# Science Form 3

Unit 7 Electricity

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7.1

ELECTROSTATICS

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Electrostatics
Electrostatics is the study of static electrical charges. Electrical charges are produced in material through friction.

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Example of phenomena happens as a result of electrical charges
When a plastic pen is rubbed with some wool, the pen will attract dust and small pieces of paper. When you clean a mirror or glass window with a dry cloth on a hot, dry day, dust and fine threads will stick to the mirror or glass. When you comb your hair with a plastic comb, the plastic comb may pull against your hair. When you remove your nylon or terylene shirt on a dry day, you will hear a crackling sound.
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Types of electrical charges and their properties All substances are made up of atoms. An atom contains a. protons that are positively charged b. neutrons that are neutral (do not have charges) c. electrons that are negatively charged and orbit around the nucleus of an atom.
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negative charges A neutral material has the same number of protons and electrons.Types of electrical charges and their properties There are two types of electrical charges a. smkbpj(a) yschow 6 . positive charges and b.

Types of electrical charges and their properties When two different materials are rubbed together. smkbpj(a) yschow 7 . electrons will be transferred from one material to another. a. b. The material that loses electrons will become positively charged. Rub the glass rod with silk to positively charge the rod. Rub the plastic rod with fur to negatively charge the rod. The material that receives electrons will become negatively charged.

Object with different type of charges attract each other The strength of the electrostatic force depends on the quantity of charges that are present in the object. Object with same type of charges repel (push part) each other. b.Electrostatic Force The effects of electrostatic force: a. Objects will repel each other if they have the same charge Objects will attract each other if they have different charges smkbpj(a) yschow 8 .

Producing and detecting electrical charges Table below shows the type of electrical charges that produced when two different materials are rubbed against each other. Negatively charged Polythene Wool Ebonite Silk Amber Positively charged Wool Cellulose acetate Animal fur Glass Animal fur smkbpj(a) yschow 9 .

the gold leaf repels from the metal plate. An electroscope consists of a metal cap and a gold leaf. The gold leaf is attached to the end of the metal rod. smkbpj(a) yschow 10 . When a charged substance is brought close to the metal cap.Electroscope An electroscope is a device that is used to detect the electrical charges.

Study electrostatic ~ Van de Graaff generator The Van de Graaff generator is a highly efficient electrostatic generator. smkbpj(a) yschow 11 . It produces electrical charges which are stored on the metal dome.

electrical charges are produced when air that flows quickly rubs against the rain clouds. smkbpj(a) yschow 12 .Natural phenomena related to electrostatic Lightning a. During a thunderstorm. b. Lightning is an electric discharge.

smkbpj(a) yschow 13 . when sparks jump between clouds and the surface of the Earth. ii. Negative charges build up at the bottom of the cloud. e. The top of the cloud becomes positively charged. d. f. The Earth's surface and the buildings underneath the clouds are positively charged. Lightning occurs i.c. when the electrons that collect at the bottom of the cloud move to the positively charged areas of the cloud.

Phenomena related to electrostatic I. between the tankers and the surrounding air on a dry day. An iron chain is usually hung from the tanker to enable the electrical charges to flow to the ground. smkbpj(a) yschow 14 . ii. between the exhaust gases and the exhaust pipe. These charges can heat up the tanker and result in an explosion. Petroleum tankers Petroleum tankers may become charged as a result of friction. i.

Aeroplanes are also fitted with strips of metal conductor to enable charges to flow to the ground during landing smkbpj(a) yschow Static Discharge Reels 15 . dry air. The tyres of aeroplanes are made of carbon and this enables the charges to flow to the ground during landing. Aeroplanes Aeroplanes become charged as they fly in the air.Phenomena related to electrostatic II. The body of the aeroplane comes in contact with the hot.

2 ELECTRICITY smkbpj(a) yschow 16 .7.

b.Source of electrical energy Electrical is generated from two main source: a. generators. Electric cells convert chemical energy into electrical energy. smkbpj(a) yschow 17 . An electric generator converts kinetic energy and potential energy into electrical energy. electric cells.

lithium cells. 3. mercury cells. smkbpj(a) yschow 18 . 4.Examples of electric cells 1. dry cells. 2. 5.cadmium cells. nickel. lead acid accumulator.

Voltage and Resistance smkbpj(a) yschow 19 .7.3 Electric Current.

electrical charges (electrostatic) ii.Current There are two forms of electricity i. Electric current is the flow of electrons through a circuit and it can defined as the rate of flow of charges. electric current. Electrostatic charges are stationary and have limited use. smkbpj(a) yschow 20 .

While measuring electric current. unit for electric current is amperes (A). a. the positive terminal of the ammeter must be connected to the positive terminal of the electrical supply. the negative terminal of the ammeter must be connected to the negative terminal of the electrical supply.Measuring electric current The quantity of electric current is measured using an ammeter. b.I. The S. smkbpj(a) yschow 21 . An ammeter has to be connected in series in an electric circuit.

Voltage The voltage ( potential difference ) between two points is the energy needed for the electrical charges to flow between the two points smkbpj(a) yschow 22 .

unit for voltage is volts (V). A voltmeter is always connected in parallel across the electrical components in a circuit. The positive and negative terminals of the voltmeter are connected to the positive and negative terminals of the electrical component respectively. smkbpj(a) yschow 23 .Measuring voltage The potential difference (voltage) is measured with a voltmeter. The S.I.

named after Georg Simon Ohm (1787. a German physicist. smkbpj(a) yschow 24 . The S. unit for resistance is ohms (Ω). Resistance influences the size of the electric current that flows in a circuit.Resistance Resistance is the property of a substance that opposes the flow of electric current through it.I.1854).

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7.4 The Relationship between Current. Voltage and Resistance smkbpj(a) yschow 26 .

if the temperature remains constant.Ohm’s Law Ohm's law states that the current ( I ) that flows through a metal conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage (V) across it. .

I is the current in ampere. . Ω. A. V. R is the resistance in ohm.Ohm's law is expressed in the following formula: V is the voltage in volt.

5 Electric Circuits smkbpj(a) yschow 29 .7.

Electrical circuits and components • The symbols of electrical component make it easier for us to draw electric . .

c. d. other electrical components such as ammeters. resistors or bulb . b. connecting wires such as copper wires. an electrical source such as dry cells. • A complete electric circuit consists of : a. a switch that controls current flow. voltmeters.• An electric circuit is a complete pathway formed from connecting wires and other electrical components that allow the flow of electric current.

. Electrical components in a series circuit are connected one after another in one path Electrical components in a parallel circuit are connected in several path.Series circuits and parallel circuits • Electrical components in a circuit can be connected in series or parallel.

6 Series circuits smkbpj(a) yschow 33 .7.

A battery that supplies more power can be built from cells connected in series. such as fans and lights. car battery. in the circuit. . When more cells are connected in series.The advantages of a series circuit One switch can control all the electrical appliances. the voltage across the circuit and the current increases. Example.

The disadvantages of a series circuit If one of the bulbs fuses or burns out. the other bulbs will not light up because the current flows along one path only. Each bulb in a circuit does not receive the full voltage from the electrical source. . The current that flows in a circuit decreases if more electrical devices are connected in series. the bulbs will become dimmer. If more bulb are added.

7.7 Parallel circuits smkbpj(a) yschow 36 .

o Each bulb receives the full voltage from the electrical source and has the same brightness. the brightness of the bulbs will remain the same. . the other bulbs in the parallel circuit can still light up because current can flow through the other complete paths. o Cells connected in parallel supply energy for a longer time compared to one cell of the same voltage. o Electrical appliances are controlled individually through their own switches. o If more bulbs are added in parallel.The advantages of a parallel circuit o If one bulb fuses.

The disadvantages of parallel circuits o Each electrical appliance is controlled by its own switch. This is dangerous as it may cause fires. like a large hall. It is not suitable for use in places. a high current flows through the main circuit. that have many lights and fans. . o If too many resistors are connected in parallel.

Similarities of series circuit and parallel circuit .

Differences of series circuit and parallel circuit .

Differences of series circuit and parallel circuit .

7.8 Magnetism smkbpj(a) yschow 42 .

The pattern of a magnetic field consists of curved lines of forces called magnetic field lines .Magnetic Fields The area surrounding a magnet where magnetic forces act is known as a magnetic field.

begin from the north pole and end at the south pole. is closer if the magnetic field is stronger. 2. 4. 3. do not cut across each other. are strongest at the poles of a magnet.Characteristics of the magnetic field lines 1. from the same pole repel each other. . 5.

The compass has a magnetised needle that fixed at its centre of gravity . To detect metal pipes hidden underground. b. d. for navigation by sailors and pilots.The compass The compass is useful: a. c. in finding directions as it always points towards the magnetic north pole . In finding and mapping magnetic fields.

9 ELECTROMAGNETISM smkbpj(a) yschow 46 .7.

Electromagnetism Electromagnetism is the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field and their interaction to produce a force. smkbpj(a) yschow 47 . An electromagnet is a temporary magnet magnet. force The magnet produced when current flows through a conductor is known as an electromagnet. The direction of the magnetic field is determined by the direction of the flow of the current.

The magnetic field of a straight wire carrying electric current The direction of the magnetic field through a straight wire is determined by : a. Maxwell's corkscrew rule b. The right.hand grip rule. smkbpj(a) yschow 48 .

the direction of the screw represents the direction of the magnetic field. smkbpj(a) yschow 49 .Maxwell's corkscrew rule If a cockscrew is turned clockwise.

• Your curved fingers show the direction of the magnetic field smkbpj(a) yschow 50 .Right-hand grip rule • When a straight wire is gripped with the right hand. the thumb points in the same way as the current.