of the Inter-American system.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
HUMAN RIGHTS Holding the session of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in this country has reinforced Brazil’s commitment to the Inter-American system of human rights. Secretary General of the Ministry of External Relations. which should serve as a principal guide towards maintaining the balance of the system itself.
form the main points of action of those who are part of the Mechanism. *** The Rio Group was created to resolve situations of crises. constructing its own solutions that would allow for appeasement and reconciliation
. Peru. the Rio Group began as an instrument for the consolidation of democracy and the practice of political debate which. *** A channel for presidential diplomacy between Member States and a forum for deliberations on Latin American and Caribbean positions in regional and international matters. The Dominican Republic. The Rio Group is therefore an important instrument. Panama. Brazil. Mexico. November 4. Nicaragua. Costa Rica. March 1. Press release. and in accordance with the common regional viewpoint. Belize. 2007. Honduras. Paraguay.MULTILATERAL REGIONAL FORA
objectives. Uruguay and Venezuela.Rio de Janeiro. The Latin American and Caribbean family of nations needs to use us as an adequate place for consultation and political deliberation thus enabling us to face our collective challenges. Guyana also represents the Caribbean Community in the Mechanism. Bolivia. Chile. El Salvador . Guyana. The Group is composed of Argentina. Colombia. “19th Summit Meeting of the Rio Group” . we count on our democratic convictions and our spirit of conciliation and tolerance. Guatemala. It is our duty to construct a more prosperous and democratic region. Ecuador.Brasilia. together with the search for economic development and social justice. 2004. Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 18th Presidential Summit of the Rio Group .
have to offer. This is nurtured by the rich quality of our differences and enables us to provide eloquent responses to contemporary world threats.. We are an example of how borders between North and South. enables us to fight against terrorism. can and should be overcome through dialogue and mutual understanding. As a result of this activity. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 19th Summit of the Rio Group. increased its representativeness and should be open to all countries in the region who wish to join. Since then. It has grown. we now have a region that is peaceful and democratic. Guyana. Our Community should
. diplomacy and political dialogue have proven to be decisive instruments to promote peace and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Our history of struggles was also written in moments of conviviality and conciliation. 2007.Georgetown. March 3. It is our “affinity in diversity”. We will only successfully overcome these challenges if we are able to defeat prejudice and a lack of confidence. democratizes the international system. This promotes peace. The name of this response is tolerance. The Rio Group was the seed that gave birth to a wide network of mechanisms of consultation and dialogue that are at our disposal today.. This is the greatest contribution that we. between rich and poor. between religions. boosts sustainable development and the fight against hunger and poverty. the IberoAmericans. cultures and civilizations. read by Minister Celso Amorim .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
in regions shaken by conflict.
IBERO-AMERICAN CONFERENCE There is a line that runs across our countries and distinguishes our international conduct. The Rio Group is a privileged forum to create understanding between the Latin American and Caribbean people in priority issues on the regional and international agendas.
November 9. economic and social differences. speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 15th Ibero-American Summit . require economically consistent responses. The bitter experiences of the 1980s and s1990 taught us a hard. the greatest virtues that we have: the inexhaustible wealth represented by our people and the knowledge that we share a common history and destiny. particularly to Africa. In this pursuit. However. but essential lesson. October 15. 2005.Salamanca. 2007. I am certain that we will know how to use.
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extend its international dialogue. poverty. Spain. without a doubt. for our own benefit. *** The Heads of State and Ibero-American governments will meet in Santiago (Chile) to pursue the debate and advance proposals on the great issue of the day: the role of public policies in the promotion of social cohesion. Unemployment. “The International Projection of the Ibero-American Community”. Article by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper . Our proximity to one another is not just measured in values and aspirations. This has been the challenge facing the Ibero-American Community. who have already expressed an interest in such a proposal. the solutions must be socially just. Only a democratic State can address these two dimensions. “The Ibero-American Community”. In a world where the logic of globalized markets and the speed of technological transformations have called into question the effectiveness of public policies. it is necessary to reaffirm the commitment of our community with the values of solidarity and collective welfare. We could begin with the Portuguese-speaking countries and with Equatorial Guinea. Castilian Spanish speakers.
climate change. such as democracy. *** At their historic first summit meeting. biological diversity.Brasilia. the promotion of human rights and basic freedoms. July 3. democracy and human rights. Brazil and the European Union decided to establish an all-embracing strategic partnership. involving matters of peace and security. regional and international agendas. 2007. on topics of mutual interest on the bilateral. cultural and economic ties.EUROPE
THE EUROPEAN UNION The raising of the level of our bilateral relations to the condition of a Strategic Partner reflects the dynamic nature and strengthening of relations between Brazil and the European Union. technical cooperation and the fight against poverty and social exclusion. the primacy of Law. Press Release. Both sides agreed that it is necessary to identify and promote common strategies to face world challenges. based on their close historical. as well as a market economy. the protection of energy sources and
. “Brazil-European Union Summit Meeting” and the Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the European Commission” . climate change. The Strategic Partnership enables us to reinforce the channel of privileged dialogue at the highest level. in areas of energy. Both sides share essential values and principles. science and technology.
Brazil and the European Union agreed that the best way to deal with questions of world order is through an effective form of multilateralism centered on the United Nations system.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
sustainable development. in matters of disarmament and non-proliferation. an
. 2007. Brazil and the European Union stressed the great economic and political importance that this agreement will have for both regions and its role in enhancing their respective processes of integration. which will enable further development in economic relations between both regions and will intensify the political dialogue. as well as promote initiatives in matters of cooperation. Both parties are to be commended for establishing a political dialogue between Brazil and the EU. “Brazil-European Union Summit” Lisbon. July 4. we exceeded the figure of US$ 50 billion in bilateral trade. We are launching a new strategic partnership. They are also in agreement with regard to the importance of fulfilling their present obligations resulting from international treaties that are still in force. and we are projecting a common view for a world in transformation. the fight against poverty and social exclusion.
Joint Declaration. *** Today we meet to initiate a new era in the relationship between Brazil and the European Union. we are raising our relationship to the level of its potential. when a Portuguese friend is heading the European Commission. In 2006. Brazil and the EU give great importance to the strengthening of relations between the European Union and Mercosur and are determined to conclude the European Union-Mercosur Association Agreement. initiated under the German Presidency of the European Union. It is significant that this process began in Lisbon and occurs at a time when Portugal is taking over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.
“Proposal to establish a strategic partnership between Brazil and the European Union” Brasilia. free of hegemonic influences. ***
. (…) I also believe that our association should contribute towards ensuring that our negotiations involving the association agreement between Mercosur and the European Union should have a successful outcome. . science and technology. can serve as a political boost to Mercosur-European Union negotiations. provided that the needs and peculiarities of both blocs are taken into consideration. 2007. 2007. the environment. The total sum of European direct investment in Brazil is US$ 150 billion.EUROPE
increase of 13% in comparison with the previous year. June 1. July 4. with a view to pursuing cooperation initiatives in different areas of mutual interest. and 60% in relation to 2003. Press release. *** The Brazil-European Union strategic partnership reflects the advancement of bilateral relations. social issues. which is of a strictly bilateral nature. regional development and maritime transport. I am convinced that we have much to gain from this association. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Plenary Session of the Brazil-European Union Business Summit . (…) Our trade exchange with the European Union represents 22% of our foreign trade. such as energy/biofuels.Lisbon. technical cooperation.I am also sure that a union of these two blocs will contribute towards the construction of a multi-polar world. in the context of which the High Level Political Dialogue was formalized on April 30. The Brazilian Government understands that this partnership.
the Ministers recognized that substantial progress has already been made towards concluding the Association Agreement. the elimination of poverty. They allow for the construction of a strategic association between the two Continents. what democracy was and is to nations.Brussels. Multilateralism and international cooperation will encourage solidarity. however. September 2. (environmental) preservation and the fight against AIDS. economic and trade relations and to contribute towards reducing social-economic disparities that exist in both regions.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
The Ministers (of Mercosur and the European Union) reaffirm the importance of the strategic relations between Mercosur and the European Union and the priority given to concluding an ambitious and equitable inter-regional Association Agreement. They agreed. as an instrument to bolster political. as well as the many other challenges and problems that afflict all humanity. Joint Communiqué from the Mercosur–European Union Ministerial Meeting . Multilateralism is to international relations. which can enhance our efforts for development
. that further endeavors are required to reach the desired level of ambition that will reflect the strategic importance of the Association Agreement. including a free trade zone in accordance with World Trade Organization norms. (…) The ability to rule democratically is strengthened when there is peace and security. (…) International cooperation is also needed for the eradication of hunger. 2005. In accordance with the previous Ministerial meeting held in Lisbon.
THE LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN–EUROPEAN UNION SUMMIT (LAC – EU) Multilateralism and Social Cohesion – the topics being discussed at this Third Latin America and Caribbean–European Union Summit – are central to the political discussions we initiated in 1999.
but above all. May 28.Vienna. not only of governments. and in the European Union. May 12.EUROPE
and the sustainable growth of our economies in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2004. May 12. we are thus determined to advance the multilateral agenda while this is a priority issue that cuts across our bi-regional relations. *** It is our firm conviction that democracy. Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Working Meeting on Multilateralism at the 3rd Latin American and Caribbean – European Union Summit.
. *** There are many values and projects that bind Europe. 2006. the rule of law. during the 4th Latin America and Caribbean–European Union Summit -Vienna. Our regions have been consolidating their processes of integration. respect. 2006. the promotion and protection of human rights. Latin America and the Caribbean. Guadalajara. of our people. social and economic development and respect for international law are essential for peace and security. the eradication of poverty. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 2nd Working Session of the 4th Latin America and the Caribbean – European Union Summit . Further reiterating our common commitment to a solid and efficient multilateral system. This is a major objective. The Declaration of Vienna. Mexico..
as well as between members of parliament and with representatives of different sections of society from both countries. But we can do much more than this. Germany is our principal partner in Europe. German investments and technology have contributed towards the modernization of Brazil’s industry and the generation of jobs. There are seven million Brazilians of German stock. values and interests in common which. a country with which we have had historical relations of friendship and business. There are 1. added to the high level of interchange and bilateral cooperation. Since the 1950s. Joschka Fischer”-Brasilia. November 16. making Brazil the largest destination for German exports to South America. both on a government level. On a commercial level. ranging from political. “The visit to Brazil of the German Federal Vice-Chancellor and Minister of External Relations.200 companies based on German capital. Our relations are very strong. educational. our trade exchange exceeded a new level of US$ 12 billion. In 2006. Press release. There are 9 billion dollars in direct investments in Brazil. give a particularly significant meaning to this partnership.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
BILATERAL RELATIONS / STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS GERMANY Relations between Brazil and Germany are distinguished by a broad convergence of perceptions. involving very different fields. cultural and environmental issues. 2004. *** Today [President Köhler] visits Brazil as President of Germany. We need to diversify
. economic and trade interests to scientific-technological. responsible for generating 8% of Brazil’s Gross Domestic Product.
signed the Brazil-Spain Strategic Partnership Plan today. based on their common interest in strengthening it. In the same context. Horst Köhler . focusing on the transfer of technology. (…) We will widen our bilateral cooperation. in Santa Cruz de la Sierra. on October 29. The Strategic Partnership Plan enhances bilateral
. The decision to sign this document in Santa Cruz de la Sierra was taken during the Working Visit of President Aznar to Brazil. The document signed by both leaders stated that Spain understands the reasons for Brazil’s bid for a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council. March 8. widening and strengthening cooperation.
SPAIN President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of the Government of Spain. social development and economic growth. and we will move forward with our global agenda in the area of alternative sources of energy Press release from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State Visit to Brazil of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. and is favorable the Brazilian Government’s aspiration. The text is structured around three main topics: strengthening political dialogue.EUROPE
this trade profile. both countries declared that the benefits of a wider collaboration should extend to their respective regions. should the latter undergo a reform. both Governments committed themselves to maintaining permanent consultation about the reform of the United Nations Security Council. 2007. especially to Ibero-American areas. In the preamble to this Plan. adding greater value to Brazilian exports to Germany. José María Aznar. in parallel with the 13th Ibero-American Summit.. This document translates the desire of both Governments to raise the level of their bilateral relationship.Brasilia.
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economic relations. Maria Teresa Fernández de la Vega Sanz” . in January 2005. This association was further strengthened during the visit to Brazil of President Zapatero. As well as benefiting from forums. culture and education. as well as cultural development. as well as in the innovative proposal to exchange debt for investments in education. *** The importance given by both Governments to the policies to fight social inequalities on various levels resulted in several bilateral cooperation projects in the areas of science. Press release. “Brazil-Spain Strategic Partnership Plan” . 2005. Both countries are amongst the leaders of the Action against Hunger and Poverty project. Both Governments pledged their commitment to support social development. such as the Ibero-American Community of Nations and negotiations for the Mercosur-European Union Interregional Agreement. which has succeeded in mobilizing international attention to identify alternative financing for development and the fight against hunger. Press Release. since the 90s.Brasilia.Brasilia. August 5. both countries have been building a strategic partnership. by the signing of the
. as shown by the fact that Spain is the European country with the largest investments in Brazil. *** Relations between Brazil and Spain have gained renewed and intense momentum in recent years. solidly anchored in initiatives and actions that are of reciprocal interest. November 14. 2003. “The Visit to Brazil of the First VicePresident of the Government of Spain. through educational and training programs.
“Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Spain” . during the course of their history. the respect for human rights. We believe in multilateralism and in dialogue as instruments to build a more prosperous and just world. so as to preserve the high level of relations that bind together the people of both countries. in the course of history. Joint Declaration by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and President José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. They equally stressed the importance that their expatriate citizens receive proper and nondiscriminatory treatment. In the international sphere. 2007. one of the pillars of the inherent diversity and tolerance shown today by both countries. the promotion of peace and development with social justice. *** Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero reaffirmed the values shared by both countries. with less
FRANCE The Brazil Year in France (2005) is an encounter of two people who. 2007. have built affinities and convergences. Madrid . September 14. they stressed their mutual commitment towards the dialogue of civilizations and the strengthening of multilateralism. with regard to the strengthening of democracy.EUROPE
Declaration of Brasilia.Brasilia. We share the same perception regarding the advantages and risks of globalization. during the former’s visit to Spain.September 17. (…) Both Heads of Government testified that immigration was. in connection with the Consolidation of the Brazil-Spain Strategic Partnership Press release.
but will serve as an operational platform for all our South American neighbors. nuclear energy. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during a lunch with French and Brazilian business people Paris. Our working groups have been meeting and adopted programs with a view to bringing our bilateral cooperation closer in the areas of renewable energy sources. space technology and cooperation with African countries. 2005. *** Cooperation between Brazil and France has gained a new impetus with the decision of both Presidents. defense. particularly in Africa and the Caribbean. ***
. 2006. technological innovation.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
poverty and less hunger. to create six working groups on topics linked to scientific and technological cooperation and their industrial applications. in 2005.Brasilia. Press release. (…) Distinguished entrepreneurs. Jacques Chirac” . They can benefit from the mutual transfer of technology that will reach not only the vast Brazilian market. “State Visit to Brazil of the President of the French Republic. May 23. I bring you a word of confidence and determination. It is worth stressing the mutual interest that exits in developing the international ethanol market and establishing trilateral cooperation to expand the production of biofuels in developing countries. July 13. (…) Partnerships between our businesses will also benefit the French presence in Brazil. your presence here is the best demonstration of the enormous potential that exists in the economic and business relations between our two countries.
An important part of our history was written with the help of the Italian immigrants who came here in search of a better future and ended up by “making America”.. Our historical links should facilitate dialogue and cooperation in the
. The immigrants and their descendents are very proud of their origins.
ITALY Brazil and Italy are linked by historical and cultural ties. (…) In 2005. (…) Brazilians and Italians see the world through the same lenses of their Latin and humanistic heritage. France has been an important ally of ours in conducting crucial international issues. the Italian-Brazilian community includes nearly 25 million people. while remaining one hundred percent Brazilian. in July 2005.) Today. This bridge will help to strengthen our cooperation efforts along the border region. we signed an agreement for the construction of a bridge crossing the Oiapoque River.Brasilia. They fulfilled their dreams and helped to construct Brazil. as well as to address those at a regional and international level. This provides us with an opportunity to resume and consolidate bilateral issues of interest. which links the State of Amapá to French Guiana..EUROPE
The visit of President Chirac is an opportunity to consolidate a favorable partnership that was launched during my visit to Paris. we are united by family and blood ties. May 25. Press statement from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to Brazil of the President of France. We have a little Italy in the heart of Brazil. Jacques Chirac . and bolster the physical integration of the whole of South America. 2006. (. This agreement has already been approved by the Brazilian National Congress. The greater area of São Paulo is the largest Italian city outside Italy. More than this. I know we can count on the support of President Chirac for its speedy approval by the French legislature.
are expected to reaffirm their commitment to establish a strategic partnership and both agreed to set up Consultation Mechanisms at the highest possible political level. (…) What is so striking about the Brazil-Italy relationship are the solid human ties that unite our two people. Romano Prodi. March 23.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
international scene. October 17. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the Joint Declaration to the press during his visit to Italy . signed in 2000. *** President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of the Council of Ministers. Press release. Romano Prodi” . was a legal landmark of singular importance for the development of a bilateral
. 2005. Cooperation and Consultation. many of whom hold dual citizenship. “Official visit to Brazil by the President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic. illustrated by the fact that there are 25 million Brazilians of Italian origin.Brasilia. They recognized that the Treaty of Friendship. We share the same conviction that there will never be long-term peace and security until we have a more economically and socially balanced world.
PORTUGAL The Heads of Government rejoiced over the excellent relations that exist between their sister nations. with a view to holding annual meetings to evaluate agreed commitments.Rome. 2007. to set new standards for their bilateral relationship and the coordination of positions on topics of mutual interest on the international agenda.
for the way it works to promote consultation and reconciliation. 2006.EUROPE
agenda. March 8. I see with great satisfaction how far we have advanced in our interchange during recent years. (…) International activities between Portugal and Brazil are guided by the same set of values. Just like the millions of Portuguese that came to help build the greatness of our country. 2004. Trade between both countries exceeded US$ 1.2 billion in 2005. We have the firm conviction that these ideals are best defended within the ambit of regional processes of integration. We are determined to strengthen multilateralism and promote international law as an instrument towards peace and security. that is to say. Joint Declaration from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the Prime Minister of Portugal. involving all of the many dimensions that exist in the relationship between Brazil and Portugal. today many Brazilians are helping to forge a modern Portugal. during the 7th Brazil-Portugal Summit . We have a fundamental commitment and respect for human rights and democracy.Brasilia. (…) The partnership between Portugal and Brazil originated with the entrepreneurial spirit of our people and their penchant for solidarity. João Manuel Durão Barroso. *** Portugal and Brazil are united by permanent ties of friendship and history. José Sócrates . it has doubled in just a few years. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to Brazil of the Prime Minister of Portugal. ***
.Brasilia. August 9. The affection with which I have always been greeted Portugal is proof of this.
The successful completion of the Doha Round. economic. particularly the poorest ones. (…) I perceive. We now have the possibility of joining forces to face the challenges of the modern world in many different areas. both on an internal as well as international level. the same spirit of renovation. July 9. is a top priority of the Governments of Brazil and the United Kingdom. The exceptional momentum of our present economies offers us many different opportunities. regional and cultural issues. the potential of which we are only now beginning to tap into. in the United Kingdom. it is diversified and modern. a diplomatic initiative with long-term objectives that also involves the efforts of both countries. “State Visit to Portugal of Presidente Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva” . during which high-level proposals for a genuine Agenda for Development were put into effect. We trust that the leadership of the United Kingdom in Europe. We need to develop mechanisms for trilateral cooperation that will enable the full potential of our joint experiences to be utilized to benefit African countries. and includes political. going beyond its fundamental traditions.Brasilia. in the G-8 and in the multilateral scene will contribute decisively towards the advancement of topics of mutual interest. Our countries have ties and special responsibilities in relation to Africa. Press release.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Our bilateral relationship is distinguished by a full agenda. We will also unite forces in the fight
. Prime Minister Blair and I are determined do unblock multilateral trade negotiations. 2007.
THE UNITED KINGDOM The entrepreneurial nature and affinities of our peoples have provided momentum for a very productive relationship. Also to be highlighted is the special nature of the strengthening of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP).
illicit drug trafficking and transnational criminal activities. (…) We agree to strengthen our multiple complementarities and explore the unlimited potential that the scientific ingenuity and technical capacity of our people will use to pave the way for full development. 2006. (…) Perhaps even more importantly. the promotion of economic growth based on free trade. the recognition of the ties that exist between development and peace. March 9. the
. the determination to fight poverty. its program to use the Alcântara Base to launch commercial satellites. Today we have the opportunity to fulfill the decision. Joint Declaration by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Prime Minister Tony Bair -London. with renewed optimism and determination. March 7. *** Our relations are based on common values: the crucial importance of democracy and the rule of law. With the valuable participation of Russia. injustice and exclusion. to prioritize closer ties between Brazil and Russia.EUROPE
RUSSIA Your visit (President Putin’s) is the first of a Head of State of the Federation of Russia to our country. announced during my inaugural speech. Brazil is resuming. We are opening new horizons in our relations. security. 2006. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State Banquet offered by Queen Elizabeth II London. Nothing better expresses these possibilities than the space cooperation program. human rights and social justice.
Both Presidents underlined that terrorism should not be identified with any nationality. of all different creeds and ethnic origins. The Presidents highlighted the importance of cooperation in areas of high technology and the strengthening of bilateral cooperation relations. based on International Law. 2004. Vladimir Putin .Brasilia. development with justice and the promotion of human rights. in their desire for freedom and justice. *** The (Presidential) leaders (Lula and Putin) confirmed their firm proposal to promote cooperation between their two countries and with other members of the international community.Brasilia. particularly cooperation that is destined for the peaceful use of outer space (…). Vladimir V. Putin . 2004. the stability of democracy. November 22. so that the fight against terrorism should be conducted in a persistent manner and within legal boundaries. Joint Declaration on the Outcome of the Official Talks held between President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of the Federation of Russia. November 22. the principles and rulings of the United Nations and universally recognized Human Rights. such as peace. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit of the President of the Federation of Russia. ***
. region or cultural tradition and that international efforts in this area should be used to defend universal values that have been conquered by all peoples of the world.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
discussions that I have had with President Putin were an opportunity to reaffirm the values and proposals that unite us.
microelectronics and information technology. Russia is a country that carries great weight in the world panorama and exerts a significant role in the political and economic bearings of its region. earth physics. ethnically-diverse populations. such as nanotechnology. Lt. Brazil and Russia. therefore. biotechnology. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Interfax Agency . I was. 2006. as well as having large. July 13. This trip has strengthened the relationship that Brazil has with a region that is a partner in strategic international negotiations. Colonel Marcos Pontes. able to return the visits that leaders of all these countries have made to Brazil. The successful flight of our cosmonaut. This was the first time that a president of Brazil has officially visited Scandinavia. This relation was not born today. (…) Normally seen as very different countries. (…) The Scandinavian countries have always been the source of admiration and inspiration because of their models of social welfare and extremely high rates of human development. have expressive similarities in common. in fact. We are territorial giants with an important influence in our respective continental contexts. We have identified new areas of cooperation.
SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES During the last week. food technology and astronomy. They
Recent initiatives make science and technology one of the most promising fields to achieve the “technological alliance” that President Putin and I have proposed. Russia. As I have already said. we are working with the Russian side to improve the Brazilian Satellite Launching Vehicle. demonstrated the solid nature of the cooperation that exists between our space programs.Moscow. I have traveled to Finland. in the Russian section of the International Space Station. Other areas in which we have moved forward are: metrology. Sweden Denmark and Norway.
“Brazil-Scandinavia: an ambitious partnership”. Article President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper . we share the same conviction that a robust and representative multilateral system is essential to construct a more united world. For this reason. 2007
.Brasilia.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
know that economic prosperity and social justice are the greatest deciding factors for peace and security. September 19.
We want these close ties to help create a more democratic and pluralistic world order that recognizes the diversity of societies. they enrich our interchange.Brasilia. FEALAC can be a valuable instrument to promote closer relations. In times of high-speed communications and increasingly sophisticated transportation systems. they nourish our dialogue. August 22. Cultural differences are no longer an obstacle either. geographical distances are no longer an impediment. vital to combat hegemonies of any kind. 2007. We can establish constructive and innovative partnerships if we know how to explore the numerous points of convergence that exist between us. On the contrary. improve our understanding of the world. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the Third Ministerial Meeting at the Forum for EastAsia-Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC) .ASIA
FORUM FOR EAST ASIA-LATIN AMERICA COOPERATION (FEALAC) Latin America and East Asia are extensive and diverse regions that need to come to know each other better. This reinforces multi-polarity. Such an excuse is no longer valid. *** We (Ministers of member-states of the Forum for East-Asia-Latin America Cooperation) recognize that FEALAC carries out an import
. Our regions are seeking their place in a new configuration of forces that is emerging at the beginning of this century.
with a view to dialogue and cooperation. We recognize that the best understanding between FEALAC member-states with respect to matters of mutual interest will be valuable for broaching topics in multilateral forums and particularly to ensure that we are better able to coordinate our convergent opinions. those who buy and those who sell. that a good business deal is one that contemplates both parties.. 2007. Forum for East-Asia-Latin America Cooperation. but it is important that our trade relation be balanced so that both countries may be happy and satisfied. (…) We are pleased to see that relations between East Asia and Latin America have evolved. All of us know.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
role in bringing together countries of very different regions. Obviously. all of us will always want to sell more than we buy. prosperity and social inclusion for our peoples. I believe that we need to be prepared to buy and to sell because this relationship with
. going from a political rapprochement to those that are increasingly invested with an economic.August 23. although carrying out an important role that is complimentary to the activities of other forums. technological and cultural nature. We have decided to make cooperation our top priority in matters of trade and investment in FEALAC. “Ministerial Declaration from Brasilia” . We recognize that. FEALAC should avoid duplicating the efforts already being carried out. as a powerful means of promoting development. In this regard.
CHINA I have always said that our trade relations are a two-way road. as well as even more significant and substantial relations between our regions. so as to encourage reciprocal knowledge between the two regions and to produce palpable fruits for our people. through personal experience. that is. we reaffirm our interest in carrying out joint projects.
increase economic-trade interchange so as to obtain reciprocal benefits. so as to enhance our mutual understanding. based on dialogue and equality. based on the four principles that have guided our bilateral relationship. but also to change unfair rules that currently hold sway over international trade. (…) I am confident that the future holds in store an even greater strengthening of this auspicious partnership between Brazil and China. *** It is with the greatest satisfaction that I congratulate Your Excellency during the thirtieth anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between our two countries. I can assure Your Excellency that the Brazilian Government gives the greatest importance to the harmonious development of ties of friendship that join the Governments and people of the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Popular Republic of China. during the 30th anniversary of
. to promote international cooperation.. with emphasis on coordinating negotiations. May 26. I believe that China and Brazil only have to gain from an improvement in our relations. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the closure of the Brazil-China Seminar: A Successful Partnership” . 2004. China. and to encourage interchange between our respective civil societies.ASIA
China is. which are: to strengthen our mutual political trust. definitely. This is why our strategic alliance is so important – not only to intensify our reciprocal relationship. Message written by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to President Hu Jintao. a strategic relationship. seeking to integrate ourselves into international trade and investment currents without giving up our autonomy and power of decision.Shanghai. (…) We are both great countries that are in a process of development.
2004. founded on mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity and non-interference in the internal affairs of either parties. in recent years. to increase our economictrade interchange with a view to achieving reciprocal benefits.Brasilia. as well as on a common concern to contribute towards promoting peace and solidarity between nations in a multi-polar system and in accordance with the United Nations Charter. ***
. Message sent by Minister Celso Amorim to Chancellor Li Zhaoxing.Brasilia.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
the establishment of diplomatic relations between Brazil and the Popular Republic of China . guided by four shared principles: to strengthen mutual policies. (…) A new level of cooperation is evident in our bilateral relations. August 15. 2004. based on a dialogue between equals. the foster the interchange between our respective civil societies. *** I note. so as to enhance mutual understanding. The direct involvement. with emphasis on the coordination of negotiations. with satisfaction the high level of political understanding that has been reached in relations between Brazil and China. August 15. of the highest authorities of our countries has enabled us to form and bolster a far-reaching strategic alliance that will serve to increasingly strengthen existing bonds of friendship between the Brazilian people and the people of China. during the celebration of 30 years of diplomatic relations between Brazil and the Popular Republic of China . to promote international cooperation.
special note is given to the China-Brazil Earth Recourses Satellite .Brasilia. 10th November 10. “First Meeting on the Brazil-China Common Agenda on Sustainable Development with Emphasis on Climate Change” .ASIA
Brazil and China have similar geographic extensions and levels of technological and industrial development. Press release. and cooperation in areas of energy. characteristics that also bring them closer in their respective actions and objectives in the context of the International Regime on Climate Change. Mr. 2004. as was evident by the meeting held in Brasilia. (…) Amongst the initiatives that are being developed with particular success by both countries. especially in matters of particular interest to developing nations. *** In addition to the expressive growth already seen in bilateral trade. “Visit to Brazil of the President of the Popular Republic of China. and the search for joint actions for cooperation in areas of mutual interest. which is expected to launch the CBERS 2B satellite and sell to third countries images generated by this system. ***
. such as the adaptation to climate change. steel. there is the perspective of important investments in areas of hydrorailway infrastructure. This convergence of interests also translates into a dialogue that is increasingly closer in a bilateral context. the largest high technology aerospace cooperation program between two developing countries. August 23. Hu Jintao” .Brasilia. Press release. 2004.CBERS project.
We are convinced that it is only through dialogue and cooperation that we can respond to the challenge to promote peace and fight against terrorism. China and Brazil maintain a model of horizontal cooperation within an international system marked by inequality. March 16.Brasilia. We want to build a world structure that favors understanding. Only thus will the social and economic development of our people be ensured. to preserve the environment and guarantee development and the welfare of all. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the official dinner offered to the President of China. Press Release. The Brazilian Government expresses its support of the policy of peaceful territorial reunification conducted by the Chinese Government.
TAIWAN Brazil reiterates its support for the “One-China Policy”. and joins the manifestations of the international community that are contrary to unilateral movements that will alter the status quo and endanger the peace and stability of the region.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
The strategic Sino-Brazilian alliance is based on the belief that we have interests in common in our search for a multi-polar and pluralistic world. Hu Jintao. 2004.Brasilia. 2004. This relation gives us the legitimacy to jointly promote an international agenda that favors the equitable distribution of power and of resources in the international scene. at the Itamaraty Palace (Ministry of External Relations) . ***
. social justice and respect between societies. November 12. “Declaration of support for the OneChina Policy .
2006. *** Brazil recognizes the Popular Republic of China as “the single legal Government of China”.
INDIA Brazil and India are developing countries with large territorial areas. They face similar challenges in economic and social terms. (…) Because it shares the PRC principle of “One-China”. The Brazilian party also reiterated its position that Tibet is an inalienable part of the Chinese territory. Thus. and is opposed to any activity that aims the partition and the increase of tensions in the Straights of Taiwan. Message on website of Brazil’s Trade Office in Taipei . in accordance with terms contained in the Joint Communiqué signed in 1974 between both countries. in Brasilia. They share similar points of view about the international system and aspire to a greater
. 2007. the representative of the Taiwan office will not be accredited in Brazil as an Ambassador by the Brazilian Government. be given diplomatic status. it is worth remembering that.ASIA
The Brazilian party reiterated its commitment to the One-China principle. and in São Paulo. The Brazilian party stated that it is contrary to the admittance of Taiwan into international organizations that only admit sovereign states. which cannot. even though it does not maintain diplomatic relations with Brazil. Economic and Cultural Offices. March 24.Visited on July 16. however. Taiwan is authorized to maintain. (…) In the interests of clarification. the Brazilian Government does not recognize Taiwan as an autonomous state. “Final Act of the First Session of the Sino-Brazilian HighLevel Commission for Reconciliation and Cooperation” Brasilia.
economic and financial decisions.Brasilia. together with other recent measures. Based on their common views and desires. Brazil rejoices in the decision taken to make this decisive commitment to reduce tensions in the region. 2003. will help increase mutual confidence between both countries. June 5. concerning the military cease-fire that has come into effect along the Control Line border between India and Pakistan in the area of Kashmir. While they work towards development and improving their democratic institutions on an internal level. Yashwant Sinha . contribute towards lowering bilateral tensions. *** The Brazilian Government greeted with satisfaction the official announcement on November 25 issued by the Indian and Pakistani Governments. Brazil and India wish to develop and strengthen the close cooperation and consultation that they already maintain in international forums. The Brazilian Government believes that this important decision.Brasilia. Joint Communiqué during the official visit to Brazil of the Minister of External Affairs of India. the Ministers stressed the central role played by the United Nations in maintaining international peace and security. 2003. In this respect. they also long for democracy to prevail equally in the international order. As a friend of both India and Pakistan. (…) Brazil and India are amongst the largest democracies in the world. and pave the way for negotiations for both countries to resolve their differences peacefully. November 27. “Cease-fire between India and Pakistan” . They further underlined the need to strictly observe the United Nations Charter and the principles and rules of International Law. Press release. ***
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participation in the world’s political.
to link both countries with direct and regular flights in the near future. Both sides will also seek to systematically encourage personal contacts and institutional and academic ties. creating conditions to establish air routes for cargo and passengers. India and Brazil announced that they will soon open Cultural Centers in São Paulo and in New Delhi. negotiations of the Bilateral Agreement of Airline Services were concluded between Brazil and India. which will be designed during the first meeting of the Joint Working Group.ASIA
Today. to be held sometime this year. In addition. in 2007. research.Brasilia. and reaffirmed that priority should be given to cooperation in areas such as graduate programs. there was an agreement to organize a Week of Indian Culture in Brazil and a Week of Brazilian Culture in India. 2004. during the Mixed Commission Meeting in January 2006. *** President Lula and Prime Minister Singh signed the Cooperation Interchange Program in areas of Education. and as was provided for in the Memorandum of Understanding signed on that occasion. Press release “Conclusion of the Brazil-India Air Agreement” . May 5. held in Rio de Janeiro. Both countries will also cooperate to promote interchange in areas of football and the training of Indian players and coaches. They were pleased to stress the strengthening of relations between the universities of both countries.
. professional education and distance learning. at the close of the First Aeronautical Consultation Meeting between both countries. The Agreement – which has been under negotiation ever since the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to India last January– aims to increase bilateral relations.
Brazil and India are also working side by side in World Trade Organization negotiations. *** An important result of this meeting was the decision to initiate strategic bilateral discussions on regional and global topics of mutual interest. such as energy security. (…) We have strengthened our ties in areas of research. 2006. This will be conducted by India’s National Security Adviser and by the corresponding Brazilian Government authorities. with many interests and affinities in common regarding their views on great contemporary problems.
. Our corresponding positions are expressed in the partnership that we have built. we are determined to promote a close association. (…) Brazil and India are two great democracies in the developing world. Our joint actions in the creation of the G-20 changed the dynamics of trade negotiations and consolidated the role of developing countries as indispensable interlocutors to advance the Doha Round. distance learning and professional education at graduate level. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the act-signing ceremony and declaration to the press. Manmohan Singh Brasilia. In the energy field. in particular.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Joint Communiqué during the official visit to Brazil of the Prime Minister of India. September 12. including the threat of terrorism. in favor of a more balanced and equitable international system. We have come to address wealthy countries on an equal footing. in view of the need to update the United Nations. We have reiterated that any reform of the UN will not be complete unless there is also an expansion of the Security Council to include developing countries as its permanent members. above all in the sector of renewable energy sources and. ethanol”. Out democratic commitment has been reflected also in the positions we have assumed in multilateral forums. and situations of international security.
they emphasized the importance of simultaneously developing a greater rapprochement between both countries and investments in both economies. 2006. and the Festival of Indian Culture in Brazil. in the next few years. Manmohan Singh . between January and March 2008. An area that was identified as being of particular interest is the development of Brazilian and Indian interchange programs so that the culture and traditions of both countries may become better known and appreciated. September 12. in compliance with their international obligations. They
. which can contribute towards furthering efforts being made by both countries. from July to September 2008. (…) Both leaders emphasized the need to hold the First Meeting of the Brazil-India Defense Commission and to develop a cooperation program in matters related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy. joint campaigns to encourage bilateral economic-trade relations. In this context. *** Both leaders stressed the importance of founding the strategic partnership on a solid economic base.ASIA
during the official visit to Brazil of the Prime Minister of India. as well as having the objective of reaching the mark of US$ 10 billion in trade e by 2010. Both leaders agreed to launch. particularly in the area of infrastructure. They both equally welcomed the decision for cooperation that can be applied to the space sector. To this end. Both leaders welcomed the decision to hold the Festival of Brazilian Culture in India.Brasilia. Both sides expressed their satisfaction with the development of cooperation in the area of science and technology and expressed their expectation to adopt a cooperation program for the period of 2007-2010. comprising representatives of the industry in both countries. they expressed their satisfaction with the launch of the Business Leaders Forum.
My visit coincides with a powerful recovery of the economic dynamism in both our countries. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during his visit to the Japanese Parliament . Our optimism is the same as that which led to Japanese investments in Brazil since the 60s. to become the preferential destiny of Japanese business. not just as a supplier of raw materials. in 1908.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
both supported encouraging the interchange of artists. software and clean energy. May 26. 2005. Joint Communiqué during the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to India . Today.New Delhi. *** The Government and people of Brazil nurture great enthusiasm and confidence in our capacity to advance together on different
. 2007. which have became entwined with the very history of modernization and industrialization in Brazil. In this new phase of our historical association. We want Brazil to again become a priority landmark for Japanese investments. but as an efficient producer of value-added goods. Brazil harvests the fruits of this cooperation. (…) We want. students. youngsters and tourists between both countries.Tokyo. Brazil increasingly wishes to become an exporter of airplanes. once more. June 4.
JAPAN We have reasons to again believe in the promise that led the first Japanese immigrants to come to Brazil aboard the Kasato Marú. we want Japan to see Brazil.
I hope that these shared feelings will continue to guide our efforts. Brazil and Japan can make important contributions in the construction of a more stable. alongside India and Germany.7 million people.
topics that form part of our bilateral agenda. Shinzo Abe . In 2008. fairer and united international order. 2006. we are proud of the fact that Japan boasts the largest world community of (Brazilian) nikkeis (descendants of Japanese immigrants born outside Japan) – 300. The Japanese community in Brazil. agriculture and health. to support the reforms needed in the United Nations Security Council. our nations celebrate a century of Japanese immigration to Brazil. comprising around 1. notably in the field of science and technology. For our part. United by values such as democracy. September 26.000 people.Brasilia. renewable energy sources and the fostering of sustainable development. and should soon initiate cooperation in areas of justice and human rights. human rights and the peaceful solution to conflicts. serving as a valuable example of discipline and business acumen. education.
EAST TIMOR Diplomatic relations between Brazil and East Timor were established on the same day that independence was celebrated in that country. in a spirit of peace and hard work.who are contributing. Brazil has cooperated with East Timor in areas of defense. May 20. Message from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Prime Minister of Japan. considers itself perfectly integrated into national society. to the welfare and prosperity of Japanese society. as well as in new ventures. 2002.
Brazil has been providing cooperation in essential areas for the development of the newly-born Timor State. professional training. Brazil values the democratic path followed by East Timor since it became an independent State and will continue to act in favor of its prosperity and institutional stability.Brasilia. education. Brazil has provided bilateral technical cooperation in areas of agriculture. 2007. 2006. February 13. Press release. 2004 *** The Ministry of External Relations is attentive to the evolution of the internal political situation in East Timor and its impact on the security of the local Brazilian community. “Legislative elections in East Timor” Brasilia. Press release. in fields such as education. José Ramos-Horta” . “Official Visit to Brazil of the Chancellor of East Timor. so as to provide them with all the assistance that they may require. Brazil nurtures a strong feeling of unity in relation to East Timor and has sought to collaborate to improve the welfare of the population and to strengthen the Timor State.Brasilia. security and the training of manual workers. With this objective in mind.
. legal assistance and health. *** East Timor is the only country in Asia and Oceania where Portuguese is the official language. justice.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Press release. April 8. June 22. “The Situation in East Timor” .
CENTRAL ASIA Itamaraty (Brazilian Ministry of External Relations) is reorganizing itself to support the renewal of our relationship with countries in the Middle East and to establish bridges with Central Asia. 2003.São Paulo. article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Valor Econômico newspaper . December 3.
AFGHANISTAN Brazil has had the great satisfaction of supporting the last four resolutions taken by the United Nations Security Council on Afghanistan. (…) Diplomatic relations between Brazil and Afghanistan were re-established by Presidents Lula and Karzai in 2004. We are ready to share these experiences. January 31.London. We are ready to offer our cooperation to Afghanistan. 2006. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the London Conference on Afghanistan – “Political Perspectives: the Global Pact” . Brazil has carried out a series of programs in areas of human rights.
. so as to encourage more dynamic diplomatic activities with a region of the globe that is experiencing important political and economic redefinitions. particularly in areas such as the monitoring of foreign trade and public finances. “An agenda of cooperation with the Arab world”. The General Under-Secretariat of Political Affairs now has a department dedicated exclusively to this region. the removal of land mines and electoral assistance. for equality of gender and race and in the fight against hunger and poverty. agricultural research. population census. The unity of purpose provided a legitimate framework for international cooperation to the benefit of the Afghan people.
The privileged location of Kazakhstan. In 2004.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
KAZAKHSTAN The first visit of a Head of State of Kazakhstan to Brazil represents a historical landmark in the relations between two people who are beginning to know each other better. Our exchanges have been growing in a sustained and balanced way. Korean investments have helped to strengthen important sectors of Brazil’s industrial park. 2007. in the epicenter of Eurasia. The trade routes of Central Asia brought together the four corners of the old world. (…) Korea is already Brazil’s third largest partner in Asia. in 2005. construction. trade between the two countries exceeded the sum of 3 billion US dollars. such as the automobile and electronics industry. Nursultan Nazarbayev to Brazil . September 27. We are taking this partnership
. (…) The visit of president Nazarbayev to Brazil is also the first one of a Head of State from Central Asia to a Latin American country.
THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA
This meeting confirms what we know already: that there is an immense potential to be explored in trade. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit of the President of Kazakhstan. in business and in investments between Brazil and South Korea. telecommunications and transport. Kazakhstan today represents a meeting point between peoples and of dialogue between cultures. explains the decision to open in Astana in 2006 the first resident Brazilian Embassy in Central Asia.Brasilia. (…) We are harvesting the fruits of an association that was initiated with the visit of the first Brazilian trade mission to Kazakhstan. As the heir to this tradition. along roads traveled by merchants and explorers. ensuring the generation of income and jobs in both countries.
. (…) The “Special Partnership for the 21st Century” that we are launching will unite our efforts and resources for research and development in strategic areas such as aerospace. 2005. May 24. Brazil and Korea have powerful complementary characteristics and affinities in common. *** My visit to the Republic f Korea completes a cycle that was initiated with the visit of President Roh to Brazil last year.ASIA
to new frontiers. I have come here to reaffirm the commitments that we announced in Brasilia. We share the same conviction that it will be through dialogue and constructive commitment that the definitive reconciliation of the Korean people will be reached. Brazilian and Korean companies are developing strategic associations in the fields of energy and mining. Brazil supports the great efforts being made by the government of President Roh to reduce tensions in the region. But I also came to harvest the first fruits of this new partnership. The size and importance of the business entourage present at this seminar confirm the decision taken to give a renewed sense to this partnership. (…) The attention of the international community is turned towards the Korean Peninsula. launched when we established the Comprehensive Relation of Cooperation for Common Prosperity in the 21st Century. We face the same challenge to shape a future with security and prosperity for our people in the midst of uncertainties (created by a system) of globalization without fair rules or unity. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the close of the Brazil-Korea Seminar: Trade and Investment Opportunities . electro-electronics and clean technology. In spite of the distance between us. Korea and Brazil have been responding positively to these challenges.
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Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the official dinner offered by the President of the Republic of Korea. *** The Brazilian Government exhorts the DPRK to rejoin.Brasilia. so as to favor solutions that strengthen the stability and confidence of the community of States. “Announcement by North Kores about the Possesion of Nuclear Weapons” .Seoul. and to strictly observe the moratorium on nuclear tests until the TPNT comes into force. the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). in a constructive spirit.
THE DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA (DPRK) The Brazilian government learnt of the declaration of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). May 25. (…) Brazil reaffirms the conviction that questions relative to international peace and security should be treated by means of negotiation. dated February 10 of this year. as well as the announcement that they possess nuclear weapons and that they intend to pursue their development. February 11. The Brazilian Government equally calls on North Korea to adhere to the Treaty for Total Prohibition of Nuclear Tests (TPNT) as soon as possible. The Brazilian Government regrets the decision announced by North Korea. unconditionally and as a country free of nuclear weapons. 2005. Press release. regarding the decision to suspend their participation in the Six-Way talks. Roh Moo-Hyun . 2005.
which has greatly expanded in recent years. “Announcement of nuclear tests in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea” . On the level of trade.
NEW ZEALAND Brazil and New Zealand maintain close coordination in multilateral forums on topics such as the environment and sustainable development (both support the Kyoto Protocol).
OCEANIA AUSTRALIA At the working meeting. which will celebrate 60 years of diplomatic relations in 2005. (Both Chancellors) Expressed their support for efforts being made to activate Mercosur and CER – Closer Economic Relations between Australia and New Zealand.Brasilia. Brazil and New Zealand are part of the Group of
. Brazil – Australia Joint Communiqué . January 14. as well as disarmament and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons (both countries are part of the so-called Coalition of the New Agenda) and human rights. the two Ministers (Celso Amorim and Alexander Downer) analyzed possible joint initiatives with the objective of strengthening relations between Brazil and Australia. particularly in areas such as education. 2006.Brasilia. 2006.ASIA
Press release. and increase the rapprochement between the two regional blocs. (…) Special attention was dedicated to increasing the level of contacts between citizens (of both countries). to hold constructive talks. October 9. They equally reaffirmed their commitment towards establishing a closer relationship between both countries.
Phil Goff ” Brasilia. Press release. “Visit of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of New Zealand.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Cairns. New Zealand shares a commitment with Brazil for the re-launching of the Doha Round. Both countries have sought ways to increase bilateral trade. which aims to put an end to the practices that distort international trade of agricultural products and to promote liberalization in this area. and are determined to fly high in matters related to agriculture.
. February 27. 2004.
INDIA. BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA DIALOGUE FORUM (IBSA)
the importance and need for talks between countries and nations in development in the South have been noted. BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA DIALOGUE FORUM (IBSA)
This consists of a pioneering coming together of three countries with vibrant democracies in three regions in the world that are in the process of development and active on a global scale. Even the political-diplomatic concertation on very different topics – whether the Doha Round. the promotion of peace and security or
. so as to organize meetings of high-level officials and specialists responsible for questions of mutual interest. (…) The Ministers will recommend to their respective Heads of State and/or Government that a Summit meeting be held between the three countries. They have also decided to further intensify dialogue on all levels. During recent years. *** Ever since it was created. South Africa and India Brasilia. so as to coordinate their positions on matters of common interest. as well as an exchange of information on questions of mutual cooperation. with the objective of examining themes on the international agenda that are of mutual interest. June 6. Trilateral Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Brazil. Brazil and South Africa Dialogue Forum” (IBSA) Declaration of Brasilia.INDIA. 2003. They decided to maintain regular political consultation on items on the international agenda. IBSA has been notable for its pragmatism. (…) The Ministers decided to call this group the “India. whenever necessary.
Brazil and South Africa. 2006. and contributes by projecting trilateral India-Brazil-South Africa cooperation in particular sectors.Rio de Janeiro. between three great multicultural and multiracial democracies of Asia. Press release. It has become a useful instrument to promote even closer coordination on global issues. March 30.Brasilia. *** IBSA is much more than just a diplomatic edifice. Even though it was not created by countries belonging to the traditional circuit of international donors.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
the fight against hunger and poverty – is directed towards obtaining concrete advances. *** Created in 2003. “IBSA Summit Meeting” . The IBSA Fund to Combat Hunger and Poverty wants to be an example of how relatively less development countries can benefit from the experiences of other developing countries. Press release. South America and Africa. “Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening ceremony of the Ministerial Meeting of the India. We are fully consolidated democracies that give an example of how the various ethnic groups and cultures that form our
. It is a natural expression of particular views on great international issues. India and South Africa. 2006. the IBSA Dialogue Forum carries out a role that is increasingly important to the foreign policies of India. IBSA invests in the solidarity between countries of the South. Brazil and South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA)” . September 13. It is also a concrete expression of the objectives shared by Brazil.
INDIA. *** IBSA is. with IBSA and other initiatives. September 13. 2006. destined to have an ever more relevant international presence. We defend multilateralism and an international order based on the rule of law and on the construction of consensus. we are working together to reform the United Nations. These two sides of our foreign policy should not be seen as “no-win games”. We are determined to move forward to construct societies that are fairer and more prosperous by means of responsible economic policies and an unrelenting commitment to improve the living conditions of our more vulnerable populations. We agree that the protection of the environment is an
. Our capacity for positive influence in our respective regions – Africa. is to take better advantage of previously unexplored South-South cooperation opportunities. We are countries that are also still facing the challenge of fighting extreme hunger and attaining sustainable development. we created the G-20. a mechanism of political deliberation on major topics on the international agenda. Latin America and Asia – further highlights the role that falls to the South in the principal international debates and decisions. first and foremost. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening session of the First IBSA Summit . Together. one bolsters the other. They are complimentary.Brasilia. India. with which we have a significant identification. BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA DIALOGUE FORUM (IBSA)
societies can co-exist in harmony. This does not mean that Brazil will neglect its relations with the developed world. (…) What we want. South Africa and Brazil can also offer a decisive contribution towards creating a more just. We favor a reform of the United Nations Security Council to include developing countries amongst its permanent members. We are emerging economies. united and balanced international order.
*** Ever since it was created. It shows that developing countries can have a highly qualified international presence. which Brazil had the honor to host. IBSA has shown its ability as an interlocutor in various issues on the global agenda. amongst others. But. September 15. This reflects our credibility. we will seek to move forward in trilateral understandings in these areas. The first Summit. our diplomatic presence and our capacity to contribute towards the construction of a fairer and more democratic international order. IBSA expanded its activities and established itself as an instrument to bring our three countries closer together. trade. our alliance has attracted curiosity and faced skepticism. full of injustices and inequalities. We are convinced that it is necessary to achieve a balance between intellectual property protection rights and public health policies. This is a concrete new proposal for international solidarity. During this Summit. above all. our activities in the G-20 give absolute priority to (achieving) effective cuts in the agricultural subsidies in developed countries. article by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the Valor Econômico newspaper . We formed a dialogue forum that ensures that our countries have an even more relevant presence in this world. We are developing countries that are joining forces to
. But IBSA is more than an instrument that strengthens the voice of developing countries in major world debates. science and technology. (…) The IBSA Fund to Fight Hunger and Poverty is a cause for pride. in 2003. 2006. energy and transport. It is also a privileged instrument for concrete trilateral cooperation initiatives in areas such as agriculture.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
indissoluble part of the fight against poverty and of economic development. accelerated the process and showed the certainty of our initiative. it has given rise to hope. “The India-Brazil-South Africa South Alliance”. In the Doha Round.São Paulo.
It was with justifiable satisfaction that we received the United Nations prize for projects developed by IBSA in Haiti and Guinea-Bissau. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening ceremony of the Second IBSA Summit Johannesburg. Asia and Latin America. Initiatives are presently under study that will benefit Burundi and other poor countries in Africa. BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA DIALOGUE FORUM (IBSA)
help the poorer ones. 2007. We have proved that it is not necessary to be wealthy to be united.
.INDIA. October 17.
AFRICA – OVERVIEW With 76 million Afro-descendents, we are the second largest Negro nation in the world, only behind Nigeria. I am personally committed to reflect this reality in our national and international actions. We have a political, moral and traditional commitment with Africa, and with those Brazilians who are descended from Africans. And we will honor this commitment. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the Special Session of the 61st International Conference on Labor - Geneva, June 2, 2003. *** Africa is an indispensable reference in the background of our people and of our culture. And it is also much more than this. It is a Continent which, like Brazil, yearns and fights for liberty, social justice, democracy and development. We have much to learn from one another; we have much to give each other. We have experiences to share. We have innumerable material, spiritual and symbolic riches to exchange. And I am sure that we are going to do this, more and more. I would like to leave here a message of great optimism in relation to the future of our friendship. The path between Africa and Brazil has in the past been a path of slavery. Let this route now be used to offer prosperity and happiness to the Brazilian people and to the African people.
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Radio message sent to Africa by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva - Brasilia, August 8, 2003. *** We know that Brazilian society was constructed with the work, with the efforts, with the sweat and blood of a great number of Africans; men and women who were free citizens in Africa and who became slaves, so as to provide labor in my own and other countries. The most appropriate means to return the sacrifice that Africans made is to establish the most perfect policy of harmony with Africa. (…) And this relationship that Brazil aims to maintain with countries in Africa is not the relationship of an imperialist country with hegemonic tendencies. We have tired of this; we were colonized, and we have already freed ourselves from hegemony. We now want partnerships, we want companionship, and we want to work arm in arm, to construct an equitable international policy, for multilateral democratic organisms and to ensure that we have equal opportunities. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the official dinner offered by the President of Mozambique, Joaquim Chissano - Maputo, November 5, 2003. *** Brazil has a debt with Africa. A debt that recognizes the contribution that millions of Africans made, in conditions of suffering and oppression, towards the construction of Brazil. We feel part of the African Continent’s renewed commitment to take into its own hands the responsibility to find answers to its problems. Speech given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the official dinner offered by President
Thabo Mbeki of South Africa - Pretoria, November 8, 2003. *** We feel a special urgency in helping Africa in the fight against the dramatic cycle of poverty, violence and fatalism. We are modernizing systems of information and communication (in the country) and transferring technology and capital, so that the African Continent can compete in a increasingly globalized world. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the 5th Conference of Heads of State and Government, to present an account of the Brazilian Presidency of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries São Tomé, July 26, 2004. *** Brazil owes much to the African people. Free men and women, from this Continent, were enslaved and sold to the Americas. And there, with their suffering and labor, they helped build my country. But now it is pointless to simply cry about what happed in the past; we need to think about constructing the future. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to the home of Chachá de Souza - Ouidah, Benin, February 10, 2006. *** My Government accepted, with great honor, the invitation to be the seat to the second part of this Conference (CIAD II). This forum of
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dialogue between African countries and communities of African descendents in the world is part of an indispensable bond of mutual discovery. Today, we face the challenge of identifying forms of (providing) reciprocal support and ways through which African culture can be valued in a globalized world. Brazil is committed to this task. During the last three and a half years, I have visited 17 African countries and stressed Brazil’s diplomatic presence on the African Continent. We have expanded and enhanced our cooperation programs in sectors of particular social interest, such as health, agriculture and education. A deep sense of identity and solidarity links Brazilians to the African people. We have a strong awareness of the contribution that Africa made to Brazil. We therefore want to help this Continent to fulfill its enormous potentiality. Brazil is not just a country of the African Diaspora. Brazil is also an African country, the second largest Negro nation in the world. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the official dinner for Heads of State and Government and Vice-Presidents, who participated in the Second Conference of Intellectuals from Africa and the Diaspora - Salvador, Bahia, July 11, 2006.
AFRICA-SOUTH AMERICA SUMMIT (AFSA) When I was here in 2005, President Obasanjo suggested the idea of an Africa-South America Summit. With the vision of a statesman, he perceived the potential for cooperation and solidarity between our two regions. (...) In our international activities, we have also made a long journey in common with African nations. At the United Nations, we defend the principle of de-colonization and the repudiation of apartheid. We were alongside our African partners in the process to create UNCTAD (United Nations Commission on
Trade and Development). We suffered together during the periods of recession and disorder in the world economy, as well as from the perverse effects of protectionism practiced by wealthy countries. We joined our voices for a more just and equitable international economic order. Today, Africa is unarguably a priority for Brazil. Geology taught us that, millions of years ago, Africa and South America were joined in one great continent. Who has not wondered at how maps show the Northeast of Brazil and the Gulf of Guinea fitting together almost perfectly? The new geography that we are constructing will not move the planet’s tectonic plaques, to recreate that lost continual land mass, but it will certainly help to transform the reality of international politics and economics, bringing us politically, economically, socially and culturally closer together. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the opening of the Africa-South America Summit (AFSA) - Abuja, Nigeria, November 30, 2006.
THE AFRICAN UNION Brazilian talks with the African Union have seen a significant advance during the term of the President of the Commission, Alpha Konaré, especially since the reopening of the Brazilian Embassy in Ethiopia in 2005. The renewed cooperation between Brazil and the African Union was reflected in the organization of two important events last year: the Second Conference of Intellectuals from Africa and the Diaspora (CIAD II, in Salvador, July/2006) and the First Africa-South America Summit (AFSA, in Abuja, Nigeria, November/2006). During this visit, the Basic Technical Cooperation Agreement should be signed between Brazil and the African Union, the first legal instrument to be signed with that organization. This Agreement establishes a legal framework for the development of technical cooperation programs
“Brazil and the rebirth of Africa”. 2007. Alpha Konaré” Brasilia. (…) There is a compatibility of views in relation to the international scene which makes us natural allies in the defense of political. the results of which I have already been able to see for myself. as I found from my contacts with President Mbeki and Foreign Minister Zuma. We hope that our association can represent a contribution from Brazil towards the objectives of NEPAD. “Visit to Brazil of the President of the Commission of the African Union.Paulo newspaper . environment interests. etc.São Paulo. trade. such as in the automobile. 2003. This without prejudicing redoubled efforts in areas such as agribusiness. the environment and energy.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
in areas of mutual interest. *** South Africa deserves our admiration for its role in launching and promoting the African Union and its working instrument.
. article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de S. education. with the possibility of establishing joint ventures. where complementarities are proven to exist. the New Partnership for Africa’s Development – NEPAD. (…) The political leadership and economic vigor of South Africa are forging an “African Renaissance” in Southern Africa. health. May 25. aircraft and metallurgic sectors. Press release. February 27. such as agriculture.
SOUTH AFRICA South Africa has reached a level of development that permits us to explore cooperation opportunities.
in this respect. as well as in defense. The Parties undertook a commitment to mutually cooperate in the fight against discrimination and to promote racial equality.AFRICA
Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the official dinner offered by President Thabo Mbeki. both countries agreed to intensify trade. President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva reaffirmed Brazil’s readiness to draw closer in its relations with Africa and. (…) Furthermore. They welcomed the present trade negotiations between the Southern African Development
. 2003. held in Fortaleza in June 2003. In this respect. was also discussed during these talks. and welcomed the fact that this will become an annual event. (…) While emphasizing their confidence in the benefits of international trade growth. both Presidents stressed the special meaning of the great cultural affinity that is a result of the contribution made by Africa towards the development of modern Brazil. which greatly helped to heal the open wounds left from the apartheid period. water-related diseases. malaria and dengue. of South Africa . political and social situation of their countries. November 8. concluded in March 2003. The Presidents also recognized the success of the first BrazilAfrica Forum. Cooperation in science and technology. investments and technological cooperation. on the successful work carried out by the Commission of Reconciliation and Truth.Pretoria. the Brazilian President congratulated his South African colleague on the success of the political transition of South Africa and. The Presidents equally agreed to increment cooperation related to measures to fight various epidemics that afflict both countries in areas such as HIV/AIDS. especially. the Presidents indicated that it was unacceptable that developing countries should be subject to the protectionist practices imposed by developed countries. *** The two Presidents (Lula and Mbeki) discussed the economic.
in which such topics as agriculture.the Brazilian Petroleum Corporation .
NIGERIA Nigeria is one of Brazil’s most important Atlantic partners.Brasilia. including their readiness to make the international community more sensitive to the importance of fighting
. The bilateral trade balance amounted to US$ 4 billion dollars and there is room for additional growth. November 7-8. Contacts between Nigerian and Brazilian economic operators have enabled respective export guidelines to diversify. Nigeria is one of Africa’s largest oil producers and the most important supplier of the product to Brazil. 2005. defense and health are considered. Another important topic for both countries is the Africa-South America Summit (AFRAS).has shown interest in expanding its activities in Nigeria. 2003. “Visit of the President of Nigeria. as well as those that involve the fight against the HIV/AIDS virus. September 6. Brazil and Nigeria share a vast field of common interests.Pretoria. during November of this year. *** Brazil and Nigeria have developed an intense agenda of cooperation. to Brazil” . Olusegun Obasanjo.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Community (SADC) and Mercosur with the view to creating a free trade zone. Petrobrás . services and hydro-carbonates. Press release. in Abuja. Joint Communiqué during the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to South Africa . which Nigeria proposed to host. in areas such as agribusiness.
(…) The CPLP has been gaining voice and an international personality. we have sought to translate the natural affinities and solidarity that we nurture for the people of each one of the member countries into diversified projects. It is an initiative of great strategic value. with a population of 230 million inhabitants committed to democracy and social justice. June 13. especially the United Nations. On a political level. “Diplomacy in the Lula Government” lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy). Press release.AFRICA
hunger and poverty and to promote sustainable development. We are eight countries. It enjoys the prestige of an institution that has a vocation for avoiding conflicts and tensions.Brasilia. *** The Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries is more than a place for confraternity between brotherly societies. capable of reacting swiftly in situations of crises. 2003.
COMMUNITY OF PORTUGUESE-SPEAKING COUNTRIES (CPLP) During our presidency of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries.Brasilia. with a range of action that covers four continents. 2006. both countries maintain an intense and fruitful working relationship in multilateral forums. it is a mature organization. (…) Our Community is united by values and principles that are borne of a
. Oluyemi Adeniji” . April 10. “Visit to Brazil of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Nigeria. Today. .
In Guinea-Bissau. in July 2005. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the ViaABC. financed by the Fund to Combat Hunger and Poverty.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
common linguistic experience that we wish to preserve and to propagate. *** Traditional Brazilian cooperation within the ambit of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries is also worth mentioning. Strengthening the International Institute of the Portuguese Language. This initiative is the first activity of its kind undertaken by IBSA and represents a practical demonstration of the vitality of SouthSouth cooperation. There are many examples of this. I welcome the coming into force of the Orthographic Agreement of the Portuguese Language.
. created by the India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum(IBSA).June 2006. In Angola. we are implementing a project to support the development of agriculture and livestock. a publication produced by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency . the seed of the CPLP. “Cooperation as an Instrument of Brazilian Foreign Policy”. was considered to be a priority during the term of the Brazilian Presidency. 2004. we inaugurated a Center of Excellence for Business Development in Luanda. July 26.CPLP . Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the 5th Conference of Heads of State and Government of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries .SENAI. which will make our dialogue even more agile and franker. In partnership with the National Service for Industrial Learning .São Tomé. in Cape Verde. we are setting up a center for Professional Training in Cidade de Praia.
. This country is today the principal beneficiary of Brazilian cooperation in technical assistance programs. one of the cradles of our nation. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the opening of the Brazil-Angola Ministerial Meeting . This is why our relations are happening in a context of spontaneous affinities and reciprocal solidarity. (…) Since my last visit. which has functioned in an efficient manner. Brazil was the first country to recognize Angola’s independence in 1975. is a diplomatic priority of ours. The development of Angola will also be reflected in benefits to Brazil. We look forward to a future of peace. to see up close the progress that has been made as a result of our association. A strong and prosperous Angola could be the powerhouse for a whole region.AFRICA
ANGOLA Partners over a long period of time. Angola is still the destination of a considerable amount of Brazilian foreign investments. Brazilian financing made it possible to construct the Capanda Hydroelectric plant. 2003. trade between us has grown almost fivefold. *** I feel at home in this country. and vice-versa. November 3. Angola and Brazil are preparing to consolidate and strengthen their cooperation. with annual Angolan exports reaching the sum of US$) 460 million. ever since its independence. democracy and social and economic development. I came to Angola during my first visit to Africa.Luanda. I now return at the beginning of my second term of office. Angola is the third largest African country to supply products to Brazil and the fourth largest importer of Brazilian goods in Africa. and can also count on a Brazilian Government credit system. These circumstances explain why Angola.
Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the solemn opening session of the bilateral meeting with the President of Angola. This country has definitively become a route for great investments. The Vale do Rio Doce Company. Our lines of credit have helped to modernize the country.. (. above all because we believe in Mozambique. These projects will help Mozambique to develop the technical capacity to respond to the challenges of sustainable development. we signed the agreement which consolidates a Brazilian commitment to reduce Mozambique’s debt with Brazil. Brazil is doubling its efforts to meet this challenge. with financial support from the National Bank for Social and Economic Development – BNDES. For these reasons. Today. the environment and public administration. agriculture. José Eduardo dos Santos .Luanda. With the same confidence.. sports. October 18. Toast given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the luncheon in honor of the President of
MOZAMBIQUE The international community has begun to discover what Brazil has always known: the enormous potential of Mozambique and its people. We believe in the potential of these projects. more than ever.) The “Rebirth of Angola” will serve as an example and inspiration to other nations on the Continent of Africa who seek political stability and economic and social development. wants to get involved in the exploitation of coal in Moatize and in the social development of the Zambezi Valley. we are reinvigorating cooperation programs in the areas of education.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
important infrastructure project in the country.
as well as the priority shown by Brazil towards Africa in recent years. 2005.
MOROCCO Relations between Brazil and Morocco are notable for their good political understanding. the King of Morocco and Foreign Minister Benaïssa visited Brazil.
GUINEA-BISSAU The Brazilian Government has watched with attention the electoral process in Guinea-Bissau. Joaquim Chissano . and agriculture and livestock development projects within the ambit of the India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Forum Press release.Brasilia. August 31. June 17. including technical cooperation projects in areas of health and professional training.Brasilia. The positions of both countries are convergent in various international
. Brazil has maintained a resident Embassy in Rabat. The exchange of visits reflects the willingness of Morocco to seek a greater proximity with South America. 2004. Since 1963.AFRICA
Mozambique. like Brazil. of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP). “Brazilian support in the presidential election in Guinea-Bissau” .(…) Brazil’s support to the elections in Guinea-Bissau is part of a series of Brazilian Government initiatives in favor of political consolidation to recover the Country’s economic development. to whom we are linked by cultural. and Chancellor Celso Amorim visited the Moroccan capital in March 2005. In 2004. political and friendship ties. The Moroccan Embassy in Brazil was established in 1967. a member country. cooperation to restructure the Armed Forces.
2004. in addition to having promoted the preparatory meeting of the first event. Morocco has supported the initiative of the South American and Arab Countries Summit (held in Brasilia in May 2005) and.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
matters. by means of dialogue between the parties involved in the dispute. “The Situation in Western Sahara” Brasilia. *** With regard to the situation in Western Sahara. Joint Communiqué of the visit to Brazil by the King of Morocco.
. March 8. President Lula reiterated the Brazilian support for the decisions of the United Nations Security Council to reach a negotiated political settlement. which will enable peace negotiations to be unlocked and result in the definitive resolution of conflict in the region. Press release. Since the very beginning. has also offered to be the host to the second meeting of the Forum Summit in 2008. 2006.Brasilia. in Marrakech. November 26. 2004. Press release.
WESTERN SAHARA Brazil expressed the expectation of the continuity of the measures to construct trust between the Kingdom of Morocco and the Polisario Front. “Official visit to Brazil of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Morocco. Mohamed Benaïssa” .Brasilia. Mohammed VI . January 19.
(…) Both Presidents rejoiced in the decision taken by their Governments to promote regular.Algiers. by mobilizing the capacities of both countries. electronic government. To this end. 2006. political consultation within the framework of the Memorandum of Understanding signed by both Ministries of External Relations in 2005. they stressed that real opportunities for cooperation and interchange exist in areas of energy. which will allow for the continuity of mutually beneficial consultation work maintained by both countries when they were non-permanent members of the United Nations Security Council in the biennium 2004-2005. health. parallel to efforts being made to increase international aid to overcome
THE SUDAN– DARFUR The Brazilian Government recognizes the complexity of the crisis in Darfur and the urgent need for a political solution to be reached.AFRICA
ALGERIA The two Presidents (Lula and Abdelaziz Bouteflika] underlined (. advanced technology and skilled labor.. (…) Presidents Abdelaziz Bouteflika and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva reiterated their support to the efforts carried out within the ambit of the United Nations to obtain a solution to the question of Western Sahara in accordance with international rules and based on the pertinent resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations Security Council. agriculture and technical cooperation. February 9. support to micro and small businesses.) that the closeness and diversification of bilateral relations require the qualitative promotion of exchanges. Joint Communiqué during the State Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Algeria . financing and exports.. notably in areas related to privatization.
Brazil believes that the Security Council should support the efforts of the African Union. July 28. Press release.Brasilia.
. “Situation in Darfur – Sudan “ . In this respect. in this way. which has undertaken the task of monitoring the cease-fire. Brazil supports the efforts of the Secretary General of the United Nations with a view to alleviating the humanitarian crisis (in the country) and to ensure the safety of the population of Darfur. and.the humanitarian crisis affecting the country. contribute towards the pacification of Darfur. 2004. the Brazilian Governments hopes that both parties resolve their disputes by pacific and negotiated means and exhorts the Darfur rebels to renew negotiations with the Government of Khartoum.
THE MIDDLE EAST
“Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Arab Countries” .Brasilia. They contribute. common values have developed during the course of time. 2003. the need to respect international Law and to strengthen world order. the right to development and to the use of national natural resources. strongly influenced by an Islamic presence. The rich heritage of the Arab-Islamic civilization was present in the primordial origins of Brazil. *** It is an honor to speak as the first head of the Brazilian State to visit this noble institution. They explain the cordiality and respect in the way we relate to one another. Press release. nowadays. towards forging new commonalities between Brazil and Arab countries: the search for long-term peace. as by the important immigration originating in Lebanon and Syria. the value attributed to the sovereignty of States and the self-determination of people. the protection of cultural diversity and the preservation of national and regional traits. because of the powerful influence
.THE MIDDLE EAST
We are linked to Arab counties as much by Brazil’s Iberian roots. This is an example of a beneficial form of integration into Brazilian nationality. Arab Countries and Brazil have profound historical and cultural ties. The adaptation of immigrants to the conditions of the country that gave them shelter equals the ability of the Brazilian people to impregnate themselves with their values and customs. On a political level. December 2. These are bonds that we are proud of.
remain abreast of the positions of the Arab World on the most important topics on the international agenda. our dialogue.
SOUTH AMERICAN AND ARAB COUNTRIES SUMMIT (SAAC) The fundamental proposal of the Summit is to promote mechanisms of bi-regional proximity within the ambit of South-South cooperation and to encourage cooperation between two regions with historical affinities. thousands of Arab immigrants disembarked on Brazilian soil seeking a new life. respectively. Egypt. (…) Brazil. the Summit will also include in its agenda such topics as economic and trade cooperation. coordination in multilateral
. on a regular basis. Political will is needed to move forward and expand our proximity. 2003. In addition to the bi-regional political dialogue. scientific-technological cooperation. December 9. Later. These men and women gave a decisive contribution to the formation of the Brazilian identity. The admittance of Brazil as an observer to the Arab League – which we proudly greeted – is a sign that this process has begun. cultural cooperation. which face similar challenges in relation to the promotion of development. from where our Portuguese colonizers came. The more than 10 million Brazilian descendants of these immigrants that today live in my country maintained their connections with their original civilization. This is a significant step so that Brazil may .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
it had on the Iberian Peninsula. Mercosur and the Arab World boast enormous markets. as well as to our economic and social development and the enrichment of our culture. with populations of 210 million and 200 million inhabitants. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during his visit to the headquarters of the League of Arab States -Cairo.
all this in addition to the philosophy of tolerance that has already served to greatly inspire us. May 9. on attendance are our artists. developing our air connections. of music. 2005. developing our maritime connections. of the cinema. of dance. “Preparation of the South American and Arab Countries Summit” . In this regard. of fine arts. Press release. that was very clearly expressed in the Iberian Peninsula.Brasilia. On attendance are our businessmen and women.THE MIDDLE EAST
economic and trade forums and collaboration in social and development issues.Brasilia. *** They (the Heads of State and Government of South American and Arab countries) emphasized the importance of cultural interaction between their societies for the enrichment of Civilization and recognize that the South America and Arab Countries Summit constitutes an opportunity to strengthen the mutual understanding between the people of both regions and their cultures. *** I believe that this is the main meaning of this Summit: that we are capable of looking at ourselves directly. They reaffirmed the growing importance of culture as a bridge of integration between their people and as an
. 2005. March 21. they expressed their appreciation for the positive role carried out by the citizens of South America of Arab descent in promoting biregional relations. in the years that our Arab brothers were also there. Opening Statement by Minster Celso Amorim at the Meeting of Foreign Ministers of South America and Arab Countries .
defended. 2005. to overcome the present political crisis. Declaration of Brasilia. democratically and economically viable State. (…) In May 2005. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Seminar for Peace and Reconciliation . I have been able to appreciate the attempts made by Your Excellency. At the same time. we value our relations with Israel. September 14. I have given special importance to the relations with the Palestine National Authority.
THE PALESTINE QUESTION
Brazil has historically. As Your Excellency knows. safe. May 11. co-existing in peace with Israel. The Brazilian Government appointed a special envoy for Middle Eastern affairs. signed by the countries taking part in the South American and Arab Countries Summit . supported by the Basic Law of Palestine. the realization of the legitimate aspirations of the Palestine people for a united. 2007. Brazil has strengthened its relations with the Arab world. *** In recent years.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
economic activity that provides a boost for development and mutual cooperation. the first Summit of Arab and South American countries was held in Brasilia. It was the first Latin American country to be given the status of an observer by the Arab League. The creation of a
. to preserve existing institutions and to put an end to the suffering that afflicts the population in the Occupied Territories of Palestine.Oslo. and in particular during my Government. We are in a singular position to dialogue with both sides.Brasilia.
to be formed by
. under the auspices of the United Nations. In addition. in one form or another. I firmly believe that the initiatives of the international community will benefit from the formation of a group of countries. the far-reaching and determined involvement of the international community is an appropriate way that will enable the peace process in the Middle East to be conducted under good terms. which could involve other countries outside the region. (…) Brazil’s multilateral actions have sought to favor peace negotiations and condemn actions that result in greater suffering for the Palestinian people. of all the relevant players involved in the process. we believe that peace will only be sustained with the involvement. (…) Brazil understands that this matter transcends its regional dimension and directly affects several of the major problems confronting the international community. In the event that such a proposal should be considered useful. I express to Your Excellency the genuine willingness of the Brazilian Government to take part in a “Group of Friends for Peace in the Middle East”. From a Brazilian viewpoint. at the last General Assembly of the United Nation I raised the idea of summoning an international conference on the situation in the Middle East. and would serve to add to the efforts being made by the players already directly involved. including the visit of the Minister of External Relations. these should have a conciliatory profile and with a credibility that is recognized internationally. With this intention in mind. fair and ultimate settlement could represent the beginning of a powerful new cycle that can positively affect the outcome of other situations of conflict. (…) It would be worth considering widening the international dimension of the process. demonstrates the priority that Brazil gives to its relationship with the people and Government of Palestine. Its balanced. in 2005. including developing countries. and the frequent visits of Brazilian authorities to the Occupied Territories.THE MIDDLE EAST
Representation Office in Brazil and in Ramallah. representing different regions. to promote dialogue and peace. especially in the Gaza Strip.
matters involving the Middle East have always been treated exclusively by the great powers. We express to both parties. We need new ideas and renewed proposals. (…) Brazil wishes to expand its contribution towards peace in the Middle East. There will never be long-lasting peace in the Middle East without a permanent solution for this division. including developing countries. as well as to the QUARTET Committee for the Middle East (United States. Unfortunately. during his speech at the General Assembly of the United Nations. not confrontation. The international community as a whole has the obligation to work with the parties involved. is followed. Maybe the time has come to discuss this proposal more carefully. *** The conflict between Israelis and Palestinians represents an open wound in the world today. Ideally. Europe. 2007. with the participation of countries from the region. Mahmoud Abbas. a well as other nations. We have to involve more countries in this process. President Lula suggested the possibility of convoking a large-scale Conference. with a view to ensuring that the path of dialogue.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
countries with the aforementioned characteristics. in addition to the countries directly involved. in a letter addressed to the Palestinian President
. the Group will be coordinated by the Secretary General of the United Nations. on August 21. Unilateral initiatives are not the answer. our willingness to participate more actively in international efforts with a view to establishing peace. under the auspices of the United Nations. Letter from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva addressed to the President of the Palestine National Authority (PNA). (…) Last August. (…) As we know. and delivered to him in Ramallah. no solution at all has been reached until now. United Nations. Russia). Last year.
Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Seminar for Peace and Reconciliation . the Minister of Institutional Relations. On the part of Israel. the Minister of External Relations. Perhaps a bit of fresh air will benefit the peace process. September 14. Employment and Trade. 2007.THE MIDDLE EAST
Mahmoud Abbas. as can be verified by the successive records obtained in the exchange of trade and by the increase in the number of visits of authorities at the highest level. During the last two years of the first term of the Lula Government. during the course of this Government. This Group could be formed by interested countries that have a constructive profile of consensus. There are good prospects for intensifying the institutional framework of Brazil-Israel bilateral exchanges in the most diverse areas.Oslo. four Ministers of State visited Israel. In fact. and the Minister of Education. international credibility and good relations with all parties. Prime Minister Ehud Olmert made an official visit to Brazil in March 2005. 58%. there has likewise been a growing dynamism in the relations between Brazil and Israel. relations with the Arab World have been intensified without damaging the good relationship that exists with the State of Israel. Fernando Haddad. President Lula raised the matter and suggested that – ideally – this Group of Friends should be coordinated by the Secretary General of the United Nations. Brazilian exports to that country grew 26. when he was Minster of Industry.
ISRAEL Under the Lula da Silva Administration. Celso Amorim. Luiz Fernando Furlan. Recently. Industry and Foreign Trade. Jacques Wagner. agreements relative to bilateral cooperation have
. the Minister of Development.
. 2005. Last year. May 27. education. have been strengthened during the last two years by a significant increase in bilateral trade exchange Two-way trade increased from US$ 505 million in 2003 to US$ 715 million in 2004 an increment of more that 40% in one year. Press release. or are in the final stages of negotiations. 2007. traditionally marked by strong ties of friendship and cooperation. June 15. Brazil was Israel’s second largest trade partner in the Americas. During this visit. a Memorandum of Understanding will be signed to establish mechanisms for annual political consultations between the Foreign Ministers of both countries.Rio de Janeiro. irrigation and the fight against drought and desertification. In December 2005. The visit of Minister Celso Amorim to Israel will be the first of a Brazilian Foreign Minister to that country in the last ten years and will constitute an opportunity to examine initiatives and new cooperation projects.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
been signed. the peaceful use of outer space. with meetings already held in Brasilia and Jerusalem. in agriculture. health. at the Brazilian Military Academy (Escola Superior de Guerra) . Brazil and Israel further maintain cooperation initiatives in areas such as civil and military aviation. Lecture given by the Director of the Department of the Middle East and Central Asia. *** Relations between Brazil and Israel. “The Visit of Minister Celso Amorim to Israel” . a framework agreement was signed with a view to creating a free trade area between Mercosur and Israel. In May 2005. industrial policy and in fostering cutting-edge technology.Brasilia. Ambassador Sarkis Karmirian. mechanisms were created for annual political consultations between the Foreign Ministers of both countries.
who were swift to react: right at the beginning (of the conflict between Hezbollah and Israel. Two months later. (…) Brazil vigorously supports the full execution of Resolution 1701. from areas most affected by the conflict. We are developing bilateral projects in agriculture.000 to the UNDP Fund. health. The sorrow of the Lebanese people was perceived by Brazilians. I reiterated here the suggestion of President Lula. destined to finance projects of reconstruction in Lebanon. we sent a multidisciplinary cooperation mission to Lebanon. living in peace and safety alongside Israel. Brazilian businesses are equally committed to promoting trade and investments in Lebanon. nearly three thousand Brazilians and Lebanese nationals with family bonds in Brazil. as well as with the participation of some extra-regional
. But there will be no long-lasting solution to the Lebanese question as long as there is no solution to the Palestine problem. amongst others. based on an independent and viable State. they organized an unprecedented operation to remove. Brazil was profoundly moved by the military conflict in Lebanon during the current month of July. We are now pleased to announce a further donation of US$1 million. we announced a contribution of US$ 500. with its territorial integrity and independence respected by all. education and housing. with regard to holding an international conference with the presence of the parties directly involved. respecting different religious denominations. We praise the efforts of Prime Minister Siniora for maintaining the multi-denominational character of Lebanese society and the secular nature of the Government. expressed during the 61st Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. to be used to finance Brazilian cooperation projects with Lebanon. We wish to see Lebanon united in diversity.THE MIDDLE EAST
LEBANON Having provided shelter for the largest Lebanese community in the world. (…) During the Conference of Stockholm. in 2006).
many of whom maintain family and professional ties with Brazil. Press release. *** The relationship between both countries is historically very close. 2007. (…) All efforts will be made to increase the level of trade exchange between the two countries in the certainty that regular business meetings will facilitate bilateral trade and stimulate cooperation in the area of services and infrastructure works. Émile Lahoud” . numbering 6 to 7 million individuals.000 Brazilian citizens live in Lebanon.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
players.000 to 60. Lecture by Minister Celso Amorim at the International Conference in Support of Lebanon (“Paris III”) . On the other hand. we have the largest community of Lebanese descendants outside Lebanon. which wounded and killed several soldiers of the Israeli Defense Forces and resulted in the kidnapping of two Israeli soldiers. *** The Brazilian Government condemns with vehemence the attacks perpetrated by the Lebanese Hezbollah movement against areas to the north of Israel. who participate significantly in the most varied sectors of society. “Visit of the President of the Lebanese Republic. 40.Paris. with the purpose to discuss the resumption of the peace process in the Middle East. January. The High Level Bilateral Commission should encourage meetings between government and business representatives. In Brazil. The Brazilian Government exhorts (those responsible) to avoid further aggressions and calls for the pertinent United Nations
.Brasilia. February 20. 2004.
irrespective of justification. and have to condemn.Brasilia. with apprehension. which can seriously endanger prospects of resuming the peace process. whose first victims will be their respective civilian populations. which resulted in casualties amongst seven Brazilian citizens. there is an important Jewish community in Brazil. in the most vehement terms. The Brazilian Government is watching. A significant community of Brazilian nationals lives in Lebanon. including
. which can contribute towards an even greater deterioration of the regional political and humanitarian situation. including children. the escalade of violence in the region. as well as numerous Brazilians living in Israel. As Your Excellency is aware. The harmonious co-existence between Jews and Arabs in our country is the cause of great pride and satisfaction to us. Similarly. *** The Brazilian people have been watching with extreme concern the events in Lebanon. The Brazilian Government calls on all sides involved to endeavor to make the greatest possible effort to practice self-restraint and dialogue. Press release “Situation on the Israeli-Lebanon Border” . July 12. the disproportionate and excessive use of force that has resulted in the death of a great number of civilians. Brazil laments the incursion of the Israeli Defense Forces in south Lebanon and the attack on local facilities and reiterates its opposition to disproportionate acts of retaliation.THE MIDDLE EAST
Security Council Resolutions to be observed. Brazil has the largest population of Lebanese and their descendants living outside Lebanon. 2006. Brazil feels itself directly affected by the violence against civilians in the region. to avoid engaging in a new cycle of confrontations. The Brazilian Government presents its most sincere condolences to the families of the victims and makes an appeal in support of the swift and unconditional release of the Israeli soldiers. We repudiate terrorism.
of the United Nations Security Council’s Resolution 1701 (2006). has supported diplomatic efforts to obtain a cease-fire. approved by the Council of Ministers of Lebanon. (…) Minister Celso Amorim. With a feeling of relief and hope. efforts will be redoubled by the international community and by the parties directly involved in search of a comprehensive solution to the conflicts in the Middle East. (…) It is essential that the UN Security Council act swiftly to put an end to this conflict.Brasilia. *** The Brazilian Government greeted with satisfaction the unanimous formal approval. and in the destruction of the infrastructure of Lebanon. Even though it is not yet a member of the Security Council. which calls for an end to hostilities between Israel and the Hezbollah. 2006. who will visit Beirut on August 15. Brazil has closely watched the United Nations negotiations. August 3. on the night of August 11.
. Letter from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the United Nations Secretary General on the situation in Lebanon . may open a secure and promising path to obtain a just and longlasting negotiated peace. between Israel and Lebanon. in line with our tradition in favor of peaceful solutions to conflicts. and by the Israeli Cabinet. Brazil hopes that the formal adoption of Resolution 1701 (2006). the Brazilian Government.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
women and children. we welcome the cease-fire which came into effect at 02:00 hours today. on August 13. following the tragic occurrences last month. Since the beginning of the conflict. on August 12. Brasilia time. will convey a message of solidarity from the Brazilian Government and people to their sister-nation Lebanon and express our hopes that. Brazil extends its support to the diplomatic initiatives that are being taken to help ensure the immediate suspension of hostilities.
IRAN The Brazilian Government recognizes Iran’s right to develop the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.Brasilia. “Implementation in Brazil of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1. as prescribed by the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) safeguard agreements. August 14. (…) The two delegations revised topics of a bilateral.
. “Political Consultation Meeting BrazilIran” . They stressed the great potential that exists in diplomatic relations between both countries. Brazil understands that the exercise of this right implies an obligation to provide to the international community concrete guarantees of the peaceful intentions of such activities. *** The 5th Meeting of the Mechanism of Political Consultation between the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Islamic Republic of Iran was held in Teheran. 2006. This consisted of a forum for bilateral talks established in 1999. February 23. Press release. 2007.THE MIDDLE EAST
Press release. “The situation in the Middle East” Brasilia. and agreed on the possibility of expanding economic and trade links. 2007. Press release. which has ever since been held on a regular basis. regional and multilateral nature. However.737” . April 20. on April 16 2007. established in 1903. as sanctioned in Article IV in the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT).New York.
2003. within the framework of the United Nations Charter and the resolutions of the Security Council. or because of our adhesion to multilateralism. to abandon the path of peace and dialogue.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
IRAQ The crisis (in Iraq) presents itself basically under two aspects: how to disarm Iraq in accordance with the resolutions of the Security Council and how to deal with the possibility of a military option with or without the authorization of the Security Council. the Brazilian Government calls for the observance of international humanitarian rights. especially those which refer to the protection of civilian populations.Brasilia. The Brazilian Government makes an appeal for
. economic. in accordance with innumerable Heads of State. Parliaments and of civilian society on all continents. While lamenting the suffering that armed intervention inevitability causes to innocent citizens. I declared that Brazil viewed the matter in the following manner: that it is not possible. (…) When I myself was made Minister of External Relations. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the Commission of External Relations and National Defense of the Federal Senate . commercial or humanitarian. February 27. (…) I believe that the war is of no interest to us from any point of view. under the risk of perpetuating the suffering of the populations involved and unleashing uncontrollable forces with enormous destabilizing potential. the treatment of prisoners and the protection of the rights of victims. be it political. under any pretext. *** The Brazilian Government profoundly regrets the start of military operations in Iraqi territory and that a search has not continued for a peaceful solution for the disarmament of Iraq. Brazil adopts the clear position in support of a peaceful solution to this question.
to explore formulas to use part of the official debt of Iraq as the initial capital of such a bank. for example. President Talabani proposed the creation of a biregional bank to stimulate trade between South America and the Arab world. we believe that it is possible. Brazil has a serious commitment to raise the level of its relations with Iraq to the same high degree they reached in the past. March 20.THE MIDDLE EAST
the ceasing of hostilities. without harm to the positions of principle.Brussels. political and religious groups. *** It is important that Iraqi forces be in a position to assume total responsibility for maintaining peace and security. In the event that we are called on by the United Nations. a domain in which we have widely recognized experience. We welcome. The process of transition needs to be conducted in an inclusive and transparent manner. 2003. Brazil is ready to offer electoral assistance. with the sponsorship of the Brazilian-Iraqi Chamber of Commerce. in this respect. Next September. Strict observance of human rights and humanitarian rights is imperative. the restoration of peace and the respect for the territorial integrity of Iraq. the recent agreement which permits an increase in the Sunnite presence in the drafting of the Constitution. ***
. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the International Conference on Iraq . At the South AmericaArab Countries Summit. 2005. “Declaration on the Conflict in Iraq” Brasilia. with the participation of all ethnic. We are presently planning to reopen our Embassy in Baghdad. June 22. we will hold a trade fair related to the reconstruction of Iraq. Press release.
we note that the reason that has been given for the invasion of Iraq – the existence of weapons of mass destruction – has never been proven. (…) Any solution for the sequence of events leading to conflict and violence should arise from dialogue and an understanding between the political forces of that country. The Brazilian Government made efforts to the last moment to find a peaceful solution to the Iraqi question.. December 29. in 2003. Independently of the dictatorial nature of the Iraqi regime. without a doubt. The assassination of 148 people in the city of Dujail. (.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
The regime imposed by ex-President Saddam Hussein was. the only multilateral body with the legitimacy to determine the use of force on an international level.) The deposition of Sadam Hussein. united and stable Iraq requires a system of government that is inclusive and democratic. in 1982. did not take place as a result of an action authorized by the UN Security Council. the object of the trial in question. The intransigence of reciprocal errors made it difficult to seek initiatives capable of containing the government of Sadam Hussein by peaceful means. essential for the development and prosperity of the country. President Lula talked with various international leaders and sent messages to the General Secretary of the UN and to Pope John Paul II in support of an alternative that could avoid prolonged armed conflict. together with the International
. Brazil and South Africa) emphasized the necessity of a return to peace and stability in Iraq. Press release”. Death sentence of Saddam Hussein” Brasilia. as well as an attempt to preserve the sovereignty and integrity of Iraqi territories. *** The Ministers (of Foreign Affairs of India. The UN. is one of those examples. 2006. marked by a series of acts of violence against the population of his country and by the brutal restriction of freedom. A peaceful.
are notable developments. The Ministers reiterated their support to Iraq for its efforts towards reconstruction and development. has an important role to play in relation to this issue. the G-8 and the five permanent members of the Security Council.THE MIDDLE EAST
Community. with the participation of Iraq’s neighbors. The launch of the International Package for Iraq and the discussions held in March and May 2007.
. with the UN.New Delhi. Joint Communiqué of the 4th Mixed Commission of the IBSA Forum . 2007. July 17.
If it continues as it is. There exists a growing awareness that the UN runs the risk of seeing its influence eroded in the absence of a reform. 2005. volume 14. is not simply a question of choosing between carrying out. the Organization has. for sixty years.
. (…) Today. Bringing together the absolute majority of countries around the common objective pf promoting peace. however. contributed significantly towards an international order founded on the rule of law. In the journal Política Externa. The choice facing the international community. (…) The challenge facing members of the United Nations is not a small one. in conditions of freedom. the UN continues to be an international organization par excellence. the UN has 191 members. 2. No. the great majority of which are developing countries. which represented almost all the independent countries of the time. have altered the international scene during the course of the last six decades. At the same time.UNITED NATIONS
REFORM OF THE UNITED NATIONS – OVERVIEW Created in 1945 to avoid a repetition of the traumatic experiences of two world wars. “The United Nations at Sixty”. The UN was created by 51 States (including Brazil). a reform. worse. to become irrelevant. Profound changes. Article by Minister Celso Amorim. It is a question of deciding if it is in the interest of the majority of States that an organization such as the United Nations continues to function as a guarantee of a stable political order capable of promoting the development of all its members. the Organization is liable to lose its dynamic force or. however. or not. the international agenda has evolved and expanded.
the Cold War is over.
GENERAL ASSEMBLY Brazil supports greater interaction between the CSNU. as part of the process to strengthen and democratize the United Nations. The Security Council is a rite. the revitalization of the General Assembly (UNGA). as well as in discussions under way for the expansion of the Security Council (UNSC). Bipolarity is over. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to The Economist magazine . The Delegation should intervene in the debate. (…) Brazil is striving to promote a profound reform of the UN. And the UN needs to take into account the new geopolitics of the world. what is it that we want? That the UN Organization become more representative.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
*** We support the extensive reform of the Organization proposed by Secretary General Kofi Annan.London. the world and the conflicts for which it was created do not exist any more or at least not in the proportion that justified the creation of the UN. So. and the administrative reform of the Secretariat. The UN Organization has already completed sixty years of activities. which discusses economic questions. and democracy is consolidated in many countries. but so is ECOSOC. we need to give the UN the instruments that will give it the credibility to take decisions. 2006. the AGNU and ECOSOC. February 24. We are participating in negotiations to create a Commission for the Construction of Peace and the Council of Human Rights. the strengthening of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). also needs to change.
. that it represent today’s political world more faithfully not just the Security Council.
2003. Instructions handbook for the Brazilian Delegation at the 58th United Nations Security Meeting . racial discrimination. But it should not hesitate to take up its responsibilities in the administration of international peace and security. social development. women’s rights. 2003. AIDS.UNITED NATIONS
taking into account the perspective of Brazil’s participation as an elected member in 2004-2005 as well as Brazil’s bid for a permanent seat.) needs to be politically strengthened in order to dedicate to priority issues.
SECURITY COUNCIL We do not participate in military alliances whose scope of action may conflict with the legitimate and exclusive authority enjoyed by the United Nations Security Council in such matters.
. population. The UN has already shown that there are legal and political alternatives for the veto paralysis and for actions taken without multilateral endorsement.. The General Assembly has carried out a relevant role in convoking the great Conferences and other meetings on issues such as human rights.Brasilia. *** The General Assembly (. Peace. development and social justice are indispensable to society.New York. without wasting its efforts. September 23. the environment. security.. in the context of a reform of the United Nations Security Council. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 58th General Assembly of the United Nations .
*** Brazil should have been (in the UN Security Council) ever since 1945. Brazil defended the democratization of the United Nations Organization and. above all. defended the democratization of the Security Council. by Asia. March 2005. Press interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Planalto Presidential Palace . and Brazil formally now claims a seat for itself. by South America. And we are making it. Análise de Conjuntura OPSA (IUPERJ). when the UN was created. well. Brazil did not enter.Mexico City.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the general debate of the Special Security Conference. held within the ambit of the OAS . because it is a country with the largest number of inhabitants. the country with the largest territorial area. which can have two (representatives). by Africa. No. 2003. alongside other countries equally capable of acting on a global level and contributing towards peace and international security. because it is the largest country in South America. Article by Minister Celso Amorim. November 28. ***
. *** Brazil has already indicated its willingness to immediately assume its responsibilities as a permanent member. defended the participation of representation by continent. 4. April 29.Brasilia. we have the right to make such a claim. 2005. “Foreign Policy in the Lula Government: Two Years”.
It is not possible today to have a Security Council with the same structure it had in 1945. The attention that the world now gives to events is completely different. We have already made significant advances in the process of administrative reform and the creation of the Council of Human
. Russia. *** More than ever. These credentials include our long tradition in favor of peaceful solutions to conflicts and the observance of international law and our actions in promoting the interests of developing countries.Moscow. radically since then. Human Rights and Development in a New International Scene”. *** The Security Council must be reformed.UNITED NATIONS
Brazil has the credentials to occupy a permanent seat and thereby influence decision-making processes which affect the whole international community. the United Nations needs to see its authority strengthened. October 24. The number of countries has quadrupled. during the 61 st anniversary of the United Nations Organization .Brasilia. aside from the addition of a few non-permanent members. Entire continents are now represented in the United Nations. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the Seminar “The United Nations: Peace. 2006. is exactly the same Security Council of 1945. We cannot have a Security Council that. which form the largest international community. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Interfax Agency . The world has changed enormously. July 18. 2006.
legitimate and efficient Council will be important to put a stop to the temptation to use unilateral resources by force and could also give a renewed impetus towards dealing in a more balanced way with issues that have the greatest impact on international peace and security. I do not believe
. We cannot deal with new problems using outdated structures. November 19. *** One of the central problems of the work of the Council is the veto power. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 61st United Nations General Assembly . we should all open a way to democratize the power to decide international petitions.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Rights and the Peacebuilding Commission. The great majority of member-States also agrees with this viewpoint and recognizes the urgency in the matter. A more representative. arms and drug trafficking. it is now time to apply this to ourselves and show that an effective form of representation exists in the political forums of the United Nations. Brazil. amongst which is the question of the Middle East and. the so-called new threats (terrorism. a body charged with looking after issues of peace. which to many is an unacceptable privilege. the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction). together with G-4 countries. legitimate and representative. Madame President. This would make the body more democratic. We go around the world teaching democracy to others. (…) Brazil wants the Security Council to be expanded so that we can encourage greater attention to security based on the connection between peace. as the Secretary General has already said himself. development and social justice. But the work will remain incomplete without changes to the Security Council.New York. maintains that the expansion of the Council should consider the entry of developing countries into its permanent framework. in particular. Sooner or later. 2006.
Brazil defends that each vote should be subject to explanation. *** Naturally. This does not mean we should have the pretension of legislating for eternity. But the veto has very often been used in an almost futile fashion. have this feature. which inspired the thoughts of Rui Barbosa. It would be unrealistic to think that the current permanent members would relinquish this power. What we can hope for in the present stage of evolution in relations between States is a system that seeks to balance. it is difficult to conciliate the ideal of democracy in its purest form. could result in new world conflict. “The Mission of Kofi Annan’s successor is the complete reform of the United Nations”. article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de S. I honestly do not believe that there are absolute or irrefutable answers to these intrinsic contradictions. standards of representation and effectiveness.São Paulo. Another idea is to interpret the United Nations Organization Charter to allow permanent members of the Council to give a negative vote. the right of veto could be understood as a means to avoid decisions which. The country that vetoes an initiative should assume full moral responsibility for such action. During the Cold War. with the need to have an organ ism with the capacity for rapid and efficient decision-making involving issues that demand solutions that are very often of an urgent nature. It is necessary that the
. December 17. in resolutions of a purely declaratory nature. without this necessarily implying a veto of a resolution project. because they affected the national interests of one of the great powers. in the best possible way.UNITED NATIONS
that it will be possible to eliminate this in the short term. such as those involving international peace and security. in our view. The changes we seek for the Security Council. 2006. Paulo newspaper .
Rio de Janeiro. Germany. Joint Press Release from the G-4 . “Brazil’s Multilateral diplomacy: a tribute to Rui Barbosa”.
G-4 Brazil. without any form of pre-judgment. 2007. Africa should be represented amongst the permanent members of the Security Council. so as to carry out a significant reform of the United Nations that includes the Security Council.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
reforms that the Security Council undergoes should be subject to revision. support each other‘s bid reciprocally. November 5.New York. India and Japan. Lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim during the Second National Conference of Foreign Policy and International Policy . The Group of 4 fully supports the appeal for an all-encompassing approach towards
. We will work collectively. new permanent members should not dispute the right of veto. together with our member-States. within a reasonable period of time. September 21. Obviously. based on a firm mutual recognition that they are legitimate candidates to permanent membership of an expanded Security Council. we will continue striving to eliminate gradually or to reduce. a mechanism that. within the bounds of reality. *** The Group of 4 welcomes the report as one more sign of the strong leadership of the (United Nations) Secretary General to promote a multilateral system that will prepare the international community to effectively face the challenges of the 21st century. 2004.
as well as with all other members of the United Nations Organization. met today at the Brazilian Embassy in London. 2005. with the aim of examining the developments of the African Union Summit in Sirte and to discuss prospects for joint action in the immediate future with relation to the expansion and reform of the United Nations Security Council. *** The Brazilian Minister of External Relations. India and Japan share the opinion of the Secretary General that the United Nations are the appropriate forum to confront. the threats that we face at this time. and at the Caribbean Community (Caricom) Summit. Joschka Fischer. NatwarSingh. in his capacity as a member of the contact group of the mechanism to follow-up the reform of the UN Organization established by the African Union. Communication from the G-4 regarding the Report “Greater Freedom – towards Security. The five Ministers of Foreign Affairs
. Celso Amorim. with the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ghana. March 21.UNITED NATIONS
this reform. Germany. Machimura Nobutaka. Brazil. the Vice-Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Germany. and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Japan. held in Santa Lucia.New York. Development and Human Rights for All”. in Sirte. An individual threat is a collective threat. the Minister of Foreign Affairs of India. (…) In the light of recent decisions taken at the African Union Summit. it is true to say that its institutions need to be adapted to reflect present political realities. At the same time. Nana Addo Dankwa AkufoAddo. from the Secretary General of the United Nations . with the Caribbean Community (Caricom) and with the co-sponsors of the draft resolution. in a collective manner. Today’s threats are inter-related. the Ministers reiterated their willingness to continue to maintain dialogue with the African Union.
so as to increase the number of non-permanent and permanent members. and will work together to produce a successful outcome. Declaration by the G-4 regarding reform of the United Nations Security Council . 2007. 2005. once more. including those achieved through inter-governmental negotiations. November 1. Recent debates show. therefore.
. The G-4 London Declaration . The G-4 welcomes the new impetus created during the 61st Session of the General Assembly. the leaders expressed their support for the swift reform of the Council. especially with regard to the reform of the Security Council. On that occasion. and to adopt improved working methods. The G-4 countries will continue to participate actively and constructively in the process of reform with a view to achieving concrete results.New York. With a flexible and open spirit. more legitimate and effective. the G-4 remains committed to a significant reform based on the expansion of the permanent and non-permanent categories. that any reform of the United Nations will not be complete without the reform of the Security Council. *** The reform of the Security Council is the most important project pending amongst those adopted by the Heads of State and Government at the World Summit in 2005.London.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
maintained their commitment to the reform of the United Nations Organization. during the 61st Session of the General Assembly. to include both developed and developing countries. July 8. The G-4 firmly believe that a Security Council that fully reflects the present political realities will be more representative and.
Estratégia e Política Magazine. Speech by MinisterCelso Amorim at the Special Meeting of the United Nations Security Council about Haiti New York. keeping the peace has its price. Year 1. becoming dependent in relation to other countries or regions. October-December 2004. January 12. promoting economic and social development. Diplomacia. “Concepts and strategies of diplomacy in the Lula Government”. 2005. moreover. 1. *** The involvement in Haiti of Brazil. *** The success of the United Nations Stabilizing Mission in Haiti is based on three independent and equally important pillars: maintaining order and security. article by Minister Celso Amorim. what is worse. is without precedent. No. originates in the principle that peace is not a free international benefit. To be omissive. or exempt oneself from the obligation of giving an opinion or of taking action in the face of a crisis may mean becoming excluded from the decision-making process or. This price is one of participation. both in terms of the presence of
. encouraging political dialogue with a view to achieving national reconciliation.UNITED NATIONS
PEACE KEEPING OPERATIONS / UNITED NATIONS MISSION TO STABILIZE HAITI (MINUSTAH) Our participation in the United Nations Organization’s Mission in Haiti. as well as other Latin American countries.
2006. *** On accepting the invitation of the United Nations to appoint a Commander of the Military Force and to provide troops. 2005. the Brazilian Government observed the constitutional principles expressed in Article 4 of the Federal Constitution – amongst which the prevalence of human rights. would suffer a worsening of its conflicts. September 17.New York. Brazil fulfilled its obligation as a founder member of the United Nations. 2) the promotion of dialogue between political forces. We are prompted by three principal objectives: 1) the creation of a climate of security. ***
. Added to these pillars of Brazilian foreign policy is the need to show solidarity towards a nation in the Americas that has suffered terrible tribulation and which. 3) effective international support for the social and economic reconstruction of Haiti. with greater loss of innocent lives. by means of democratic elections in conformity with the Constitution of Haiti.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
military forces as well as regarding political coordination. and. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the general debate at the 60th United Nations General Assembly .. with a view to a truly democratic transition. whose Charter has as its fundamental principles the collective action to prevent threats to peace and the promotion of human rights. the defense of peace and cooperation between people for the progress of humanity. Press release.Brasilia. The real aim of this Mission is that the people of Haiti should themselves recover the full sovereignty of their country. Furthermore. without international help. “The Participation of Brazil in the United Nations Mission in Haiti” . January 16.
But these efforts will only be successful if the actions of the international community involve the more profound causes of the crisis. Brazil understood that the situation in Haiti was not just a problem of restoring public safety. March 7. 2006. on its own. for example. at certain times. related to a much more serious problem involving poverty.UNITED NATIONS
We have a firm commitment with Haiti. military forces represent the most important aspect and. in the first instance. We have learnt. in our view. We should. May 23. therefore. social injustice and the debilitation of the structure of the State. The original reasons that led to the security crisis. It is obvious that. The success of the process of pacification of that country does not only depend on the United Nations troops. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening session of the High Level International Meeting on Haiti Brasilia. inequalities. is not enough to maintain peace and security in the long-term. which Brazil commands. 2006. *** The international community has already learnt much from peacekeeping missions. promote the construction of solid institutions. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the State Banquet offered by Queen Elizabeth II London. the most decisive of a peacekeeping mission. which will
. as well as institutional fragility. *** When we responded to the call of the United Nations Organization. that force. generally linked to poverty. The arrival of resources promised by the international community is essential for the task of reconstruction.
2005. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the general debate at the 60th United Nations General Assembly .Brasilia. in partnership with the Security Council. at the G-8 Summit held in Gleneagles. To develop projects that generate employment and income. It should serve so that we can find convergence on questions related to trade. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the High Level Seiminar on Peace-Keeping Missions . of the Minister of Economy of the rotating presidency of the G-8. schools. in an atmosphere free of prejudice and dogmatism.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
permit the full exercise of democracy. highways. September 17. streets. 2007. for example.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL (ECOSOC) The Economic and Social Council should again become a vibrant and influential organism. with non-governmental organizations. To work with the private sector. ***
. in order to restore economic activities and social life in general. and respect for human rights. President Lula suggested that we could begin to lift the stature of ECOSOC. finances and development.New York. February 5. as established in Article 65 of the Charter. ECOSOC should also contribute towards promoting stability and peace. It is also necessary to create effective conditions for social and economic recovery. This year. Build hospitals. organizing a high-level division with the participation. ECOSOC should offer privileged deliberation in the search for conciliation between the objectives of economic growth and the reduction of the inequalities of an asymmetric globalization.
should ensure that better use is made of the inherent advantages of the United Nations. the scope of ECOSOC’s field of action is wide. which does not represent the international community. arrticle by Minister Celso Amorim. “The United Nations Organization at Sixty”. No. the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) and the regional economic commission. but the Council does not have the power or resources it needs. These Partnership Chambers would examine the progress of each country towards the Millennium Development Goals and would design. As a multilateral body. *** It is good that the Council of Human Rights has been created. ECOSOC could also occupy to a large extent the space reserved today for the “Group of Donors”. within the context of a general reform of the United Nations. strategies to mobilize resources to reach these goals. ECOSOC could conduct voluntary inquiries into the economic and social situation of countries who request this (similarly to what occurs in the WTO’s Trade Policy Review Mechanism on trade). but to its reduced sphere of activity. in close coordination with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development -UNCTAD. (…) In addition to this. the World Trade Organization. Brazil does not agree with the proposal to reduce the size of ECOSOC. According to the Charter. in partnership with the country in question. Then. because it is one less organism for ECOSOC to supervise. 14. The problems of ECOSOC are not due to its excessive size. Política Externa. compared to Bretton Woods institutions. the G-8 and the Forums of Porto Alegre and Davos. (…) The revitalization of ECOSOC. to grant executive powers the ECOSOC presidency or to transform the body into a “Council of Economic Security”. vol. 2. perhaps all
. 2005.ECOSOC.UNITED NATIONS
Much can still be done to revitalize the United Nations Economic and Social Council .
PEACEBUILDING COMMISSION We must ensure continuity between actions of prevention. which unfortunately are increasingly becoming part of our agenda. 2004. Poverty. We must also face the question of the duration and intensity of these efforts. the lack of opportunity. disease. These are some of the causes of conflict. which are the World Bank. efforts to maintain peace and the construction stage of post-conflict peace. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the seminar “The United Nations: Peace. Naturally. October 24.New York. particularly those inside countries. ***
. Not to negotiate. Human Rights and Development in a New International Scene”. but to inspire. it is necessary to rapidly deploy all the troops required by the Security Council resolutions. I wish to insist on the need to develop new and better tools to face the structural problems that are at the root of the tensions that lead to violence and conflict. during the 61 st anniversary of the United Nations . 2006. inequality.Brasilia. the IMF and the WTO.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
these bodies should report directly to the General Assembly and let ECOSOC deal with the matters it has to deal with: how world economic and social development should be conducted and to inspire organisms that are really influential in this area. We are facing this necessity in Haiti at this exact moment. (…) For my part. September 22. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the United Nations Security Council session on Civilian Aspects of the Management of Conflict and Peacebuilding” .
Brazil supports the establishment of this Commission. 2. Política Externa. volume 14. The creation of an organism such as a Peacebuilding Commission was the subject of a proposal made by Brazil ever since the mid 90s and represents the fulfillment of a longterm ambition of developing countries. May 16. *** The Peacebuilding Commission Peace has the primary objective of helping countries that have recently emerged from armed conflict to achieve long-lasting political and economic stability. with political-institutional stability and economicsocial development. As with the recently created Council of Human Rights.UNITED NATIONS
The suggestion of the Secretary General to create a Peacebuilding Commission aims to support the process of transition from conflict to long-lasting peace in contexts of social-economic and institutional fragility. article by Minister Celso Amorim.Brasilia. the creation of the Peacebuilding Commission will be one more significant step in the process of a reform of the United Nations. As a member of the Peacebuilding Commission. No. Brazil will be committed to help countries that are victims of conflict. Press release. This represents an important step forward in the reform of the UN.
. “Brazil is elected to the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission” . 2005. 2006. by contributing towards the strengthening of the system of the United Nations in economic and social areas. Mr. such as Haiti. “The United Nations Organization at Sixty”. Concerned by the fact that no organism presently exists to assist countries that have recently emerged from conflicts. Annan suggested giving greater attention to sectors such as institutional recovery and the financing of reconstruction. for which Brazil has just been elected with a record vote. are able to follow a sustainable path towards peace.
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REFUGEES The UNHCR (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) has expressed its recognition of Brazil’s efforts in the international protection of refugees. At the moment, Brazil shelters 3,200 refugees, from 54 countries. (…) The Brazilian policy for the protection and resettlement of refugees, which is implemented by the National Committee for Refugees (CONARE), has expanded in recent years. The efforts of the Brazilian Government, in coordination with the UNHCR, are concentrated on seeking durable solutions for the question of refugees, above all based on the institutional strengthening of the regime of partnership and sharing of responsibilities between the Federal Government and civilian agencies – an indispensable aspect of the consolidation of public policies of humanitarian importance. Press release. “Visit to Brazil of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees” - Brasilia, November 4, 2005. *** The National Committee for Refugees decided, in May 2007, to resettle in Brazil a group of Palestinian refugees originating from a refugee camp in Ruweished, in Jordan, nearly 70 km from the border with Iraq, where they had been living since 2003. The first contingent of 35 refugees arrived today, September 21, in Brazil, initiating the first stage of an operation of resettlement. In October of this year, another two contingents are expected to arrive in the country, totaling approximately 177 persons. As a signatory of the 1951 Convention on the Statute of Refugees, Brazil already has a consolidated history in this area, with actions
that stand out in Latin America, and are substantiated in the Solidarity Resettlement Program. (,,,) This is an important decision on the part of the Brazilian Government, which reflects Brazil1s commitment to the International Law of Refugees and through this humanitarian gesture translates Brazil’s solidarity towards the Palestinian people. Press release. “Ar rival in Brazil of a group of Palestinian refugees” - Brasilia, September 21, 2007.
INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (ICC) Since the adoption of the Rome Statute, 105 States have become Parties to this laudable international community initiative. During the last five years, the ICC was firmly consolidated in The Hague, beginning investigations in various countries, issuing arrest warrants and creating its first Pre-Trial Chamber, a step of the greatest importance for its institutional development and a hallmark in the history of international relations. The Brazilian Government, as one of the first to support the ICC, takes this opportunity to reaffirm its commitment to the ideals of the Statute. We will continue to defend the ICC in all forums. (…) The principle of complementarities makes the interdependence between the Court and the States a necessity. I would like to reiterate how important it is that all States, whether Parties of the Rome Statute or not, fully cooperate with the Court. (…) Brazil is in favor of adopting in the near future a definition for the crime of aggression, so that the Court may have jurisdiction over this. We are ready to support a definition that adequately preserves the independence of the Court as a legal body, and conveys, as a useful indication, the elements established in Resolution 3314 of the General Assembly. The moment has come
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to move forward in this matter and pave the way for a Revision Conference of the Rome Statute. According to our understanding, the definition of a Crime of Aggression should be a priority on the agenda. Speech by the Brazilian Permanent Representative at the United Nations Organization, Ambassador Maria Luiza Ribeiro Viotti, at the 6th Assembly of Member States of the ICC - New York, December 3, 2007.
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) – OVERVIEW We fight against protectionist practices that so greatly harm our agriculture and our industry. We will seek to expand our markets of raw materials or semi-finished goods that continue to play an important part in our actions. We will give special emphasis to those goods and services of greater added value and built-in known-how. In order to do this in a sustainable way, we will have to deeply commit ourselves to the real fight to eliminate tariffs and subsidies, which today brutally distort trade and deprive developing countries of their comparative advantages (natural ones or those obtained through effort and creative ingenuity). Speech given by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations Brasilia, January 1, 2003. *** Brazil’s performance in the WTO will be guided by the construction of a more equitable multilateral trade system, by correcting distortions and reducing restrictions that affect our capacity to stimulate policies aimed at development. This involves a real struggle, which is being faced with determination, to eliminate tariff barriers and subsidies and by balancing the rules of the game. (…) We all know that trade can be very effective in generating economic growth and wealth. However, in practice, the more developed countries do not hesitate
lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) . such as agriculture. steel. textiles – precisely those in which developing countries show comparative advantages. With the assent of China and.Brasilia. *** The WTO has acquired (. Lecture by Minister Celso Amorim. As an institution that embodies a multilateral trade system. not only the liberalization of trade barriers for agricultural products. the WTO will gain a truly universal character. The anomalies of agricultural trade consist of a particularly intolerable dysfunction. Russia. 2003. Brazil is extremely competitive and loses billions of dollars annually in exports in this sector. delivered by Ambassador Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães..BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
to maintain their own idea of free trade and at the same time surround themselves with regulations that favor sectors that are shown to be vulnerable. April 10. “Diplomacy in the Lula Government”. the WTO is presently engaged in an all-encompassing round of negotiations that involves.. of special interest to developing countries. the relationship between trade and the environment and a series of issues called the “implementation of the results of the Uruguay Round”. but also various regulatory aspects – from the revision of anti-dumping rules to the creation of a registry for the so-called “geographical indicators”. industrial goods and services. soon. Secretary
. We are aware that (…) the solution for agricultural trade will be achieved to a greater measure through the WTO – above all with regard to the elimination of subsidies and greater discipline with regards to domestic support.) a central role in our endeavors for a more affirmative participation in international trade.
Cancun. September 11.Rio de Janeiro. reduce the profits of competitive exports and increase food insecurity in developing countries. Domestic and export subsidies in developed countries lower prices and revenues across the world. Brazil continues to unequivocally support the existence of a multilateral trade system that is equitable. on one hand. to show that free trade and a more fair distribution of wealth are not only compatible. we can create a new spirit. 2003. *** Here in Cancun. at the 15th National Forum . *** Free trade can lead to prosperity as long as this occurs in a balanced way and takes into consideration the differential needs
. the expansion of trade is essential for the creation of new jobs and to obtain higher rates of economic growth. Subsidies produce dependence.INTERNATIONAL TRADE
General of the Ministry of External Relations. on the other. based on rules and market-oriented. making it possible to improve living conditions for millions of people who live below the poverty line. Mexico. and deprivation. but are also mutually beneficial. May 21. The WTO is a vital platform for our integration into the global economy. (…) Perhaps no other area of trade is subject to so much discrimination as agriculture. 2003. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 5th WTO Ministerial Conference . Distortions in agricultural trade are not only harmful to developing countries by denying them opportunities to reach other markets. Their alluring power does not contribute towards increasing productivity and generating wealth.
international trade will be a valuable instrument to generate wealth.
. November 19. 900 million people survive with less that US$ 1 per day in poor and developing countries. December 14. It is widely accepted that the multilateral trade system suffers from a development deficit. It is essential that we free ourselves from the chains of protectionism. 2006. *** Permanent solutions to misery will only exist if the poorer countries have the opportunity to progress through their own efforts. The launching of the Doha Development Agenda four years ago was a recognition of this fact. are heavy fetters that immobilize progress and relegate poor countries to backwardness. The subsidies of wealthy countries. This is a political situation that is morally unsustainable.Hong Kong.New York. is omission by convenience. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 61st United Nations General Assembly . distribute income and create jobs. The old geography of international trade needs to be profoundly reformed.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
of poorer countries. as long as the distorted support (in subsidies) of developing countries reaches the shameful sum of US$ 1 billion per day. above all in the area of agriculture. Worse than inaction through ignorance. I tire of repeating that. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 6th World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference . Provided it is free and fair. This has not happened so far. the WTO negotiations will help raise millions of people out of extreme poverty. (…) If successful. 2005.
most of which were examined for the first time in the present case. clearly and substantively. “World Trade Organization: BrazilEuropean Union controversy – Sugar export Subsidies” . 2004. October 15. at the request of Brazil. the two elements of the European sugar rules that Brazil had questioned.INTERNATIONAL TRADE
THE WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT MECHANISM Brazil greeted with great satisfaction the final report from the WTO panel that examined. the conclusion of the panel with regard to the sugar issue was an important step towards ending the distortions in world agricultural trade. Press release. Finally. The document. which was circulated today in Geneva. together with the panel’s report. (…) The manifestation of the Appellate Body does not favor Brazil alone. *** Brazil greeted with satisfaction the report from the WTO Appellate Body regarding US subsidies for cotton production and exportation. it stresses the legitimacy of
. It gives renewed legal force to the appeals of African cotton-producing countries. for which the subsidies had a dramatic influence on poverty-related figures. The ruling also clarifies the content and range of important multilateral controls over agricultural trade. Australia and Thailand. the conformity of the sugar rules of the European Union with multilateral trade standards. and underlined the importance of securing full integration of agriculture withWTO rules.Brasilia. as an unequivocal sign of their respect for the multilateral rules of trade. (…) The panel condemned. The Brazilian Government hopes that the European Union will carry out the determinations of the panel as soon as possible. (…) As was the case of the dispute with cotton. should be adopted by the Dispute Settlement Body within the WTO in up to 30 days.
are employed in the countryside.UNCTAD . 2005. June 14. *** I agree with your (Prime Minister Blair’s) judgment according to which it was the realization that trade could bring effective benefits to the poorer populations of the world. We will only combat poverty by building the security that everyone seeks and only through trade. above all. where less than 2% of the active population. the wealthy countries. As Your Excellency has put so well. free of unfair and unjustifiable distortions. in the midst of a somber atmosphere following the tragic events of September 11. have to open agricultural markets and eliminate the distortions of subsidies that prevent poorer countries from competing on an equal footing and thereby enjoy the
. can we integrate millions of human beings into the dynamic sphere of world economy. 2004.São Paulo. the needs of developing countries and. which motivated the launching of the (Doha) Round. by means of a pragmatic and mutually respectful negotiation.
THE DOHA ROUND I reaffirm our willingness to seek convergent paths. groups and citizens who defend an end to distortions in world agricultural trade. March 3.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
countries. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the 11th United Nations Conference on Trade and Development . Press release. of those who are the poorest. in particular. “Brazil-USA Controversy on cotton subsidies” -Brasilia. taking into account.
has already done for the poorer countries. the Conference enabled the creation. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper. for the first time. Brazil is fully aware of what it needs to do and. such as industry and services. “The advances of Hong Kong”. *** When I left for Hong Kong. ***
. Tony Blair . 2005. The definition of a date to eliminate export subsidies was an effective gain. in fact.INTERNATIONAL TRADE
wealth generated by new technologies. to be celebrated by all those who want more justice and less distortion in agricultural trade. (…) Similarly. respecting the criteria of proportionality and flexibility that are at the core of the special and differential treatment sanctioned by the WTO and reinforced in Doha. which will ensure that the negotiations will be balanced. Message from President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. of explicit links of proportionality between tariff cuts for agricultural and industrial products. such as agriculture. I had no great expectations about what would be possible to achieve at the WTO Ministerial Conference. December 26. (…) The result was even more positive than I had hoped for.Brasilia. meeting Brazilian interests both in sectors in which we have greater comparative advantages. November 15. 2005. resulting mainly from the conduct of Brazil and the G20. as in those where we aim to preserve space for development policies. (…) I am certain that developing countries will do their part in favor of our common objective to strengthen the multilateral system and make trade freer and fairer.
even in the wider sense that the word has come to mean over the last decades. It is the very future of multilateralism in the economic sphere. Brazil. (. which represents the way of life of the greater part of the poorest populations in the world. the subsidies. (…) It’s not just by chance that nearly sixty years after the creation of the GATT/WTO system. China.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Negotiations for a Development Agenda at the WTO are in jeopardy. It is. (…) In agriculture. This is not just about trade. It is a political crisis..St. India. July 17. (. Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the meeting of the G-8 countries and of Heads of State and/or Government. especially in developing countries.. with obvious repercussions on social and political levels. not to accept failure. Petersburg. continue to export misery and hunger to less developed nations. Russia. *** The multilateral trade system of the WTO is facing the most serious crisis since it was first established.) Members (of the WTO) should continue to engage in discussions about how to move
. Mexico and the Republic of the Congo . This is not a technical crisis. above all. It is a crisis caused by the lack of leadership. We can contemplate passively the progressive erosion of its credibility and legitimacy. that is.) What is at stake in these negotiations is not just a handful of concession in matters of trade. forbidden for decades in the industrial sector. We can also take a decision to keep going. We can recognize that millions of lives in the whole world. to create conditions so that the poorer populations of our planet can enjoy the progress of our time. often obtained at their expense. 2006. about development.. for the first time the word “Development” has appeared in the heading of a Round.. could be improved as a result of this Development Round. Brazil will certainly choose the second option. of South Africa.
plurilateral and multilateral. July 24. production and agricultural trade: 63% of all farmers and 51% of the world’s population live in 20 of the member (States) of the Group. 26% of total agricultural exports and 17% of worldwide imports of agricultural products. There is an undeniable relationship between agriculture and development. Notes written by Minister Celso Amorim during the session of the WTO Committee for Trade Negotiations . 2006. agriculture should be fully incorporated into the rules of the multilateral trade system with the objective of eliminating prevailing distortions in trade and agricultural products. This also involves an essential condition to make agricultural trade more just and equitable. We should reflect on possible solutions and advances in these negotiations.Geneva.
G-20 The G-20 is an informal group of developing countries that emerged in Geneva during the final stages of the preparations for Cancun. Such talks could be held in different formats and ways: bilateral. in particular countries who
. (…) The Group will act in close coordination during the Ministerial Conference.INTERNATIONAL TRADE
this process forward. in Geneva or somewhere else. In order to transform the Doha Development Agenda into reality. The Group includes a good representation of WTO members. Countries belonging to the Group also account for nearly 20% of the world’s agricultural production. but there is also no space for unreasonable demands that totally disregard the realities of the other partners. The added approaches will not be enough. Most of the poor populations in developing countries live in rural areas. The Group reaffirms that its proposal is still on the table and invites members of the WTO to support this. and comprises a substantial portion of the world’s population.
This was the reason for the birth of the G-20 and of the continuation of its battle. The G-20 is a conjunction of developing countries that act in a way that is nonconfrontational. but purposeful.
. *** The decision to create the G-20 was a very daring move. it constitutes and continues to be at the center of negotiations about agriculture. it wasn’t. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening session of the G-20 High Level Meeting. Ministerial Communiqué from the G-20 during the 5th World Trade Organization . Everyone recognizes that Brazil took the leadership and assumed the risks of the G-20. Mexico.WTO Ministerial Conference . It is no longer President Lula who says that the G-20 changed the trade geography of the world. September 9. I would say without false modesty that Brazil changed the dynamics of WTO negotiations.Rio de Janeiro.Cancun. Today it seems easy and even obvious. But Brazil led the G-20 and is sought – I would say almost courted – by the USA. It was not Brazil alone. At the time. *** We all know that the distortions and restrictions imposed by the wealthy countries on agriculture are central elements of the negative impact that afflicts international trade. It is the Geography books in France. September 9. As the proposal of the Group fully reflects the integrity and level of ambition of Doha. . the European Union and Japan. 2006. amongst other countries.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
shared its commitment with the two central objectives of the Doha Round: development and agrarian reform. 2003.
October 19. Many people like to transform these nuances into enormous disagreements. my hope is that this new diplomatic geography can help alter to a broad extent the economic geography of the world and. 2006. But today there is a new perception of the diplomatic geography of the world. Interview given by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the Algerian press . 2006. February 7. ***
. subtle differences begin to appear. *** I have no doubts that the G-20 changed the game at the WTO and generated a new confidence in developing countries as to their ability to influence the game. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to Época magazine . But they forget to say that. above all. (help) each one of our countries to reach a better level of development. So.São Paulo. 2006. This does not mean we have reached the much desired balance. December 17. nor are we close to the end of a long battle against the distortions in international trade that are so harmful to developing countries. if we hadn’t created the G-20. we would not be where we are today.INTERNATIONAL TRADE
Interview given by Ministro Celso Amorim to the Gazeta Mercantil newspaper . *** The G-20 changed forever the panorama of WTO negotiations. As you begin to get closer to a final decision. our challenge is to maintain unity. in spite of these differences.São Paulo. We would have reached an agreement in Cancun (2003) totally unfavorable to us and we would have had to wait another 20 or 30 years to have another agricultural negotiation.Algiers.
and c) its ability to coordinate its members and interact with other groups in the WTO. We do not want to exchange the First for the Third World. 70% of the rural population in the whole world and 26% of world agricultural exports. Brazil will continue its efforts for a successful conclusion of the Doha Round. so that the results will benefit above all developing countries and the poorer countries. We do not want to recreate the old UNCTAD (the United Nations Conference for Trade and Development.UNCTAD There is no ‘third-world’ strategy on the part of Brazil. At the last meeting of the WTO. We export to China. We are participating in the negotiations of the World Trade Organization. In order to attain a more just and equitable international trade. in 2003. May 4. WTO. The G-20 was consolidated as a central interlocutor in the negotiations for three main reasons: a) the importance of its members in the production and trade of agricultural products. Brazilian Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Since its creation. And this strengthens us in our negotiations with rich countries.Brasilia. 2007. Until then there were
. representing nearly 60% of the world’s population. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . objectives involving social justice and free trade were brought together for the first time. to start shouting. which in the 1970’s became a global forum of opposition to the United States). the G-20 has sought to create conditions for an effective liberalization of the agricultural sector in the Doha Round of Development. b) its capacity to translate the interests of developing countries into concrete and consistent proposals. And we have achieved results thereby. Brazil wants to widen its partnerships. to India. cause confrontation.
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT .
though differentiated. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Ministerial Meeting of the G-77 and China .São Paulo. *** We know very well that the model of development that we seek does not occur automatically.INTERNATIONAL TRADE
those who said that free trade was good and that after that would come social justice. We are changing the geography of trade negotiations in the world. UNCTAD and the G-77 gave intellectual and political momentum to the Global System of Preferential Trade – in its time a real milestone of the common. 2004. policies are discussed. January 28. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the Veja magazine . 2004. ideas are germinated.) would not have been capable of maintaining its vital role – as a coordinating forum and as an originator of new ideas – if it had not been for the active support of the G-77. but in favor of our own interests.. Herein lies one of the great contributions of UNCTAD. It requires study. June 11... (…) UNCTAD has helped and can continue to help.. *** Even UNCTAD (. responsibilities of developed and developing countries.São Paulo. by identifying areas in which developing countries can reap the benefits of free trade and by supporting the relative efforts of the developing countries to fully participate in the Round. We are not against any country. democratic debates and political determination.
. nor will it be the result of the spontaneous generation of market forces. and we want to negotiate in a balanced way. Here.
São Paulo. UNCTAD has helped us also to identify the external constraints that limited our efforts. thanks mostly to UNCTAD.
. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of 11th UNCTAD .BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
and experiences are exchanged. we understand better what works and what should be avoided in matters of trade and development policies. 2004. Today. enabling us to better face them conceptually and politically. June 14.
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Brazil and the World Bank have concluded a project of co-financing to strengthen the institutional capacity and distribution of school meals in Haiti. Brazil has had a history of collaboration and the sharing of similar ideas on economic development and the reduction of poverty that now inspire this
.. During the mission that the Brazilian government carried out in Port-au-Prince.Brasilia.000 from the World Bank and a Brazilian contribution of US$ 125. Press release. Ian Goldin. *** Since joining the World Bank in January 1946. of social projects in Haiti. January 27.) This is the second initiative of this type developed with Haiti. “Signature of a co-financing program between Brazil and the World Bank for Haiti” . as from next February. The program will count with a sum of US$ 500.000 primary school children from the poorer areas.. will sign an instrument of co-financing for the implementation. Chancellor Celso Amorim and the VicePresident of Foreign Affairs of the World Bank. The project – the first one carried out by the World Bank with a developing country in benefit of another developing country – has as its objective the implementation of school kitchens and the daily supply of balanced and nutritious meals to approximately 35. Switzerland. last December.000. 2005. (.INTERNATIONAL FINANCES AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS
THE WORLD BANK Taking the opportunity of the next visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Davos.
It was in this powerful context that we took the carefully pondered decision to anticipate the repayment to the International Monetary Fund of financial loans to Brazil – thereby avoiding also having to pay relative interest payments. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during a meeting with the Director General of the IMF. Rodrigo de Rato . in conjunction with Your Excellency.Brasilia. when it manages to achieve solid growth using its own resources. including our own. (…) A country only finds the path to sustainable development when it creates the mechanisms to walk on its own two feet. Zoellick .. we have indicated the need to increase quotas and the influence of developing countries. for the strengthening of the role of this Bank as a multilateral agent of financing towards development.
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) In short.. (.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
distinguished financial institution. For years. Message from Minister Celso Amorim to the President of the World Bank. I reaffirm my willingness to continue to work. January 10. All these issues remain on Brazil’s list of priorities. the path followed during the last three years by the Brazilian economy has led to a strong reduction in the Country’s vulnerability before internal risks and threats from abroad. We have also defended the advisability of having mechanisms of financing to avoid financial crises provoked by sudden changes in the habits of international investors. both at the domestic level as well as in its interaction with the world. 2006. Robert B. For this reason. ***
.) Brazil desires to have an even more active presence in the IMF. 2007. June 28.Brasilia. in the organism. This is the central meaning of this act today.
we also need to have our own mechanisms.Brasilia. and the unsatisfactory participation of developing countries. Our concern has always been to encourage. South American businesses. September 13. August 25. furthermore if we want a good deal of this space to be occupied by Brazilian. in 2004. but in some cases IDB resources are not unlimited and. 2006. Joint Declaration of the First Summit of the IndiaBrazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum . 2006.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS – WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION (WIPO) The “Development Agenda” was presented by Brazil at the General Assembly of WIPO.Brasilia. now held by advanced economies. South
. or Latin American. Brazilian companies to associate themselves with local companies. but are creating true joint ventures. so we are not restricted to exporting Brazilian services. whenever possible. we need to use the IDB.
INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK It’s wonderful that the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) exists. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Course for South American Diplomats . with the support of Argentina.INTERNATIONAL FINANCES AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS
The Heads of State and of Government expressed the view that the legitimacy of the IMF depends on a fundamental reform of quotas and a more representative voice for developing countries. The reform should effectively reduce the serious imbalance that exists between the great majority who have the power to vote.
culture and towards a sustainable environment. c) the adoption of new intellectual property right rules should be preceded by a critical assessment of the impact on policies of technological. the promotion of public objectives in healthcare. Iran. “The WIPO Development Agenda” Brasilia. Tanzania. Kenya. the Dominican Republic. Ecuador.
. *** The Heads of State and Government [of IBSA] underlined the importance of incorporating aspects of development into international debates relative to intellectual property. they greeted with satisfaction the launching of an “Agenda for Development in the World Intellectual Property Organization” and reaffirmed the importance of giving continuity to these debates so as to effectively secure the incorporation of the dimension of development in all its organisms. Egypt. Uruguay and Venezuela – the so-called “Friends of Development” group of countries. Sierra Leone. Peru. economic and social development. Bolivia. March 1. 2003. The central ideas of the initiative can be summarized thus: a) intellectual property is not an end to itself. but an instrument for development. They also reaffirmed the need to reach a solution to the problem created by the assignment of intellectual property rights to biological and/or traditional knowledge that are linked to these.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Africa. without due observance of the pertinent Convention of Biological Diversity provisions. Press release. as a way of making a significant contribution towards economic and social dimensions in developing countries and preserve necessary political space to ensure access to knowledge. In this context. d) it is necessary to rebalance the scope of WIPO activities. b) public interest should be preserved at the different negotiations at WIPO. which are now predominately directed towards topics of essential interest to developed countries. Cuba.
article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Valor Econômico newspaper . Today we are going through a period of serious challenges in the international scene. this process will lead to the creation of a new “G” (if this is to be G-11. “Group of Seven”..
G-8 The original format of the G-7. 2006.São Paulo. G-12 or G-13. as well as to exchange impressions on various relevant international issues. September 13.INTERNATIONAL FINANCES AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS
Joint Declaration of the First Summit of the IndiaBrazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum . (…) The extended dialogue of the G-7/8 should be improved and structured on more permanent bases.. The five countries will also participate in the G-8 Summits in Gleneagles (2005) and St.
. (.) Informal mechanisms such as the G-7/8 do not evade the need to strengthen the multilateral system and widen channels to enable developing countries to participate in cases of formal decision-making.) during the sessions of widened dialogue at the G-8 Summit. Ideally.. 2007. without harming formal multilateral instances. April 27. Our world continues to be profoundly unequal and unjust. weapons of mass destruction and conflicts in different regions. human rights abuses. we still do not know). obviously is no longer adequate for the 21st century. Petersburg (2006). as a “club of rich countries”. the degradation of the environment. some of which have been with us for a long time: hunger and poverty. *** The proposal for this meeting was to share views and converge on topics that will be discussed (.Brasilia.. social exclusion.
The consensus view was that all these challenges should be dealt with from a bilateral. used to legitimize decisions taken by others. climate change. of India. The leaders agreed to maintain consultation on a regular basis. of Brazil. (…) At the meeting in Berlin. On questions to be discussed at Heiligendamn with G-8 countries. of China. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. of South Africa. research and innovation. on matters of common interest and to coordinate their positions. President Felipe Calderón. reaffirmed their common conviction that the developing countries should participate more actively in the consolidation of strategies and initiatives that deal effectively with the challenges of a globalized and increasingly interdependent world. And here I refer to a participation that is real and concrete. President Hu Jintao.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. I recall the words of President
. and not just figurative. and President Thabo Mbeki. the leaders shared points of view about the future of their participation in the Extended-Based Dialogue and on the convenience of guaranteeing coordination and follow-up to talks between the five countries. They agreed that their five countries. of Mexico. energy and development. the leaders were pleased to see the opportunities for collaboration in the fields of trans-border investments. June 7.Berlin. 2007. Joint Communiqué from the G-5. based on their undeniable political and economic force. regional and multilateral perspective. can contribute decisively to increase the participation of developing countries in this process. curing the Heiligendamn G-8 Summit . *** There is a growing perception amongst the wealthy countries that major global issues can no longer be properly managed without the participation of developing countries. taking into consideration the interests and capacities of the different States.
cannot take the place of formal multilateral instances. One is that these mechanisms (such as the G-8). The other is that there is no order or governance on an international level without involving the overwhelming majority of humanity in its management. “Brazil’s multilateral diplomacy: a tribute to Rui Barbosa”. 2007.INTERNATIONAL FINANCES AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS
Lula at the recent IBSA Summit in Pretoria: “It is of little interest to be invited to share the dessert at the banquet of the powerful”. Lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim during the Second National Conference of International Foreign Policy . although useful. November 5.
.Rio de Janeiro. (…) But two things are certain.
We will also pay heed so that these negotiations.Brasilia. environmental. What is essential is all these forums is to preserve flexible spaces for our development policies in social and regional. Inaugural Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the National Congress . in the World Trade Organization. January 1. In relation to the Free Trade Area of the Americas . do not create unacceptable restrictions of the sovereign right of the Brazilian people to decide the model for development they want. we will make all efforts to remove the unjustifiable obstacles to the exportation of industrial products. With equal determination. agricultural. We will not lose sight of the fact that it is human beings who will ultimately suffer the consequences of the results of these negotiations. ***
. Brazil will fight protectionism and will endeavor to obtain fairer and more adequate rulings for our condition as a developing Country. 2003. We will seek to eliminate the scandalous agricultural subsidies of developed countries. industrial and technological areas. which nowadays go far beyond mere tariff reductions and encompass a wide normative spectrum. which. There is little point in our participating in such a wide effort and on so many fronts if no direct benefits result for our people.FTAA. which hit our producers and deprive them of their comparative advantages. our understanding between Mercosur and the European Union.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS
Trade negotiations are today of vital importance.
2003. Even though a final agreement has not yet been reached. we intend to have ample discussions with entrepreneurs. For this very reason. on an international level. starting within the ambit of Mercosur. he made it clear that he could not renounce the battle. environmental. without pre-judgment. industrial and technological policies. we will negotiate to expand markets for our competitive goods and services. immune to the winds of progress and competition. They involve normative aspects in practically all fields of economic activity. these should be analyzed with careful attention. seeking to correct past distortions and to avoid excessive restrictions that affect our capacity to foster social. to open up new markets and to obtain fairer rulings.FTAA. *** The Government of President Lula will not adhere to agreements which are incompatible with Brazilian interests.Brasilia. President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva stated that trade negotiations are today of vital importance to Brazil In addition to an internal effort to increase the competitiveness of our products and to diversify our export activities. In the Free Trade Area of the Americas . Despite the uncomfortably narrow deadlines of some of these negotiations. workers and other social sectors and with the National Congress about the positions that we should adopt. in the Mercosur-European Union negotiations and at the World Trade Organization. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations .
. When he assumed command of the Nation. January 1.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
We do not want Brazil to be closed in on itself. bearing in mind the vast range of interests involved and the complex consultations required. the projects on which these processes of negotiation are based go far beyond mere tariff reductions.
I would equally highlight the agreement signed in April with Venezuela. promote the integration of South America. June 18. explore new trade partners – above all with developing countries – and actively participate in the negotiations presently in progress: in the World Trade Organization – WTO.FTAA that is possible”. so as to establish an integrated South American economic area. in Recife. 2003.
MERCOSUR – THE ANDEAN COMMUNITY (CAN) Mercosur is part of this South America. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 24th Mercosur Summit. Mercosur needs to be the size of the whole of South America. July 8. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper. the Lula Government has sought to strengthen Mercosur. as well as the agreement with Peru that is in its concluding phase. ***
. In this spirit. 2003. and in May with Ecuador. by the end of 2003. a free trade zone between Andean Community countries and Mercosur.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS
respecting the sovereign right of the Brazilian people to decide their own model of development. The new South America will be created through the connection between Mercosur and the Andean Community of Nations. Asuncion. in Brasilia. which we want to see fully integrated and prosperous. and between Mercosur and the European Union. in the FTAA process. the free trade agreements that already exist with Bolivia and Chile are fundamental. with the purpose of establishing. In this context. “A Free Trade Area of the Americas .
BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
The unity between Mercosur and South America will allow us to renew growth. together with the one which we also signed definitively with Peru. which is our integration. promote inclusion. By linking Mercosur with an area of nearly 112 million people and with a Gross National Product (GNP) of US$ 270 billion. I would also like to say that this act culminates the efforts made by all of us. (…) There is no contradiction – on the contrary. which must also develop institutionally. (…) The success of the conclusion of negotiations with the Andean Community culminated in the convergence of two of the main South American blocs. the historical importance of this agreement. a fundamental stage for the establishment of an integrated economic area of continental dimensions.Belo Horizonte. encourage us to believe in a truly strong and truly developed
. 2004. Lecture by Minister Celso Amorim. The presence of Mexico and Cuba amongst us and the perception that we also have similar free trade agreements with them. fight inequalities. This will serve as a base to form a Community of South American Nations. this is a sign of a complementary relationship – between the step we are taking in the integration of South America and the greater objective which is Latin American and Caribbean integration. who knew how to demonstrate the necessary flexibility in favor of a greater project. of all the countries involved. on my behalf and that of my fellow Ministers in Mercosur. (…) I believe we are taking a major step of the greatest importance to make South America a free trade zone. consolidate democracy and guarantee our sovereign presence in the world. May 4. at the Minas Gerais Federation of Industry . *** I do not want to let this moment pass without highlighting. the agreement creates a new level in the process of regional integration.
“Agreement of Inter-regional Association Negotiations . They evaluated the situation of the negotiations in progress for a bi-regional trade agreement. and expressed their expectation that negotiations
. economic. 2003. trade and cooperation relations and to contribute towards reducing existing social and economic disparities.Montevideo. 2004. Press release.Mercosur-European Union” . and committed to proceed with additional improvements to the respective offers. June 12.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS
Latin America.Brasilia. Mercosur and the European Union agreed to intensify the Inter-Regional Association Agreement negotiations.CAN .
MERCOSUR – THE EUROPEAN UNION During the Second Meeting of Economic-Trade Negotiators at Ministerial Level. with a much greater capacity to negotiate in international forums. held in Brussels on November 12. (…) Both parties recognized that the offers presented were a good basis for the continuation of negotiations. 2004. *** The Parties reaffirmed having given strategic priority to reaching an ambitious and equitable Agreement of Inter-regional Association that consists of an instrument to strengthen political. including recent evolutions. Protocolization of the Mercosur-Andean Community of Nations . Statement by Minister Celso Amorim at the 13th Meeting of the Council of Ministers of the Latin American Association for Integration (ALADI). October 18.
2006. In addition. as well as initiatives in matters of cooperation. they highlighted the importance of maintaining high-level contacts between business representatives from both regions. giving them the incentive to continue to meet and enrich the inter-regional dialogue between the EU and Mercosur. Brazil-European Union Summit. 2007. Austria. July 4. with suggestions and constructive contributions.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
would lead to a suitable and successful conclusion of a wide-ranging and balanced Agreement of Association.
MERCOSUR – THE GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL (GCC) The Ministers (of Foreign Affairs of Mercosur and the SubSecretariat of the Cooperation Council of Arab States] expressed
. *** Brazil and the EU give great importance to strengthening relations between the EU and Mercosur and are engaged in the conclusion of the EU-Mercosur Association Agreement. which will allow an even greater enhancement of economic relations between the two regions and intensify political dialogue. Joint Declaration Lisbon. Brazil and the EU underline the great economic and political importance that the agreement will have for both regions and its role in strengthening respective processes of integration. Joint Communiqué from the Mercosur-European Union Ministerial Meeting .Vienna. at Ministerial level. May 13. The Parties expressed their support to advancing talks with the aim of calling a new trade negotiations meeting.
for the Third Ministerial Meeting of the Latin America – East Asia Cooperation Forum. the economic dimensions of both blocs and the concrete opportunities for trade which will open up as a result of this Agreement. which were initiated in the context of the Framework Agreement signed during the Summit of countries of South American and Arab countries. Press release. January 18. They reiterated that this effort is one of the main priorities on the negotiation agenda of each region. who have met three times during the last three months to make this result possible. held in Brasilia. bearing in mind its global significance. 2007. Both sides will actively explore means to enhance and expand their contacts. agreed in their understanding that closer cooperation between Mercosur and ASEAN will bring important benefits to both regions. “Mercosur-ASEAN Cooperation” Brasilia.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS
their great satisfaction at the progress already achieved in the Mercosur-Gulf Cooperation Council negotiations for a Free Trade Zone. August 22. in May 2005. Both groups launched processes of consultation with the objective of expanding economic. in Brasilia.
MERCOSUR – ASSOCIATION (ASEAN)
SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS
The participants (Heads of Delegations of member states of Mercosur and of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations). 2007.Rio de Janeiro.
. Declaration from the Mercosur-Council of Cooperation of the Arab Gulf States (CGC) . The Ministers welcome the efforts of the negotiating groups of both regions. trade and investment cooperation.
. but it will place us in a better. also. We signed a preferential tariff Agreement in 2005 [MERCOSUR-India] and are expanding our cooperation in various areas. My dream is to make it happen so that countries like India. in June 2007. Brazil and South Africa – and all of Mercosur and SACU . and with India. when the Forum of CEOs was launched. There are. (…) India is a case that should be highlighted. Everyone recognizes the enormous economic potential of this country which. in September 2006.INDIA Still within the South-South context.can form one great economic area. a Bilateral Scientific and Technological Agreement and an Agreement on Airline Services. During the visit of Prime Minister Singh to Brazil. were signed. with the objective of increasing trade interchange to US$ 10 billion by 2010. strategic relationship between Brazil and India will only help Mercosur. August 28. at the TCU Seminar on Brazilian Foreign Trade Policy (core text) . 2007. more creative and competitive position in relation to countries in the North. President Lula again visited India.SACU. The most notable examples of this are the negotiations with countries that comprise the Southern African Customs Union . we are negotiating preferential agreements which will enable us to expand our trade. for several years has been growing at a rate of around 9% a year and should continue at this rapid rate of growth during the next few years. Obviously this will take time. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim. significant complementarities between the Brazilian and Indian economies. Brazilian exports to India more than quadrupled during the last four and a half years.
MERCOSUR – THE SOUTH AFRICAN CUSTOMS UNION (SACU)-INDIA I believe that a good.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
in Pretoria during October 5 and 6. 2007. the leaders of the three countries expressed their support to the proposal to hold a Trilateral Ministerial Meeting in 2008. Declaration of the Second Summit of Heads of State and Government at the IBSA Dialogue Forum Tshwane. the FTAA project goes far beyond the term “free trade” in its strictest sense. Negotiations between Mercosur-SACU.New Delhi.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS
Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to the Indian newspaper The Hindu . the Trilateral Free Trade Agreement. They reaffirmed the need to strive in their endeavors with a view to reaching a free trade agreement involving India-Mercosur-SACU. Mercosur and India during the talks which developed in Pretoria on October 6. 2007. October 17. In this respect. which is. They also welcomed the significant progress made in Mercosur-SACU negotiations. and welcomed the first meeting of representatives from the South African Customs Union .
FREE TRADE AREA OF THE AMERICAS (FTAA) In the way that negotiations have been developing. as well as those held between SACU and India. between October 8 and 9. Mercosur-India and India-SACU are a basis for successfully achieving the principal objective.SACU. (…) After
. 2007. *** The leaders of the three countries (from IBSA) reaffirmed their commitment to creating a framework for an India-Mercosur-SACU Trilateral Free Trade Agreement. 2007. The leaders noted with satisfaction the fact that all Parties agreed with regard to the need to maintain talks on an eventual trilateral trade agreement. July 17. 2007. in Pretoria.
2003. (. such as the normative side of intellectual property. 2) the FTAA process is focused on some basic elements. this position – obviously always subject to some adjustments during the process of negotiation – can be described in the following way: a) the substance of the terms of access to markets and goods and. 3) the more sensitive topics and those which represent new obligations for Brazil. such as the solution of disputes.) Therefore. will be transferred to the WTO. Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the Folha de São Paulo newspaper. which conciliates. as was the case of China recently. phytosanitary rules and trade facilities.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
a process of refection within the Government. terms and conditions are negotiated for
. services. This “three-lane” focus. compensation funds. in a more productive way. we preferred to concentrate on “an FTAA that is possible”. for which consensus seemed unattainable. special and differential treatment for developing countries. to services and investments will be treated by a 4+ 1 negotiation between Mercosur and the USA. in a limited way. was the object of close consultation with our Mercosur associates and put before our North American partners. When a country wishes to join the World Trade Organization (WTO). July 8. . such as agricultural subsidies and antidumping laws. “An FTAA that is possible”. In a succinct way. following the example proposed by the USA in relation to more sensitive issues. government investments and purchases. which involved debates with the Legislative power and civil society. instead of trying to establish an unrealistic concept of a Free Trade Area of the Americas. President Lula approved the main lines of Brazil’s position in negotiations concerning the FTAA. *** The FTAA is an in fieri project that does not exist as a finished reality. the necessary differentiated objectives of the 34 participating countries..
technological policies etc. It must also be added that we are actively participating in the Doha Round in the WTO. shoes. In a very different case to that which occurred in the FTAA. with South America. article by Minister Celso Amorim for the O Estado de S. not to mention the environment and employment clauses. the very term “free trade” is open to misunderstanding. Paulo newspaper . as it were. In this respect. in exchange for the advantages – real or imaginary – of participating in a multilateral trade system. it should be clarified initially that the model of the USA-Chile agreement is not advantageous to a country with the characteristics of Brazil. Russia and.in the case of Brazil. The FTAA project. The country in question accepts the regulations. the Middle East. sugar – and “defensive “ concerns – government autonomy to adopt industrial. if it persists in its strategy to review the framework of the FTAA. conciliating “offensive” interests. “The FTAA and the Game of Seven Errors”. . in accordance with its main proponent – and others who have already signed bilateral agreements of this kind – involves much more that the liberalization of “trade”. issues such as investments. (…) There is a mistaken perception that Brazil could be running risks. the negotiations in which it does not have a voice. which is still. which go beyond the conception of GATT or even the WTO service agreement. ***
. orange juice. (…) It is not by chance that most of the population has a very unclear view of the FTAA. The main reason that motivates US interests in negotiating the FTAA is precisely because they wish to obtain greater advantages than those that would be possible for them to get on a global scale. we are negotiating a Mercosur-European Union agreement and developing other initiatives with Africa. August 24. 2003. access to the US market for products such as steel. in the assembly line. China.TRADE NEGOTIATIONS
entry. India.São Paulo. In accordance with this trend. government purchases and intellectual property should be discussed in the FTAA. above all.
In the same way. If any other negotiation is to be made in the future. which is why Mercosur reiterates its willingness to establish with the other countries of the hemisphere bilateral trade relations giving access to markets. the delegations agreed that all these negotiations should converge to obtain their objective to expand free trade. the delegations jointly decided to reiterate that Mercosur continues to be wiling to negotiate a balanced agreement with a view to establishing a Free Trade Area of the Americas.
. The FTAA is not a form of negotiation that is suitable for Brazil.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
As a result of the talks that have been held. Mexico. the Central American System of Integration (SICA) and the Community of Caribbean Countries. Similarly. February 18. various processes of negotiation have been initiated by Mercosur with Canada. 2006. Communiqué from Mercosur regarding negotiations for a Free Trade Area in the Americas . 2005. Mercosur announced that it has signed agreements with China.São Paulo. all of which involve access to markets. In this regard. December 17. it will have to be a negotiation between Mercosur and the United States. From the above. which is coherent and in keeping with the objectives of the FTAA.Asuncion. *** The FTAA should have a totally new conceptual base. and thereby contributing effectively towards the general evolution of the FTAA negotiating process. Interview given by Minister Celso Amorim to Época magazine . the delegations recalled that other countries or groups of countries involved in FTAA negotiations have already also concluded or moved ahead with bilateral trade negotiations. Bolivia and the Andean Community.
2007. They generate employment in the countryside. for example. renewable and clean alternative resources. We should work together to promote the use of biofuels on a global scale. South America is one of the few regions in the world that is self-sufficient in energy. at the same time. BIOFUELS Both ethanol and biodiesel are a safe alternative from the energy and environmental point of view and are economically viable. Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the closing ceremony of the Brazil-United
. As well as being cheap. Now we need to work so that all our hydroelectric capacity. generate employment and income.ENERGY
We are working (…) to establish the basis to design regional energy policies that are essential for sustainable development. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the closing session of the Economic World Forum for Latin America . ethanol and biodiesel are providing an efficient and innovative response to some of the main challenges of our time. to use this technology to overcome their energy dependence and. April 26. add value to agricultural products. diversify our range of exports and help protect our environment. We can help countries in Africa. our abundant petroleum and gas reserves and the potential of biofuels are fully used to our advantage.Santiago.
besides guaranteeing greater energy safety. at the same
. The option (of using biofuels) is especially dramatic for poorer countries that do not have the resources to adopt such technologies and. improving their trade balance and saving revenues. 2007. Press release. contributes towards the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases. “Launching of the International Forum on Biofuels” . February 28. the use of biofuels means reducing their dependence on imported oil. the use of biofuels is also attractive because it reduces dependence on fossil fuels. For developed countries. which gives further momentum to the process of changing established patterns of energy use on a global scale. In addition to offering environmental benefits. *** Biofuels are economically viable alternatives and have an immediate use to partially substitute oil by-products and to diversify the world energy matrix. *** Biofuels are a low-cost option of proven efficiency in the transition to an economy based on low-carbon emissions. 2006. By reducing these emissions. to increase investments in health and education.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Kingdom Business Seminar .London. biofuels avert the serious dilemma of whether to adopt high-cost technology or reduce the rate of world growth.Brasilia. March 8. producing biofuels promotes the generation of income and contributes to keeping the labor force in the countryside. Biofuels have the potential to mobilize investments in research and associated technological development. The use of biofuels brings advantages to both developing and developed countries. For developing countries.
(…) The inclusion of biofuels in the international energy matrix will also help eliminate another worrying element of instability: 20 countries produce energy for approximately 200 countries. Hunger in my country has been reduced during the same period that the use of biofuels has increased.
. By using biofuels. urgently need to create jobs.4% of the entire national territory. less than 0. Biofuels contribute directly towards helping to combat hunger and misery and to create the conditions for a sustainable economic growth. the solution is to encourage the establishment of an international market for ethanol and biodiesel. In fact. that is to say.Brussels. wealth and income. The Brazilian experience shows that it is wrong to create conflict between forms of agriculture that produce food and another that produces energy.ENERGY
time. more than 100 countries will be able to produce energy. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the International Conference on Biofuels . July 5. 2007. the cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies less than 10% of the land cultivated in this Country. thereby making access to energy more democratic. I should add that this land is very distant from the Amazon. Planting sugar cane does not endanger or redirect the production of foodstuffs. We would be reducing imbalances and inequalities between consumer and energy producing countries and thereby reduce possible conflicts arising from the competition for infinite energy resources. For all these reasons. a region that is not suitable for the cultivation of sugar cane.
Brazil has actively participated in negotiations and in the implementation of international conventions and programs which address the environment and sustainable development. In order to do this, the Ministry of External Relations (Itamaraty) has acted in close coordination with the Ministry of Environment and other interested Ministries. In order to develop this cooperation, the Itamaraty has also had talks with organizations representing civil society. Diplomatic actions have helped establish international and bilateral agreements and treaties, and advanced a wide environmental agenda that includes biodiversity, sustainable development, renewable energy sources, climate change, forests, chemical and toxic residue safety, desertification, and the protection of the peoples’ traditional knowledge, amongst other topics. Promoting conservation and the sustainable use of natural resources and the environment have also been put into practice through bilateral cooperation programs that include high technology projects, as is the case of the construction of remote-sensing China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) system. The start of operations of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) has also been a valuable element to enhance the activities of Amazonian countries in favor of knowledge, conservation, sustainable management and to improve the processing techniques of natural products of the Amazon area (especially by increasing their sales value and placing them on the consumer market). Just a few days ago, the Mercosur countries agreed to adopt preventative measure to protect the Guarani Aquifer, the largest trans-border source of subterranean water in the world, with an estimated capacity to supply 360 million people, which is of incalculable social and economic worth. (…) Brazil is part of the majority of international treaties that control
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international cooperation in environmental matters and which seek to promote sustainable development. Press relase. “World Environment Day” - Brasilia, June 4, 2003. *** Brazil favors the institutional strengthening of international environmental governance and supports an exercise of reflection without preconceived ideas on the subject. The creation of a new organization or agency within the system of the United Nations, which could result from this reflection, should contribute towards the cohesion and efficiency of existing issues. Such an organization should be based on the environmental, economic and social pillars, which are an indissoluble part of the concept of sustainable development, the great achievement of Rio-92. So there should be no doubt, this connection should – in my view – be recognized even in the name of the organization that is to be created. Its conception should also adequately incorporate the perspectives, the needs and the specific circumstances of developing countries. Within this framework, consideration should also be given to the special situation of the African Continent. One of the ways of thinking within this new structure would be to conceive it as an umbrella organization, with responsibilities in normative dimensions, in cooperation and financing, making the maximum use possible of existing organisms. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim during the Ministerial Meeting on Environment and Sustainable Development: Challenges facing Inter national Governance - Rio de Janeiro, September 3, 2007. ***
Social equitability is the best weapon against the degradation of the planet. Each one of us must do our part in this task. But it is inadmissible that the greatest onus of the shortsightedness of the privileged should fall upon those who are dispossessed of Land. The more industrialized countries should give an example. It is absolutely vital that they fulfill the commitments established in the Kyoto Protocol. Nevertheless, this is not enough. We need more ambitious standards as from 2012. And we should continue to act firmly to ensure that there is universal adhesion to the Protocol. Developing countries should also participate in the struggle against climate change. It is essential to establish clear national strategies that require government responsibility before the people of each country. (…) It is very important that the whole environmental agenda should be treated as an integrated policy. Brazil was host to the United Nations Conference for the Environment and Development, otherwise known as Rio-92. We need to evaluate the path we have taken and establish new lines of action. To this end, I propose that a new Conference be held in 2012, which Brazil offers to host, called Rio + 20. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the General Debate at the 62nd United Nations General Assembly - New York, September 25, 2007.
CLIMATE CHANGE At the conclusion of the “Brazil-United States Seminar on Science and Technology in the area of Climate change”, held in São José dos Campos, Brazil, from May 18 to 20, 2004, Brazil and the United States announced their intention to expand and intensify existing bilateral efforts to discuss scientific and technological issues related to
BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
climate change in areas of mutual interest, with the objective of producing positive and balanced results. To this end, the seminar was the first step to identify joint projects of mutual interest. At the seminar, specialists and government officials from both countries discussed ways to improve scientific and technological cooperation in areas such as: science of climate modeling; energy and technology; use of the land, changes in the use of the land; forests and agriculture; inventories of emissions and modeling; impacts; vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. Specific areas of cooperation will continue to be considered. Brazil reiterated its commitment to the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, based on the principle of common, though differentiated responsibilities and the respective capacity of the Parties to discuss climate change. In this context, Brazil is willing to explore all possibilities to deal with the challenges of sustainable development related to climate change. Press release. “Brazil-United States Seminar on Science and Technology Cooperation in the area of Climate change” - Brasilia, May 24, 2004. *** Within the ambit of the commemorations to mark 30 years since diplomatic relations were established between Brazil and the People’s Republic of China, the First Meeting of a Common Agenda on Sustainable Development between both countries was held at the Itamaraty Palace (Ministry of External Relations), on August 23 of this year. The central topic on the agenda was Climate Change and the perspectives of the International Regime. (…) Brazil and China have similar geographic dimensions and levels of technological and industrial development, features that bring them together also in their respective activities and objectives in the context of the
International Regime on Climate Change. (…) Both countries are amongst the principal players in negotiations for the development of renewable energy resources and in the use of the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism, matters that were also the subject on the agenda of talks in Brasilia. Brazil and China took advantage of the occasion to express their support for the efforts of the Government of Argentina to hold, in Buenos Aires, the 10th Session of the Conference of Parties – the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 10 – Buenos Aires, December 6-10, 2004), and expressed their determination to contribute to the success of the of COP 10. Both countries expressed their concern with the future of the International Regime on Climate Change, in the current context of uncertainties about the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol. Press release. “First Meeting of the Joint Brazil-China Agenda on Sustainable Development with Emphasis on Climate Change” Brasilia, August 23, 2004. *** Brazil considers that the entry into force, today, February 16, of the Kyoto Protocol represents a historical landmark, contributing to the strengthening and credibility of multilateral efforts to confront the causes of climate change The Kyoto Protocol supplements the principles and directives of the policies of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de Janeiro, in 1992, by establishing quantitative standards to limit and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases on the part of industrialized nations, which have the greatest historical responsibility for global warming. The Protocol stipulates that signatory industrialized countries should, between 2008 and 2012, reduce by 5% the aggregated emission of greenhouse gases in relation to 1990 levels.
BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Press release. “The entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol” - Brasilia, February 16, 2005. *** Climate Change is a real problem to which Brazil gives great importance. There is a world consensus that this phenomenon is being accelerated by human activities. It is a cumulative process, resulting from the progressive concentration of gases over the last 150 years, which has created a greenhouse effect in the atmosphere It is therefore wrong and unfair to focus attention principally on those now responsible for the emission of gases. Some of these emissions – above all from emerging economies have little or no responsibility for global warming, the effects of which we are only beginning to feel. The main cause of climate change is well known: at least 80% of the problem originated in the burning of fossil fuels – especially coal and petroleum – from the middle of the Nineteenth Century. Only a small part of this problem results from changes in the use of the land, including deforestation. Actual deforestation on a global scale is worrying for various reasons, but the battle against Climate Change should focus on an alteration in the energy matrix and a more intensive use of clean energy. The Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol are clear: those responsible for causing this problem (the industrialized countries) should be subject to mandatory methods of reduction and an obligation to act first. “Amazonia is not for sale”, article by Ministers Celso Amorim, Marina Silva and Sergio Rezende in the Folha de S.Paulo newspaper - São Paulo, October 17, 2006. *** Reiterating their commitment to reinforce the multilateral regime in matters of climate change, Brazil and the European Union are making
As a result of the project. The NovaGerar project involved the closing down of the old rubbish dump of Marambaia” and the construction of a modern sanitary landfill with significant environmental and social benefits for the local population. 2007. though differentiated. In addition. to be held in December 2007.
CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM) The Executive Council for the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol announced on November 18 the first project in the world based on that Mechanism: The NovaGerar Project. Joint Declaration Lisbon. July 4. a Reduction of Carbon Certificate will be
. amongst which are incentives to ensure that developing countries take a variety of measures that can be measured. Both Parties recognized that substantial progress could be attained if they were guided by the last objective of the Convention and by the principle of common. as well as to develop additional actions under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Brazil-European Union Summit. and reiterated their commitment to ensure the success of the Bali Conference. since it is expected to collect methane – a powerful greenhouse gas . the project has a two-fold contribution towards mitigating global warming.THE ENVIRONMENT
every effort to draw up an ambitious agreement during the second part of the period of execution of the Kyoto Protocol. responsibilities. checked and published. in Nova Iguaçu. thereby substituting the use of fossil fuels.from the landfill and use it to run a small thermoelectric power plant. This announcement was made on the same day that Russia officially handed to the United Nations the instrument of ratification of the Kyoto Project – which ensured its entry into force on February 16. State of Rio de Janeiro.
the Country’s legal and institutional structure in order to implement the Climate Convention and Kyoto Protocol. which originated from a Brazilian proposal presented during the Kyoto negotiations in 1997 made it possible for industrialized countries to meet part of their carbon caps by implementing projects in developing countries that contribute to balance the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse carbon gas. administered by the World Bank – in fulfillment of part of the standards for the limitation and reduction of emissions attributed to industrialized countries by the Kyoto Protocol.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
issued. “A Brazilian Project is the first initiative to be approved within the ambit of the Clean Development Mechanism” . both in an international and domestic sense. derived from a Brazilian proposal presented in 1997 during the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol. The fact that this is the first project of its kind in the world highlights the pioneering actions of Brazil in the area of climate change. November 19. under the coordination of the Inter-ministerial Commission on Global Climate Change. *** The Brazilian Government attributes great importance to the Clean Development Mechanism project.Brasilia. responsible for the approval in Brazil of projects based on that Mechanism. (…) The Clean Development Mechanism. having adjusted. an Inter-ministerial Climate Change Commission. Brazil was also the first developing country to establish a National Designated Authority for the CDM. Press release. coordinated by the Ministry of Science and Technology. 2004. The projects should provide a significant contribution in areas such as
. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). which can be used by investors – the Dutch Fund for Clean Development Mechanism.
which are less harmful to the ozone layer.Brasilia. developing countries should no longer consume these substances. In the case of HCFC gases. the ozone layer will revert to levels similar to those recorded at the beginning of the 1980s. developed countries undertook to totally eliminate the consumption and production of these by 1996. For their part. 2003. in their activities to replace substances with those that do not destroy the ozone layer. established control methods and timetables to eliminate the consumption and production of substances such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFs). is also a part. by the middle of this century. sanitary landfills and reforestation. With the implementation of the Montreal Protocol (ratified by Brazil in 1987). it is hoped that. November 5. with the possibility of exemptions for essential uses. Press release. In addition.THE ENVIRONMENT
renewable energy. by 2010.
. Developed and developing countries have a differential timetable to implement the Montreal Protocol. “15th Meeting of Parties of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Destroy the Ozone Layer” .Brasilia. of which the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (ratified by Brazil in 1989). 2005. as well to replace these with economically viable alternatives.
THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL The international regime for the protection of the ozone layer. industrial processing. developing countries should benefit from the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. January 24. Press release. “Brazil and Spain sign a Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation projects within the ambit of the Clean Development Mechanism and Kyoto Protocol” .
BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
TROPICAL FORESTS – AMAZONIA We will support international cooperation for the environment. This Program. the country adopted the National Forest Stewardship Program. the fight against hunger and the promotion of food safety. is in consonance with the action proposals adopted by the United Nations Intergovernmental Forestry Forum (IFF). which are priority issues for the Brazilian Government. which includes activities in different areas for the conservation and sustainable use of its forestry resources. It is important to stress that discussions about forests within the ambit of United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization FAO also focused on the relationship between forests. especially the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention on Biodiversity. in 2000. as well as having policies and institutions dedicated to dealing with the forestry issue in its multiple dimensions. (…) Brazil has had a role of great importance in international talks about forests because it has the largest area of tropical forests in the world.
.Brasilia. In April 2000. *** Brazil is one of the countries that has advanced most in formulating and implementing policies directed at conservation and the sustainable use of its forests. On par with satellite monitoring programs. the prevention of fires and others carried out by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources – IBAMA. 2003. January 1. Brazil has strict legislation to prevent deforestation and to promote the sustainable management of its forests. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations .
to value the forests that are growing and to support the social and economic development of the communities who depend on them for their livelihood. 2003. with the objective of preserving biological diversity.Paulo newspaper . 1993 and.) implementing an integrated policy to combat deforestation. This involves a multi-sector and long-term effort. Marina Silva and Sergio Rezende in the Folha de S. in Brazil’s case. since it holds the largest area of tropical forest in the world. “Amazonia is not for sale”. 16th Session of the FAO Committee on Forestry . in 1992. promoting the sustainable use of its components and stimulating the fair and equitable sharing of benefits that result from the use of its genetic resources. During recent years.THE ENVIRONMENT
Press release. we have achieved an important reduction in the rate of deforestation. entered into force as of May 28.. through the exchange of experiences and assistance in technical training. (…) Sustainable forest management is a propitious field for cooperation. March 7.
BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was open for signature during the United Nations Environment and Development Conference. October 17.Brasilia. with the greatest
. The Conference came into force on December 29. article by Ministers Celso Amorim. which occurred in Rio de Janeiro.. 1994.São Paulo. 2006. always within the strict observance of our laws and sovereignty. We are open to such cooperation. Brazil gives great importance to the issue of environmental diversity. *** Brazil is (.
it involves working to establish regulatory limits to protect the biodiversity and legitimate aspiration for development of poor countries. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the High Level segment of the Eighth
. (…) The Ministry of External Relations (Itamaraty) has actively participated in meetings within the ambit of the CDB and organized coordination meeting with different internal sectors. 2004. Press release”. (…) Biodiversity is not the unoccupied frontier of the 21st century. It is necessary to derive political and legal consequences from this paradigm. once and for all. The battle to adopt an international rule for the sharing of benefits. so as to identify national interests which will define the Country’s actions in the matter. International Day for Biological Diversity” . Everything that can threaten it or conspire against the equitable sharing of its resources should be rejected as a threat to the survival of Humanity and of Earth. especially those who hold the world’s natural heritage. which result from allowing access to its genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. link the economic equation to quality of life and to environmental balance.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
biodiversity on the planet (nearly 22% of all living species). (…) Nothing that threatens life or monopolizes the survival of its resources can serve the common cause of humanity.Brasilia. *** Biodiversity. is part of this course. May 22. On the contrary. the adequate exploitation of its resources is a great way to proceed for the construction of new patterns of progress which will. At the same time. the complex whole of different forms of life. is the greatest treasure of our planet.
New York.Curitiba. 2007 – Joint Declaration” . 2006. taking into account all rights covering such resources and technologies. including those attained through proper access to genetic resources and the proper transfer of pertinent technology. specifically.Brasilia. July 4. so as to push forward the implementation of the Protocol’s Convention. at the next Conference of Parties at the Convention on Biological Diversity and at the meeting of Parties at the Cartagena Protocol on Bio-security.THE ENVIRONMENT
Conference of Parties at the Biological Biodiversity Convention (COP 8) . and by means of proper financing. They will also cooperate. the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from the use of genetic resources. March 27. 2007
. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the 61st United Nations General Assembly . *** We defend the fight against biopiracy and the negotiation of an international regime for the sharing of benefits resulting from access to genetic and traditional knowledge resources. in May 2008. Press release. They will also strengthen cooperation between what has been established between them. which will take place in Bonn. September 19. *** Brazil and the European Union will cooperate more closely in areas of conservation and biological biodiversity. “Brazil-European Union Summit Lisbon. 2006. in areas such as the forests and the management of water resources. July 4.
Brasilia. (…) Brazil believes that this form of tourism (whale watching) is an economic activity that has been proven to be responsible for (obtaining) revenues as high or even higher than those obtained through the trade of products and by-products of whale hunting. June 9. In Berlin. which will be the object of a specific resolution project (…). Brazil again presented a proposal. it was decided to hold the 4th International Polar Year.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
INTERNATIONAL WHALING COMMISSION Amongst the terms on the agenda (of the Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission) which are of the greatest interest to Brazil. is a strategy to strengthen the Commission’s conservationist guidelines. by the CBI. to establish a sanctuary to protect whales in the South Atlantic. scientific research without slaughtering the animals. of the legitimacy of the non-lethal use of whaling resources (whale watching tourism. 2003. the following aspects of the initiative are of more immediate interest: (a) the formal recognition. “Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in Berlin” . which is part of this group of countries (against the hunting of whales).
THE ANTARCTIC At the initiative of the International Council of Science (ICSU) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). and (d) written statements of threats to the environment and studies on the behavior of whales. Press release. to the IWC. (c) the establishment of a fund to meet the demands of this process of redirection. in 2007-2008. (b) the opening and redirection of the Scientific Committee for non-lethal research. amongst others). the nonalimentary use of the cetaceans. with the aim of
. co-authored by Argentina. For Brazil.
(…) The National Commission for Antarctic Affairs (CONANTAR). On a political level. the results of which contributed towards the creation of SCAR and the celebration of the same Treaty.
. This inter-ministerial collegiate adopted a resolution for the participation of Brazil in the present International Polar Year. should have implications within the ambit of the Antarctic Treaty System. in 1959. as well as other organizations of civil society.THE ENVIRONMENT
fostering scientific research work in all areas of investigation related to the Polar Regions. which will be executed through international partnerships. (…) The scientific coordination of the International Polar Year will be carried out within the ambit of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). was created in 1982 with the aim of serving at an advisory capacity to the President of the Republic for the formulation and obtainment of the National Policy for Antarctic Affairs. the scientific proposals will study topics that range from climate change to the role of the Southern continent in the balance of terrestrial ecosystems. as provided for in the various National Committee on Antarctic Research (CONAP) projects.Brasilia. by which it expresses total support for Brazilian scientific activities included in the 4th International Polar Year calendar of events. developed by ICSU and OMM Press release. in the near future. and will encourage agencies that are active in CONANTAR. March 1. presided by the Minister of External Relations. as was the case of the 3rd Polar Year (1957-1958). to ensure that the Brazilian participation is both extensive and consistent with the 4th International Polar Year program of scientific activities. “International Polar Year” . which. the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) has dedicated great attention to the preparations and possible evolution of this initiative. 2007. With reference to the Antarctic.
FIGHTING HUNGER AND POVERTY
I propose a change in attitude. The challenge of our time is to fuse economic stability with social inclusion.) This global alliance to fight hunger and poverty should enable developing countries to receive continued support through more liberal international trade. Political will is a vital element in this equation.. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at a press conference on the World Fund to Fight Hunger and Poverty . cognizant of the fact that they also have a moral.Geneva.. It comprises fighting against exclusion and inequality. within the ambit of the UNDP. Three developing countries. (. and in favor of social justice and sustainable development. January 30. but the leverage of growth. political and economic obligation to help their partners to overcome
. 2004. *** The IBSA Fund created last year by Brazil. It requires great transformations in the structure of society and profound changes in the organization of our system of production.FIGHTING HUNGER AND POVERTY
Fighting hunger and poverty is not just a utopian goal. India and South Africa. direct investment. relief from foreign debt. in which the redistribution of wealth will not be the result. I am making an ethical and political call on the international community to work in support of a new concept of development. was a pioneering initiative. We invite world leaders to unite in this effort of political mobilization. This is not an easy task. an increase in international aid and alternative mechanisms for financing.
000 people a day. (. so that governments.Shanghai. May 26. led the way and inaugurated a fund that will meet the central theme of this Conference in Shanghai. without social justice. It dramatically reduces the production capacity of the elderly. It affects almost a quarter of all humanity. It kills 24. Solidarity has to take the form of a global partnership.) I am convinced that it is necessary to join international cooperation with national will and efforts in this battle to eradicate hunger and poverty. China. There can be no real economic development without a distribution of income. by eliminating the different forms of subsidies that hinder free trade.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
poverty. the United Nations system. international financial and trade institutions take more energetic steps to resolve these issues. It should seek to reduce economic and trade differences. 2004. It seriously jeopardizes possibilities for learning. This creates a context that breeds resentment. which is a cause that we in Brazil are dedicated to. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the World Bank Conference on Fighting Poverty .. It should redirect development priorities and policies. capable of mobilizing political decisions and financial support. International cooperation has an important role to play in meeting this challenge. claims the lives of 11 children a minute. but it is not enough. It is essential that our actions be successful in each one of our countries. thus fueling violent solutions to social and political problems. *** Economic development is a necessary requirement.
. Poverty is the most powerful weapon of mass destruction. The Fund was idealized to finance best practices and successful projects that can be extended and reproduced in other developing countries.
Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the meeting of world leaders to launch the “Action to Prevent Hunger and Poverty” campaign. are here already raises our hopes. Hunger is a social problem that urgently needs to be faced as a political problem. destroys self-esteem and violates the most basic human right: the right to life. Humanity has achieved spectacular levels of scientific and technological progress. *** The fact that we. if they have applied their own resources honestly and efficiently to prevent hunger and poverty. 2004.FIGHTING HUNGER AND POVERTY
Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Working Meeting on Social Cohesion at the Third Latin America and Caribbean – European Union Summit . we still have not evolved to the point where we are able to share our meals around the planet. ***
. It is a powerful and concrete gesture towards a world alliance in the prevention of hunger and poverty. World production is more than sufficient to satisfy the hunger of the populations. so that all may at least have the necessary food they need to survive. Poor countries and developing nations have the moral authority to make demands on wealthy countries. if they have done their part. 2004. if they neglect to do this themselves. (…) It is not just a question of demanding from the wealthy countries what we can and should demand from them: a radically new stance and greater efforts to face the absurd tragedy of hunger and poverty. Hunger takes away dignity. September 20.Guadalajara. leaders of 50 societies and nations. at the UN headquarters .New York. Mexico. Unfortunately. May 28.
“More than ever a Globalized world demands international cooperation”. Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines. 2007. article by President Lula in the Folha de S. such as the International Central Office for the Purchase of Drugs to Treat AIDS.Brasilia. 2006. Brazil supports all efforts that may help to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Concrete initiatives are being implemented. (…) Brazil will continue to work to put into effect other proposals. March 9.
INNOVATIVE MECHANISMS We believe that the world should do more against poverty and disease and ensure that adequate education and health be guaranteed to all. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . Our support to the International Financing Mechanism for Immunization and the contribution made by the introduction of a solidarity tax on airline tickets.São Paulo. demonstrates our determination to find innovative focal points to help mobilize the public and private sectors to face the challenges of our time. Malaria and Tuberculosis (UNITAID).Paulo newspaper . such as a tax on international financial transactions and a tax on the commerce of weapons. ***
. As a founder of the group of countries that has promoted the Action to Prevent Hunger and Poverty.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Fighting hunger and poverty – one of the main priorities during the first term of the Government of President Lula – will continue to receive the decisive support of the Ministry of External Relations. Brazil seeks to mobilize civil society organizations toward the proposals made by the Pilot Group of the Innovative Financing Mechanism. May 4.
malaria and tuberculosis – UNITAID” . I am certain that. 2006.Brasilia. as it seeks alternative mechanisms to supplement official development aid. July 6. as a result. malaria and tuberculosis. Additional resources obtained by means of innovative mechanisms will have the advantage of being made on a regular and predicable basis. as we move forward. since they are not subject to budgetary fluctuations due to political or any other reasons.FIGHTING HUNGER AND POVERTY
It is already clear that the present levels of foreign aid are not sufficient to enable the poorer countries to reach the Millennium Development Goals.Brasilia. September 19. *** UNITAID represents the concrete result of an initiative launched in 2004 by President Lula to establish the International Action for the Prevention of Hunger and Poverty.
UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO) FAO came into being in the same year we created the United Nations. Sudden variations in aid put cooperation projects at risk and. which is not a mere coincidence. This is why this political and intellectual work is so important. The objective of this Central Office is to facilitate access to drugs to treat the three diseases that most affect developing countries: AIDS. the lives of millions of people. Press release. other countries will join the 44 which today form this Pilot Group. 2006. A world of peace and security is
. “Launching of the International Central Office for the purchase of Drugs to treat AIDS. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the Plenary Meeting of the Pilot Group on Innovative Financing Mechanisms .
The fight against hunger and poverty is at the center of the international agenda. And this has only been made possible because many of us. had a notable career as President of the Council of FAO. to ensure that it becomes a political issue..
. 2005. (. October 17. and not just a statistic.. governments and civil society organizations. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to celebrate the 60th anniversary of FAO Rome. a great intellect in hunger related issues.) Brazil has contributed a great deal to FAO during these last 60 years. are committed to this struggle. Geographer Josué Castro.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
inseparable from efforts to guarantee full access to one of the most basic of human rights – the right to food.
HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES
democracy and the rule of law. Brazil has expressed its concern with regard to the selectivity and the politicization that endanger the credibility and efficiency of the Commission. under the responsibility of the High Commissioner. which is to build a consensus in favor of improving the international system on human rights.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES
COUNCIL OF HUMAN RIGHTS (CHR) The structures and mechanism of the Organization in the sphere of human rights should be reinforced and improved. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the general debate of the 60th United Nations General Assembly .New York. dialogue and non-selectivity. The design of a global report on human rights. covering all countries and situations. We are signatories of the principal treaties and have worked together with all international organisms to promote and protect human rights. September 17. Brazil’s participation in the United Nations Commission on Human Rights — almost consecutively since 1978 — is based on the same objective. 2005 *** Brazil has renewed its commitment to human rights. In this respect. (…) The creation of a Human Rights Council is consistent
. issues that will hopefully be overcome with this reform. will contribute towards increasing credibility in the United Nations system to protect Human Rights. We support the creation of a Council of Human Rights which is based on principles of universality.
and development. not so much as a condemnation. physical capacity or sexual orientation. (…) The creation of a Human Rights Council gives us a unique opportunity to inject new life in the way human rights are treated within the system of the United Nations. whether related to race. article by Minister Celso Amorim. “The United Nations Organization at Sixty”. but more as a form of encouragement. gender. (…) Human rights must be safeguarded from all forms of discrimination. No. *** Hunger and diseasecan also be seen in the effects they cause as anonymous forms of torture. it may seem premature to establish a Human Rights Council as the Organization’s principal body already at this early stage. 14. The importance given to this issue within the ambit of the United Nations should be the same as that given to peace and security. social origins.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
with Brazilian foreign policy to ensure predominance is given to human rights. but as a way of ensuring that each individual – man and woman. Cooperation must prevail over victimization. age. old or young – can take advantage of a life free from fear. color. volume. imposed on individuals by unjust societies – or at least by the international community itself. We could consider linking it directly to the General Assembly and proceed with a process of revision in fifteen years’ time. 2005. Those affected by such misfortunes are not in a position to make use of other civil or political rights. Our objective should be seen. political opinions. Política Externa. not as a chase after political victories in one form or another. hunger and disrespect. And ideas –
. To prevent hunger and disease is also a way to promote human rights and strengthen democracy. Nevertheless. religion. 2.
will bring us closer to an impartial discussion that is. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the High Level Segment of the First Session of the Human Rights Council . more than any
. 2006. We trust that the Council will contribute towards the effective promotion and protection of human right across the world and that. we have supported the creation of the Human Rights Council. will put an end to the selectivity and politicization that was such a characteristic of the old Commission on Human Rights. in the field of human rights.Brasilia. accompanied by a system similar to that which exists in the ILO.Geneva. clear and transparent? A global report. a global report on human rights. Brazil’s participation has been of special importance in the negotiations for its formation. One idea we have defended is that the state of human rights in the world should be the object of a “Global Report”. which even exists in the WTO for trade matters.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES
precisely those that were sanctioned in the Universal Declaration – must prevail over political convenience. as I see it. *** Right from the first moment. Statement by Minister Celso Amorim during the 6 th Mercosur Meeting of High Authorities on Human Rights . After all. 2006. but on a voluntary basis onlyto begin with. furthermore. December 5. *** And what. to the extent possible. June 19. whereby countries undergo a sort of “peer review” on human rights.
To this end. at the High Level Segment of the 4th Regular Session of the Human Rights Council .
. Since it is universal. Brazil envisages a broad participation – including that of NGOs — comprising two stages: a preparatory phase. to be carried out by independent experts. The consolidation of all reports in one single document. March 12. it is essential that all countries cooperate with the system and participate in its operation. the Biblical saying that “it easier to see the splinter in the eye of your neighbor than the wooden beam in your own eye” is applicable. “Brazil’s multilateral diplomacy: a tribute to Rui Barbosa”. As one of Brazil’s long-standing ambitions. the Global Report will reinforce the universal nature and transparency of its activities. written by experts and which will be submitted for the approval of the Council. with suggestions and recommendations to the State in question.Geneva. November 5. *** The Universal Periodic Review Mechanism is at the heart of the Council. will generate a Global Report on Human Rights. Speech by the Presidency’s Special Secretary on Human Rights. which should be carried out preferably between States. and a stage for interactive dialogue. at the end of each four-year cycle. it will permit a global vision of all States.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
other perhaps. 2007. 2007. Lecture given by Ministro Celso Amorim during the Second National Conference on Foreign Policy and International Policy . Minister Paulo Vannuchi.Rio de Janeiro. It is the central instance that can make all the difference in relation to the old Commission. The mechanism should produce a report. without exception.
who will now be able to use an additional mechanism to protect them against future violations. 2003. such as the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. “Brazil’s Declaration recognizes the competence of the Committee Against Torture to receive accusations” . (…) At the 28th International Conference of the
. the Brazilian government created the National Commission to Promote and Implement Human Rights in Brazil. we recognize the competence of the Commission and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. which include accusations of possible violations of the Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture. 2006.Brasilia.
NATIONAL COMMISSION HUMANITARIAN LAW
By means of a Decree dated November 27.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES
COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE (CAT) The acceptance of the competence of the Committee Against Torture to receive and analyze individual petitions reinforces the recognition by Brazil of the legitimate nature of international concern towards human rights and a higher interest in protecting possible victims. with the objective of proposing to the competent authorities the measures needed to implement and promote international humanitarian rights in Brazil. notably the Geneva Convention of 1949 and the Additional Protocols I and II of 1977. In the inter-American system. June 26. The establishment of a National Commission will give Brazil a necessary instrument with which to effectively apply Humanitarian Law. Brazil already accepts the competence to examine individual cases of important human rights mechanics within the United Nations system. Press release.
*** The Brazilian Government associates itself with the worldwide commemorations now being held to express the international community’s repudiation of racism. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim on taking office as Minister of State for External Relations . Press release.Brasilia. racial discrimination.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Red Cross and the Red Crescent societies. training programs and Armed Forces operational manuals. we created today a Special Secretariat of Policies for the Promotion of Racial Equality. with the objective of responding to the aspirations of the Brazilian people in their support
. “Setting up a National Commission to Promote and Implement Humanitarian Law in Brazil” . In this context. 2003. (…) Brazil committed to promote the integration of international humanitarian law rules at the level of teaching. February 11. economic. xenophobia and correlated intolerance. social and cultural aspects of society. 2004
THE FIGHT AGAINST RACISM AND DISCRIMINATION We encourage the universal promotion of human rights and the fight against all forms of discrimination.Brasilia. January 1. The Brazilian Government reiterates its unequivocal determination to implement the commitments undertaken at the Durban Conference and thereby reaffirms the importance attributed to the adoption of measures that ensure the participation of persons who are victims of discrimination in all political.
here at Itamaraty. in itself. *** We are particularly engaged in efforts to fight racism and promote social equality for the majority of Afro-descendants in our Country. Next July.Brasilia. Press release.Brasilia. so that our country may be adequately represented. to provide a system of scholarships (for people of African descent). Statement by Minister Celso Amorim during the opening of the International Panel “Affirmative Actions and Millennium Goals” . we have also been at the forefront to establish a new and stronger Convention on Racism.. June 29.) Often. a form of discrimination. When we create an affirmative action program. March 21. (. It is we. *** Affirmative action is nothing more than an attempt to provide equal possibilities for those who have had less favorable conditions during their childhood and adolescence. “International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination” .
. when I say this. it is not because persons of African descent need to have access to the Ministry of External Relations. some form of discrimination is. here at Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) who need them as members of our Ministry. xenophobia and any form of intolerance.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES
of the fight against racism. 2005. or can exist. At a regional level.. (…) And. to make another person have this feeling. we are really tackling the problem head on. racial discrimination. 2003. the feeling that there exists. Brazil will host the Regional Conference of the Americas against Racism. a system that I believe can also help the candidates’ own self-esteem.
during the High Level Segment of the First Session of Human Rights Council . Speech by Minster Celso Amorim in the class graduation ceremony at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) . May 2. because they envisage to acknowledge merit while providing (…) scholarship programs. The Sachs Report showed that these objectives are possible. but also sees itself as an institution that reflects what we really are. (…) This is not (a question of) doing a favor to individuals of African descent. We have managed to increase the number of Blacks. that reflects what sort of Brazil we represent. a need of the institution. We are working so that the Millennium Goals are attained. The IBD. This relates to one of the Country’s needs. 2007. the IMF and the G-8 are sensitive to the question. The United Nations Organization brought the topic to the center of its agenda. which should not only recognize itself as a body endowed with the highest technical and intellectual skills. *** We have had (at the Rio Branco Institute . The debate on innovative sources of development financing is no longer a taboo subject. This debate and the parallel events related to the Millennium Goals reflect the strength of mobilization.Geneva. The
. June 19.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Speech by Minister Celso Amorim.the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) programs of affirmative action designed in a very special way.
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS Today we are continuing a debate that began at the Millennium Summit. of Afro-descendents in our institution. one of the needs of Itamaraty. 2006.Brasilia.
economic. They need to transform words into action. on stable and foreseeable bases. in performing increasingly more important positions in politics and in the economy.New York. to enable aid to be given faster. political.
WOMEN The remarkable contribution of women to the development of this country. to reach the desired goal of effective gender equality. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening session of the High Level Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly (Millennium Goals) . They need to work faster. Last year. 2005. businesses and civil society. The remarkable participation of women in the Ministry of External Relations and in Brazilian diplomatic life in general is internationally recognized.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES
international community needs to commit itself so that these objectives may be attained. is cause for satisfaction and an encouraging demonstration of the progress made on the path to eliminate prejudice. “International Women’s Day” . Brazil has actively participated in deliberations in the international sphere with the purpose of promoting the full exercise of the civil. social and cultural rights of women around the world. 2004. September 14.Brasilia. we suggested mechanisms to obtain additional funding. Press release. They need to consolidate partnerships between government. March 8. ***
. As a signatory of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
in Geneva.Brasilia. June 16.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
The choice of Minister Nilcéa Freire for the Presidency of the InterAmerican Commission of Women (a body of the OAS).
HEALTH In a ceremony held today. 2003. (…) Brazil’s prominent role (in the negotiations of the Framework Convention) was always based on the recognized effectiveness of the Brazilian program on tobacco control. 2004. environmental and economic consequences of the consumption of tobacco and of exposure to tobacco fumes. October 29. “Election of Minister Nilcéa Freire as President of the Inter-American Commission of Women (CIM) . protect the population from passive smoking and intensify support programs to stop the habit of smoking. Brazil signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. considered exemplary by the WHO. Press release. restrict access to tobacco products by persons under the legal age. the promotion and sponsorship of tobacco products. “Signature of a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control” . reflects international recognition of the advances made towards the rights of women.Brasilia. social. The program includes legislative measures against publicity. at the headquarters of the World Health Organization. Press Release. as well as strategies and actions designed to reduce the social acceptance of the habit of smoking. ***
. June 16. As the first multilateral public health instrument to be negotiated within the ambit of the WHO. the objective of the Framework Convention is to protect present and future generations against the devastating health. and also reaffirms Brazil’s interest in contributing more actively to debates on the subject in multilateral forums.
The National STD/ AIDS Program. “Patents and public health: a decision on paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration” . August 30. The Brazilian Government worked with total transparency and in perfect harmony with society and is proud of having contributed so decisively to reach a decision of consensus around such an essential issue for developing countries.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES
The Doha Declaration. We have managed to organize the distribution of retroviral drugs on a large scale. I will give you an example. the success of which has been recognized worldwide and that now serves as a model for developing countries. The decision taken today consolidates an understanding that members are entitled to use. Press release.Brasilia. in an unequivocal form. will continue to use such flexibility to its own advantage. But. if this is to be a viable option in a country with few
. We have a program to fight AIDS that is recognized worldwide as an answer to one of the worst dramas that humanity has had to live through in our time. the rights of members of the WHO to grant compulsory licenses and to determine the grounds upon which such licenses are granted. enabling them to take advantage of cheaper imports to meet their needs. *** A country like Brazil cannot afford to live on the fringes of global developments. (…) The decision taken today extends the possibility of recourse to a compulsory license by countries without the necessary production capacity. remains a basic instrument for public health policies in Brazil. the flexibility that is inherent in the TRIPS Agreement (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) to deal with problems of public health. in their totality. 2003. so that they may successfully reach their objectives in public health. the integrity of which has been maintained and strengthened. The Declaration recognizes.
) Brazil wants to explore possibilities of cooperation with international organizations. The TRIPS agreement itself recognizes this fact. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the 60th World Health Assembly . In addition. (…) The rules on patents are not established on an individual basis in each country. the program is dependent on the price of drugs not going over certain reasonable limits. Healthcare is crucial to development and to fight against poverty..BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
resources. We also want to expand our trilateral cooperation with developing countries to benefit poorer nations. launched by President Lula and other world leaders in New York.. such participation is. July 13. in 2004. “Hunger and disease are twin sisters”. (. *** Healthcare is at the center of the Action against Hunger and Poverty. when related to public health. without exaggeration. we are supporting a program of vaccination against hepatitis B in Haiti. We have all taken part in its design. said President Lula at the United Nations General Assembly last year. In the case of AIDS. such as the WHO. interpretation and execution. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the debate “Brazil: a Global Player” . (…) Brazil has scrupulously adhered to its commitments in matters of intellectual property. May 15. In partnership with Canada. should serve public interests.Paris. a question of life and death.Geneva. 2007. But the rules of intellectual property. 2005.
. they are global rules. the Ministerial Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health stated that the TRIPS Agreement “does not prevent and should not prevent Members from taking measure to protect public health”.
equal pay and non-discrimination at the work place.
. signed by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Néstor Kirchner . 2003. in March 2004. This involves giving the worker not just any job. June 2. respect for his rights. 2003. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the special session at the 61 st Inter national Labor Conference . the concept of a “decent job” guides the actions of the Ministry of Labor and Employment. but ensuring the right to a fair salary.Buenos Aires. the right to collective negotiation. *** We reaffirm our conviction that decent work. established a commitment around proposals that my Government fully supports: the freedom of association. is the most effective instrument to promote living conditions for our people and to ensure that they share the fruits of material and human progress. We welcome the next Mercosur Regional Conference on Employment. and hope that from its results there will emerge lines of action that will giver our community satisfactory levels of social cohesion and dignity to the worker and his/her family. attention to his demands. The term captures the humanistic spirit that characterize our national and international mobilization efforts.Geneva. security for his family. as conceived by the ILO.HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES
INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO) The Declaration of Basic Labor Principles and Rights. the elimination of forced labor. the eradication of child labor. Consensus of Buenos Aires. October 16. a working life that is not arduous but creative. In Brazil. adopted in June 1998.
DISARMAMENT. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY
and that had as their main objective the consolidation of the South America statute as an area of peace. Rio de Janeiro. which have enabled us to overcome rivalries. which has benefited from living in peace with all of its neighbors for more than one hundred and thirty years. but one that is definitely based on cooperative international security. giving us the possibility to concentrate on economic and social development. Foreign policy resulted in strategic projects. disarmament and non-proliferation issues. “Brazil and new global and hemispheric concepts of security”. Article by Minister Celso Amorim presented at the circle of debates organized by the Ministr y of Defense. ***
. on the moder nization of Brazilian thinking in matters of defense and security . notably those of regional integration. October 11 and 12. (…) Brazil has benefited from its unique international prominence: that of a country of undeniable importance that does not defend an exclusivist or self-centered viewpoint. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY
DISARMAMENT – OVERVIEW The intrinsic links between foreign policy and defense are of particular relevance in the case of a country such as ours. we have taken the lead in various initiatives in multilateral forums that deal with security.Itaipava. 2003.DISARMAMENT. dialogue and cooperation. Moreover. especially with Argentina.
and in particular nuclear weapons. Pervez Musharraf . Combat and Eradication of Ilicit Traffic of Small Arms and Light Weapons in all its Aspects. such as small arms and light weapons and landmines. which remains a priority for the international community. to promote nuclear disarmament and the fight against excessive stocks of conventional weapons. 3) support the actions of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). within the ambit of the United Nations. chemical or biological weapons.Brasilia. in areas of disarmament and non-proliferation. November 20. missile launch vehicles and related materials. In this regard. 6) Cooperation. in consonance with International Law. they expressed the view that nonproliferation cannot be disassociated from nuclear disarmament. 2) strengthen effective trade control mechanisms . by means of the following measures: 1) the universalization of international treaties and rules on disarmament and non-proliferation and strengthening the domestic implementation of these treaties and rules. 5) encourage the implementation of the United Nations Action Program for the Prevention. 4) cooperation. Joint Communiqué during the official visit to Brazil of the President of Pakistan. following the example of cooperation to guarantee the implementation
. 2004.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Both Presidents reaffirmed the right to development and the use of technology for pacific ends and reaffirmed their commitment to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. *** With the aim of confronting the threat of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missile launch vehicles. the two leaders [Presidents Lula and Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi] reaffirmed their determination to work together to strengthen the international regime on disarmament and non-proliferation. within the ambit of multilateral efforts to prevent the illicit traffic of nuclear.
Joint Declaration regarding cooperation between Brazil and Japan and on international matters . Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum . Joint Communiqué at the Third Trilateral Mixed Commission at the India. we are determined to collaborate to prevent the illicit traffic of nuclear. 2006. chemical and biological weapons. Brazil and South Africa) expressed their conviction that multilateral institutions created within the ambit of multilateral disarmament agreements should continue to be the primary institutions and mechanisms used in international community efforts to reach common objectives in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation. May 26. The international community shares the responsibility to actively prevent such a risk. To this end. *** The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missile launch vehicles constitute a growing threat to international peace and security. 7) efforts directed towards providing assistance to countries devastated by landmines. Declaration from the Heads of State and Government of the European Union-Latin America and the
. *** The Ministers (of Foreign Affairs of India. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY
of Security Council Resolution 1540.Tokyo. 2005. their launch vehicles and related materials.DISARMAMENT. March 30. including material support by means of cooperation initiatives.Rio de Janeiro. and in agreement with authorities and national legislation and in consonance with international law.
production.Vienna. within a timeframe specifically (designed) to eliminate nuclear weapons. transfer. Brazil is part of the NPT. as well as various other disarmament and non-proliferation
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Caribbean at the 4th LAC-EU Summit . They emphasized the need to begin negotiations to establish a program. and reaffirmed their commitment to make efforts in relevant multilateral forums to seek a universal instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons and achieve their total elimination. and reaffirmed in this respect that the objective of non-proliferation would be better served by the systematic and progressive elimination of nuclear weapons in an all-inclusive. September 13. First Summit Meeting of IBSA. They recalled that similar approaches led to the establishment of international. for the total elimination of nuclear weapons. prohibit their development. 2006.
TREATY ON THE NON-PROLIFERATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS (NPT) Brazil defends the proposition of the irreversibility of international disarmament and non-proliferation commitments. 2006. storage. universal. Press Communiqué Brasilia. non-discriminatory and verifiable manner. to be carried out in stages. acquisition. use or threat to use. legally binding instruments that eliminated chemical and biological weapons and are contributing towards the total elimination of these weapons. May 12. *** (The leaders of IBSA) emphasized that nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation are processes that are reinforced mutually and demand continual and irreversible progress on both fronts. and to determine their destruction.
DISARMAMENT. the Ministers emphasized that each one of the NPT articles is mandatory for each one of the Member States. in accordance with what is established in Article 6 of the NPT. (…) The Ministers emphasized that the recent international debate on weapons of mass destruction in any place. as agreed by Party States of the Treaty of NonProliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Brazil vigorously supports the total elimination of nuclear weapons. Press release. Brazil defends the use of nuclear energy exclusively for pacific ends. chemical and biological weapons. in accordance with the precepts inscribed in the Constitution of 1988. and their total elimination is a safeguard to ensure that they will never be used or produced again. and that at all times and in all circumstances the Member States should be considered responsible for the strict execution of the respective obligations arising from the Treaty. involving nuclear. 2003. January 12.Brasilia. at the Conference for Revision of 2000. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY
treaties. including nuclear weapons.
. The Ministers recalled that continued and irreversible progress in the reduction of nuclear weapons is a basic pre-requisite for the promotion of non-proliferation. “Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons” . and reiterated that the implementation of the obligations undertaken within the ambit of the Treaty remain imperative. *** The Ministers (for the Coalition of the New Agenda) expressed their profound concern with the lack of progress until the present moment in the implementation of the “13 steps” to achieve nuclear disarmament. which determine that “all nuclear activity within the National territory will only be allowed for pacific ends and through the approval of National Congress”. which it scrupulously respects. and the fulfillment of the unequivocal commitment undertaken by nuclear countries at the last Conference for the Revision of NPT.
2003. September 23. because it has not been ratified by countries that have advanced technology at their disposal. as provided for by the Constitution — is safeguarded by the Brazilian-Argentinean Agency for the Accountability and Control of Nuclear Material (ABACC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1994. in the light of international instruments to regulate matters of disarmament and non-proliferation. including nuclear armaments. 2004. New Zealand.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Declaration of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Coalition of New Agenda Countries (Brazil. even though the latter is not yet in force.New York. Press release. April 5. *** They (Heads of State and Government of South American and Arab countries) reiterated their positions of principle on nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation and of other weapons of mass destruction. South Africa and Sweden) . as well as the Comprehensive Nuclear-TestBan Treaty (CTBT). Egypt.Brasilia. They further reaffirmed the illegitimacy of using or threatening to use nuclear weapons by any State and emphasized the importance of providing safety
. as well as their deep concern with the slow progress being made on nuclear disarmament. *** The Country’s nuclear program – which can only be used for strictly pacific ends. Mexico. Ireland. “Brazilian Nuclear Program” . without ever having given rise to any form of doubt with respect to the total fulfillment of our obligations. of which Brazil is a full Party: the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).
May 11. and of the progress made for the universalization of other relevant agreements negotiated multilaterally in areas of disarmament and nonproliferation. in this respect. September 18 . but rigorously fulfill their respective obligations under the NPT.DISARMAMENT.22. of effective actions to adhere to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). 2006. 2005. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY
guarantees to countries that do not possess nuclear weapons and. Brasília Declaration.
. Statement by Ambassador Antônio José Vallim Guerreiro. signed by Countries taking part in the South American and Arab Countries Summit Brasilia. Head of the Brazilian Delegation at the 50th Session of the General Conference of the IAEA Vienna.
ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL OF THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) From Brazil’s point of view. Brazil is concerned with the element of doubt that may hover over those countries that are not armed with nuclear weapons and which did not sign an Additional Protocol. We are also concerned by the fact that the updating of the Agency’s procedures of verification have contributed to the incorporation of elements of the Additional Protocol to the inspection procedures. the review conferences of the NPT are the most appropriate forum for talks on possible changes to the status of the Additional Protocol. My delegation therefore considers that it is necessary to recall that this instrument was negotiated and approved in accordance with the understanding that its adoption would occur under strictly voluntary terms.
Ambassador Gelson Fonseca Júnior. November 7. This notion has not been emphasized firmly enough. Chile. (…) We should (…) not allow the legitimate bolstering of security measures – against bio-terrorism. at the 19th General Conference of OPANAL . Speech by the Head of the Brazilian Delegation. 2005. (…) In this respect. Brazil understands that we should continue our efforts to demand that the great powers that are armed with nuclear weapons. remove or modify the interpretive declarations that they formulated during the signature or ratification of Additional Protocols I and II of the Treaty of Tlatelolco. including the right to a life of dignity. (…) The NuclearWeapons-Free Zones are a powerful political instrument that can contribute in a decisive way to stimulate the nuclear disarmament agenda. with the aim of re-vindicating the central role that is due to the Agency and thereby avoid duplicating the efforts already made by other regional and multilateral organisms.Santiago. for example – to be transformed into an enforced new category of disguised non-tariff barriers to international trade.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
AGENCY FOR THE PROHIBITION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (OPANAL) The strengthening of OPANAL should become a landmark in the principles. objectives and obligations (of the Treaty) of Tlatelolco.
TERRORISM The fight against terrorism cannot be seen as being incompatible with the promotion and strengthening of human rights.
. It is necessary to work together to transform this potential into reality.
But we will not defeat (terrorism) only by means of repression. We need to prevent terrorism from growing roots in the midst of despair.DISARMAMENT. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY
Statement by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Conference “Fighting Terrorism in favor of Humanity” . September 14. severe social and economic problems . Neither can such actions result in deaths that are as absurd and indiscriminate as those provoked by the terrorists themselves. *** Barbaric acts of terrorism continue to be perpetrated against the innocent and defenseless. The fight against this scourge demands firmness. We have to reject prejudice and discrimination. 2003. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the United Nations Security Council Summit . September 22. 2005. These efforts should respect international law and human rights.and in particular. under any guise or pretext. *** Brazil vehemently rejects these abominable acts that are an outrage to our very notion of humanity. In the fight against irrational violence our best weapons are the culture of dialogue. The fight against terrorism cannot be seen strictly in terms of repression by institutions of the police force.New York. when combined with the absence of civil and political freedom – are factors that can expose communities to the extreme attitudes of fanatical
. We will continue to offer our support to greater international cooperation to combat terrorism and to eliminate its most profound causes. the promotion of development and the intransigent defense of human rights. Although there is no automatic link between poverty and terrorism.New York.
Brazil reiterates its commitment to international cooperation as an instrument to prevent and to fight terrorism and the financing of terrorism. 2006.) the need to further international cooperation to fight terrorism. Speech by Minister Celso Amorim at the opening of the general debate at the 60th United Nations General Assembly .
TRIPLE PRONTIER (BRAZIL–ARGENTINA–PARAGUAY) The Brazilian Government understands that. there are no signs to confirm that an incident has occurred involving activities linked to terrorism or the financing of terrorism in that region (Triple Frontier zone). As from this moment. in the light of available information.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
groups. transnational organized crime. which should fall within the framework of the strict observance of International Law and Human Rights. 2005. December 7. This position is shared by the Governments of Argentina and Paraguay. in accordance with a Joint Communiqué adopted at the end of the meeting in Buenos Aires. Unilateral initiatives and declarations that arbitrarily single out the Triple Frontier zone only results in unjustified prejudice against the region.
TRANSNATIONAL CRIME The Presidents emphasized (. I want to express the willingness of Brazilians to work intensely so that a swift agreement can be reached in this wide-reaching convention on terrorism.. the
. “Triple Frontiers” . September 17.Brasilia. of due process of law and ample defense. Press release.New York..
*** The Governments of the Federative Republic of Brazil. as well as their negative effects on the economic and social development of the countries involved. NON-PROLIFERATION AND SECURITY
traffic of weapons and ammunition. December 1. Argentina and Paraguay to strengthen the coordination of police investigation activities. from the Federal Police of Argentina and the National Police force of Paraguay. within a perspective of shared responsibility. of the Republic of Argentina and the Republic of Paraguay decided to initiate the investigation activities of police intelligence and exchange information in the present facilities of the Regional Central Intelligence Office (RCO) of Foz de Iguaçu. the world problem of drugs and related offences. Álvaro Uribe . kidnappings and human traffic. so as to prevent and combat illicit practices in that region. which is able to operate from the building of the Federal Police Station of that region. Joint Declaration by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of the Republic of Colombia. Press release.Brasilia. 2005. So as to further cooperation in the area of public security in general. 2006. The creation of the RCO is part of a series of initiatives that have been taken by the Governments of Brazil.DISARMAMENT. “Regional Central Intelligence Office in Foz de Iguaçu” . and especially in the region of the triple frontier zone. the Governments of Argentina and Paraguay accepted the invitation of the Brazilian Government to designate national police institutions to form part of the RCO in Foz de Iguaçu. December 14. ***
.Bogota. Members of the Center will be employees originating from the Brazilian Federal Police.
the traffic of human beings. 2007. moneylaundering. the traffic of small caliber weapons. non-proliferation and the control of weapons. July 4. chemical and biological weapons. in particular with respect to nuclear. light weapons and ammunition. involving questions of disarmament.
. Brazil-European Union Summit. such as drug trafficking. as well as their launch vehicles. transnational organized criminal activities. Both parties expressed their commitment to the Coordination and Cooperation Mechanism in matters involving Drugs between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean. as well as terrorism and illegal immigration. Joint Declaration Lisbon.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Brazil and the European Union have agreed to work together to meet the most pressing world challenge in matters of peace and security.
But this trade is still not equitable. we first need to come to know one another better. The international trade of cultural goods today amounts to nearly US$ 2 trillion a year. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening of the Mercosur Fourth Biennial on Visual Arts . The arts are the most beautiful windows of the human soul in a social sense. a man in government cannot fail
. (…) We cannot forget (. generating employment and wealth. We cannot forget that culture is also an economic activity. So that we may walk hand in hand (in the region).CULTURAL ISSUES
CULTURAL DIPLOMACY – OVERVIEW Culture is.Porto Alegre. an essential link that brings human and spiritual values closer together. It is through a unique mixture of reason and emotion that art eliminates barriers and defenses. and the sovereign participation in the globalization process. social inclusion. October 5. a group of five countries is responsible for more than 50% of all international interchange of cultural goods. *** Culture and cultural goods should also be seen as elements that generate income and employment.. citizenship.) the economic dimension of an artistic event. According to UNESCO. 2003. without a doubt. In this double condition. No other process of integration can leave aside the involvement of the population. individual and collective growth..
Nevertheless. (…) At the Multilateral forums we have attended. August 9. through its Cultural Department. June 29. Brazil is not isolated from
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to understand the fundamental role that culture and cultural production play in the context of economic and political negotiations in our times. we have defended the principle that cultural goods and services should be treated as an exception that merit differential treatment. by their very universal nature. To this end.São Paulo. South Africa.Brasilia. Mexico and Australia. provide encouragement and support to the Community of PortugueseSpeaking Countries and are involved in specific negotiations (in these matters) with other developing countries. 2004. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the formal opening of the World Cultural Forum . is to contribute towards the promotion of Brazilian art and culture abroad. as much within the domestic life of countries as well as in international relations. such as India. *** One of the functions of the Ministry of External Relations. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the visit to Brazil of the Prime Minister of Portugal. *** The Portuguese culture and language. photography and other forms of expression. We reactivated the Mercosur Cultural (division). can contribute much towards helping the people of brother-countries in Africa and East Timor to also prosper in our increasingly globalized world. 2006. Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) has produced exhibitions of fine arts. José Sócrates .
such as lectures. the art exhibitions promoted by Itamaraty aim to enhance the creativity not only of Brazilian artists. and three on the African continent. In order to do this. the promotion of Brazilian literature. the promotion of Brazilian cinematographic production. distributed as follows: nine on the American Continent. the co-edition and distribution of texts written by Brazilian authors. (…) The Internet Site of the Cultural Department of the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) . *** The Centers of Brazilian Studies (CBSs) are institutions directly subordinated to the Brazilian Head of the Diplomatic Mission or Consular Department in each country. Internet Site of the Cultural Department of the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) . At the moment. as well as other forms of Brazilian cultural expression. ***
. values and traditions that bring Brazilians closer to other societies.. we share with other countries the customs.Visited on September 12.visited on September 12. but also of their South American colleagues. neighbors or otherwise. we have fifteen units in operation. On the contrary. and are the principal instruments used to carry out Brazilian cultural policies abroad. 2007. 2007. three on the European Continent.CULTURAL ISSUES
the rest of the world. the distribution of informative material about Brazil. the organization of visual arts exhibitions and theatrical productions. The activities (of these Centers) are concerned with the systematic teaching of the Portuguese Language as spoken in Brazil. the promotion of our classical and popular music. seminars etc.
.Visited on September 12. the Cultural Department of Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) coordinates and subsidizes the activities of 33 lecturers. the academic community and opinion makers.
T HE U NITED N ATIONS E DUCATIONAL . At the moment. Caracas and Montevideo. Internet Site of the Cultural Department of the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) . Leiden. 2007. The Department also provides financial assistance to the Brazilian Study Centers in Austin. the Cultural Department seeks to contribute towards activities that are being developed (by these centers). who are working in respected foreign universities. Itamaraty’s Cultural Department collaborates with various other foreign academic institutions that develop projects directed towards studies on Brazilian issues.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
The Lectureship network brings together teachers who are specialized in the Portuguese language. and are selected by the Ministry of External Relations and by the Coordination on the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel at the Ministry of Education (CAPES/MEC). distributed amongst some of the best and most prestigious universities in 22 different countries. The growing number of students enrolled in courses offered by the lecturers demonstrate the success of this model used to promote Brazilian language and culture. Brazilian literature and culture. growth and stability. S CIENTIFIC ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
We (the Heads of State and Government of the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean) recognize the importance of cultural diversity as an element of development. facilitating exchange projects and the donation of cultural material. reaching a qualified segment of the local populations. In addition to providing financial support.
but also within LAC. in October 2005. May 12. within the ambit of the Institute of National Historical and Artistic Heritage (IPHAN).Decree 3. we reaffirm our conviction that cultural activities and industries play an important role in the defense. Brazil already has specific legislation for the recognition and appreciation of its intangible heritage . of 08/04/2000 -. and the interchange of knowledge and best practices within this domain. a systematic and consistent policy. Vienna Declaration . not only of the European Union–Latin America and Caribbean cooperation. of the UNESCO Convention for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. supported by wide previous experience. We have developed. development and promotion of cultural diversity. Furthermore. Two Brazilian manifestations – “the Oral and Graphic Expressions of the Wajãpi” and the “Circle Samba of Recôncavo Baiano” (“Samba de Roda do Recôncavo Baiano”) – have already been proclaimed by
. as well as to increment cooperation between the European Union and LAC within the UNESCO framework. We undertake to seek means to allow for the strengthening. 4th LAC-EU Summit . 2006. drafted as early as 1936 by Mário de Andrade.CULTURAL ISSUES
as exemplified by the approval.551. We support its rapid ratification and implementation. a methodology – a National Inventory of Cultural References – an institutional framework.Vienna. *** Brazil is internationally recognized as one of the countries that is at the forefront in matters of the protection of its intangible heritage – those expressions and living practices that are rooted in our daily way of life. in this field. We recognize that cultural cooperation is essential to encourage intercultural dialogue and mutual understanding. the origins of which go back to the bill of law to protect national cultural heritage.
2006. destined to reach the central objectives of the “Education for All” (project). In this context.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
UNESCO as Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Position Document signed by South Africa. July 16. UNESCO and all international organisms to intensify cooperation so as to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and the Dakar Goals. Petersburg. members of the G-8. and recognize the importance of the Monterrey Declaration issued by the E-9 countries. creation and oral traditions” presently under discussion UNESCO” . Press release. we applaud and support the UNESO Global Action Plan.
. India. Mexico and the Republic of the Congo. 2006.Brasilia. issued during the G-8 Summit .St. “Assembly of Partner States of the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage – the Preservation of “knowledge. China. Brazil. June 27. *** We appeal to the whole international community.
TECHNICAL. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION
We seek to transform into reality
. (…) We are seeking to meet the growing demands for cooperation. January 27. integrated within the organizational structure of the Ministry of External Relations. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION
Scientific knowledge is strategic for a wider participation of our countries in the world today. 2004. and cooperation in the area of sports (soccer). education (literacy programs). biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). This knowledge should inspire technological development that takes into account diverse factors of sustainable development. providing training to technical personnel. When offering cooperation opportunities Brazil does not aim profit or commercial gain. has carried out a task of extreme relevance to bring Brazil closer to other countries.New Delhi. I would like to mention in particular those in the areas of agriculture. healthcare (HIV/AIDS treatment). amongst others. *** Cooperation is a fundamental instrument of Brazilian foreign policy. especially in the developing world. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the opening ceremony of the Meeting “Brazil-India Sustainable Development: Prospects and Possibilities” . The Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC).TECHNICAL. giving priority to sectors in which we can offer an expressive contribution. electoral logistics (electronic voting booths). Amongst the more intense activities of ABC cooperation. Neither is there any form of “conditionality” involved.
Article by Minister Celso Amorim in the ViaABC magazine. June. It will enable us to have an effective industrial policy that contemplates an association between Brazilian and Japanese companies. June 29. one that is inclusive and
. The objective of these initiatives is to establish partnerships that will benefit poorer countries. (…) Just as important is the triangular cooperation that Brazil has been pursuing with developing countries and international bodies. in partnership with our Japanese brothers. published by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency. “Cooperation as an instrument of Brazilian foreign policy”. an affirmation of our power to choose and our independence to decide. our talent to establish partnerships and intellectual exchanges which are healthy and advantageous. *** The Brazilian System of Digital Television is further proof of the creative capacity of Brazilians.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
a new vision of relations between developing countries. *** The Prime Minister of India and the Presidents of Brazil and South Africa underlined the importance of working together towards an Information Society centered on people. The implementation of Digital TV provides an opportunity to develop Brazilian technologies to be adopted by the Brazilian Digital Television System. Speech by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the ceremony to sign the decree for the implementation of the Brazilian Digital Television System . inspired by a communion of interests and mutual support. 2006. 2006.Brasilia.
Brasilia. 1September 13. in 2003 and 2005. as well at towards other forums and organisms related to the International Consultants on Targeted Security (ICTs).TECHNICAL. held in Geneva and in Tunis.Brasilia. amongst others. execution and evaluation missions. 2007. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . both for development as well as for government and electronic governance as a means to reduce the digital divide that exists in their societies. with the aim of increasing the competitiveness of national goods and services and give greater autonomy and technological capacity to the Country. respectively. professional training and energy. In the specific area of technical cooperation. Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines. scientific and technological cooperation.
. *** Another objective of the Brazilian Government is to intensify its technical. May 4. and renewed their support to the outcome of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). such as executing projects. They agreed to continue to coordinate their towards the implementation of WSIS monitoring mechanisms. especially in the area of biofuels. Joint Declaration at the First India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum Summit . agriculture. the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) has carried out activities in the areas of healthcare. signing agreements and carrying out prospecting. ICTs. The Heads of State and Government emphasized the need to promote and heighten close trilateral cooperation and training between the three countries in areas of digital inclusion. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION
guided by the interests of development. Cooperation partnerships that stimulate invention and industrial development will be bolstered. 2006.
and the imposed obligation to sign new safeguard agreements with other countries. therefore. possibility of a unilateral political veto. Press release. the development of which is under the responsibility of the National Institute of Space Research – INPE. “Brazil-Ukraine Agreement on Technological Safeguards” .Brasilia.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
SPACE COOPERATION The Agreement between Brazil and the Ukraine about Technological Safeguards Related to the Participation of the Ukraine in the Launching Operations from the Alcântra Launch Center (AST BrazilUkraine). the French SPOT and the Indian Resource Sat programs. together with the North American LANDSAT.
. The CBERS satellites. distinct from the Agreement with the USA in 2000 and does not include the following precepts: prohibition to use revenues from the launches to develop launch vehicles. in Brazil. *** The CBERS Program that has been developed jointly by Brazil and China since 1988 represents a successful example of South-South cooperation in matters of high technology and is one of the pillars of the strategic partnership between both countries. The CBERS program is today one of the principal remote-sensing programs in the whole world. 2004. prohibition to cooperate with countries that are not members of the MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime). November 11. The Agreement with the Ukraine is. involves elements of great importance in the context of the National Program of Space Activities (PNAE) coordinated by the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB). does not contain the so-called “political” clauses included in the Agreement with the USA in 2000 and which were considered unacceptable by the (Brazilian) National Congress.
(…) In addition. September 17. 2007. the CBERS program generates employment in a high technology sector that is fundamental to the growth of the country. “Launching of the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite CBERS-2B” .TECHNICAL. Press release. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION
In addition to promoting the innovation and development of the Brazilian space industry.Brasilia.
. Brazil and China are distributing CBERS images free of charge to neighboring countries and promoting projects for technical training in their use.
ASSISTANCE TO BRAZILIANS ABROAD
which approve the regimental structure of the Ministry of External Relations (Itamaraty). *** The growing number of Brazilians living abroad presents new challenges to the consular services. We should not forget that consular services are the calling card of Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) abroad. which have multiplied demands made on our consular services. of December 6. 2006. Internet Site of the Ministry of External Relations. 5. 2007. visited on October 26. General Under-Secretariat of Brazilians Communities Abroad. with the duty to “take care of issues related to Brazilians abroad and foreigners who wish to enter Brazil. which include those involved in international legal cooperation”. Whenever situations of instability occur.ASSISTANCE TO BRAZILIANS ABROAD
Decree No.979. the General Under-Secretariat of Brazilian Communities Abroad (SGEB). It is
. created in Annex I. (…) With the creation of the SGEB. special operations will be set up to provide assistance to Brazilian nationals who need protection or wish to return to Brazil. such as those we are seeing now in the Gulf. the Brazilian Government granted a new instrument to the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) to deal with the growing presence of Brazilians abroad as well as with the increasing flow of people between Brazil and other countries. which should be prepared to provide services of assistance to an increasing number of individuals.
*** Last night. As early as July 25. Jack Straw. Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom. Minister Celso Amorim spoke by telephone with the Secretary General of the United Nations. With specific reference to the situation of the Brazilian citizens. *** The recent news reports. Jean Charles de Menezes. July 19. increase the sense of indignation felt by the Brazilian government. Both parties declared the importance of an immediate cease-fire. 2005. Minister Celso Amorim had a meeting in London with Mr. the containment of
. and this morning with the Secretary of State of the United States. “Diplomacy in the Lula Government”. when he expressed the shock and perplexity of the Brazilian Government. relating to the tragic circumstances which led to the death of the Brazilian citizen. Lecture given by Minister Celso Amorim at the Rio Branco Institute (the Brazilian Diplomatic Academy) . Condoleezza Rice. Press release. he requested their collaboration to ensure. August 18. Kofi Annan. on July 22. to discuss the crisis in Lebanon and the situation of Brazilian citizens in that country. Minister Amorim stressed the disproportionate nature of Israel’s military reaction.Brasilia. accompanied by images that have had a powerful impact. “Following up investigations on the death of the Brazilian citizen Jean Charles de Menezes in London” . together with the Israeli authorities. 2003. April 10.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
essential that we show courtesy and interest in the problems and inquiries of those who seek the services of a Brazilian Consulate.Brasilia.
In addition. has been concluded. to whom he showed great concern with the escalade of the military conflict in Lebanon and with the situation of Brazilian citizens in that country. as well as with leaders of the Lebanese community in Brazil. Press release. 2. which began on July 18. August 21. Minister Celso Amorim called an urgent meeting at his office this morning with the Israeli Ambassador to Brazil. Itamaraty (Ministry of External Relations) will continue to act with the objective of evacuating Brazilian citizens from that region.Brasilia. GOL. The remaining 272 people are those who returned to Brazil by their own means or who decided to remain in the regions out of the combat zone. so as to return later to Lebanon. and thanked him for the support given by the Turkish authorities to the evacuation of Brazilians from that region. the evacuation of Brazilian citizens from Lebanon. and 4. of which.678 were transported on 14 Brazilian Air Force flights and on four flights by the Brazilian airline companies TAM. he requested that the Israeli military forces not attack those areas identified as having great concentrations of Brazilian inhabitants or where convoys travel to transport Brazilian nationals being evacuated from Lebanon. Abdullah Gul. of the Brazilian Air Force (FAB) flight from Aden. Through talks with the Institutional Security Office and other bodies of the government. carrying 102 passengers aboard. *** With the arrival yesterday. July 20. “Situation of Brazilian citizens in Lebanon” . as a way of reducing the risk of Brazilian nations being affected. 2006.2 tons of medication were sent by the
.950 Brazilians have been evacuated. The Brazilian evacuation operation from Lebanon was accompanied by humanitarian assistance. BRA and VARIG. Minister Amorim also spoke today with Turkey’s Minister of Foreign Affairs. Tzipora Rimon. 2.ASSISTANCE TO BRAZILIANS ABROAD
military activities. In all.
2 tons of donations colleted by the Lebanese community were transported by a VARIG flight. and will include the opening of new Consulates. on July 15. *** With regard to assistance provided to Brazilian communities living abroad. In addition.
. as was seen from the successful operation to evacuate Brazilian citizens from Lebanon. The Brazilian Government should be prepared to meet the needs of their nationals in situations of emergency. with the aim of providing protection to Brazilians who live outside the Country. during the July-August 2006 conflict. “Operation to evacuate Brazilians from Lebanon” . the Consular services are being renovated.BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY HANDBOOK
Ministry of Health and 5. Joint Declaration during the visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to the United States. 2007.Brasilia. Press release. *** The Presidents recognized the importance of the role played by Brazilians in the United States and by US citizens in Brazil. 2006. March 31. the number of Brazilian nationals who have emigrated has grown significantly in recent years. They committed to improve bilateral cooperation and consular activities. nearly 3.Camp David. The Brazilian Consulate-General in Beirut remains on the ready to provide normal consular services to Brazilian citizens who have decided to remain in Lebanon. This aid was transported by FAB flights. In the light of this new reality. including the flight which took Minister Celso Amorim to Beirut. August 22.2 tons of supplies and foodstuffs collected by the Lebanese community in São Paulo. through the expansion of their respective consular services.
Brasilia. May 11.Brasilia. May 4.000 pounds for having circumvented security regulations and the health of the population in an operation that killed the Brazilian Jean Charles de Menezes. *** The Ministry of External Relations received the news that the Metropolitan Police of Scotland Yard has been sentenced to pay a fine of 175.ASSISTANCE TO BRAZILIANS ABROAD
Ministry of External Relations Strategic Guidelines.
.000 pounds sterling plus the costs of the case. 385. The Ministry of External Relations renews its solidarity and the support of the Brazilian Government to the family of Jean Charles de Menezes and will continue to watch the case and provide all assistance possible. the decision recognizes the responsibility of the Metropolitan Police in the case and paves the way for new initiatives in favor of the family of that innocent Brazilian citizen. 2007. 2007. Pluriannual Plan 2008-2011 . Even though they did not identify the individuals responsible for the tragedy. “Police officers involved in the death of Jean Charles de Menezes are Acquitted” . Press release.