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The Harrison Ford Handbook - Everything you need to know about Harrison Ford

The Harrison Ford Handbook - Everything you need to know about Harrison Ford

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American film actor and producer. He is best known for his performances as Han Solo in the original Star Wars trilogy and as the title character of the Indiana Jones film series. Ford is also known for his roles as Rick Deckard in Blade Runner, John Book in Witness and Jack Ryan in Patriot Games and Clear and Present Danger. His four-decade career also includes roles in several other Hollywood blockbusters, including Presumed Innocent, The Fugitive, Air Force One, and What Lies Beneath. At one point, three of the top five box-office hits of all time included one of his roles. Five of his films have been inducted into the National Film Registry.

In 1997, Ford was ranked # 1 in Empire's "The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time" list. As of July 2008, the United States domestic box office grosses of Ford's films total almost $3.4 billion, with worldwide grosses surpassing $6 billion, making Ford the third highest grossing U.S. domestic box-office star. Ford is the husband of actress Calista Flockhart.

This book is your ultimate resource for Harrison Ford. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, photos, and much more.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about his Early life, Career and Personal life right away: Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round, Luv (play), A Time for Killing, The Virginian (TV series), Ironside (TV series), The Mod Squad, My Friend Tony, The F.B.I. (TV series), Love, American Style, Zabriskie Point (film), Getting Straight, The Intruders, Dan August, Gunsmoke, American Graffiti, Kung Fu (TV series), The Conversation, Petrocelli, William Calley, Dynasty (TV series), The Possessed, Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, Heroes (1977 film), Force 10 from Navarone (film), The Star Wars Holiday Special, Apocalypse Now, Hanover Street (film), The Frisco Kid, More American Graffiti, Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Blade Runner, Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, Witness (1985 film), The Mosquito Coast, Frantic (film), Working Girl, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Presumed Innocent (film), Regarding Henry, Patriot Games (film), The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, The Fugitive (1993 film), Clear and Present Danger (film), Sabrina (1995 film), The Devil's Own, Air Force One (film), Six Days Seven Nights, Random Hearts (film), What Lies Beneath, K-19: The Widowmaker, Hollywood Homicide, Water to Wine, Firewall (film), Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Dalai Lama Renaissance, Crossing Over (film), Brüno, Extraordinary Measures, Morning Glory (2010 film), Cowboys & Aliens (film)

Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.
Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American film actor and producer. He is best known for his performances as Han Solo in the original Star Wars trilogy and as the title character of the Indiana Jones film series. Ford is also known for his roles as Rick Deckard in Blade Runner, John Book in Witness and Jack Ryan in Patriot Games and Clear and Present Danger. His four-decade career also includes roles in several other Hollywood blockbusters, including Presumed Innocent, The Fugitive, Air Force One, and What Lies Beneath. At one point, three of the top five box-office hits of all time included one of his roles. Five of his films have been inducted into the National Film Registry.

In 1997, Ford was ranked # 1 in Empire's "The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time" list. As of July 2008, the United States domestic box office grosses of Ford's films total almost $3.4 billion, with worldwide grosses surpassing $6 billion, making Ford the third highest grossing U.S. domestic box-office star. Ford is the husband of actress Calista Flockhart.

This book is your ultimate resource for Harrison Ford. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, photos, and much more.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about his Early life, Career and Personal life right away: Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round, Luv (play), A Time for Killing, The Virginian (TV series), Ironside (TV series), The Mod Squad, My Friend Tony, The F.B.I. (TV series), Love, American Style, Zabriskie Point (film), Getting Straight, The Intruders, Dan August, Gunsmoke, American Graffiti, Kung Fu (TV series), The Conversation, Petrocelli, William Calley, Dynasty (TV series), The Possessed, Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, Heroes (1977 film), Force 10 from Navarone (film), The Star Wars Holiday Special, Apocalypse Now, Hanover Street (film), The Frisco Kid, More American Graffiti, Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Blade Runner, Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, Witness (1985 film), The Mosquito Coast, Frantic (film), Working Girl, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Presumed Innocent (film), Regarding Henry, Patriot Games (film), The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, The Fugitive (1993 film), Clear and Present Danger (film), Sabrina (1995 film), The Devil's Own, Air Force One (film), Six Days Seven Nights, Random Hearts (film), What Lies Beneath, K-19: The Widowmaker, Hollywood Homicide, Water to Wine, Firewall (film), Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Dalai Lama Renaissance, Crossing Over (film), Brüno, Extraordinary Measures, Morning Glory (2010 film), Cowboys & Aliens (film)

Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Aug 11, 2011
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List Price: $19.95


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  • Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round
  • Luv (play)
  • A Time for Killing
  • The Virginian (TV series)
  • Ironside (TV series)
  • The Mod Squad
  • My Friend Tony
  • The F.B.I. (TV series)
  • Love, American Style
  • Zabriskie Point (film)
  • Getting Straight
  • The Intruders
  • Dan August
  • Gunsmoke
  • American Graffiti
  • Kung Fu (TV series)
  • The Conversation
  • Petrocelli
  • William Calley
  • Dynasty (TV series)
  • The Possessed
  • Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope
  • Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope
  • Heroes (1977 film)
  • Force 10 from Navarone (film)
  • The Star Wars Holiday Special
  • Apocalypse Now
  • Hanover Street (film)
  • The Frisco Kid
  • More American Graffiti
  • Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back
  • Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back
  • Raiders of the Lost Ark
  • Blade Runner
  • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi
  • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
  • Witness (1985 film)
  • The Mosquito Coast
  • Frantic (film)
  • Working Girl
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
  • Presumed Innocent (film)
  • Regarding Henry
  • Patriot Games (film)
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles
  • The Fugitive (1993 film)
  • Clear and Present Danger (film)
  • Sabrina (1995 film)
  • The Devil's Own
  • Air Force One (film)
  • Six Days Seven Nights
  • Random Hearts (film)
  • What Lies Beneath
  • K-19: The Widowmaker
  • Hollywood Homicide
  • Water to Wine
  • Firewall (film)
  • Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
  • Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
  • Dalai Lama Renaissance
  • Crossing Over (film)
  • Brüno
  • Extraordinary Measures
  • Morning Glory (2010 film)
  • Cowboys & Aliens (film)
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License


Everything you need to know about Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American film actor and producer. He is best known for his perfor-
mances as Han Solo in the original Star Wars trilogy and as the title character of the Indiana Jones film series.
Ford is also known for his roles as Rick Deckard in Blade Runner, John Book in Witness and Jack Ryan in
Patriot Games and Clear and Present Danger. His four-decade career also includes roles in several other Hol-
lywood blockbusters, including Presumed Innocent, The Fugitive, Air Force One, and What Lies Beneath. At
one point, three of the top five box-office hits of all time included one of his roles. Five of his films have been
inducted into the National Film Registry.
In 1997, Ford was ranked # 1 in Empire’s “The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time” list. As of July 2008, the
United States domestic box office grosses of Ford’s films total almost $3.4 billion, with worldwide grosses
surpassing $6 billion, making Ford the third highest grossing U.S. domestic box-office star. Ford is the husband
of actress Calista Flockhart.
This book is your ultimate resource for Harrison Ford. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, pho-
tos, and much more.
In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about
his Early life, Career and Personal life right away: Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round, Luv (play), ATime for
Killing, The Virginian (TV series), Ironside (TV series), The Mod Squad, My Friend Tony, The F.B.I. (TV
series), Love, American Style, Zabriskie Point (film), Getting Straight, The Intruders, Dan August, Gunsmoke,
American Graffiti, Kung Fu (TV series), The Conversation, Petrocelli, William Calley, Dynasty (TV series),
The Possessed, Star Wars Episode IV: ANew Hope, Heroes (1977 film), Force 10 from Navarone (film), The
Star Wars Holiday Special, Apocalypse Now, Hanover Street (film), The Frisco Kid, More American Graffiti,
Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Blade Runner, Star Wars Episode VI:
Return of the Jedi, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, Witness (1985 film), The Mosquito Coast, Frantic
(film), Working Girl, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Presumed Innocent (film), Regarding Henry, Patriot
Games (film), The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, The Fugitive (1993 film), Clear and Present Danger (film),
Sabrina (1995 film), The Devil’s Own, Air Force One (film), Six Days Seven Nights, Random Hearts (film),
What Lies Beneath, K-19: The Widowmaker, Hollywood Homicide, Water to Wine, Firewall (film), Indiana
Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Dalai Lama Renaissance, Crossing Over (film), Brüno, Extraordi-
nary Measures, Morning Glory (2010 film), Cowboys & Aliens (film)
Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advan-
tages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. Aportion of the proceeds
of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.

Harrison Ford
Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated wiki entries, typeset, printed and shipped.
Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books.
A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to
empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license
or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally.
The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found
here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accu-
rate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does
not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specifc advice (for example, medical, legal,
fnancial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area.
Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts
of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the
section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”
All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.
Harrison Ford 1
Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round 12
Luv (play) 14
A Time for Killing 15
The Virginian (TV series) 17
Ironside (TV series) 26
The Mod Squad 30
My Friend Tony 32
The F.B.I. (TV series) 33
Love, American Style 35
Zabriskie Point (film) 38
Getting Straight 43
The Intruders 45
Dan August 48
Gunsmoke 49
American Graffiti 63
Kung Fu (TV series) 73
The Conversation 79
Petrocelli 83
William Calley 85
Dynasty (TV series) 90
The Possessed 99
Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope 100
Heroes (1977 film) 117
Force 10 from Navarone (film) 119
The Star Wars Holiday Special 124
Apocalypse Now 134
Hanover Street (film) 149
The Frisco Kid 153
More American Graffiti 155
Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back 159
Raiders of the Lost Ark 172
Blade Runner 183
Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi 203
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom 214
Witness (1985 film) 221
The Mosquito Coast 227
Frantic (film) 231
Working Girl 233
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade 238
Presumed Innocent (film) 253
Regarding Henry 257
Patriot Games (film) 260
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles 264
The Fugitive (1993 film) 273
Clear and Present Danger (film) 277
Sabrina (1995 film) 281
The Devil's Own 284
Air Force One (film) 287
Six Days Seven Nights 292
Random Hearts (film) 295
What Lies Beneath 297
K-19: The Widowmaker 302
Hollywood Homicide 307
Water to Wine 310
Firewall (film) 312
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull 316
Dalai Lama Renaissance 332
Crossing Over (film) 333
Brüno 337
Extraordinary Measures 346
Morning Glory (2010 film) 350
Cowboys & Aliens (film) 356
Article Sources and Contributors 361
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 371
Article Licenses
License 374
Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
Ford in 2009
Born July 13, 1942Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Occupation Actor/Producer
Years active 1966–present
Spouse Mary Marquardt (1964–1979; divorced)
Melissa Mathison (1983–2004;
Calista Flockhart (2010–present)
Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American film actor and producer. He is best known for his performances
as Han Solo in the original Star Wars trilogy and as the title character of the Indiana Jones film series. Ford is also
known for his roles as Rick Deckard in Blade Runner, John Book in Witness and Jack Ryan in Patriot Games and
Clear and Present Danger. His four-decade career also includes roles in several other Hollywood blockbusters,
including Presumed Innocent, The Fugitive, Air Force One, and What Lies Beneath. At one point, three of the top
five box-office hits of all time included one of his roles.
Five of his films have been inducted into the National
Film Registry.
In 1997, Ford was ranked # 1 in Empire's "The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time" list. As of July 2008, the United
States domestic box office grosses of Ford's films total almost $3.4 billion,
with worldwide grosses surpassing $6
billion, making Ford the third
highest grossing U.S. domestic box-office star. Ford is the husband of actress Calista
Early life
Ford was born July 13, 1942 at Chicago, Illinois's Swedish Covenant Hospital,
to Dorothy (née Dora Nidelman), a
homemaker and former radio actress, and Christopher Ford (born John William Ford), an advertising executive and a
former actor.

A younger brother, Terence, was born in 1945. Ford's paternal grandparents, John Fitzgerald Ford
and Florence Veronica Niehaus, were of Irish Catholic and German descent, respectively.
Ford's maternal
grandparents, Harry Nidelman and Anna Lifschutz, were Jewish immigrants from Minsk, Belarus (at that time a part
of the Russian Empire).
When asked in which religion he was raised, Ford has jokingly responded, "Democrat".
Harrison Ford
He has also said that he feels "Irish as a person, but I feel Jewish as an actor".

Ford was active in the Boy Scouts of America, and achieved its second-highest rank, Life Scout. He worked at a
scout camp, Napowan Adventure Base, as a counselor for the Reptile Study merit badge. Because of this, he and
Eagle Scout director Steven Spielberg later decided that the character of young Indiana Jones would be depicted as a
Life Scout in the film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. They also jokingly reversed Ford's knowledge of reptiles
into Jones's fear of snakes.
In 1960, Ford graduated from Maine East High School in Park Ridge, Illinois. His was the first student voice
broadcast on his high school's new radio station, WMTH, and he was its first sportscaster during his senior year
(1959–1960). He attended Ripon College in Wisconsin, where he was a member of the Sigma Nu fraternity. He took
a drama class in his junior year, chiefly as a way to meet women. Ford, a self-described "late bloomer", became
fascinated with acting.
Early career
In 1964, Ford travelled to Los Angeles, California to apply for a job in radio voice-overs. He did not get it, but
stayed in California and eventually signed a $150 a week contract with Columbia Pictures's New Talent program,
playing bit roles in films. His first known part was an uncredited role as a bellhop in Dead Heat on a
Merry-Go-Round (1966). There is little record of his non-speaking roles (or "extra" work) in film.
His speaking roles continued next with Luv (1967), though he was still uncredited. He was finally credited as
"Harrison J. Ford" in the 1967 Western film, A Time for Killing, but the "J" did not stand for anything since he has
no middle name. It was added to avoid confusion with a silent film actor named Harrison Ford, who appeared in
more than 80 films between 1915 and 1932, and died in 1957. Ford later said that he was unaware of the existence of
the earlier Harrison Ford until he came upon a star with his own name on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Ford soon dropped the "J" and worked for Universal Studios, playing minor roles in many television series
throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s, including Gunsmoke, Ironside, The Virginian, The F.B.I., Love, American
Style, and Kung Fu. He appeared in the western Journey to Shiloh (1968) and had an uncredited, non-speaking role
in Michelangelo Antonioni's 1970 film Zabriskie Point as an arrested student protester. Not happy with the roles
being offered to him, Ford became a self-taught professional carpenter to support his then-wife and two small sons.
While working as a carpenter, he became a stagehand for the popular rock band The Doors. He also built a sun deck
for Sally Kellerman and a recording studio for Sergio Mendes.
He returned to acting when George Lucas, who had hired him to build cabinets in his home, cast him in a pivotal
supporting role for his film American Graffiti (1973). His relationship with Lucas was to have a profound effect on
Ford's career. After director Francis Ford Coppola's film The Godfather was a success, he hired Ford to do
expansions of his office and Harrison was given a small role in his next two films, The Conversation (1974) and
Apocalypse Now (1979).
Milestone franchises
Star Wars
Ford's work as a carpenter would land him his biggest role to date. In 1975, George Lucas hired him to read lines for
actors being cast for parts in his upcoming space opera, Star Wars (1977). However, Lucas was eventually won over
by Ford's portrayal and decided to cast him as Han Solo.
Star Wars became one of the most successful movies of
all time and established Harrison Ford as a superstar. He went on to star in the successful Star Wars sequels, The
Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Return of the Jedi (1983), as well as The Star Wars Holiday Special (1978). Ford
wanted Lucas to write in the death of the iconic Han Solo at the end of either sequel, saying "that would have given
the whole film a bottom", but Lucas refused.
Harrison Ford
Indiana Jones
The type of fedora worn by Ford in the Indiana
Jones films.
Ford's stardom as a leading man was solidified when he starred as
Indiana Jones in the Lucas/Spielberg collaboration Raiders of the Lost
Ark (1981). Though Spielberg was interested in casting Ford in the
lead role from the start, Lucas was not, due to having already worked
with the actor in American Graffiti and Star Wars, but he eventually
relented after Tom Selleck was unable to accept.
Ford reprised the
role for the prequel Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984), and
the sequel Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989), which turned
him into a blockbuster phenomenon. He later returned to his role as
Indiana Jones again for a 1993 episode of the television series The
Young Indiana Jones Chronicles and for the fourth film Indiana Jones
and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008). A sequel, Indiana Jones
5, is currently in development. The story was originally rumored to
center around the Bermuda Triangle. Frank Marshall later revealed on his Twitter page, however, that the story was
false. Shia LaBeouf is set to return as Indy's son, Mutt Williams. A release date has not yet been set.
Other film work
Ford has been in numerous other films including Heroes (1977), Force 10 from Navarone (1978), and Hanover
Street (1979). Ford also co-starred alongside Gene Wilder in the buddy-Western The Frisco Kid (1979), playing a
bank robber with a heart of gold. He then starred as Rick Deckard in Ridley Scott's cult sci-fi classic Blade Runner
(1982), and in a number of dramatic-action films: Peter Weir's Witness (1985) and The Mosquito Coast (1986), and
Roman Polanski's Frantic (1988).
The 1990s brought Ford the role of Jack Ryan in Tom Clancy's Patriot Games (1992) and Clear and Present Danger
(1994), as well as leading roles in Alan Pakula's Presumed Innocent (1990) and The Devil's Own (1997), Andrew
Davis's The Fugitive (1993), Sydney Pollack's remake of Sabrina (1995), and Wolfgang Petersen's Air Force One
(1997). Ford has also played straight dramatic roles, including an adulterous husband with a terrible secret in both
Presumed Innocent (1990) and What Lies Beneath (2000), and a recovering amnesiac in Mike Nichols' Regarding
Henry (1991).
Many of Ford's major film roles came to him by default through unusual circumstances: he won the role of Han Solo
while reading lines for other actors, was cast as Indiana Jones because Tom Selleck was not available, and took the
role of Jack Ryan due to Alec Baldwin's fee demands (Baldwin had previously played the role in The Hunt for Red
Harrison Ford
Recent roles
Ford in 2007
Ford's star power has waned in recent years, the result of appearing in
numerous critically derided and commercially disappointing movies,
including Six Days Seven Nights (1998), Random Hearts (1999), K-19:
The Widowmaker (2002), Hollywood Homicide (2003), and Firewall
(2006). One exception was 2000's What Lies Beneath, which ended up
grossing over $155 million in the United States and $300 million
In 2004, Ford declined a chance to star in the thriller Syriana, later
commenting that "I didn't feel strongly enough about the truth of the
material and I think I made a mistake."
The role eventually went to
George Clooney, who won an Oscar and a Golden Globe for his work.
Prior to that, he had passed on a role in another Stephen Gaghan-written
role, Robert Wakefield in Traffic. That role went to Michael Douglas.
In 2008, Ford enjoyed success with the release of Indiana Jones and the
Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, another collaboration between George
Lucas and Steven Spielberg. The film received generally mixed reviews
but was the second highest-grossing film worldwide in 2008.
He later
said he would like to star in another sequel "if it didn't take another 20
years to digest".
Other 2008 work included Crossing Over, directed by Wayne Kramer. In the film, he plays an immigrations officer,
working alongside Ashley Judd and Ray Liotta.

He also narrated a feature documentary film about the Dalai
Lama entitled Dalai Lama Renaissance.
Ford filmed the medical drama Extraordinary Measures
in 2009 in Portland, Oregon. Released January 22, 2010,
the film also starred Brendan Fraser and Alan Ruck. Also in 2010, he co-starred in the film Morning Glory, along
with Patrick Wilson, Rachel McAdams, and Diane Keaton.
Recently, he has expressed interest in returning to the Jack Ryan franchise.
Ford's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Ford received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor for
Witness, for which he also received "Best Actor" BAFTA and Golden
Globe nominations. He received the Cecil B. DeMille Award at the
2002 Golden Globe Awards and on June 2, 2003, he received a star on
the Hollywood Walk of Fame. He has received three additional "Best
Actor" Golden Globe nominations for The Mosquito Coast, The
Fugitive and Sabrina.
In 2006, Ford was awarded the Jules Verne Spirit of Nature Award for
his work in nature and wildlife preservation. The ceremony took place
at the historic Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, California.
He received the first ever Hero Award for his many iconic roles,
including Han Solo and Indiana Jones, at the 2007 Scream Awards,
and in 2008, the Spike TV's Guy's Choice Award for Brass Balls.

Harrison Ford received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2000.
Harrison Ford
Personal life
Ford at the 2008 Cannes Film
Ford is one of Hollywood's most notoriously private actors, guarding his
personal life. He has two sons (Benjamin and Willard) with his first wife, Mary
Marquardt, as well as two children (Malcolm and Georgia) with his second wife,
screenwriter Melissa Mathison. He began dating Calista Flockhart after meeting
at the 2002 Golden Globes, and together they are parents to her adopted son,
Liam. Ford proposed to Flockhart over Valentine's Day weekend in 2009.
They were married on June 15, 2010 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, where Ford is
filming Cowboys and Aliens.
Ford has three grandchildren: Eliel (b. 1993), Giuliana (b. 1997), and Ethan (b.
2000). Son Benjamin owns Ford's Filling Station, a gastro pub in Culver City,
California. Son Willard is co-owner of Ford&Ching showroom as well as
Ludwig clothing company.
Ford injured his chin at the age of 20 when his car, a Volvo 544, hit a telephone
pole in Northern California; the scar is visible in his films. An explanation for it
on film is offered in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, when a young Indiana Jones cuts his chin while attempting
to crack a whip to ward off a lion. In Working Girl, Ford's character explains that it happened when he passed out
and hit his chin on the toilet when a college girlfriend was piercing his ear. In June 1983, at age 40, during the
filming of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom in London, he herniated a disc in his back, forcing him to fly back
to Los Angeles for an operation. He returned six weeks later.
Environmental causes
Ford sits on the board of directors of Conservation International. He was awarded the Jules Verne Spirit of Nature
Award for his ongoing work in preservation of the planet.
In 1993, the arachnologist Norman Platnick named a new species of spider Calponia harrisonfordi, and in 2002, the
entomologist Edward O. Wilson named a new ant species Pheidole harrisonfordi (in recognition of Harrison's work
as Vice Chairman of Conservation International).
Since 1992, Ford has lent his voice to a series of public service messages promoting environmental involvement for
EarthShare, an American federation of environmental and conservation charities.
Political views
Like his parents, Ford is a lifelong Democrat,
and a close friend of former President Bill Clinton.
On September 7, 1995, Ford testified before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee in support of the Dalai
Lama and an independent Tibet, and was banned thereafter by the Chinese government from entering Tibet and

In 2008, he narrated the documentary Dalai Lama Renaissance.
In 2003, he publicly condemned the Iraq War and called for "regime change" in the United States. He also criticized
Hollywood for making violent movies, and called for more gun control in the United States.
He opposed the
recall of Californian Governor Gray Davis, and stated in an interview that replacing Davis with Arnold
Schwarzenegger would be a mistake.
Harrison Ford
Following on his success portraying the archaeologist Indiana Jones, Ford also plays a part in supporting the work of
professional archaeologists. He serves as a General Trustee
on the Governing Board of the Archaeological
Institute of America (AIA), North America's oldest and largest organization devoted to the world of archaeology.
Ford assists them in their mission of increasing public awareness of archaeology and preventing looting and the
illegal antiquities trade.
Community work
Ford volunteered as a food server near Ground Zero in 2001. On November 21, 2007, Ford and other celebrities,
including Kirk Douglas, Nia Long and Calista Flockhart, helped serve hot meals to the homeless at the annual
Thanksgiving feast at the Los Angeles Mission.
Ford is a private pilot of both fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, and owns an 800-acre (3.2 km²) ranch in Jackson,
Wyoming, approximately half of which he has donated as a nature reserve. On several occasions, Ford has
personally provided emergency helicopter services at the behest of local authorities, in one instance rescuing a hiker
overcome by dehydration.
Ford began flight training in the 1960s at Wild Rose Airport in Wild Rose, Wisconsin, flying in a Piper PA-22
Tri-Pacer, but at $15 an hour he was unable to continue the training. His interest returned in the mid-1990s when he
bought a used Gulfstream II and asked one of his pilots, Terry Bender, to give him flying lessons. They started flying
a Cessna 182 out of Jackson, Wyoming. He later switched to Teterboro, New Jersey, flying a Cessna 206, the aircraft
he soloed in.
On October 23, 1999, Harrison Ford was involved in the crash of a Bell 206L4 LongRanger helicopter (N36R). The
NTSB accident report states that Ford was piloting the aircraft over the Lake Piru riverbed near Santa Clarita,
California, on a routine training flight. While making his second attempt at an autorotation with powered recovery
Ford allowed the aircraft's altitude to drop to 150–200 feet before beginning power up. As a result the aircraft was
unable to recover power before hitting the ground. The aircraft landed hard and began skidding forward in the loose
gravel before one of its skids struck a partially embedded log and flipped onto its side. Neither Ford nor the
instructor pilot suffered any injuries though the helicopter was seriously damaged. When asked about the incident by
fellow pilot James Lipton in an interview on the TV show Inside the Actor's Studio Ford replied "I broke it."
Ford keeps his aircraft at Santa Monica Airport, though the Bell 407 is often kept and flown in Jackson, Wyoming,
and has been used by the actor in two mountain rescues during the actor's assigned duty time assisting the Teton
County Search and Rescue. On one of the rescues Ford recovered a hiker who had become lost and disoriented. She
boarded Ford's Bell 407 and promptly vomited into one of the rescuers' caps (she says it was not Ford's cap),
unaware of who the pilot was until much later, saying, "I can't believe I barfed in Harrison Ford's helicopter!"
Ford flies his de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver (N28S) more than any of his other aircraft, and although he
dislikes showing favoritism, he has repeatedly stated that he likes this aircraft and the sound of its Pratt & Whitney
R-985 radial engine. Ford first encountered the Beaver while filming Six Days Seven Nights, and soon purchased
one. Kenmore Air in Kenmore, Washington, restored Ford's yellow and green Beaver — a junked former U.S.
military aircraft — with updated avionics and an upgraded engine. According to Ford, it had been flown in the CIA's
Air America operations, and was riddled with bullet holes, which had to be patched up.
He uses it regularly for
impromptu fly-ins at remote airports and bush strips, as well as gatherings with other Beaver owners and pilots.
In March 2004, Ford officially became chairman of the Young Eagles program of the Experimental Aircraft
Association (EAA). Ford was asked to take the position by Greg Anderson, Senior Vice President of the EAA at the
time, to replace General Charles "Chuck" Yeager who was vacating the post that he had held for many years. Ford at
Harrison Ford
first was hesitant, but later accepted the offer and has made appearances with the Young Eagles at the EAA
AirVenture Oshkosh gathering at Oshkosh, Wisconsin for two years. In July 2005 at the gathering in Oshkosh Ford
agreed to accept the position for another two years. Ford has flown over 280 children as part of the Young Eagles
program, usually in his DHC-2 Beaver, which can seat the actor and five children. Ford is involved with the EAA
chapter in Driggs, Idaho, just over the mountains from Jackson, Wyoming.
As of 2009, Ford appears in Web advertisements for General Aviation Serves America, a campaign by advocacy
group AOPA (Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association).
Ford is an Honorary Board Member of the humanitarian aviation organization Wings of Hope.
He has also flown as an invited VIP with the Blue Angels.
Aircraft owned
Current aircraft
• de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver (N28S)
• Aviat A-1B Husky (N6HY)
• Cessna Citation Sovereign (N5GU)
• Beechcraft B36TC Bonanza
• Cessna 208B Grand Caravan
• 1929-vintage Waco Taperwing
• Bell 407
Previous aircraft
• Cessna 525B CitationJet 3
• Gulfstream II
• Gulfstream IV-SP
• Pilatus PC-12
Year Film Role Notes
1966 Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round Bellhop uncredited
1967 Luv Hippy uncredited
A Time for Killing Lt. Shaffer
The Virginian Cullen Tindall/Young Rancher TV series
Ironside Tom Stowe TV series
1968 Journey to Shiloh Willie Bill Bearden
The Mod Squad Beach Patrol Cop TV series — uncredited
1969 My Friend Tony TV series
The F.B.I. Glen Reverson/Everett Giles TV series
Love, American Style Roger Crane segment "Love and the Former Marriage"
1970 Zabriskie Point Airport Worker uncredited
Getting Straight Jake
The Intruders Carl TV
1971 Dan August Hewett TV series
1972–1973 Gunsmoke Print/Hobey TV series
1973 American Graffiti Bob Falfa
1974 Kung Fu Harrison TV series
The Conversation Martin Stett
Petrocelli Tom Brannigan TV series
Harrison Ford
1975 Judgment: The Court Martial of
Lieutenant William Calley
Frank Crowder TV
1976 Dynasty Mark Blackwood TV
1977 The Possessed Paul Winjam TV
Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope Han Solo Nominated — Saturn Award for Best Actor
Heroes Ken Boyd
1978 Force 10 from Navarone Lieutenant Colonel Mike
The Star Wars Holiday Special Han Solo TV
1979 Apocalypse Now Colonel Lucas
Hanover Street David Halloran
The Frisco Kid Tommy Lillard
More American Graffiti Bob Falfa uncredited
1980 Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes
Han Solo
1981 Raiders of the Lost Ark Indiana Jones Saturn Award for Best Actor
1982 Blade Runner Rick Deckard
1983 Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi Han Solo
1984 Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Indiana Jones Nominated — Saturn Award for Best Actor
1985 Witness Det. Capt. John Book Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
Nominated — Academy Award for Best Actor
Nominated — BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a
Leading Role
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actor -
Motion Picture Drama
1986 The Mosquito Coast Allie Fox Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actor -
Motion Picture Drama
1988 Frantic Dr. Richard Walker
Working Girl Jack Trainer
1989 Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade Indiana Jones Nominated — Saturn Award for Best Actor
1990 Presumed Innocent Rusty Sabich
1991 Regarding Henry Henry Turner
1992 Patriot Games Jack Ryan
1993 The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles Indiana Jones — age 50 TV series
The Fugitive Dr. Richard David Kimble Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actor -
Motion Picture Drama
Nominated — MTV Movie Award for Best Performance
- Male
1994 Clear and Present Danger Jack Ryan
1995 Sabrina Linus Larabee Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actor -
Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
1997 The Devil's Own Tom O'Meara
Air Force One President James Marshall Bambi Award for Best Actor
Nominated — MTV Movie Award for Best Fight
Harrison Ford
1998 Six Days Seven Nights Quinn Harris People's Choice Award for Favorite Motion Picture
1999 Random Hearts Sergeant William 'Dutch' Van
Den Broeck
People's Choice Award for Favorite Movie Star
2000 What Lies Beneath Dr. Norman Spencer Nominated — People's Choice Award for Favorite
Motion Picture Actor
2002 K-19: The Widowmaker Alexei Vostrikov
2003 Hollywood Homicide Sgt. Joe Gavilan
2004 Water to Wine Jethro the Bus Driver
2006 Firewall Jack Stanfield
2008 Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the
Crystal Skull
Indiana Jones Nominated — National Movie Awards, UK – Best Male
Nominated — People's Choice Award for Favorite Male
Movie Star
Nominated — Saturn Award for Best Actor
Dalai Lama Renaissance Narrator Theatrical documentary
2009 Crossing Over Max Brogan
Brüno Himself Uncredited cameo
2010 Extraordinary Measures Dr. Robert Stonehill
Morning Glory Mike Pomeroy
2011 Cowboys & Aliens Colonel Dolarhyde
[1] "(domestic) to 1983" (http:/ / www.worldwideboxoffice.com/ index.cgi?order=domestic&start=1900&finish=1983& keyword=).
Worldwide Box Office. . Retrieved 2010-03-07.
[2] "People Index" (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ people/ ?view=Actor&sort=sumgross& p=.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved
[3] "People Index" (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ people/ ?view=Actor&sort=sumgross& p=.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved
[4] Duke, Brad (2004). "1. An Ordiniary Upbringing" (http:// books. google. com/ ?id=QQPpRUYPdr0C& pg=PA5& lpg=PA5&dq=Harrison+
Ford+ was+ born+at+ Swedish+ Covenant+ Hospital& q=Harrison Ford was born at Swedish Covenant Hospital). Harrison Ford: the films.
McFarland. p. 5. ISBN 0786420162, 9780786420162. . Retrieved 2010-02-20.
[5] Jenkins, Gary (March 1999). Harrison Ford: Imperfect Hero (http:/ / www.amazon.com/ Harrison-Ford-ù-Imperfect-Hero/dp/
080658016X/ref=si3_rdr_bb_product). Kensington Books. pp. 9–12. ISBN 080658016X. .
[6] "Harrison Ford Biography (1942-)" (http:// www. filmreference.com/ film/20/ Harrison-Ford.html). Film Reference. . Retrieved
[7] Bloom, Nate (2003-12-12). "Celebrity Jews" (http:/ / www. jewishsf.com/ content/ 2-0-/module/ displaystory/ story_id/ 1493/ edition_id/ 16/
format/html/ displaystory. html). Jewish News Weekly. . Retrieved 2008-05-23.
[8] Inside the Actors Studio. Harrison Ford, Season 6, Episode 613. August 20, 2000.
[9] "Ten American showbiz celebrities of Russian descent" (http:/ / english.pravda.ru/main/ 18/ 90/ 363/ 16489_celebrities.html). Prauda.
2005-11-18. . Retrieved 2008-05-23.
[10] Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy. Star Wars Trilogy Box Set DVD documentary. [2005]
[11] "Harrison Ford Wanted Han Solo to Die" (http:/ / www.starpulse. com/ news/ index. php/ 2006/ 03/ 02/
harrison_ford_wanted_han_solo_to_die). Starpulse. 2006-03-02. . Retrieved 2008-05-23.
[12] (DVD) Indiana Jones: Making the Trilogy. Paramount Pictures. 2003.
[13] "Harrison Ford Regrets Passing on 'Syriana'" (http:/ / www. starpulse. com/ news/ index. php/ 2006/ 03/ 03/
harrison_ford_regrets_passing_on_syriana). Starpulse. 2006-03-03. . Retrieved 2008-05-23.
[14] "2008 Worldwide Grosses" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ yearly/chart/?view2=worldwide& yr=2008&p=.htm). Rotten Tomatoes. .
Retrieved 2009-08-07.
Harrison Ford
[15] "Can you dig it? Fourth 'Indy' in '08" (http:// web.archive.org/ web/ 20080522174941/ http:/ /www. hollywoodreporter.com/ hr/
content_display/ film/news/ e3ied0764c52ea0c6b79e5a439cf257d65d). The Hollywood Reporter. 2007-01-02. Archived from the original
(http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter.com/ hr/content_display/ film/news/ e3ied0764c52ea0c6b79e5a439cf257d65d) on 2008-05-22. . Retrieved
[16] Harrison Ford (http:// www.imdb. com/ name/ nm0000148/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
[17] Crossing Over (2008) (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0924129/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
[18] "Dalai Lama Renaissance Documentary Film — Narrated by Harrison Ford — DVD Dali Tibet China" (http:/ /www. dalailamafilm.com).
Dalailamafilm.com. 2010-02-12. . Retrieved 2010-03-07.
[19] "News and Culture: Brenden Fraser’s Untitled Crowley Project Now Has (Another) Terrible Title" (http:// blogs. wweek.com/ news/
author/amesh/ ). Willamette Week. September 24, 2009. . Retrieved 2009-09-29.
[20] Fleming, Michael (2009-06-04). "Keaton, Goldblum join 'Glory'" (http:/ / www. variety.com/ article/VR1118002179.
html?categoryid=1238&cs=1). Variety. . Retrieved 2009-09-11.
[21] "Ford Talks Jack Ryan's Return" (http:// www. darkhorizons.com/ news08/ 080529f.php). Dark Horizons. 2008-05-29. . Retrieved
[22] "Harrison Ford" (http:/ / www.julesvernefestival. com/ spip. php?article53). Jules Verne Festival. . Retrieved 2008-05-23.
[23] "Guys Choice 2008 - Harrison Ford" (http:// web.archive.org/ web/ 20080804082218/http:/ / www.spike. com/ s/ editorial/promo/
guyschoice/highlights/ ?id=2992896). Spike TV. Archived from the original (http:// www.spike. com/ s/ editorial/promo/ guyschoice/
highlights/?id=2992896) on 2008-08-04. . Retrieved 2008-08-31.
[24] "Guys Choice" (http:// www.pr-inside. com/ damon-s-double-win-at-guys-choice-r618594.htm). PR Inside. .
[25] "Harrison Ford Proposes to Calista Flockhart" (http:// www.people.com/ people/ article/ 0,,20267173,00. html). People. March 21, 2009. .
[26] "Harrison Ford and Calista Flockhart Get Married!" (http:// www.people. com/people/ article/ 0,,20394673,00.html). People. June 16,
2010. .
[27] Rinzer, J. W. (2008). The Complete Making of Indiana Jones: The Definitive Story Behind All Four Films. New York: Del Rey, imprint of
Random House, Inc.. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-345-50129-5. "Lucas arrived on June 20 [1983]. 'Harrison was in really terrible pain,' he says. 'He
was on the set lying on a gurney. They would lift him up and he'd walk through his scenes, and they'd get him back on the bed.' That same day
Ford was filming his fight with the Thuggee assassin in Indy's suite on Stage 3. 'Harrison had to roll backward on top of the guy,' Spielberg
says. 'At that moment his back herniated and Harrison let out a call for help.'"
[28] "Harrison Ford" (http:/ / www.ourplanet.com/ imgversn/ 142/ ford.html). Our Planet. . Retrieved 2008-05-23.
[29] "2008 Presidential Donor Watch" (http:/ / www.newsmeat.com/ ). Newsmeat. . Retrieved 2008-05-23.
[30] Harrison Ford (I) - Biography (http:// www. imdb. com/name/ nm0000148/ bio)
[31] "Khashyar Darvich, ''Celebrities and others banned from entering Tibet or China''" (http:/ / dalailamafilm.com/
celebrities-and-others-banned-from-entering-tibet-or-china-109). Dalailamafilm.com. 2009-01-01. . Retrieved 2010-11-11.
[32] Laurence Caracalla,Harrison Ford, Silverback Books, 2007 p.93
[33] "Harrison Ford blasts US Iraq policy" (http:/ / www. theage. com.au/ articles/ 2003/ 08/ 27/ 1061663852052.html). The Age (Melbourne).
2003-08-27. . Retrieved 2008-05- 23.
[34] Child, Ben (2009-08-03). "Should Arnold Schwarzenegger come back?" (http:/ / www.guardian.co.uk/ film/filmblog/2009/ aug/ 03/
arnold-schwarzenegger-comeback). The Guardian (London). . Retrieved 2009-12-28.
[35] "About the AIA" (http:// www. archaeological.org/about/ governance). Archaeological Institute of America. . Retrieved 2010-09-07.
[36] Schou, Solvej (2007-11-21). "Celebs Serve Holiday Meals to Homeless" (http:// abcnews.go.com/ Entertainment/wireStory?id=3900554).
ABC News. . Retrieved 2008-05-23.
[37] "Harrison Ford credited with helicopter rescue of sick hiker in Idaho" (http:/ / web.archive.org/ web/ 20080202001735/ http:// archives.
cnn.com/ 2000/ SHOWBIZ/Movies/ 08/ 07/ harrisonford.rescue.ap/ ). CNN. 2000-08-07. Archived from the original (http:// archives.cnn.
com/2000/ SHOWBIZ/Movies/ 08/ 07/ harrisonford.rescue.ap/ ) on 2008-02-02. . Retrieved 2008-05-23.
[38] "LAX00LA024" (http:// www.ntsb. gov/ ntsb/ brief.asp?ev_id=20001212X19997& key=1). National Transportation Safety Board. .
Retrieved 2008-05-23.
[39] Per Ford's remarks on Late Night With David Letterman, (viewed July 9, 2008)
[40] "GA Serves America" (http:/ / www.gaservesamerica. com/ default.html). .
[41] "The Official Wings Of Hope Homepage" (http:// wings-of-hope.org). Wings-of-hope.org. . Retrieved 2010-03-07.
Harrison Ford
External links
• Harrison Ford (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0000148/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• "Harrison Ford Interview" (http:// www. cinemas-online. co.uk/ website/ interview.phtml?uid=2).
CinemasOnline. 2002. Retrieved 2006-03-19.
• Dawson, Angela (2003-06-12). "Harrison Ford: Hollywood loved him even before they knew him" (http:// web.
archive. org/ web/ 20050227054049/ http:/ / www.cincypost. com/ 2003/ 06/ 12/ ford061203.html). E. W.
Scripps Company. Archived from the original (http:// www.cincypost. com/ 2003/ 06/ 12/ ford061203.html) on
2005-02-27. Retrieved 2006-03-19.
• Honeycutt, Kirk (1986). "Harrison Ford on Harrison Ford" (http:// www.peterweircave.com/ articles/ articlen.
html). Daily News. Retrieved 2006-03-19.
• Leopold, Todd (2006-02-09). "Harrison Ford and the movie machine" (http:/ / www.cnn.com/ 2006/ SHOWBIZ/
Movies/ 02/ 08/ harrison.ford/). Cable News Network. Retrieved 2006-03-19.
• Rader, Dotson (2002-07-07). "I found purpose" (http:// apartment42.com/ parade.txt). Parade Magazine.
Retrieved 2006-03-19.
• Turan, Kenneth (1986). "Harrison Ford wants to be alone." (http:/ / apartment42.com/ gq_nov86.htm). GQ.
Retrieved 2006-03-19.
''Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round''
Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round
Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round
theatrical film poster
Directed by Bernard Girard
Produced by Carter DeHaven
Written by Bernard Girard
Starring James Coburn
Music by Stu Phillips
Cinematography Lionel Lindon
Editing by William A. Lyon
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date(s) October 12, 1966 (NYC)
Running time 104 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $2 million (est.)
Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round is a 1966 crime film written and directed by Bernard Girard, starring James
Coburn and featuring Camilla Sparv, Aldo Ray, Nina Wayne, Todd Armstrong, Robert Webber and Rose Marie.
Conman Eli Kotch (James Coburn) charms his way into a parole by playing on the emotions of a pretty psychologist
(Marian McCargo), but drops her at the first opportunity to move around the country, romancing women and then
stealing their possessions, or those of their employers. He's made a down payment on the blueprints to a bank at Los
Angeles International Airport, but needs to raise $45,000 to complete the purchase. In Boston, he seduces and
marries Inger Knudsen (Camilla Sparv) the secretary of a wealthy elderly woman, and sends her to L.A. to set up
housekeeping, on the pretext that a songwriter there is interested in his poetry. Meanwhile he burgles another woman
(Rose Marie) to get the final amount of money he needs, then heads to L.A., where he begins to assemble his gang
''Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round''
(Severn Darden, Aldo Ray and Michael Strong) for the bank robbery, which is timed to take place while the airport
is distracted by the arrival of the Premier of the Soviet Union.
To keep her occupied, Eli sends Inger to take Polaroid snapshots around L.A., supposedly for a magazine article he
is writing. Using costumes stolen from a movie studio, he and one of the gang masquerade as an Australian
policeman escorting an extradited prisoner in order to get through airport security, while the other two dress as
LAPD policemen to get into the bank, bypass the alarm, and get a bank employee to open the safe. The gang pulls
off the heist and makes a successful getaway on a flight to Mexico, but Eli has no idea that Inger has been frantically
trying to get in touch with him, because she has inherited $7 million from her former employer.
• James Coburn as Eli Kotch • Marian McCargo as Dr. Marion Hague
• Camilla Sparv as Inger Knudson • Michael Strong as Paul Feng
• Aldo Ray as Eddie Hart • Severn Darden as Miles Fisher
• Nina Wayne as Frieda Schmid • James Westerfield as Jack Balter
• Robert Webber as Milo Stewart • Phillip Pine as George Logan
• Rose Marie as Margaret Kirby • Simon Scott as William Anderson
• Todd Armstrong as Alfred Morgan
Cast notes
• Harrison Ford appears, uncredited, as a bellhop, in his film debut. He made $125 for the role.
• Camilla Sparv was named "New Female Star of the Year" by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association.
Working titles for this film were "Eli Kotch" and "The Big Noise".
The actual title used, Dead Heat on a
Merry-Go-Round appears in the film as the novel being written by Coburn's character under the pseudonym of
"Henry Silverstein". Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round is also the name of an actual book of short stories written by
Japanese author Haruki Murakami, first published in 1985.
Location shooting took place in Boston and Los Angeles, including at Los Angeles International Airport .

[1] Allmovie Awards (http:// allmovie. com/ work/ dead-heat-on-a-merry-go-round-12699/awards)
[2] TCM Notes (http:// www. tcm. com/ tcmdb/ title.jsp?stid=72491& category=Notes)
[3] IMDB Filming locations (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0060287/ locations)
External links
• Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0060287/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round (http:/ / tcmdb. com/ title/ title. jsp?stid=72491) at the TCM Movie Database
• Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round (http:/ / www. allmovie. com/ work/ 12699) at Allmovie
Luv (play)
Luv (play)
Luv is a play by Murray Schisgal.
A mix of absurdist humor and traditional Broadway comedy more in the Neil Simon vein, Luv concerns two college
friends - misfit Harry and materialistic Milt - who are reunited when the latter stops the former from jumping off a
bridge, the play's setting. Each discovers the other is equally miserable as they share hard-luck stories. Milt sees in
Harry an answer to his primary problem - his wife Ellen, who he tries to foist on his old pal so he can run off with his
After twenty-eight previews, the Broadway production, directed by Mike Nichols, opened on November 11, 1964 at
the Booth Theatre. It transferred to the Broadhurst and then the now-demolished Helen Hayes before completing its
run of 901 performances. It won the Tony Award for Best Director, Best Producer (Claire Nichtern) and Best Scenic
Design (Oliver Smith).
Alan Arkin, Eli Wallach, and Anne Jackson comprised the original cast. Barbara Bel Geddes, Larry Blyden, Gene
Wilder, and Gabriel Dell were among the replacement performers later in the run.
The 1967 film version, directed by Clive Donner and starring Jack Lemmon, Peter Falk, and Elaine May, added
various locations and extraneous characters. Reviews criticized Donner's heavy-handed approach to the material and
the miscasting of the three leads, and it proved to be a commercial failure. Harrison Ford has an uncredited role as a
Awards and nominations
• Tony Award for Best Play (nominee)
• Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play (winner)
• Tony Award for Best Scenic Design (winner)
• Tony Award for Best Producer of a Play (winner)
• Tony Award for Best Author of a Play (nominee)
''A Time for Killing''
A Time for Killing
A Time for Killing
Directed by Phil Karlson
Written by Nelson Wolford
Shirley Wolford
Starring Glenn Ford
George Hamilton
Inger Stevens
Distributed by Columbia Pictures Corporation
Release date(s) 1967
Running time 88 min
Country United States
Language English
A Time for Killing is a 1967 western film directed by Phil Karlson, and starring Glenn Ford, George Hamilton and
Inger Stevens.
The film is sentimentally significant as Glenn Ford's one hundredth film, and also features a young Harrison Ford in
his third film role.
During the Civil War, Confederate soldiers escape from a Union prison and head for the Mexican border. Along the
way, they kill a Union courier bearing the news that the war is over. Keeping the message a secret, the captain has
his men go on and they soon find themselves in a battle with the Union search party who also is unaware of the war's
• Inger Stevens as Emily Biddle
• Glenn Ford as Maj. Tom Wolcott
• Paul Petersen as Blue Lake
• Timothy Carey as Billy Cat
• Kenneth Tobey as Sgt. Cleehan
• Richard X. Slattery as Cpl. Paddy Darling
• Harrison Ford as Lt Shaffer (as Harrison J. Ford)
• Kay E. Kuter as Owelson
• Dick Miller as Zollicoffer
• Emile Meyer as Col. Harries
• Marshall Reed as Stedner
• George Hamilton as Capt. Dorrit Bentley
• Max Baer Jr. as Sgt. Luther Liskell
• Todd Armstrong as Lt. 'Pru' Prudessing
• Duke Hobbie as Lt. Frist
• Director: Phil Karlson.
''A Time for Killing''
[1] Duke, Brad. Harrison Ford: The Films. USA: McFarland & Company. ISBN 0786440481.
External links
• A Time for Killing (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0062373/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
''The Virginian (TV series)''
The Virginian (TV series)
Opening title
Also known as The Men from Shiloh
Genre Western
Written by True Boardman
Robert Van Scoyk
Carey Wilber
Frank Chase
John Hawkins
Andy Lewis
Ward Hawkins
Donn Mullally
Don Ingalls
Frank Fenton
Harry Kleiner
Roy Huggins
Jean Holloway
Don Tait
Sy Salkowitz
Howard Browne
Leslie Stevens
Alvin Sapinsley
Gerald Sanford
Directed by Don McDougall
Abner Biberman
Anton Leader
William Witney
James Sheldon
Earl Bellamy
Charles S. Dubin
Michael Caffey
Maurice Geraghty
Richard L. Bare
Joseph Pevney
Bernard McEveety
John Florea
Don Richardson
Leon Benson
Paul Stanley
''The Virginian (TV series)''
Starring James Drury
Doug McClure
Lee J. Cobb
Charles Bickford
John McIntire
Stewart Granger
Clu Gulager
Gary Clarke
Randy Boone
Roberta Shore
Diane Roter
Opening theme "Lonesome Tree"
conducted by Stanley Wilson
Composer(s) Percy Faith
Country of origin United States
Language(s) English
No. of seasons 9
No. of episodes 249
Executive producer(s) N. MacDonnell
Frank Price
H. Hirschman
Roy Huggins
Charles Warren
Leslie Stevens
Producer(s) Joel Rogosin
Winston Miller
Cy Chermak
Frank Telford
Arthur H. Nadel
Don Ingalls
Paul Freeman
Warren Duff
Howard Christie
Glen A. Larson
Jules Schermer
''The Virginian (TV series)''
Editor(s) Edward Haire
John Elias
Howard Terrill
Edward Biery
Michael McAdam
Buddy Small
Richard Sprague
Robert Shugrue
Robert Watts
Danny Landres
Joseph Harrison
Jack Schoengarth
Milton Shifman
Lee Huntington
Richard Wray
Edwin Bryant
George Nicholson
John Fuller
Carl Pingitore
Tony Martinelli
Ray DeVally
John Joyce
Larry Lester
Cinematography Enzo Martinelli
Benjamin Kline
Lionel Lindon
John Russell
Walter Strenge
Ray Rennahan
Ray Flin
Neal Beckner
Robert Wyckoff
William Margulies
Andrew Jackson
Bud Thackery
Running time 75 minutes
Production company(s) Revue Studios(1962-1964)
Universal TV (1964-1971)
Original channel NBC
Picture format Color 4:3
Audio format Monaural
Original run September 19, 1962 – March 24, 1971
Status Ended
Preceded by The Virginian
The Virginian, also known as The Men From Shiloh, is an American Western-themed television series starring
James Drury and Doug McClure which aired on NBC from 1962 to 1971 for a total of 249 episodes. It was the first
Western to air in 90-minute installments each week (75 minutes excluding commercial breaks), and was filmed in
the color format from its inception.
The Virginian is the third longest running TV western with its nine seasons and
249 episodes. It follows Bonanza at fourteen seasons and 430 episodes and Gunsmoke at twenty seasons and 635
''The Virginian (TV series)''
Seasons one through eight
Loosely based on the Owen Wister novel, the series revolves around a foreman, played by James Drury, who goes
by the name The Virginian; his real name was never revealed in the nine years the show was on the air. The series
takes place in Medicine Bow, Wyoming, and revolves around The Virginian's quest to maintain an orderly lifestyle
for the ranch he works on, which is called Shiloh Ranch. The ranch was named after the Battle of Shiloh which took
place for two days in Tennessee during the civil war in 1862. Other key characters besides The Virginian include
ranch owner Judge Garth (played by Lee J. Cobb), his daughter Betsy (played by Roberta Shore) and loyal ranch
hands, Trampas (played by Doug McClure) and Steve Hill (played by Gary Clarke). The Virginian's white horse on
the show is named Joe D. and Trampas' brown horse was named Buck. As the show progressed, Trampas became the
more recognizable of the characters, and it continues to be the role for which actor Doug McClure is best known.
Randy Benton (played by Randy Boone) joined the show in the second season as a youthful ranch hand who plays
guitar and sings duets of folk and country songs with Betsy Garth. In 1965 Decca Records released an LP of songs
from the two singing actors. The series theme song was titled "Lonesome Tree" and was written by Percy Faith and
conducted by Revue musical director, Stanley Wilson. The third season adds Deputy Sheriff Emmett Ryker (played
by Clu Gulager) while the fourth season adds Garth's niece Jennifer Sommers (played by Diane Roter) upon Betsy
Garth's departure from Shiloh ranch.
The ranch has several owners throughout the program's run starting with Judge Garth who is replaced briefly by
Morgan Starr (played by John Dehner) who then leaves with no explanation. John Grainger (played by Charles
Bickford) then becomes the new owner. Clay Grainger (played by John McIntire) takes over ownership after his
brother's death. The fifth season adds a new female lead character with Grainger's grand daughter Elizabeth Grainger
(played by Sara Lane) and adds grand son Stacy Grainger (played by Don Quine). The sixth season adds Holly
Grainger (played by Jeanette Nolan) as the wife of McIntire's character. The seventh season adds ranch hand David
Sutton (played by David Hartman). In the beginning of the seventh season, a popular Canadian Irish folk group The
Irish Rovers appeared on several shows as the musical guest. The eighth season adds ranch hand Jim Horn (played
by Tim Matheson).
Season nine
The final owner is Colonel Alan MacKenzie (played by Stewart Granger). The final season has no female lead
character in the cast and includes ranch hand Roy Tate (played by Lee Majors). In the final year when Colonel
MacKenzie took over the ranch, the name of the program was changed to The Men from Shiloh and the look of the
series was completely redesigned. The opening theme song now by Ennio Morricone and titles were changed
reflecting a style similar to spaghetti westerns that were popular at the time. The hats worn featured much broader
brims and higher crowns, the male characters wore beards and mustaches and the clothing was jauntier and more
imaginative. These changes brought a better ranking (#18) in the top thirty prime time shows after the previous year
saw the show slip out of the top thirty rankings for the first time ever. There seemed little that could save it as the
final season brought in some big guest stars to the remaining episodes. The studio and network were set on ending
the series, as evidenced by rivals CBS and ABC making demographic moves away from rural oriented shows (see
"rural purge" for more information). The final episode aired on March 24, 1971 ending its 9 season run. Bonanza
ended its 14 season run on January 16, 1973. Gunsmoke ended its 20 season run on March 31, 1975 effectively
ending the era of classic western TV series that started in the 50's.
''The Virginian (TV series)''
James Drury and Doug McClure were the only performers who appeared in all nine seasons of the series (season
numbers follow cast members name).
• James Drury as The Virginian (Season 1-9)
• Doug McClure as Trampas (Season 1-9)
• Lee J. Cobb as Judge Henry Garth (Season 1-4)
• Gary Clarke as Steve Hill (Season 1-3)
• Roberta Shore as Betsy Garth (Season 1-4)
• Pippa Scott as Molly Wood (Season 1)
• Ross Elliott as Sheriff Abbott (Season 1-3; 5-9)
• Frank Sully as Bartender Danny (Season 1-5)
• John Bryant as Dr. Spaulding (Season 2-6)
• Randy Boone as Randy Benton (Season 2-4)
• Harper Flaherty as Harper (Season 2-8)
• L.Q. Jones as Andy Belden (Season 2-6; 9)
• Clu Gulager as Deputy Ryker (Season 3-6)
• Diane Roter as Jennifer, Garth's niece (Season 4)
• John Dehner as Morgan Starr (Season 4)
• Harlan Warde as Sheriff Brannan (Season 4)
• Charles Bickford as John Grainger (Season 5-6)
• Don Quine as Stacy Grainger (Season 5-6)
• Sara Lane as Elizabeth Grainger (Season 5-8)
• John McIntire as Clay Grainger (Season 6-8)
• Jeanette Nolan as Holly Grainger (Season 6-8)
• David Hartman as Dave Sutton (Season 7)
• Tim Matheson as Jim Horn (Season 8)
• Stewart Granger as Col. MacKenzie (Season 9)
• Lee Majors as Roy Tate (Season 9)
Guest stars
Guest stars included (alphabetically by last name):
• Claude Akins (2 times) • Harrison Ford (2 times) • Greg Mullavey
• Eddie Albert • Dick Foran (4 times) • Bill Mumy
• Jack Albertson (2 times) • Steve Forrest (2 times) • Ben Murphy (2 times)
• Chris Alcaide (2 times) • Ron Foster • Burt Mustin (2 times)
• Desi Arnaz • Tony Franciosa (2 times) • Lois Nettleton (2 times)
• Ed Asner • Anne Francis (2 times) • Leslie Nielsen (5 times)
• John Astin • Bert Freed (3 times) • Leonard Nimoy (3 times)
• Tol Avery (5 times) • Joan Freeman (4 times) • Lloyd Nolan (3 times)
• Barbara Barrie • Robert Fuller (2 times) • Sheree North (2 times)
• Don 'Red' Barry (8 times) • Greer Garson • Hugh O'Brian
• Charles Bateman • Leo Genn • Pat O'Brien
• Hugh Beaumont (3 times) • Lynda Day George • Ryan O'Neal
• Noah Beery, Jr. (3 times) • Mark Goddard • Simon Oakland (2 times)
• Charles Bickford (1 then cast) • Leo Gordon (3 times) • Warren Oates (4 times)
• Whit Bissell (3 times) • Coleen Gray (2 times) • Susan Oliver (4 times)
• Joan Blondell • Peter Graves • Gregg Palmer (10 times)
''The Virginian (TV series)''
• Lloyd Bochner (2 times) • James Gregory (4 times) • Paul Petersen
• Tom Bosley • Charles Grodin • John Pickard (6 times)
• Scott Brady (2 times) • Harry Guardino • Slim Pickens (3 times)
• Neville Brand (2 times) • Clu Gulager (2 then cast) • Robert Pine (4 times)
• James Brolin • Alan Hale, Jr. (2 times) • Eve Plumb
• Charles Bronson (2 times) • Mariette Hartley (2 times) • Michael J. Pollard
• James Brown (3 times) • Joey Heatherton • Judson Pratt (3 times)
• Brooke Bundy (2 times) • Earl Holliman • Andrew Prine (5 times)
• Michael Burns (6 times) • Skip Homeier (4 times) • Denver Pyle
• Ellen Burstyn • Clint Howard (3 times) • Aldo Ray
• Rory Calhoun • Arthur Hunnicutt (3 times) • Robert Redford
• Art Carney • Tab Hunter • Pernell Roberts (2 times)
• Darlene Carr • Steve Ihnat (4 times) • Chris Robinson (4 times)
• David Carradine • Herb Jeffries • Katharine Ross
• Conlan Carter (2 times) • Ben Johnson (4 times) • Gena Rowlands
• Anthony Caruso (3 times) • Van Johnson • Bing Russell (8 times)
• John Cassavetes • I. Stanford Jolley (3 times) • Kurt Russell (2 times)
• Robert Colbert (3 times) • Carolyn Jones • Michael Sarrazin
• Don Pedro Colley • Victor Jory (5 times) • Telly Savalas
• Gary Collins • Darwin Joston • George C. Scott
• Joan Collins • Robert Karnes (4 times) • Simon Scott (3 times)
• Chuck Connors • Don Keefer (3 times) • William Shatner (2 times)
• Russ Conway (4 times) • Brian Keith • Tom Simcox (3 times)
• Jackie Coogan • DeForest Kelley (2 times) • Robert F. Simon (4 times)
• Ben Cooper • George Kennedy (3 times) • Nancy Sinatra
• Glenn Corbett • Walter Woolf King (10 times) • Tom Skerritt (6 times)
• Joseph Cotten (2 times) • Jack Klugman • John Smith (2 times)
• Broderick Crawford • Ted Knight (2 times) • William Smith (5 times)
• Joan Crawford • Shirley Knight (2 times) • Carrie Snodgress
• Robert Culp • Walter Koenig • Quintin Sondergaard (7 times)
• Royal Dano (5 times) • Robert Lansing (3 times) • Ann Sothern
• Bette Davis • Harry Lauter (5 times) • G. D. Spradlin
• Yvonne DeCarlo (2 times) • Peter Lawford • Harry Dean Stanton
• Don DeFore • Ruta Lee (2 times) • Harold J. Stone (5 times)
• John Dehner (2 then cast) • Janet Leigh • Susan Strasberg (2 times)
• Cyril Delevanti • Cloris Leachman (2 times) • Warren Stevens (3 times)
• Bruce Dern (3 times) • Peggy Lipton • Barry Sullivan (2 times)
• Francis De Sales (2 times) • Jack Lord • Bo Svenson
• Jackie DeShannon • Myrna Loy • Karl Swenson (7 times)
• Andy Devine (2 times) • Ida Lupino (2 times) • Nita Talbot
• Angie Dickinson • Sue Lyon • Dub Taylor (2 times)
• Troy Donahue • James MacArthur • Mel Tormé
• James Doohan (2 times) • Elizabeth MacRae • Tom Tryon (4 times)
• Ann Doran (5 times) • Monte Markham • Forrest Tucker
• John Doucette (4 times) • Rose Marie • Robert Vaughn
• Patty Duke • E.G. Marshall (2 times) • Mitch Vogel
• Pete Duel (2 times) • Strother Martin (2 times) • Jack Warden (2 times)
• Howard Duff (2 times) • Lee Marvin • Dennis Weaver
• Robert Duvall • Darren McGavin (2 times) • Raquel Welch
• Barbara Eden • Catherine McLeod (2 times) • Adam West
• Jack Elam • Tyler McVey (4 times) • Paul Winchell
''The Virginian (TV series)''
• Leif Erickson (3 times) • Burgess Meredith (2 times) • William Windom (4 times)
• Tom Ewell • Vera Miles (3 times) • Johnny Whitaker
• Fabian (3 times) • Martin Milner (2 times) • James Whitmore (4 times)
• James Farentino (2 times) • Mary Ann Mobley • Grace Lee Whitney
• Sharon Farrell • Ricardo Montalban (3 times) • Jane Wyatt (2 times)
• William Fawcett (9 times) • Read Morgan (2 times) • Dick York
• Paul Fix (3 times) • Agnes Moorehead • Anthony Zerbe
• Jay C. Flippen (4 times)
The Virginian prevailed or held steady against its network competition, having in its first season topped Dwayne
Hickman's The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, which ceased production in 1963. In its fifth season, The Virginian faced
competition from another Western, one also set in Wyoming: ABC's The Monroes, starring Michael Anderson, Jr.,
and Barbara Hershey as orphans trying to hold their family of siblings together in the wilderness. In its sixth season,
The Virginian overpowered ABC's Custer starring Wayne Maunder in the title role of Lieutenant Colonel George
Armstrong Custer. Custer was cancelled late in 1967 after seventeen episodes. The Virginian had the following
rankings in the top thirty TV programs:
• First Season #26
• Second Season #17
• Third Season #22
• Fourth Season #25
• Fifth Season #11
• Sixth Season #14
• Seventh Season #17
• Eighth Season -
• Ninth Season #18
Since the end of the original airings, James Drury has been a very active advocate of the show. Just as his character
was the centerpiece in the show tying together all the years of its run and the other changing cast members, Mr.
Drury has been at the center of the on going legacy of this series. He has traveled across the United States and in
other countries and has appeared in Western themed conventions, festivals, celebrations, news programs and TV
specials keeping The Virginian alive. He has consistently done this between the many reruns, syndications and
different home video releases. He has brought this classic TV show into the new millennium and has reunited with
key cast members Randy Boone, Gary Clarke and Roberta Shore at these Western themed events bringing nostalgia
and inside information about the TV show to many fans up to the present day.
''The Virginian (TV series)''
Filming locations
• Western streets in the backlot of Universal City, California
• Iverson Movie Ranch Chatsworth, California
• Lone Pine, California
• Bronson Canyon, Griffith Park Los Angeles, California
• CBS Studio Center Los Angeles
In April 1965 an episode of The Virginian called "We've Lost a Train" served as a backdoor pilot for the TV series
The cable channels of Encore Westerns, MoviePlex and RetroPlex began airing complete uncut commercial free
episodes of The Virginian starting with a premier marathon in January 2010. Seasons 1 through 8 have been shown.
The Men From Shiloh episodes of Season 9 have not been shown.
DVD releases
Timeless Media Group released the first season of The Virginian on DVD in Region 1 on May 25, 2010.
second season will be released by Timeless Media Group on December 21, 2010.
All episodes on both releases
have been fully restored and re-mastered and are available in special collectors edition tin cases.
Euro Video of Germany releases the first season in Germany, October 14, 2010. It will be like The High Chaparral
release with subtitles English as well as dubbed to German.
DVD Name Ep # Release Date
The Complete First Season 30 May 25, 2010
The Complete Second Season 30 December 21, 2010
References in popular culture
• The Simpsons character Troy McClure was named after Troy Donahue and Doug McClure
Translations of the title
• Germany : Die Leute von der Shiloh Ranch
• French : Le Virginien
• Spanish : El Virginiano
• Swedish: Mannen från Virginia
''The Virginian (TV series)''
Further reading
• A History of Television's The Virginian 1962–1971 by Paul Green, with a foreword by former executive producer
Frank Price, (2006) ISBN 0-786-42613-6
[1] Tv.com (http:// www. tv. com/ show/ 1042/ summary. html)
[2] Lambert, David (2010-03-10). "The Virginian - TMG's Official Press Release for The Complete 1st Season: Collector's Edition Tin" (http://
www.tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Virginian-Season-1-Press-Release/13452). tvshowsondvd.com. . Retrieved 1 June 2010.
[3] http:// www. tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Virginian-Season-2/14447
[4] Groening, Matt. Interview with Terry Gross. Fresh Air (http:/ / www.npr.org/templates/ story/ story. php?storyId=4249835). National
Public Radio. WHYY-FM Philadelphia. 2004-12-29. Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
External links
• The Virginian (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0055710/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Virginian (http:/ / www. tv. com/ show/ 1042/ summary. html) at TV.com
• James Drury The Virginian Official Website (http:// www.thevirginian.net)
• Roy Huggins' American Archive of Television Interview (http:/ / video. google. com/
''Ironside (TV series)''
Ironside (TV series)
Title screen
Format Crime drama
Created by Collier Young
Starring Raymond Burr as Robert Ironside
Don Galloway as Det. Sgt. Ed
Don Mitchell as Mark Sanger
Theme music composer Quincy Jones
Country of origin United States
No. of seasons 8
No. of episodes 199
Running time 60 to 90 minutes
Production company(s) Harbour-UTV
Original channel NBC
Original run March 28, 1967 – January 16, 1975
Ironside is a Universal television series which ran on NBC from September 14, 1967 to January 16, 1975. The show
starred Raymond Burr as the wheelchair-using Chief of Detectives, Robert T. Ironside. The character's debut was in
a TV-movie on March 28, 1967. The original title of the show in the United Kingdom was A Man Called Ironside.
The show earned Burr six Emmy nominations, and two Golden Globe nominations.
The show revolved around former San Francisco Police Department (SFPD) Chief of Detectives Robert T. Ironside
(Raymond Burr), a veteran of more than twenty years of police service who was forced to retire from the department
after a sniper's bullet paralyzed him from the waist down and forced him to use a wheelchair. In the pilot episode,
Ironside shows his strength of character and gets himself appointed a "special department consultant" by his good
friend, Police Commissioner Dennis Randall. He does this by calling a press conference and then tricking
Commissioner Randall into meeting his terms. Ironside uses an attic floor room (for living and office space) at the
SFPD headquarters and made use of a specially modified and equipped police truck and later a modified day van to
accommodate his wheelchair. In the pilot he requests that Ed Brown & Eve Whitfield are assigned to him. He later
recruits the angst filled Mark Sanger to be his personal assistant after Mark is brought in as a suspect who wanted to
kill Ironside. The show became a success as Ironside depended on brains and initiative in handling cases.
''Ironside (TV series)''
Raymond Burr as 'Ironside'
Supporting characters on Ironside included Det. Sgt. Ed Brown (Don
Galloway), and a young socialite-turned-plainclothes officer, Eve
Whitfield (Barbara Anderson). (Eve's clothes were far from plain as she
often changed stylish outfits from scene to scene.) There was also
delinquent-turned-bodyguard/assistant Mark Sanger (Don Mitchell), who
also opted to become a police officer and subsequently graduated from
law school (night classes were mentioned from early on) and even
married late in the run of the series. Commissioner Randall was played by
Gene Lyons.
By the show's fourth season, Anderson left the show over a contract
dispute (at the same time she was getting married) and was replaced by
another young policewoman, Fran Belding (Elizabeth Baur), who filled
much the same role for four more years.
The show enjoyed an eight-season run on NBC, drawing respectable, if
not always high, ratings. As the eighth season began, Universal released a
syndicated rerun package of episodes from earlier seasons under the title
The Raymond Burr Show, reflecting the practice of that time to
differentiate original network episodes from syndicated reruns whenever
possible. Upon NBC's mid-season cancellation, however, the syndicated episodes reverted to the Ironside title.
The show was filmed in a mixture of locations, sometimes out in San Francisco but also with a large amount of
scenes filmed inside a studio including scenes involving conversations inside a moving vehicle where a traffic
backdrop is used. The shows were also padded out with large amounts of stock footage over San Francisco, normally
featuring panning shots of the Coit Tower or regular clips of general traffic scenes. The continuity on these shots is
sometimes poor with repeated use of particular clips and details being missed. In several early episodes Sargent
Brown drives a black Ford sedan which is normally a 1965 year Ford Fairlane but the next clip shows him turning up
in a 1968 model Ford Torino sedan.
A roster of guest stars
One of the longer-running police dramas of the day, the series featured appearances by a number of actors, familiar
and unfamiliar, among whom were Kim Darby, Antonio Fargas, Tiny Tim (in the pilot TV-movie), Randolph
Mantooth, Cal Bellini, Sharon Gless, Dabbs Greer, Bernie Kopell, Frank Gorshin, Jess Walton, Pernell Roberts,
Alan Oppenheimer, Dan Kemp, E. G. Marshall, Harrison Ford, John Schuck, Ingrid Pitt, Susan Saint James, Ivan
Dixon, Harry Townes, Pat Hingle, Norman Alden, Anne Francis, David Carradine, Charo, Joseph Campanella, Bill
Quinn, Bernard Fox, Tyler McVey, Robert Webber, Alan Hale, Jr., Marion Ross, Marcia Strassman, Susan Sullivan,
Suzanne Pleshette, Bo Hopkins, James Hong, Jeanne Cooper, Paul Winfield, Harold Gould, James Farentino, Robert
Reed, Bill Bixby, David Cassidy, David Hartman, Dana Elcar, Tina Louise, Lincoln Kilpatrick, Robert Karnes, Tyler
MacDuff, Greg Mullavy, Rod Serling, Gene Raymond, Francine York, Peter Mark Richman, Clu Gulager, Joel
Grey, Van Williams, John Hoyt, Scott Glenn, William Windom, Joshua Bryant, Dorothy Malone, Robert Alda,
Barbara Rush, Jack Kelly, Jason Wingreen, George Takei, George Wallace, John M. Pickard, Diana Muldaur, Jodie
Foster, William Katt, Lee Grant, Steve Forrest, Susan Olsen, Michael Lerner, Edward Asner, Eddie Garrett, Darwin
Joston, John Rubinstein, Jack Lord, Scott Marlowe, Norman Fell, Gavin MacLeod, Gary Collins, Johnny Seven,
William Shatner, Bobby Darin, Martin Sheen, Cheryl Ladd, William Daniels, William Schallert, Burgess Meredith,
Vic Tayback, Arch Johnson, James Drury, Ed Flanders and Bruce Lee.
Future Knots Landing stars Joan Van Ark and William Devane made cameo appearances. Kathleen Freeman and
Kent McCord appeared in the premiere episode. Raymond Burr's ex-Perry Mason co-star Barbara Hale guest-starred
''Ironside (TV series)''
in one episode, as well as future Quincy, M.E. stars, Robert Ito, Garry Walberg and Val Bisoglio. Future Hill Street
Blues stars Michael Conrad, James B. Sikking and George Wyner were major Universal Studios players who guest
starred in separate episodes. Sorrell Booke better known as Boss Hogg in the Dukes of Hazzard TV series played a
jewel theif matched against Ironside in the opening Season 2 episode 'Shell Game". Richard Anderson appeared in
the last episode. Don Galloway's daughter, Tracy Galloway, made a few guest appearances as well. Future The Price
Is Right model Janice Pennington was in one episode. Music legend Quincy Jones, who wrote the Ironside theme
song, made a guest appearance, and screen legend Myrna Loy did, too. Future Lou Grant star Edward Asner guest
starred in the episode "The Fourteenth Runner," for which the story was supplied by that series' developer Leon
1971's fall TV season on NBC opened with a two-hour crossover between Ironside and a new series, Sarge starring
George Kennedy as a cop-turned-priest. Kennedy's San Diego-based Father Samuel Cavanaugh came to San
Francisco because of the death of a friend and fellow priest, and his investigation got him embroiled with Ironside
and his staff. The special consolidated the two shows' consecutive time slots, and has been subsequently seen as a
TV-movie, The Priest Killer.
The opening theme music was written by Quincy Jones and was the first synthesizer-based television theme song.
A brief, 15-second excerpt from the opening of the theme music is used in Kill Bill as the Bride's recurring revenge
motif, which flares up with a red-tinged flashback whenever she's in the company of her next target.
TV reunion movie
Burr and the main cast reunited for a made-for-TV movie in 1993 which aired not long before Burr's death. Burr was
starring in an ongoing series of Perry Mason TV movies at the time, so in order to make himself look less like the
other character, he dyed his hair and modified his full beard to a goatee for the Ironside movie. Unlike the original
series, which took place in San Francisco, California, the reunion took place in Denver, Colorado (with the excuse
that Ed Brown had become the city's deputy chief of police and being a leading candidate to be appointed chief),
which was also where most of Burr's Perry Mason films were produced. Galloway, Mitchell, Baur and Anderson all
re-created their roles here.
DVD releases
Shout! Factory has released the first 4 seasons of Ironside on DVD in Region 1. Season 4 was released on October
19, 2010 as a Shout! Select title.
In Region 2, Anchor Bay Entertainment released the first season on DVD in the UK on August 25, 2008.
In Region 4, Madman Entertainment has released the first six seasons on DVD. Season 7 will be released on
November 10, 2010.
Season 5 includes the 2 part crossover episode The Priest Killer, a crossover with the series Sarge which was never
aired as part of the series.
''Ironside (TV series)''
DVD Name Ep# Release dates
Region 1 Region 4
Season 1 29 (includes 1967 pilot movie) April 24, 2007 August 16, 2007
Season 2 26 October 16, 2007 November 8, 2007
Season 3 26
January 19, 2010♦
September 16, 2008
Season 4 26 October 19, 2010♦ June 24, 2009
Season 5 25 N/A May 19, 2010
Season 6 24 N/A August 11, 2010
Season 7 25 N/A February 2, 2011
Season 8 20 N/A February 2, 2011
♦ - Shout! Factory select title, sold exclusively through Shout's online store
[1] Awards for Raymond Burr (IMDB) (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0000994/ awards)
[2] IMDB entry for The Priest Killer (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0067612/ )
[3] http:/ / www. achievement. org/ autodoc/printmember/jon0bio-1
[4] http:/ / www. soundtrack. net/ albums/ database/ ?id=3356
[5] http:/ / www. shoutfactorystore. com/ prod.aspx?pfid=5257313
[6] http:// www. amazon. co. uk/ gp/ product/B0013URJUA
[7] http:/ / www. ezydvd. com. au/ item. zml/ 816046
[8] http:/ / www. shoutfactorystore. com/ prod.aspx?pfid=5257101
External links
• Ironside's Page (http:// www. gloubik. info/ironside/ anglais/ ironside. html)
• Ironside (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0061266/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Ironside (http:/ / www. tv. com/ show/ 974/ summary. html) at TV.com
''The Mod Squad''
The Mod Squad
The Mod Squad
Title Screen
Format Police Drama
Created by Bud Ruskin
Starring Michael Cole
Clarence Williams III
Peggy Lipton
Tige Andrews
Theme music composer Earle Hagen
Country of origin United States
No. of seasons 5
No. of episodes 123
Running time 60 min
Original channel ABC
Original run September 24, 1968 – August 23, 1973
The Mod Squad is a television series that ran on ABC from September 24, 1968 until August 23, 1973. This series
starred Michael Cole, Peggy Lipton, Clarence Williams III and Tige Andrews. The executive producers of the series
were Aaron Spelling and Danny Thomas.
''The Mod Squad''
Williams, Cole, Lipton, and Andrews
The Mod Squad was a police drama that featured three young, hip
crime fighters. One White, One Black, One Blonde, was the
promotional hype-line. The casting was intended to appeal to a
youthful, counterculture audience. The basic premise was that the
youthful investigators were offered work fighting crime as an
alternative to being incarcerated themselves. The show's primary
gimmick centered on the three cops using their youthful, hippie
personas as a guise to get close to the criminals they investigated.
The show was moderately popular during its initial run of five
seasons and 123 episodes. Tige Andrews (Captain Adam Greer),
Michael Cole (Pete Cochran), Peggy Lipton (Julie Barnes), and
Clarence Williams III (Linc Hayes) starred. The show portrayed a
multicultural society and dealt with issues of racial politics, drug
culture, and counterculture.
The show was loosely based on Bud Ruskin's experiences in the
late 1950s as a squad leader for undercover narcotics cops, though it took almost 10 years after he wrote a script for
the idea to be given the greenlight by ABC television studios.
Television movie and 1999 film
A TV reunion movie, The Return of Mod Squad, aired on ABC May 18, 1979.
In 1999, the series was adapted into a film of the same name by MGM starring Giovanni Ribisi, Omar Epps, Claire
Danes and Dennis Farina.
DVD releases
CBS DVD (distributed by Paramount) has released the first two seasons of The Mod Squad on DVD in Region 1.
DVD Name Ep # Release Date
Season 1, Volume 1 13 December 18, 2007
Season 1, Volume 2 13 March 11, 2008
Season 2, Volume 1 13 November 25, 2008
Season 2, Volume 2 13 May 26, 2009
''The Mod Squad''
External links
• The Mod Squad (1968)
at the Internet Movie Database
• The Mod Squad
at TV.com
• The Mod Squad at TV.com
• CBS Television Distribution Syndication Bible (including The Mod Squad)
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0062589/
[2] http:/ / www. tv. com/ show/ 677/ summary.html
[3] http:/ / www. tv. com/ mod-squad/ show/ 677/summary. html
[4] http:// www. paramounttv.com/
My Friend Tony
My Friend Tony was an hour-long crime drama that aired on NBC in 1969.
The series featured Enzo Cerusico as the title character, Tony Novello, and James Whitmore as John Woodruff, a
professor of criminology who served in Italy during World War II. As a child, Novello had been a street urchin who
survived as a pickpocket, with Woodruff being one of his intended victims. The premise of the series was that the
adult (and reformed) Novello had emigrated to the United States to join Woodruff in a private investigation team.
Novello handled the legwork and physical side of the investigations while Woodruff conducted painstaking analysis
of the most obscure clues.
My Friend Tony debuted on January 5, 1969. NBC slotted the program in the 10 p.m. Eastern timeslot on Sundays,
following Bonanza.
The network ended production of the series after 16 episodes
but continued airing reruns of
the show through that summer. The program aired for the last time on September 31, 1969.
Despite having the highly successful Bonanza as its lead-in, Sheldon Leonard — who created My Friend Tony and
was its executive producer — attributed the program's low ratings to its timeslot.
"First, the 10-to-11 P.M. time spot didn't take full advantage of Enzo's youthful audience, as shown by his flood of
fan mail, which exceeds anything in our experience," Leonard told TV Guide. "Second, because of the one-hour
length and the network's commitment to 27 new projects all demanding air time, there was no 8 or 9 o'clock spot into
which to move it."
Critics had savaged My Friend Tony, calling the series "hackneyed and confusing" ... "the kind of minimal fare that
has been ground out ad nauseam" ... "mundane" and "bilge."
[1] Brooks, Tim and Marsh, Earl. (1979) The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network TV Shows, p 427. Ballantine Books, New York.
[2] Brooks and Marsh, op cit
[3] Goodwin, Fritz. (1969, May 31-June 6). The operation was a failure ... but the patient survived, pp 12-14. TV GUIDE.
[4] Brooks and Marsh, op cit
[5] Goodwin, op cit
[6] Goodwin, op cit
''The F.B.I. (TV series)''
The F.B.I. (TV series)
The F.B.I.
Format Crime Drama
Starring Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.
Philip Abbott
William Reynolds
Country of origin United States
No. of seasons 9
No. of episodes 240
Executive producer(s)
Quinn Martin
Philip Saltzman
Running time 60 minutes
Production company(s) Quinn Martin Productions (1965–1974)
Warner Bros. Television (1965–1967;
Warner Bros.-Seven Arts Television (1967–1969)
Original channel ABC
Original run September 19, 1965 – September 8, 1974
Related shows Today's F.B.I.
The F.B.I. is an American television series that was broadcast on ABC from 1965 to 1974. It was sponsored by the
Ford Motor Company.
Produced by Quinn Martin and based in part on concepts from the 1959 Warner Bros. theatrical film The FBI Story,
the series was an authentic telling of or fictionalized accounts of actual F.B.I. cases, with fictitious main characters
carrying the stories. Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. played Inspector Lewis Erskine, while Philip Abbott played Arthur Ward,
assistant director to F.B.I. chief J. Edgar Hoover. Although Hoover served as series consultant until his death in
1972, he was never seen in the series.
Stephen Brooks played Inspector Erskine's assistant, Special Agent Jim Rhodes, for the first two seasons. Lynn
Loring played Inspector Erskine's daughter and Rhodes' love interest, Barbara, in the first few episodes of the show.
That romantic angle was soon dropped.
In 1967, Brooks was replaced by veteran actor William Reynolds, who played Special Agent Tom Colby until 1973.
The series would enjoy its highest ratings during this time, peaking at No. 10 in the 1970–1971 season. For the final
season, Shelly Novack played Special Agent Chris Daniels.
Some episodes ended with a "most wanted" segment hosted by Zimbalist, noting the F.B.I.'s most wanted criminals
of the day (this was decades before the Fox Network aired America's Most Wanted). The series aired on ABC at 8
p.m. Sunday from 1965 to 1973, when it was moved up to 7:30 p.m. for the final season.
''The F.B.I. (TV series)''
The series was a co-production of Quinn Martin Productions and Warner Bros. Television. Warner Bros. held the
television and theatrical rights to any project based on The F.B.I.. As it turned out, it was the longest running of all of
Quinn Martin's television series, having aired nine seasons.
Numerous guest stars appeared on the program, including Robert Harland, formerly on ABC's Target: The
Corruptors!, and Scott Marlowe (1932–2001), who was cast in ten episodes. Gary Vinson guest starred in the 1969
episode "Moment of Truth". John Vivyan, formerly television's Mr. Lucky, appeared as George Petrarkis in the 1970
episode entitled "The Witness". Wayne Maunder of the Custer and Lancer western series appeared in two episodes
in 1970 and 1972. Sherry Boucher appeared as Karen Oliver in the 1971 episode "Unknown Victim". Cal Bellini
appeared as Sessions in the 1973 episode "The Night of the Long Knives".
Mark Felt, then an assistant director at the F.B.I. and later to become famous as the "Deep Throat" source in the
Watergate scandal, is reported to have served as an unpaid technical adviser to the series, occasionally going onto the
set with Zimbalist. Recent disclosures of memos by the F.B.I., under the FOIA, reveal that the real F.B.I. had casting
control over the show.
Today's F.B.I.
An updated and revamped version of the series, Today's F.B.I., executive produced by David Gerber, aired on ABC
from October 1981 through April 1982 in the same Sunday 8 p.m. time slot as its predecessor. A remake of the
original series, produced by Ron Howard's Imagine Entertainment for Fox, was set for air in Fall 2008; however, that
series has yet to air.
References In Popular Culture
In an early episode of The Dukes of Hazzard (season 1, episode 2: Daisy's Song), Bo and Luke Duke are telling
Cooter about how the F.B.I. was mistakenly trailing them, and Cooter replies, "You know, I like the F.B.I. They got
a good T.V. show," referring to The F.B.I. (WBTV also produced The Dukes of Hazzard).
[1] "Philip Saltzman, Producer of 'Barnaby Jones'" (http:// www. latimes. com/ news/ obituaries/ la-me-passings22-2009aug22,0,3124034.
story). Los Angeles Times. 2009-08-21. . Retrieved 2009-08-23.
External links
• The F.B.I. (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0058801/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The F.B.I. (http:/ / www. tv. com/ show/ 522/ summary. html) at TV.com
• Today's F.B.I. (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0081948/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Today's F.B.I. (http:/ / www. tv. com/ show/ 8177/ summary. html) at TV.com
• The 1965 F.B.I. Show Tribute Site (http:// 1965fbishow. com)
• Complete unedited opening of The FBI with Ford sponsor tags and first commercial (http:/ / www.youtube. com/
''Love, American Style''
Love, American Style
Love, American Style
Love, American Style opening title.
Format Comedy Anthology
Starring An ensemble cast, changing from week to week.
Theme music composer Charles Fox, Arnold Margolin
Country of origin United States
No. of seasons 5
No. of episodes 224
Running time 60 minutes (1969–1970, 1971–1974)
30 minutes {1970–1971}
Original channel ABC
Original run September 29, 1969 – January 11, 1974
Love, American Style is an hour-long television anthology which was produced by Paramount Television and
originally aired between September 1969 (see 1969 in television) and January 1974. For the 1971 and 1972 seasons
it was a part of an ABC Friday prime-time lineup that also included The Brady Bunch, The Partridge Family, Room
222, and The Odd Couple.
Each week, the show featured different stories of romance, usually with a comedic spin. All episodes were unrelated,
featuring different characters, stories and locations. The show often featured the same actors playing different
characters in many episodes. In addition a large and ornate brass bed was a recurring prop in many episodes. Charles
Fox's delicate yet hip music score, featuring flutes, harp, and flugelhorn set to a contemporary pop beat, provided the
"love" ambiance which tied the stories together as a multifaceted romantic comedy each week.
For its first season, the theme song was performed by The Cowsills. Starting in the second season, the same theme
song was sung by John Bahler, Tom Bahler, and Ron Hicklin, (billed as "The Charles Fox Singers"), and was carried
on for the remainder of the series, as well as most episodes in syndication.
''Love, American Style''
In many ways, the show initiated the "mini comedic soap opera" form used and "perfected" later on by Aaron
Spelling for The Love Boat. While it lacked the connective threads that The Love Boat used, it generally told the
same sort of "cotton candy" light emotional stories about underlying aspects of love, romance, and human
The title is loosely derived from a 1961 Italian comedy film called Divorzio all'italiana (Divorce, Italian Style),
which won Academy Award nominations in 1962 for Best Director for Pietro Germi and for Best Actor for star
Marcello Mastroianni. The film was later spoofed in 1967 by Divorce, American Style, starring Dick Van Dyke. The
snowclone "(xxx), (nationality) Style" became a minor cultural meme as the sixties progressed.
The original series was also known for its 10–20 second drop-in silent movie style "joke clips" between the featured
segments. This regular troupe featured future Rockford Files cast member Stuart Margolin, future Vega$ leading
lady Phyllis Davis, and a young character actor, James Hampton (F Troop, The Longest Yard). These clips allowed
the show to be padded to the required length without padding the main segments. They generally consisted of
then-risque, burlesque-style comedy of manners visual jokes.
The show subsequently became a daytime standard in syndication, since it was readily edited down to a half-hour by
the proper interweaving of the clips with a main segment, allowing for heavy stripping. By this technique five years
of shows became effectively ten as far as stripping went.
A decade after it went off the air, a new version premiered on ABC's daytime schedule in 1985 entitled New Love,
American Style but was canceled after a few months due to low ratings against The Price Is Right on CBS. A third
edition, starring Melissa Joan Hart among others, was shot as a pilot for the 1998–1999 television season but was not
ordered into a series. Nevertheless, ABC aired the pilot on February 20, 1999.
Happy Days
Garry Marshall was known to enjoy saying that Love, American Style was where failed sitcom pilots went to die, a
remark to which there was much truth. Frequently, if a TV producer could not interest a network in a sitcom pilot,
the producer would sell the unused script to Spelling, who would use the funniest bits of the pilot as a segment on
Love, American Style.
In 1971, Garry Marshall came up with a concept for a sitcom about teenagers growing up in the 1950s, and shot a
pilot which he titled New Family In Town, starring Ron Howard (as Richie), Marion Ross (as Richie's mother), and
Anson Williams (as Potsie, Richie's friend), Harold Gould (as Howard, Richie's father), Susan Neher (Joanie,
Richie's sister), and Ric Carrott (Chuck, Richie's brother).
Marshall tried, unsuccessfully, to sell the sitcom to all three networks. At last, he sold the pilot to Spelling, who aired
the show in February 1972 as "Love and the Happy Days".
Shortly afterward, the movie American Graffiti and the Broadway musical Grease led to a wave of 1950s nostalgia,
and ABC executives decided to buy Marshall's pilot – Happy Days, which became a huge hit and ran for eleven
years. Gould, Neher, and Carrott were all replaced when the series launched.
Another pilot aired on Love, American Style that led to a series was Hanna-Barbera's Wait Till Your Father Gets
''Love, American Style''
Noteworthy recurring actors and guest actors
• Charles Bateman
• Harrison Ford
• Teri Garr
• Henry Gibson
• Davy Jones
• Rich Little
• Tina Louise
• Paul Lynde
• Mary Ann Mobley
• Read Morgan
• Louisa Moritz
• Jerry Orbach
• Bernadette Peters
• Charles Nelson Reilly
• Robert F. Simon
• Frank Sutton
• Jerry Van Dyke
• Gary Vinson
• Carol Wayne
• JoAnne Worley
• Karen Valentine
DVD releases
On November 20, 2007, CBS DVD (distributed by Paramount) released Love, American Style, Season 1 Volume 1
on DVD in Region 1. Season 1, Volume 2 on DVD was released on March 11, 2008.
DVD Name Ep # Release Date
Season 1, Volume 1 12 November 20, 2007
Season 1, Volume 2 12 March 11, 2008
[1] "Love, American Style" Returns (http:/ / tv.zap2it. com/ tveditorial/tve_main/ 1,1002,271|50373|1|,00.html), Zap2it, February 15, 1999.
Retrieved December 18, 2008.
[2] Love, American Style – Get the Rest of the 1st Season this March with More DVD Love (http:/ / tvshowsondvd. com/ news/
Love-American-Style-Season-1-Volume-2/8640), TVShowsOnDVD.com, December 18, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
External links
• Love, American Style (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0063925/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Love, American Style (http:/ / www. tv. com/ show/ 105/ summary. html) at TV.com
• Release of "Love, American Style" on DVD planned (http:/ / www.tvshowsondvd. com/ newsitem.
''Zabriskie Point (film)''
Zabriskie Point (film)
This article refers to the 1970 movie 'Zabriskie Point'. For the soundtrack album see Zabriskie Point (album);
for the natural monument, see Zabriskie Point.
Zabriskie Point
Original movie poster
Directed by Michelangelo Antonioni
Produced by Carlo Ponti
Written by Michelangelo Antonioni
Starring Mark Frechette
Daria Halprin
Cinematography Alfio Contini
Distributed by MGM
Release date(s) 1970
Running time 110 min
Zabriskie Point is a 1970 film by Italian director Michelangelo Antonioni, widely noted at the time for its setting in
the late 1960s counterculture of the United States. Some of the film's scenes were shot on location at Zabriskie Point
in Death Valley.
This was the second of three English-language films Antonioni had been contracted to direct for producer Carlo
Ponti and to be distributed by MGM. The other two films were Blowup (1966) and The Passenger (1975). Although
later considered a cult film, Zabriskie Point was an overwhelming commercial failure and panned by most critics
upon release. The film has been called "one of the most extraordinary disasters in modern cinematic history."
The film opens with a documentary-like scene in which white and black students argue about an impending student
strike. Mark (Mark Frechette) says he is "willing to die" for the cause, which draws criticism from the young white
radicals. Following a mass arrest at the campus protest, Mark visits a police station hoping to bail his roommate out
of jail. He is told to wait but goes to the lock-up area, asks further about bail for his roommate, is rebuffed, calls out
to the arrested students and faculty and is arrested himself. He gives his name as Karl Marx, which a duty officer
''Zabriskie Point (film)''
types as "Carl Marx." After he is released from jail, Mark and another friend buy firearms from a Los Angeles gun
shop, saying they need them for "self defence" to "protect our women."
In a downtown Los Angeles office building, successful real estate executive Lee Allen (Rod Taylor) reviews a
television commercial for Sunny Dunes, a new resort-like real estate development in the desert. Instead of actors or
models, the slickly produced commercial features casually dressed, smiling mannequins. In the next scene Allen
talks with his associate (G. D. Spradlin) about the greater Los Angeles area's very rapid growth as the two drive
through crowded streets.
Mannequins in a television commercial for Sunny Dunes, a desert suburban real
estate development
Mark goes to a bloody campus confrontation
between students and police. Some students
are tear-gassed and at least one is shot. Mark
reaches for a gun in his boot and a Los
Angeles policeman is seen being fatally
shot, although it is unclear by whom.
Mark flees the campus and rides a city bus
to suburban Hawthorne where, after failing
to buy a sandwich on credit from a local
blue collar delicatessen, he steals a small
plane and flies into the desert.
Meanwhile Daria (Daria Halprin), "a sweet, pot-smoking post-teenybopper of decent inclinations,"
is driving
across the desert towards Phoenix in a 1950s era Buick automobile to meet her boss Lee, who may or may not also
be her lover. Along the way Daria is searching for a man who works with "emotionally disturbed" children from Los
Angeles. She finds the young boys near a roadhouse in the Mojave desert, but they tease, taunt and grab at her,
boldly asking for sex. Daria flees in her car. While filling its radiator with water, she is spied from the air by Mark,
who buzzes her car and then flies only fifteen feet over Daria as she lies face down in the sand. They later meet at the
desert shack of an old man, where Mark asks her for a lift so he can buy gasoline for the airplane. The two then
wander to Zabriskie Point where they make love and the site's geological formations seem to come alive in a dusty
orgy performed by The Open Theatre.
Later a California highway patrolman suspiciously questions Daria. Hidden
behind a portable toilet meant for tourists, Mark takes aim and almost shoots the policeman but Daria stands between
the two of them to block this, likely saving the policeman's life before he drives away.
Daria stares at her boss' desert home before blowing it up in her mind's eye
Getting back to the stolen plane, they paint
it with sarcastic slogans and psychedelic
colors. Daria pleads with Mark to travel
with her and leave the plane but Mark
believes he can return it safely. He flies
back to Los Angeles and lands the plane at
the airport in Hawthorne, however the
police along with some radio and television
reporters are waiting for him. Patrol cars
chase the plane down the runway. Rather
than stopping, Mark tries to turn the taxiing plane around across the grass and is shot to death by one of the
policemen. Daria soon learns about Mark's death on the car radio and drives to her boss Lee's lavish desert home, "a
desert Berchtesgaden"
set high on a rock outcropping near Phoenix, where she sees three affluent women sunning
themselves and chatting by the swimming pool. She grieves for Mark by drenching herself in the house's
architectural waterfall. Lee is deeply immersed in a business meeting having to do with the sprawling and financially
''Zabriskie Point (film)''
risky Sunny Dunes development. Taking a break, he spots Daria in the house and happily greets her. She goes
downstairs alone and finds the guest room which has been set aside for her but after briefly cracking open the door,
she shuts it again. Upon the sight of a young native American housekeeper in the hallway Daria leaves without a
further word. She drives off but stops to get out of the car and look back at the house, imagining it blown apart in
billows of orange flame and flying consumer goods.
Mark Frechette and Daria Halprin in a scene filmed at Zabriskie Point in Death
• Mark Frechette: Mark
• Daria Halprin: Daria
• Paul Fix: Roadhouse owner
• Bill Garaway: Morty
• Kathleen Cleaver: Kathleen
• Rod Taylor: Lee Allen
• G. D. Spradlin: Lee's associate
Harrison Ford has an uncredited role as one
of the arrested student demonstrators being
held inside a Los Angeles police station.
While in the United States for the 1966 premiere of his film Blowup, which had been a surprising box office hit,
Antonioni saw a short newspaper article about a young man who had stolen an airplane and was killed when he tried
to return it in Phoenix, Arizona. Antonioni took this as a thread with which he could tie together the plot of his next
film. After writing many drafts, he hired playwright Sam Shepard to write the script. Shepard, Antonioni, Italian
filmmaker Franco Rossetti, screenwriter Tonino Guerra and Clare Peploe (wife of Bernardo Bertolucci) worked on
the screenplay.
Neither Mark Frechette nor Daria Halprin had any previous acting experience. Most of the supporting roles were
played by a professional cast, notably Rod Taylor along with G.D. Spradlin in one of his first feature film roles
following many appearances on national television in the U.S. Paul Fix, a friend and acting coach of John Wayne
who had appeared in many of Wayne's films, played the owner of a roadhouse in the Mojave desert. Kathleen
Cleaver, a member of the Black Panthers and wife of Eldridge Cleaver, appeared in the documentary-like student
meeting scene at the opening of the film.
Actor Rod Taylor in a downtown Los Angeles office setting with Richfield Tower
in the background, filmed shortly before its demolition in 1968
Shooting began in July 1968 in Los
Angeles, much of it on location in the wider
southern downtown area. Exteriors of the art
deco Richfield Tower were shown in a few
scenes shot shortly before its demolition in
November of that year. Various college
campus scenes, excluding the scene of the
student meeting, were filmed on location at
Contra Costa Community College in San
Pablo, California. The production then
moved to location shooting near Phoenix
and from there to Death Valley.
''Zabriskie Point (film)''
Early movie industry publicity reports claimed Antonioni would gather 10,000 extras in the desert for the filming of
the lovemaking scene, but this never happened. The scene was filmed with dust-covered and highly choreographed
actors from The Open Theatre. The United States Department of Justice investigated whether this violated the Mann
Act (which forbade the taking of women across state lines for sexual purposes), however no sex was filmed and no
state lines were crossed for that segment of the production, given Death Valley is in California.

During filming Antonioni was quoted as criticizing the U.S. film industry for financially wasteful production
practices, which he found "almost immoral" and compared to the more thrifty approach of Italian studios.
The soundtrack to Zabriskie Point included music from Pink Floyd, The Youngbloods, The Kaleidoscope, Jerry
Garcia, Patti Page, the Grateful Dead and the Rolling Stones and John Fahey.
Rejected tracks
Pink Floyd's song "Us and Them" (which later appeared on The Dark Side of the Moon) was written for the movie in
1969 by Richard Wright, who at first called it "The Violent Sequence." Antonioni rejected the song because it was
unlike "Careful with That Axe, Eugene" and instead, synchronized a re-recording of the latter with the film's violent
ending scene.
Antonioni visited the band The Doors while they were recording their album L.A. Woman and thought about putting
them in the soundtrack. The Doors recorded the song "L' America" for Zabriskie Point, but it was not used.
Critical response
Decades after its widely panned 1970 release, Zabriskie Point garnered critical
praise for its cinematography. Halprin and Frechette can barely be seen in the left
of this scene filmed at Zabriskie Point
Following prolonged publicity and
controversy in North America throughout its
production, Zabriskie Point was released in
February 1970, almost four years after
Antonioni began pre-production and over a
year and a half after shooting began. The
film was panned by most critics and other
published commentators of all political
stripes, as were the performances of
Frechette and Halprin. New York Times
reviewer Vincent Canby called Zabriskie
Point "a noble artistic impulse
short-circuited in a foreign land."
Moreover the counterculture audience MGM hoped to draw had by then shifted,
the film was ignored by moviegoers and taken altogether, the outcome was a notorious box office bomb. Production
expenses were at least $7,000,000 and only $900,000 was made in the domestic release. In 1978 it was listed in The
Fifty Worst Films of All Time, a book co-authored by radio host Michael Medved. Over 20 years after the film's
release Rolling Stone editor David Fricke wrote that "Zabriskie Point was one of the most extraordinary disasters in
modern cinematic history."
It was the only film Antonioni ever directed in the United States, where in 1994 he was
given the Honorary Academy Award "in recognition of his place as one of the cinema's master visual stylists."
Following early 21st century screenings of pristine wide-screen prints and a later DVD release, Zabriskie Point at
last garnered some critical praise, mostly for the stark beauty of its cinematography and innovative use of music in
the soundtrack, but outlooks on the film were still mixed.
''Zabriskie Point (film)''
[1] Canby, Vincent, Screen: Antonioni's 'Zabriskie Point' (http:/ / movies. nytimes.com/ movie/
review?res=9E04E2DB1F3FE034BC4852DFB466838B669EDE), New York Times, 10 February 1970, retrieved 2 February 2010
[2] moviecrazed.com, Out of the past (http:// www.moviecrazed.com/ outpast/ antonioni.html), retrieved 2 February 2010
[3] chainedandperfumed.wordpress.com, Making Zabriskie Point (http:/ / chainedandperfumed.wordpress.com/ category/ zabriskie-point/), 17
November 2009, retrieved 29 January 2010
[4] Fricke, David, zabriskie point (http:/ / www.phinnweb.org/links/ cinema/ directors/antonioni/ zabriskie/ ), phinnweb.org, retrieved 3
February 2010
External links
• Zabriskie Point (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0066601/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Zabriskie Point (http:/ / www. allmovie. com/ work/ A56101) at Allmovie
• Zabriskie Point @ pHinnWeb (http:/ / www.phinnweb.org/links/ cinema/ directors/antonioni/ zabriskie/ )
• Return to Zabriskie Point: The Mark Frechette and Daria Halprin Story (http:// www.popcultureaddict.com/
movies/ zabriskiepoint.htm) at Confessions of a Pop Culture Addict
''Getting Straight''
Getting Straight
Getting Straight
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Richard Rush
Produced by Richard Rush
Written by Robert Kaufman
Ken Kolb
Starring Elliott Gould
Candice Bergen
Music by Ronald Stein
Cinematography László Kovács
Editing by Maury Winetrobe
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date(s) May 13, 1970
July 31, 1970
September 10, 1977
Running time 124 mins
Country  United States
Language English
Getting Straight is a 1970 American comedy-drama motion picture directed by Richard Rush, released by Columbia
The story centered upon student politics at a university in the early 1970s, seen through the eyes of non-conformist
graduate student Harry Bailey (Elliott Gould). Also featured in the cast were Candice Bergen as Bailey's girlfriend
and Jeff Corey as Bailey's professor, with an early appearance by Harrison Ford in a bit role.
Getting Straight was released in an era of change and unrest in the United States in the early 1970s, and was in a
long line of films that dealt with these themes. Other films of this period with similar themes were Medium Cool
(1969), R. P. M. (1970), directed by Stanley Kramer, and The Strawberry Statement (1970).
''Getting Straight''
Harry Bailey, a former student activist and post-graduate, comes back to university to complete an education course
to become a teacher. He tries to avoid the increasing student unrest that has surfaced, but finds this difficult as his
girlfriend, Jan, is a leader in these protests.
Over time, student demonstrations bring police to the campus to quell the unrest, and the ensuing clashes lead to
martial law. Harry is forced to question his values in relation to this. At the height of the rioting he concurs with Jan
that "getting straight" is more important than unprotesting acceptance of the educational establishment.
Critical reception
Leonard Maltin noted that the film essentially was a "period piece" but that its "central issue of graduate student
(Elliott) Gould choosing between academic double-talk and his beliefs remains relevant." On the other hand, Steven
Scheuer wrote that the film was reflective of "hippiedom alienation at its shallowest."
Other reviewers, such as Roger Greenspun from the New York Times, were a little more complimentary in tone
about the film. While he says that overall the film is "misguided" he lauded Gould for "a brilliant, mercurial
performance" and that he "fires" the film "with a fervor and wonderful comic sense of reality."
• Greenspun, Roger (1970) Getting Straight New York Times, May 14, 1970. (accessed 9 July 2007) [1]
• Maltin, Leonard (1991) Leonard Maltin's Movie and Video Guide 1992, Signet, New York.
• Scheuer, Steven H. (1990) Movies on TV and Videocassette, Bamtam Books, New York.
External links
• Getting Straight
at the Internet Movie Database
[1] http:/ / movies2. nytimes. com/ mem/ movies/ review.html?title1=Getting%20Straight%20%28Movie%29&title2=&
reviewer=ROGER%20GREENSPUN&pdate=19700514& v_id=19598
[2] http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0065775/
The Intruders
The Intruders
The Intruders
Origin Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Genres R&B
Years active 1960—present
Labels Philadelphia International Records, Excel, Gamble
Sam "Little Sonny" Brown
Robert "Big Sonny" Edwards
Phillip "Phil" Terry
Eugene "Bird" Daughtry
Robert "Bobby Starr" Ferguson
The Intruders were an American soul music group most popular in the 1960s and 1970s. As one of the first groups
to have hit songs under the direction of Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff, they had a major influence on the
development of Philadelphia soul.
Formed around 1960, the group originally consisted of Sam "Little Sonny" Brown, Eugene "Bird" Daughtry, Phillip
"Phil" Terry and Robert "Big Sonny" Edwards.
In 1969, Sam Brown was replaced as lead singer by Bobby Starr,
only to rejoin the group in 1973.
In 1965, when songwriters and record producers Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff first contemplated leaving the
Cameo-Parkway record label to risk launching their own label, the vocalists on which they pinned all their hopes and
venture capital were The Intruders. Like many other subsequent acts the duo produced, which include the popular
Harold Melvin and the Blue Notes and The O'Jays, The Intruders had already developed a vocal sound that was both
theirs and uniquely Philadelphian.
Brown, Daughtry, Terry and Edwards had been recording and performing one-off singles together since 1961,
blending Philly's street corner doo-wop tradition with black gospel fervor. The result was neither as pop-infected as
Motown, nor as funky and blues-inflected as Stax. The sound which The Intruders refined for the Excel, Gamble and
Philadelphia International imprints reflected a different attitude than either Stax or Motown.
Gamble and Huff's success with The Intruders helped convince Columbia Records to grant them the money to launch
Philadelphia International. Gamble and Huff acknowledged that their work with The Intruders was the very
foundation of what they called "The Sound Of Philadelphia".
The Intruders, meanwhile, were undergoing some internal turmoil. When the group resurfaced on the 1970 Gamble
LP, When We Get Married, lead singer Brown was replaced by nightclub singer, Bobby Starr (born Robert
The title song, "When We Get Married" (R&B #8, Pop #45), a Dreamlovers cover, became a hit on the
charts, as was the follow-up "(Win, Place Or Show) She's A Winner". Starr's tenure with the group include the
historical Soul Train TV appearances, and the rare collector's classic single "I'm Girl Scoutin".
Brown returned to
the group in 1973 for the album Save The Children, which spawned The Intruders' last two big hits, "I'll Always
Love My Mama" (R&B #6, Pop #36) and "I Wanna Know Your Name" (R&B #9, Pop #60).
"Cowboys To Girls" (R&B #1, Pop #6) remains the only chart topping single of their career. It was awarded an
R.I.A.A. gold disc for one million sales in mid May 1968.
It was recently covered by the Hacienda Brothers. Other
covers of their hit singles include Tiarra's cover of "Together", which was also done by Gladys Knight & The Pips
The Intruders
on their Silk'N'Soul LP as well as The Three Degrees on their 1975 work Take Good Care Of Yourself.
During the late 1970s and early 1980s, their music was popular on the West Coast among Latino, specifically
Chicano, youth. Daughtry died of cancer in 1994, and Brown committed suicide in 1995. The Intruders today include
Bobby Starr, Glenn Montgomery and Phil Gay. The group is featured on the "My Music DVD hosted by Patti
LaBelle on PBS, and tour with the Love Train: Sound of Philadelphia Concert series.
There are also several tribute
groups including "The Philly Intruders," who appear on The Big Show DVD.
• "Gonna Be Strong" (1965)
• "(We'll Be) United" (1966)
• "Together" (1967)
• "A Love That's Real" (1967)
• "Cowboys To Girls" (1968)
• "Love Is Like A Baseball Game" (1968)
• "Slow Drag" (1968)
• "Sad Girl" (1969)
• "Me Tarzan, You Jane" (1969)
• "When We Get Married" (1970)
• "I'm Girl Scoutin" (1971)
• "Best Days of My Life" (1971)
• "I Bet He Don't Love You" (1971)
• "(Win Place Or Show) She's a winner" (1972)
• "Save The Children" (1973)
• "I'll Always Love My Mama" (1973)
• "I Wanna Know Your Name" (1973)
• "Hang On In There" (1974)
• "A Nice Girl Like You" (1974)
• "Energy of Love" (1975)
• "The Intruders Are Together" (Gamble 1967)
• "Cowboys To Girls" (Gamble 1968)
• "When We Get Married" (Gamble 1970)
• "Save The Children" (Gamble 1973)
• "Energy Of Love" (TSOP 1974)
• "Who Do You Love?" (Streetwave 1985)
• "How Long Has It Been" (Moor Entertainment 2002)
The Intruders
[1] Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. p. 241. ISBN 0-214-20512-6.
[2] The Intruders Sound. (http:// www.rnbshowcasemag. com/ intrudersprofile)
[3] Philadelphia International Souund & Arrangements. (http:// www. soultracks.com/ Gamble_and_Huff)
[4] Columbia (Formerly CBS Records) Reference. (http:// www.billboard.com/ features/
special-feature-philadelphia-international-1002689866.story#/ features/special-feature-philadelphia-international-1002689866.story)
[5] Bobby Starr - "When We Get Married" album. (http:/ / social. zune.net/ album/ The-Intruders/When-We-Get-Married/
8c260000-0400-11db-89ca-0019b92a3933/ details)
[6] Recording References Page. (http://www.soulfulkindamusic. net/ intruders.htm)
[7] Touring Reference. (http:// www.phillysoulclassics. com/ Love-Train-The-Sound-of-Philadelphia)
• A House On Fire: The Rise and Fall of Philadelphia Soul by John A. Jackson, ISBN 0195149726 (Publication:
New York Oxford University Press (U.S.), 2004)
• Chicago Soul by Robert Pruter. ISBN 0252062590, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1991.
• A Touch of Classic Soul: Vol, 1: Soul singers of the early 1970s by Marc Taylor. ISBN 0965232840 (Publication:
Aloiv Publishing, New York (U.S.), 1996)
''Dan August''
Dan August
Dan August
Format Crime drama
Starring Burt Reynolds
Norman Fell
Ned Romero
Richard Anderson
Ena Hartmann
Opening theme Dan August Theme by Dave Grusin
Country of origin  United States
No. of seasons 1
No. of episodes 28
Executive producer(s) Quinn Martin
Running time 60 mins.
Original channel ABC
Original run September 23, 1970 – April 8, 1971
Dan August is a short-lived 1970-1971 crime drama television series, which starred Burt Reynolds as the title
character: a police lieutenant who investigated homicide cases in his (fictional) hometown of Santa Luisa, California.
(The town was supposedly based on Santa Barbara but was filmed in Oxnard in Ventura County.) Other cast
members included Norman Fell as August's partner, Sergeant Charles Wilentz; Richard Anderson as Police Chief
Untermeyer; Ned Romero as Sergeant Joe Rivera; and Ena Hartman as Katie Grant. The show was produced by
Quinn Martin and aired on the ABC television network.
While not initially popular enough to be renewed for a second season, Dan August became a fan favorite in reruns,
particularly after Reynolds' popularity surged in the mid-1970s with his escalating movie career. CBS re-aired the
series both on The CBS Late Movie and in prime time during summer "rerun seasons" of both 1973 and 1975 to
larger audiences.
The series was based on Quinn Martin's 1970 made-for-TV movie House on Green Apple Road, starring Janet Leigh.
The film was based on Harold R. Daniels's 1966 novel of the same name. It was directed by Robert Day from a
script by George Eckstein. Christopher George played Dan August, with Keenan Wynn as Sergeant Wilentz and
Barry Sullivan as Chief Untermeyer. Ned Romero and Ena Hartman were the only actors in the film who reprised
their roles in the series. The film also featured Julie Harris, Walter Pidgeon, Ed Asner, Lynda Day, Joanne Linville,
Tim O'Connor, Mark Richman, and William Windom.
''Dan August''
[1] Brooks, Tim and Marsh, Earle. The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network TV Shows 1946-Present (4th edition). New York, Ballantine
Books, 1988. Pages 181-182.
[2] Marill, Alvin H. Movies Made for Television: The Telefeature and the Mini-Series 1964-1986. Page 190.
External links
• Dan August (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0065286/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Dan August (http:/ / www. tv.com/ show/ 230/ summary. html) at TV.com
Gunsmoke is an American radio and television Western drama series created by director Norman MacDonnell and
writer John Meston. The stories take place in and around Dodge City, Kansas, during the settlement of the American
The radio version ran from 1952 to 1961, and John Dunning
writes that among radio drama enthusiasts
"Gunsmoke is routinely placed among the best shows of any kind and any time." The television version ran for 20
seasons from 1955 to 1975, and still remains the United States' longest-running prime time, live-action drama with
635 episodes (Law & Order ended in 2010 with 489 episodes). At the end of its run in 1975, Los Angeles Times
columnist Cecil Smith wrote "Gunsmoke was the dramatization of the American epic legend of the west. Our own
Iliad and Odyssey, created from standard elements of the dime novel and the pulp western as romanticized by
Buntline, Hart, and Twain. It was ever the stuff of legend."
Radio version
The cast of radio's Gunsmoke: Howard McNear (Doc), William Conrad (Matt), Georgia Ellis (Kitty) and Parley Baer (Chester)
Genre Western
Running time 30 minutes
Country United States
Languages English
TV adaptations Gunsmoke
Starring William Conrad
Parley Baer
Howard McNear
Georgia Ellis
Creators Norman MacDonnell
John Meston
Producers Norman MacDonnell
Air dates April 26, 1952 to June 11, 1961 (excluding reruns)
No. of series 9
No. of episodes 413
Audio format Monaural
In the late 1940s, CBS chairman William S. Paley, a fan of The Adventures of Philip Marlowe radio serial, asked his
programming chief, Hubell Robinson, to develop a hardboiled Western series, a show about a "Philip Marlowe of the
Old West." Robinson instructed his West Coast CBS Vice-President, Harry Ackerman, who had developed the Philip
Marlowe series, to take on the task.
Ackerman and his scriptwriters, Mort Fine and David Friedkin, created an audition script called "Mark Dillon Goes
to Gouge Eye". Two auditions were created in 1949. The first was very much like a hardboiled detective series and
starred Rye Billsbury as Dillon; the second starred Straight Arrow actor Howard Culver in a more Western, lighter
version of the same script. CBS liked the Culver version better, and Ackerman was told to proceed.
But there was a complication. Culver's contract as the star of Straight Arrow would not allow him to do another
Western series. The project was shelved for three years, when MacDonnell and Meston discovered it creating an
adult Western series of their own.
MacDonnell and Meston wanted to create a radio Western for adults, in contrast to the prevailing juvenile fare such
as The Lone Ranger and The Cisco Kid. Gunsmoke was set in Dodge City, Kansas during the thriving cattle days of
the 1870s. Dunning
notes, "The show drew critical acclaim for unprecedented realism."
Radio cast and character biographies
The radio series aired from April 26, 1952 ("Billy the Kid," written by Walter Newman) until June 18, 1961 on CBS.
It starred William Conrad as Marshal Matt Dillon; Howard McNear as Doc Charles Adams; Georgia Ellis as Kitty
Russell; and Parley Baer as Dillon's assistant Chester Proudfoot.
Conrad was one of the last actors who auditioned for the role of Marshal Dillon. With a powerful, distinctive voice,
Conrad was already one of radio's busiest actors. Though Meston championed him, MacDonnell thought Conrad
might be overexposed. During his audition, however, Conrad won over MacDonnell after reading only a few lines.
Dillon as portrayed by Conrad was a lonely, isolated man, toughened by a hard life. MacDonnell later claimed
"Much of Matt Dillon's character grew out of Bill Conrad."
Meston relished the upending of cherished Western fiction clichés and felt that few Westerns gave any inkling of
how brutal the Old West was in reality. Dunning writes that Meston was especially disgusted by the archetypal
Western hero and set out "to destroy [that type of] character he loathed." In Meston's view, "Dillon was almost as
scarred as the homicidal psychopaths who drifted into Dodge from all directions."
Chester's character had no surname until Baer ad libbed "Proudfoot" during an early rehearsal. The amiable character
was usually described as Dillon's "assistant," but the December 13, 1952 episode "Post Martin," Dillon described
Chester as Dillon's deputy. The TV series changed Chester's last name to Goode.
Doc Adams was iconoclastic and grumpy, but McNear's performances became more warm-hearted. In the January
31, 1953 episode "Cavalcade," Doc Adams' backstory is revealed: His real name is Calvin Moore, educated in
Boston, and he practiced as a doctor for a year in Richmond, Virginia where he fell in love with a beautiful young
woman who was also being courted by a wealthy young man named Roger Beauregard. Beauregard forced Doc into
fighting a duel with him, resulting in Beauregard's being shot and killed. Even though it was a fair duel, because Doc
was a Yankee and an outsider he was forced to flee. The young woman fled after him and they were married in St.
Louis, but two months later she died of typhus. Doc wandered throughout the territories until he settled in Dodge
City seventeen years later under the name of "Charles Adams."
Georgia Ellis appeared in the first episode "Billy the Kid" (April 26, 1952) as "Francie Richards," a former girlfriend
of Matt Dillon and the widow of a criminal. "Miss Kitty" did not appear on the radio series until the May 10, 1952
episode "Jaliscoe." Kitty's profession was hinted at, but never explicit; in a 1953 interview with Time, MacDonnell
declared, "Kitty is just someone Matt has to visit every once in a while. We never say it, but Kitty is a prostitute,
plain and simple."
The television show portrayed Kitty as a saloon proprietor, not a prostitute. Sometime in 1959,
Ellis was billed as Georgia Hawkins instead of Georgia Ellis.
Distinction from other radio westerns
Gunsmoke was often a somber program, particularly in its early years. Dunning writes that Dillon "played his hand
and often lost. He arrived too late to prevent a lynching. He amputated a dying man's leg and lost the patient anyway.
He saved a girl from brutal rapists then found himself unable to offer her what she needed to stop her from moving
into...life as a prostitute." (Dunning, 304) Some listeners, such as Dunning, argue the radio version was more
realistic. Episodes were aimed at adults and featured some of the most explicit content of their time, including
violent crimes, scalpings, massacres, and opium addicts. Many episodes ended on a somber note, and villains often
got away with their crimes. Nonetheless, thanks to the subtle scripts and outstanding ensemble cast, over the years
the program evolved into a warm, often humorous celebration of human nature.
Apart from the doleful tone, Gunsmoke was distinct from other radio westerns, as the dialogue was often slow and
halting, and due to the outstanding sound effects, listeners had a nearly palpable sense of the prairie where the show
was set. The effects were subtle but multilayered, giving the show a spacious feel. John Dunning wrote, "The listener
heard extraneous dialogue in the background, just above the muted shouts of kids playing in an alley. He heard
noises from the next block, too, where the inevitable dog was barking." (Dunning, 305)
Radio's Gunsmoke was aired on Armed Forces Radio.
Talk of adapting Gunsmoke to television
Not long after the radio show began, there was talk of adapting it to television. Privately, MacDonnell had a guarded
interest in taking the show to television, but publicly, he declared that "our show is perfect for radio," and he feared
that, as Dunning writes, "Gunsmoke confined by a picture could not possibly be as authentic or attentive to detail."
(Dunning, 305) "In the end," wrote Dunning, "CBS simply took it away from" MacDonnell and began preparing for
the television version. (Dunning, 305)
Conrad and the others were given auditions, but they were little more than token efforts—especially in Conrad's
case, due to his obesity. However, Meston was kept as the main writer. In the early years, a majority of the TV
episodes were adapted from the radio scripts, often using identical scenes and dialogue. Dunning wrote, "That radio
fans considered the TV show a sham and its players impostors should surprise no one. That the TV show was not a
sham is due in no small part to the continued strength of Meston's scripts." (Dunning, 304)
MacDonnell and Meston continued the radio version of Gunsmoke until 1961, making it one of the most enduring
vintage radio dramas.
Conrad directed two television episodes, in 1963 and 1971, while McNear appeared on six, playing characters other
than Doc, including three times as storekeeper Howard Rudd.
Television version
Gunsmoke title card
Format Western
Created by Norman MacDonnell
John Meston
Starring James Arness
Milburn Stone
Amanda Blake
Dennis Weaver
Ken Curtis
Burt Reynolds
Buck Taylor
Glenn Strange
Roger Ewing
Theme music composer Rex Koury
Glenn Spencer
Country of origin United States
No. of seasons 6 ('Marshal Dillon', syndication re-titling of half-hour episodes)
14 ('Gunsmoke'),
20 (total seasons)
No. of episodes 233 ('Marshal Dillon', syndication re-titling of half-hour episodes), 402
635 (total episodes) (List of episodes)
Running time 26 minutes (1955–1961), 50 minutes (1961–1975)
Production company(s) CBS Television
Filmaster Productions
The Arness Production Company (1961-'64)
Original channel CBS
Picture format Black and white (1955–1966), color (1966–1975)
Original run September 10, 1955 – March 31, 1975
Good evening. My name's Wayne. Some of you may have seen me before; I hope so. I've been kicking around
Hollywood a long time. I've made a lot of pictures out here, all kinds, and some of them have been Westerns.
And that's what I'm here to tell you about tonight: a Western—a new TV show called Gunsmoke. No, I'm not
in it. I wish I were, though, because I think it's the best thing of its kind that's come along, and I hope you'll
agree with me; it's honest, it's adult, it's realistic. When I first heard about the show Gunsmoke, I knew there
was only one man to play in it: James Arness. He's a young fellow, and maybe new to some of you, but I've
worked with him and I predict he'll be a big star. So you might as well get used to him, like you've had to get
used to me! And now I'm proud to present my friend Jim Arness in Gunsmoke.
– John Wayne- Gunsmoke TV episode one
"Matt Gets It."
The TV series ran from September 10, 1955 to March 31, 1975 on CBS with 635 total episodes. Its longevity has
runners-up questioning its primacy as longest run. It is said to be one of many scripted primetime U.S. television
series in contention having "recurring characters," though some shows were foreign-made with US airing.
As of
2010, it is the fifth globally, after Doctor Who (1963–1989, 2005- ), Taggart (1983-), The Bill (1984–2010) and The
Simpsons (1989-). James Arness and Milburn Stone portrayed their Gunsmoke characters for twenty consecutive
years, as did Kelsey Grammer as the television character Frasier Crane.
George Walsh, the announcer for
Gunsmoke, began in 1952 on radio's Gunsmoke and continued until television's Gunsmoke was canceled in 1975.
When Gunsmoke was adapted for television in 1955, the network did not appear interested in bringing either Conrad
or his radio costars to the new medium (his weight was rumored to be a deciding factor) despite a campaign to
convince the network. Losing the role embittered Conrad for years, though he later starred in another CBS television
series, Cannon (1971–1976). Denver Pyle was also considered for the role, as was Raymond Burr, who was
ultimately seen as too heavyset for the part. Charles Marquis Warren, television Gunsmoke's first director, said "His
voice was fine but he was too big. When he stood up, his chair stood with him."
According to a James Arness
interview, John Wayne was offered the role, but would not do it; Wayne was one of the biggest stars in Hollywood,
and at that time, working in television was a step down in prestige for a star actor. The account is disputed by
Charles Marquis Warren, the director who brought Gunsmoke to television. Although he agrees Wayne encouraged
Arness to take the role, Warren claims "I hired Jim Arness of the strength of a picture he's done for me... I never
thought for a moment of offering it to Wayne."
In the end, the primary roles were all recast, with Arness taking the lead role of Marshal Matt Dillon upon the
recommendation of John Wayne, who also introduced the first episode of the series; Dennis Weaver playing Chester
Goode; Milburn Stone being cast as Dr. Galen "Doc" Adams; and Amanda Blake taking on the role of Miss Kitty
Russell, owner of the Long Branch Saloon. MacDonnell became the associate producer of the TV show and later the
producer. Meston was named head writer. Arness held rein to doing one scripted role for a record twenty years.
In 1962, Burt Reynolds was added to the show's lineup, as the "halfbreed" blacksmith Quint Asper and rode the span
between characters Chester Goode and Festus Haggen. Three actors, who later played Dodge deputies, Ken Curtis,
Roger Ewing and Buck Taylor, had previous guest roles. In 1963, singer and character actor Ken Curtis had a guest
shot as a shady ladies' man. In 1964, Weaver left the series to venture out as the lead in his own NBC series,
Kentucky Jones.
Ken Curtis, reared in Las Animas, Colorado, and for a time a son-in-law of director John Ford, returned in 1964, and
was cast to play the stubbornly illiterate hillbilly Festus Haggen. The character came to town (in an episode titled
"Us Haggens") to avenge the death of his twin brother, Fergus Haggen, and another brother, Jeff Haggen, and
decided to stay in Dodge when the deed was done. Initially on the fringes of Dodge society, Festus was slowly
phased in as a reliable sidekick/ part-time deputy to Matt Dillon when Reynolds left in 1965. In the episode "Alias
Festus Haggen," he is mistaken for a robber and killer whom he has to expose to free himself (both parts played by
Curtis). In a comic relief episode ("Mad Dog"), another case of mistaken identity forces Festus to fight three sons of
a man killed by his cousin. Chester and Festus were perhaps Dillon's more popular sidekicks, though others would
pin-on a tin badge as deputy for two and a half to seven-year stints, including Roger Ewing (1966–1968) as Thad
Greenwood and Burt Reynolds as Quint Asper (1962–1965). Buck Taylor, who played gunsmith Newly O'Brian
from 1967–1975, also served as back-up deputy and doctor, having some studies in medicine.
When Milburn Stone left the series for health reasons for several episodes, Pat Hingle played his temporary
replacement physician, Dr. John Chapman, whose presence was at first stoutly resisted by Festus, a close friend of
Doc Adams though those two characters appeared to quarrel frequently over minor matters.
The back stories of some of the main characters were largely left to the imagination of the viewer. Little was said
about Matt's familial background, apart from his wayward youth and subsequent tutorage of a caring lawman. Kitty
Russell, born in New Orleans and reared by a flashy foster mother (who once visited Dodge), apparently had no
living family, although in an early episode, John Dehner portrayed a New Orleans businessman claiming to be
Kitty's father, but leaves under a cloud of suspicion after his attempts to have Kitty sign over to him her interest in
the Long Branch. Barkeep Sam was said to be married, though his wife never made an appearance. Quint Asper's
white father was killed by white scavengers. Thad Greenwood's father, a storekeep, was also murdered. The question
as to whether Chester Goode's stiff right leg was wooden or just maimed, was never fully answered. Doc and he
never discussed the issue, which might have painted the free spirited, comic deputy with a darker tone. Newly
O'Brien was named after a physician uncle, who ignited his interest in medicine.
While Dillon and Miss Kitty clearly had a close personal relationship, the two never married. In a July 2, 2002
Associated Press interview with Bob Thomas, Arness explained, "If they were man and wife, it would make a lot of
difference. The people upstairs decided it was better to leave the show as it was, which I totally agreed with." In the
episode "Waste", featuring Johnny Whitaker as a boy with a prostitute mother, her madam questions Dillon as to
why the law overlooks Miss Kitty's enterprise. It appears that bordellos could exist "at the law's discretion" (meaning
the marshal's). Miss Kitty was written out in 1974. The actor sought more free time and reportedly missed her late
co-star, Glenn Strange, who played her Long Branch barkeep, Sam. When Blake decided not to return for the show's
20th (and final) season, the character was said to have returned to New Orleans.
Differences between the characters on the radio and television versions
There were differences between the characters on the radio and TV versions of Gunsmoke. In the radio series, Doc
was acerbic, somewhat mercenary, and borderline alcoholic — at least in the program's early years. On radio's
Gunsmoke, Doc Adams's real name was Dr. Calvin Moore, who came west and changed his name to escape a charge
of murder.
The television Doc, though still crusty, was in many ways softer and warmer. Miss Kitty, who in the radio series
likely engaged in prostitution, was viewed more as "the proprietor of a saloon" on the television series. Except for a
few early scripts taken from the radio series, viewers only saw Miss Kitty as a kindhearted businesswoman.
Nonetheless, several scenes depicted one of her girls leading a cowboy to the second floor of the saloon, where the
boarding house was situated.
For sixteen years on television, a sign hung over "Doc's" office that read "Dr. G. Adams". Toward the end of the
series' run, Milburn Stone was given free rein to choose the character's first name. The actor chose the surname of an
ancient Greek physician and medical researcher named Galen
as a first name.
From 1955 to 1961, Gunsmoke was a half-hour show (re-titled Marshal Dillon in syndication). It then went to an
hour-long format. The series was re-titled "Gun Law" in the UK. The Marshal Dillon syndicated rerun lasted from
1961 until 1964 on CBS, originally on Tuesday nights within its time in reruns.
Gunsmoke was TV's No. 1 ranked show from 1957 to 1961 before slipping into a decline after expanding to an hour.
In 1967, the show's 12th season, CBS planned to cancel the series, but widespread viewer reaction (including a
mention in Congress and the behind-the-scenes pressure from the wife of CBS's president) prevented its demise. On
the Biography Channel's "Behind The Scenes: Gilligan's Island"; 2002) Gilligan's Island producer Sherwood
Schwartz states that the wife of CBS's president pressured her husband not to cancel "Gunsmoke" in 1967, and so the
network cut Gilligan's Island instead. The show continued in its new time slot at 8 p.m. on Mondays. This
scheduling move led to a spike in ratings that saw it once again rally to the top 10 in the Nielsen ratings until the
1973–1974 television season.
In September 1975, despite still ranking among the Top 30 programs in the ratings,
Gunsmoke was canceled after a twenty-year run; it was replaced by Mary Tyler Moore spin-offs Rhoda and Phyllis.
Thirty TV Westerns came and went during its 20-year tenure, and Gunsmoke was the sole survivor, with Alias Smith
and Jones leaving the airwaves in 1972 and Bonanza in 1973.
For many seasons, Gunsmoke ran its ending credits
with a photograph of a coffeepot on the stove in the
Dodge City jail. This coffeepot at the Cracker Barrel
restaurant in Lubbock, Texas, resembles the one used
on the series.
Arness and Stone remained with the show for its entire run though
Stone missed seven episodes in 1971.
The entire cast was stunned by the cancellation, as they were
unaware CBS was considering it. According to Arness, "We didn't
do a final, wrap-up show. We finished the 20th year, we all
expected to go on for another season, or two or three. The
(network) never told anybody they were thinking of canceling."
The cast and crew read the news in the trade papers. (Associated
Press, July 2, 2002, Bob Thomas)
In 1987, many of the original cast reunited for the TV movie,
Gunsmoke: Return to Dodge,
filmed in Alberta, Canada. Ken
Curtis declined returning, citing a contract dispute, saying, "As
Dillon's right hand man, I felt the offer should approximate Miss Blake's." Instead, Buck Taylor's Newly O'Brian
became Dodge's new marshal, though the retired Matt Dillon was the hero. A huge ratings success, it led to four
more TV films being made in the U.S. After Amanda Blake's death, the writers built on the 1973 two-part episodic
romance of "Matt's Love Story", which was noted for the marshal's first overnight visit to a female's lodgings. In the
episode, Matt loses his memory and his heart during a brief liaison with "Mike" Yardley (Michael Learned of The
Waltons). In preserving the ethics of the era and the heretofore flawless hero's character, the healed Dillon returns to
Dodge City. Movie number two, Gunsmoke: The Last Apache
(1990), had Learned reprising the role of "Mike
Yardley" to divulge that Matt sired her daughter, who is now a young woman named Beth. Other films (which all
featured daughter Beth) included Gunsmoke: To the Last Man
(1992), Gunsmoke: The Long Ride
(1993), and
Gunsmoke: One Man's Justice
In August 2009, CBS announced development of a film version prequel to reboot the series. National Treasure: Book
of Secrets writer Gregory Poirier was hired to write the script.
In TV Bootleg Favs, (a book of lists about the questionable but thriving practice of copying TV shows from networks
and reselling on DVD), Gunsmoke ranks fifth, (Top seven: NCIS, The Simpsons, Dancing With The Stars, CSI,
Gunsmoke, The Facts of Life, and Mayberry RFD. Many of these series are not yet fully available on DVD).
• 1956–1957: #8
• 1957–1958: #1
• 1958–1959: #1
• 1959–1960: #1
• 1960–1961: #1
• 1961–1962: #3
• 1962–1963: #10
• 1963–1964: #20
• 1964–1965: #27
• 1965–1966: #30
• 1966–1967: #34
• 1967–1968: #4
• 1968–1969: #6
• 1969–1970: #2
• 1970–1971: #5
• 1971–1972: #4
• 1972–1973: #8
• 1973–1974: #15
• 1974–1975: #28
In syndication, the entire 20-year run of Gunsmoke is separated into three packages by CBS Paramount Television:
• 1955–1961 half-hour episodes: These episodes are sometimes seen in their original format and sometimes in the
Marshal Dillon format. When first-run prime-time episodes of Gunsmoke expanded to an hour in Fall 1961,
CBS-TV reran the half-hour episodes as Marshal Dillon on the network on Tuesday nights from 1961 through
1964. These were later rerun in syndication. General syndication ended in the 1980s, but they do air occasionally
on cable TV. Local stations would show the re-titled Marshal Dillon version of the series, while the series under
the original Gunsmoke title (with some episodes under the Marshal Dillon retitling) were seen in the late 1990s on
TV Land.
• 1961–1966 one-hour black-and-white episodes: These episodes have not been widely seen in regular
syndication since the 1980s, although selected episodes did air from the mid 1980s through the early 1990s on
CBN Cable and The Family Channel, and later on the Encore Westerns Channel on a three-year contract that
ended circa 2006. As of January 2010, Encore Westerns is again airing the episodes.
• 1966–1975 one-hour color episodes: The last nine seasons of the Western, these are the most widely syndicated
episodes of the entire series' run and are still aired on many stations, including a popular run on TV Land.
DVD releases
Certain selected episodes are available on DVD in three different box sets. Twelve episodes from 1955 to 1964 were
selected for the Gunsmoke: Volume I box set, and another twelve episodes from 1964 to 1975 were selected for the
Gunsmoke: Volume II box set. Both volume box sets are also available as a combined single "Gift Box Set". A third
unique DVD box set known as Gunsmoke: The Directors Collection was also released with ten selected episodes
from certain seasons throughout the series' twenty year history. All of these box sets are available on Region 1 DVD
from Paramount Home Entertainment and CBS DVD.
Paramount Home Entertainment and CBS DVD have released the first 3 seasons on DVD in Region 1. Season 4,
volume 1 will be released on October 5, 2010.
Season 4, volume 2 will be released on December 13, 2010.
DVD Name Ep # Release Date
The First Season 39 July 17, 2007
The Second Season, Volume 1 20 January 8, 2008
The Second Season, Volume 2 19 May 27, 2008
The Third Season, Volume 1 20 December 9, 2008
The Third Season, Volume 2 19 May 26, 2009
The Fourth Season, Volume 1 20 October 5, 2010
The Fourth Season, Volume 2 19 December 14, 2010
Regular cast; major characters
• U.S. Marshal Matt Dillon (1955–1975): James Arness
• Galen "Doc" Adams, M.D. (1955–1975): Milburn Stone
• Kathleen "Kitty" Russell (1955–1974): Amanda Blake
• Chester B. Goode (1955–1964): Dennis Weaver; left series to star in unsuccessful series Kentucky Jones
• Festus Haggen (1964–1975): Ken Curtis
• Clem (bartender; 1959–1961): Clem Fuller
• Sam (bartender; 1961–1973): Glenn Strange
• Rudy (bartender; 1965–1967): Rudy Sooter
• Floyd (bartender; 1974–1975): Robert Brubaker
• Quint Asper (blacksmith; 1962–1965): Burt Reynolds
• Deputy Marshal Clayton Thaddeus "Thad" Greenwood (1965–1967): Roger Ewing
• Newly O'Brian (gunsmith; 1967–1975): Buck Taylor
• Wilbur Jonas (storekeeper, 1955–1963): Dabbs Greer
• Howie Uzzell (hotel clerk, 1955–1975): Howard Culver
• Moss Grimmick (stableman; 1955–1963): George Selk
• Jim Buck (stagecoach driver; 1957–1962): Robert Brubaker
• Louie Pheeters (town drunk; 1961–1970): James Nusser
• Ma Smalley (boardinghouse owner; 1961–1972): Sarah Selby
• Hank Miller (stableman; 1963–1975): Hank Patterson
• Mr. Bodkin (banker; 1963–1970): Roy Roberts
• Barney Danches (telegraph agent; 1965–1974): Charles Seel
• Roy (townsperson; 1965–1969): Roy Barcroft
• Halligan (rancher; 1966–1975): Charles Wagenheim
• Mr. Lathrop (storekeeper; 1966–1975): Woody Chambliss
• Nathan Burke (freight agent; 1966–1975): Ted Jordan
• Percy Crump (undertaker; 1968–1972): Justin McGeary
• Ed O'Connor (rancher; 1968–1972): Tom Brown
• Judge Brooker (1970–1975): Herb Vigran
• Dr. John Chapman (1971): Pat Hingle
• Miss Hannah (saloon owner; 1974–1975): Fran Ryan
• Angus McTabbott (1966): Chips Rafferty Australian actor
• In TV Guide's April 17, 1993 issue celebrating 40 years of television, the all-time-best-TV programs were chosen.
"No contest, this [Gunsmoke] was THE TV western."
• Entertainment Weekly (February 19, 1999 issue) ranked the premier of Gunsmoke as #47 in the "100 Greatest
Moments in Television."
• Entertainment Weekly, in 1998, ranked Gunsmoke as #16 in The 100 Greatest TV Shows of all time.
• In a 1998 TV Guide poll of 50,000, Gunsmoke was ranked as CBS's best western and James Arness was ranked
as CBS's best "Gunslinger."
• James Arness (Matt), Milburn Stone (Doc), Ken Curtis (Festus), Dennis Weaver (Chester), and Amanda Blake
(Kitty) are all inductees of the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum.
• In 2002, TV Guide ranked Gunsmoke as number 40 in the 50 greatest television shows of all time.
• Today's Dodge City has a tribute to Gunsmoke, including furniture from the 1960s television set and an old
television tuned to the show. Signed photographs from the show's actors and other memorabilia are on the
Notable guest stars
(partial list, alphabetical):
• Willie Aames, Jack Albertson, Mabel Albertson, Claude Akins, Chris Alcaide, Richard Anderson, Tige Andrews,
R. G. Armstrong, Jenny Lee Arness,
Jean Arthur, John Astin
• Edward Asner, Lew Ayres, John Drew Barrymore, Richard Basehart, Ed Begley, Ralph Bellamy, James Best,
Dan Blocker, Randy Boone, Bruce Boxleitner, Eric Braeden
• Peter Breck, Beau Bridges, Morgan Brittany, Charles Bronson, James Brown, Joyce Bulifant, Gary Busey,
• Sebastian Cabot, Frank Cady, Harry Carey, Jr., John Carradine, Conlan Carter, Jack Cassidy, Mary Castle, Lee J.
Cobb, Michael Cole, Don Collier, Chuck Connors
• Mike Connors, Tim Considine, Pat Conway, Elisha Cook, Jr., Ben Cooper, Glenn Corbett, Dennis Cross, Brandon
Cruz, Robert Culp, Royal Dano, Kim Darby, Bette Davis
• Jim Davis (multiple appearances), Richard Deacon, Gloria DeHaven, John Dehner, Bruce Dern
• William Devane, Angie Dickinson, James Doohan, Richard Dreyfuss, Buddy Ebsen, Barbara Eden, Jack Elam,
Sam Elliott, Gene Evans (10 episodes), Shug Fisher, Paul Fix
• Jay C. Flippen, Constance Ford, Harrison Ford, Jodie Foster, Ron Foster, Anne Francis, Dean Fredericks, Bert
Freed, Victor French (18 episodes)
• Beverly Garland, Leif Garrett, James Gavin, Lisa Gerritsen, Melissa Gilbert, Harold Gould, James Gregory, Tom
• Kevin Hagen, Ron Hagerthy, Alan Hale, Jr., Mariette Hartley, Ron Hayes, Katherine Helmond, Earl Holliman,
Ron Howard, Bo Hopkins, Dennis Hopper, Marsha Hunt
• Josephine Hutchinson, Steve Ihnat, John Ireland, Richard Jaeckel, Salome Jens, Brad Johnson, Ben Johnson
• I. Stanford Jolley, L. Q. Jones, Robert Karnes, Don Keefer, DeForest Kelley, Dan Kemp, Adam Kennedy, George
Kennedy, Richard Kiley, Jack Klugman, Ted Knight, Diane Ladd, Martin Landau
• Allan Lane, Louise Latham, Harry Lauter, Anna Lee, June Lockhart, Jack Lord, Dayton Lummis, Tyler MacDuff,
Barton MacLane, Rose Marie, Scott Marlowe, Ross Martin
• Strother Martin, Darren McGavin, Peggy McCay, Howard McNear, Patrick McVey, Tyler McVey, Vera Miles,
Denny Scott Miller, John Mitchum, Roger Mobley, Ricardo Montalbán, Erin Moran, Harry Morgan, Read
Morgan (12 times)
• Richard Mulligan, Diana Muldaur, Gene Nelson, Leslie Nielsen, Leonard Nimoy, Jeanette Nolan, Nick Nolte,
Simon Oakland, Warren Oates, Susan Olsen
• Gregg Palmer (20 times), John Payne, Brock Peters, John Pickard (12 times), Slim Pickens, Suzanne Pleshette,
Judson Pratt, Andrew Prine, Denver Pyle, Dack Rambo, Gilman Rankin
• Pernell Roberts, Wayne Rogers, Ruth Roman, Katharine Ross, Kurt Russell, Albert Salmi, John Saxon
• William Shatner, Tom Simcox, Robert F. Simon, Tom Skerritt, Jeremy Slate, Quintin Sondergaard, Aaron
Spelling, Loretta Swit, Harry Dean Stanton, Gloria Talbott, Russ Tamblyn, Vic Tayback
• Dub Taylor, Robert Totten (also a director), Harry Townes (seven times), Daniel J. Travanti, Forrest Tucker,
Cicely Tyson, Robert Urich, Joan Van Ark, Lee Van Cleef, Mitch Vogel, Joyce Van Patten, Robert Vaughn,
Jan-Michael Vincent, Gary Vinson
• Jon Voight, Lesley Ann Warren, Ruth Warrick, David Wayne, Adam West, Johnny Whitaker, James Whitmore,
Robert J. Wilke, Chill Wills, William Windom, Morgan Woodward (19 times), Ian Wolfe, and Dana Wynter.
Gunsmoke had one spin-off series, Dirty Sally, a semi-comedy starring Jeanette Nolan as an old woman and Dack
Rambo as a young gunfighter, leaving Dodge City for California in order to pan for gold. The program lasted only
thirteen weeks and aired in the first half of 1974, a year before Gunsmoke ended.
Notable directors
• Andrew McLaglen
• Arnold Laven
• Arthur Hiller
• Dennis Weaver
• Gene Nelson
• Irving J. Moore
• John Rich
• Leo Penn
• Marc Daniels
• Mark Rydell
• Peter Graves
• Philip Leacock
• Robert Totten
• Sam Peckinpah
• Sobey Martin
• Tay Garnett
• Victor French
• Vincent McEveety
• William Conrad
• William F. Claxton
• Fred Thompson
The Gunsmoke radio theme song and later TV theme was titled "Old Trails,"
also known as "Boothill." The
Gunsmoke theme was composed by Rex Koury.
The original radio version was conducted by Koury. The TV
version was thought to have been first conducted by CBS west coast music director Lud Gluskin. The lyrics of the
theme, never aired on the radio or television show, were recorded and released by Tex Ritter in 1955. Ritter was
backed on that Capitol record by Rex Koury and the radio "Gunsmoke" orchestra.
Other notable composers included:
• Elmer Bernstein
• Franz Waxman
• Jerry Goldsmith
The Gunsmoke brand was used to endorse numerous products, from cottage cheese
to cigarettes.
Lowell Toy Manufacturing Corporation ("It's a Lowell Game") issued Gunsmoke as their game No. 822.
products include Gunsmoke puzzles,
In 1985, Capcom released a video game for the arcade (and its corresponding game for the NES in 1988) with a
western theme, called Gun.Smoke. Other than the western theme, the show and game have no relationship
whatsoever, so to avoid plagiarism, the dot in between the words "gun" and "smoke" was inserted.
• Dell Comics published numerous issues of their Four Color Comics series on Gunsmoke.
(including issues
#679, 720, 769, 797, 844 and, in 1958–62, #6–27).
• Gold Key Comics continued with issues #1–6 in 1969–70.

• A comic strip version of the series ran in British newspapers for several years under the show's UK title, Gun
• Hard cover comic "BBC Gunsmoke Annuals" were marketed in Great Britain under the authority of the BBC who
had broadcasting rights there.
• Gunsmoke comics in Spanish were published under the title "Aventura la ley del revolver"
• In 1957, Ballantine Books published a collection of short stories
Each story is based on a half hour Gunsmoke
episode. Although a photo of James Arness and the CBS TV logo are on the book cover, in at least one story Matt
introduces Chester as "Chester Proudfoot," an indication that the stories are actually adapted from radio scripts.
• Whitman Books published
• Gunsmoke by Robert Turner in 1958, and
• Gunsmoke: "Showdown on Front Street"
by Paul S. Newman in 1969.
• In 1974, Award Books published the following paperback books written by Jackson Flynn based on the TV
• Gunsmoke #1: "Renegades"
• Gunsmoke #2: "Shootout"
• Gunsmoke #3: "Duel at Dodge City"
• In 1998, Boulevard Books published the following paperbacks written by Gary McCarthy based on the TV series
(however, reviewers on Amazon.com state that these adaptations are poorly done):
• #1: Gunsmoke
• #2: Gunsmoke: "Dead Man's Witness"
• #3: Gunsmoke: "Marshal Festus"
• A series of novels based upon the television series written by Joseph A. West with forewords by James Arness
was published by Signet:
• Gunsmoke: "Blood, Bullets and Buckskin", January 2005 (ISBN 0-451-21348-3)
• Gunsmoke: "The Last Dog Soldier", May 2005 (ISBN 0-451-21491-9)
• Gunsmoke: "Blizzard of Lead", September 2005 (ISBN 0-451-21633-4)
• Gunsmoke: "The Reckless Gun", May 2006 (ISBN 0-451-21923-6)
• Gunsmoke: "Dodge the Devil", October 2006 (ISBN 0-451-21972-4)
• Gunsmoke: "The Day of the Gunfighter", January 2007 (ISBN 0-451-22015-8)
[1] See Dunning, 1998
[2] Cecil Smith, "Gunsmoke," Los Angeles Times, September 1975.
[3] Dunning, 1998
[4] (http:// gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 79-WilliamDillon.htm) "Matt Dillon's character grew out of
Bill Conrad." GunsmokeNet.com.
[5] Dunning, 304
[6] (http:// www. gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 68-ArmedForces.htm) "Transcriptions (records) of
radios' Gunsmoke were popular on Armed Forces Radio," GunsmokeNet.com
[7] (http:// www. youtube. com/ watch?v=MHVSCribt3U) John Wayne's introduction of television's first Gunsmoke, September 10, 1955.
[8] Gunsmoke (http:// www.museum. tv/ archives/ etv/ G/ htmlG/ gunsmoke/ gunsmoke. htm) - Museum of Broadcast Communications
[9] (http:/ / www. gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 107_FrasierDillon.htm)"What do Frasier (Kelsey
Grammer), Matt Dillon (James Arness) and Doc Adams (Milburn Stone) have in common?" GunsmokeNet.com
[10] (http:/ / www. gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 24-walsh.htm) Bill O'Hallaren, "When Chester
Forgot to Limp and other fond recollections of 20 years on Gunsmoke," TV Guide, August 23, 1975
[11] (http:/ / gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 91-MattBurr.htm) "Raymond Burr auditioned for the role of
television's Matt Dillon," GunsmokeNet.com
[12] (http:// gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 76-DocsRealName.htm) "On radio's Gunsmoke, Doc
Adams' real name was Dr. Calvin Moore," GunsmokeNet.com
[13] http:// en.wikipedia. org/wiki/ Galen
[14] ClassicTVHits.com: TV Ratings > 1970's (http:// www.classictvhits. com/ tvratings/1973. htm)
[15] Gunsmoke: Return to Dodge (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0093130/ )
[16] Gunsmoke: The Last Apache (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0099721/ )
[17] Gunsmoke: To the Last Man (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0104379/ )
[18] Gunsmoke: The Long Ride (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0107062/ )
[19] Gunsmoke: One Man's Justice (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0109961/ )
[20] The Hollywood Reporter: Risky Biz Blog (http:/ / www.riskybusinessblog. com/2009/ 08/ gunsmoke-remake-cbs.html)
[21] From Daytime to Primetime: The History of American Television Programs (http:/ / books.google.com/ books?id=h8AqrjoCueUC&
pg=PA34&lpg=PA34&dq=Gunsmoke+ 1966-67+ratings& source=bl& ots=AjLOfZ--W4&sig=DB7_XpJGruyeYoS66jL3liWoMHE&
hl=en& ei=94AJTKXlNIKdlgf18-mPDg&sa=X& oi=book_result&ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CBoQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&
q=Gunsmoke 1966-67 ratings&f=false) by James W. Roman (p. 34). Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, Inc., 2005. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
[22] ClassicTVHits.com: TV Ratings (http:// www.classictvhits. com/ tvratings/ index. htm)
[23] http:/ / www. tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Gunsmoke-Season-4-Volume-1-Announced/14136
[24] http:/ / www. tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Gunsmoke-Season-4-Volume-2/14532
[25] (http:/ / www. gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 20-THE.htm), April 17–23, 1993 issue of TV Guide
that celebrated the 40th anniversary of television and the best television programs of all time.
[26] (http:// gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 70-47InGreatness.htm) "100 Greatest Moments in
Television," GunsmokeNet.com
[27] (http:// gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 57-etw.htm) "The 100 Greatest TV Shows of All Time,"
[28] (http:// gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 55-tvgd98.htm) "CBS's best western," GunsmokeNet.com
[29] (http:// www. nationalcowboymuseum. org/info/ awards-hof/Western-Performers.aspx) "The National Cowboy & Western Heritage
Museum," www.nationalcowboymuseum.org
[30] (http:/ / www. gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ collectables/ TVGuide/TV-Guide-020504/index.htm) TV
Guide, "TV Guide Names Top 50 Shows," May 4, 2002
[31] (http:/ / www. gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 105_DodgeCity.htm) "Today's Dodge City",
[32] (http:/ / www. gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 103_VirginiaArness.htm)"James Arness' first wife,
Virginia," GunsmokeNet.com
[33] http:/ / www. bobnolan-sop. net/ Biographies/ The%20Story%20of%20SOP/Ken%20Curtis/ Ken%20Curtis. htm
[34] (http:// gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 71-Lyrics.htm) "The Gunsmoke Theme,"
[35] (http:// gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ Music/ Ritter.htm) "Tex Ritter sings Gunsmoke,"
[36] (http:// www. gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 72-CottageCheese. htm) "Gunsmoke was used to sell
cottage cheese," GunsmokeNet.com
[37] (http:/ / www. gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 64-BoardGame.htm) "Gunsmoke board games,"
[38] (http:/ / www. gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ shots/ 66-Puzzles.html) "Gunsmoke puzzles were popular
in the 1950's," GunsmokeNet.com
[39] (http:/ / gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ collectables/ Comix/ comics-.htm) Gunsmoke Comic Book Cover
[40] (http:/ / gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ collectables/ Comix/ Jun59/ home. htm) Gunsmoke Dell Comic
#15, June–July 1959, "Masked Vigilantes"
[41] (http:/ / gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ collectables/ Comix/ Feb70/ home. htm) Gunsmoke Gold Key
Comic, February–March 1970, "The Phophet" "The Guilty One"
[42] (http:/ / gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ collectables/ Comix/ 1974/ index. htm) Gunsmoke Annual 1974,
Comic Collection
[43] (http:/ / gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ collectables/ Comix/ Dec60-s/ index.htm) "Aventura la ley del
revolver," Gunsmoke comic book in Spanish, December 1960
[44] (http:/ / gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ collectables/ Books/ Gunsmoke57/ Gunsmoke57.htm) Don Ward,
"Gunsmoke - Adventures of Marshal Matt Dillon, Ballantine Books, 1957. (Second edition released in 1960.)
[45] (http:/ / gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ collectables/ Books/ Showdown/ HomeShowdown. htm)
• Paul S. Newman, Showdown on Front Street, Whitman Books, 1969.
[46] (http:/ / gunsmokenet. com/ GunsmokeTGAW/ Marks-Stuff/Gunsmoke/ collectables/ Books/ Gunsmoke74 The Renegades/ home.htm)
Jackson Flynn, Renegades, Award Books, 1974
• John Dunning, On The Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio, [Oxford University Press], 1998. ISBN
• SuzAnn Barabas & Gabor Barabas, Gunsmoke: A Complete History and Analysis of the Legendary Broadcast
Series, McFarland & Company, Inc., 1990. ISBN 0-89950-418-3
• Associated Press, July 2, 2002, Bob Thomas
• Bill Carter, "NBC Will Bring Back All Three ‘Law & Order’ Shows", The New York Times, May 14, 2007.
External links
• Gunsmoke (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0047736/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Gunsmoke radio programs (http:// www. archive.org/details/ OTRR_Gunsmoke_Singles)
• WRCW Radio - Listen to the complete series of the radio version of "Gunsmoke" (http:/ / www.wrcwradio.com/
• Watch full episodes of Gunsmoke on TVLand.com (http:// www. tvland. com/ fullepisodes/ gunsmoke/
• Gunsmoke 50th Anniversary 2005 from Dodge City (http:/ / www.skyways. org/orgs/ fordco/gunsmoke/ )
• GunsmokeNet.com (http:/ / gunsmokenet. com/ )
• Tamara's Gunsmoke Web Page (http:// comp. uark.edu/ ~tsnyder/ gunsmoke/ )
• Episode Broadcast Dates (https:/ / sites. google.com/ site/ gunsmoke55site/ )
''American Graffiti''
American Graffiti
American Graffiti
Film poster by Mort Drucker
Directed by George Lucas
Produced by Francis Ford Coppola
Gary Kurtz
Written by George Lucas
Gloria Katz
Willard Huyck
Starring Richard Dreyfuss
Ron Howard
Paul Le Mat
Charles Martin Smith
Cindy Williams
Candy Clark
Mackenzie Phillips
Harrison Ford
Cinematography Jan D'Alquen
Ron Eveslage
Haskell Wexler
Editing by Verna Fields
Marcia Lucas
Studio Universal Pictures
The Coppola Company
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) August 11, 1973
Running time 108 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $775,000 (production)
''American Graffiti''
Gross revenue $118 million
Followed by More American Graffiti
American Graffiti is a 1973 coming of age film co-written/directed by George Lucas, and starring Richard Dreyfuss,
Ron Howard, Paul Le Mat, Charles Martin Smith, Cindy Williams, Candy Clark, Mackenzie Phillips and Harrison
Ford. Set in 1962 Modesto, California, American Graffiti is a study of the cruising and rock and roll cultures popular
among the Post-World War II baby boom generation. The film is a nostalgic portrait of teenage life in the early
1960s told in a series of vignettes, featuring the story of a group of teenagers and their adventures within one night.
The genesis of American Graffiti was in Lucas's own teenage years in early 1960s Modesto. He was unsuccessful in
pitching the concept to financiers and distributors, but finally found favor at Universal Pictures after United Artists,
20th Century Fox, Columbia Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and Paramount Pictures turned him down. Filming
was initially set to take place in San Rafael, California, but the production crew was denied permission to shoot
beyond a second day. As a result, most filming for American Graffiti was conducted in Petaluma.
American Graffiti was released to universal critical acclaim and financial success, and was nominated for the
Academy Award for Best Picture. Produced on a $775,000 budget, the film has turned out to be one of the most
profitable movies of all time. Since its initial release, American Graffiti has garnered an estimated return of well over
$200 million in box office gross and home video sales, not including merchandising. In 1995, the United States
Library of Congress deemed the film culturally significant and selected it for preservation in the National Film
High school graduates and longtime friends Curt Henderson, Steve Bolander, John Milner, and Terry "The Toad"
Fields meet at the local Mel's Drive-In parking lot. Despite receiving a $2,000 scholarship, Curt is undecided if he
wants to leave the next morning with Steve to go to the Northeastern United States to begin college, while Milner
plans on staying in Modesto. Steve lets Toad borrow his 1958 Chevy Impala for the evening and while he will be
away at college. Steve's girlfiend Laurie, who is also Curt's younger sister, is unsure of Steve leaving, to which he
suggests they see other people while he is away to "strengthen" their relationship.
Curt, Steve and Laurie go to the local sock hop, while Toad and Milner begin cruising. En route to the hop, Curt sees
a beautiful blonde girl in a white 1956 Ford Thunderbird. She mouths "I love you" before disappearing down the
street. After leaving the hop, Curt is desperate to find the mysterious blonde, but is coerced by a group of greasers
("The Pharaohs") through an initiation rite that involves hooking a chain to a police car and successfully ripping out
its back axle. Curt is told rumors that The Blonde is either a trophy wife or prostitute, which he immediately refuses
to accept.
Steve and Laurie break up after a series of arguments, and Milner inadvertently picks up Carol, an annoying
teenybopper. Toad, who is normally socially inept with girls, meets a flirtatious and somewhat rebellious girl named
Debbie. Meanwhile, Curt learns that DJ Wolfman Jack broadcasts from just outside of Modesto, and inside the dark,
eerie radio station, Curt encounters a bearded man he assumes to be the manager. Curt hands the manager a message
for The Blonde to call him or meet him. As he walks away, Curt hears the voice of The Wolfman and realizes he had
been speaking with him.
The other story lines intertwine until Toad and Steve end up on "Paradise Road" to watch Milner race against the
arrogant Bob Falfa, with Laurie as Falfa's passenger. Within seconds Falfa loses control of his car and plunges into a
ditch. Steve and Milner run to the wreck, and a dazed Bob and Laurie stagger out of the car before it explodes.
Distraught, Laurie grips Steve tightly and tells him not to leave her. He assures her that he has decided not to leave
Modesto after all. The next morning, Curt is awakened by the sound of a phone ringing in a telephone booth, which
turns out to be The Blonde. She tells him she might see him cruising tonight, but Curt replies that is not possible,
because he will be leaving. At the airfield, he says goodbye to his parents, his sister and friends. As the plane takes
''American Graffiti''
off, Curt gazes out of the window, seeing the white Ford Thunderbird, which belongs to the mysterious Blonde.
Prior to the end credits, an on-screen epilogue reveals that John was killed by a drunk driver in December 1964,
Terry was reported missing in action near An Lộc in December 1965, Steve is an insurance agent in Modesto,
California, and Curt is a writer living in Canada.
John Milner (Paul Le Mat) is confronted by Officer Holstein (Jim Bohan)
• Richard Dreyfuss as Curt Henderson
• Ron Howard as Steve Bolander
• Paul Le Mat as John Milner
• Charles Martin Smith as Terry "The Toad"
• Cindy Williams as Laurie Henderson
• Candy Clark as Debbie Dunham
• Mackenzie Phillips as Carol Morrison
• Harrison Ford as Bob Falfa
• Bo Hopkins as Joe Young
• Wolfman Jack as XERB Disc Jockey
• Kathleen Quinlan as Peg
• Manuel Padilla, Jr. and Beau Gentry as Carlos and Ants
• Jim Bohan as Officer Holstein
• Jana Bellan as Budda
• Flash Cadillac & the Continental Kids as Herbie and the Heartbeats
• Suzanne Somers as Blonde in T-Bird
• Deby Celiz as Wendy
• Lynne Marie Stewart as Bobbie Tucker
During the production of THX 1138 (1971), producer Francis Ford Coppola challenged co-writer/director George
Lucas to write a script that would appeal to mainstream audiences.
Lucas embraced the idea, using his early 1960s
teenage experiences cruising in Modesto, California. "Cruising was gone, and I felt compelled to document the
whole experience and what my generation used as a way of meeting girls," Lucas explained.
As he developed the
story in his mind, Lucas included his fascination with Wolfman Jack. Lucas had considered doing a documentary
about The Wolfman when he attended the USC School of Cinematic Arts, but dropped the idea.
Adding in semi-autobiographical connotations, Lucas set the story in 1962 Modesto.
The characters Curt
Henderson, John Milner and Terry "The Toad" Fields also represent different stages from his younger life. Curt is
modeled after Lucas's personality during USC, while Milner is based on Lucas's teenage drag racing and junior
college years, and hot rod enthusiasts he had known from the Kustom Kulture in Modesto. Toad represents Lucas's
nerd years as a freshman in high school, specifically his "bad luck" with dating.
The filmmaker was also inspired
by Federico Fellini's I Vitelloni (1953).
After the financial failure of THX 1138, Lucas wanted the film to act as a release for a world-weary audience:
"[THX] was about real things that were going on and the problems we're faced with. I realized after
making THX that those problems are so real that most of us have to face those things every day, so we're
in a constant state of frustration. That just makes us more depressed than we were before. So I made a
''American Graffiti''
film where, essentially, we can get rid of some of those frustrations, the feeling that everything seems
United Artists
After Warner Bros. abandoned Lucas's early version of Apocalypse Now (1979) (during the post-production of THX
1138), the filmmaker decided to continue development on Another Quiet Night in Modesto, which he eventually
changed to American Graffiti.
To co-write a fifteen-page film treatment, Lucas hired Willard Huyck and Gloria
Katz, who also added semi-autobiographical connotations to the storyline.
In attempting to use the treatment to
attract financing, Lucas and producer Gary Kurtz began pitching American Graffiti to various Hollywood studios
and production companies,
but they were unsuccessful. Financiers believed music licensing issues would distract
the film's budget. Alongside Easy Rider (1969), American Graffiti represents one of the first films to avoid a
traditional film score approach and successfully rely on scenes specifically synchronized to an assortment of
THX 1138 was released in March 1971
and Lucas was offered opportunities to direct Lady Ice (1973), Tommy
(1975) or Hair (1979). He turned down the offers, determined to pursue his own projects, despite his desperation to
find another film to direct.

During this time, Lucas conceived the idea for an untitled space opera, which would
later become the basis for his Star Wars franchise. At the May 1971 Cannes Film Festival, THX was chosen for the
Directors' Fortnight competition. There, Lucas met David Picker, then president of United Artists, who was intrigued
by American Graffiti and Lucas's as-yet-untitled space opera. Picker decided to give Lucas $10,000 to develop
Graffiti as a screenplay.
Lucas intended to spend another five weeks in Europe and hoped that Huyck and Katz would have a screenplay by
the time he returned, but they were about to start on their own film, Messiah of Evil (1972),
so Lucas hired Richard
Walter, a colleague from the USC School of Cinematic Arts. Walter was flattered, but instead tried to pitch Lucas a
screenplay called Barry and the Persuasions, a story of East Coast teenagers in the late 1950s. Lucas held firm - his
was a story about West Coast teenagers in the early 1960s. Walter was paid the $10,000, and he began to adapt the
Lucas/Huyck/Katz treatment into a screenplay.
Lucas was dismayed when he returned to America in June 1971 and read Walter's script, which was written in the
style and tone of an exploitation film. "It was overtly sexual and very fantasy-like, with playing chicken and things
that kids didn't really do," Lucas reasoned. "I wanted something that was more like the way I grew up."
script also had Steve and Laurie going to Nevada to get married without their parents' permission.
He redrafted the
screenplay, but Lucas fired Walter over creative differences.
After paying Walter, Lucas had exhausted his development fund with United Artists. He began writing the script,
completing his first draft in just three weeks. Drawing upon his large collection of vintage records, Lucas wrote
every scene with a musical backdrop in mind.
The cost of licensing the 75 songs Lucas wanted was a contributing
factor in United Artists' ultimate rejection of the script, which the studio also felt was too experimental - "a musical
montage with no characters." United Artists also passed on Star Wars, which Lucas shelved for the time being.
Universal Pictures
Lucas spent the rest of 1971 and early 1972 trying to raise financing for the American Graffiti script.
During this
time, 20th Century Fox, Columbia Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Paramount Pictures all turned down the
opportunity to co-finance and distribute the film.
Lucas, Huyck and Katz rewrote the second draft together,
which, in addition to Modesto, was also set in Mill Valley and Los Angeles. Lucas also intended to end American
Graffiti showing a title card detailing the fate of the characters, including the death of Milner and the disappearance
of Toad in Vietnam. Huyck and Katz found the ending depressing and were incredulous that Lucas planned to
include only the male characters. Lucas argued that mentioning the girls meant adding another title card, which he
felt would prolong the ending. Because of this, Pauline Kael later accused Lucas of chauvinism.
''American Graffiti''
Lucas and producer Gary Kurtz took the script to American International Pictures, who expressed interest, but
ultimately believed American Graffiti was not violent or sexual enough for the studio's standards.
Lucas and
Kurtz eventually found favor at Universal Pictures, who allowed Lucas total artistic control and the right of final cut
privilege on the condition that he make American Graffiti on a strict, low budget.
This forced Lucas to drop the
opening scene, in which the Blonde Angel, Curt's image of the perfect woman, drives through an empty drive-in
cinema in her Ford Thunderbird, her transparency revealing she does not exist.
Universal initially projected a $600,000 budget, but added an additional $175,000 once producer Francis Ford
Coppola signed on. This would allow the studio to advertise American Graffiti as "from the Man who Gave you The
Godfather (1972)." However, Lucas was forced to concede final cut privilege. The proposition also gave Universal
first look deals on Lucas's next two planned projects, Star Wars (1977) and Radioland Murders (1994).
As he
continued to work on the script, Lucas encountered difficulties on the Steve and Laurie storyline. Lucas, Katz and
Huyck worked on the third draft together, specifically on the scenes featuring Steve and Laurie.
Production proceeded with virtually no input or interference from Universal. American Graffiti was a low-budget
film, and executive Ned Tanen had only modest expectations of its commercial success. However, Universal did
object to the film's title, not knowing what "American Graffiti" meant;
Lucas was dismayed when some
executives assumed he was making an Italian movie about feet.
The studio therefore submitted a long list of over
60 alternative titles, with their favorite being Another Slow Night in Modesto
and Coppola's Rock Around the
They pushed hard to get Lucas to adopt any of the titles, but he was displeased with all the alternatives and
persuaded Tanen to keep American Graffiti.
The film's lengthy casting process was overseen by Fred Roos, who worked with producer Francis Ford Coppola on
The Godfather.
Because American Graffiti's main cast was associated with younger actors, the casting call and
notices went through numerous high school drama groups and community theaters in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Among the actors was Mark Hamill, the future Luke Skywalker in Lucas' Star Wars trilogy.
Over 100 unknown actors auditioned for Curt Henderson before Richard Dreyfuss was cast. George Lucas was
impressed with Dreyfuss' thoughtful analysis of the role,
and, as a result, offered the actor his choosing of Curt or
Terry "The Toad" Fields.
Roos, a former casting director on The Andy Griffith Show, suggested Ron Howard for
Steve Bolander. Howard reluctantly accepted the part in attempting to avoid his typecasting as a child actor.
Balaban turned down The Toad out of fear of typecasting, a decision which he later regretted. Charles Martin Smith
was eventually cast in the role.
Although Cindy Williams was cast as Laurie Henderson, the actress hoped she would get the part of Debbie
Dunham, which ended up going to Candy Clark.
Mackenzie Phillips, who portrays Carol, was only 12 years old,
and under California law, producer Gary Kurtz had to become her legal guardian for the duration of filming.
Bob Falfa, Roos cast Harrison Ford, who was then concentrating on a carpentry career. Ford agreed to take the role
on the condition that he would not have to cut his hair. The character has a flattop haircut in the script, but a
compromise was eventually reached whereby Ford wore a stetson to cover his hair. Producer Francis Ford Coppola
encouraged Lucas to cast Wolfman Jack as himself in a cameo appearance. "George Lucas and I went through
thousands of Wolfman Jack phone calls that were taped with the public," Jack reflected. "The telephone calls [heard
on the broadcasts] in the motion picture and on the soundtrack were actual calls with real people."
''American Graffiti''
Although American Graffiti is set in 1962 Modesto, California, Lucas believed the city had changed too much in 10
years and initially chose San Rafael as the primary shooting location.
Filming began on June 26, 1972, however,
Lucas soon became frustrated at the time it was taking to fix camera mounts to the cars.
A key member of the
production had also been arrested for growing marijuana,
and, in addition to already running behind the shooting
schedule, the San Rafael City Council immediately became concerned about the disruption that filming caused for
local businesses and had therefore withdrawn permission to shoot beyond a second day.
Petaluma, a similarly small town approximately 20 miles north of San Rafael, became more cooperative and
American Graffiti moved there without the loss of a single day of shooting. Lucas convinced the San Rafael City
Council to allow two further nights of filming for general cruising shots, which he used to evoke as much of the
intended location as possible in the finished film. Shooting in Petaluma began on June 28 and proceeded at a quick
Lucas mimicked the filmmaking style of B movie producer Sam Katzman in attempting to save money and
authenticated low budget filming methods.
The San Francisco Mel's Drive-In restaurant used in the film had been closed
and was reopened specifically for filming. It was demolished after American
Graffiti was completed.
In addition to Petaluma, other locations
included Van Ness Avenue in San Francisco,
Sonoma, Richmond, Novato and the Buchanan
Field Airport in Concord.
More problems
ensued during filming. Paul Le Mat was sent
to the hospital after an allergic reaction to
walnuts. Actors Le Mat, Harrison Ford and Bo
Hopkins were often drunk between takes and
had conducted climbing competitions to the
top of the local Holiday Inn sign. One actor set
fire to Lucas' motel room. Another night, Le
Mat threw Richard Dreyfuss into a swimming
pool, gashing his forehead on the day before he was due to have his close-ups filmed. Dreyfuss also complained over
the wardrobe that Lucas had chosen for the character. Ford was arrested one night while in a bar fight and kicked out
of his motel room. In addition, two camera operators were nearly killed when filming the climactic race scene on
Frates Road outside Petaluma.
Principal photography ended on August 4, 1972.
Lucas considered covering duties as the sole cinematographer, but dropped the idea.
Instead, he elected to shoot
American Graffiti using two cinematographers (as he had done in THX 1138) and no formal director of photography.
Two cameras were used simultaneously in scenes involving conversations between actors in different cars, which
resulted in significant production time savings.
After CinemaScope proved to be too expensive,
Lucas decided
that American Graffiti should have a documentary-like feel, and shot the film using Techniscope cameras. He
believed that Techniscope, an inexpensive way of shooting in 35 mm film and utilizing only half of the film's frame,
would give a perfect widescreen format resembling 16 mm. Adding to the documentary feel was Lucas's openness
for the cast to improvise scenes. He also used goofs for the final cut, notably Charles Martin Smith's (Toad) arriving
on his scooter to meet Steve outside Mel's Drive-In.
Jan D'Alquen and Ron Eveslage were hired as the
cinematographers, but filming with Techniscope cameras brought lighting problems. As a result, Lucas
commissioned help from friend Haskell Wexler, who was credited as the "visual consultant".
''American Graffiti''
Lucas wanted to have wife Marcia edit American Graffiti, but Universal executive Ned Tanen insisted on Verna
Fields, who had just finished Steven Spielberg's The Sugarland Express (1974).
Fields worked on the first rough
cut of the film before she left to resume work on What's Up, Doc? (1972). Following Fields's departure, Lucas
struggled with editing the film's story structure. He had written the script so that the four (Curt, Steve, John and
Toad) storylines were always presented in the same sequence. The first cut of American Graffiti was three-and-a-half
hours long; and, in removing an hour and a half, numerous scenes were cut and many others were shortened and
combined. The film became increasingly loose, with the result that the presentations of scenes no longer resembled
Lucas's original "ABCD structure."
At 112 minutes, Lucas completed his final cut of American Graffiti in
December 1972.
Walter Murch assisted Lucas in post-production for audio mixing and sound design purposes.
Murch suggested making Wolfman Jack's radio show the "backbone" of the film. "The Wolfman was an ethereal
presence in the lives of young people," said producer Gary Kurtz, "and it was that quality we wanted and obtained in
the picture."
Lucas's choice of background music was crucial to the mood of each scene, but he was realistic about the
complexities of copyright clearances and suggested a number of alternative tracks. Universal wanted Lucas and
producer Gary Kurtz to hire an orchestra for sound-alikes. The studio eventually proposed a flat deal that offered
every music publisher the same amount of money. This was acceptable to most of the companies representing
Lucas's first choices, but not to RCA - with the consequence that Elvis Presley is conspicuous by his absence from
the soundtrack.
Clearing the music licensing rights had cost approximately $90,000,
and as a result there was
no money left for a traditional film score. "I used the absence of music, and sound effects, to create the drama,"
Lucas later explained.
Despite unanimous positive praise at a January 1973 test screening, which was attended by Universal executive Ned
Tanen, the studio threatened to re-edit American Graffiti from George Lucas's original cut.
Lucas and producer
Francis Ford Coppola began conflicting with Universal, to which Coppola offered to literally "buy the film" from the
studio, insisting he was prepared to reimburse Universal's $775,000 budget.
20th Century Fox and Paramount
Pictures also gave similar offers to the studio.
The conflicts between Lucas and Universal only led to the studio
threatening to have William Hornbeck completely re-edit American Graffiti.
When Coppola's The Godfather (1972) won the Academy Award for Best Picture in March 1973, Universal decided
to cut only three scenes (about four minutes) from Lucas's cut. This included Toad's encounter with a fast-talking car
salesman, an argument between Steve and his former teacher Mr. Kroot at the sock hop, and Bob Falfa's effort to
serenade Laurie with "Some Enchanted Evening". However, Universal believed that American Graffiti, in its edited
form, was only fit for release as a television movie.
Positive word of mouth came from various employees at Universal
and the studio dropped the TV movie idea and
began securing theaters in Los Angeles and New York for a limited release.
However, Universal presidents Sidney
Sheinberg and Lew Wasserman found out about the critical praise in LA and New York, and the marketing
department rejuvenated their promotion strategy for American Graffiti,
by investing an additional $500,000 in
marketing and promotion.
The film was released in the United States on August 1, 1973 to sleeper hit
American Graffiti, which cost $1.27 million to produce/market, yielded a worldwide box office gross
that topped $55 million.
Outside America, however, the film had only modest success, but acquired cult film
recognition in France.
''American Graffiti''
Universal reissued Graffiti in 1978 and earned an additional $63 million, totalling $118 million for the two
The reissue included stereophonic sound,
and the additional four minutes that the studio had removed
from Lucas's original cut. All home video releases also included these scenes.
At the end of its theatrical run,
American Graffiti had one of the lowest cost-to-profit ratios of a motion picture ever.
Producer Francis Ford
Coppola regretted having not financed the film himself. Lucas recalled, "He would have made $30 million on the
deal. He never got over it and he still kicks himself."
It was the thirteenth-highest grossing film of all time in
and, adjusted for inflation, is currently the forty-third highest.
By the 1990s, American Graffiti had
earned more than $200 million in box office gross and home video sales.
In December 1997 Variety reported that
the film had earned an additional $55.13 million in rental revenue.
Universal Studios Home Entertainment first released the film on DVD in September 1998,
and once more as a
double feature with More American Graffiti (1979) in January 2004.
Aside from the four minutes originally deleted from Lucas' original cut retained, the only major change in the DVD
version is the main title sequence, particularly the sky background to Mel's Drive-In, which was redone by ILM.
Critical analysis
American Graffiti went on to receive universal critical acclaim. Based on 33 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes,
97% of the critics enjoyed the film with an average score of 8.3/10. The consensus reads: "One of the most
influential of all teen films, American Graffiti is a funny, nostalgic, and bittersweet look at a group of recent high
school grads' last days of innocence."
Roger Ebert praised the film for being "not only a great movie but a
brilliant work of historical fiction; no sociological treatise could duplicate the movie's success in remembering
exactly how it was to be alive at that cultural instant."
Jay Cocks of Time magazine wrote that American Graffiti "reveals a new and welcome depth of feeling. Few films
have shown quite so well the eagerness, the sadness, the ambitions and small defeats of a generation of young
A.D. Murphy from Variety felt American Graffiti was a vivid "recall of teenage attitudes and morals,
told with outstanding empathy and compassion through an exceptionally talented cast of unknown actors."
Kehr, writing in the Chicago Reader, called the film a brilliant work of popular art that redefined nostalgia as a
marketable commodity, while establishing a new narrative style.
The 1962 setting represents an end of an era in American society and pop culture. The musical backdrop also links
between the early years of rock and roll in the mid-late 1950s (i.e. Bill Haley & His Comets, Elvis Presley and
Buddy Holly) and the early 1960s British Invasion. The setting is also before the outbreaks of the Vietnam War and
the John F. Kennedy assassination.
American Graffiti evokes mankind's relationship with machines, notably the
elaborate number of hot rods and teenagers' obsession with radio. The inclusion of Wolfman Jack also adds a
mysterious and mythological analysis of teenage life in 1962. American Graffiti depicts multiple characters going
through a coming of age, such as the decisions to attend college or reside in a small town.
American Graffiti was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, but lost to The Sting (1973). Further
nominations at the 46th Academy Awards included Best Director (George Lucas), Best Original Screenplay (Lucas,
Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz), Best Supporting Actress (Candy Clark) and Best Film Editing (Verna Fields and
Marcia Lucas).
The film won Best Motion Picture (Musical or Comedy) at the 31st Golden Globe Awards, while
Paul Le Mat won Most Promising Newcomer. Lucas was nominated for Best Director and Richard Dreyfuss was
nominated for Best Actor in a Comedy or Musical.
More nominations included Cindy Williams by the British
Academy of Film and Television Arts for Best Actress in a Supporting Role,
Lucas for the Directors Guild of
America Award for Outstanding Directing,
and Lucas, Huyck and Katz by the Writers Guild of America for Best
''American Graffiti''
Original Comedy.
Internet reviewer MaryAnn Johanson acknowledged that American Graffiti rekindled public and entertainment
interest in the 1950s and '60s, and influenced other films such as The Lords of Flatbush (1974) and Cooley High
(1975) and the TV series Happy Days.
Alongside other films from the New Hollywood era, American Graffiti is
often cited for helping give birth to the summer blockbuster.
The film's box office success made George Lucas an
instant millionaire. He gave an amount of the film's profits to Haskell Wexler for his visual consulting help during
filming, and to Wolfman Jack for "inspiration". Lucas's net worth was now $4 million, and he set aside a $300,000
independent fund for his long cherished space opera project, which would eventually become the basis for Star Wars
The financial success of Graffiti also gave Lucas opportunities to establish more elaborate development for
Lucasfilm, Skywalker Sound, and Industrial Light & Magic.
Based on the success of the 1977 reissue, Universal
began production for the sequel More American Graffiti (1979).
Lucas and writers Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz
later collaborated on Radioland Murders (1994), also released by Universal Pictures, for which Lucas acted as
executive producer. The film features characters intended to be Curt and Laurie Henderson's parents, Roger and
Penny Henderson.
In 1995 American Graffiti was deemed culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant by
the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.
In 1997 the city
of Modesto, California honored Lucas with a statue dedication of American Graffiti at George Lucas Plaza.
In 1998 the American Film Institute (AFI) ranked it as the seventy-seventh greatest film ever in the 100 Years... 100
Movies list. When the 10th Anniversary Edition came in June 2007, AFI moved American Graffiti to the
sixty-second greatest film.
The movie was also listed as the forty-third funniest.
Director David Fincher
credited American Graffiti as a visual influence for Fight Club (1999).
Lucas's Star Wars Episode II: Attack of
the Clones (2002) features references to the film. The yellow airspeeder that Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan
Kenobi use to pursue the bounty hunter Zam Wesell is based on John Milner's yellow deuce coupe,
while Dex's
Diner is reminiscent of Mel's Drive-In.
Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman of MythBusters conducted the "rear
axle" experiment on the January 11, 2004 episode.
Given the popularity of the film's cars with customizers and hot rodders in the years since its release, their fate
immediately after the film is ironic. All were offered for sale in San Francisco newspaper ads; only the '58 Impala
(driven by Ron Howard) attracted a buyer, selling for only a few hundred dollars. The yellow Deuce and the white
T-bird went unsold, despite being priced as low as US$3,000.
The registration plate on Milner's yellow deuce
coupe is THX 138 on a yellow California license plate, slightly altered, reflecting Lucas's earlier science fiction film
[1] Hearn, pp. 10-11, 42-47
[2] Baxter, pp. 70, 104, 148, 254
[3] Hearn, pp. 56-57
[4] Baxter, pp. 106-118
[5] Sturhahn, Larry (March 1974). "The Filming of American Graffiti". Filmmakers Newsletter.
[6] (DVD) The Making of American Graffiti. Universal Studios Home Entertainment. 1998.
[7] Ken Plume (2002-11-11). "An Interview with Gary Kurtz" (http:// movies. ign. com/ articles/ 376/ 376873p1. html). IGN. . Retrieved
[8] Hearn, pp. 52-53
[9] Hearn, pp. 54-55
''American Graffiti''
[10] Staff (1999-06-19). "A Life Making Movies" (http:// www. achievement. org/autodoc/ page/ luc0int-1). Academy of Achievement. .
Retrieved 2008-04-22.
[11] Pollock, pp. 105-111
[12] Baxter, pp. 120-123
[13] Baxter, pp. 124-128
[14] Hearn, pp. 58-60
[15] Staff (2008-10-17). "The Hardest Working Actors in Showbiz" (http:/ / www.ew.com/ ew/ article/ 0,,20232072,00. html). Entertainment
Weekly. . Retrieved 2009-05-09.
[16] Hearn, pp. 61-63
[17] Hearn, pp. 70-75
[18] Baxter, pp. 129-135
[19] Hearn, pp. 64-66
[20] Hearn, pp. 67-69
[21] Pollock, pp. 120-128
[22] "American Graffiti" (http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=americangraffiti.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2009-05-03.
[23] Hearn, pp. 79-86, 122
[24] "Domestic Grosses Adjusted For Inflation" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ alltime/ adjusted.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved
[25] Staff (1997-12-16). "Rental champs: Rate of return" (http:/ / www. variety.com/ article/VR1116680329). Variety. . Retrieved 2009-05-03.
[26] "American Graffiti (1973)" (http:// www.amazon. com/ exec/ obidos/ ASIN/ 078322737X). Amazon.com. . Retrieved 2009-05-03.
[27] "American Graffiti / More American Graffiti (Drive-In Double Feature) (1979)" (http:// www.amazon.com/ exec/ obidos/ ASIN/
B0000VD128). Amazon.com. . Retrieved 2009-05-03.
[28] "American Graffiti" (http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ american_graffiti/). Rotten Tomatoes. . Retrieved 2009-05-04.
[29] Roger Ebert (1973-08-11). "American Graffiti" (http:/ / rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19730811/ REVIEWS/
301010301/1023). Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved 2009-05-05.
[30] Jay Cocks (1973-08-20). "Fabulous '50s" (http:// www.time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,907741,00. html). Time. . Retrieved
[31] A.D. Murphy (1973-06-20). "American Graffiti" (http:// www.variety.com/ review/VE1117796736). Variety. . Retrieved 2009-05-05.
[32] Dave Kehr. "American Graffiti" (http:// onfilm. chicagoreader.com/ movies/ capsules/ 284_AMERICAN_GRAFFITI). Chicago Reader. .
Retrieved 2009-05-05.
[33] "American Graffiti" (http:/ / awardsdatabase. oscars. org/ampas_awards/ DisplayMain. jsp?curTime=1210371413986). Academy of Motion
Picture Arts and Sciences. . Retrieved 2008-05-09.
[34] "The 31st Annual Golden Globe Awards (1974)" (http:/ / www. goldenglobes. org/browse/ year/1973). Hollywood Foreign Press
Association. . Retrieved 2008-05-09.
[35] "Supporting Actress 1974" (http:/ / www.bafta. org/awards-database.html?year=1974&category=Film&award=Supporting+Actress).
British Academy of Film and Television Arts. . Retrieved 2008-05-09.
[36] "1970s - DGA Award Winners for: Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Feature Film" (http:// www. dga. org/ thedga/ aw_film70s.
php3). Directors Guild of America. . Retrieved 2009-05-13.
[37] MaryAnn Johanson (1999-06-16). "Boy Meets World" (http:// www. flickfilosopher.com/ afi100/afi100movies/ americangraffiti.shtml).
The Flick Filosopher. . Retrieved 2009-05-08.
[38] Staff (1991-05-24). "The Evolution of the Summer Blockbuster" (http:// www. ew.com/ ew/ article/0,,314422,00. html). Entertainment
Weekly. . Retrieved 2008-02-26.
[39] "National Film Registry: 1989-2007" (http:/ / www.loc. gov/ film/ nfrchron.html). National Film Registry. . Retrieved 2008-05-09.
[40] "Citizen Kane Stands the Test of Time" (http:/ / www.afi. com/ Docs/ about/ press/ 2007/ 100movies07.pdf) (PDF). American Film
Institute. . Retrieved 2008-02-08.
[41] "AFI's 100 YEARS...100 LAUGHS" (http:/ / web. archive. org/web/ 20080615021804/ http:/ / www.afi.com/ tvevents/ 100years/ laughs.
aspx). American Film Institute. Archived from the original (http:// www. afi.com/ tvevents/ 100years/ laughs. aspx) on June 15, 2008. .
Retrieved 2008-08-18.
[42] Staff (1999-08-13). "Movie Preview: Oct. 15" (http:// www. ew. com/ ew/ article/0,,87198,00. html). Entertainment Weekly. . Retrieved
[43] "Anakin Skywalker's Airspeeder" (http:/ / www.starwars.com/ databank/ vehicle/ anakinsspeeder/ ?id=bts). StarWars.com. . Retrieved
[44] "Dex's Diner" (http:/ / www. starwars. com/ databank/ location/ dexsdiner/ ?id=bts). StarWars.com. . Retrieved 2008-01-19.
[45] "Explosive Decompression/Frog Giggin'/Rear Axle". Adam Savage, Jamie Hyneman. MythBusters. 2004-01-11. No. 13, season 1.
[46] Rod and Custom Magazine, 12/91, pp.11-2.
''American Graffiti''
• John Baxter (1999). Mythmaker: The Life and Work of George Lucas. New York City: Spike Books.
ISBN 0-380-97833-4.
• Marcus Hearn (2005). The Cinema of George Lucas. New York City: ABRAMS Books. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7.
• Dale Pollock (1999). Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas. New York City: Da Capo Press.
ISBN 0-306-80904-4.
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// www. lucasfilm. com/ films/other/ graffiti.html)
• American Graffiti (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0069704/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• American Graffiti (http:/ / www. allmovie. com/ work/1971) at Allmovie
• American Graffiti (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ american_graffiti/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• American Graffiti (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=americangraffiti.htm) at Box Office Mojo
• American Graffiti (http:/ / www. filmsite. org/amerg. html) at Filmsite.org
• The City of Petaluma's Salute to American Graffiti (http:/ / www.americangraffiti.net)
• Staff (1977-05-30). "Star Wars: The Year's Best Movie" (http:/ / www.time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/
0,9171,914964,00. html). Time. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
Kung Fu (TV series)
This article is specifically about the original TV series (1972–1975) "Kung Fu". For other uses, see Kung fu
Kung Fu
Master Po (left) and Kwai Chang Caine (right) in a flashback from the episode "Dark Angel", written by Herman Miller
Format western, drama, Action
Created by Ed Spielman
Jerry Thorpe
Herman Miller
David Carradine
Keye Luke
Philip Ahn
Radames Pera
Country of origin  United States
No. of seasons 3
No. of episodes 60 (List of episodes)
Executive producer(s) Jerry Thorpe
Running time 50 minutes
''Kung Fu (TV series)''
Original channel ABC
Original run October 14, 1972 – April 16, 1975
Kung Fu (1972–1975) is an American television series that starred David Carradine. It was created by Ed Spielman,
directed and produced by Jerry Thorpe, and developed by Herman Miller, who was also a writer for, and co-producer
of, the series. The show was preceded by a full-length feature TV pilot, an ABC "Movie of the Week", which was
broadcast in 1972.
Kung Fu follows the adventures of a Shaolin monk, Kwai Chang Caine [虔 官 昌 Qián Guānchāng] (portrayed by
David Carradine as an adult, Keith Carradine as a teenager and Radames Pera as a young boy) who travels through
the American Old West armed only with his spiritual training and his skill in martial arts, as he seeks his
half-brother, Danny Caine.
Keye Luke (as the blind Master Po) and Philip Ahn (as Master Kan) were also members of the regular cast. David
Chow, who was also a guest star in the series, acted as the technical and kung fu advisor, a role later undertaken by
Kam Yuen.
Overall series plot summary
Kwai Chang Caine (David Carradine) is the orphaned son of an American man and a Chinese woman in mid-19th
century China.
After his maternal grandfather's death he is accepted for training at a Shaolin Monastery, where he
grows up to become a Shaolin priest and martial arts expert.
In the pilot episode Caine’s beloved mentor and elder, Master Po, is murdered by the Emperor's nephew; outraged,
Caine retaliates by killing the nephew. With a price on his head, Caine flees China to the western United States,
where he seeks to find his family roots and, ultimately, his half-brother, Danny Caine.
Although it is his intention to avoid notice, Caine's training and sense of social responsibility repeatedly force him
out into the open, to fight for justice or protect the underdog. After each such encounter he must move on, both to
avoid capture and prevent harm from coming to those he has helped.
Flashbacks are often used to recall specific lessons from Caine's childhood training in the monastery from his
teachers, the blind Master Po (Keye Luke) and Master Kan (Philip Ahn). Part of the appeal of the series was
undoubtedly the emphasis laid, via the flashbacks, on the mental and spiritual power that Caine had gained from his
rigorous training. In these flashbacks, Master Po calls his young student "Grasshopper" in reference to a scene in the
pilot episode:
Master Po: Close your eyes. What do you hear?
Young Caine: I hear the water, I hear the birds.
Po: Do you hear your own heartbeat?
Caine: No.
Po: Do you hear the grasshopper which is at your feet?
Caine: Old man, how is it that you hear these things?
Po: Young man, how is it that you do not?
During four episodes of the third and final season ("Barbary House," "Flight to Orion," "The Brothers Caine," and
"Full Circle"), Caine finds his brother Danny, nephew Zeke and two cousins, Joseph and Ezekial.
''Kung Fu (TV series)''
Production history
Herbie Pilato, in his 1993 book The Kung Fu Book of Caine: The Complete Guide to TV's First Mystical Eastern
Western, commented on the casting history for the series, particularly on the involvement of both Carradine and
Bruce Lee:
Before the filming of the Kung Fu TV movie began, there was some discussion as to whether or not an Asian
actor should play Kwai Chang Caine. Bruce Lee was considered for the role. In 1971, Bruce Lee wasn't the
cult film hero he later became for his roles in The Big Boss (1971), Fist of Fury (1972), Way of the Dragon
(1972) and Enter the Dragon (1973). At that point he was best known as Kato on TV's Green Hornet
(1966–1967) (Kung Fu guest actor Robert Ito reports that Lee hated the role of Kato because he "thought it
was so subservient"). "In my eyes and in the eyes of Jerry Thorpe," says Harvey Frand, "David Carradine was
always our first choice to play Caine. But there was some disagreement because the network was interested in
a more muscular actor and the studio was interested in getting Bruce Lee." Frand says Lee wouldn't have
really been appropriate for the series — despite the fact that he went on to considerable success in the martial
arts film world. The Kung Fu show needed a serene person, and Carradine was more appropriate for the role.
Ed Spielman agrees: "I liked David in the part. One of Japan's foremost Karate champions used to say that the
only qualification that was needed to be trained in the martial arts was that you had to know how to dance.
And on top of being an accomplished athlete and actor, David could dance." Nonetheless, grumbling from the
Asian community would have made sense, given the fact that major roles for Asian actors were almost
nonexistent. James Hong, an actor on the show and ex-president of the Association of Asian/Pacific American
Artists (AAPAA) says that at the time Asian actors felt that "if they were going to do a so-called Asian hero on
Kung Fu, then why don't they hire an Asian actor to play the lead? But then the show went on, we realized that
it was a great source of employment for the Asian acting community." In fact, Hong says, Carradine had a
good relationship with the Asian community. (pages 32–33)
The Shaolin Temple which appeared in flashbacks was originally a set used for the 1967 film, Camelot. It was
inexpensively and effectively converted for the setting in China.
The series used slow-motion effects for the violence (or "action"), which Warner Brothers had previously featured in
the 1969 Sam Peckinpah film The Wild Bunch.
Bruce Lee's claims
In her memoirs, Bruce Lee's widow, Linda Lee Cadwell, asserts that Lee created the concept for the series, which
was then stolen by Warner Bros.
In a December 8, 1971 television interview on The Pierre Berton Show, Bruce Lee himself makes reference to both
Warner Brothers and Paramount wanting him to do a TV series. After Pierre Berton comments, "there's a pretty
good chance that you'll get a TV series in the States called "The Warrior", in it, where you use what, the Martial Arts
in Western setting?"
Lee responds, "that was the original idea, ...both of them (Warner and Paramount), I think, they want me to be in a
modernized type of a thing, and they think that "The Western" type of thing is out. Whereas I want to do the Western.
Because, you see, how else can you justify all of the punching and kicking and violence, except in the period of the
Later in the interview, Berton asks Lee about "the problems that you face as a Chinese hero in an American series.
Have people come up in the industry and said 'well, we don't know how the audience are going to take a
Lee responds "Well, such question has been raised, in fact, it is being discussed. That is why "The Warrior" is
probably not going to be on." Lee adds, "They think that business wise it is a risk. I don't blame them. If the situation
were reversed, and an American star were to come to Hong Kong, and I was the man with the money, I would have
''Kung Fu (TV series)''
my own concerns as to whether the acceptance would be there."

What Lee called "The Warrior" and "Kung Fu" shared the idea of a lead character in a TV series who performs
Martial Arts in a Western setting.
Based on Lee's comments to Berton, he was talking to both Warner Brothers and Paramount about "The Warrior" as
late as December 1971.
The original series of Kung Fu lasted for three seasons, beginning on October 14, 1972, and finishing on 26 April
Sequels and new series
Kung Fu:The Movie
In Kung Fu:The Movie (1986) Caine (played by Carradine) is forced to fight his hitherto unknown son, Chung Wang
(played by Brandon Lee). Herbie Pilato in The Kung Fu Book of Caine, also comments that Bruce Lee's son,
Brandon Lee, was involved in sequels related to the series:
The late Brandon Lee, son of Bruce Lee, played Caine's son, Chung Wang. Toward the end of the film, Chung
Wang asks Caine if he is his father. The question seems somewhat ironic since — in real life — Brandon's
father was a contender for the role of Caine in the series. After Bruce Lee lost the part to Carradine, he went
back to China, where he made The Big Boss, the film that began his legendary career in martial arts movies.
(page 157)
Kung Fu:The Next Generation
In Kung Fu:The Next Generation (1987), the story moves to the present day and centers on the story of Johnny Caine
(Brandon Lee), who is the great-grandson of Kwai Chang Caine.
Kung Fu: The Legend Continues
Two decades after the first series ended, a second, related series running in syndication followed the adventures of
Kwai Chang Caine's grandson, also named Kwai Chang Caine.
Entitled Kung Fu: The Legend Continues, it again
starred Carradine, this time as the grandson of the original Caine, and introduced Chris Potter as his son.
second series ran for four years, from 1993–1997. The series has yet to be released on DVD.
Warner Bros. Webisodes
In 1999, the Warner Bros. website introduced a series of animated "webisodes" that continued the adventures of the
Kung-Fu series, and which featured the voice of David Carradine. There were roughly nine episodes, each
approximately ten minutes in length, briefly archived on the website, but they disappeared after a few months. As of
April 2007, they still do not appear to have been archived online.
Feature film plans
In June 2006, Ed Spielman and Howard Friedlander announced that a feature film (which will serve as a prequel to
the original Kung Fu series and take place in China) is in development. In September 2007, it was announced that
Max Makowski would direct the movie and that he planned to make the film edgier than the original television
''Kung Fu (TV series)''
DVD releases
Warner Home Video has released the entire series on DVD in Region 1.
DVD Name Ep # Release Date
The Complete First Season 16 March 16, 2004
The Complete Second Season 23 January 18, 2005
The Complete Third Season 24 August 23, 2005
• "All can know good as good only because there is evil." - Master Po
• "Be nothing, and you will have everything to give to others." - Master Po
• "Avoid rather than check. Check rather than hurt. Hurt rather than maim. Maim rather than kill. For all life is
precious and cannot be replaced." - Master Kan
• "To suppress a truth is to give it force beyond endurance." — Master Kan
• "Yet, it is eyes which blind the man." — Master Po
• "Because a man can see, he does not look." — Master Po
• "There is dignity in all work." - Caine
Many of the aphorisms used in the series are adapted from or derived directly from the Tao Te Ching, a book of
ancient Taoist philosophy attributed to the sage Laozi.
• 1973: Emmy Award, Best Director (Jerry Thorpe), An Eye for an Eye
• 1973: Emmy Award, Best Cinematography (Jack Woolf), An Eye for an Eye
• 1973: Writers Guild of America Award, Best Drama (Herman Miller), King of the Mountain.
[1] "Martial Arts Myths" (http:/ / www.insidekung-fu. com/ content/ view/ 176/ 37/ ). Inside Kung Fu. . Retrieved 2010-08-04.
[2] Weber, Bruce (June 5, 2009). "David Carradine, Actor, Is Dead at 72" (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 06/ 05/ movies/ 05carradine.
html?_r=1&scp=2& sq=david carradine kung fu&st=cse). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2010-08-17.
[3] Pilot episode shows a telegram (59 min. in) dated November 1873, placing the character's birth squarely in the mid-19th century, 1840-1850.
[4] "Memorable quotes for Kung Fu (1972) (TV)" (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0068823/quotes). . Retrieved 2009-03-05.
[5] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Bruce-Lee-Man-Only-Knew/dp/ 0446894079 Caldwell, L. Bruce Lee: The Man Only I Knew.
[6] "From The Pierre Berton Show 8 December 1971 http:/ / www.youtube. com/watch?v=uXOtmhA6Nvw& feature=PlayList&
p=9E42117F3D1A8008&index=0& playnext=1 (comments near end of part 2 & early in part 3)
[7] IMDB (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0068093/ episodes)
[8] John Stanley (1993-01-24). "New Fu: David Carradine revives successful '70s series in 'Kung Fu: The Legend Continues'". The San
Francisco Chronicle.
[9] Jonathan Storm (1993-01-27). "Still Alive and Kickin' David Carradine Is Back in "Kung Fu" - 150 Years Older and a Little Wiser". The
Philadelphia Inquirer.
[10] "We only know good because of evil" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=L156XHjoDL0&NR=1). YouTube. August 26, 2008. .
[11] "Be nothing and become everything" (http:// www.youtube.com/ watch?v=Rf5aYzbB4JM). YouTube. August 8, 2008. .
[12] Elizabeth Reninger (December 13, 2008). "The Tao Of Kung Fu" (http:// taoism. about.com/ b/ 2008/ 12/ 13/ the-tao-of-kung-fu.htm).
About.com. .
[13] http:// uk.imdb. com/ title/ tt0068093/ awards
[14] Pesselnick, Jill (May 11, 1999). "Herman Miller" (http:/ / www.variety.com/ article/ VR1117882919.html?categoryid=25&cs=1). Variety.
. Retrieved 2010-08-04.
''Kung Fu (TV series)''
Further reading
• Anderson, Robert. The Kung Fu Book: The exclusive, unauthorized, uncensored story of America's favorite
martial arts show. Pioneer Books, Inc., 1994. ISBN 1-55698-328-X
• Pilato, Herbie J. The Kung Fu Book of Caine: The Complete Guide to TV's First Mystical Eastern Western.
Boston: Charles E. Tuttle, 1993. ISBN 0-8048-1826-6
• Carradine, David. Spirit of Shaolin: A Kung Fu Philosophy. Boston: Charles E. Tuttle, 1991. ISBN
External links
• Kung Fu (http:// www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0068093/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Kung Fu (http:/ / www. tvguide. com/ tvshows/ kung-fu/202570) at TV Guide
• Kung Fu (http:// www.tv.com/ show/ 2162/ summary. html) at TV.com
• Unofficial Kung Fu site (http:// www. kungfu-guide.com/ )
''The Conversation''
The Conversation
The Conversation
theatrical poster
Directed by Francis Ford Coppola
Produced by Francis Ford Coppola
Written by Francis Ford Coppola
Starring Gene Hackman
John Cazale
Allen Garfield
Cindy Williams
Frederic Forrest
Music by David Shire
Cinematography Bill Butler
Editing by Richard Chew
Walter Murch
Studio Paramount Pictures
American Zoetrope
The Directors
The Coppola Company
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date(s) April 7 1974 (NYC)
Running time 113 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $1,600,000
The Conversation is a 1974 American thriller written and directed by Francis Ford Coppola and starring Gene
Hackman. Also starring are John Cazale, Allen Garfield, Cindy Williams and Frederic Forrest.
''The Conversation''
The Conversation won the Palme d'Or at the 1974 Cannes Film Festival,
and in 1995, it was selected for
preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically,
or aesthetically significant".
Originally, Paramount Pictures distributed the film worldwide. Paramount retains American rights to this day but
international rights are now held by Miramax Films and StudioCanal in conjunction with American Zoetrope.
Harry Caul (Gene Hackman) is a surveillance expert who runs his own company in San Francisco. He is highly
respected by others in the profession. Caul is obsessed with his own privacy; his apartment is almost bare behind its
triple-locked door, he uses pay phones to make calls, claims to have no home telephone and his office is enclosed in
wire mesh in a corner of a much larger warehouse. Caul is utterly professional at work but he finds personal contact
difficult. He is uncomfortable in dense crowds and withdrawn and taciturn in more intimate situations. He is also
reticent and secretive with work colleagues. He is nondescript in appearance, except for his habit of wearing a
translucent plastic raincoat virtually everywhere he goes, even when it is not raining.
Despite his insistence that his professional code means that he is not responsible for worrying about the actual
content of the conversations he records or the uses to which his clients put his surveillance activities, he is, in fact,
wracked by guilt over a past wiretap job that left three people dead. His sense of guilt is sharpened by his devout
Catholicism. His one hobby is playing along with his favorite jazz records on a tenor saxophone in the privacy of his
Caul and his friend Stan (John Cazale) have taken on the task of monitoring the conversation of a couple (Cindy
Williams and Frederic Forrest) as they walk through crowded Union Square in San Francisco. This challenging task
is accomplished. After Caul has worked his magic on merging and filtering different tapes, the final result is a sound
recording in which the words themselves become crystal clear, but their actual meaning remains ambiguous.
Although Caul cannot understand the true meaning of the conversation, he finds the cryptic nuances and emotional
undercurrents contained within it deeply troubling. Sensing danger, Caul feels increasingly uneasy about what may
happen to the couple once the client hears the tape. He plays the tape again and again throughout the movie, refining
its accuracy (by catching one key, though ambiguous, phrase hidden under the sound of a street musician: "He'd kill
us if he got the chance") and constantly reinterpreting its meaning in the light of what he knows and what he guesses.
Caul avoids handing in the tape to the aide (Harrison Ford) of the man who commissioned the surveillance (Robert
Duvall). He then finds himself under increasing pressure from the aide and is himself followed, tricked, and listened
in on. The tape is eventually stolen from him in a moment when his guard is down.
Caul's appalled efforts to forestall tragedy ultimately fail and it turns out the conversation might not mean what he
thought it did - the tragedy he had anticipated is not the one which eventually occurs. In the final scene, he discovers
that his own apartment has been bugged and goes on a frantic search for the listening device, tearing up walls and
floorboards and ultimately destroying his apartment to no avail. At the film's end he is left sitting amidst the
wreckage, playing the only thing in his apartment left intact: his saxophone.
''The Conversation''
• Gene Hackman as Harry Caul
• John Cazale as Stan
• Allen Garfield as William P. "Bernie" Moran
• Frederic Forrest as Mark
• Cindy Williams as Ann
• Michael Higgins as Paul
• Elizabeth MacRae as Meredith
• Teri Garr as Amy Fredericks
• Harrison Ford as Martin Stett
• Mark Wheeler as Receptionist
• Robert Shields as The Mime
• Phoebe Alexander as Lurleen
• Robert Duvall as The Director (uncredited)
• Gene Hackman's brother, Richard Hackman played two roles in the film, the priest in the confessional and a
security guard.
• Gian-Carlo Coppola, the nine-year-old son of director Francis Ford Coppola, played the small part of a boy in
On the DVD commentary, Coppola says he was shocked to learn that the film utilized the very same surveillance
and wire-tapping equipment that members of the Nixon Administration used to spy on political opponents prior to
the Watergate scandal. Coppola has said this is the reason the film gained part of the recognition it has received, but
that this is entirely coincidental. Not only was the script for The Conversation completed in the mid-1960s (before
the Nixon Administration came to power) but the spying equipment used in the film was discovered through research
and the use of technical advisers and not, as many believed, by revelatory newspaper stories about the Watergate
break-in. Coppola also noted that filming of The Conversation had been completed several months before the most
revelatory Watergate stories broke in the press. Since the film wasn't released to theaters until several months after
Richard Nixon had resigned, Coppola feels that audiences interpreted the film to be a reaction to both the Watergate
scandal and its fall-out.
The original cinematographer of The Conversation was Haskell Wexler. Severe creative and personal differences
with Coppola led to Wexler's firing shortly after production began and Coppola replaced him with Bill Butler.
Wexler's footage on The Conversation was completely reshot, except for the technically complex surveillance scene
in Union Square.
This would be the first of two Oscar-nominated films where Wexler would be fired and replaced
by Butler, the second being One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975), where Wexler had similar problems with
Milos Forman.
Walter Murch served as the supervising editor and sound designer. Murch had more or less a free hand during the
editing process, since Coppola was already working on The Godfather Part II at the time.
Coppola noted in the
DVD commentary that Hackman had a very difficult time adapting to the Harry Caul character because it was so
much unlike himself. Coppola says that Hackman was at the time an outgoing and approachable person who
preferred casual clothes, whereas Caul was meant to be a socially awkward loner who wore a rain coat and
out-of-style glasses. Coppola said that Hackman's efforts to tap into the character made the actor moody and irritable
on-set but otherwise Coppola got along well with his leading man. Coppola also notes on the commentary that
Hackman considers this one of his favorite performances.
The Conversation features a piano score composed and performed by David Shire. The score was created before the
film was shot.
On some cues, Shire took the taped sounds of the piano and distorted them in different ways to
''The Conversation''
create alternative tonalities to round out the score. The score was released on CD by Intrada Records in 2001.
Coppola has cited Michelangelo Antonioni's Blowup (1966) as a key influence on his conceptualization of the film's
themes, such as surveillance versus participation, and perception versus reality. "Francis had seen [it] a year or two
before, and had the idea to fuse the concept of Blowup with the world of audio surveillance."
In 1995, The Conversation was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library
of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". It won the 1974 Palme d'Or at the Cannes
Film Festival. The film was nominated for three Academy Awards for 1974:
• Academy Award for Best Picture (Francis Ford Coppola)
• Academy Award for Sound (Walter Murch & Art Rochester)
• Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay (Francis Ford Coppola)
[1] "Festival de Cannes: The Conversation" (http:/ / www.festival-cannes.com/ en/ archives/ ficheFilm/id/ 2226/ year/ 1974. html).
festival-cannes.com. . Retrieved 2009-04-26.
[2] Richard Hackman (http:// www.imdb.com/ name/ nm0352549/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
[3] Gian-Carlo Coppola (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ name/ nm0352549/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
[4] Stafford, Jeff The Conversation (TCM article) (http:/ / www.tcm. com/ tcmdb/ title. jsp?stid=71469& category=Articles)
[5] Ondaatje, 2002, p. 157
[6] discussion of soundtrack (http:/ / www. soundtrack. net/ soundtracks/ database/ ?id=2939)
[7] Intrada Special Collection Volume 2
[8] Murch in Ondaatje, 2002, p. 152
• Michael Ondaatje, The Conversations: Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film, London: Bloomsbury
Publishing (2002)
External links
• The Conversation (http:/ /www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ conversation/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• The Conversation (http:/ /www. imdb. com/ title/tt0071360/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Conversation (http:/ /tcmdb. com/ title/ title.jsp?stid=71469) at the TCM Movie Database
• The Conversation (http:/ /www. allmovie. com/ work/10898) at Allmovie
• The Conversation (http:/ /www. metacritic.com/ film/titles/ the-conversation) at Metacritic
• The Conversation (http:/ /www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=conversation.htm) at Box Office Mojo
Format Legal drama
Created by Harold Buchman
Sidney J. Furie
Directed by Irving J. Moore
Starring Barry Newman
Susan Howard
Albert Salmi
David Huddleston
Country of origin  United States
No. of seasons 2
No. of episodes 45
Executive producer(s) Edward K. Milkis
Thomas L. Miller
Running time 60 min.
Original channel NBC
Original run September 11, 1974 – March 31, 1976
Petrocelli is an American legal drama which ran for two seasons on NBC from September 11, 1974 to March 31,
Tony Petrocelli was an Italian-American Harvard-educated lawyer who grew up in South Boston and gave up the big
money and frenetic pace of major-metropolitan life to practice in a sleepy city in the American Southwest called San
Remo (filmed in Tucson, Arizona). He and his wife Maggie lived in a trailer in the country while waiting for their
new house to be built, and travelled around in a beat-up old pickup truck. Tony hired Pete Ritter, a local cowboy, as
his investigator.
Petrocelli worked as a defense lawyer, and each episode followed a similar format, with the client apparently certain
to be convicted of a crime of which they were innocent until a late emerging piece of evidence allowed the
protagonist to suggest to the jury an alternative possibility. These alternatives were never established as absolute
fact, and there was never any indication of a trial of the person onto whom Petrocelli turned the accusation, but the
doubt raised was sufficient to secure the release of his client.
An interesting technique used in the TV series was showing the actual crime in flashbacks from the perspective of
various people involved. The flashbacks, naturally, differed depending on whose recollections were being shown.
Newman created the role of Petrocelli in a 1970 movie, The Lawyer, which was loosely based on the Sam Sheppard
murder case.
Actor Role
Barry Newman Anthony J. Petrocelli
Susan Howard Maggie Petrocelli
Albert Salmi Pete Ritter
David Huddleston Lt. Joun Ponce
Guest stars
• Ron Foster
External links
• Petrocelli
at the Internet Movie Database
• Petrocelli
at TV.com
• Petrocelli
at epguides.com
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0071032/
[2] http:/ / www. tv. com/ show/ 1862/ summary.html
[3] http:/ / epguides. com/ Petrocelli
William Calley
William Calley
William Laws Calley
Born June 8, 1943
Nickname Rusty
Place of birth Miami, Florida
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Army
Second Lieutenant
Unit Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Infantry Brigade, 23rd Infantry Division
Battles/wars Vietnam War
• My Lai Massacre
William Laws Calley
(born June 8, 1943) is former U.S. Army officer found guilty of murder for his role in the
My Lai Massacre on March 16, 1968, during the Vietnam War.
Early life
William Calley was born in Miami, Florida. Nicknamed "Rusty", he stood 5 feet 4 inches (163 cm) tall. His father
was a United States Navy veteran of World War II. Calley graduated from Miami Edison High School in Miami. He
attended Palm Beach Junior College from 1963 to 1964, but dropped out after receiving unsatisfactory grades,
consisting of two Cs, one D, and four Fs.
He then worked at a variety of jobs, including bellhop, dishwasher,
salesman, insurance appraiser and train conductor.
He did not hold any of these for long and was in San Francisco
in 1966, when he received a letter from his Selective Service board requesting reevaluation of his medical condition.
While attempting to return to Miami, his car broke down in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Calley reported to a
recruiting sergeant there, and enlisted in the U.S. Army in Albuquerque on July 26, 1966.
Military career
Calley underwent nine weeks of basic combat training at Fort Benning, Georgia, followed by eight weeks advanced
individual training as a company clerk at Fort Lewis, Washington. Having scored sufficiently high enough on his
Armed Forces Qualification tests, he applied for and was accepted into Officer Candidate School (OCS). Calley
began 16 weeks of junior officer training at Fort Benning in mid-March 1967. Graduating in OCS Class No. 51 on
September 7, 1967,
he was commissioned a Second Lieutenant of Infantry.
Calley was assigned to Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Infantry Brigade,
and began
training at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii in preparation for deployment to the Republic of Vietnam. In Vietnam, the
William Calley
brigade became part of the Americal Division.
Calley was not highly regarded as a platoon leader. His Officer Evaluation Reports describe him as merely
Later, as the My Lai investigation progressed, a more negative picture emerged. Many men in his
platoon told army investigators that Calley lacked common sense and could not even read a map or compass
A few of Calley's men claimed he was so disliked that some secretly discussed assassinating him.
Murder trial
Calley was charged on September 5, 1969, with six specifications of premeditated murder for the deaths of 104
Vietnamese civilians near the village of My Lai, at a hamlet called Son My, more commonly called My Lai in the
U.S. press. As many as 500 villagers, mostly women, children, infants and the elderly, had been systematically killed
by American soldiers during a bloody rampage on March 16, 1968. If convicted, Calley could have faced the death
Calley's trial started on November 17, 1970. It was the military prosecution's contention that Calley, in defiance of
the U.S. Military Rules of Engagement, ordered his men to deliberately murder unarmed Vietnamese civilians
despite the fact that his men were not under enemy fire at all. Testimony revealed that Calley had ordered the men of
1st Platoon, Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry of the 23rd Infantry Division (Americal) to kill everyone in the
village. In presenting the case, the two military prosecutors, Aubrey Daniel and John Partin, were hamstrung by the
reluctance of many soldiers to testify against Calley. Some refused to answer questions point-blank on the witness
stand by citing the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination. However one holdout, a soldier in Calley's unit
named Paul Meadlo, after being jailed for contempt of court by the presiding judge, Reid W. Kennedy, reluctantly
agreed to testify. In his testimony, Meadlo described that during the day's events, he was standing guard over a few
dozen My Lai villagers when Lt. Calley approached him and ordered him to shoot all the civilians. When Meadlo
balked at the orders, Calley backed off 20 feet (6 m) or more and opened fire on the people himself, and Meadlo
joined in.
Another witness named Dennis Conti, who was also reluctant to testify, described the carnage, claiming that Calley
had started it and the rest of the 105 soldiers of Charlie Company followed suit. Another witness, named Leonard
Gonzalez, told of seeing one of the soldiers of Calley's unit heard some men and women villagers together and
ordered them to strip off their clothing. When the villagers refused, the enraged soldier fired a single round from his
M-79 grenade launcher into the crowd, killing everyone.
Calley's original defense that the death of the villagers was the result of an accidental helicopter or aerial airstrike
was quashed by the few prosecution witnesses. In his new defense, Calley claimed he was following the orders of his
immediate superior, Captain Ernest Medina. Whether this order was actually given is disputed; Medina was
acquitted of all charges relating to the incident at a separate trial in August 1971. Taking the witness stand, Calley,
under the direct examination by his civilian defense lawyer George Latimer, claimed that on the previous day, his
commanding officer, Captain Medina, made it clear that his unit was to move into the village and that everyone was
to be shot for they all were Viet Cong. 21 other members of Charlie Company also testified on Calley's defense
corroborating the orders. But Medina publicly denied that he had ever given such orders and he had meant enemy
soldiers, while Calley took the assumption that his orders, "kill the enemy" meant to kill everyone. In his personal
statement, Calley stated that:
"I was ordered to go in there and destroy the enemy. That was my job that day. That was the mission I was
given. I did not sit down and think in terms of men, women and children. They were all classified as the same,
and that's the classification that we dealt with over there, just as the enemy. I felt then and I still do that I acted
as I was directed, and I carried out the order that I was given and I do not feel wrong in doing so."
After deliberating for 79 hours, the six-officer jury (five of whom served in Vietnam) convicted him on March 29,
1971, of the premeditated murder of 22 Vietnamese civilians. On March 31, 1971, Calley was sentenced to life
imprisonment and hard labor at Fort Leavenworth.
William Calley
Of the 26 officers and soldiers initially charged for their part in the My Lai Massacre or the subsequent cover-up,
only Calley was convicted. Many saw My Lai as a direct result of the military's attrition strategy with its emphasis
on "body counts" and "kill ratios."
Many in America were outraged by Calley's sentence; Georgia's governor Jimmy Carter instituted "American
Fighting Man's Day" and asked Georgians to drive for a week with their lights on.
Indiana's governor asked all
state flags to be flown at half-staff for Calley, and Utah's and Mississippi's governors also disagreed with the
The Arkansas, Kansas, Texas, New Jersey, and South Carolina legislatures requested clemency for
Alabama's governor George Wallace visited Calley in the stockade and requested that Nixon pardon him.
79% of Americans polled disagreed with Calley's verdict.
Many others were outraged not at Calley's guilty verdict, but that he was the only one within the chain of command
who was convicted. At the Winter Soldier Investigation in Detroit organized by Vietnam Veterans Against the War
January 31-February 2, 1971, veterans including 1st Lt. William Crandell of the 199th Light Infantry Brigade,
Americal Division expressed their outrage:
We intend to tell who it was that gave us those orders; that created that policy; that set that standard of war
bordering on full and final genocide. We intend to demonstrate that My Lai was no unusual occurrence, other
than, perhaps, the number of victims killed all in one place, all at one time, all by one platoon of us. We intend
to show that the policies of Americal Division which inevitably resulted in My Lai were the policies of other
Army and Marine Divisions as well. We intend to show that war crimes in Vietnam did not start in March
1968, or in the village of Son My or with one Lt. William Calley. We intend to indict those really responsible
for My Lai, for Vietnam, for attempted genocide.
House arrest
On April 1, 1971, only a day after Calley was sentenced, U.S. President Richard Nixon ordered him transferred from
Leavenworth prison to house arrest at Fort Benning, pending appeal. This leniency was protested against by Melvin
Laird, the Secretary of Defense. The prosecutor, Aubrey Daniel wrote, "The greatest tragedy of all will be if political
expedience dictates the compromise of such a fundamental moral principle as the inherent unlawfulness of the
murder of innocent persons."
On August 20, 1971, the convening authority — the Commanding General of Fort
Benning — reduced Calley's sentence to 20 years. The Army Court of Military Review affirmed both the conviction
and sentence (46 C.M.R. 1131 (1973)). The Secretary of the Army reviewed the sentence and findings and approved
both, but in a separate clemency action commuted confinement to ten years. On May 3, 1974, President Nixon
notified the Secretary that he had reviewed the case and determined he would take no further action in the matter.
Ultimately, Calley served only three and a half years of house arrest in his quarters at Fort Benning. He petitioned
the federal district court for habeas corpus on February 11, 1974, which was granted on September 25, 1974, along
with his immediate release, by federal judge J. Robert Elliott. Judge Elliott found that Calley's trial had been
prejudiced by pretrial publicity, denial of subpoenas of certain defense witnesses, refusal of the United States House
of Representatives to release testimony taken in executive session of its My Lai investigation, and inadequate notice
of the charges. (The judge had released Calley on bail on February 27, 1974, but an appeals court reversed it and
returned Calley to U.S. Army custody on June 13, 1974.)
Calley was sent to the United States Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. At his release, the press
eagerly awaited his arrival at the prison's South Gate, as promised by the prison commandant. Instead, at Calley's
request, he was released at West Gate and taken directly to the Fort Leavenworth airfield, where his escort, an
unnamed Georgia congressman, had him flown home. The press were notified of his departure after the fact.
The Army appealed against Judge Elliott's decision to the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals and asked an appeals judge
to stay Calley's immediate release, which was granted. However, the full Court upheld the release pending appeal
and decided the entire court would hear the appeal (normally not done in the first instance). The Army won a
reversal of Judge Elliott's habeas corpus grant and a reinstatement of the judgment of the courts martial, with 5
William Calley
judges dissenting. (Calley v. Callaway, 519 F.2d 184, 9/10/1975). In a long and extremely detailed careful opinion,
the reviewing court disagreed with Judge Elliott on the law and significantly on Elliott's scope of review of the courts
martial proceedings. On November 9, 1974, the Court noted that although by now Calley had been "paroled" from
confinement by the Army, that did not moot the habeas corpus proceedings. Later in 1974, President Nixon tacitly
issued Calley a limited Presidential Pardon. Consequently, his general court-martial conviction and dismissal from
the U.S. Army were upheld, however, the prison sentence and subsequent parole obligations were commuted to time
served, leaving Calley a free man.
After release
Sometime in 2005 or 2006, Calley divorced his wife Penny, whose father had employed him at the V.V. Vick
jewelry store in Columbus since 1975, and moved to downtown Atlanta to live with his son, William Laws Calley Jr.
In October 2007, Calley agreed to be interviewed by the UK newspaper the Daily Mail to discuss the massacre,
saying, "Meet me in the lobby of the nearest bank at opening time tomorrow, and give me a certified check for
$25,000, then I'll talk to you for precisely one hour."
When the journalist "showed up at the appointed hour,
armed not with a check but a list of questions," Calley left.
On August 19, 2009, while speaking to the Kiwanis Club of Greater Columbus, Calley apologized for his role in the
My Lai massacre. According to the Ledger-Enquirer
and a blog maintained by retired broadcast journalist Dick
Calley said:
There is not a day that goes by that I do not feel remorse for what happened that day in My Lai. I feel remorse
for the Vietnamese who were killed, for their families, for the American soldiers involved and their families. I
am very sorry....If you are asking why I did not stand up to them when I was given the orders, I will have to
say that I was a 2nd Lieutenant getting orders from my commander and I followed them—foolishly, I guess.
In popular culture
Calley is mentioned by name in the first stanza of Pete Seeger's Vietnam protest song "Last Train to Nuremberg":
"Do I see Lieutenant Calley? Do I see Captain Medina? Do I see Gen'ral Koster and all his crew?"
The 1971 spoken song "The Battle Hymn of Lt. Calley" expressed support for the soldier.
The trial was dramatized in a 1975 television movie produced by ABC called Judgment: The Trial of Lieutenant
William Calley. The film featured Tony Musante as Calley and an early performance by Harrison Ford. It won an
Emmy Award for its editors.
[1] "WSB-TV newsfilm clip of a reporter John Philp conducting street interviews with civilians and soldiers outside the commissary following
the conviction of lieutenant William Calley for his role in the My Lai massacre during the Vietnam War, Fort Benning, Georgia" (http:// crdl.
usg.edu/ id:ugabma_wsbn_62845). Civil Rights Digital Library. University System of Georgia. 1971-03-30. . Retrieved 2009-08-22. "Second
lieutenant William Calley was a member of the Charlie Company, 1st battalion, 20th infantry regiment, 11th infantry brigade while in
[2] "Daily Mail: The Monster of the My Lai Massacre – Oct 6, 2007" (http:/ / www.dailymail.co.uk/ pages/ live/ articles/ news/ worldnews.
html?in_article_id=485983& in_page_id=1811). London. October 6, 2007. . Retrieved 2008-04-15.
[3] "An Average American Boy?" (http:// www.time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/0,9171,901624,00. html). Time. 12-05-1969. . Retrieved
[4] Loh, Jules. " Average Guy Calley Found Niche in Army (http:// 25thaviation. org/id299.htm)", Pacific Stars and Stripes, 12-01-1969. 25th
Aviation Battalion, U.S. Army.
[5] Wilson, William. “I Had Prayed to God that this Thing Was Fiction...” (http:// www. americanheritage.com/ articles/ magazine/ ah/ 1990/ 1/
1990_1_44.shtml), American Heritage, vol. 41 #1, February 1990.
[6] - 1971 Year in Review: Calley Trial, Foreign Affairs - http:// www.upi.com/Audio/ Year_in_Review/ Events-of-1971/
Calley-Trial%2C-Foreign-Affairs/ 12295509436546-8/
[7] Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. pp. 84–85. ISBN 0465041957.
William Calley
[8] "Winter Soldier Investigation: Opening Statement of William Crandell" (http:// www2.iath. virginia. edu/ sixties/ HTML_docs/ Resources/
Primary/ Winter_Soldier/WS_02_opening. html). The Sixties Project. Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University
of Virginia. January 31, 1971. .
[9] Rick Perlstein, Nixonland, p. 559.
[10] "Found: The monster of the My Lai massacre" (http:/ / www.dailymail. co.uk/ news/ article-485983/
Found-The-monster-My-Lai-massacre. html). Daily Mail (London). October 6, 2007. .
[11] "Found: The monster of the My Lai Massacre" (http:// www.dailymail.co. uk/pages/ live/ articles/ news/ worldnews.
html?in_article_id=485983& in_page_id=1811). London: Daily Mail. 6 October 2007. .
[12] Dusty Nix (August 21, 2009). "Long-silent Calley speaks" (http:// www.ledger-enquirer.com/ 178/ v-print/story/ 813681. html).
Ledger-Enquirer. . "“There is not a day that goes by that I do not feel remorse for what happened that day in My Lai,” Calley said. Then, as
reported on retired broadcast journalist Dick McMichael’s blog (http:// dicksworld.wordpress.com/ 2009/ 08/ 19/
exclusive-an-emotional-william-calley-says-he-is-sorry/ ), Calley’s voice began to break when he added, “I feel remorse for the Vietnamese
who were killed, for their families, for the American soldiers involved and their families. I am very sorry.”"
[13] Dick McMichael (August 19, 2009). "An Emotional William Calley Says He is Sorry" (http:// dicksworld. wordpress.com/ 2009/ 08/ 19/
exclusive-an-emotional-william-calley-says-he-is-sorry/ ). Dick's World. Wordpress. . Retrieved 2009-08-22. "I asked him for his reaction to
the notion that a soldier does not have to obey an unlawful order. In fact, to obey an unlawful order is to be unlawful yourself. He said, “I
believe that is true. If you are asking why I did not stand up to them when I was given the orders, I will have to say that I was a 2nd Lieutenant
getting orders from my commander and I followed them — foolishly, I guess.” He said that was no excuse, just what happened."
External links
• TRIAL : William Calley's trial (http:// www.trial-ch.org/ no_cache/ fr/trial-watch/profil/db/ facts/
william_calley_89. html)
• Famous American Trials: The My Lai Courts-Martial 1970 (http:// www.law. umkc. edu/ faculty/projects/
ftrials/ mylai/ mylai. htm)
• Beidler, Philip D., "Calley's Ghost" (http:/ / www.vqronline.org/articles/ 2003/ winter/ beidler-calleys-ghost/),
Virginia Quarterly Review, Winter 2003.
• BBC.co.uk | 29 | 1971: Calley guilty of My Lai Massacre (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ onthisday/ hi/ dates/ stories/
march/29/ newsid_2530000/ 2530975. stm)
''Dynasty (TV series)''
Dynasty (TV series)
The iconic trio of Krystle, Blake and Alexis, as featured on the Season 3 (Part 1) DVD
Genre Soap opera, Drama
Created by Richard & Esther Shapiro
Directed by Irving J. Moore et al.
Starring John Forsythe
Linda Evans
Joan Collins
John James
Pamela Bellwood
Gordon Thomson
Pamela Sue Martin
Jack Coleman
Michael Nader
Lee Bergere
Catherine Oxenberg
Kathleen Beller
Geoffrey Scott
Heather Locklear
Diahann Carroll
Theme music composer Bill Conti
Country of origin United States
No. of seasons 9
No. of episodes
(List of episodes)
Executive producer(s) Aaron Spelling
Douglas S. Cramer
Richard & Esther Shapiro
Running time 46 Minutes
Original channel ABC
Original run January 12, 1981 – May 11, 1989
''Dynasty (TV series)''
Related shows The Colbys
Dynasty: The Reunion
Dynasty: The Making of a Guilty Pleasure
Dynasty is an American prime time television soap opera that aired on ABC from January 12, 1981 to May 11, 1989.
It was created by Richard and Esther Shapiro and produced by Aaron Spelling, and revolved around the Carringtons,
a wealthy oil family living in Denver, Colorado.
Starring John Forsythe and Linda Evans as oil magnate Blake
Carrington and his new wife Krystle, Dynasty was ABC's competitor to CBS's prime time series Dallas.

The show's ratings for the first season were unremarkable, but the second season arrival of Joan Collins as Blake's
scheming first wife Alexis heralded Dynasty's rise into the Top 20,

. By 1984, it was a top ten show and by
1985, it was the #1 series on television.

Dynasty was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best TV Drama
Series every year from 1981 to 1986, winning in 1984.
Dynasty spawned a successful line of fashion and luxury
products, and even a spin-off series called The Colbys. Dynasty dropped from #7 to #24 during the 1986-87
and was ultimately canceled in May 1989 after a nine-season run.
Producer Spelling, already well-known for his successful ABC series including Starsky and Hutch, Charlie's Angels,
The Love Boat, Fantasy Island, Vega$, and Hart to Hart,
took on Richard and Esther Shapiro's vision of a rich and
powerful family who "lived and sinned" in a forty-eight room Denver mansion.
The working title for Dynasty was
Oil, and the starring role originally went to George Peppard. In early drafts of the pilot script, the two main families
featured in the series were known as the Parkhursts and Corbys; by the time production began, they had been
renamed the Carringtons and Colbys. Peppard, who had difficulties dealing with the somewhat unsympathetic role of
patriarch Blake Carrington,
was quickly replaced with Forsythe (who voiced the eponymous Charlie in Spelling's
Charlie's Angels). Filmed in 1980, the pilot was among many delayed due to a strike precipitated by animosity
between the television networks and the partnership of the Screen Actors Guild and the American Federation of
Television and Radio Artists. Dynasty finally premiered on ABC as a three-hour event on January 12, 1981.
Series history
The Carringtons
As Dynasty begins on January 12, 1981, powerful oil tycoon Blake Carrington (Forsythe) is about to marry the
younger Krystle Jennings (Evans), his former secretary.
Beautiful, earnest, and new to Blake's world, Krystle finds
a hostile reception in the Carrington household — the staff patronizes her, and Blake's headstrong and promiscuous
daughter Fallon (Pamela Sue Martin) resents her. Though devoted to Krystle, Blake himself is too preoccupied with
his company, Denver-Carrington, and blind to Krystle's predicament. Her only ally is her stepson Steven (Al
Corley), whose complicated relationship with Blake stems from their fundamental political differences and Steve's
resistance to step into his role as future leader of the Carrington empire. Meanwhile Fallon, better suited to follow in
Blake's footsteps, as a woman is underestimated by — and considered little more than a trophy to — father Blake.
She channels her energies into toying with various male suitors, including the Carrington chauffeur Michael Culhane
(Wayne Northrop). At the end of the three-hour premiere episode "Oil", Steven finally confronts his father,
criticizing Blake's capitalistic values and seemingly-amoral business practices.
Blake explodes, revealing the
secret of which Steven thought his father was unaware: Blake is disgusted by Steven's homosexuality, and his refusal
to "conform" sets father and son at odds for some time.

In counterpoint to the Carringtons are the Blaisdels; Denver-Carrington geologist Matthew (Bo Hopkins)  —
unhappily married to the emotionally fragile Claudia (Pamela Bellwood)  — is Krystle's ex-lover. Returning from an
extended assignment in the Middle East, Matthew quits and goes into business with wildcatter Walter Lankershim
''Dynasty (TV series)''
(Dale Robertson), and as Blake's behavior begins pushing Krystle towards Matthew, the men are set as both business
and romantic rivals.
Blake is further enraged when Steven goes to work for longtime friend Matthew, in whom
Steven sees qualities lacking in Blake. Though previously in a relationship with another man, Steven finds himself
drawn to Claudia, who is putting her life back together after spending time in a psychiatric hospital. Fallon makes a
secret business deal with Blake's old friend and more-powerful business rival Cecil Colby (Lloyd Bochner),
marrying his nephew Jeff (John James) to secure Cecil's financial assistance for her father. When Blake stumbles
upon Steven in an innocent goodbye embrace with his former lover Ted Dinard (Mark Withers), Blake angrily
pushes the two men apart; Ted falls backward and hits his head, the injury proving fatal.

Blake is arrested and
charged with murder,
and an angry Steven testifies that Ted's death had been the result of malicious intent. A
veiled surprise witness for the prosecution appears in the season finale "The Testimony", and Fallon gasps in
recognition: "Oh my God, that's my mother!"

Enter Alexis
In the first episode of the second season, titled "Enter Alexis", the mysterious witness removes her sunglasses to
reveal British actress Joan Collins as a new arrival to the series.
Collins' Alexis Carrington blazed a trail across the
show and its storylines; the additions of Collins and the "formidable writing team" of Eileen and Robert Mason
Pollock are generally credited with Dynasty's subsequent rise in the Nielsen ratings.
The Pollocks "soft-pedaled the
business angle" of the show and "bombarded viewers with every soap opera staple in the book, presented at such a
fast clip that a new tragedy seemed to befall the Carrington family every five minutes."
Alexis' testimony
nonwithstanding, Krystle is immediately put off by the former Mrs. Carrington's condescending attitude and
manipulations; Krystle's subsequent discovery that Alexis had caused Krystle's miscarriage by intentionally startling
her horse with a gunshot settles Alexis as Krystle's implacable nemesis. Other new characters of the season are the
psychiatrist Nick Toscanni (James Farentino), who tries to seduce Krystle while bedding Fallon and plotting against
Blake, and Krystle's greedy niece Sammy Jo Dean (Heather Locklear), who marries Steven for his money. The
season finale sees Blake left for dead on a mountain after a fight with Nick. By that time, Dynasty had entered the
Top 20.

In the third season, Alexis marries Cecil on his deathbed and acquires his company, Colbyco. In the
meantime, Adam Carrington (Gordon Thomson), the long-lost son of Alexis and Blake who had been kidnapped in
infancy, reappears in Denver. Also introduced are Krystle's ex-husband, tennis pro Mark Jennings (Geoffrey Scott),
and Kirby Anders (Kathleen Beller), the daughter of longtime Carrington majordomo Joseph (Lee Bergere). Kirby
catches Adam's eye but weds Jeff after his divorce from Fallon. In the middle of the season, news that Steven has
been killed in an accident in Indonesia comes to the Carringtons; he survives, but undergoes plastic surgery and
returns to Denver portrayed by Jack Coleman. In the third season cliffhanger, Alexis lures Krystle to Steven's cabin
and the two are locked inside while the cabin is set ablaze by an unseen arsonist (later revealed to be Joseph, who
had meant for the fire to kill only Alexis and not Krystle).
With the show's popularity soaring in the fourth season, former President Gerald Ford guest-starred as himself in
1983, along with his wife Betty and former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. New characters included the
charming and ambitious Farnsworth "Dex" Dexter (Michael Nader), the unscrupulous playboy Peter De Vilbis
(Helmut Berger), and Blake's illegitimate African American half-sister, Dominique Deveraux (Diahann Carroll). The
main storylines included a custody battle between Steven and Blake over Steven and Sammy Jo's son Danny, and a
false accusation of illegal weapons dealings orchestrated by Alexis to ruin Blake's financial empire. In the season
finale, Fallon disappears just before her second wedding to Jeff (now divorced of Kirby) as her car seemingly
collides with a truck on a stormy night (to accommodate the departure of Pamela Sue Martin from the series), while
Alexis is arrested for the murder of Mark Jennings.
In the fifth season, Alexis is exonerated and her secret daughter Amanda Bedford (Catherine Oxenberg) comes to
Denver and discovers that Blake is her father. Steven has married Claudia but leaves her for a man, and Sammy Jo
discovers she is the heiress to a huge fortune. At the end of the season, an amnesiac Fallon, now portrayed by actress
Emma Samms, reappears while the rest of the family go to Europe for the wedding of Amanda and Prince Michael
''Dynasty (TV series)''
of Moldavia (Michael Praed). During the season, the series attracted controversy when Rock Hudson's real-life
HIV-positive status was revealed after a romantic storyline between his character Daniel Reece and Evans' Krystle.
Hudson's scenes required him to kiss Evans and, as news that he had contracted AIDS broke, there was speculation
Evans would be at risk. Driven by the new head writer and producer Camille Marchetta, who had devised the
wildly-successful 'Who Shot J.R.?' scenario on Dallas five years earlier, Dynasty hit #1 that year.

The "Moldavian Massacre"
Undoubtedly the most famous Dynasty cliffhanger is the so-called "Moldavian massacre" during the May 1985
season finale. Amanda and Michael's royal wedding is interrupted by terrorists in a military coup of Moldavia,
riddling the chapel with bullets and leaving all of the major characters lying seemingly lifeless. It became the most
talked-about episode of any TV series during the calendar year of 1985, with a viewership of sixty million.
the series resumed in the fall, viewers quickly learned that only two minor characters had died: Steven's boyfriend
Luke Fuller (Billy Campbell) and Jeff's love interest Lady Ashley Mitchell (Ali McGraw). In the 2006 CBS special
Dynasty Reunion: Catfights & Caviar, Gordon Thomson reiterated that it was the follow-up that was the letdown, not
the cliffhanger itself. Joan Collins was conspicuously absent from the season six opener; she was in a tense contract
renegotiation with the show, seeking an increased salary.
As a result, the first episode had to be rewritten to
explain her absence and many scenes were given to Krystle. Collins' demands were met (she reportedly signed a
$60,000 per episode contract) and she returned to the series in the season's second episode.
Continuing seasons and decline
Though still a top-ten show, Dynasty dropped from #1 to #7 in the ratings in the sixth season,

which featured a
lookalike woman who posed as Krystle, introduced Alexis' sister Caress (Kate O'Mara), and launched the spin-off
The Colbys. Spurned by Blake, Alexis finds his estranged brother Ben (Christopher Cazenove) and the two
successfully plot to strip Blake of his fortune. Steven's budding relationship with closeted Bart Fallmont (Kevin
Conroy) is ruined by Adam's business-motivated public reveal that Bart is gay, and the May 21, 1986 season finale
finds Blake strangling Alexis while the rest of the cast is in peril at the La Mirage hotel, which is accidentally set on
fire by Claudia.
As the seventh season begins in September 1986, Blake stops short of killing Alexis, Claudia has died in the fire, and
Amanda (now played by American Karen Cellini following Oxenberg's departure) is rescued by a returning Michael
Culhane. Blake turns the tables on Ben and Alexis and recovers his wealth, but loses his memory after an oil rig
explosion. Alexis finds Blake and, with everyone believing he is dead, perpetuates the belief that they are still
married. Living with a clean slate, Alexis finds herself softening to Blake, and ultimately tells him the truth as he
reunites with Krystle. Krystina receives a heart transplant but is kidnapped; Sammy Jo's marriage to Clay Fallmont
(Ted McGinley) crumbles and she falls into bed with Steven; Amanda leaves town, and North and South's Terri
Garber arrives as Ben's daughter Leslie Carrington. Adam's season-long romance with Blake's secretary Dana
Waring (Leann Hunley) culminates in a wedding, which is punctuated in the May 6, 1987 season finale by Alexis'
car plunging off a bridge into a river and the violent return of a vengeful Matthew Blaisdel. Dynasty dropped to #24,
and out of the top 30 in the 1987–1988 eighth season.
With The Colbys cancelled, Jeff and Fallon return for Dynasty's eighth season, their marriage now falling apart
again. Matthew, returned from the dead but troubled by headaches, holds the Carringtons hostage in hopes that
Krystle will run away with him. Steven ends the siege by reluctantly stabbing his old friend to death. Alexis is saved
by a handsome and mysterious stranger, Sean Rowan (James Healey); she marries him, not realizing that he is
Joseph's son and Kirby's brother, bent on revenge. Steven and Sammy Jo's reconciliation is short-lived as the pursuit
of children unravels Adam and Dana's marriage. Sean begins to manipulate and destroy the Carringtons from the
inside, with he and Dex fighting to the death in the March 30, 1988 season finale. Blake comes home to find Krystle
missing and their bedroom in shambles.
''Dynasty (TV series)''
The ninth and final 1988–1989 season brought a move from Wednesday to Thursday, and new Executive
Supervising Producer David Paulsen, who took over the plotting of the series. In a money-saving move, Evans
appeared in only a handful of episodes at the start of the season as an ailing Krystle seeks brain surgery in
Switzerland but is left in an offscreen coma. Similarly, Collins was contracted for only 13 out of the season's 22
episodes; former Colbys character Sable (Stephanie Beacham) was brought in as both a platonic confidante for Blake
and a nemesis for Alexis, and Tracy Scoggins also reprised her Colbys role as Sable's daughter Monica. A storyline
involving a murder and an old secret tying the Carrington, Colby, and Dexter families together spans the season as
Alexis and Sable spar first over business and then over Dex.
Ratings, however, continued to drop and were further exacerbated by the timeslot switch as now the series was
facing off against the strong NBC Thursday night line-up, which had regularly drawn the lion's share of the audience
that night (led by The Cosby Show, which had supplanted Dynasty as the #1 show on television in 1986 and had
continued to hold that lead). In May 1989, new ABC entertainment president Robert A. Iger cancelled Dynasty; with
the last episode of season nine now the series finale, the show ended with Blake, Alexis, and Dex in mortal peril.
The "catfights"
Over the run of the series, the rivalry between Alexis and Krystle is a primary driver for the melodrama. Alexis
resents Krystle's supplanting of her position as mistress of the Carrington household and tries to undermine her at
every opportunity, while Krystle makes increasingly bold efforts to keep Alexis from interfering in the lives of their
mutual loved ones. The pair have numerous verbal spats, accented by slaps across the face, but on more than one
occasion they have physical altercations. "Unfortunately, the thing people remember about this show is the
catfights," noted Collins in 1991.
Krystle and Alexis famously brawl in Alexis' cottage
and later in a lily
hurl mud at each other at a beauty salon,
and slide down a ravine together into a puddle of mud
their final showdown in a fashion studio in the 1991 miniseries Dynasty: The Reunion.
In 2008 Entertainment
Weekly termed Alexis and Krystle's catfights "the gold standard of scratching and clawing."
Later in the series
Alexis battles Blake's half-sister Dominique Deveraux (Diahann Carroll)
and her own cousin Sable Colby
(Stephanie Beacham);
Heather Locklear's Sammy Jo has catfights with both Amanda (Catherine Oxenberg) in a
swimming pool
and Fallon (Emma Samms) in a horse trough and the mud around it.
Evans even battles with
herself at the climax of a 1985–1986 storyline in which Krystle is imprisoned and replaced by a lookalike, also
played by Evans.
Spin-offs and television events
A spin-off, The Colbys, debuted in 1985 as Fallon "returned from the dead" and ex-husband Jeff followed her to Los
Angeles, where they became embroiled in the family intrigues of Jeff's wealthy California relatives. Pamela Sue
Martin had been asked to reprise the role of Fallon, but declined; the show lasted for just two seasons, ending in
1987, and both Fallon and Jeff returned to Dynasty.
A miniseries, Dynasty: The Reunion, aired in October 1991.
Billed as a wrap-up for the dangling plotlines left by
the series' abrupt cancellation 2½ years earlier, The Reunion resolved some storylines but ignored others.
The cable channel SOAPnet aired repeats of all nine seasons. In January 2004, creator Esther Shapiro participated in
a marathon of the show's episodes, called "Serial Bowl: Alexis vs. Krystle", giving behind-the-scenes tidbits and
On January 2, 2005, ABC aired a fictionalized television movie called Dynasty: The Making of a Guilty Pleasure
chronicling the creation and backstage details of Dynasty. It received mixed reviews both for content and for
historical accuracy, and was criticized by Forsythe, Evans, and Collins in separate press releases.
Filmed in
Australia, the movie starred Bartholomew John as Forsythe, Melora Hardin as Evans, and Alice Krige as Collins.
The film begins with a disclaimer noting the inclusion of "time compression and composite and fictionalized
''Dynasty (TV series)''
characters and incidents," and takes dramatic license with both the historical timeline and events, as well as the
fictional storylines originally presented on Dynasty.
On May 2, 2006, a television special named Dynasty Reunion: Catfights & Caviar aired on CBS. It assembled
former cast members from the series, including John Forsythe, Joan Collins, and Linda Evans, as well as the four
original actors who played the Carrington children (Pamela Sue Martin, Al Corley, Gordon Thomson, and Catherine
Oxenberg). The cast reminisced about their time filming Dynasty together in this special, which was filmed at the
Filoli mansion used for exterior locations in the series.
Behind the scenes
The Filoli estate in Woodside, California was used as the 48-room Carrington mansion in the opening credits,
establishing shots, and some outdoor scenes in the pilot episode. Some of the other exterior shots of the Carrington
mansion (including the lily pond catfight) were shot at a 17-room Palladian house called Arden Villa.
John Forsythe was the only cast member to appear in all 220 episodes of the series. Linda Evans appeared in 204 of
the 220 episodes, leaving the series after appearing in only six episodes of the ninth and final season. Joan Collins,
who did not join the cast until the second season, also missed 1 episode in season 6 and 9 episodes in season 9, and
was subsequently present for a total of 195 episodes. Forsythe and John James were the only two original cast
members to appear in the final episode.
Commercial tie-ins
The creations of series costume designer Nolan Miller became so popular that Dynasty spawned its own line of
women's apparel
called "The Dynasty Collection" — a series of haute couture designs based on costumes worn by
Joan Collins, Linda Evans and Diahann Carroll. Christopher Schemering's The Soap Opera Encyclopedia notes that
later, "capitalizing on that success, the show put out a men's fashion line, Dynasty sheets and towels, 'Forever
Krystle' perfume, dolls, and  — in keeping with the nothing-is-sacred spirit of the show  — even wall-to-wall
carpeting and panty hose."
In addition, the Crystal Light beverage hired Linda Evans as a spokesperson due to her character's name (Krystle) on
Two fictional novels were published, based on scripts from early episodes — Dynasty (1983)
and Alexis Returns
— written by Eileen Lottman. In 1984, Doubleday/Dolphin published the companion book Dynasty: The
Authorized Biography of the Carringtons, which included an introduction by Esther Shapiro.
The Authorized
Biography featured storyline synopses in the form of extended biographies of the main characters, descriptions of
primary locations (like the Carrington Estate and La Mirage) and dozens of photos from the series.
Glamour, Greed & Glory: Dynasty by Judith A. Moose was released in 2005 and included facts, stories, episode
guides and photos.
Author Moose later claimed that through research at Spelling Entertainment, she discovered
the middle names (unused on air) of some key characters: Alexis Marissa, Amanda Kimberly, Blake Alexander,
Claudia Mary and Fallon Marissa.
''Dynasty (TV series)''
U.S. ratings
Dynasty was a top-30 hit for its second through seventh seasons, reaching #1 for the 1984–1985 season.

• Season 2 (1981–1982): #19

• Season 3 (1982–1983): #5

• Season 4 (1983–1984): #3

• Season 5 (1984–1985): #1

• Season 6 (1985–1986): #7

• Season 7 (1986–1987): #24
Awards and nominations
Dynasty was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best TV Drama Series every year from 1981 to 1986,
winning in 1984.
Forsythe and Collins were also nominated for Best Actor and Best Actress every year from 1981
to 1986, and Evans was nominated for Best Actress every year from 1981 to 1985. Evans won in 1982 (tying with
Barbara Bel Geddes of rival series Dallas),
Forsythe won in 1983
and 1984,
and Collins won in 1983.
DVD releases
The first season of Dynasty was released on Region 1 DVD on April 19, 2005 by 20th Century Fox Home
The rights to subsequent seasons (and Season 1 rights for other regions) reverted to CBS DVD
(distributed by Paramount) in November 2006.
The show is rated  PG  for Parental Guidance in Australia and  PG  in New Zealand for adult themes.
Season Ep # Region 1 Region 2
Region 2
Region 2
Region 4
Additional Content
Season 1
April 19,
March 9,
July 3, 2008 April 9,
April 9,
All 15 episodes of the first season,
with original cast members Pamela Sue Martin
and Al Corley, two commentary tracks by creator
Esther Shapiro and Corley, Family, Furs and
Fun: Creating DYNASTY series overview
Season 2 22
August 14,
March 9,
March 5,
October 22,
October 1,
All 22 episodes of the second season, Interactive
Season 2 Family Tree
(Blake, Alexis, Krystle,
Fallon, Jeff, Steven, Sammy Jo and Little Blake
Season 3,
Volume 1
June 17,
N/A N/A N/A N/A US/Region 1: First 12 episodes of Season 3
Season 3,
Volume 2
N/A N/A N/A N/A US/Region 1: Second 12 episodes of Season 3
Season 3,
24 N/A
May 18,
September 3,
April 29,
April 2,
All 24 episodes of Season 3 released in a single
''Dynasty (TV series)''
Season 4,
Volume 1
April 7,
N/A N/A N/A N/A US/Region 1: First 14 episodes of Season 4
Season 4,
Volume 2
February 2,
N/A N/A N/A N/A US/Region 1: Second 13 episodes of Season 4
Season 4,
27 N/A March 8,
December 3,
25, 2009
24, 2009
All 27 episodes of Season 4 released in a single
Season 5,
22 March
June 21,
July 8, 2010 July 28,
August 5,
All 29 episodes of Season 5 released in a single
Season 6,
31 TBA January 24,
December 9,
24, 2010
TBA All 31 episodes of Season 6 released in a single
Season 7,
Season 8,
Season 9,
References and notes
[1] The first three episodes of Dynasty were first broadcast in the US as a single, three-hour television special ("Oil"), and the two 1985 episodes
which set up the spin-off The Colbys also aired in a single two-hour block ("The Titans"). This technically makes the number of US broadcasts
217; however in syndication these episodes are presented individually, totalling 220.
[2] Schemering, Christopher (September 1985). The Soap Opera Encyclopedia. pp. 80–81. ISBN 0-345-32459-5 (1st edition).
[3] Corliss, Richard (April 3, 2010). "Charlie's an Angel Now: John Forsythe Dies at 92" (http:/ / www.time. com/ time/ arts/ article/
0,8599,1977623,00. html#ixzz0yITk3bNe). Time magazine (Time.com). . Retrieved September 25, 2010.
[4] Brooks, Tim; Earle Marsh (October 2007). "Top-Rated Programs by Season". The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV
Shows (9th ed.). pp. 1689–1692. ISBN 978-034549773-4.
[5] 1981–1982 Ratings – ClassicTVhits.com (http:// www.classictvhits. com/ tvratings/ 1981. htm)
[6] 1984–1985 Ratings – ClassicTVhits.com (http:/ / www.classictvhits. com/ tvratings/ 1984. htm)
[7] "The 1984 Golden Globe Award Winners" (http:/ / www.ropeofsilicon. com/ award_show/golden_globe_awards/ 1984).
RopeofSilicon.com. . Retrieved January 20, 2010.
[8] Gliatto, Tom; Vicki Sheff (August 5, 1991). "Alexis Strikes Again!" (http:/ / www.people.com/ people/ archive/article/ 0,,20115641,00.
html). People (Vol. 36, No. 4): pp. 66–68. . Retrieved February 21, 2009.
[9] Idato, Michael (September 19, 2005). "The Great Escape" (http:/ / www. smh. com.au/ news/ tv--radio/the-great-escape/2005/ 09/ 17/
1126750167460. html). The Sydney Morning Herald. SMH.com.au. . Retrieved February 25, 2009.
[10] Hack, Richard. "Portraying of Characters: Casting (Excerpt of Aaron Spelling/Douglas S. Cramer interview)" (http:// www.
ultimatedynasty.net/ autorizedbio.html). The Hollywood Reporter. UltimateDynasty.net. . Retrieved February 25, 2009.
[11] Tropiano, Stephen (March 19, 2003). "The Prime Time Closet: Outing TV's Heterosexual Homosexuals" (http:/ / www. popmatters.com/
columns/ tropiano/030319. shtml). PopMatters.com. . Retrieved February 25, 2009.
[12] "Dynasty Episodes Guide: Season One" (http:/ / shoulderpads. net/ guide/ ). Shoulderpads.net. . Retrieved December 29, 2008.
[13] E! True Hollywood Story: Dynasty (2001)
[14] "Behind Dynasty 's breakdown ... and recovery" (http:// www.ultimatedynasty.net/ archives/ archives15.html). TV Guide.
UltimateDynasty.net. May 17, 1986. . Retrieved November 20, 2009.
[15] 1985–1986 Ratings – ClassicTVhits.com (http:/ / www.classictvhits. com/ tvratings/ 1985. htm)
[16] Walker, Joseph (May 24, 1989). "Dynasty Cliffhanger is Just That" (http:/ / www. deseretnews. com/ article/47975/ ). Deseret News.
DeseretNews.com. . Retrieved September 25, 2010.
[17] Season 2 episode "The Baby" (March 3, 1982)
''Dynasty (TV series)''
[18] Season 3 episode "The Threat" (April 13, 1983)
[19] Season 6 episode "Ben" (February 26, 1986)
[20] "Girl-on-Girl Action". Entertainment Weekly (Issue #1018). October 31, 2008.
[21] Season 7 episode "Fear" (December 31, 1986)
[22] Season 9 series finale "Catch 22" (May 11, 1989)
[23] Season 6 finale "The Choice (a.k.a.) The Vendetta" (May 21, 1986)
[24] Season 9 episode "Alexis in Blunderland" (December 15, 1988)
[25] Season 6 episode "The Vigil" (January 22, 1986)
[26] "Dynasty stars disinherit film" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ life/ television/ news/ 2004-12-29-dynasty_x.htm). USA Today. December 30,
2004. . Retrieved May 1, 2010.
[27] "Dynasty: The Making of a Guilty Pleasure: Credits" (http:// www.der-denver-clan.de/ de/ dynasty_behind.207.html).
Der-denver-clan.de. . Retrieved February 27, 2009.
[28] http:/ / www. tvacres. com/ homes_dynasty. htm
[29] Lottman, Eileen. Dynasty, 1983, Bantam Books, ISBN 0-553-17084-8.
[30] Lottman, E. Alexis Returns, 1984, Bantam Books, ISBN 0-553-24431-0.
[31] Dynasty: The Authorized Biography of the Carringtons. Doubleday/Dolphin. 1984. pp. 150. ISBN 0-385-19525-7.
[32] Glamour, Greed & Glory: Dynasty. Signing Stars. 2005. pp. 704. ISBN 1-419-60375-2.
[33] Dynasty Middle names – UltimateDynasty.net (http:/ / www.ultimatedynasty.net/ forums/ lofiversion/index. php/ t849. html)
[34] 1982–1983 Ratings – ClassicTVhits.com (http:/ / www.classictvhits. com/ tvratings/ 1982. htm)
[35] 1983–1984 Ratings – ClassicTVhits.com (http:/ / www.classictvhits. com/ tvratings/ 1983. htm)
[36] "The 1982 Golden Globe Award Winners" (http:/ / www. ropeofsilicon. com/award_show/ golden_globe_awards/ 1982).
RopeofSilicon.com. . Retrieved January 20, 2010.
[37] "The 1983 Golden Globe Award Winners" (http:/ / www. ropeofsilicon. com/award_show/ golden_globe_awards/ 1983).
RopeofSilicon.com. . Retrieved January 20, 2010.
[38] Dynasty: The Complete First Season (Region 1) (http:/ / www.amazon.com/ dp/ B0007IO6V4). Amazon.com.
[39] The first three episodes of Dynasty were first broadcast in the US as a single, three-hour special, but in syndication these episodes are
presented individually. The DVD contains the full 15 segments of Season One, each with main titles and end credits, but the packaging
advertises "13 episodes," noting that the series premiere is three parts.
[40] Dynasty: The First Season (Region 2) (http:/ / www. amazon.co.uk/ dp/ B001KQO04A). Amazon.co.uk.
[41] Dynasty: The First Season (Region 4) (http:/ / www. ezydvd. com.au/ item.zml/ 798182). EzyDVD.com.au.
[42] Dynasty Season 1 Region 1 DVD packaging (2005)
[43] Dynasty: The Second Season (Region 1) (http:/ / www. amazon.com/ dp/ B000QUEQ68). Amazon.com.
[44] Dynasty: The Second Season (Region 2) (http:// www. amazon.co.uk/ dp/ B001KQO054). Amazon.co.uk.
[45] Dynasty: The Second Season (Region 4) (http:/ / www. ezydvd. com. au/ item.zml/ 801414). EzyDVD.com.au.
[46] Dynasty Season 2 Region 1 DVD packaging (2007)
[47] Dynasty – Studio Confirms Christmastime Scoop for 3rd Season DVDs" – TVshowsonDVD.com (http:/ / www.tvshowsondvd. com/ news/
[48] Dynasty: The Third Season – Volume 1 (Region 1) (http:// video.barnesandnoble.com/ DVD/ Dynasty-Season-3-Volume-1/Joan-Collins/
e/ 097361328041/ ?itm=8). BarnesandNoble.com.
[49] Dynasty – Season 3, Vol. 2 Announced!" – TVshowsonDVD.com (http:/ / www.tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Dynasty-Season-3-Volume-2/
[50] Dynasty: The Third Season – Volume 2 (Region 1) (http:/ / www.amazon.com/ dp/ B001BN4WLS). Amazon.com.
[51] Dynasty: The Third Season – Complete (Region 2) (http:// www.amazon. co.uk/ dp/ B001S3GDWM). Amazon.co.uk.
[52] Dynasty: The Third Season (Region 4) (http:/ / www. ezydvd. com. au/ item. zml/ 804830). EzyDVD.com.au.
[53] Dynasty – Season 4, Volume 1 DVD Set's Release Date Announced." – TVshowsonDVD.com (http:/ / tvshowsondvd. com/ news/
[54] Dynasty: The Fourth Season – Volume 1 (Region 1) (http:// www.amazon.com/ dp/ B001QU9RRK). Amazon.com.
[55] Dynasty – Season 4, Volume 2 DVD Set's Release Date Announced." – TVshowsonDVD.com (http:// tvshowsondvd. com/ news/
[56] Dynasty: The Fifth Season (Region 1) (http:// www.tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Dynasty-Season-5/ 14734).www.tvshowsondvd.com
[57] Dynasty: The Fifth Season (Region 2) (http:/ / www.amazon. co.uk/ Dynasty-Season-5-DVD/dp/ B0035JK5EY). Amazon.co.uk.
''Dynasty (TV series)''
External links
• Dynasty (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0081856/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Dynasty (http:/ / www. tv. com/ show/ 138/ summary. html) at TV.com
• Ultimate Dynasty (http:// www. ultimatedynasty. net/ home. php)
• Der Denver Clan – German language Dynasty site (http:// www. der-denver-clan.de/ de/ home. cfm)
• Dynastie – French language Dynasty site (http:/ / dynastiefr.ifrance.com/ )
• Where are the stars of Dynasty now? (http:/ / www.virginmedia.com/ tvradio/soaps/ soaptrivia/
The Possessed
Possessed may refer to:
• Possession, having some degree of control over something else
• Spirit possession, whereby gods, daemons, demons, animas, or other disincarnate entities may temporarily take
control of a human body
• Demonic possession, spirit possession by a malevolent entity
In literature:
• The Possessed (novel), 1872 -- Fyodor Dostoevsky
• The Possessed (play), 1959 -- adapted Albert Camus
• "The Possessed" (short story), a 1951 short story by Arthur C. Clarke
• The Possessed (comics), 2003
• The Puppet Masters by Robert A. Heinlein
In film:
• Possessed (1931 film), a drama starring Clark Gable and Joan Crawford
• Possessed (1947 film), a film noir starring Joan Crawford
• Possessed (1983 film), Hong Kong horror film
• Possessed II, Hong Kong horror film
• Possessed (2000 film), a TV-movie starring Timothy Dalton
• Junoon (film), aka Possessed, 1978 Indian epic
• Possessed (2006 film), Malaysian, horror film
• The Possessed (film), a 1988 French film
In music:
• Possessed (band), American death metal band
• Possessed (album) -- Venom
• Possessed (demo), 1998 -- Gojira
• Possessed 13, a 2003 album -- The Crown
In Roller Coasters:
• Possessed (roller coaster), a Steel Impulse Coaster at Dorney Park formerly referred to as Voodoo.
''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope
Star Wars Episode IV:
A New Hope
Original 1977 theatrical film poster
by Tom Jung
Directed by George Lucas
Produced by Gary Kurtz
Written by George Lucas
Starring Mark Hamill
Harrison Ford
Carrie Fisher
David Prowse
Peter Cushing
Alec Guinness
Anthony Daniels
Kenny Baker
Peter Mayhew
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Gilbert Taylor, BSC
Editing by Richard Chew
Paul Hirsch
Marcia Lucas
Studio Lucasfilm
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) May 25, 1977
Running time 121 minutes
Country United States
Language English
$11 million
Gross revenue
$775,398,007 (Worldwide)
''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
Followed by Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back
Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (originally released as Star Wars
) is a 1977 American epic space opera
written and directed by George Lucas. It is the first of six films released in the Star Wars saga: two
subsequent films complete the original trilogy, while a prequel trilogy completes the six film saga. It is the fourth
film in terms of the series internal chronology. Ground-breaking in its use of special effects, unconventional editing,
and sci-fi/fantasy storytelling, the original Star Wars is one of the most successful and influential films of all time.
Set "a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away", the film follows a group of freedom fighters known as the Rebel
Alliance as they plot to destroy the powerful Death Star space station, a devastating weapon created by the evil
Galactic Empire. This conflict disrupts the isolated life of farmboy Luke Skywalker when he inadvertently acquires
the droids carrying the stolen plans to the Death Star. After the Empire begins a cruel and destructive search for the
droids, Skywalker decides to accompany Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi on a daring mission to rescue the owner of
the droids, rebel leader Princess Leia Organa, and save the galaxy.
Produced with a budget of $11 million and released on May 25, 1977, the film went on to earn $460 million in the
United States and $337 million overseas, surpassing Jaws as the highest-grossing film of all time at the time. Among
the many awards the film received, it gained ten Academy Award nominations, winning six; the nominations
included Best Supporting Actor for Alec Guinness and Best Picture. Lucas has re-released the film on several
occasions, sometimes with significant changes; the most notable versions are the 1997 Special Edition and the 2004
DVD release, which have modified computer-generated effects, altered dialogue, and added scenes.
The galaxy is in a state of civil war. Spies for the Rebel Alliance have stolen plans to the Galactic Empire's Death
Star: a space station capable of annihilating an entire planet. Rebel leader Princess Leia (Carrie Fisher) is in
possession of the plans, but her ship is captured by Imperial forces under the command of the evil lord Darth Vader
(David Prowse). Before she is captured, Leia hides the plans in the memory of a droid called R2-D2 (Kenny Baker),
along with a holographic recording. The small droid escapes to the surface of the desert planet Tatooine with fellow
droid C-3PO (Anthony Daniels).
The two droids are quickly captured by Jawa traders, who sell the pair to moisture farmer Owen Lars (Phil Brown)
and his nephew, Luke Skywalker (Mark Hamill). While Luke is cleaning R2-D2, he accidentally triggers part of
Leia's holographic message, in which she requests help from Obi-Wan Kenobi. The only "Kenobi" Luke knows of is
an old hermit named Ben Kenobi (Alec Guinness) who lives in the nearby hills; Owen, however, dismisses any
connection, suggesting that Obi-Wan is dead.
During dinner, R2-D2 escapes to seek Obi-Wan. The next morning Luke and C-3PO go out after him and are met by
Ben Kenobi, who reveals himself to be Obi-Wan and takes Luke and the droids back to his hut. He tells Luke of his
days as a Jedi Knight. The Jedi were the guardians of peace and justice in the galaxy before being wiped out by the
Empire. Obi-Wan explains to Luke about a mysterious energy field called the Force from which the Jedi draw their
power as well as a lightsaber, the Jedi's weapon of choice. He also tells Luke about his association with Luke's
father, also a Jedi, who he claims was betrayed and murdered by Darth Vader, Obi-Wan's former pupil who turned to
the "dark side of the Force". Obi-Wan then views Leia's message, in which she begs him to take R2-D2 and the
Death Star plans to her home planet of Alderaan, where her father will be able to retrieve and analyze them.
Obi-Wan asks Luke to learn the ways of the Force. After initially refusing, Luke discovers that his home has been
destroyed and his aunt and uncle were killed by Imperial stormtroopers in search of the droids. Luke agrees to go
with Obi-Wan to Alderaan, and the two hire smuggler Han Solo (Harrison Ford) and his Wookiee co-pilot
Chewbacca (Peter Mayhew) to transport them on their ship, the Millennium Falcon.
Meanwhile, Leia has been imprisoned on the Death Star and has resisted giving the location of the secret Rebel base.
Grand Moff Tarkin (Peter Cushing), the Death Star's commanding officer and Vader's superior, tries to coax
''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
information out of her by threatening to destroy Alderaan. Leia pretends to cooperate, but Tarkin destroys the planet
anyway to demonstrate the power of the Empire's new weapon. When the Millenium Falcon arrives at Alderaan's
coordinates, it finds only a cloud of rubble. The Millenium Falcon follows a TIE fighter towards the Death Star, is
captured by the station's tractor beam, and is brought into its hangar bay. The group escapes from the Millenium
Falcon and takes refuge in a command room while Obi-Wan goes off to disable the tractor beam. While they are
waiting, Luke discovers that Princess Leia is onboard and is scheduled to be executed. Sizing up the situation, Han,
Luke, and Chewbacca stage a rescue and free the princess. Making their way back to the Millennium Falcon, their
path is cleared by the spectacle of a lightsaber duel between Obi-Wan and Darth Vader. As the others race onto the
ship to escape, Obi-Wan allows himself to be struck down by Darth Vader's lightsaber; Kenobi disappears while his
empty cloak and deactivated lightsaber fall to the ground.
The Millenium Falcon journeys to the Rebel base at Yavin IV where the Death Star plans are analyzed by the Rebels
and a potential weakness is found. The weakness will require the use of one-man fighters to slip past the Death Star's
formidable defenses and attack a vulnerable exhaust port. Luke joins the assault team while Han collects his reward
for the rescue and leaves, despite Luke's request for him to stay and fight. The attack proceeds when the Death Star
arrives in the system, its location now known due to Vader having placed a homing device on the Millenium Falcon.
The Rebel fighters suffer heavy losses and, after several failed attack runs there are few surviving pilots. Vader
appears in a TIE Advanced X1 with his own group of fighters and begins attacking the Rebel ships. Luke, realizing
he is one of the few Rebel pilots left, begins his attack, while Vader closes in on him; all while the Death Star closes
in on firing range of Yavin IV. As Vader is about to fire at Luke's ship, Han arrives in the Millennium Falcon and
attacks Vader and his wingmen, sending Vader's ship careening off into space. Guided by Obi-Wan's voice telling
him to use the Force, Luke switches off his targeting computer and fires a successful shot which destroys the Death
Star seconds before it could fire on the Rebel base. Later, at a grand ceremony, Princess Leia awards medals to Luke
and Han for their heroism in the battle.
The three lead protagonists of Star Wars, from left to right: Luke
Skywalker (Mark Hamill), Princess Leia (Carrie Fisher), and Han
Solo (Harrison Ford).
• Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker: Skywalker is a
young man who was raised by his aunt and uncle on
the remote, desert world Tatooine and who dreams
of something greater than his current position in life.
• Harrison Ford as Han Solo: Solo is a self-absorbed
smuggler whom Obi-Wan and Luke meet in a
cantina and with whom they later travel. Solo, who
owns the ship Millennium Falcon, is good friends
with Chewbacca, the ship's co-pilot.
• Carrie Fisher as Princess Leia Organa: Organa is a
member of the Imperial Senate and a leader of the
Rebel Alliance. She plans to use the stolen Death
Star plans to find the station's weakness.
• Alec Guinness as Obi-Wan "Ben" Kenobi: Kenobi is
an aging man who served as a Jedi Knight and then Jedi Master during the Clone Wars. Early in the film, Kenobi
introduces Luke to the Force.
• David Prowse as Darth Vader: Vader is a Dark Lord of the Sith, and a prominent figure in the Galactic Empire
who hopes to destroy the Rebel Alliance. He was voiced by James Earl Jones.
• Peter Cushing as Grand Moff Tarkin: Tarkin is the commander of the Death Star and a Regional Governor. He
leads the search for the Rebel Base, hoping to destroy it.
''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
• Anthony Daniels as C-3PO: C-3PO is a protocol and interpreter droid who falls into the hands of Luke
Skywalker. He is rarely without his counterpart droid, R2-D2.
• Kenny Baker as R2-D2: R2-D2 is an astromech droid who also falls into the hands of Luke. He is carrying a
secret message for Obi-Wan Kenobi.
• Peter Mayhew as Chewbacca: Chewbacca is the Wookiee co-pilot of the Millennium Falcon and a close friend of
Han Solo.
• Denis Lawson as Wedge Antilles: Antilles is a starfighter pilot who fights alongside Luke in the Battle of Yavin.
In the ending credits, Lawson's first name is misspelled "Dennis".
Lucas shared a joint casting session with long-time friend Brian De Palma, who was casting his own film Carrie. As
a result, Carrie Fisher and Sissy Spacek auditioned for both films in each other's respective roles. Lucas favored
casting young actors without long-time experience. While reading for Luke Skywalker (then known as "Luke
Starkiller"), Hamill found the dialogue to be extremely odd because of its universe-embedded concepts. He chose to
simply read it sincerely and was selected instead of William Katt, who was subsequently cast in Carrie.


Lucas initially rejected the idea of using Harrison Ford, as he had previously worked with him on American Graffiti,
and instead asked Ford to assist in the auditions by reading lines with the other actors and explaining the concepts
and history behind the scenes that they were reading. Lucas was eventually won over by Ford's portrayal and cast
him instead of Kurt Russell, Nick Nolte,
Sylvester Stallone,
Christopher Walken, Billy Dee Williams (who
would play Lando Calrissian in the sequels), and Perry King, who wound up playing Solo in the radio plays.

Many young actresses in Hollywood auditioned for the role of Princess Leia, including Cindy Williams.
Fisher was cast under the condition that she lose 10 pounds of weight for the role. Aware that the studio disagreed
with his refusal to cast big-name stars, Lucas signed veteran stage and screen actor Alec Guinness as Obi-Wan
Additional casting took place in London, where Mayhew was cast as Chewbacca after he stood up to greet
Lucas. Lucas immediately turned to Gary Kurtz, and requested that Mayhew be cast.
Daniels auditioned for and
was cast as C-3PO; he has said that he wanted the role after he saw a McQuarrie drawing of the character and was
struck by the vulnerability in the robot's face.

Elements of the history of Star Wars are commonly disputed, as Lucas' statements about it have changed over
George Lucas completed directing his first full-length feature, THX 1138, in 1971. He has said that it was
around this time that he first had the idea for Star Wars,
though he has also claimed to have had the idea long
before then.
One of the most influential works on Lucas's early concepts was the Flash Gordon space adventure
comics and serials.
Lucas even made an attempt to purchase the rights to remake Flash Gordon at one point, but
could not afford them.
Friend and collaborator Walter Murch suggested in an interview that Star Wars was Lucas'
"transubstantiated version of Apocalypse Now"; at one time, Lucas had planned to direct that film.
Following the completion of THX 1138, Lucas was granted a two-film development deal with United Artists at the
Cannes Film Festival in May of that year for American Graffiti, and an idea for a space opera he called The Star
Wars. He showed United Artists the script for American Graffiti, but they passed on the film. Universal Studios
picked the film up,
and Lucas spent the next two years completing it. Only then did he turn his attention to The
Star Wars. He began writing the treatment in January 1973, unsure what would come of Graffiti, and still very much
in debt.
Lucas began his creation process by taking small notes, inventing odd names and assigning them possible
characterizations. Lucas would discard many of these by the time the final script was written, but he included several
names and places in the final script or its sequels (such as Luke Skywalker and Han Solo). He revived others decades
later when he wrote his prequel trilogy (such as Mace Windy, renamed Windu). He used these initial names and
''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
ideas to compile a two-page synopsis titled "The Journal of the Whills", which bore little resemblance to the final
The Journal told the tale of the son of a famous pilot who is trained as a "padawaan" apprentice of a
revered "Jedi-Bendu".
Frustrated after being told that his story was too difficult to understand,
Lucas started
again on a completely new outline, this time borrowing heavily from Akira Kurosawa's The Hidden Fortress,
much so that he at one time considered buying the rights to the film.
He relied on a plot synopsis from Donald
Richie's book The Films of Akira Kurosawa and wrote a 14-page draft that paralleled The Hidden Fortress, with
names and settings reminiscent of the science fiction genre.
Both United Artists and Universal passed on their options for the film later that year, citing the risk involved in the
project's potentially high budget. Lucas pursued Alan Ladd, Jr., the head of 20th Century Fox, and in June 1973
closed a deal to write and direct the film. Although Ladd did not grasp the technical side of the project, he believed
that Lucas was talented. Lucas later stated that Ladd "invested in me, he did not invest in the movie."
The deal
afforded Lucas $150,000 to write and direct.
Later that year, Lucas began writing a full script of his synopsis, which he would complete in May 1974. In this
script he reintroduced the Jedi, which had been absent in his previous treatment, as well as their enemies, the Sith.
He changed the protagonist, who had been a mature General in the treatment, to an adolescent boy, and he shifted the
General into a supporting role as a member of a family of dwarfs.

Lucas envisioned the Corellian smuggler,
Han Solo, as a large, green-skinned monster with gills. He based Chewbacca on his Alaskan Malamute dog, Indiana,
who often acted as the director's "co-pilot" by sitting in the passenger seat of his car.
Many of the final elements in the film began to take shape, though the plot
was still far removed from the final
script. It did, however, begin to diverge from The Hidden Fortress and take on the general story elements that would
comprise the final film. Lucas began researching the science fiction genre, both watching films and reading books
and comics.
His first script incorporated ideas from many new sources. The script would also introduce the
concept of a Jedi master father and his son, training to be a Jedi under the father's Jedi friend, which would
ultimately form the basis for the film and even the trilogy. However, in this draft, the father is a hero who is still
alive at the start of the film.
The script was also the first time Darth Vader appeared in the story, though other
than being a villain, he bore little resemblance to the final character.
Lucas grew distracted by other projects, but he would return to complete a second draft of The Star Wars by January
1975; while still having some differences in the characters and relationships. For example, the protagonist Luke
(Starkiller in this draft) had several brothers, as well as his father who appears in a minor role at the end of the film.
The script became more of a fairy tale quest as opposed to the more grounded action-adventure of the previous
versions. This version ended with another text crawl which previewed the next story in the series. This draft was also
the first to introduce the concept of a Jedi turning to the dark side; a historical Jedi that became the first to ever fall to
the dark side, and then trained the Sith to use it. Lucas hired conceptual artist Ralph McQuarrie to create paintings of
certain scenes around this time. When Lucas delivered his screenplay to the studio, he included several of
McQuarrie's paintings.
A third draft, dated August 1, 1975, was titled The Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Starkiller which now
had most of the elements of the final plot, with only some differences in the characters and settings. Luke was again
an only child, and his father was, for the first time, written as dead. This script would be re-written for the fourth and
final draft, dated January 1, 1976 as The Adventures of Luke Starkiller as taken from the Journal of the Whills. Saga
I: Star Wars. Lucas worked with his friends Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck to revise the fourth draft into the final
pre-production script.
20th Century Fox approved a budget of $8,250,000; American Graffiti, having been
released in 1973 to positive reviews, allowed Lucas to renegotiate his deal with Alan Ladd, Jr. and request the sequel
rights to the film. For Lucas, this deal protected Star Wars' unwritten segments and most of the merchandising

Lucas would continue to tweak the script during shooting, most notably adding the death of Kenobi
after realizing he served no purpose in the ending of the film.

''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
Lucas's claims
Lucas has often alleged that the entire original trilogy was written as one film; that the Star Wars script was too long,
so he split it into three films.


However, none of Lucas's drafts had more pages or scenes than his final draft.
Lucas's second draft is usually cited as the script he is referring to with these comments.
Michael Kaminski
argues in his work The Secret History of Star Wars that this draft is structurally very similar to the final film in plot
arrangement, and that the only elements from it that were saved for the sequels were an asteroid field space chase
(moved to The Empire Strikes Back) and a forest battle involving Wookiees (moved to Return of the Jedi, with
Ewoks in place of Wookiees), and that none of the major plotlines of the sequels are present.
Lucas himself has
admitted this.
In 1975, Lucas founded the visual effects company Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) after discovering that 20th
Century Fox's visual effects department had been disbanded. ILM began its work on Star Wars in a warehouse in
Van Nuys, California. Most of the visual effects used motion control photography, which creates the illusion of size
by employing small models and slowly moving cameras. Model spaceships were constructed on the basis of
drawings by Joe Johnston, input from Lucas, and paintings by McQuarrie. Lucas opted to abandon the traditional
sleekness of science fiction by creating a "used universe" in which all devices, ships, and buildings looked aged and


A traditional underground building in Matmâta, Tunisia, was
used as a set for Luke's home on Tatooine.
When filming began on March 22, 1976 in the Tunisian desert
for the scenes on the planet Tatooine, the project faced several
Lucas fell behind schedule in the first week of
shooting due to a rare Tunisian rainstorm, malfunctioning
props, and electronic breakdowns.

When actor
Anthony Daniels wore the C-3PO outfit for the first time, the
left leg piece shattered down through the plastic covering his
left foot, stabbing him. After completing filming in Tunisia,
production moved into the more controlled environment of
Elstree Studios, near London.
However, significant
problems, such as a crew that had little interest in the film,
still arose.

Most of the crew considered the project a
"children's film," rarely took their work seriously, and often
found it unintentionally humorous.
Actor Kenny Baker later confessed that he thought the film would be a failure.
Harrison Ford found the film "weird" in that there was a Princess with buns for hair and what he called a "giant in a
monkey suit" named Chewbacca. Ford also found the dialogue difficult, saying "George, you can type this shit, but
you can't say it!".
Lucas clashed with cinematographer Gilbert Taylor, whom producer Gary Kurtz called "old-school" and "crotchety".
Moreover, with a background in independent filmmaking, Lucas was accustomed to creating most of the elements of
the film himself. His camera suggestions were rejected by an offended Taylor, who felt that Lucas was over-stepping
his boundaries by giving specific instructions. Lucas eventually became frustrated that the costumes, sets and other
elements were not living up to his original vision of Star Wars. He rarely spoke to the actors, who felt that he
expected too much of them while providing little direction. His directions to the actors usually consisted of the words
"faster" and "more intense".
Ladd offered Lucas some of the only support from the studio; he dealt with scrutiny from board members over the
rising budget and complex screenplay drafts. After production fell two weeks behind schedule, Ladd told Lucas that
he had to finish production within a week or he would be forced to shut down production. The crew split into three
units, led by Lucas, Kurtz and production supervisor Robert Watts. Under the new system, the project met the
''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
studio's deadline.

Mayan ruins at Tikal, Guatemala, which were used in the
film as the rebel base.
During production, the cast attempted to make Lucas laugh or
smile as he often appeared depressed. At one point, the project
became so demanding that Lucas was diagnosed with
hypertension and exhaustion and was warned to reduce his
stress level.

Post-production was equally stressful due to
increasing pressure from 20th Century Fox. Moreover, Mark
Hamill's car accident left his face visibly scarred, which
suppressed re-shoots.
It is said that Lucas considered the
experience of directing Star Wars was so traumatic that it
would be 22 years before he would direct another film,
vowing that unless he had total control and visual effects
technology was up to par, he would never direct another Star
Wars film.
Star Wars was originally slated for release in Christmas 1976; however, delays pushed the film's release to summer
1977. Already anxious about meeting his deadline, Lucas was shocked when his editor's first cut of the film was a
"complete disaster." According to an article in Star Wars Insider #41 by David West Reynolds, this first edit of Star
Wars contained about 30-40% different footage from the final version. This included scenes that have never been
seen elsewhere along with alternate takes of existing scenes. After attempting to persuade the original editor to cut
the film his way, Lucas replaced the editor with Paul Hirsch and Richard Chew. He also allowed his then-wife
Marcia Lucas to aid the editing process while she was cutting the film New York, New York with Lucas's friend
Martin Scorsese. Richard Chew found the film had an unenergetic pace; it had been cut in a by-the-book manner:
scenes were played out in master shots that flowed into close-up coverage. He found that the pace was dictated by
the actors instead of the cuts. Hirsch and Chew worked on two reels simultaneously; whoever finished first moved
on to the next.
Meanwhile, Industrial Light & Magic was struggling to achieve unprecedented special effects. The company had
spent half of its budget on four shots that Lucas deemed unacceptable.
Moreover, theories surfaced that the
workers at ILM lacked discipline, forcing Lucas to intervene frequently to ensure that they were on schedule. With
hundreds of uncompleted shots remaining, ILM was forced to finish a year's work in six months. Lucas inspired ILM
by editing together aerial dogfights from old war films, which enhanced the pacing of the scenes.
During the chaos of production and post-production, the team made decisions about character voicing and sound
effects. Sound designer Ben Burtt had created a library of sounds that Lucas referred to as an "organic soundtrack".
Blaster sounds were a modified recording of a steel cable, under tension, being struck. For Chewbacca's growls,
Burtt recorded and combined sounds made by dogs, bears, lions, tigers and walruses to create phrases and sentences.
Lucas and Burtt created the robotic voice of R2-D2 by filtering their voices through an electronic synthesizer. Darth
Vader's breathing was achieved by Burtt breathing through the mask of a scuba tank implanted with a
Lucas never intended to use the voice of David Prowse, who portrayed Darth Vader in costume,
because of Prowse's English West Country accent. He originally wanted Orson Welles to speak for Darth Vader.
However, he felt that Welles' voice would be too recognizable, so he cast the lesser-known James Earl Jones.
did Lucas intend to use Anthony Daniels' voice for C-3PO. Thirty well-established voice actors read for the voice of
the droid. According to Daniels, one of the major voice actors, believed by some sources to be Stan Freberg,
recommended Daniels' voice for the role.

''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
When Lucas screened an early cut of the film for his friends, among them directors Brian De Palma, John Milius and
Steven Spielberg, their reactions were disappointing. Spielberg, who claimed to have been the only person in the
audience to have enjoyed the film, believed that the lack of enthusiasm was due to the absence of finished special
effects. Lucas later said that the group was honest and seemed bemused by the film. In contrast, Alan Ladd, Jr. and
the rest of 20th Century Fox loved the film: one of the executives, Gareth Wigan, told Lucas, "This is the greatest
film I've ever seen", and cried during the screening. Lucas found the experience shocking and rewarding, having
never gained any approval from studio executives before.
Although the delays increased the budget from $8
million to $11 million, the film was still the least expensive of the Star Wars saga.
Cinematic and literary allusions
According to Lucas, the film was inspired by numerous sources, such as Beowulf and King Arthur for the origins of
myth and world religions.
Lucas originally wanted to rely heavily on the 1930s Flash Gordon film serials;
however, Lucas resorted to Akira Kurosawa's film The Hidden Fortress and Joseph Campbell's The Hero with a
Thousand Faces because of copyright issues with Flash Gordon.
Star Wars features several parallels to Buck
Rogers and Flash Gordon, such as the conflict between Rebels and Imperial Forces, the "wipes" between scenes, and
the famous opening crawl that begins each film. A concept borrowed from Flash Gordon—a fusion of futuristic
technology and traditional magic—was originally developed by one of the founders of science fiction, H. G. Wells.
Wells believed the Industrial Revolution had quietly destroyed the idea that fairy-tale magic might be real. Thus, he
found that plausibility was required to allow myth to work properly, and substituted elements of the Industrial Era:
time machines instead of magic carpets, Martians instead of dragons, and scientists instead of wizards. Wells called
his new genre "scientific fantasia".
Star Wars was influenced by the 1958 Kurosawa film The Hidden Fortress; for instance, the two bickering peasants
evolved into C-3PO and R2-D2, and a Japanese family crest seen in the film is similar to the Imperial Crest. Star
Wars borrows heavily from another Kurosawa film, Yojimbo. In both films, several men threaten the hero, bragging
how wanted they are by authorities. The situation ends with an arm being cut off by a blade. Kuwabatake Sanjuro
(portrayed by Toshirō Mifune) is offered "twenty-five ryo now, twenty-five when you complete the mission",
whereas Han Solo is offered "Two thousand now, plus fifteen when we reach Alderaan." Lucas's affection for
Kurosawa may have influenced his decision to visit Japan in the early 1970s, leading some to believe he borrowed
the name "Jedi" from jidaigeki (which in English means "period dramas," and refers to films typically featuring
Tatooine is similar to Arrakis from Frank Herbert's book Dune. Arrakis is the only known source of a longevity drug
called the Spice Melange; Han Solo is a spice smuggler who has been through the spice mines of Kessel. Lucas's
original concept of the film dealt heavily with the transport of spice, although the nature of the material remained
unexplored. In the conversation at Obi-Wan Kenobi's home between Obi-Wan and Luke, Luke expresses a belief
that his father was a navigator on a spice freighter. Other similarities include those between Princess Leia and
Princess Alia (pronounced /əˈliːə/), and between Jedi mind tricks and "The Voice," a controlling ability used by
Bene Gesserit. In passing, Uncle Owen and Aunt Beru are "Moisture Farmers"; in Dune, Dew Collectors are used by
Fremen to "provide a small but reliable source of water."
Frank Herbert reported that, "David Lynch, [director of
1984 film Dune] had trouble with the fact that Star Wars used up so much of Dune." The pair found "sixteen points
of identity" and they calculated that, "the odds against coincidence produced a number larger than the number of
stars in the universe."
The Death Star assault scene was modeled after the film The Dam Busters (1955), in which Royal Air Force
Lancaster bombers fly along heavily defended reservoirs and aim "bouncing bombs" at their man-made dams to
cripple the heavy industry of the Ruhr. Some of the dialogue in The Dam Busters is repeated in the Star Wars
climax; Gilbert Taylor also filmed the special effects sequences in The Dam Busters. In addition, the sequence was
partially inspired by the climax of the film 633 Squadron (1964) directed by Walter Grauman,
in which RAF
''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
Mosquitos attack a German heavy water plant by flying down a narrow fjord to drop special bombs at a precise point
while avoiding anti-aircraft guns and German fighters. Clips from both films were included in Lucas's temporary
dogfight footage version of the sequence.
The opening shot of Star Wars, in which a detailed spaceship fills the screen overhead, is a nod to the scene
introducing the interplanetary spacecraft Discovery One in Stanley Kubrick's seminal 1968 film 2001: A Space
Odyssey. The earlier big-budget science fiction film influenced the look of Star Wars in many other ways, including
the use of EVA pods, hexagonal corridors, and primitive computer graphics. The Death Star has a docking bay
reminiscent of the one on the orbiting space station in 2001. The film also draws on The Wizard of Oz (1939):
similarities exist between Jawas and Munchkins; the main characters disguise themselves as enemy soldiers; and
when Obi-Wan dies, he leaves only his empty robe, similar to the melting of the Wicked Witch of the West.
Although golden and male, C-3PO is inspired by the robot Maria from Fritz Lang's 1927 film Metropolis. His
whirring sounds were speculated to be inspired by the clanking noises of the Tin Woodsman in The Wizard of Oz
On the recommendation of his friend Steven Spielberg, Lucas hired composer John Williams, who had worked with
Spielberg on the film Jaws, for which he won an Academy Award. Lucas felt that the film would portray visually
foreign worlds, but that the musical score would give the audience an emotional familiarity. In March 1977,
Williams conducted the London Symphony Orchestra to record the Star Wars soundtrack in twelve days.
Lucas wanted a grand musical sound for Star Wars, with leitmotifs to provide distinction. Therefore, he assembled
his favorite orchestral pieces for the soundtrack, until John Williams convinced him that an original score would be
unique and more unified. However, a few of Williams' pieces were influenced by the tracks given to him by Lucas.
The "Main Title Theme" was inspired by the theme from the 1942 film Kings Row, scored by Erich Wolfgang
Korngold, and the track "Dune Sea of Tatooine" drew from the soundtrack from Bicycle Thieves, scored by
Alessandro Cicognini. The American Film Institute's list of best scores lists the Star Wars soundtrack at number
Charles Lippincott was hired by Lucas's production company, Lucasfilm Ltd., as marketing director for Star Wars.
As 20th Century Fox gave little support for marketing beyond licensing T-shirts and posters, Lippincott was forced
to look elsewhere. He secured deals with Stan Lee, Roy Thomas and Marvel Comics for a comic book adaptation
and with Del Rey Books for a novelization. A fan of science fiction, he used his contacts to promote the film at the
San Diego Comic-Con and elsewhere within fandom. Wary that Star Wars would be beaten out by other summer
films, such as Smokey and the Bandit, 20th Century Fox moved the release date to Wednesday before Memorial
Day: May 25, 1977. However, few theaters ordered the film to be shown. In response, 20th Century Fox demanded
that theaters order Star Wars if they wanted an eagerly anticipated film based on a best-selling novel titled The Other
Side of Midnight.
The film became an instant success; within three weeks of the film's release, 20th Century Fox's stock price doubled
to a record high. Before 1977, 20th Century Fox's greatest annual profits were $37,000,000; in 1977, the company
earned $79,000,000. Although the film's cultural neutrality helped it to gain international success, Ladd became
anxious during the premiere in Japan. After the screening, the audience was silent, leading him to fear that the film
would be unsuccessful. Ladd was later told that, in Japan, silence was the greatest honor to a film. Meanwhile,
thousands of people attended the ceremony at Grauman's Chinese Theatre, where C-3PO, R2-D2, and Darth Vader
placed their footprints in the theater's forecourt.
Some cinemas continuously screened the film for more than a
''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
Little Star Wars merchandise was available for several months after the film's debut; only Kenner Toys had accepted
Lippincott's licensing offers. Kenner responded to the sudden demand for toys by selling boxed vouchers in its
"empty box" Christmas campaign. Television commercials told children and parents that vouchers within a "Star
Wars Early Bird Certificate Package" could be redeemed for toys "between February 1 and June 1".
In 1978, at the height of the film's popularity, Smith-Hemion Productions approached Lucas with the idea of The
Star Wars Holiday Special. The end result is often considered a failure; Lucas himself disowned it.
Lucas entered
into a wager with long-time friend Spielberg during the production of Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Lucas
was sure Close Encounters would outperform the yet-to-be-released Star Wars at the box office and bet 2.5% of the
proceeds of each film against each other. Lucas lost the bet and Spielberg still receives proceeds from the first of the
Star Wars movies.
The film was originally released as Star Wars, without Episode IV or the subtitle A New Hope. The 1980 sequel, Star
Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, featured an episode number and subtitle in the opening crawl. When the
original film was re-released in 1981, Episode IV: A New Hope was added above the original opening crawl.
Although Lucas claims that only six films were ever planned, representatives of Lucasfilm discussed plans for nine
or twelve possible films in early interviews.
The film was re-released theatrically in 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, and
with additional scenes and enhanced special effects in 1997. CBS was host to the film's world broadcast premiere in
Original home video releases
The film was released on VHS, Betamax and Laserdisc during the 1980s and 90s by CBS Fox Video.

Special Edition
After ILM used computer generated effects for Steven Spielberg's Jurassic Park, Lucas concluded that digital
technology had caught up to his original vision for Star Wars.
As part of Star Wars' 20th Anniversary celebration
in 1997, A New Hope was digitally remastered and re-released to movie theaters, along with The Empire Strikes Back
and Return of the Jedi, under the campaign title The Star Wars Trilogy: Special Edition. The Special Edition
versions contained visual shots and scenes that were unachievable in the original release due to financial,
technological, and time restraints; one such scene involved a meeting between Han Solo and Jabba the Hutt.
process of creating the new visual effects for A New Hope was featured in the Academy Award-nominated IMAX
documentary film, Special Effects: Anything Can Happen, directed by veteran Star Wars sound designer, Ben Burtt.
Although most changes were minor or cosmetic in nature, some fans believe that Lucas degraded the movie with the
For instance, a particularly controversial change in which a bounty hunter named Greedo shoots first
when confronting Han Solo has inspired T-shirts brandishing the phrase "Han Shot First".
DVD releases
A New Hope was released on DVD on September 21, 2004 in a box set with The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the
Jedi, and a bonus disc of supplementary material. The movies were digitally restored and remastered, and more
changes were made by George Lucas.
The DVD features a commentary track from George Lucas, Ben Burtt, Dennis Muren, and Carrie Fisher. The bonus
disc contains the documentary Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy, three featurettes, teaser and
theatrical trailers, TV spots, still galleries, an exclusive preview of Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, a
playable Xbox demo of the LucasArts game Star Wars: Battlefront, and a "Making Of" documentary on the Episode
III video game. The set was reissued in December 2005 as part of a three-disc "limited edition" boxed set without the
bonus disc.
The trilogy was re-released on separate two-disc Limited Edition DVD sets from September 12 to December 31,
2006 and again in a box set on November 4, 2008;
the original versions of the films were added as bonus
''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
material. The version included wasn't completely unedited. When Greedo assaulted Han, the subtitles that translates
what he was saying were removed and were featured on a separate subtitle track that automatically plays when the
movie starts (this change was also made on Episodes I, II, & VI). Controversy surrounded the release because the
unaltered versions were from the 1993 non-anamorphic Laserdisc masters, and were not retransferred with modern
video standards.
Blu-ray release
On August 14, 2010, George Lucas announced that all six Star Wars films will be released on Blu-ray Disc in Fall
3D Re-release
On September 28, 2010, it was announced that all six films in the series will be stereo converted to 3D. The films
will re-release in chronological order beginning with The Phantom Menace in late 2012. A New Hope is scheduled to
re-release in 3D in 2015.
Star Wars debuted on May 25, 1977, in 32 theaters and proceeded to break house records, effectively becoming one
of the first blockbuster films.
It remains one of the most financially successful films of all time. Some of the cast
and crew noted lines of people stretching around theaters as they drove by. Even technical crew members, such as
model makers, were asked for autographs, and cast members became instant household names.
The film's original
total U.S. and Canada gross came to $307,263,857, and it earned $6,806,951 during its first weekend in wide release.
Lucas claimed that he had spent most of the release day in a sound studio in Los Angeles. When he went out for
lunch with his then-wife Marcia, they encountered a long queue of people along the sidewalks leading to Mann's
Chinese Theatre, waiting to see Star Wars.
The film became the highest-grossing film of 1977 and the
highest-grossing film of all time until E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial broke that record in 1982. With subsequent
rereleases, Star Wars reclaimed the title, but lost it again to James Cameron's 1997 blockbuster Titanic. The film
earned $775,398,007 worldwide, making it the first film to reach the $300, $400, $500, $600 and $700 million
Adjusted for inflation, it is the second highest grossing movie of all time in the United States, behind Gone
with the Wind (1939).
Critical Response
The film received a largely positive critical reception. In his 1977 review, Roger Ebert called the film "an
out-of-body experience," compared its special effects to those of 2001: A Space Odyssey, and opined that the true
strength of the film was its "pure narrative."
Vincent Canby called the film "the movie that's going to entertain a
lot of contemporary folk who have a soft spot for the virtually ritualized manners of comic-book adventure."
However, there were a few negative responses. Pauline Kael of The New Yorker criticized the film, stating that
"there's no breather in the picture, no lyricism," and that it had no "emotional grip."
Jonathan Rosenbaum of the
Chicago Reader stated, "None of these characters has any depth, and they're all treated like the fanciful props and
Peter Keough of the Boston Phoenix said "Star Wars is a junkyard of cinematic gimcracks not unlike
the Jawas' heap of purloined, discarded, barely functioning droids."
Stanley Kauffmann of The New Republic also
responded negatively, noting "His [Lucas's] work here seems less inventive than in THX 1138."
According to
Rotten Tomatoes, of the 62 current critical reviews of the film provided on that site, 58 responded favorably (94% of
the reviewers), stating in consensus that "the action and special effects are first rate."
''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
Top Ten Lists
• 7th - Gene Siskel, Chicago Tribune
• 10th - Roger Ebert, Chicago Sun-Times
Prolific film producer Roger Corman considers Star Wars to be one of the greatest films of all time.
Star Wars won six Academy Awards, including Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, which went to John Barry,
Norman Reynolds, Leslie Dilley and Roger Christian. Best Costume Design was awarded to John Mollo; Best Film
Editing went to Paul Hirsch, Marcia Lucas and Richard Chew; John Stears, John Dykstra, Richard Edlund, Grant
McCune and Robert Blalack all received awards for Best Visual Effects. John Williams was awarded his third Oscar
for Best Music, Original Score; the Best Sound went to Don MacDougall, Ray West, Bob Minkler and Derek Ball;
and a Special Achievement for Sound Effects went to Ben Burtt. Additional nominations included Alec Guinness for
Best Actor in a Supporting Role, George Lucas for Best Screenplay and Best Director, although it did not win Best
Picture, which went to Annie Hall.
At the Golden Globe Awards, the film was nominated for Best Motion Picture - Drama, Best Director, Best
Supporting Actor (Alec Guinness), and it won the award for Best Score.
It received six BAFTA nominations:
Best Film, Best Editing, Best Costume Design, Best Production/Art Design, Best Sound, and Best Score; the film
won in the latter two categories.
John Williams' soundtrack album won the Grammy Award for Best Album of
Original Score for a Motion Picture or Television Program,
and the film was awarded the Hugo Award for Best
Dramatic Presentation.
In 1997, the MTV Movie Awards awarded Chewbacca the lifetime achievement award for
his work in the Star Wars trilogy.
Cinematic influence
Critic Roger Ebert wrote, "Like The Birth of a Nation and Citizen Kane, Star Wars was a technical watershed that
influenced many of the movies that came after."
It began a new generation of special effects and high-energy
motion pictures. The film was one of the first films to link genres—such as space opera and soap opera—together to
invent a new, high concept genre for filmmakers to build upon.

Finally, along with Steven Spielberg's Jaws it
shifted the film industry's focus away from personal filmmaking of the 1970s and towards fast-paced big-budget
blockbusters for younger audiences.


After seeing Star Wars, director James Cameron quit his job as a truck driver to enter the film industry. Other
filmmakers who have said to have been influenced by Star Wars include Peter Jackson, Ridley Scott, Dean Devlin,
Roland Emmerich, Christopher Nolan, John Lasseter, David Fincher, Kevin Smith and John Singleton.
Scott was
influenced by the "used future" (where vehicles and culture are obviously dated) and extended the concept for his
science fiction horror film Alien and science fiction noir film Blade Runner (which also starred Harrison Ford).
Jackson used the concept for his production of the Lord of the Rings trilogy to add a sense of realism and
Nolan cited Star Wars as an influence when making the blockbuster Inception.
Some critics have blamed Star Wars and also Jaws for ruining Hollywood by shifting its focus from sophisticated
and relevant films such as The Godfather, Taxi Driver, and Annie Hall to films about spectacle and juvenile
Peter Biskind complained for the same reason: "When all was said and done, Lucas and Spielberg
returned the 1970s audience, grown sophisticated on a diet of European and New Hollywood films, to the
simplicities of the pre-1960s Golden Age of movies… They marched backward through the looking-glass."

In an opposing view, Tom Shone wrote that through Star Wars and Jaws, Lucas and Spielberg "didn't betray cinema
at all: they plugged it back into the grid, returning the medium to its roots as a carnival sideshow, a magic act, one
big special effect", which was "a kind of rebirth".
''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
Star Wars has been the subject of many parodies, including those in Robot Chicken, South Park, Family Guy in the
episode "Blue Harvest", the short film Hardware Wars and Mel Brooks' full-length parody, Spaceballs.
In 1989, the U.S. National Film Registry of the Library of Congress selected the film as a "culturally, historically, or
aesthetically important" film.
In 2002, Star Wars and The Empire Strikes Back were voted as the greatest films
ever made on Channel 4's 100 Greatest Films poll.
In 2006, Lucas's original screenplay was selected by the
Writers Guild of America as the 68th greatest of all time.
American Film Institute recognition:
• AFI's 100 Years…100 Movies (1998) - #15
• AFI's 100 Years…100 Thrills (2001) - #27
• AFI's 100 Years…100 Heroes and Villains (2003):
• Han Solo - #14 Hero
• Obi-Wan Kenobi - #37 Hero
• AFI's 100 Years…100 Movie Quotes (2004):
• "May the Force be with you." - #8
• AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores (2005) - #1
• AFI's 100 Years…100 Cheers (2006) - #39
• AFI's 100 Years…100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) (2007) - #13
• AFI's 10 Top 10 (2008) - #2 Sci-Fi Film
The novelization of the film was published in December 1976, six months before the film was released. The credited
author was George Lucas, but the book was revealed to have been ghostwritten by Alan Dean Foster, who later
wrote the first Expanded Universe novel, Splinter of the Mind's Eye. The book was first published as Star Wars:
From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker; later editions were titled simply Star Wars (1995) and, later, Star Wars: A
New Hope (1997), to reflect the retitling of the film. Certain scenes deleted from the film (and later restored or
archived in DVD bonus features) were always present in the novel (since it had been based on the screenplay), such
as Luke at Tosche Station with Biggs and the encounter between Han and Jabba (referred to as "Jabba the Hut") in
Docking Bay 94. Other deleted scenes from the movie, such as a close-up of a stormtrooper riding on a Dewback,
were included in a photo insert added to later printings of the book.
Smaller details were also different from the film version; for example, in the Death Star assault, Luke's callsign is
Blue Five instead of Red Five as in the film. Also Obi-Wan does not sacrifice himself; Vader actually defeats and
executes him in the lightsaber duel. Charles Lippincott secured the deal with Del Rey Books to publish the
novelization in November 1976. By February 1977, a half million copies had been sold.
Radio drama
A radio drama adaptation of the film was written by Brian Daley, directed by John Madden, and produced for and
broadcast on the American National Public Radio network in 1981. The adaptation received cooperation from
George Lucas, who donated the rights to NPR. John Williams' music and Ben Burtt's sound design were retained for
the show; Mark Hamill (Luke Skywalker) and Anthony Daniels (C-3PO) reprised their roles as well. The radio
drama featured scenes not seen in the final cut of the film, such as Luke Skywalker's observation of the space battle
above Tatooine through binoculars, a skyhopper race, and Darth Vader's interrogation of Princess Leia. In terms of
''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
Star Wars canon, the radio drama is given the highest designation (like the screenplay and novelization),

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interviews, quotes, and official publications from the 1970s to present which contradict other statements or evidence.
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[14] Rinzler, p. 2
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''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
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''Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope''
• Baxter, John (1999). Mythmaker: The Life and Work of George Lucas (1st edition). William Morrow. ISBN
• Bouzereau, Laurent (1997). Star Wars: The Annotated Screenplays. Del Rey. ISBN 0-345-40981-7
• Kaminski, Michael (2008). The Secret History of Star Wars. Legacy Books Press. ISBN 978-0978465230
• Pollock, Dale (1999). Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80904-4
• Rinzler, J. W. (2007). The Making of Star Wars. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-49476-4
Further reading
• Bailey, T.J. (2005). Devising a Dream: A Book of Star Wars Facts and Production Timeline. Wasteland Press.
ISBN 1-933265-55-8
• Blackman, W. Haden (2004). The New Essential Guide to Weapons and Technology, Revised Edition (Star Wars).
Del Rey. ISBN 0-345-44903-7
• Sansweet, Stephen (1992). Star Wars - From Concept to Screen to Collectible. Chronicle Books. ISBN
External links
• Official website (http:// www. starwars. com/ movies/ episode-iv)
• Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0076759/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (http:/ / www.allmovie. com/ work/46636) at Allmovie
• Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ star_wars/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=starwars4. htm) at Box
Office Mojo
• Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (http:/ / www.metacritic.com/ film/titles/ starwarsiv) at Metacritic
• Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (http:/ / www.starwars. com/ movies/ episode-iv/ ) at StarWars.com (http://
www. starwars. com/ )
''Heroes (1977 film)''
Heroes (1977 film)
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Jeremy Kagan
Produced by David Foster
Lawrence Turman
Written by James Carabatsos
Starring Henry Winkler
Sally Field
Harrison Ford
Val Avery
Music by Jack Nitzsche
Cinematography Frank Stanley
Editing by Patrick Kennedy
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) November 4, 1977
Running time 112 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Heroes is a 1977 comedy drama film directed by Jeremy Kagan and starring Henry Winkler and Sally Field.
Harrison Ford (in his first post-Star Wars role) plays a stock car driver in Sedalia, Missouri who keeps a stolen
machine gun in his motor home. The movie was the first film released after the conflict ended in 1975 to address
Vietnam War issues.
''Heroes (1977 film)''
Jack Dunne (Winkler), a Vietnam veteran, escapes a mental ward in New York City to start a business as a worm
farmer in Eureka, California. At the bus station, he accidentally meets Carol Bell (Field), a woman unsure of her
engagement and imminent marriage to a man she has confused feelings towards. They set off on a trip to middle
America: she traveling to think things over, he to locate his three old war buddies and involve them in his scheme to
raise worms.
• In the MCA video release of the film, Kansas's song "Carry On Wayward Son" was removed from the last 3-4
minutes of the movie. The footage of Winkler running down the street when he is told his best buddy died in the
Vietnam War, was removed and replaced with a scene of Field embracing Winkler in a fetal position in a marshy
• The film was filmed in Sonoma County, California, mainly in Petaluma.
• The movie was shot during the height of Henry Winkler's popularity due to his starring role as "Fonzie" on the
television comedy Happy Days. During shooting, a rumor of a Winkler sighting caused a crowd of pre-teen girls
to charge up Walnut Street from St. Vincent's School in hopes of a glimpse of the heartthrob.
• A rain machine was utilized for a key scene that took place at the old Greyhound bus station at the corners of
Kentucky and C Streets.
[1] "HEROES: Fearless Fonz" (http:/ / www.time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,915741,00.html). Time. November 21, 1977. .
Retrieved 2010-09-01.
External links
• Heroes (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0076138/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
''Force 10 from Navarone (film)''
Force 10 from Navarone (film)
Force 10 From Navarone
film poster by Brian Bysouth
Directed by Guy Hamilton
Produced by Oliver A. Unger
Written by Robin Chapman
George MacDonald Fraser (uncredited)
Starring Robert Shaw
Edward Fox
Harrison Ford
Barbara Bach
Music by Ron Goodwin
Cinematography Christopher Challis
Editing by Raymond Poulton
Distributed by - USA -
American International Pictures
- non-USA -
Columbia Pictures
Release date(s) December 8, 1978
Running time 118 minutes (theatrical release)
126 minutes (restored version)
Language English
Budget $10,000,000
Preceded by The Guns of Navarone (1961)
Force 10 from Navarone is a 1978 war film loosely based on Alistair MacLean's 1968 novel of the same name. It is
a sequel to the 1961 film, The Guns of Navarone, but the parts of Mallory and Miller are played by Robert Shaw and
Edward Fox. It was directed by Guy Hamilton and also stars Harrison Ford, Carl Weathers, Barbara Bach, Franco
Nero, and Richard Kiel.
''Force 10 from Navarone (film)''
Shaw's portrayal of Mallory differs from both MacLean's literary character and Gregory Peck's portrayal in Guns,
being a slightly older, more thoughtful strategist rather than the almost superhuman man of action which commonly
characterized MacLean's protagonists.
After the successful Navarone mission, Commander Jensen (Philip Latham) tells Mallory (Robert Shaw) and Miller
(Edward Fox) to identify and kill a spy known as "Nicolai", who is now thought to be disguised among the Yugoslav
Partisans as a Captain Lescovar (Franco Nero). (In The Guns of Navarone, the character Nicolai was the laundry boy
suspected of listening to Mallory's conversations.)
To get to Yugoslavia the two men pair with "Force 10", an American sabotage unit led by Lt. Col. Barnsby
(Harrison Ford). Due to secrecy issues following several thwarted missions to Yugoslavia, Force 10 steals a plane
from Termoli rather than requisitioning one. Before they can make good their escape, Force 10 are spotted by US
M.Ps. Weaver (Carl Weathers), a US Army sergeant under arrest by the MP's, throws his lot in with Force 10 and
forces his way onto the plane. Barnsby and crew successfully "escape" Termoli only to be shot down by German
night fighters after crossing the Yugoslavian coast. Most of Barnsby's team are killed, and only Barnsby, Mallory,
Miller, Weaver and Reynolds (Angus MacInnes) manage to escape by parachute.
Attempting to link with the Communist Yugoslav Partisans, the survivors of Force 10 run across a group led by a
Capt Drazak (Richard Kiel). Reaching Drazak's camp, Force 10 learns their rescuers aren't partisans, but
collaborationist Chetniks (nationalist Serb guerillas) under German control. Now in German custody, Mallory and
Barnsby attempt to convince the commander, Major Schroeder (Michael Byrne), that they are black marketeers who
have escaped Allied captivity with a new wonder drug called penicillin, which Miller is supposedly carrying in his
explosives suitcase. Schroeder is skeptical, but with confirmation of the aircraft theft, he is not ready to disbelieve it
entirely and eventually opens the case. To everyone's surprise, it holds firewood, and Mallory and Barnsby
improvise, claiming they buried the samples. Schroeder sends them to retrieve them, under the guard of his
concubine, Maritza (Barbara Bach), and three of his soldiers, while Miller, Weaver and Reynolds are left in a cell in
the camp.
Once far enough from camp, Maritza kills the Germans, revealing herself to be a partisan spy, and directs them
towards the partisans under the command of her father, Major Petrovich (Alan Badel). Mallory and Barnsby escape,
ambushing and killing two of Drazak's Chetniks - men bandaged to hide burns from flamethrowers. Eventually, the
two meet a patrol of real Yugoslav Partisans led by a man Mallory recognizes as his target - Captain Lescovar, AKA
Nicolai. While Mallory assumes that Lescovar has recognized him, he and Barnsby are nevertheless taken to the
partisans. Blindfolded for much of the journey, Mallory and Barnsby both realize their location when they recognize
a wide river and a large hydroelectric dam near the Partisan camp.
Skeptical, Major Petrovich dismisses Mallory's story about Lescovar being Nicolai - assuring Mallory that they had
executed the real 'Nicolai' months earlier. He reproves the men for killing the bandaged Chetniks, as the men were
partisan infiltrators in the Chetnik camp. Petrovich has also other problems to face: The Wehrmacht are on the verge
of beginning a major campaign against the partisans. Only a ravine separates the partisans from a massive armored
Wehrmacht force, with the only crossing consisting of a single concrete arch bridge. Despite their best efforts, the
partisans have failed to destroy the bridge, a job Force 10 was supposed to resolve. Telling Petrovich of Miller's
expertise in demolitions, Mallory convinces the Partisan to allow a rescue mission using Lescovar and the Partisan
Marko (Petar Buntic).
The four re-enter the camp at night, Mallory and Barnsby posing as captives and the partisans disguised as the
bandaged men. Before they complete their mission, Drazak arrives with the bodies of the real bandaged men and,
since Maritza had always been seen with them, concludes she was a partisan as well. A gun battle breaks out in the
cell block. Schroeder and Reynolds are killed, but Mallory, Barnsby, Miller, Weaver, Lescovar and Marko escape in
a truck with a badly beaten Maritza and the recovered explosives.
''Force 10 from Navarone (film)''
Having made it to the Partisans, Miller gives Barnsby and Mallory the news - the bridge really is impregnable to
explosives, the assurances of Barnsby's engineers to the contrary. Then Mallory hits upon the idea of destroying the
upstream dam they saw earlier, with the sudden onrush of several millions of gallons of water being enough to tear
down the structre. A night time air drop is arranged to replace Force 10's lost supplies, but Lescovar sabotages the air
drop by calling in German planes. Maritza spots Lescovar betraying the partisans, but is killed by the turncoat before
she can warn the others, and German planes bomb the illuminated drop zone.
For Petrovich, the botched air drop is the last straw, and he orders the men to be sent to Marshall Tito's headquarters
for transport back to Italy. The team decides to go instead to the German marshaling yards at Mostar, where they can
get the explosives they need. With stolen German uniforms and Lescovar and Marko in their company, the men
infiltrate the supply area. Lescovar again betrays them alerting a German sergeant to their presence, identifying
himself as Col. Von Ingorsleben, Abwehr Special Field Intelligence Group. Marko overhears the plan and guns
down the platoon as they move in, at the cost of his own life. The others escape with Lescovar aboard a train leaving
for Sarajevo. Lescovar's hasty cover story doesn't fool Barnsby or Mallory; also, Lescovar deliberately neglected to
mention that their train passes within a half-mile of the dam. Mallory confronts Lescovar with his knowledge, and
Barnsby shoots and kills the traitor.
Jumping the train near the dam, the team splits up: Miller and Weaver set off diversionary explosives while Mallory
and Barnsby sneak into the dam. Weaver runs into Drazak, who is leading a Chetnik patrol, in the woods. The two
have a knife fight and, though wounded, Weaver kills the Chetnik.
Mallory and Barnsby head into the tunnels within the dam and set the charges, but with the assault beginning at
dawn, which is only minutes away, the two set the explosives on a short fuse, leaving them no practical time to
escape. Mallory and Barnsby nevertheless survive, though the dam is apparently left undamaged. Soon, however,
cracks open in the tunnels and water starts spilling in; with its barely maintained structural integrity disrupted, the
dam wall collapses, millions of tons of water cascading from it. At the bridge, the Germans starting to cross when the
gigantic wall of water comes down the ravine and topples the bridge. The German assault is thwarted, saving the
Partisans. Mallory and Barnsby rejoin Miller and Weaver, but the jubilation is short-lived. Mallory reminds that
they're now trapped on the wrong side of the river, with no supplies and no way of contacting or reaching the
partisans. As the credits roll, the men begin a strenuous journey back to friendly lines.
• Robert Shaw as Major Keith Mallory
• Harrison Ford as Lieutenant Colonel Mike Barnsby
• Barbara Bach as Maritza Petrovich
• Edward Fox as Staff Sergeant John Miller
• Franco Nero as Captain Nikolai Lescovar/Colonel von Ingorslebon
• Carl Weathers as Sergeant Weaver
• Richard Kiel as Captain Drazak
• Alan Badel as Major Petrovich
• Michael Byrne as Major Schroeder
• Philip Latham as Cmdr. Jensen
• Angus MacInnes as 1st Lieutenant Doug Reynolds
• Michael Sheard as Sergeant Bauer
• Petar Buntic as Marko
''Force 10 from Navarone (film)''
This film, which cost $10 million, received mediocre reviews and did poorly at the box-office with the film only
grossing $7.2 million on its US theatrical run. At year end 2006 the film's gross was in excess of $25,000,000.
Production notes
In The Light's on at Signpost, George MacDonald Fraser claims he wrote the screenplay.
Musical score
Composer Ron Goodwin scored the film to the 126-minute version during the summer of 1978. Before the film was
released it was shortened to 118 minutes by American International Pictures, who held the US distribution rights.
The opening narration by Patrick Allen was replaced by an American voice with different dialogue, some scenes
were deleted or shortened and the film was littered with dubbed dialogue (usually when the character is off camera
or with his back turned). Robert Shaw had died before the alterations and a voice impersonator was used.
Additional music cues were created by recycling Ron Goodwin's music from other parts of the film - typically
reusing suspense passages in scenes for which they were not written. The CD release of the soundtrack by Film
Score Monthly chronicles these changes, and presents the score as Ron Goodwin wrote and recorded it for the
126-minute version.
Filming was completed at the Đurđevića Tara Bridge, Montenegro.
Scale models of the dam, the valley and the
bridge were constructed at the Mediterranean Film Studios in Malta.
The 118-minute cut was released worldwide theatrically by Columbia Pictures, which had released The Guns of
Navarone. While Columbia held on to international rights, the U.S. rights would pass to Orion Pictures in 1982 after
buying Filmways and American International Pictures. Orion was in turn sold to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1998.
MGM itself was sold to a consortium led by Columbia's parent Sony in 2005, and so Columbia holds ancillary rights
in the U.S. today, including theatrical rights.
Legal action
Although three producers of the film Carl Foreman, Sidney Cohn and Oliver Unger were deceased, their estates and
surviving producer, Peter Gettinger, took Columbia Pictures to court over unpaid money from distribution rights.
Following a trial that began in May 2008 at the N.Y. Supreme Court, a judgement found the producers were entitled
to funds withheld by Columbia Pictures for more than 30 years.
As of August 25, 2008, Sony has not paid the withheld monies.
''Force 10 from Navarone (film)''
[1] http:/ / www. fancast. com/ blogs/ wp-content/post_images/ force10fromnavarone.jpg
[2] Navarone Productions, N.V. vs HSBC Gibbs Gulf Insurance, Index Number 600707/2004, Supreme Court of New York, 29 May 2008
External links
• Force 10 from Navarone (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0077572/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Force 10 from Navarone (film) (http:// tcmdb. com/ title/ title. jsp?stid=75387) at the TCM Movie Database
• Force 10 from Navarone (film) (http:/ / www. allmovie. com/ work/1:18172) at Allmovie
''The Star Wars Holiday Special''
The Star Wars Holiday Special
The Star Wars Holiday Special
Genre Science fiction/Comedy
Directed by Steve Binder
David Acomba (uncredited)
Produced by Joe Layton
Jeff Starsh
Ken Welch
Mitzie Welch
Written by George Lucas (story,
Pat Proft
Leonard Ripps
Bruce Vilanch
Rod Warren
Mitzie Welch
Starring Peter Mayhew
Harrison Ford
Mark Hamill
Carrie Fisher
Anthony Daniels
Kenny Baker
Don Francks
Music by Ian Fraser (score)
Ken Welch (songs)
Mitzie Welch (songs)
John Williams (themes)
Country United States
Original channel CBS
Release date November 17, 1978
Running time 97 minutes
The Star Wars Holiday Special is a 1978 American television special set in the Star Wars galaxy. It was the first
official Star Wars spin-off, and was directed by Steve Binder. The show was broadcast in its entirety only once, in
the United States, on November 17, 1978 on CBS from 8:00 pm to 10:00 pm, Eastern Standard Time (EST).
In the
storyline that ties the special together, Chewbacca and Han Solo visit Kashyyyk, Chewbacca's home world, to
celebrate Life Day. Along the way they are pursued by agents of the Galactic Empire, who are searching for
members of the Rebel Alliance on the planet. The special introduces three members of Chewbacca's family: his
''The Star Wars Holiday Special''
father Attichitcuk, his wife Mallatobuck, and his son Lumpawarrump.
During the special, scenes also take place in outer space and in spacecraft including the Millennium Falcon and an
Imperial Star Destroyer. The variety-show segments and cartoon introduce a few other locales, such as a cantina on
the desert planet of Tatooine and a gooey, reddish ocean planet known as Panna.
The program also features brief appearances by other Star Wars characters, including Luke Skywalker, C-3PO,
R2-D2, Darth Vader, Han Solo and Princess Leia Organa (who sings the film's "theme song", set to the music of
John Williams' Star Wars theme, near the end). The program also features a cartoon produced by Toronto-based
Nelvana that officially introduces the bounty hunter Boba Fett, and includes stock footage from Star Wars Episode
IV: A New Hope.
The special is notorious for its negative reception.
Anthony Daniels, in a documentary promoting the worldwide
tour of Star Wars: In Concert, notes with a laugh that the Star Wars universe includes "The horrible Holiday Special
that nobody talks about". George Lucas had limited involvement with the film's production, and was unhappy with
the results. David Acomba, a classmate of Lucas' at USC film school, had been selected to direct the special, but he
chose to leave the project, a decision supported by Lucas. The special has never been re-aired or officially released
on video.
It is Life Day (a holiday analogous to Christmas). Chewbacca is on his way home to see his family and to celebrate
the holiday, accompanied by his friend, Han Solo. Not long after departing Tatooine in the Millennium Falcon, the
duo find themselves chased by two Star Destroyers. Han then sends the Falcon into hyperspace.
Meanwhile, on Kashyyyk, Chewie's family is anxiously awaiting and preparing for Chewbacca's return. Malla
switches on a viewscreen-computer, and runs a search for any starships in the area, hoping that the Falcon will be
found in the scan, but the results are negative. Malla contacts Luke Skywalker, who, along with his faithful droid
R2-D2, is working on his X-wing starfighter. Luke says he doesn't know what has happened. Next, Malla contacts
Saun Dann, a local human trader on the planet. He lets her know through a carefully-worded message that Han and
Chewie are on their way, and should be arriving soon.
On Kashyyyk, Saun Dann arrives and brings everyone Life Day gifts. Back on the Falcon, Chewie and Han have
just come out of hyperspace not far from Kashyyyk. Han notices an increased Imperial presence on the planet, so
they decide to land in an unguarded area on the north end of the planet. As they enter the atmosphere, Lumpy hears
the roaring of the ship. Believing Han and Chewie might be arriving, Malla opens the door, but instead finds two
Stormtroopers and two Imperial officers.
The Imperials force their way into the house. The head officer orders a search of the house for Chewbacca. As they
do, Saun Dann and the others attempt to distract them with food and Malla's music video box. When the music
finishes, the head officer orders the search to continue. Saun Dann sees he cannot help further and leaves. The head
officer tells Malla to keep Lumpy busy while they search his room, so Lumpy (and the viewing audience) watches a
cartoon on a viewscreen of one of his father's many adventures.
The cartoon deals with Luke, Han, and Leia's first encounter with Boba Fett. During a search for a talisman, the
Millennium Falcon crashes on a water planet known as Panna. Luke and the gang go after them. Upon landing, they
run into Fett, who claims to want to help them. They all board the Falcon, where Han has been infected by a
mysterious sleeping virus caused by the talisman. Luke immediately contracts the virus as well.
Fett and Chewie go into Panna City to get the cure for the condition. Once they get into the Imperial-occupied city,
Fett instructs Chewie to stay behind while he gets the cure. Once away from Chewie, Fett contacts Darth Vader and
informs him of the situation.
Back on the Falcon, as C-3PO is caring for Han and Luke, he and R2-D2 intercept the message between Vader and
Fett. After evading the Imperials, Fett and Chewie return to the Falcon with the cure. After everyone recovers from
''The Star Wars Holiday Special''
the virus, they all learn of Fett's true allegiances. Fett ignites his jet pack and blasts away, promising that he will
meet them all again. Everyone then escapes from the planet, and back to the rebel base on board the Falcon.
When the cartoon finishes, Lumpy creates a plan to create a translation device that will fool the Imperials into
returning to their base by emulating the voice of one of their superiors.
While the Imperials are always searching downstairs, the living room viewscreen activates, announcing that
Tatooine is now being put under curfew by the Empire, due to "subversive forces." Lumpy uses this opportunity to
put his plan into motion, faking a repeated call for the Imperials to "return to base." They leave, but the head officer
instructs one of the stormtroopers to stay behind. After the other Imperials leave, the stormtrooper still hears the
repeating signal and realizes they were tricked. He finds Lumpy and destroys the machine, frightening Lumpy out
onto the deck.
As they both run onto the deck, Han and Chewbacca arrive. Chewie protects Lumpy as Han dispatches the trooper
by faking him over the edge of the deck. After reuniting with everyone, an Imperial officer appears on the
viewscreen, giving a general alert for a missing stormtrooper (whom Han has just killed). Saun Dann quickly claims
that the trooper stole food and supplies and deserted, and the officer says he will send out a search party. The danger
averted, the family prepares to go the festival at the Tree of Life.
The family is next seen in space, travelling toward a bright star. They walk into it, arriving at the great Tree of Life,
where many Wookiees dressed in red robes are gathered. As Chewbacca takes the stage, C-3PO and R2-D2 suddenly
appear, along with Luke, Leia and Han. Leia gives a short speech on the meaning of Life Day and sings a song in
celebration, to the tune of the Star Wars theme. At the conclusion of the ceremony, Chewbacca remembers the
adventures he had in A New Hope.
That night, the Wookiee family (Chewbacca, Mallatobuck, Lumpawarrump, and Attichitcuk) all sit at the family
table, feasting to celebrate the day and being back together again.
Leia and C-3PO in The Star Wars Holiday
• Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker
• Harrison Ford as Han Solo
• Carrie Fisher as Princess Leia
• Anthony Daniels as C-3PO
• Kenny Baker as R2-D2
• Peter Mayhew as Chewbacca
• Don Francks
as Boba Fett
• James Earl Jones as Darth Vader (voice)
• Beatrice Arthur as Ackmena
• Art Carney as Trader Saun Dann
• Diahann Carroll as Mermeia Holographic
• Marty Balin as Holographic Band Singer (as Jefferson Starship)
• Craig Chaquico as Holographic Band Member (as Jefferson Starship)
• Paul Kantner as Holographic Band Member (as Jefferson Starship)
• Harvey Korman as Krelman / Chef Gormaanda / Amorphian instructor
• Mickey Morton as Malla
• Paul Gale as Itchy
• Patty Maloney as Lumpy
• Alec Guinness as Obi-Wan Kenobi (archive footage)
• Leslie Schofield as Imperial Officer
''The Star Wars Holiday Special''
• Corey Corpsegrinder as R2-D5
Generally, The Star Wars Holiday Special has received a large amount of criticism, both from Star Wars fans and the
general public. David Hofstede, author of What Were They Thinking?: The 100 Dumbest Events in Television
History, ranked the holiday special at number one, calling it "the worst two hours of television ever." Shepard Smith,
a news anchor for the Fox News Channel, referred to it as a "'70s train wreck, combining the worst of Star Wars with
the utter worst of variety television." Actor Phillip Bloch explained on a TV Land special entitled The 100 Most
Unexpected TV Moments, that the special, "...just wasn't working. It was just so surreal." On the same program,
Ralph Garman, a voice actor for the show Family Guy, explained that "The Star Wars Holiday Special is one of the
most infamous television programs in history. And it's so bad that it actually comes around to good again, but passes
it right up."
The only aspect of the special which has been generally well-received is the animated segment which introduces
Boba Fett, who would later become a popular character when he appeared in the Star Wars theatrical films.
George Lucas himself has rarely commented on the special, or even acknowledged its existence. He is thought to
hold a low opinion of it. For instance, Tom Burman, one of the costume designers for the holiday special, has said
that Lucas once told him that he was very disappointed with the final product.
At one Australian fan convention, he reportedly said
"If I had the time and a sledgehammer, I would track down
every copy of that show and smash it." In an online chat with fans, he reportedly said: "The Holiday Special does not
represent my vision for Star Wars." In an interview with Maxim in May 2002, Maxim asked the question, "Any plans
for a Special Edition of the Holiday Special?" In response, Lucas said, "Right. That's one of those things that
happened, and I just have to live with it."
Later, in a May 2005 interview with StaticMultimedia.com, Lucas was asked if the film had soured him on working
in television. He replied: "The special from 1978 really didn't have much to do with us, you know. I can't remember
what network it was on, but it was a thing that they did. We kind of let them do it. It was done by... I can't even
remember who the group was, but they were variety TV guys. We let them use the characters and stuff and that
probably wasn't the smartest thing to do, but you learn from those experiences."
The official Star Wars site states that the holiday special "delivered mixed results," and states that the highlight of
the special was the Boba Fett animated segment.
The official site also says, when referring to the fan interest in
seeing the Wookiees on screen, "the 1978 Holiday Special didn't cut it."
When asked at a fan convention, "So, you
don't like it (the holiday special) either?", Lucasfilm head of content and fan relations, Steve Sansweet replied "No. I
mean, I like the ten minute introduction of Boba Fett, but that's about it." The official site also refers to the Boba Fett
animated segment as "a cult classic".
On February 8, 2006, Harrison Ford made an appearance on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, and during the
interview, Conan O'Brien brought up the special, and began asking various questions regarding it, such as inquiring
whether he remembered making it. Ford said nothing, but looked away and shook his head nervously, then saying he
had no memory of it whatsoever and it, therefore, "doesn't exist." The audience responded with laughter and
applause. O'Brien then asked Ford what he would think if he played a clip of the special on the show, Ford jokingly
grabbed him, then said that "[he'd] never seen it, maybe it'll be nice." Humorously acting anxious and distracted,
Ford suffered through the clip (which featured a scene showing Ford as Han Solo telling Chewbacca and his wife
that they are "like family" to him), and then muttered a gruff, sarcastic "thank you" to O'Brien, before continuing
with the interview to promote his then newest film, Firewall.
''The Star Wars Holiday Special''
On the 2010 Television Program Times Talk, New York Times columnist David Carr asked Carrie Fisher about the
Holiday Special; she said that she made George Lucas give her a copy of the Special in exchange for recording DVD
commentary for the Star Wars films. She added that she shows it at parties, "mainly at the end of the night when she
wants people to leave."
• The special was ranked at #3 in "The Five Goofiest Moments Of The Star Wars Mythos", in the 62nd issue of
UK's Star Wars Magazine.
• TV Guide and TV Land ranked The Star Wars Holiday Special at number 59 on their "Top 100 Unexpected
Television Moments" in a five part special that aired from December 5 until December 9 in 2005.
• In a 2008 online poll on Christmas specials by the Paley Center for Media, The Star Wars Holiday Special was
selected by 59% of the voters (who selected 5 titles each). It beat out A Charlie Brown Christmas (34.6%), How
the Grinch Stole Christmas! (31.3%), and Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer (28.4%), among others.
International distribution
The program was seen in Canada on CTV on the same evening as the CBS broadcast. Toronto CTV station
CFTO-TV aired the program at 7 p.m., an hour earlier than seen on the nearest American outlet, WIVB-TV in
Buffalo, New York.
It was also distributed and seen in Australia.
Parodies and references in popular culture
• In the music video for "Weird Al" Yankovic's song "White & Nerdy", Yankovic's character can be seen buying a
pirated VHS copy of the special from a bootlegger on the street.
• On askaninja.com, the ninja refers to the Cantina scene in Episode 64, saying in the tag that even the aliens were
unhappy with Bea Arthur's musical number.
• In 2007, a humorous audio commentary for the film was featured on RiffTrax, in which former Mystery Science
Theater 3000 castmembers Michael J. Nelson, Kevin Murphy and Bill Corbett heckled the special in the style of
an episode of the TV series. Because of the unavailability of the special, RiffTrax suggests that the audio
commentary can be synchronized to a copy of the video much like one "you can Get frOm yOur friend Greg, in
LakE VIDEO, Illinois."
• In the South Park episode, "Mr. Hankey's Christmas Classics", an anchorman teases before and after each
commercial break, "Fighting the frizzies, at eleven." This was in reference to Rolland Smith's news promo on
New York City's WCBS-TV, which is included on bootlegged copies of The Star Wars Holiday Special sourced
from WCBS.
• In one ad for the Robot Chicken Star Wars special, George Lucas, in stop-motion animation form, is talking to his
therapist, lamenting about letting the special happen, and then agreeing to the Robot Chicken special. The doctor
shakes his head and mutters, "30 years of therapy down the drain."
• In the ABC Family Christmas special, Chasing Christmas, the Ghost of Christmas Past (Andrea Roth) is sitting in
a bar in 1978. The television behind the bar announces "Stay tuned for the Star Wars Holiday Special". There are
a few more brief references to the show while she remains in the bar.
• In the comic strip Sally Forth, there is a running gag about the family watching Ted's bootleg copy of the special
every Christmas. (Ted also has plans to use his unopened Boba Fett figurine as a retirement fund.)
• In December 2009, the Nostalgia Critic reviewed the special, calling it one of the worst, most nonsensical things
he had ever seen. At the end of the review, the character of "Santa Christ" appeared and destroyed the copy the
Critic was watching, while simultaneously erasing all existence of the special from the Critic's mind.
''The Star Wars Holiday Special''
• The Adam and Joe parody of This Morning, Chewbacca, co-host and life partner of Han, refers to their children,
Itchy and Lumpy.
The Star Wars Holiday Special is significant for being the first film-length Star Wars story after the original
theatrical film, and for showing an expanded look at parts of that universe. The main focus of the holiday special is
the Blockade of Kashyyyk. But for the most part, the plot serves as little more than a means to string together a
series of musical numbers, celebrity cameos, and other variety-show acts. These include songs and comedy routines
by such 1970s talents as Jefferson Starship, Diahann Carroll, Art Carney, Harvey Korman, and Bea Arthur. Easily
the most notable segment is an animated cartoon featuring the pre-Empire Strikes Back debut of Boba Fett.
The special features four songs. The first, "This Minute Now," sung by Diahann Carroll, is best remembered for the
bizarre monologue which precedes it in which Carroll — who is supposed to be an image created by a virtual-reality
machine — tells Chewbacca's father, Itchy, that she is his "fantasy" and suggestively invites him to "experience" her.
The second musical number is the song "Light the Sky on Fire", performed by Jefferson Starship, which is presented
as a 3D music video watched by one of the Imperial guards; during production the song was given the working title
"Cigar-Shaped Object (Vanished Without A Trace)". (The song was included as a bonus 45 RPM single in the
Jefferson Starship greatest hits collection Gold.) Later, Bea Arthur, who plays a bartender in the Mos Eisley cantina,
sings "Good Night, But Not Goodbye" to the same set of aliens that were seen in the Cantina in A New Hope,
including, as the back-up musicians, the Cantina's resident group, Figrin D'an and the Modal Nodes.
Finally, at
the end of the special, Carrie Fisher sings a song in celebration of Life Day to the tune of the Star Wars main title.
Harvey Korman provides comedy in three of the special's skits, including the Cantina skit with Bea Arthur where he
plays a barfly who drinks through a hole in the top of his head. He also performs two solo routines: one as Chef
Gormanda, a four-armed parody of Julia Child (the four arms allow her to work much faster than Malla can keep up
with), and one as a malfunctioning Amorphian android in an instruction video watched by Lumpy. Art Carney has a
more integral role in the story, playing a trader named Saun Dann on Kashyyyk who is a member of the Rebellion
and helps Chewie's family. His segments are also largely played for laughs, and at one point includes a scene
alluding to his character Ed Norton from The Honeymooners, where an Imperial officer demands that he "get on with
it" while Carney dallies with a prop.
The cartoon
The high point of the special is generally considered to be the animated segment produced by Nelvana known as
"The Faithful Wookiee". While the artistic style takes great liberties — R2-D2's body is rubbery, C-3PO actually
blinks (with vertical eyelids) and Han's face is nearly unrecognizable — the animation is above average for Western
television animation of the period and the music and sound effects are straight out of the film, along with the vocal
talents of the main cast from the film. Not only does the cartoon introduce Boba Fett, but his jet pack and rope gun as
well, which are not used again in the movies until Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi four and a half years
Hasbro has released a Boba Fett action figure, using the likeness from the animated cartoon, and titled "Boba Fett
(Animated Debut)".
Funko is releasing a Star Wars Holiday Special Boba Fett Bobblehead in a special Limited Edition as part of their
new Star Wars Bobblehead series
. His coloring in the Star Wars Holiday Special was unique, and far from the
way he eventually appeared on the big screen in The Empire Strikes Back.
''The Star Wars Holiday Special''
Other bits
The Holiday Special also includes a circus-style acrobatics routine that includes uneven bars and juggling. All the
acts were loosely linked together with material which involves the Wookiees' preparation for Life Day, Han and
Chewie's attempt to evade the Imperials and make it to Chewie's family, and the Imperial garrison's search for rebels.
Versions and availability today
The Star Wars Holiday Special was mostly forgotten after its only airing in 1978, until sometime in the
early-to-mid-1990s when individuals came forward and offered original videotape recordings of the TV airing.
These have since been duplicated and reduplicated so that most copies of the special available today are based on
second to sixth generation VHS dubs. Some of these fan-made copies include the original commercials that aired
during the show. One first generation VHS recording available on many BitTorrent websites was recorded from Des
Moines, Iowa's KCCI, which is of the highest currently known quality. Another recording from then-CBS affiliate
WMAR-TV in Baltimore, Maryland was posted on Google Video, also featuring the original commercials.
It soon became a cult classic among Star Wars fans. While originally shared or sold as a bootleg video at
conventions or outlets such as eBay, peer-to-peer file sharing networks have made the special more widely available
to fans curious to see for themselves.
Online video sites such as YouTube have also been known to host clips of
the special, but to this day, the special has not officially been made available. (A so-called "Platinum Edition" DVD
mentioned in a review by Lawrence Person on Locus Online is an April Fools Hoax.)
Animation cels sold in the mid-1990s came from the special's animated Boba Fett segment. Segments of that cartoon
appear in the 2002 Attack of the Clones web documentary "Bucket Head", and Jeremy Bulloch, who portrayed Fett
in the original films, introduces the segment as coming from the Holiday Special. In 2004, the official Star Wars site
confirmed that documentary filmmaker Kevin Burns was allowed access to the original print for use in his Empire of
Dreams documentary. However, the segment using footage from the holiday special was ultimately left out of the
final cut.
Related media tie-ins
• In 1980, Meco produced a similarly-themed Christmas album entitled Christmas in the Stars: Star Wars
Christmas Album. This was Jon Bon Jovi's first record appearance.
• In 1979, one year after the special's broadcast, Lucasfilm published Star Wars: The Wookiee Storybook, a
children's storybook which reunited characters from the special.
• Prior to the special's airing, the Kenner toy company considered creating a toy line based on the special. While the
project was cancelled due to the unpopularity of the special, several prototype versions of the figures are known
to have been created. Those depict the Chewbacca family and seem to be simply modifications of Kenner's
officially released Chewbacca figure.
• A press kit was released prior to the special to promote its airing.
• Jefferson Starship proclaimed on their single "Light The Sky On Fire" (included as a separate disc with the album
Jefferson Starship Gold) that it was "as seen and heard on the CBS Star Wars Holiday Special." It was released
before the show aired.
• The Star Wars based MMORPG, Star Wars Galaxies, has several items and in-game storylines relating loosely to
Wookiee Life Day.
• The tracks "Bloodstain" and "Unreal" from UNKLE's album Psyence Fiction sample a few of Boba Fett's lines
from the animated segment.
''The Star Wars Holiday Special''
Role in greater Star Wars continuity
Canonicity of the special
The Star Wars Holiday Special is technically in the Star Wars canon, which means that the events depicted are part
of the greater continuity that includes the other films, novels, comic books, video games, etc. Generally, it falls in the
C-Canon in the overall Star Wars continuity.
According to Leland Chee,
the keeper of The Holocron,
an internal Star Wars continuity database at
Lucasfilm (which contains at least 28 individual entries relating to elements of the holiday special), most elements
from the holiday special are definitely considered canon. However, there are specific rules as to what is what. First
off, any element from the holiday special that is referenced in another work is considered C-Canon (such as Life
Day, Chewbacca's family, etc.). Any element from the holiday special that is not referenced in other works is
considered S-Canon, which means that it is canon, and that it "happened," but its canonicity is not set in stone. The
only element from the holiday special where the canonicity is disputed is its claim that Chief Bast survived the
destruction of the first Death Star from A New Hope.
Later appearances
Since The Star Wars Holiday Special was broadcast, it has received an extreme amount of criticism and enmity by
both fans and official sources. Despite the relative unpopularity of the elements of the special, those at Lucasfilm
responsible for licensing have kept the special in continuity, due to their canon policies. In many cases, they have
expanded on elements from the special in several different media, including novels, comic books, video games,
children's books, and even in a Star Wars-themed cookbook.
Several of the characters in The Star Wars Holiday Special appear in other Star Wars works. Chewbacca's family are
featured in various stories, including:
• The Kashyyyk Depths (1979) was a newspaper comic strip by Russ Manning which featured another venture by
Han, Luke, Leia, and Chewie to Kashyyyk for Life Day. It was reprinted in a collective book entitled Classic Star
Wars #4: The Early Adventures.
• The Wookiee Storybook (1979) features Chewbacca's family in a situation very similar of that to the holiday
special. Except in the book, Lumpy, wishing to be brave like his father, goes to the lower levels of Kashyyyk to
get a type of fruit in preparation for the return of Chewbacca for Life Day. Trouble arises when Lumpy doesn't
return, and Chewbacca must rescue his son.
• Wookiee World (1985) was issue #91 of Marvel Comics' Star Wars run. It featured Chewie's family in another
adventure on Kashyyyk.
• Tyrant's Test (1996) was the third and final book of Michael P. Kube-McDowell's "Black Fleet Crisis" trilogy. It
featured Lumpy and his rites of passage.
• Rebel Dawn (1997) was the third book in A.C. Crispin's "Han Solo trilogy". It dealt with Solo's early years, and
his early relation with Chewbacca and his family. Malla and Chewie's marriage is shown in the third book.
• The Star Wars Cookbook: Wookiee Cookiees and Other Galactic Recipes (1998) gives an official recipe for
"Wookiee cookiees," a different name for "Wookiee-ookiees" from the special.
• Agents of Chaos I: Hero's Trial (2000) was a novel in The New Jedi Order series, in which Malla and Itchy make
• Chewbacca (2000) was a four-issue comic book series by Darko Macan, which featured Itchy and Malla recalling
stories of Chewbacca's history.
• Star Wars: Galactic Battlegrounds (2001) was a LucasArts game which explored the past of Chewbacca's father,
Itchy. As seen in the game, Itchy was a great warrior in his younger days, who fought many battles.
• The Unifying Force (2003) was the final book of the New Jedi Order series. It features Chewbacca's son Lumpy,
along with Lowbacca, who hold a pivotal role of taking up Chewbacca's "life debt" to Han.
''The Star Wars Holiday Special''
• Star Wars: Galaxies (2003) was a popular MMORPG game that allowed the player to visit and explore
Kashyyyk. While there, the player can explore the customs of Life Day, as there are several Wookiees dressed in
red robes, as in the special. Lumpy's stuffed bantha from the special can also be seen in the game. The official site
for Star Wars: Galaxies even has a webpage dedicated to explaining these features in the game, and the customs
of Life Day.
• A Forest Apart (2003) was an e-book by Troy Denning, also released in print as a supplement to his book
Tatooine Ghost. A Forest Apart focuses on the exploits of Lumpy, after Malla allows him to go to Coruscant with
• Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (2005) was a film which, in addition to introducing Kashyyyk to the
big screen, involved Itchy. According to the Revenge of the Sith Incredible Cross-sections by Dr. Curtis Saxton,
and according to the film's visual dictionary, Itchy was involved in the Battle of Kashyyyk as a gunner aboard an
Oevvaor jet catamaran in the defense of Kachirho during the Battle of Kashyyyk. It is unknown at this point
whether he actually can be physically seen in the film, but several jet catamarans are shown. The cross-sections
book also references the use of a Wookiee mind evaporator for training which was introduced in the Star Wars
Holiday Special.
• Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith Incredible Cross-sections - The Definitive Guide to Spaceships and Vehicles
(2005) (see above)
• Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith-Visual Dictionary (2005) (see above)
• Star Wars: Complete Locations (2005) Mentions that while Luke, Obi-Wan, and the droids are in the cantina in A
New Hope, Ackmena is in a nearby room negotiating for a raise in her pay.
Chef Gormaanda later was featured in an issue
of Lucasfilm's HoloNet News. She explained a new recipe, and it
was explained that she had won a cooking award. The issue was HoloNet News Volume 531 #50 13:4:4, under
"Life" section.
Chief Bast went on to appear in the Star Wars Customizable Card Game, in which Bast's early life was briefly
elaborated on. His card hints that he escaped and survived the destruction of the first Death Star, as seen in the
holiday special.
Boba Fett returns in The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi, and in many Expanded Universe books, comics,
and video games (not to mention numerous official and unofficial fan-made films). His past is explored in Star Wars
Episode II: Attack of the Clones.
The Wookiee planet of Kashyyyk is featured in various novels, comic books, and video games, including Revenge of
the Sith, the cartoon micro-series known as Star Wars: Clone Wars, and video games such as Star Wars: Battlefront,
Star Wars: Republic Commando, Star Wars: The Clone Wars, Star Wars: The Force Unleashed, Star Wars Galactic
Battlegrounds, and Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic. An entire city from the planet was even elaborated on in
Timothy Zahn's 1991 novel Heir to the Empire, which was the first in his Thrawn trilogy.
[1] Berman, John; Ted Gerstein (2007-12-20). "Holiday Specials Gone Bad; The 'Star Wars Holiday Special' Flop Lives On" (http:// www.
abcnews.go. com/ Nightline/ story?id=4034365&page=1). ABC News. .
[2] Stomp Tokyo: Star Wars Holiday Special (http:// www.stomptokyo. com/ movies/ star-wars-holiday-special.html)
[3] (http:/ / www. nerf-herders-anonymous.net/ DonFrancks. html) Archived Version on Wayback (http:// web.archive.org/web/
20080519203212/ http:/ / www.nerf-herders-anonymous.net/ DonFrancks.html)
[4] Hicks, L. Wayne. "When the Force Was a Farce" (http:/ / www.tvparty.com/ 70starwars.html). TV Party. .
[5] Burke, R. (2005-09-10). "The Greatest Story Ever Told: An Interview With George Lucas" (http:// www.staticmultimedia. com/ content/
film/features/ feature_1115643931). Static Multimedia. .
[6] "Making Episode II, Part 9: Bucket Head" (http:// www.starwars.com/ episode-ii/ bts/ me2/ 9. html). StarWars.com. .
[7] "Star Wars: The Best of 2004 - 8 The Return of Chewbacca" (http:// www.starwars.com/ welcome/ about/ news/ f20041222/ indexp4.
html). StarWars.com. 2004-12-22. .
[8] "Hyperspace: Kessel Run" (http:// www.starwars. com/ hyperspace/ member/ kessel/ f20031119/index.html). StarWars.com. 2003-11-19. .
[9] http:/ / www. paleycenter. org/poll-pick-your-holiday-cheer
''The Star Wars Holiday Special''
[10] Associated Press (1978-11-17). "Star Wars special reunites cast on planet of Kazzook". The Globe and Mail. p. 18.
[11] Yankovic, Al. ""White & Nerdy" music video" (http:/ / www.youtube. com/ watch?v=-xEzGIuY7kw). Straight Outta Lynwood. . Retrieved
[12] AskaNinja. ""Ninja Theme Songs" video" (http:// askaninja.com/ node/ 5513). . Retrieved 2008-05-26.
[13] "Product info: Star Wars Holiday Special" (http:// web. archive.org/web/ 20071213020429/ http:/ / shop. rifftrax.com/ rifftrax/
star-wars-holiday-special). RiffTrax.com. Archived from the original (http:// www. rifftrax.com/ rifftrax/star-wars-holiday-special) on
December 13, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-12-13.
[14] YouTube - Bea Arthur sings! (http:// youtube. com/ watch?v=RzXKySxPFCI)
[15] "Boba Fett (Animated Debut)" (http:/ / www. rebelscum. com/ TAC24bobaanimated.asp). Star Wars: The 30th Anniversary Collection
Photo Archives. Rebelscum.com. .
[16] http:// www. wickedcoolstuff. com/ starwars.html
[17] "DVD review of The Star Wars Holiday Special" (http:// locusmag. com/ 2005/Features/ 0401_StarWarsDVD.html). Locus Online. .
[20] "Wookiee Life Day" (http:/ / starwarsgalaxies. station. sony. com/ content. jsp?page=Wookiee Life Day). Star Wars Galaxies. .
[21] http:/ / www. holonetnews. com/ 50/ life/1344_2. html
• The Star Wars Holiday Special, original CBS airing, November 17, 1978. Steve Binder, George Lucas.
• Hofstede, David (2004). What Were They Thinking?: The 100 Dumbest Events In Television History.
ISBN 0-8230-8441-8.
• Sansweet, Stephen J. (1998-06-30). The Star Wars Encyclopedia. Del Rey. ISBN 0-345-40227-8.
• Empire of Dreams, 2004.
• Ultra Filmfax #69-70 - October 1998/Jan. 1999 (USA) "The Star Wars Holiday Special," by Ross Plesset
(Presents black and white photos and very detailed article on the SWHS, with interviews.)
• Movie references for Star Wars Holiday Special (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0193524/ movieconnections)
External links
• The Star Wars Holiday Special (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0193524/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Star Wars Holiday Special (http:/ / www. allmovie. com/ work/308231) at Allmovie
• Star Wars Holiday Special (http:/ / www. rifftrax.com/ rifftrax/star-wars-holiday-special) at RiffTrax
• Star Wars Holiday Special review with animated screenshots (http:/ / www.i-mockery.com/ minimocks/
• The Nitpicker's Guide to The Star Wars Holiday Special in depth review with scene-by-scene commentary (http:/
/ chefelf.com/ starwars/ holiday_intro.php)
• Star Wars Holiday Special – TV Party (http:/ / www.tvparty. com/ 70starwars. html)
• Star Wars Holiday Special Page – Lucasfan.com (http:/ / www.lucasfan. com/ swtv/ index2.html)
''Apocalypse Now''
Apocalypse Now
Apocalypse Now
theatrical release poster by Bob Peak
Directed by Francis Ford Coppola
Produced by Francis Ford Coppola
Screenplay by John Milius
Francis Ford Coppola
Michael Herr (narration)
Story by Joseph Conrad (novel)
Narrated by Joe Estevez (uncredited)
Starring Marlon Brando
Robert Duvall
Martin Sheen
Laurence Fishburne
Dennis Hopper
Harrison Ford
Frederic Forrest
Sam Bottoms
Albert Hall
Music by Carmine Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
Cinematography Vittorio Storaro
Editing by Richard Marks
Gerald B. Greenberg
Walter Murch
Lisa Fruchtman
Studio American Zoetrope
Distributed by United Artists (1979 Theatrical Version)
Paramount Pictures (Redux Version)
Lionsgate (Blu-Ray)
Miramax Films (Redux International Version)
Release date(s) August 15, 1979
''Apocalypse Now''
Running time 153 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $31.5 million
Gross revenue $78,784,010 (1979)
$83,471,511 (2002)
Apocalypse Now is a 1979 American epic war film set during the Vietnam War. The plot revolves around two US
Army special operations officers, one of whom, Captain Benjamin L. Willard (Martin Sheen) of MACV-SOG, is
sent into the jungle to assassinate the other, the rogue and presumably insane Colonel Walter E. Kurtz (Marlon
Brando) of Special Forces.
The film was produced and directed by Francis Ford Coppola from a script by Coppola and John Milius. The script
is based on Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness, and also draws elements from Michael Herr's Dispatches,
the film version of Conrad's Lord Jim (which shares the same character of Marlow with Heart of Darkness), and
Werner Herzog's Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972).
The film became notorious in the entertainment press due to its lengthy and troubled production, as documented in
Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse. Marlon Brando showed up to the set overweight and Martin Sheen
suffered a heart attack. The production was also beset by extreme weather that destroyed several expensive sets. In
addition, the release date of the film was delayed several times as Coppola struggled to come up with an ending and
to edit the millions of feet of footage that he had shot.
The film won the Palme d'Or at Cannes and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture and the Golden
Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama.
The film opens, introducing Captain Benjamin L. Willard (Martin Sheen); a deeply troubled, seasoned special
operations veteran. It is 1970. Willard has returned to Saigon from deployment in the field. He drinks excessively
and appears to be having difficulty adjusting to life in the rear-area. Two intelligence officers, Lt. General Corman
(G. D. Spradlin) and Colonel Lucas (Harrison Ford), and a government man (Jerry Ziesmer) approach him with an
assignment: journey up the fictitious Nung River into the remote Cambodian jungle to find Colonel Walter E. Kurtz
(Marlon Brando), a member of the US Army Special Forces feared to have gone rogue.
They tell Willard that Kurtz, once considered a model officer and future general, has gone insane and is commanding
a legion of his own Montagnard troops deep inside the forest in neutral Cambodia. Their claims are supported by
very disturbing radio broadcasts and recordings made by Kurtz himself. Willard is ordered to undertake a mission to
find Kurtz and terminate the Colonel's command "with extreme prejudice".
Willard joins the crew of a Navy Patrol Boat, Riverine (PBR) named the "Erebus" -- radio call sign "PBR Street
Gang" -- with an eclectic crew composed of: boat commander QMC George "Chief" Phillips (Albert Hall), GM3
Lance B. Johnson (Sam Bottoms), GM3 Tyrone Miller (Laurence Fishburne) a.k.a. "Mr. Clean", and EN3 Jay "Chef"
Hicks (Frederic Forrest).
Willard and the PBR crew rendezvous with the 9th Air Cavalry, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Bill Kilgore
(Robert Duvall) for transport to the Nung River. He initially scoffs at their request for transport until Kilgore, a keen
surfer, is told by one of his men that Lance Johnson, a professional surfer, is a member of the boat's crew. Kilgore
befriends Johnson, and later learns from one of his men that the beach down the coast which marks the opening to
the river is perfect for surfing. This changes Kilgore's mind about transporting Willard and the PBR to the river, but
from the map there is a Viet Cong-held village at the mouth of the river and Kilgore decides to capture the village.
His men advise him that it's "Charlie's point" and heavily fortified. Dismissing this concern with the explanation that
''Apocalypse Now''
"Charlie don't surf!", Kilgore orders his men to saddle up in the morning to capture the town and the beach.
Riding high above the coast in a fleet of Hueys accompanied by OH-6As, Kilgore launches his attack on the beach.
The scene, famous for its use of Richard Wagner's "Ride of the Valkyries", ends with the soldiers surfing the
barely-secured beach amidst skirmishes between infantry and VC. After helicopters swoop over the village and
demolish all visible signs of resistance, a giant napalm strike in the nearby jungle dramatically marks the climax of
the battle. Kilgore exults to Willard, "I love the smell of napalm in the morning... The smell, you know that gasoline
smell... Smells like, victory", as he recalls a battle in which a hill was bombarded with napalm for over twelve hours.
The lighting and mood darken as the boat navigates upstream and Willard's silent obsession with Kurtz deepens.
Incidents on the journey include a run-in with a tiger while Willard and Chef search for mangoes. The boat continues
up river and the crew watches a USO show featuring Playboy Bunnies and a centerfold that degenerates into chaos.
Shortly after the Playmate performance, Phillips spots a sampan and orders an inspection over the objections of
Willard. Initially reluctant to board the boat, Chef impatiently searches it; a young woman on the boat makes a
sudden movement towards a barrel, prompting Clean to open fire and kill nearly everyone on the sampan. As the
woman lies dying, Chef discovers that the barrel contains the woman's pet puppy. Phillips insists on taking the
woman to receive medical attention; however, Willard ends the debate by shooting her, calmly stating, "I told you
not to stop", further alienating himself from the PBR's crew.
The boat moves up river to the American outpost at the Do Long bridge, the last U.S. Army outpost on the river,
passing wreckage of a downed Huey helicopter. The boat arrives during a North Vietnamese attack on the bridge,
which is under constant construction. Upon arrival, Willard receives the last piece of the dossier from a lieutenant
named Carlson, along with mail for the boat crewmen. Willard goes ashore with Lance, who has taken LSD, and
they make their way through the trenches where they encounter many panicked, leaderless soldiers. Realizing the
situation has devolved into chaos, Willard and Lance return to the boat. The chief tries to convince Willard not to
continue on with his mission. In response, Willard snaps at Phillips to continue upriver. As the boat departs, the
NVA launch an artillery strike that destroys the bridge.
The next day, Willard learns from the information he received at Do Lung that an Army Captain named Colby was
sent to find Kurtz a few months prior to Willard's assignment and is now missing. While the crew is busy reading
mail, Lance pops open a purple smoke grenade, catching the attention of an unseen enemy hiding in the trees by the
river, and prompting an attack on the boat. Clean is killed as he listens to an audio tape from his mother. The chief,
who had a close relationship with Clean, becomes increasingly hostile to Willard. As the boat continues up the river
it comes across the wreckage of a B-52D Stratofortress in Cambodian territory.
Later, Montagnard villagers begin shooting arrows at the boat as it approaches the camp. The crew opens fire until
the chief is hit by a spear. Willard attempts to assist the mortally wounded Phillips, who tries to kill Willard by
pulling him onto the spear tip protruding from his chest. Willard grapples with Phillips until the man finally dies.
Afterwards, Willard confides in Chef and Lance about his mission, and the two surviving crew of the boat
reluctantly agree to continue their journey upriver as they are now in Cambodia. As they draw closer, they see the
coastline is littered with dead bodies.
After arriving at Kurtz' outpost, Willard leaves Chef behind with orders to call in an airstrike on the village if he does
not return and takes Johnson with him to the village. They are met by a manic freelance photographer (Dennis
Hopper), who explains that Kurtz's greatness and philosophical skills inspire his people to follow him. As they go
into the village, there are bodies that are ignored by the villagers, as well as severed heads scattered about the nearby
Buddhist temple which serves as Kurtz's living quarters. Willard also encounters the missing Captain Colby, who is
in a nearly catatonic state.
Willard is brought before Kurtz in the darkened temple, where Kurtz derides him as "an errand boy, sent by grocery
clerks to collect a bill". The scene changes to Chef attempting to call in the airstrike on the village as ordered by
Willard. Chef is attacked before the call is completed, and the scene cuts to Willard bound to a post outside in the
pouring rain. Kurtz walks up to him and drops Chef's severed head into his lap.
''Apocalypse Now''
After some time in captivity, Willard is released and given the freedom of the compound. Kurtz lectures him on his
theories of war, humanity, and civilization, knowing that Willard would not leave. Kurtz explains his motives and
philosophy in a haunting monologue in which he praises the ruthlessness of the Viet Cong which he witnessed
firsthand after one of his own humanitarian missions. He recalls the incident as leaving him traumatised but also
giving him a new and deeper understanding of the complexities of his enemy and the level to which the US would
have to commit in order to prevail. Kurtz also asks Willard to tell his son everything about him in the event of his
death. That night, as the villagers conduct a ceremonial slaughter of a water buffalo, Willard enters Kurtz's chamber
as Kurtz is making a recording, and attacks him with the machete. Lying bloody and dying on the ground, Kurtz
whispers "The horror... the horror..." before expiring. Willard descends the stairs from Kurtz' chamber and drops his
weapon. The villagers do so as well. Willard walks through the now-silent crowd of natives and takes the last
surviving crewperson, the near-catatonic Lance, by the hand. With his mission accomplished, Willard leads Johnson
to the PBR, and the two of them sail away as Kurtz's final words echo and the scene fades to black. In some but not
all prints of the film, the closing credits play over footage of Kurtz' temple-base exploding; after the film's original
general release Coppola replaced this footage with a plain black screen because some viewers interpreted it as an air
strike called in by Willard, which Coppola did not intend.
• Martin Sheen as Captain Benjamin L. Willard. Willard is a veteran officer who has been serving in Vietnam for
three years. He wears the insignia of the elite 173rd Airborne Brigade, and it is implied Willard had done
missions for MACV-SOG and the CIA. An attempt to re-integrate into home-front society had apparently failed
prior to the time at which the movie is set, and so he returned to the war-torn jungles of Vietnam, where he
seemed to feel more at home.
• Marlon Brando as Colonel Walter E. Kurtz, a highly decorated American Army Special Forces officer who goes
renegade. He runs his own operations out of Cambodia and is feared by the US military as much as the
• Frederic Forrest as Engineman 3rd Class Jay "Chef" Hicks, a tightly-wound former chef from New Orleans who
is horrified by his surroundings.
• Sam Bottoms as Gunner's Mate 3rd Class Lance B. Johnson, a former professional surfer from California who
spends the majority of the journey on a drug binge.
• Laurence Fishburne (as "Larry Fishburne") as Gunner's Mate 3rd Class Tyrone "Mr. Clean" Miller, the 17
year-old cocky South Bronx-born crewmember. He resents the inward nature of Willard.
• Albert Hall as Chief Quartermaster George Phillips. The chief runs a tight ship and frequently clashes with
Willard over authority. Has a father-son relationship with Clean.
• Robert Duvall as Lieutenant Colonel William "Bill" Kilgore, 1st Squadron, 9th Air Cavalry Regiment commander
and surfing fanatic. Kilgore is a strong leader who loves his men dearly but has methods that appear out-of-tune
with the setting of the war. His character is a composite of several characters including Colonel John B. Stockton,
General James F. Hollingsworth (featured in The General Goes Zapping Charlie Cong by Nicholas Tomalin),
George Patton IV, also a West Point officer who Robert Duvall knew
and possibly Col. David Hackworth.
• Dennis Hopper as an American Photojournalist, a crazed photographer who intercuts poetry with obscene
cynicism. Stranded in Kurtz's camp. Takes pictures from a camera that may or may not contain film. According to
the DVD commentary of Redux, the journalist is supposed to be a real life photographer who went missing in
Vietnam in 1966. Coppola stated that Hopper's character is supposed to be the real life journalist Sean Flynn years
later; the real Flynn was also a character in Herr's Dispatches. The Hopper part was also based in part on the
"harlequin" (patchwork) figure in Heart of Darkness that greets Marlow; Hopper repeats the harlequin's "the
man's enlarged my mind" soliloquy.
• G.D. Spradlin as Lieutenant General Corman, military intelligence (G-2) an authoritarian officer who fears Kurtz
and wants him removed.
''Apocalypse Now''
• Jerry Ziesmer as a mysterious man in civilian attire who sits in on Willard's initial briefing, is the only one calm
enough to eat during the briefing, and whose only line in the movie is the famous "Terminate with extreme
• Harrison Ford as Colonel Lucas, aide to Corman and general information specialist. Despite his rank, he often
appears nervous and jittery regarding Kurtz and the mission.
• Scott Glenn as Captain Richard M. Colby, previously assigned Willard's current mission before he defected to
Kurtz's private army and sent a message to his wife telling her to sell everything they owned (but he goes on to
tell her to sell their children, as well).
• Bill Graham as Agent (announcer and in charge of Playmate's show)
• Cynthia Wood as Playmate of the Year
• Colleen Camp as Playmate, "Miss May"
• Linda Carpenter as Playmate, "Miss August"
• R. Lee Ermey as Helicopter Pilot
• Christian Marquand as Hubert de Marais (redux version), the surrogate leader of the French residents and strong
vocal opponent of American action.
• Aurore Clément as Roxanne Sarraut-de Marais (redux version), a widow and influential figure at the plantation.
• Roman Coppola as Francis de Marais (redux version)
• Francis Coppola himself has a cameo as a director filming beach combat. He shouts "Don't look at the camera,
keep on fighting!" DP Vittorio Storaro plays the cameraman by Coppola's side.
Several actors who were, or later became, prominent stars have minor roles in the movie including Harrison Ford, G.
D. Spradlin, Scott Glenn, and R. Lee Ermey. Fishburne was only fourteen years old when shooting began in March
1976, and he lied about his age in order to get cast in his role.
Apocalypse Now took so long to finish that
Fishburne was seventeen (the same age as his character) by the time of its release.
Although inspired by Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, the film deviates extensively from its source material. The
novella, based on Conrad's real experiences as a steam paddleboat captain in Africa, is set in the Congo Free State
during the 19th century.
Kurtz and Marlow (who is named Willard in the movie) both work for a Belgian trading
company that brutally exploits its native African workers.
When Marlow arrives at Kurtz's outpost, he discovers that Kurtz has gone insane and is lording over a small tribe as
a god. The novella ends with Kurtz dying on the trip back and the narrator musing about darkness of the human
psyche: "the heart of an immense darkness".
In the novella, Marlow is the pilot of a river boat sent to collect ivory from Kurtz's outpost, only gradually becoming
infatuated with Kurtz. In fact, when he discovers Kurtz in terrible health, Marlow makes an effort to bring him home
safely. In the movie, Willard is an assassin dispatched to kill Kurtz. Nevertheless, the depiction of Kurtz as a
god-like leader of a tribe of natives and his malarial fever, Kurtz's written exclamation "Exterminate the brutes!"
(which appears in the film as "Drop the bomb. Exterminate them All!") and his final lines "The horror! The horror!"
are taken from Conrad's novella.
Coppola argues that many episodes in the film—the spear and arrow attack on the boat, for example—respect the
spirit of the novella and in particular its critique of the concepts of civilization and progress. Other episodes adapted
by Coppola, the Playboy bunnies (Sirens) exit, the lost souls, "taking me home" attempting to reach the boat and
Kurtz' tribe of (white-faced) natives parting the canoes (gates of Hell) for Willard, (with Chef and Lance) to enter the
camp are likened to Virgil and "The Inferno" (Divine Comedy) by Dante. While Coppola replaced European
colonialism with American interventionism, the message of Conrad's book is still clear.
Coppola's interpretation of the iconic Kurtz character is often speculated to have been modeled after Tony Poe, a
highly-decorated Vietnam-era Paramilitary Officer from the CIA's Special Activities Division.
Poe's actions in
''Apocalypse Now''
Vietnam and in the 'Secret War' in neighbouring Laos, in particular his highly unorthodox and often savage methods
of waging war show many similarities to those of the fictional Kurtz; for example, Poe was known to drop severed
heads into enemy-controlled villages as a form of psychological warfare and use human ears to record the number of
enemies his indigenous troops had killed. He would send these ears back to his superiors as proof of the efficacy of
his operations deep inside Laos.

Coppola, however, denies that Poe was a primary influence and instead says
the character was loosely based on Special Forces Colonel Robert Rheault, whose 1969 arrest over the murder of a
suspected double agent Thai Khac Chuyen in Nha Trang generated substantial contemporary news coverage.
Usage of Poetry of T.S. Eliot
In the film, shortly before his death, Colonel Kurtz recites most of T.S. Eliot's poem The Hollow Men. Not only is
Kurtz in the novel characterized as "hollow to the core", the poem is preceded in printed editions by the epigraph
"Mistah Kurtz - he dead", a quotation from Conrad's Heart of Darkness which was, itself, the inspiration for the film.
In addition, two books seen opened on Kurtz' desk in the film are From Ritual to Romance by Jessie Weston and The
Golden Bough by Sir James Frazer, the two books that Eliot cited as the chief sources and inspiration for his poem
The Waste Land.
While working as an assistant for Francis Ford Coppola on The Rain People, George Lucas and Steven Spielberg
encouraged their friend and filmmaker John Milius to write a Vietnam War film.
Milius came up with the idea for
adapting the plot of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness to the Vietnam War setting.
He had no desire to direct the
film and felt that George Lucas was the right person for the job. However, filmmaker Carroll Ballard claims that
Apocalypse Now was his idea in 1967 before Milius had written his screenplay. Ballard had a deal with producer Joel
Landon and they tried to get the rights to Conrad's book but were unsuccessful. Lucas acquired the rights but failed
to tell Ballard and Landon.
Coppola gave Milius $15,000 to write the screenplay with the promise of an additional $10,000 if it got made.
Milius claims that he wrote the screenplay in 1969
and it was originally called The Psychedelic Soldier.
wanted to use Conrad's novel as "a sort of allegory. It would have been too simple to have followed the book
He based the character of Willard and some of Kurtz on a friend of his, Fred Rexer, who had
experienced, first-hand, the scene related by Marlon Brando's character where the arms of villagers are hacked off by
the Viet Cong. At one point, Coppola told Milius, "write every scene you ever wanted to go into that movie",
he wrote ten drafts, amounting to over a thousand pages.
Milius changed the film's title to Apocalypse Now after
being inspired by a button badge popular with hippies during the 1960s that said "Nirvana Now". He was also
influenced by an article written by Michael Herr entitled, "The Battle for Khe Sanh", which referred to drugs, rock 'n'
roll, and people calling airstrikes down on themselves.
Coppola was drawn to Milius' script, which he described as "a comedy and a terrifying psychological horror
George Lucas was originally interested in directing and planned to shoot it after making THX 1138 with
principal photography to start in 1971. He planned to shoot the film in the rice fields between Stockton and
Sacramento, California.
His friend and producer Gary Kurtz traveled to the Philippines, scouting suitable
locations. They intended to shoot the film on a $2 million budget, documentary style, using 16 mm cameras, and real
However, Lucas became involved with American Graffiti and this delayed the production of Apocalypse
In the spring of 1974, Coppola discussed with friends and co-producers Fred Roos and Gary Frederickson
the idea of producing the film.
''Apocalypse Now''
While making The Godfather Part II, Coppola asked Lucas and then Milius to direct Apocalypse Now, but both men
were involved with other projects,
in Lucas' case, he got the go-ahead to make his pet project, Star Wars, and
declined the offer to direct Apocalypse Now.
Coppola was determined to make the film and pressed ahead
himself. He envisioned the film as a definitive statement on the nature of modern war, the difference between good
and evil, and the impact of American society on the rest of the world. The director said that he wanted to take the
audience "through an unprecedented experience of war and have them react as much as those who had gone through
the war".
In 1975, while promoting The Godfather Part II in Australia, Coppola and his producers scouted possible locations
for Apocalypse Now in Cairns in northern Queensland, that had jungle resembling Vietnam.
He decided to make
his film in the Philippines for its access to American equipment and cheap labor. Production coordinator Fred Roos
had already made two low-budget films there for Monte Hellman and had friends and contacts in the country.
Coppola spent the last few months of 1975 revising Milius' script and negotiating with United Artists to secure
financing for the production. According to Frederickson, the budget was estimated between $12–14 million.
Coppola's American Zoetrope assembled $8 million from distributors outside the United States and $7.5 million
from United Artists who assumed that the film would star Marlon Brando, Steve McQueen, and Gene Hackman.
Frederickson went to the Philippines and had dinner with President Ferdinand Marcos to formalize support for the
production and to allow them to use some of the country's military equipment.
Marlon Brando as Colonel Kurtz.
Steve McQueen was Coppola's first choice to play Willard but the
actor did not accept because he did not want to leave America for 17
Al Pacino was also offered the role but he too did not want
to be away for that long period of time and was afraid of falling ill in
the jungle as he had done in the Dominican Republic during the
shooting of The Godfather Part II.
Jack Nicholson, Robert Redford,
and James Caan were approached to play either Kurtz or Willard.
Coppola and Roos had been impressed by Martin Sheen's screen test
for Michael in The Godfather and he became their top choice to play
Willard, but the actor had already accepted another project and Harvey
Keitel was cast in the role based on his work in Martin Scorsese's
Mean Streets.
By early 1976, Coppola had persuaded Marlon
Brando to play Kurtz for a then-unheard of fee - $3.5 million for a
month's work on location in September 1976. Dennis Hopper was cast as a kind of Green Beret sidekick for Kurtz
and when Coppola heard him talking nonstop on location, he remembered putting "the cameras and the Montagnard
shirt on him, and we shot the scene where he greets them on the boat".
Principal photography
On March 1, 1976, Coppola and his family flew to Manila and rented a large house there for the five-month
Sound and photographic equipment had been coming in from California on a regular basis since late 1975.
Principal photography began three weeks later. Within a few days, Coppola was not happy with Harvey Keitel's take
on Willard, saying that the actor "found it difficult to play him a passive onlooker".
After viewing early footage,
the director took a plane back to Los Angeles and replaced Keitel with Martin Sheen.
Typhoon Olga wrecked the sets at Iba and on May 26, 1976, production was closed down.
Dean Tavoularis
remembers that it "started raining harder and harder until finally it was literally white outside, and all the trees were
bent at forty-five degrees".
One part of the crew was stranded in a hotel and the others were in small houses that
were immobilized by the storm. The Playboy Playmate set had been destroyed, ruining a month's shooting that had
''Apocalypse Now''
been scheduled. Most of the cast and crew went back to the United States for six to eight weeks. Tavoularis and his
team stayed on to scout new locations and rebuild the Playmate set in a different place. Also, the production had
bodyguards watching constantly at night and one day the entire payroll was stolen. According to Coppola's wife,
Eleanor, the film was six weeks behind schedule and $2 million over budget.
Coppola flew back to the U.S. in June 1976. He read a book about Genghis Khan to get a better handle on the
character of Kurtz.
After filming commenced, Marlon Brando arrived in Manila very overweight and began
working with Coppola to rewrite the ending.
The director downplayed Brando's weight by dressing him in black,
photographing only his face, and having another, taller actor double for him in an attempt to portray Kurtz as an
almost mythical character.
In the days after Christmas 1976, Coppola viewed a rough assembly of the footage he had to date but still needed to
improvise an ending. He returned to the Philippines in early 1977 and resumed filming.
On March 5, 1977, Sheen
had a heart attack and struggled for a quarter of a mile to reach help.
He was back on the set on April 19. A major
sequence in a French plantation cost hundreds of thousands of dollars but was cut from the final film. Rumors began
to circulate that Apocalypse Now had several endings but Richard Beggs, who worked on the sound elements, said,
"There were never five endings, but just the one, even if there were differently edited versions".
These rumors
came from Coppola departing frequently from the original screenplay. Coppola admitted that he had no ending
because Brando was too fat to play the scenes as written in the original script. With the help of Dennis Jakob,
Coppola decided that the ending could be "the classic myth of the murderer who gets up the river, kills the king, and
then himself becomes the king — it's the Fisher King, from The Golden Bough".
A water buffalo was slaughtered with a machete for the climactic scene. The scene was inspired by a ritual
performed by a local Ifugao tribe which Coppola had witnessed along with his wife (who filmed the ritual later
shown in the documentary Hearts of Darkness) and film crew. Although this was an American production subject to
American animal cruelty laws, scenes like this filmed in the Philippines were not policed or monitored, and the
American Humane Association gave the film an "unacceptable" rating.
Principal photography ended on May 21,
1977 and everyone headed home.
In the summer of 1977, Coppola told Walter Murch that he had four months to assemble the sound. Murch realized
that the script had been narrated but Coppola abandoned the idea during filming.
Murch thought that there was a
way to assemble the film without narration but it would take ten months and decided to give it another try.
He put
it back in, recording it all himself. By September, Coppola told his wife that he felt "there is only about a 20%
chance [I] can pull the film off".
He convinced United Artists executives to delay the premiere from May to
October 1978. Author Michael Herr received a call from Zoetrope in January 1978 and was asked to work on the
film's narration based on his well-received book about Vietnam, Dispatches.
Herr said that the narration already
written was "totally useless" and spent a year writing various narrations with Coppola giving him very definite
Murch had problems trying to make a quadraphonic soundtrack for Apocalypse Now because sound libraries were
devoid of any stereo recordings of any weapons and, specifically, weapons used in Vietnam.
In addition, the
sound material brought back from the Philippines was inadequate because the small location crew lacked time and
resources sufficient to record jungle sounds and ambient noises. Murch and his crew had to fabricate the mood of the
jungle on the soundtrack. Apocalypse Now would feature innovative sound technique for movies as Murch insisted
on recording the most up-to-date gunfire and employed a quintaphonic soundtrack with three channels of sound
behind the movie screen and two channels of sound from behind the audience.
In May 1978, Coppola decided that it would not be possible to finish the film for a December release and postponed
the opening until spring of 1979. He screened a "work in progress" for 900 people in April 1979 that was not
That same year, he was invited to screen Apocalypse Now at the Cannes Film Festival.
''Apocalypse Now''
Artists were not keen on showing an unfinished version in front of so many members of the press but Coppola
remembered that The Conversation won the Palme d'Or and agreed to show Apocalypse Now at the festival less than
a month before it began. The week prior to Cannes, Coppola arranged three sneak previews that each featured their
own slightly different versions. He allowed critics to attend the screenings and believed that they would honor the
embargo placed on reviews. On May 14, Rona Barrett reviewed the film on television and called it "a disappointing
At Cannes, Zoetrope technicians worked during the night before the screening to install additional
speakers on the theater walls in order to achieve Murch's quintaphonic soundtrack.
On August 15, 1979
Apocalypse Now was released in the U.S. in 15 theaters equipped to play the first Dolby Stereo 70 mm film with
surround sound.
Other versions
At the time of its release, many rumors surrounded the ending of Apocalypse Now. Coppola stated an ending was
written in haste in which Willard and Kurtz joined forces and repelled the air strike on the compound; however,
Coppola never fully agreed with the two going out in apocalyptic intensity, preferring to end the film in a more
encouraging manner.
When Coppola originally organized the ending of the movie, he had two choices. One involved Willard leading
Lance by the hand as everyone in Kurtz's base throws down their weapons, and ends with images of Willard's boat
pulling away from Kurtz's compound superimposed over the face of a stone idol which then fades into black.
Another option showed an air strike being called and the base being blown to bits in a spectacular display,
consequently killing everyone left at the base.
The original 1979 70 mm exclusive theatrical release ended with Willard's boat, the stone statue, then fade to black
with no credits, save for '"Copyright 1979 Omni Zoetrope"' right after the film ends. This mirrors the lack of any
opening titles and supposedly stems from Coppola's original intention to "tour" the film as one would a play: the
credits would have appeared on printed programs provided before the screening began.
For general release in
35mm, Coppola elected to show the credits superimposed over shots of Kurtz's base exploding.
Rental prints
circulated with this ending, and can be found in the hands of a few collectors. However, when Coppola heard that
audiences interpreted this as an air strike called by Willard, Coppola pulled the film from its 35 mm run, and put
credits on a black screen. In the DVD commentary, Coppola explains that the images of explosions had not been
intended to be part of the story; they were intended to be seen as completely separate from the film. He had added
them to the credits because he had captured the footage during the demolition of the sets (required by the Philippine
government), which was filmed with multiple cameras fitted with different film stocks and lenses to capture the
explosions at different speeds.
In the Redux Version, Willard silences the radio as the PBR is pulling away from Kurtz's compound. It is unclear
whether Willard then points the boat upstream or downstream. Just before fading to black, Kurtz's last words "the
horror" are echoed and there is a brief glimpse of helicopters and napalm that harkens back to the beginning of the
''Apocalypse Now''
Extended bootleg version
There is a longer 289 minute version which has never been officially released but circulates as a video bootleg,
containing extra material not included in either the original theatrical release or the "redux" version.
Apocalypse Now Redux
In 2001, Coppola released Apocalypse Now Redux in cinemas and subsequently on DVD. This is an extended
version that restores 49 minutes of scenes cut from the original film. Coppola has continued to circulate the original
version as well: the two versions are packaged together in the Complete Dossier DVD, released on August 15, 2006
and in the Blu-ray edition released on October 19, 2010.
The longest section of added footage in the Redux version is an anticolonialism chapter involving the de Marais
family's rubber plantation, a holdover from the colonization of French Indochina, featuring Coppola's two sons
Giancarlo and Roman as children of the family. These scenes were removed from the 1979 cut, which premiered at
Cannes. In behind-the-scenes footage in Hearts of Darkness, Coppola expresses his anger, on the set, at the technical
aspects of the shot scenes, the result of tight allocation of resources. At the time of the Redux version, it was possible
to digitally enhance the footage to accomplish Coppola's vision. In the scenes, the French family patriarchs argue
about the positive side of colonialism in Indochina and denounce the betrayal of the military men in the First
Indochina War. Hubert de Marais argues that French politicians sacrificed entire battalions at Điện Biên Phủ, and
tells Willard that the US created the Viet Cong (as the Viet Minh), to fend off Japanese invaders.
Other added material includes extra combat footage before Willard meets Kilgore, a humorous scene in which
Willard's team steals Kilgore's surfboard (which sheds some light on the hunt for the mangoes), a follow-up scene to
the dance of the Playboy playmates, in which Willard's team finds the playmates awaiting evacuation after their
helicopter has run out of fuel, and a scene of Kurtz reading from a Time magazine article about the war, surrounded
by Cambodian children.
There is a deleted scene entitled "Monkey Sampan" which was used as a way to represent the whole movie in a three
minute scene. The scene shows Willard and the PBR crew suspiciously eyeing an approaching Sampan juxtaposed to
Montagnard villagers joyfully singing "Light My Fire" by The Doors. As the Sampan gets closer Willard realizes
there are monkeys on it and no helmsman. Finally just as the two boats pass, the wind turns the sail and exposes a
naked dead civilian tied to the sail boom. His body is mutilated and looks as though the man was whipped. The
singing stops. It is assumed the man was tortured by the Viet Cong. As they pass on by, Chief notes out loud "That's
comin' from where we're going, Captain." The boat then slowly passes the giant tail of a shot down B-52 bomber.
The scene is ominous and the noise of engines way up in the sky is heard. Coppola said that he made up for cutting
this scene by having the PBR pass under an airplane tail in the final cut.
Cannes screening
A three-hour version of Apocalypse Now was screened as a "work in progress" at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival and
met with prolonged applause.
At the subsequent press conference, Coppola criticized the media for attacking him
and the production during their problems filming in the Philippines and uttered the famous quotes, "We had access to
too much money, too much equipment, and little by little we went insane", and "My film is not about Vietnam, it is
The filmmaker upset newspaper critic Rex Reed who reportedly stormed out of the conference.
Apocalypse Now won the Palme d'Or for best film along with Volker Schlöndorff's The Tin Drum - a decision that
was reportedly greeted with "some boos and jeers from the audience".
''Apocalypse Now''
Box office
Apocalypse Now performed well at the box office when it opened in August 1979.
The film initially opened in
one theater in New York City, Toronto, and Hollywood, grossing USD $322,489 in the first five days. It ran
exclusively in these three locations for four weeks before opening in an additional 12 theaters on October 3, 1979
and then several hundred the following week.
The film grossed over $78 million domestically with a worldwide
total of approximately $150 million.
The film was re-released on August 28, 1987 in six cities to capitalize on the success of Platoon, Full Metal Jacket
and other Vietnam War movies.
New 70mm prints were shown in Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose, Seattle,
St. Louis, and Cincinnati — cities where the film did financially well in 1979. The film was given the same kind of
release as the exclusive engagement in 1979 with no logo or credits and audiences were given a printed program.
Critical response
On the review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes, Apocalypse Now has a 98% "Certified Fresh" rating. The
Consensus is "Francis Ford Coppola's haunting, hallucinatory Vietnam war epic is cinema at its most audacious and
visionary". In his original review, Roger Ebert wrote, "Apocalypse Now achieves greatness not by analyzing our
'experience in Vietnam', but by re-creating, in characters and images, something of that experience".
In his review
for the Los Angeles Times, Charles Champlin wrote, "as a noble use of the medium and as a tireless expression of
national anguish, it towers over everything that has been attempted by an American filmmaker in a very long
Ebert added Coppola's film to his list of Great Movies, stating: "Apocalypse Now is the best Vietnam film, one of the
greatest of all films, because it pushes beyond the others, into the dark places of the soul. It is not about war so much
as about how war reveals truths we would be happy never to discover".
Other reviews were less positive, Frank Rich in Time said "while much of the footage is breathtaking, Apocalypse
Now is emotionally obtuse and intellectually empty".
The May 1, 2010 cover of the Economist
newspaper, illustrating the 2010
European sovereign debt crisis with
imagery from the movie, attests to the
film's pervasive cultural impact.
Today, the film is widely regarded as a masterpiece of the New Hollywood
era. It is on the American Film Institute's 100 Years... 100 Movies list at
number 28, but it dropped two spots to number 30 on their 10th anniversary
list. Kilgore's quote "I love the smell of napalm in the morning" (written by
Milius) was number 12 on the AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes list.
In 2002, Sight and Sound magazine polled several critics to name the best
film of the last 25 years and Apocalypse Now was named number one. It was
also listed as the second best war film by viewers on Channel 4's 100
Greatest War Films, and ranked number 1 on Channel 4's 50 Films To See
Before You Die. In a 2004 poll of UK film fans, Blockbuster listed Kilgore's
eulogy to napalm as the best movie speech.
The helicopter attack to Ride
of the Valkyries was chosen as the most memorable film scene ever by the
Empire magazine.
In 2009, the London Film Critics' Circle voted Apocalypse Now the best
movie of the last 30 years.
''Apocalypse Now''
Awards and honors
• Academy Award for Best Cinematography (Vittorio Storaro)
• Academy Award for Best Sound (Walter Murch, Mark Berger, Richard Beggs, Nathan Boxer)
• Cannes Film Festival: Palme d'Or
• Golden Globe Award for Best Director (Francis Ford Coppola)
• Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor (Robert Duvall)
• Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score (Carmine Coppola and Francis Ford Coppola)
• National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor (Frederic Forrest)
• David di Donatello Award for Best Director, Foreign Film (Migliore Regista Straniero) (Francis Ford Coppola)
• American Movie Award for Best Supporting Actor (Robert Duvall)
• BAFTA Award for Best Direction (Francis Ford Coppola)
• BAFTA Award for Best Supporting Actor (Robert Duvall)
In 2000, Apocalypse Now was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of
Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
• Academy Award for Best Picture (Francis Ford Coppola, Fred Roos, Gray Frederickson and Tom Sternberg)
• Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor  (Robert Duvall)
• Academy Award for Best Art Direction — Set Decoration (Angelo P. Graham, George R. Nelson and Dean
• Academy Award for Directing (Francis Ford Coppola)
• Academy Award for Film Editing (Lisa Fruchtman, Gerald B. Greenberg, Richard Marks and Walter Murch)
• Academy Award for Best Writing, Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium (Francis Ford Coppola
and John Milius)
• DGA Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures (Francis Ford Coppola)
• WGA Award for Best Drama Written Directly for the Screen (John Milius and Francis Ford Coppola)
• Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama (Francis Ford Coppola, Fred Roos, Gray Frederickson and
Tom Sternberg)
• Grammy Award for Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture (Carmine Coppola and Francis Ford
• César Award for Best Foreign Film (Meilleur film étranger) (Francis Ford Coppola)
• American Movie Award for Best Actor (Martin Sheen)
• BAFTA Award for Best Film Music (Carmine Coppola and Francis Ford Coppola)
• BAFTA Award for Best Actor (Martin Sheen)
American Film Institute recognition
• 1998 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies #28
• 2005 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes:
• "I love the smell of napalm in the morning," #12
• 2007 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) #30
Star Marlon Brando was also named # 4 of the Top 25 American male screen legends.
''Apocalypse Now''
Home video release aspect ratio issues
The first home video releases of Apocalypse Now were pan-and-scan versions of the original 35 mm Technovision
anamorphic 2.35:1 print, and the closing credits, white on black background, were presented in compressed 1.33:1
full-frame format to allow all credit information to be seen on standard televisions. The first letterboxed appearance
(on laserdisc on December 29, 1991) cropped the film to a 2:1 aspect ratio (conforming to the Univisium spec
created by cinematographer Vittorio Storaro), featuring a small degree of pan-and-scan processing — notably in the
opening shots in Willard's hotel room, featuring a composite montage — at the insistence of Coppola and Storaro.
The end credits, from a videotape source rather than a film print, were still crushed for 1.33:1 and zoomed to fit the
anamorphic video frame. All DVD releases have maintained this aspect ratio in anamorphic widescreen, but present
the film without the end credits, which were treated as a separate feature. As a DVD extra, the footage of the
explosion of the Kurtz compound was featured without text credits but included a commentary by director Coppola
explaining the various endings based on how the film was screened. On the cover of the Redux DVD, Willard is
erroneously listed as "Lieutenant Willard". The Blu-ray release of Apocalypse Now restores the film to its original
2.35:1 aspect ratio, making it the first home video release to display the film in its true aspect ratio.
Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse (American Zoetrope/Cineplex-Odeon Films) (1991) Directed by
Eleanor Coppola, George Hickenlooper & Fax Bahr
Apocalypse Now - The Complete Dossier DVD (Paramount Home Entertainment) (2006) Disc 2 Extras include:
The Post Production of Apocalypse Now: Documentary (four Featurettes covering the editing, music and sound of
the film through Coppola and his team)
• A Million Feet of Film: The Editing of Apocalypse Now (18mins)
• The Music of Apocalypse Now (15mins)
• Heard Any Good Movies Lately? The Sound Design of Apocalypse Now (15mins)
• The Final Mix (3mins)
[1] Peary, Gerald. "Francis Ford Coppola, Interview with Gerald Peary" (http:// www.geraldpeary.com/ interviews/ abc/ coppola.html).
GeraldPeary.com. . Retrieved 2007-03-14.
[2] French, Karl (1998) Apocalypse Now, Bloomsbury, London. ISBN 978-0747538042
[3] Col David Hackworth obituary (http:/ / www.independent. co.uk/ news/ obituaries/ col-david-hackworth-490250.html) The Independent,
Weds, 11 May 2005
[4] Cowie 2001, p. 19.
[5] Murfin, Ross C (ed.) (1989): Joseph Conrad: Heart of Darkness. A Case Study in Contemporary Criticism. Boston: St. Martin's Press, pp.
[6] "Heart of Darkness & Apocalypse Now: A comparative analysis of novella and film" (http:// www.cyberpat.com/ essays/ coppola. html).
Cyberpat.com. . Retrieved 2010-03-06.
[7] Leary, William L. "Death of a Legend". Air America Archive. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
[8] Warner, Roger. Shooting at the Moon.
[9] Ehrlich, Richard S. (2003-07-08). "CIA operative stood out in 'secret war' in Laos". Bangkok Post. http:/ / web. archive.org/web/
20090806040904/http:/ / geocities. com/ asia_correspondent/ laos0307ciaposhepnybp. html. Retrieved on 10 June 2007.
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Retrieved 2009-05-02.
[11] Cowie 2001, p. 2.
[12] Cowie 1990, p. 120.
[13] Cowie 2001, p. 5.
[14] Cowie 2001, p. 3.
[15] Cowie 2001, p. 7.
[16] Cowie 1990, p. 121.
[17] Cowie 2001, p. 6.
''Apocalypse Now''
[18] Cowie 2001, p. 12.
[19] Cowie 2001, p. 13.
[20] Cowie 2001, p. 16.
[21] Cowie 1990, p. 122.
[22] Cowie 2001, p. 18.
[23] Cowie 1990, p. 123.
[24] Cowie 1990, p. 124.
[25] Cowie 1990, p. 125.
[26] Burt, Jonathan (2002). Animals In Film: Apocalypse Now (http:// books. google.com/ books?id=7z2dYClZlKMC& pg=PA153&
lpg=PA153& dq=American+Humane+ Association+ apocalypse+ now& source=bl& ots=CRc1BHmV-_&
sig=c2w7zWFarZH3jjPxwFxl1Egb_IY& hl=en&ei=Ne0oSoueMY7Ktge72sG7CA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2).
Reaktion Books. ISBN 9781861891310. . Retrieved 2007-11-10.
[27] Cowie 1990, p. 126.
[28] Cowie 1990, pp. 126-127.
[29] Cowie 1990, p. 127.
[30] Cowie 1990, p. 128.
[31] Cowie 1990, p. 129.
[32] Cowie 1990, p. 132.
[33] Coates, Gordon (October 17, 2008). "Coppola's slow boat on the Nung" (http:// www.guardian. co.uk/ film/2008/ oct/ 17/ 1). The
Guardian (London). . Retrieved 2008-10-17.
[34] Cowie 1990, p. 130.
[35] "Sweeping Cannes" (http:// www.time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,946279,00. html). Time. June 4, 1979. . Retrieved 2008-11-22.
[36] Cowie 1990, p. 131.
[37] Harmetz, Aljean (August 20, 1987). "Apocalypse Now to Be Re-released" (http:// query. nytimes.com/ gst/ fullpage.
html?res=9B0DE2D61F3BF933A1575BC0A961948260& scp=4& sq="Apocalypse+ Now"& st=nyt). New York Times. . Retrieved
[38] Ebert, Roger (June 1, 1979). "Apocalypse Now" (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs.dll/ article?AID=/19790601/ REVIEWS/
41214002/1023). Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved 008-11-24.
[39] Ebert, Roger (November 28, 1999). "Great Movies: Apocalypse Now" (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/
19991128/ REVIEWS08/911280301/ 1023). Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved 2008-11-24.
[40] Frank Rich (1979-08-27). "Cinema: The Making of a Quagmire by Frank Rich" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/
0,9171,920572,00. html). Time. . Retrieved 2010-03-06.
[41] 'Napalm' speech tops movie poll (http:// news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/film/ 3362603. stm), 2 January 2004, BBC News. Retrieved
18 February 2008.
[42] "War epic Apocalypse Now tops UK film critics poll" (http:/ /news. bbc.co. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/8388124. stm). BBC. December 1,
2009. . Retrieved 2009-12-02.
[43] "Festival de Cannes: Apocalypse Now" (http:/ / www. festival-cannes.com/ en/ archives/ ficheFilm/id/ 1897/ year/ 1979.html).
festival-cannes.com. . Retrieved 2009-05-23.
• Adair, Gilbert (1981) Vietnam on Film: From The Green Berets to Apocalypse Now. Proteus. ISBN 09-06071-860
• Biskind, Peter (1999) Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How the Sex, Drugs and Rock-'n'-Roll Generation Saved
Hollywood. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 06-84857-081
• Coppola, Eleanor (1979) Notes on the Making of Apocalypse Now. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-87910-150-4
• Cowie, Peter (1990) Coppola. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306805987
• Cowie, Peter (2001) "The Apocalypse Now Book. New York: Da Capo Press.ISBN 10-03068-104-68
• Fraser, George MacDonald (1988) The Hollywood History of the World: from One Million Years B.C. to
Apocalypse Now. Kobal Collection /Beech Tree Books. ISBN 06-88075-207
• French, Karl (1999) Karl French on Apocalypse Now: A Bloomsbury Movie Guide. Bloomsbury. ISBN
• Milius, John & Coppola, Francis Ford (2001) Apocalypse Now Redux: An Original Screenplay. Talk Miramax
Books/Hyperion. ISBN 07-86887-451
• Tosi, Umberto & Glaser, Milton. (1979) Apocalypse Now - Program distributed in connection with the opening of
the film. United Artists
''Apocalypse Now''
External links
• Apocalypse Now (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0078788/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Apocalypse Now (http:/ / www. allmovie. com/ work/2675) at Allmovie
• Apocalypse Now (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=apocalypsenow. htm) at Box Office Mojo
• Apocalypse Now (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ apocalypse_now/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
''Hanover Street (film)''
Hanover Street (film)
Hanover Street
film poster by John Alvin
Directed by Peter Hyams
Produced by Paul Lazarus III
Written by Peter Hyams
Starring Harrison Ford
Christopher Plummer
Lesley-Anne Down
Patsy Kensit
Music by John Barry
Cinematography David Watkin
Editing by James Mitchell
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date(s) 26 September 1979
Running time 109 mins
Country  United States
 United Kingdom
Language English
Hanover Street is a 1979 Anglo-American war film written and directed by Peter Hyams, starring Harrison Ford and
Lesley-Anne Down.
''Hanover Street (film)''
Set in London during the Second World War, Lieutenant David Halloran (Harrison Ford) an American bomber pilot
serving with the Eighth Air Force in the UK and Margaret Sellinger (Lesley-Anne Down) a British nurse meet in
Hanover Street in a chance encounter during an air raid
They meet again two weeks later in a secret assignation in Hanover Street. Although she is married, Sellinger and
Halloran rapidly fall in love. She tries to resist, but is drawn to the charismatic American. By contrast her husband
Paul Sellinger (Christopher Plummer) is, by his own description, suave, pleasant, but fairly dull. A former teacher,
he is now a trusted member of British intelligence.
Halloran is subsequently sent on an undercover mission in Nazi-occupied France to deliver a British agent
(Lieutenant Wells). At the last moment, Sellinger takes the place of the agent, and himself joins the mission. His
reasons are initially unclear, but he slowly reveals that he wants to prove himself.
Flying over France the plane is hit, killing the rest of the crew. After being shot down in France, Halloran initially
plans to try and head for the coast, but realizing that Sellinger is not capable of surviving alone in enemy country (he
cannot find the North, and badly injures his ankle after a matter of moments) he agrees to accompany him.
Sellinger slowly reveals his mission. He is to proceed to the German headquarters in Lyon and, posing as an SS
officer, photograph an important document that lists the German double-agents in British intelligence. Halloran is
immediately horrified at the appalling risk, but realizing there is little else to be done, agrees to co-operate with
Making contact with the local French resistance, they manage to get hold of a captured German vehicle and a spare
uniform for Halloran. They proceed to Lyon, and deposit a document in the safe, allowing them to case the safe in
which it is kept.
Returning the same evening, Sellinger initially starts to photograph the documents, but Halloran grabs the documents
from the safe and gives them to Sellinger. As they are escaping, a party of real SS troops raise the alarm. They
manage to escape after a lengthy car chase, and make it back to the same farm where they had received assistance.
However, they are betrayed by a collaborator and are forced to flee again, pursued by hundreds of Nazi troops.
It has slowly dawned on Halloran that Sellinger is his lover's husband. He makes no mention of it to Sellinger (who
is clearly devoted to his wife Margaret), as both men must work together in order to survive. They manage to reach a
bridge, on the opposite bank of which lies safety in the form of the resistance. As the bridge comes under heavy fire
it begins to collapse, leaving Sellinger, who has been shot and badly wounded, hanging over a deep plunge.
Instead of leaving him to die, as Sellinger tells him to, Halloran reaches down and grabs hold of the Englishman.
Sellinger looking up, asks him to visit his wife and tell her he loves her and his daughter. Refusing to let him die,
Halloran drags him up, and carries him to safety. Jokingly, Sellinger looks up and says he has got a "wet coat, again"
a reference to his pleasing but unheroic personality, contrasted with Halloran's dashing persona. The American
shakes his head, saying "this time you got the girl". Sellinger then passes out, leaving Halloran fearing he will die of
blood loss.
In London, Sellinger's wife waits anxiously for news. She has unsuccessfully tried to find out what has happened to
her husband, both from the British and American authorities, but has worked out that Halloran and Sellinger are
together. The phone rings, and she bursts into tears. They are back home, and her husband is alive.
Going to visit him in the hospital in Hanover Street, she meets Lt. Halloran for the last time. The embrace and kiss,
and he tells her that he loves her "enough to let her go", she goes in to see her husband, while he goes out into
Hanover Street, the same scene where the story had begun.
''Hanover Street (film)''
As appearing in screen credits (main roles identified)
Actor Role
Harrison Ford Lt. David Halloran
Lesley-Anne Down Margaret Sellinger
Christopher Plummer Paul Sellinger
Alec McCowen Major Trumbo Marty Lynch
Michael Sacks 2nd Lt. Martin Hyer
Patsy Kensit Sarah Sellinger
Max Wall Harry Pike
Shane Rimmer Col. Ronald Bart
Kris Kristofferson, at the time a bigger box-office draw than Harrison Ford, was cast as the male lead in the film, but
backed out after one week of filming and subsequently announced his retirement from acting. Kristofferson had been
intrigued by the aerial sequences he had read in the script, as he had served as a helicopter pilot with the 82nd
Airborne Division of the US Army for five years himself. Still, the failure of Heaven's Gate left him with no
confidence in his own acting abilities, and considered it best to back out.
Lesley-Anne Down also replaced Sarah
Miles, who dropped out.
The aerial sequences were mostly filmed at the by then-disused Bovingdon airfield using five North American B-25s
Mitchell bombers flown over to England from USA specially for the filming.
In the film, Down emerges hurriedly from a Piccadilly line tube station called "Hanover Street". In reality there was
no such station and, since Hanover Street links upper Regent Street and Brook Street, this would not, in any case,
match the alignment of the Piccadilly line – unless there were a fictitious spur similar to that which ran from
Holborn to Aldwych from 1907 to 1994.
Movie serial # Nickname Aircraft type Actual serial # Registration # Disposition
151632 Gorgeous George Ann / Thar She Blows B-25J-30NC 44-30925 N9494Z Brussels Air Museum
151645 Marvellous Miriam B-25J-20NC 44-29366 N9115Z RAF Museum Hendon
151790 Amazing Andrea B-25J-30NC 44-86701 N7681C Destroyed – Hangar Fire
151863 Big Bad Bonnie B-25J-30NC 44-86843 N9455Z Grissom Air Museum
151724 Brenda’s Boys B-25J-20NC 44-29121 N86427 Museo del Aire, Madrid, Spain
''Hanover Street (film)''
The film was a critical and commercial failure on its release, but has developed a following amongst aviation
enthusiats due to the flying sequences.
Patsy Kensit was nominated for, but did not win, the Best Juvenile Actress in a Motion Picture award for 1980 from
Young Artists Awards.
[1] "Hanover Street (1979) - full credits." (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0079268/fullcredits) IMdB. Retrieved: 7 June 2008.
[2] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0079268/ trivia
[3] Young Artists Awards (http:/ / www. youngartistawards. org/pastnoms1. htm)
• Dolan, Edward F. Jr. Hollywood Goes to War. London: Bison Books, 1985. ISBN 0-86124-229-7.
• Harwick, Jack and Ed Schnepf. "A Buff's Guide to Aviation Movies". Air Progress Aviation, Volume 7, No. 1,
Spring 1983.
• Orriss, Bruce. When Hollywood Ruled the Skies: The Aviation Film Classics of World War II. Hawthorne,
California: Aero Associates Inc., 1984. ISBN 0-9613088-0-X.
External links
• Hanover Street, Mayfair London (http:// www.mayfair-london.co.uk/ location. php?lid=47)
• Hanover Street (film) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0079268/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Hanover Street (film) (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ hanover_street/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• SoundtrackCollector page (http:/ / www. soundtrackcollector.com/ catalog/ soundtrackdetail.
• A modern-day tour of the film's title setting (http:// www.londontown.com/ LondonStreets/ hanover_street_c80.
''The Frisco Kid''
The Frisco Kid
The Frisco Kid
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Robert Aldrich
Produced by Mace Neufeld
Written by Michael Elias
Frank Shaw
Starring Gene Wilder
Harrison Ford
Ramon Bieri
Val Bisoglio
George DiCenzo
Music by Frank De Vol
Cinematography Robert B. Hauser
Editing by Jack Horger
Irving Rosenblum
Maury Winetrobe
Distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures
Release date(s) July 13, 1979
Running time 114 min.
Country United States
Language English
Gross revenue $9,346,177 (USA)
The Frisco Kid is a 1979 movie directed by Robert Aldrich. The movie is a Western comedy featuring Gene Wilder
as Avram Belinski, a Polish rabbi who is traveling to San Francisco, and Harrison Ford as a bank robber who
befriends him.
''The Frisco Kid''
Rabbi Avram Belinski arrives in Philadelphia from Poland en route to San Francisco where he will be a
congregation's new rabbi. He has with him a Torah scroll for the San Francisco synagogue. Avram, an innocent,
trusting and inexperienced traveler, falls in with three con men, the brothers Matt and Darryl Diggs and their partner
Mr. Jones, who trick him into helping pay for a wagon and supplies to go west, then leave him and most of his
belongings scattered along a deserted road.
Avram is determined to make it to San Francisco. He fends for himself on foot for a while, spends a little time with
some Pennsylvania Dutch (whom he takes for Jews at first), and manages to find work on the railroad. While trying
to spear fish in a stream (to no avail), he is befriended and fed by a stranger on horseback named Tommy Lillard
(Ford). They travel together, make it through the snowy mountains, experience Native American customs and
hospitality, and learn a little about each other's culture.
Unfortunately, it turns out Tommy is a bank robber by profession, not only problematic for Avram from a moral
point of view, but problematic for Tommy when he robs a bank on a Friday, then finds that Avram (an orthodox
Jew) does not ride on the Sabbath—even with a posse on his tail. They remain together somehow, meet and defeat
the villains who originally robbed and beat Avram in Philadelphia, and arrive in San Francisco. Avram then must
deal with the changes his journey has wrought in his faith and his purpose in life.
• Gene Wilder - Avram Belinski
• Harrison Ford - Tommy Lillard
• Ramon Bieri - Mr. Jones
• Val Bisoglio - Chief Gray Cloud
• George DiCenzo - Darryl Diggs (as George Ralph DiCenzo)
• Leo Fuchs - Chief rabbi
• Penny Peyser - Rosalie Bender
• William Smith - Matt Diggs
• Jack Somack - Samuel Bender
• Beege Barkette - Sarah Mindl Bender
• Shay Duffin - O'Leary
• Walter Janovitz - Old Amish man (as Walter Janowitz)
• Joe Kapp - Monterano
• Clyde Kusatsu - Mr. Ping (railroad work crew)
• Clifford A. Pellow - Mr. Daniels (as Cliff Pellow)
According to Gene Wilder's autobiography, the Tommy role, played by Harrison Ford, was originally planned for
John Wayne.
External links
• The Frisco Kid
at the Internet Movie Database
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0079180/
''More American Graffiti''
More American Graffiti
More American Graffiti
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Bill L. Norton
Produced by George Lucas
Written by Bill L. Norton
Starring Candy Clark
Bo Hopkins
Ron Howard
Paul Le Mat
Mackenzie Phillips
Charles Martin
Cindy Williams
Cinematography Caleb Deschanel
Editing by Tina Hirsch
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) August 3, 1979
Running time 110 minutes
Language English
Budget $3 million
Gross revenue $8.1 million
Preceded by American Graffiti
More American Graffiti is the 1979 sequel film to George Lucas's hit film American Graffiti. Whereas the first film
followed a group of friends during the summer evening before they set off for college, this film shows us where the
characters from the first film end up a few years later.
''More American Graffiti''
Most cast members from the first film returned for this sequel, including Candy Clark, Ron Howard, Paul Le Mat,
Cindy Williams, Mackenzie Phillips, Charles Martin Smith and even Harrison Ford turns up for a cameo appearance.
The notable exception is Richard Dreyfuss.
The film, set over the four consecutive New Year's Eves from 1964 to 1967 depicts scenes from each of these years,
intertwined with one another as though events happen simultaneously. The audience is protected from confusion by
the conceit of a distinct cinematic style for each section. For example, the 1966 sequences echo the movie of
Woodstock using split screens and multiple angles of the same event simultaneously on screen, the 1965 sequences
(set in Vietnam) shot hand-held on grainy super 16 mm film designed to resemble war reporters' footage. The film
attempts to memorialize the 1960s with sequences that recreate the sense and style of those days with references to
Haight-Ashbury, the campus peace movement, the beginnings of the modern woman's liberation movement and the
accompanying social revolt. One character burned his draft card showing a younger audience what so many
Americans had done on the television news ten years before the movie's release. Other characters are shown
frantically disposing of their marijuana before a traffic stop as a police officer pulls them over, and another scene
shows the police brutality with billy clubs during an anti-Vietnam protest.
The listed fates of the main characters at the ending sequence of American Graffiti were updated again at the end of
this sequel. In More American Graffiti, John Milner was revealed to have been killed by a drunk driver in December
1964 (reminiscent of the death of James Dean in 1955 though the accident involving Dean did not involve a drunk
driver), with the ending scene of the movie driving his trademark yellow Deuce at night along a lonely highway
toward a swerving vehicle, and is never seen going further, hinting that was the crash. Set on New Year's Eve 1964,
it is never actually shown that his tragic end comes after his racing win on the last day of the year. The anniversary
of John's death is mentioned in both the 1965 and 1966 sequences. Terry "The Toad" Fields' classification as
"missing in action" is not explored in greater detail since the movie shows that he faked his own death. The ending
sequence would have read "killed in action" had the story ended there. Terry is believed to be dead by his superiors
in 1965 and by his friends - Debbie in 1966 and Steve and Laurie in 1967. Joe Young (the leader of "The Pharaohs")
is Toad's war partner, and vividly meets his death with a sniper's bullet to the chest in one scene after having
promised once again to make Terry the Toad a Pharaoh once they get back from Vietnam.
The relationship of Steve and Laurie is strained by Laurie's insistence that she start her own career, though Steve
forbids it saying he wants her to be a mom to their young twins. Free-spirited Debbie "Deb" Dunham has turned
from Old Harper to marijuana and has given up her platinum blonde persona for a hippie/groupie one in a long,
strange trip that ends with her performing with a country-and-western music group. Wolfman Jack briefly reprised
his role, but in voice only. The drag racing scenes for More American Graffiti were filmed at the Fremont Raceway,
later Baylands Raceway Park, in Fremont, California.
• Paul Le Mat as John Milner
• Cindy Williams as Laurie Henderson Bolander
• Candy Clark as Debbie Dunham
• Ron Howard as Steve Bolander
• Mackenzie Phillips as Carol / Rainbow
• Charles Martin Smith as Terry "The Toad" Fields
• Scott Glenn as Newt
• Mary Kay Place as Teensa
• Anna Bjorn as Eva
• Wolfman Jack as Himself
''More American Graffiti''
• Rosanna Arquette as Girl in Commune
• Jonathan Gries as Ron
• Naomi Judd as Girl on Bus
• Bo Hopkins as Little Joe
• Harrison Ford as Officer Bob Falfa
• Delroy Lindo as Army Sgt.
• John Lansing as Lance Harris
• Will Seltzer as Andy Henderson
• Monica Tenner as Moonflower
• Carol-Ann Williams as Viki Townsend
The movie was written and directed by Bill L. Norton who was picked by Lucas as being suitable due to his
California upbringing and experience with comedy. Lucas was involved in the production by acting as the executive
producer, editing both Norton's screenplay and the finished motion picture, and even manning a camera for
sequences set in the Vietnam War.
The movie also featured a thirty-three track soundtrack entitled More American Graffiti which has only been
released in double Long Play and cassette form. The soundtrack originally released in 1979 as MCA2-11006 is
presently out of print, and featured music from the movie along with voice-over tracks of Wolfman Jack.
A fictional band called Electric Haze featuring Doug Sahm appears in the film, most notably performing the Bo
Diddley song I'm A Man.
Another album, also entitled More American Graffiti, was an official album sequel to the first soundtrack to the film
American Graffiti. The album (MCA 8007) was released in 1975, four years before the film sequel of the same name
was released. Like the first soundtrack album as well as the film sequel soundtrack, this one includes classic
Wolfman Jack dialogue as bridges between the songs. While only one of the songs in this album was actually used in
the 1973 motion picture this collection was compiled and approved by George Lucas for commercial release.
More American Graffiti opened on August 3, 1979 grossed $8,100,000 in the United States over its $3 million
Despite its minor box office success, its gross was nowhere near as much as American Graffiti grossed.
Its critical reception was nowhere near as positive as it had been for American Graffiti. Rotten Tomatoes reported
that 22% of critics gave positive reviews based on 9 reviews.
Dale Pollack of Variety stated in his review that "More American Graffiti may be one of the most innovative and
ambitious films of the last five years, but by no means is it one of the most successful."
''More American Graffiti''
[1] "More American Graffiti - Box Office Data, Movie News, Cast Information" (http:// www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1979/ 0MAG2. php).
The Numbers. .
[2] "More American Graffit Movie Reviews, Pictures" (http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ more_american_graffiti/). Rotten Tomatoes. .
[3] Pollock, Dale (1979-07-25). "More American Graffiti Review" (http:/ / www.variety.com/ review/ VE1117793234.html?categoryid=31&
cs=1). Variety. .
External links
• Official site (http:// www. lucasfilm.com/ films/ other/moregraffiti.html)
• More American Graffiti (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0079576/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• More American Graffiti (http:/ / www. allmovie.com/ work/33302) at Allmovie
''Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back''
Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back
Star Wars Episode V:
The Empire Strikes Back
Theatrical poster by Roger Kastel
Directed by Irvin Kershner
Produced by Gary Kurtz
George Lucas (executive)
Rick McCallum (Special Edition)
Screenplay by Leigh Brackett
Lawrence Kasdan
Story by George Lucas
Starring Mark Hamill
Harrison Ford
Carrie Fisher
Billy Dee Williams
Anthony Daniels
David Prowse
Peter Mayhew
Kenny Baker
Frank Oz
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Peter Suschitzky, BSC
Editing by Paul Hirsch
Studio Lucasfilm
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) May 21, 1980
Running time 124 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $18 million
''Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back''
Gross revenue
Preceded by Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope
Followed by Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi
Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back is a 1980 American epic space opera film directed by Irvin
Kershner. The screenplay, based on a story by George Lucas, was written by Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan.
Of the six main Star Wars films, it was the second to be released and the fifth in terms of internal chronology.
The film is set three years after Star Wars. The evil Galactic Empire, under the leadership of the villainous Darth
Vader, is in pursuit of Luke Skywalker and the rest of the Rebel Alliance. While Vader chases a small band of Luke's
friends - Han Solo, Princess Leia Organa, and others - across the galaxy, Luke studies the Force under Jedi Master
Yoda. But when Vader captures Luke's friends, Luke must decide whether to complete his training and become a full
Jedi Knight or to confront Vader and save his comrades.
Following a difficult production, The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980, and initially received
mixed reviews from critics, although it has since grown in esteem, becoming one of the most popular chapters in the
Star Wars saga and one of the most highly-rated films in history.



It earned more than US$538 million
worldwide over the original run and several re-releases, making it the highest grossing film of 1980. When adjusted
for inflation, it is the 12th highest grossing film in history.
Despite their victory over the Galactic Empire with the destruction of the Death Star, the Rebel Alliance has suffered
setbacks; the Empire's forces have driven the rebels into hiding, forcing some of them to establish a hidden base on
the bleak, remote ice planet Hoth. Darth Vader, having become obsessed with finding Luke Skywalker, has multiple
probe droids dispatched throughout the galaxy; one of these lands on Hoth. While patrolling near the base, Luke tells
Han Solo that he is going to be late returning to base camp because he is going to investigate a meteor that had
crashed nearby (really the Imperial probe droid). While searching, Luke is attacked and knocked unconscious by a
Wampa. Back at the base, Han Solo announces his intention to leave the Rebellion to pay off a debt to Jabba the Hutt
(much to Princess Leia's displeasure). When Luke does not return that evening, Han decides to travel through the icy
wastelands of Hoth to find his friend. Luke, meanwhile, has been trapped by the Wampa in a cave. Truly using the
force for the first time, he manages to retrieve his lightsaber and slice off the Wampa's arm in order to escape.
Escaping from the creature's lair, Luke begins to succumb to the freezing cold and collapses. The spirit of his late
mentor, Obi-Wan Kenobi, appears before him and instructs him to go to the planet Dagobah to train under Jedi
Master Yoda (Frank Oz).
Han manages to find Luke in time and uses the body of his own Tauntaun (which died due to exposure) to provide a
shelter for Luke. They are rescued the following morning by a search team sent from Echo Base. Meanwhile, an
Imperial probe droid locates the Rebel base on Hoth and is able to report to the Imperial Fleet before Han Solo and
Chewbacca can stop or destroy it. An attack on the discovered base is ordered by Vader while the Rebels prepare to
evacuate and disperse. The Imperial forces eventually overpower the Rebels using gigantic AT-AT Walkers (All
Terrain Armored Transports) and capture the base. Han and Leia escape on the Millennium Falcon with C-3PO and
Chewbacca when Leia's escape route is cut off, but they are unable to enter hyperspace because of technical
difficulties. They evade pursuit in an asteroid field, where Han and Leia begin to grow closer to each other.
Frustrated at having lost the Millenium Falcon, Vader turns to several notorious bounty hunters, including Boba Fett
(Jeremy Bulloch), to assist in locating the Falcon. Meanwhile, Luke escapes from Hoth with R2-D2 and crash lands
on Dagobah, where he meets Yoda. After a relatively brief period of intensive training, Luke has premonitions of
Han and Leia in pain and of his possible fall to the dark side of the Force. Against Yoda's advice, Luke leaves to save
his friends, promising to return to complete his training. As they watch Luke depart, the spirit of Obi-Wan laments
that Luke is their last hope. Yoda disagrees and reminds Obi-Wan that there is another.
''Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back''
Having escaped the Imperial forces, but unaware that they are being tracked by Boba Fett, Han's party sets a course
for Cloud City, a floating gas mining colony in the skies of the planet Bespin, which is run by Han's old friend Lando
Calrissian (Billy Dee Williams). Shortly after they arrive at Cloud City, Lando turns them over to Vader to be used
as bait in a trap for Luke. Lando then reveals to Han and Leia that he was forced to betray them to prevent the
occupation of his city by the Empire.
Vader intends to hold Luke in suspended animation via carbon freezing, and selects Han as a test subject for the
process. Before Han is frozen in the carbonite freezing chamber and taken to Jabba the Hutt, Leia professes her love
for him; Han replies, "I know". Vader gives Han's hibernating form to Boba Fett, who plans to present this "prize" to
Jabba the Hutt. Later, Lando helps Leia and the others escape, insisting that there is still a chance to save Han.
Unfortunately, Boba Fett makes off with Han just before they are able to confront him, forcing them to make an
escape on the Falcon.
Meanwhile, Luke arrives at Cloud City and falls into Vader's trap. Luke and Vader engage in a lightsaber duel,
which leads them over the central air shaft of Cloud City. Vader gains the advantage and severs Luke's right hand,
disarming him. With Luke cornered, Vader tempts Luke with the offer to rule the galaxy alongside him, making the
revelation that he is in fact Luke's father. Horrified and shocked, Luke nevertheless refuses Vader's proclamations,
choosing instead to throw himself down the air shaft until he reaches a tube system that ejects him onto an antenna
attached to the underbelly of the floating city. He makes a desperate telepathic plea to Leia, who senses Luke's
distress from aboard the Falcon and persuades Lando to return for him. Its hyperdrive finally functional (thanks to
timely repairs by R2-D2), the Falcon escapes. Luke is taken aboard a Rebel medical frigate and fitted with an
artificial hand. As Luke, Leia, R2-D2 and C-3PO look on from the medical center at the galaxy, Lando and
Chewbacca set off on a journey to free Han, who is being kept on Tatooine at Jabba the Hutt's palace.
• Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker: A commander in the Rebel Alliance, leader of the Rogue Squadron, and
Jedi-in-training, Luke is revolutionary with the rebels at Echo Base on Hoth. After having a vision of his old
master, Obi-Wan Kenobi, Luke, along with his droid, R2-D2, set out to find Yoda on Dagobah.
• Harrison Ford as Han Solo: A mercenary smuggler who initially aided the Rebellion in exchange for money but
has since accepted a ranking position within the Rebel Alliance. Although he intends to leave the rebels to go and
pay off a debt to his old boss, Jabba the Hutt, he is trapped on Hoth by the Imperial blockade.
• Carrie Fisher as Princess Leia Organa: A high ranking official in the Rebellion chain of command.
• David Prowse as Darth Vader: Vader, a Sith Lord and apprentice to Emperor Palpatine, is obsessed with finding
Luke Skywalker, the young rebel who destroyed the Death Star. His search brings him to Hoth, where he orders
the blockade of the ice planet. It is also revealed later in the film that he is actually Luke's father, Anakin
Skywalker. James Earl Jones provided the voice of Darth Vader.
• Billy Dee Williams as Lando Calrissian: Calrissian is the Baron Administrator of Bespin's Cloud City. He is a
long-time friend of Han Solo and former captain of the Millennium Falcon.
• Anthony Daniels as C-3PO: C-3PO is Princess Leia Organa's protocol droid.
• Kenny Baker as R2-D2: R2-D2 is Luke Skywalker's astromech droid.
• Frank Oz as Yoda: Yoda is a self-exiled Jedi Master, who lives on Dagobah.
• Peter Mayhew as Chewbacca: Chewbacca is Han Solo's Wookiee copilot and close friend.
• Jeremy Bulloch as Boba Fett: A bounty hunter, Fett has gained infamy throughout the galaxy and is hired by
Darth Vader to hunt down the Millennium Falcon. Jason Wingreen provided Fett's voice in the original theatrical
cut and the 1997 Special Edition of the film. Bulloch also makes a cameo appearance as the Imperial officer who
grabs Leia when she tells Luke to avoid Vader's trap. In the 2004 special edition, Temuera Morrison, who played
Jango Fett in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones replaced Wingreen as Fett's voice to create better
continuity between the original and prequel trilogy.
''Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back''
• Alec Guinness as Obi-Wan "Ben" Kenobi: Kenobi was killed by Darth Vader on the Death Star in A New Hope,
but his "death" allowed him to become one with the Force, giving him the ability to appear as a spirit and give
guidance to his former student, Luke Skywalker.
• Denis Lawson as Wedge Antilles: Wedge is a pilot in the Rebel Alliance, who flew with Luke Skywalker at the
Battle of Yavin. In the Battle Of Hoth, he pilots one of the speeders in the Rogue Squadron and is the first to
bring down an AT-AT. In the closing credits, as with A New Hope, Denis Lawson's name is misspelled "Dennis."
• Clive Revill as the voice of Emperor Palpatine: Palpatine, the ruler of the Galactic Empire, is displeased with the
loss of the Death Star and consequently lists the Rebel Alliance as a top priority for his military forces. Revill
provided the voice of the Emperor in the 1980 and 1997 versions of the film, but was later replaced with Ian
McDiarmid for the 2004 DVD release.
While Clive Revill played the voice of the Emperor, Elaine Baker, the wife of Rick Baker, appeared as Palpatine's
physical form in the original theatrical cut and the 1997 Special Edition of the film with superimposed chimpanzee


McDiarmid, who portrayed Palpatine in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi as well as the
prequel trilogy films, replaced both Baker and Revill as Palpatine in the 2004 DVD version, with filming taking
place during the principal photography of Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith.

Actor John Ratzenberger, best known as Cliff Clavin from the TV series Cheers and the voices of many characters
from Pixar's animated films, has a small part as deck officer Major Bren Derlin. Character actor Treat Williams
portrayed several background characters, including a trooper in the Hoth rebel base and a trooper in Cloud City.
Cinematic and literary allusions
Like its predecessor, The Empire Strikes Back draws from several mythological stories and world religions. It also
includes elements of 1930s film serials such as Flash Gordon, a childhood favorite of Lucas', that similarly featured
a city afloat in the sky.

George Lucas' 1977 film Star Wars exceeded all expectations in terms of profit, its revolutionary effect on the movie
industry, and its unexpected resonance as a cultural phenomenon. Lucas hoped to become independent from the
Hollywood film industry by financing The Empire Strikes Back himself with $33 million from loans and the previous
film's earnings, going against the principles of many Hollywood producers to never invest one's own money.
fully in command of his Star Wars enterprise, Lucas chose not to direct The Empire Strikes Back because of his other
production roles, including oversight of his special effects company Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) and handling of
the financing. Lucas offered the role of director to Irvin Kershner, one of his former professors at the USC School of
and known for smaller-scale, character-driven films. Kershner initially refused, citing his
belief that a sequel would never meet the quality or originality of the original Star Wars. He called his agent, who
immediately demanded that he take the job.
In addition, Lucas hired Lawrence Kasdan and Leigh Brackett to
write the screenplay based on his original story.
Brackett completed her draft in February 1978 before dying of
cancer, and Lucas wrote the second before hiring Kasdan, who impressed him with his draft for Raiders of the Lost
''Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back''
The Imperial AT-AT Walkers at the Battle of
Hoth were created using models and stop motion
photography. Landscape paintings were added to
enhance the scenery.
After the release of Star Wars, ILM grew from being a struggling
company and moved to Marin County, California.
The Empire
Strikes Back provided the company with new challenges. Whereas Star
Wars mostly featured space sequences, The Empire Strikes Back
featured not only space dogfights but also an ice planet battle opening
sequence and elements of cities that floated among the clouds. For the
battle scenes on the ice planet of Hoth, the initial intent was to use
bluescreen to composite the Imperial walkers into still-shots from the
original set. Instead, an artist was hired to paint landscapes, resulting in
the Imperial walkers being shot using stop motion animation in front of
the landscape paintings.
The original designs for the AT-ATs were,
according to Phil Tippett, "big armored vehicles with wheels". Many
believe the finished design was inspired by the Port of Oakland
container cranes, but Lucas denied this.
In designing the Jedi Master Yoda, Stuart Freeborn used his own face as a model and added the wrinkles of Albert
Einstein for the appearance of exceptional intelligence.
Sets for Dagobah were built five feet above the stage
floor, allowing puppeteers to crawl underneath and hold up the Yoda puppet. The setup presented Frank Oz, who
portrayed Yoda, with communication problems as he was underneath the stage and unable to hear the crew and Mark
Hamill above.
Hamill later expressed his dismay for being the only human character on set for months; he felt
like a trivial element on a set of animals, machines, and moving props. Kershner commended Hamill for his
performance with the puppet.

Filming began in Norway, at the Hardangerjøkulen glacier near the town of Finse, on March 5, 1979. Like the
filming of Star Wars, where the production in Tunisia coincided with the area's first major rainstorm in fifty years,
the weather was against the film crew. While filming in Norway, they encountered the worst winter storm in fifty
years. Temperatures dropped to −20 °F (−29 °C), and 18 feet (5.5 m) of snow fell.
On one occasion, the crew
were unable to exit their hotel. They achieved a shot involving Luke's exit of the Wampa cave by opening the hotel's
doors and filming Mark Hamill running out into the snow while the crew remained warm inside.
Despite reports
to the contrary, the scene in which Luke gets knocked out by the Wampa was not added specifically to explain the
change to Hamill's face after a motor accident that occurred between filming of Star Wars and The Empire Strikes
Back. Lucas admitted that the scene "helped" the situation, though he felt that Luke's time fighting in the rebellion
was sufficient explanation.
The production then moved to Elstree Studios in London on March 13,
where over
60 sets were built, more than double the number used in the previous film.
A fire in January on Stage 3 (during
filming of Stanley Kubrick's The Shining) forced the budget to be increased from $18.5 million to $22 million, and
by July the budget increased $3 million more. Filming finished by mid-September.
One memorable exchange of dialogue was partially ad-libbed. Originally, Lucas wrote a scene in which Princess
Leia professed her love to Han Solo, with Han replying "I love you too." Harrison Ford felt the characterization was
not being used effectively, and Kershner agreed. After several takes, the director told the actor to improvise on the
spot. Ford changed Solo's line to "I know."
During production, great secrecy surrounded the fact that Darth Vader was Luke's father. Like the rest of the crew,
Prowse—who spoke all of Vader's lines during filming—was given a false page that contained dialogue with the
revelatory line being "Obi-Wan killed your father."


Hamill did not learn of the plot point until just before
the scene was filmed, astounding the actor; Kershner advised him to ignore Prowse's dialogue and "use your own
rhythm". Until the film premiered, only George Lucas, Irvin Kershner, Hamill, and James Earl Jones knew what
would really be said; Jones' initial reaction to the line was, "He's lying!"
Interestingly, though, according to the
San Francisco Examiner, during a fan gathering in the late 1970s, David Prowse revealed to a crowd of cheering
fans that Vader was going to be revealed as Luke's father in the next film.
The film includes a brief image of
''Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back''
Vader with his mask off, facing away from the camera. For the original viewers of the film, this scene made it clear
that Vader is not a robot.
To preserve the dramatic opening sequences of his films, Lucas wanted the screen credits to come at the end of the
films. Though more common now, this was a highly unusual choice at the time. The Writers Guild and the Directors
Guild had allowed it for Star Wars, back in 1977, but when Lucas did the same thing for the sequel, they fined him
over $250,000 and attempted to pull Empire out of theaters. The DGA also attacked Kershner; to protect his director,
Lucas paid all the fines to the guilds. Due to the controversy, he left the Directors Guild, Writers Guild, and the
Motion Picture Association.
The initial production budget of $18,000,000
was 50% more than that of the original. After the various increases
in budget, The Empire Strikes Back became one of the most expensive movies of its day and after the bank
threatened to pull his loan, Lucas was forced to approach 20th Century Fox. Lucas made a deal with the studio to
secure the loan in exchange for paying the studio more money, but without the loss of his sequel and merchandising
rights. After the film's box office success, unhappiness at the studio over the deal's generosity to Lucas caused studio
president Alan Ladd, Jr. to quit. The departure of his longtime ally caused Lucas to take Raiders of the Lost Ark to
Paramount Pictures.
The world premiere of The Empire Strikes Back was held on May 17, 1980 at the Kennedy Center in Washington,
D.C. (as a special Children's World Premiere event). The film had a Royal Premiere in London three days later, and
a series of other charity benefit premieres were held in numerous locations on May 19 and 20. The film went on to
official general release in North America and the UK on May 21, 1980. The first wave of release included 126
70mm prints, before a wider release in June 1980 (which were mostly 35mm prints).
Simply titled The Empire Strikes Back in the publicity, the opening scroll stated "Episode V". The first Star Wars
film, now known as "Episode IV: A New Hope", had, at that point, not been given an episode number but this would
be included from its 1981 re-release onwards. Like A New Hope, The Empire Strikes Back was rated PG by the
Motion Picture Association of America, and certificate U in the UK. This original version was released on
Capacitance Electronic Disc in 1984
and on VHS and Laserdisc several times during the 1980s and 1990s.
Special Edition
As part of Star Wars' 20th anniversary celebration in 1997, The Empire Strikes Back was digitally remastered and
re-released with A New Hope and Return of the Jedi under the campaign title The Star Wars Trilogy: Special Edition.
Lucas took this opportunity to make several minor changes to the film. These included explicitly showing the
Wampa creature on Hoth in full form, creating a more complex flight path for the Falcon as it approaches Cloud
City, digitally replacing some of the interior walls of Cloud City with vistas of Bespin, and replacing certain lines of
dialogue. A short sequence was also added depicting Vader's return to his Super Star Destroyer after dueling with
Luke, created from alternate angles of a scene from Return of the Jedi. Most of the changes were small and aesthetic;
however, some fans believe that they detract from the film.
The film was also resubmitted to the MPAA for rating;
it was again rated PG, but under the Association's new description nomenclature, the reason given was for
"sci-fi/action violence."
''Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back''
DVD release
The Empire Strikes Back was released on DVD in September 2004, bundled in a box set with A New Hope, Return of
the Jedi, and a bonus disc of extra features. The films were digitally restored and remastered, with additional changes
made by George Lucas.
The bonus features include a commentary by George Lucas, Irvin Kershner, Ben Burtt,
Dennis Muren, and Carrie Fisher, as well as an extensive documentary called Empire of Dreams: The Story of the
Star Wars Trilogy. Also included are featurettes, teasers, trailers, TV spots, still galleries, video game demos, and a
preview of Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith.
For the DVD release, Lucas and his team made changes that were mostly implemented to ensure continuity between
The Empire Strikes Back and the recently released prequel trilogy films. The most noticeable of these changes was
replacing the stand-in used in the holographic image of the Emperor (with Clive Revill providing the voice) with
actor Ian McDiarmid providing some slightly altered dialogue. With this release, Lucas also supervised the creation
of a high-definition digital print of The Empire Strikes Back and the other films of the original trilogy. It was
reissued in December 2005 as part of a three-disc "limited edition" boxed set that did not feature the bonus disc.
The film was reissued again on a separate two-disc Limited Edition DVD for a brief time from September 12, 2006,
to December 31, 2006, this time with the original, unaltered versions of the film as bonus material. It was also
re-released in a trilogy box set on November 4, 2008.
There was controversy surrounding the initial release,
because the DVDs featured non-anamorphic versions of the original films based on Laserdisc releases from 1993 (as
opposed to newly remastered, film-based high definition transfers). Since non-anamorphic transfers fail to make full
use of the resolution available on widescreen televisions, many fans were disappointed with this choice.
Blu-ray release
On August 14, 2010, George Lucas announced that all six Star Wars films will be released on Blu-ray Disc in Fall
3D Re-release
On September 28, 2010, it was announced that all six films in the series will be stereo converted to 3D. The films
will re-release in chronological order beginning with The Phantom Menace in late 2012. The Empire Strikes Back is
scheduled to re-release in 3D in 2016.
Box office
The Empire Strikes Back premiered at a limited number of theaters, and those all in large metropolitan areas, because
it was first released only on 70 mm wide film, which only the largest and most prosperous movie theaters had
projectors for. It was many weeks later when this movie was published on standard 35 mm wide film for the
thousands of other movie theaters in North America, and then around the world.
Within three months of the release of The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas had recovered his $33 million investment, and
distributed $5 million in bonuses to employees in 1980.
The film grossed $10,840,307 on its opening weekend in
limited release. When The Empire Strikes Back returned to cinemas in 1997, it grossed $21,975,993 on its first
weekend of rerelease. As of 2007, the film has grossed $290,475,750 domestically and $538,375,000 worldwide.
''Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back''
Critical response
The Empire Strikes Back initially received mixed reviews from critics upon its release. However, by the turn of the
1990s and up to now, fans and critics alike now consider The Empire Strikes Back to be the best Star Wars film.
Some critics had problems with the story of The Empire Strikes Back, but they admitted that the film was a great
technological achievement in filmmaking. For example, Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote a largely
negative review.
Judith Martin of The Washington Post complained of the film's "middle-of-the-story" plot,
which featured no particular beginning or end, in her opinion.
However, this was a concept that Lucas had
On the other hand, in later years, Bob Stephens of The San Francisco Examiner described The Empire Strikes Back
as "the greatest episode of the Star Wars Trilogy" in 1997.
The Empire Strikes Back is now considered to be the
most morally and emotionally ambiguous and the darkest episode of the Star Wars Trilogy.
In his review of the
Special Edition in 1997, the critic Roger Ebert called the film the strongest and "the most thought-provoking" of the
original trilogy.
On "Rotten Tomatoes", The Empire Strikes Back has a rating of 97% "Certified Fresh", making it
the highest rated episode of the Star Wars Saga,
and also one of the highest rated science fiction films of all
Chuck Klosterman suggested that while "movies like Easy Rider and Saturday Night Fever painted living portraits
for generations they represented in the present tense, The Empire Strikes Back might be the only example of a movie
that set the social aesthetic for a generation coming in the future."
For Academy Awards in 1981, The Empire Strikes Back won the Oscar for Best Sound, which was awarded to Bill
Varney, Steve Maslow, Greg Landaker, and Peter Sutton. In addition, this film received the Special Achievement
Academy Award for Visual Effects that was awarded to Brian Johnson, Richard Edlund, Dennis Muren, and Bruce
Nicholson. The composer John Williams was also nominated for the Academy Award for Best Music, Original
Score, for The Empire Strikes Back, and a team from this film was nominated for the Oscar for Best Art Direction -
Set Decoration: Norman Reynolds, Leslie Dilley, Harry Lange, Alan Tomkins, and Michael Ford.
In addition, John Williams was awarded the BAFTA Film Award for his compositions: the Anthony Asquith Award
for Film Music. The Empire Strikes Back also received nominations for the BAFTA Awards for Best Sound and Best
Production Design.
Williams' film score also received the Grammy Award and the Golden Globe Award for best original movie
The Empire Strikes Back received four Saturn Awards, including those for Mark Hamill as Best Actor, Irvin
Kershner for Best Director, Brian Johnson and Richard Edlund for Best Special Effects, and this film was also
presented with the Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film.
The Empire Strikes Back won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. The film was nominated for the
Writers Guild of America Award for Writers Guild of America Award for Best Adapted Screenplay.
The Empire Strikes Back was awarded the Golden Screen Award in Germany.
''Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back''
Furthermore, Darth Vader was ranked as the third greatest film villain of all time in the American Film Institute's list
of the 100 greatest heroes and villains (2003), including his role in this film,
and Wizard magazine selected the
ending of The Empire Strikes Back as the greatest cliffhanger of all time.
The most well-known line of The Empire Strikes Back – "No, I am your father" – is supposedly often misquoted as
"Luke, I am your father".
The line was selected as one of the 400 nominees for the American Film Institute's 100
Years... 100 Movie Quotes, a list of the greatest American movie quotes.
Yoda's pointed statement to Luke
Skywalker, "Try not! Do, or do not, there is no try," was also a nominee for the same list by the AFI.
The musical score of The Empire Strikes Back was composed and conducted by John Williams, and it was performed
by the London Symphony Orchestra at a cost of about $250,000.
In 1980, the company RSO Records published
this film's original musical score as both a double LP album and as an 8-track cartridge in the United States. Its front
cover artwork features the mask of Darth Vader against a backdrop of outer space.
In 1985, the first Compact Disc (CD) issue of the film score was made by the company Polydor Records, which had
absorbed both RSO Records and its music catalog. Polydor Records used a shorter, one compact-disc edition of the
music as their master. In 1993, 20th Century Fox Film Scores released a special boxed set of four compact discs: the
Star Wars Trilogy: The Original Soundtrack Anthology. This anthology included the film scores of all three
members of the original Star Wars Trilogy in separate CDs, even though there was significant overlap between the
three (such as the Star Wars theme music).
In 1997, the record company RCA Victor released a definitive two-CD set to accompany the publications of all three
of the Special Editions of the films of the Star Wars Trilogy. This original limited-edition set of CDs featured a
32-page black booklet that was enclosed within a protective outer slip-case. The covers of the booklet and of the
slip-case have selections from the poster art of the Star Wars Trilogy: Special Edition. All of the tracks have been
digitally re-mastered supposedly for superior clarity of sound.
RCA Victor next re-packaged the Special Edition set later on in 1997, offering it in slim-line jewel case packaging as
an unlimited edition, but without the packaging that the original "black booklet" version offered.
In 2004, the Sony Classical Records company purchased the sales rights of the musical scores of the original trilogy
- primarily because it already had the sales rights of the music from the trilogy of prequels: The Phantom Menace,
Attack of the Clones, and Revenge of the Sith. Hence in 2004, the Sony Classical company began manufacturing
copies of the film-score CDs that RCA Victor had been making since 1997, including the one for The Empire Strikes
Back. This set was made with new cover artwork similar to that of the first publication of the film on DVD. Despite
the digital re-mastering by Sony Classical, their CD version made and sold since 2004 is essentially the same as the
version by RCA Victor.
Other media
A novelization of the film was released on April 12, 1980, and published by the company Del Rey Books. The
novelization was written by Donald F. Glut, and it was based on the screenplay by Lawrence Kasdan, Leigh
Brackett, and George Lucas.
This novelization was originally published as Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back. However, the later editions have
been renamed Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back to conform with the change in the titles of the Star
Wars Saga. Like the other novelizations of the Star Wars Trilogy, background information is added to explain the
happenings of the story beyond that which is depicted on-screen.
''Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back''
The Marvel Comics company published a comic book adaptation of The Empire Strikes Back which was written by
Archie Goodwin and illustrated by Al Williamson and Carlos Garzon. This comic book was published to accompany
the premiere of The Empire Strikes Back in 1980. It was published simultaneously in three forms: as a magazine, as a
serialized comic book, and as a pocket book (paper-backed book). In the paperback version, which was published
first and for which early concept designs were the only available art reference, Yoda was given a quite different
appearance than in the films: Yoda is thinner, he has long white hair, and he has purple skin, rather than green skin.
For the magazine and serialized comic book editions, there was enough time for the artwork featuring Yoda to be
revised extensively, and he was therefore made to look like the way he appeared on film.
Video games
Video games based on the film have been released on several consoles. Additionally, several Star Wars video games
feature or mention key events seen in the film, but are not entirely based upon the film. In 1982 Parker Brothers
released Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back for the Atari 2600 games console, which featured the speeder attack on
the AT-ATs on Hoth.
The arcade game Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back followed in 1985. The game features
familiar battle sequences and characters played from a first-person perspective. Specific battles include the Battle of
Hoth and the subsequent escape of the Millennium Falcon through an asteroid field.
A conversion was released in
1988 for the ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC, Commodore 64, BBC Micro, Atari ST and Commodore Amiga.
In 1992, JVC released the LucasArts-developed video game also titled Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back for the
Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) console.
The player assumes the role of Luke Skywalker and maneuvers
through Skywalker's story as seen in the film. In 1992, Ubisoft released a version for the Game Boy. Like its
previous incarnation, it follows the story of Luke Skywalker.
Super Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back was
developed for the console Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) by LucasArts and was released by JVC in
1993. The SNES game is similar in spots to the 1991 NES release, and is on an 12-megabit cartridge.
Radio adaptation
A radio play adaptation of The Empire Strikes Back was written by Brian Daley, and it was produced for and
broadcast on the National Public Radio network in the United States during 1983. It was based on characters and
situations created by George Lucas, and on the screenplay by Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan. Its director was
John Madden, with sound mixing and post-production work done by Tom Voegeli. Much of John Williams's film
score is included, in addition to the sound design from Ben Burtt.
Mark Hamill, Billy Dee Williams, and Anthony Daniels carried forward their roles as the voices of Luke Skywalker,
Lando Calrissian, and C-3PO. respectively. The actor John Lithgow presented the voice of Yoda. This radio play
was designed to last for five hours of radio time, usually presented in more than one part.
Radio agencies estimate
that about 750,000 people tuned in to listen to this series radio play beginning on February 14, 1983.
In terms of
the canonical Star Wars story, this radio drama has been given the highest designation, G-canon.

''Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back''
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Arnold, Alan. Once Upon a Galaxy: A Journal of Making the Empire Strikes Back. Sphere Books, London. 1980.
ISBN 978-0-345-29075-5
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// www. starwars.com/ movies/ episode-v)
• Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0080684/ ) at the Internet Movie
• Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (http:/ / www.allmovie. com/ work/ 15750) at Allmovie
• Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ empire_strikes_back/ ) at
Rotten Tomatoes
• Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (http:// www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=starwars5.htm)
at Box Office Mojo
• Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (http:// starwars. yahoo.com/ movies/
star-wars-episode-v-the-empire-strikes-back) at The World of Star Wars
''Raiders of the Lost Ark''
Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
Original theatrical release poster
Directed by Steven Spielberg
Produced by Frank Marshall
George Lucas
Howard Kazanjian
Screenplay by Lawrence Kasdan
Story by George Lucas
Philip Kaufman
Starring Harrison Ford
Karen Allen
Paul Freeman
Ronald Lacey
John Rhys-Davies
Denholm Elliott
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Douglas Slocombe
Editing by Michael Kahn
Studio Lucasfilm Ltd.
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date(s) June 12, 1981
Running time 115 minutes
Country United States
Language English
''Raiders of the Lost Ark''
Budget $18 million
Gross revenue
Followed by Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
Raiders of the Lost Ark (also known as Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark) (1981) is an American
action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg, produced by George Lucas, and starring Harrison Ford. It is the
first film in the Indiana Jones franchise; and it pits Indiana Jones (Ford) against the Nazis, who search for the Ark of
the Covenant, because Adolf Hitler believes it will make their army invincible. The film co-starred Karen Allen as
Indiana's former lover, Marion Ravenwood; Paul Freeman as Indiana's nemesis, French archaeologist; René Belloq;
John Rhys-Davies as Indiana's sidekick, Sallah; and Denholm Elliott as Indiana's colleague, Marcus Brody.
The film originated with Lucas' desire to create a modern version of the serials of the 1930s and 1940s. Production
was based at Elstree Studios, England; but filming also took place in La Rochelle, Tunisia, Hawaii, and California
from June to September 1980.
Released on June 12, 1981, Raiders of the Lost Ark became the top-grossing film of 1981;
it remains one of the
highest-grossing films ever made.
It was nominated for eight Academy Awards in 1982, including Best Picture,
and won four (Art Direction, Film Editing, Sound, Visual Effects) as well as winning a fifth Special Achievement
Academy Award in Sound Effects Editing. The film's critical and popular success led to three additional films,
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984), Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989), and Indiana Jones and
the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008), a television series, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (1992–1996), and
15 video games as of 2009. In 1999, the film was included in the United States Library of Congress' National Film
Registry as having been deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."
In the Peruvian jungle, in 1936, the treasure hunting archaeologist Indiana Jones braves an ancient temple filled with
booby traps and retrieves a Golden Idol. Upon fleeing the temple, Indiana is confronted by rival archaeologist René
Belloq and the indigenous Hovitos people. Surrounded and outnumbered, Indiana is forced to surrender the idol to
Belloq and escapes aboard a waiting seaplane.
Shortly after returning to the college in the United States where he teaches archeology, Indiana is interviewed by two
Army intelligence agents. They inform him that the Nazis, in their quest for occult power, are searching for his old
mentor, Abner Ravenwood, who is in possession of the headpiece of an artifact called the Staff of Ra and is the
leading expert on the ancient Egyptian city of Tanis. Indiana deduces that the Nazis are searching for the Ark of the
Covenant, the biblical chest built by the Israelites to contain the fragments of the Ten Commandments: if the Nazis
acquire it, their armies will be invincible. The Staff of Ra, meanwhile, is the key to finding the Well of Souls, in
which the Ark is buried. The agents subsequently authorize Indiana to recover the Ark with the promise of
displaying it in a museum. Indiana travels to Nepal, only to find that Ravenwood has died and that the headpiece is
in the possession of his daughter, Marion, Indiana's embittered former lover. Marion's tavern is suddenly raided by a
group of thugs commanded by Nazi agent Major Toht. The tavern is burned down in the ensuing fight, during which
Toht burns his hand on the searing hot headpiece as he tries to grab it. Indiana and Marion escape with the
headpiece, with Marion declaring she will accompany Indiana in his search for the Ark so he can repay his debt.
They travel to Cairo where they learn from Indiana's friend Sallah, a skilled excavator, that Belloq and the Nazis are
currently digging for the Well of Souls with a replica of the headpiece modeled after the scar on Toht's hand. In a
bazaar, Nazi operatives kidnap Marion and fake her death, strengthening his resolve to find the Ark. While
deciphering the markings on the headpiece, Indiana and Sallah realize that the Nazis have miscalculated the location
of the Well of Souls. Using this to their advantage, they infiltrate the Nazi dig and use the Staff of Ra to determine
the location correctly and uncover the Well of Souls, which is filled with snakes. After Indiana fends off the snakes
''Raiders of the Lost Ark''
and acquires the Ark, Belloq and the Nazis arrive to take it for themselves. They toss Marion down into the well with
Indiana and seal them both in; but they manage to escape. After a grueling fist fight with a large German mechanic,
blowing up a flying wing on the airstrip, and chasing down a convoy of trucks, Indiana takes back the Ark before it
can be shipped to Berlin.
Indiana and Marion leave Cairo to escort the Ark to England on board a tramp steamer. The next morning, their boat
is boarded by the Nazis, who once again steal the Ark and kidnap Marion. Indiana stows away on the U-boat and
follows them to an isolated island in the Aegean Sea where Belloq plans to test the power of the Ark before
presenting it to Hitler. Indiana reveals himself and threatens to destroy the Ark with a rocket launcher, but Belloq
calls his bluff.
Indiana surrenders and is tied to a post with Marion as Belloq performs a ceremonial opening of the Ark, which
appears to contain nothing but sand. Suddenly, spirits, which resemble the Old Testament description of seraphim,
emerge from the Ark. Aware of the supernatural danger of looking at the opened Ark, Indiana warns Marion to close
her eyes. The apparitions suddenly morph into demonic creatures; and lightning bolts begin flying out of the ark,
gruesomely killing the Nazis. The fires rise into the sky, then fall back down to Earth and the Ark closes with a crack
of thunder.
Back in Washington, D.C., the Army intelligence agents tell a suspicious Indiana and Brody that the Ark "is
someplace safe" to be studied by "top men". In reality, the Ark is sealed in a wooden crate labeled "top secret" and
stored in a giant government warehouse filled with countless similar crates.
• Harrison Ford stars as Indiana Jones, an archeology professor who often embarks on perilous adventures to obtain
rare artifacts. Jones claims that he has no belief in the supernatural, only to have his skepticism challenged when
he discovers the Ark. Spielberg suggested casting Ford as Jones, but Lucas objected, stating that he did not want
Ford to become his "Bobby De Niro" or "that guy I put in all my movies", a reference to Martin Scorsese, who
often worked with Robert De Niro.
Desiring a lesser known actor, Lucas persuaded Spielberg to help him
search for a new talent. Among the actors who auditioned were Tim Matheson, Peter Coyote, John Shea, and Tom
Selleck. Selleck was originally offered the role, but he was unavailable for the part because of his commitment to
the television series Magnum, P.I.
In June 1980, three weeks away from filming,
Spielberg persuaded Lucas
to cast Ford after producers Marshall and Kathleen Kennedy were impressed by his performance as Han Solo in
The Empire Strikes Back.
• Karen Allen as Marion Ravenwood, a spirited, tough former lover of Indiana's. She is the daughter of Abner
Ravenwood, Indiana Jones' mentor, and owns a bar in Nepal. Allen was cast after auditioning with Matheson and
John Shea. Spielberg was interested in her, as he had seen her performance in National Lampoon's Animal House.
Sean Young had previously auditioned for the part,
while Debra Winger turned it down.
• Paul Freeman as Dr. René Belloq, Jones' arch nemesis, Belloq is also an archaeologist after the Ark, but he is
working for the Nazis. He intends to harness the power of the Ark himself before Hitler could, but he is killed by
the supernatural powers of the Ark when his head explodes.
• Ronald Lacey as Major Arnold Toht, an interrogator for the Gestapo, who tries to torture Marion Ravenwood for
the headpiece of the Staff of Ra. He dies by the supernatural powers of the Ark when his face melts. Lacey was
cast as he reminded Spielberg of Peter Lorre.
Klaus Kinski was offered the role, but he hated the script,
calling it "moronically shitty".
• John Rhys-Davies as Sallah, "the best digger in Cairo" and has been hired by the Nazis to help them excavate
Tanis. Although he fears disturbing the Ark, he is an old friend of Indiana Jones, and agrees to help him obtain it.
Spielberg initially approached Danny DeVito to play Sallah, but he could not play the part due to scheduling
conflicts. Spielberg cast Rhys-Davies after seeing his performance in Shogun.
''Raiders of the Lost Ark''
• Denholm Elliott as Dr. Marcus Brody, a museum curator, who buys the artifacts Indiana obtains for display in his
museum. The U.S. government agents approach him with regard to recovering the Ark, and he sets up a meeting
between them and Indiana Jones. Spielberg hired Elliott as he was a big fan of the actor.
• Wolf Kahler as Colonel Dietrich, a ruthless Nazi officer leading the operation to secure the Ark. He is killed by
the supernatural powers of the Ark.
• Alfred Molina, in his film debut, as Satipo, one of Jones' guides through the South American jungle. He betrays
Jones and steals the golden idol, but is killed by traps before he can leave the temple.
• Vic Tablian as Barranca and the Monkey Man
Producer Frank Marshall played a pilot in the airplane fight sequence. The stunt team was ill, so he took the role
instead. The result was three days in a hot cockpit, which he joked was over "140 degrees".
Pat Roach plays the
large mechanic with whom Jones brawls in this sequence, as well as Toht's Sherpa henchman in Marion's bar. He
had the rare opportunity to be killed twice in one film.
Special-effects supervisor Dennis Muren made a cameo as a
Nazi spy on the seaplane Jones takes to Nepal.
Sallah and Indiana lift the Ark of the Covenant from its resting place
in The Well of the Souls. George Lucas and Philip Kaufman both
collaborated on working the Ark into the film's plot.
In 1973, George Lucas wrote The Adventures of
Indiana Smith.
Like Star Wars, which he also wrote,
it was an opportunity to create a modern version of the
film serials of the 1930s and 1940s.
Lucas discussed
the concept with Philip Kaufman, who worked with
him for several weeks and came up with the Ark of the
Covenant as the plot device.
Kaufman was told
about the Ark by his dentist when he was a child.
The project stalled when Clint Eastwood hired
Kaufman to direct The Outlaw Josey Wales.
eventually shelved the idea, deciding to concentrate on
his outer space adventure which would become Star
Wars. In late May 1977, Lucas was in Maui, trying to
escape the enormous success of Star Wars. Friend and
colleague Steven Spielberg was also there, on vacation from work on Close Encounters of the Third Kind. While
building a sand castle at Mauna Kea,
Spielberg expressed an interest in directing a James Bond film. Lucas
convinced his friend Spielberg that he had conceived a character "better than James Bond" and explained the concept
of Raiders of the Lost Ark. Spielberg loved it, calling it "a James Bond film without the hardware,"
Spielberg told Lucas that the surname Smith was not right for the character, Lucas replied, "OK. What about
Jones?". Indiana was the name of Lucas' Alaskan Malamute.
''Raiders of the Lost Ark''
Jones attempting to take the Golden Idol in the opening of the film.
The following year, Lucas focused on developing
Raiders and the Star Wars sequel The Empire Strikes
Back, during which Lawrence Kasdan and Frank
Marshall joined the project as screenwriter and
producer respectively. Between January 23–January 27,
1978 for nine hours a day, Lucas, Kasdan, and
Spielberg discussed the story and visual ideas.
Spielberg came up with Jones being chased by a
which was inspired by "The Seven Cities of
Cibola," an Uncle Scrooge comic by Carl Barks. Lucas
later acknowledged that the idea for the idol
mechanism in the opening scene, and deadly traps later
in the film were inspired by several Uncle Scrooge
Lucas came up with a submarine, a monkey giving the Hitler salute, and Marion punching Jones in
Kasdan used a 100-page transcript of their conversations for his first script draft,
which he worked on
for six months.
Ultimately some of their ideas were too grand and had to be cut: a mine chase,
an escape in
Shanghai using a rolling gong as a shield,
and a jump from an airplane in a raft, all of which made it into the
prequel, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom.
Spielberg and Lucas disagreed on the character: although Lucas saw him as a Bondian playboy, Spielberg and
Kasdan felt the professor and adventurer elements of the character made him complex enough. Spielberg had a
darker vision of Jones, interpreting him as an alcoholic similar to Humphrey Bogart's character Fred C. Dobbs in The
Treasure of the Sierra Madre. This characterization fell away during the later drafts.
Spielberg also initially
conceived of Toht as having a robotic arm, which Lucas rejected as falling into science-fiction. Comic book artist
Jim Steranko was also commissioned to produce original illustrations for pre-production, which heavily influenced
Spielberg's decisions in both the look of the film and the character of Indiana Jones himself.
Initially, the film was rejected by every major studio in Hollywood, as most executives thought that the story was too
over the top and would be exceedingly expensive to produce. Eventually Paramount agreed to finance the film, with
Lucas negotiating a five picture deal. By April 1980, Kasdan's fifth draft was produced, and production was getting
ready to shoot at Elstree Studios, with Lucas trying to keep costs down.
With four illustrators, Raiders of the Lost
Ark was Spielberg's most storyboarded film of his career to date, further helping the film economically. He and
Lucas agreed on a tight schedule to keep costs down, and to stylistically follow the "quick and dirty" feel of the old
Saturday matinée serials. Special effects were done using puppets, miniature models, animation, and camera
"We didn't do 30 or 40 takes; usually only four. It was like silent film--shoot only what you need, no
waste," Spielberg said. "Had I had more time and money, it would have turned out a pretentious movie." Lucas also
directed some of the second unit.
Filming began on June 23, 1980 at La Rochelle, France, for scenes involving the Nazi submarine,
which was
rented from the production of Das Boot. The U-boat pen was a genuine one that had survived from World War II.
The crew moved to Elstree Studios
for scenes involving the Well of Souls, the interiors of the temple in the
opening sequence and Marion Ravenwood's bar.
The Well of Souls required 7,000 snakes, though the only
poisonous snakes on set were the cobras. However, one crew member was bitten by a python on set.
To shoot the
scene where Indiana comes face-to-face with the cobra, a glass sheet was put between Ford and the reptile, which is
partially visible in the film when the light hits it at a certain angle.
Unlike the character he portrayed, Ford does not
actually have a fear of snakes; Spielberg was not afraid either, but seeing all the snakes on the set writhing around
made him "want to puke".
The opening sequence featured live tarantulas: Alfred Molina had to have many put on
''Raiders of the Lost Ark''
him, but they did not move until a female tarantula was introduced. A fibreglass boulder 22 feet (7 m) in diameter
was made for the scene where Indiana escapes the temple; Spielberg was so impressed by production designer
Norman Reynolds' realization of his idea that he told Reynolds to increase the length of the boulder run by 50 feet
(15 m).
All of the scenes set in Egypt were filmed in Tunisia, and the canyon where Indiana threatens to blow up the Ark
was shot in Sidi Bouhlel, just outside of Tozeur.
The location was previously used in the Tatooine scenes from
1977's Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, since many people in the location crew were the same for both films.
Notably, that canyon was exactly the same location where R2-D2 was attacked by Jawas.
The Tanis scenes were
filmed in nearby Sedala and it was a harsh experience due to the heat and disease. Several members of the cast and
crew fell ill; Rhys-Davies in particular defecated in his costume during one shot.
Spielberg was never ill, as he
only ate tinned foods from England.
Spielberg did not like the area and quickly pushed forward a scheduled
six-week shoot to four-and-a-half weeks. Much was improvised there: the scene where Marion puts on her dress and
attempts to leave Belloq's tent was improvised, as was the entire plane fight. During shooting of that scene, Ford tore
his cruciate ligament in his left leg as a wheel went over his knee, but he did not accept local medical help and
simply put ice over it.
The fight scenes in the town were filmed in Kairouan; by then Ford was suffering from
dysentery and did not want to shoot a fight scene between Indiana and a swordsman. He said to Spielberg "Let's just
shoot the sucker." Spielberg agreed, scrapped the rest of the fight scene, and filmed the gag of Indiana quickly
gunning down the swordsman.
The truck chase was shot entirely by the second-unit who mostly followed
Spielberg's storyboards, though they decided to add Indiana being dragged by the truck. Spielberg shot all the
close-ups with Ford afterwards.
The interior staircase set in Washington, D.C. was filmed inside of San Francisco's City Hall. The University of the
Pacific, located in Stockton, California, stands in for the exterior of the college where Jones works, while his
classroom and the hall where he meets the American intelligence men was filmed at the Royal Masonic School for
Girls in Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, England. His home exteriors were filmed in the city of San Rafael,
The opening exteriors were filmed in Kauai, Hawaii, with Spielberg wrapping in September, finishing
under schedule in 73 days, in contrast to his previous film, 1941.

The Washington, D.C. coda, although it
appeared in early drafts of the script, was not included in early edits and was added later when it was realized that
there was no resolution to Jones's relationship with Marion.
Shots of the Douglas DC-3 Jones flies on to Nepal
were taken from Lost Horizon, while a street scene was cut from a shot in The Hindenburg.
The filming of Indy
boarding a Boeing China Clipper flying-boat was complicated by the lack of a surviving aircraft. Eventually a
post-war British Short Solent flying-boat formerly owned by Howard Hughes was located in California and
substituted in its place.
Visual effect and sound design
The special visual effects for Raiders were provided by Industrial Light & Magic and include: a matte shot to
establish the Pan Am flying boat in the water
and miniature work to show the plane taking off and flying,
superimposed over a map; animation effects for the beam in the Tanis map room; and a miniature car and
superimposed over a matte painting for a shot of a Nazi car being forced off a cliff. The bulk of effects
shots were featured in the climactic sequence wherein the Ark of the Covenant is opened and the wrath of God is
unleashed. This sequence featured animation, a woman to portray a beautiful spirit's face, rod puppet spirits moved
through water to convey a sense of floating,
a matte painting of the island, and cloud tank effects to portray
clouds. The melting of Toht's head was done by exposing a gelatine and plaster model of Ronald Lacey's head to a
heat lamp with an under cranked camera, while Dietrich's crushed head was a hollow model from which air was
withdrawn. The spirits were shot underwater for a ghostly look.
The firestorm that cleanses the canyon at the
finish was a miniature canyon filmed upside down.
''Raiders of the Lost Ark''
Ben Burtt, the sound effects supervisor, made extensive use of traditional foley work in yet another of the
production's throwbacks to days of the Republic serials. He selected a 30-30 Winchester rifle for the sound of Jones'
pistol. Sound effects artists struck leather jackets and baseball gloves with a baseball bat to create a variety of
punching noises and body blows. For the snakes in the Well of Souls sequence, fingers running through cheese
casserole and sponges sliding over cement were used for the slithering noises. The sliding lid on a toilet cistern
provided the sound for the opening of the Ark. Burtt also used, as he did in many of his films, the ubiquitous
Wilhelm scream when a Nazi falls from a truck. In addition to his use of such time-honored foley work, Burtt also
demonstrated the modern expertise honed during his award-winning work on Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope.
He employed a synthesizer for the sounds of the Ark, and mixed dolphins' and sea lions' screams for those of the
spirits within.
John Williams composed the score for Raiders of the Lost Ark, which was the only score in the series performed by
the London Symphony Orchestra, the same orchestra that performed the scores for the Star Wars saga. The score
most notably features the well-known "Raiders' March." This piece came to symbolize Indiana Jones and was later
used in Williams' scores for the other three films. Williams originally wrote two different candidates for Indy's
theme, but Spielberg enjoyed them so much that he insisted that both be used together in what became the "Raiders'
The alternately eerie and apocalyptic theme for the Ark of the Covenant is also heard frequently in the
score, with a more romantic melody representing Marion and, more broadly, her relationship with Jones. The score
as a whole received an Oscar nomination for Best Original Score, but lost to the score to Chariots of Fire composed
by Vangelis.
The $18 million budget film grossed $384 million worldwide throughout its theatrical releases. In North America, it
remains one of the top twenty highest-grossing films ever made when adjusted for inflation.
The film was
subsequently nominated for eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture, in 1982 and won four (Best Sound, Best
Film Editing, Best Visual Effects, and Best Art Direction-Set Decoration (Norman Reynolds, Leslie Dilley, and
Michael D. Ford)). It also received an additional Special Achievement Award for Sound Effects Editing. It won
numerous other awards, including a Grammy and Best Picture at the People's Choice Awards. Spielberg was also
nominated for a Golden Globe.
The film received highly positive reviews from most critics. In his review for The New York Times, Vincent Canby
praised the film, calling it, "one of the most deliriously funny, ingenious and stylish American adventure movies ever
Roger Ebert in his review for the Chicago Sun-Times wrote, "Two things, however, make Raiders of the
Lost Ark more than just a technological triumph: its sense of humor and the droll style of its characters [...] We find
ourselves laughing in surprise, in relief, in incredulity at the movie's ability to pile one incident upon another in an
inexhaustible series of inventions."
He later added it to his list of "Great Movies".
Rolling Stone said the film
was "the ultimate Saturday action matinee–a film so funny and exciting it can be enjoyed any day of the week."
Bruce Williamson of Playboy claimed: "There's more excitement in the first ten minutes of Raiders than any movie I
have seen all year. By the time the explosive misadventures end, any movie-goer worth his salt ought to be
Stephen Klain of Variety also praised the film. Yet, making an observation that would revisit the
franchise with its next film, he felt that the film was surprisingly violent and bloody for a PG-rated film.
There were some dissenting voices; Sight & Sound described it as an "...expensively gift-wrapped Saturday
afternoon pot-boiler,"
and New Hollywood champion Pauline Kael, who once contended that she only got "really
rough" on large films that were destined to be hits but were nonetheless "atrocious,"
found the film to be a
''Raiders of the Lost Ark''
"machine-tooled adventure" from a pair of creators who "think just like the marketing division."
(Lucas later
named a villain, played by Raiders Nazi strongman Pat Roach, in his 1988 fantasy film Willow after Kael.)
Today, the film is considered to be a classic of the action and adventure genres by many contemporary critics, and
carries a 94% "Certified Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes.
Following the success of Raiders, a prequel, The Temple of Doom, and two sequels, The Last Crusade and Kingdom
of the Crystal Skull, were produced. A television series, entitled The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, was also spun
off from this film, and details the early years of the character. Numerous other books, comics, and video games have
also been produced.
In 1998, the American Film Institute placed the film at #60 on its top 100 films of the first century of cinema. In
2007, AFI updated the list and placed it at #66. They also named it as the 10th most thrilling movie, and named
Indiana Jones as the second most thrilling hero. In 1999, the film was deemed "culturally, historically, or
aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film
Registry. Indiana Jones has become an icon, being listed as Entertainment Weekly's third favorite action hero, while
noting "some of the greatest action scenes ever filmed are strung together like pearls" in this film.
An amateur, near shot-for-shot remake was made by Chris Strompolos, Eric Zala, and Jayson Lamb, then children in
Ocean Springs, Mississippi. It took the boys seven years to finish, from 1982-1989. After production of the film,
called Raiders of the Lost Ark: The Adaptation, it was shelved and forgotten until 2003, where it was discovered by
Eli Roth

and acclaimed by Spielberg himself, who congratulated the boys on their hard work and said he
looked forward to seeing their names on the big screen.
Scott Rudin and Paramount Pictures have purchased the
trio's life rights and will be producing a film based on their adventures making their remake.

Assessing the film's legacy in 1997, Bernard Weinraub, film critic for The New York Times, which had initially
reviewed the film as "deliriously funny, ingenious, and stylish",
maintained that "the decline in the traditional
family G-rated film, for 'general' audiences, probably began" with the appearance of Raiders of the Lost Ark.
"Whether by accident or design," found Weinraub, "the filmmakers made a comic nonstop action film intended
mostly for adults but also for children."
Eight years later, in 2005, viewers of Channel 4 in the UK rated the film
as the twentieth best family film of all time, with Spielberg taking best over-all director honors.
The only video game based exclusively on the film is Raiders of the Lost Ark, released in 1982 by Atari for their
Atari 2600 console. The first third of the video game Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures, released in 1994 by JVC
for Nintendo's Super Nintendo Entertainment System, is based entirely on the film. Several sequences from the film
are reproduced (the boulder run and the showdown with the Cairo Swordsman among them); however, several
inconsistencies with the film are present in the game, such as Nazi soldiers and bats being present in the Well of
Souls sequence, for example. The game was developed by LucasArts and Factor 5. In Indiana Jones and the Infernal
Machine a bonus level brings Jones back to 'Peru, South America' from this film. He can explore the cave and he
discovers another hidden idol. LucasArts released Lego Indiana Jones: The Original Adventures on June 3, 2008 in
North America and June 6, 2008 in Europe to coincide with the release of Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Lego also
released several building sets based on the film in early 2008. Indiana Jones and the Staff of Dreams was released in
In 1981, Kenner released a 12-inch (30-cm) doll of Indiana Jones, and the following year they released nine action
figures of the characters in the film, three playsets, as well as toys of the Nazi truck and Jones's horse. They also
released a board game. In 1984, miniature metal versions of the characters were released for a role playing game, and
in 1995 Micro Machines released die-cast toys of the vehicles in the film.
Hasbro released action figures based on
the film, ranging from 3 to 12 inches (8 to 30 cm), to coincide with Kingdom of the Crystal Skull on May 1, 2008.
''Raiders of the Lost Ark''
A novelization by Ryder Windham was released in April 2008 by Scholastic to tie in with the release of Kingdom of
the Crystal Skull.
Home video
The film was released on VHS in pan and scan only and on laserdisc in both pan and scan and widescreen. It was
also released on Betamax. For its 1999 VHS re-issue, the film was remastered in THX and made available in
widescreen. The outer package was retitled Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark to correlate with the film's
prequel and sequel. The subsequent DVD release in 2003 features this title as well. The title in the film itself remains
unchanged, even in the restored DVD print. In the DVD, the glass partition separating Jones from the cobra in the
Well of Souls was digitally removed.
The film (along with Temple of Doom and Last Crusade) was re-released on
DVD with additional extra features not included on the previous set on May 13, 2008.
[1] "Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)" (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=raidersofthelostark.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved
[2] "1981 Domestic Grosses" (http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ yearly/chart/ ?yr=1981&p=.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2008-07-13.
[3] (DVD) Indiana Jones: Making the Trilogy. Paramount Pictures. 2003.
[4] "Facts and trivia of the Lost Ark" (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20070518230319/ http:/ / www.indianajones.com/ raiders/ bts/ news/
news20031014.html). Official website. 2003-10-14. Archived from the original (http:// www.indianajones. com/ raiders/bts/ news/
news20031014. html) on 2007-05-18. . Retrieved 2007-03-11.
[5] Hearn, pp. 127-134
[6] Gregory Kirschling, Jeff Labrecque (2008-03-12). "Indiana Jones: 15 Fun Facts" (http:// www.ew.com/ ew/ article/ 0,,20183746,00.html).
Entertainment Weekly. . Retrieved 2008-03-15.
[7] Glenn Whipp (2008-05-22). "Keeping up with Jones" (http:/ / thechronicleherald.ca/ ArtsLife/1057438. html). Halifax Chronicle-Herald. .
Retrieved 2008-05-22.
[8] Kinski, Klaus; Joachim Neugröschel (translator) (1996). Kinski Uncut. London: Bloomsbury. p. 294. ISBN 0747529787.
[9] (DVD) The Stunts of Indiana Jones. Paramount Pictures. 2003.
[10] (DVD) The Light and Magic of Indiana Jones. Paramount Pictures. 2003.
[11] Marcus Hearn (2005). The Cinema of George Lucas. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc, Publishers. pp. 80. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7.
[12] Hearn, pp.112–115
[13] "Know Your MacGuffins" (http:// www.empireonline.com/ indy/ day2/ ). Empire Online. 2008-04-23. . Retrieved 2008-04-23.
[14] Jim Windolf (2007-12-02). "Q&A: Steven Spielberg" (http:/ / www.vanityfair.com/ culture/features/ 2008/ 02/
spielberg_qanda200802?currentPage=4). Vanity Fair. . Retrieved 2007-12-02.
[15] McBride, Joseph (1997). "Rehab". Steven Spielberg. New York City: Faber and Faber. pp. 309–322. ISBN 0-571-19177-0.
[16] E. Summer, Walt Disney's Uncle $crooge McDuck: His Life and Times by Carl Barks, Celestial Arts ed., 1981; T. Andrae, Carl Barks and
the Art of the Disney Comic Book, Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2006.
[17] Hearn, p.122–123
[18] Script 3rd Draft (http:/ / www. movie-page.com/ scripts/ Raiders-of-the-Lost-Ark.html), scene 45-47
[19] Script 3rd Draft (http:/ / www. movie-page.com/ scripts/ Raiders-of-the-Lost-Ark.html), scene 148-155
[20] "Raiders Of The Lost Ark: An Oral History" (http:/ / www.empireonline.com/ indy/ day3/ ). Empire Online. 2008-04-24. . Retrieved
[21] Richard Schickel (2008-01-19). "Slam! Bang! A Movie Movie" (http:/ / www.time.com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,949205-1,00.
html). Time. . Retrieved 2008-01-19.
[22] Fromter, Marco (2006-08-18). "Around the World with Indiana Jones" (http:// web.archive.org/ web/ 20070207151651/ http:/ / www.
indianajones.com/ raiders/bts/ news/ f20060818/ index. html). Official Website. Archived from the original (http:// www.indianajones.com/
raiders/ bts/ news/ f20060818/index. html) on February 7, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-03-11.
[23] Norman Reynolds (Production Designer). Making the Trilogy. [DVD]. Event occurs at 17:40. ""Steven said 'Why don't we make it another
50ft longer?' Which of course we did""
[24] The Making of Raiders of The Lost Ark by Derek Taylor,1981,Ballantine Books.
[25] "The Urban Legends of Indiana Jones" (http:// web. archive. org/web/ 20070612222640/ http:/ / www. indianajones.com/ raiders/ bts/
news/f20040113/index. html). Official website. 2004-01-13. Archived from the original (http:// www.indianajones.com/ raiders/ bts/ news/
f20040113/index.html) on 2007-06-12. . Retrieved 2007-03-11.
''Raiders of the Lost Ark''
[26] "Twenty-Five Reasons to Watch Raiders Again" (http:/ / web. archive.org/ web/20070610051833/ http:/ / www.indianajones. com/
raiders/ bts/ news/ f20060612/indexp4. html). Official website. 2006-06-12. Archived from the original (http:// www.indianajones.com/
raiders/bts/ news/ f20060612/indexp4. html) on 2007-06-10. . Retrieved 2007-03-11.
[27] "Oakland Aviation Museum" (http:// www.oaklandaviationmuseum. org/Collections. htm). . Retrieved 2009-11-09.
[28] Industrial Light & Magic: The Art of Special Effects, Smith, Thomas G., p. 140., 1986
[29] Industrial Light & Magic: The Art of Special Effects, Smith, Thomas G., p. 66., 1986
[30] Industrial Light & Magic: The Art of Special Effects, Smith, Thomas G., p. 62., 1986
[31] (DVD) The Sound of Indiana Jones. Paramount Pictures. 2003.
[32] John Williams. (2003) (DVD). The Music of Indiana Jones. Paramount Pictures.
[33] "Box Office Mojo Alltime Adjusted" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ alltime/ adjusted.htm). . Retrieved 2008-07-13.
[34] Tom O'Neil (2008-05-08). "Will 'Indiana Jones,' Steven Spielberg and Harrison Ford come swashbuckling back into the awards fight?"
(http:/ / goldderby.latimes. com/ awards_goldderby/ 2008/ 05/ will-indiana-jo.html). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2008-05-08.
[35] Vincent Canby (June 12, 1981). "Raiders of the Lost Ark" (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 1981/ 06/ 12/ movies/ raiders-of-the-lost-ark.html).
The New York Times. . Retrieved 2007-05-21.
[36] Roger Ebert (January 1, 1981). "Raiders of the Lost Ark" (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19810101/
REVIEWS/101010360/ 1023). Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved 2007-05-21.
[37] Roger Ebert (April 30, 2000). "Raiders of the Lost Ark" (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/20000430/
REVIEWS08/4300301/ 1023). Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved 2007-06-04.
[38] Rolling Stone, June 25, 1981.
[39] Michael G. Ryan. "Raiders of the Lost Ark 20th Anniversary." Star Wars Insider. July/August 2001.
[40] Stephen Klain (June 5, 1981). "Raiders of the Lost Ark" (http:// www.variety.com/ index. asp?layout=Variety100&
reviewid=VE1117794297& content=jump& jump=review&category=1935&cs=1). Variety. . Retrieved 2007-06-04.
[41] "On Now". Sight & Sound (BFI) 50: 288. 1981.
[42] Lawrence Van Gelder (September 4, 2001). "Pauline Kael, Provocative and Widely Imitated New Yorker Film Critic, Dies at 82" (http://
query.nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage.html?res=9E04E2D61639F937A3575AC0A9679C8B63& sec=& spon=& pagewanted=2). The New York
Times. . Retrieved 2008-07-13.
[43] Pauline Kael (June 15, 1981). "Whipped" (http:// www.newyorker.com/ archive/1981/ 06/ 15/
1981_06_15_132_TNY_CARDS_000119462?currentPage=all). The New Yorker. . Retrieved 2008-07-13.
[44] "Raiders of the Lost Ark" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ raiders_of_the_lost_ark/). Rotten Tomatoes. . Retrieved 2007-08-06.
[45] Marc Bernadin (2007-10-23). "25 Awesome Action Heroes" (http:/ / www. ew.com/ ew/ gallery/0,,20041669_20041686_20153598_22,00.
html). Entertainment Weekly. . Retrieved 2007-12-11.
[46] Harry Knowles (2003-05-31). "Raiders of the Lost Ark shot-for-shot teenage remake review!!!" (http:/ / www.aintitcool.com/ display.
cgi?id=15348). Ain't It Cool News. . Retrieved 2007-03-11.
[47] Jim Windolf. "Raiders of the Lost Backyard" (http:// www. vanityfair.com/ culture/features/ 2004/ 03/ raiders200403). Vanity Fair. .
Retrieved 2009-04-23.
[48] Sarah Hepola (2003-05-30). "Lost Ark Resurrected" (http:// www.austinchronicle.com/ issues/ dispatch/ 2003-05-30/screens_feature4.
html). Austin Chronicle. . Retrieved 2007-03-11.
[49] Harry Knowles (2004-02-26). "Sometimes, The Good Guys Win!!! Raiders of the Lost Ark shot for shot filmmakers' life to be MOVIE!!!"
(http:/ / www. aintitcool. com/ display. cgi?id=17079). Ain't It Cool News. . Retrieved 2007-03-11.
[50] Dave McNary (2004-02-25). "Rudin's on an 'Ark' lark" (http:// www.variety.com/ article/ VR1117900741. html?categoryid=1236&cs=1).
Variety. . Retrieved 2009-04-23.
[51] "ET Crowned 'Greatest Family Film'" (http:/ / news. bbc. co.uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/4553694.stm). BBC. 2005-12-23. . Retrieved
[52] "The Adventures of Indiana Jones" (http:// www.cooltoyreview.com/ Kenner_IJ. asp). Cool Toy Review. . Retrieved 2008-02-21.
[53] Edward Douglas (2008-02-17). "Hasbro Previews G.I. Joe, Hulk, Iron Man, Indy & Clone Wars" (http:// www.superherohype.com/ news/
topnews.php?id=6807). SuperHeroHype.com. . Retrieved 2008-02-17.
[54] Miss Cellania (2008-05-21). "10 Awesome Indiana Jones Facts" (http:// www.mentalfloss. com/ blogs/ archives/ 15081). Mental floss. .
Retrieved 2008-05-24.
''Raiders of the Lost Ark''
Further reading
• Black, Campbell (September 1987). Raiders of the Lost Ark. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0345353757.
• Kasdan, Lawrence (1981). Raiders of the Lost Ark: The Illustrated Screenplay. Ballantine Books.
ISBN 034530327X.
• Taylor, Derek (August 1981). The Making of Raiders of the Lost Ark. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0345297253.
External links
• IndianaJones.com (http:/ / www.indianajones. com/ ), Lucasfilm's official Indiana Jones site
• Raiders of the Lost Ark (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0082971/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Raiders of the Lost Ark (http:/ / tcmdb. com/ title/ title. jsp?stid=22087) at the TCM Movie Database
• Raiders of the Lost Ark (http:/ / www. allmovie. com/ work/ 40118) at Allmovie
• Raiders of the Lost Ark (http:/ / www. metacritic. com/ film/titles/ raidersofthelostark) at Metacritic
• Raiders of the Lost Ark (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ raiders_of_the_lost_ark/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Raiders of the Lost Ark (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=raidersofthelostark.htm) at Box Office
• The Indiana Jones Wiki (http:/ / indianajones. wikia.com), Indiana Jones fansite
''Blade Runner''
Blade Runner
Blade Runner
Original theatrical release poster by John Alvin
Directed by Ridley Scott
Produced by Michael Deeley
Screenplay by • Hampton Fancher
• David Peoples
Based on Do Androids Dream of Electric
Sheep? by
Philip K. Dick
Starring • Harrison Ford
• Rutger Hauer
• Sean Young
• Edward James Olmos
Music by Vangelis
Cinematography Jordan Cronenweth
Editing by • Terry Rawlings
• Marsha Nakashima
• Les Healey
(director's cut)
Studio • The Ladd Company
• Tandem Productions
• Sir Run Run Shaw
Distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures
Release date(s) June 25, 1982
Running time 116 minutes (original theatrical cut)
(See below for other versions)
Country United States
Language English
Budget $28 million
''Blade Runner''
Gross revenue $32,768,670
Blade Runner is a 1982 American science fiction film, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger
Hauer, and Sean Young. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is based on the novel Do
Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick.
The film depicts a dystopian Los Angeles in November 2019 in which genetically engineered organic robots called
replicants—visually indistinguishable from adult humans—are manufactured by the all-powerful Tyrell Corporation
as well as other mega manufacturers around the world. Their use on Earth is banned, and replicants are exclusively
used for dangerous, menial or leisure work on Earth's off-world colonies. Replicants who defy the ban and return to
Earth are hunted down and "retired" by police special operatives known as "blade runners". The plot focuses on a
brutal and cunning group of recently escaped replicants hiding in Los Angeles and the burnt out expert blade runner,
Rick Deckard, who reluctantly agrees to take on one more assignment to hunt them down.
Blade Runner initially polarized critics: some were displeased with the pacing, while others enjoyed its thematic
complexity. The film performed poorly in North American theaters. Despite the box office failure of the film, it has
since become a cult classic,
and is now widely regarded as one of the best movies ever made. Blade Runner has
been hailed for its production design, depicting a "retrofitted" future,

and it remains a leading example of the
neo-noir genre.
Blade Runner brought the work of author Philip K. Dick to the attention of Hollywood, and several
more films have since been based on his work.
Ridley Scott regards Blade Runner as "probably" his most
complete and personal film.

In 1993, Blade Runner was selected for preservation in the United States National
Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
Seven versions of the film have been shown for various markets as a result of controversial changes made by film
executives. A rushed director's cut was released in 1992 after a strong response to workprint screenings. This, in
conjunction with its popularity as a video rental, made it one of the first films released on DVD, resulting in a basic
disc with mediocre video and audio quality.
In 2007, Warner Bros. released in select theaters, and subsequently on
DVD, HD DVD, and Blu-ray Disc, the 25th anniversary digitally remastered Final Cut by Scott.
In Los Angeles, November 2019, retired police officer Rick Deckard (Harrison Ford) is detained at a noodle bar by
officer Gaff (Edward James Olmos). His former supervisor, Bryant (M. Emmet Walsh), tells him that several
"replicants"—biologically engineered humanoids who serve as soldiers and slaves in off-world colonies—have
escaped, and have come to Earth illegally. As a "blade runner" while active, Deckard's job was to track down
replicants on Earth and "retire" them.
Bryant shows him a video of another blade runner, Holden (Morgan Paull), administering a Voight-Kampff test,
which distinguishes humans from replicants based on their empathic response to questions. The subject of the test,
Leon (Brion James), shoots Holden when it is likely he will be exposed as a replicant.
''Blade Runner''
Tyrell Corporation logo and slogan: Genetic
Replicants – "More Human Than Human"
Deckard agrees to track down Leon and three other replicants—Roy
Batty (Rutger Hauer), Zhora (Joanna Cassidy) and Pris (Daryl
Hannah)—after Bryant threatens him. These replicants—Tyrell
Corporation Nexus-6 models—have a four-year lifespan as a fail-safe
to prevent them from developing emotions and desire for
independence. They may have come to Earth to try to have these
lifespans extended.
Deckard is teamed with Gaff and sent to the Tyrell Corporation to
ensure that the Voight-Kampff test works on Nexus-6 models. While
there, Deckard discovers that Tyrell's (Joe Turkel) assistant Rachael
(Sean Young) is an experimental replicant who believes she is human;
Rachael's consciousness has been enhanced with childhood memories
from Tyrell's niece. As a result, a more extensive Voight-Kampff test is
required to identify her as a replicant.
Roy and Leon enter the eye manufacturing laboratory of Chew (James Hong); under interrogation, Chew directs
them to J.F. Sebastian (William Sanderson) as their best chance of meeting Tyrell. Rachael visits Deckard at his
apartment to prove her humanity to him, showing him a family photo. She leaves in tears after Deckard tells her that
her memories are implants. Pris meets J.F. Sebastian at his apartment in the Bradbury Building where he lives with
his manufactured companions. Deckard finds an image of Zhora in Leon's photos.
Deckard goes to an area of the city where genetically engineered animals are sold to analyze a scale found in Leon's
bathroom, learning that it came from a snake made by Abdul Ben Hassan (Ben Astar). Hassan directs Deckard to a
strip club where Zhora works. Deckard "retires" Zhora, whose death takes place in slow motion as she struggles to
flee. Deckard meets with Bryant shortly after and is told to add Rachael to his list of retirements, as she has
disappeared from the Tyrell Corporation headquarters. Deckard spots Rachael in the crowd but is attacked by Leon.
Rachael saves Deckard by killing Leon, and the two return to Deckard's apartment, where he prevents Rachael from
leaving and gets her to say she wants to have sex with him.
Roy arrives at Sebastian's apartment and tells Pris they are the only ones left. They gain Sebastian's help after
explaining their plight. Roy discovers that Sebastian is suffering from a genetic disorder that accelerates his aging.
Under the pretext of Sebastian informing Tyrell of a winning move in a game of correspondence chess that they are
playing, Roy and Sebastian enter Tyrell's penthouse. Roy demands an extension to his lifespan from his maker.
Tyrell explains that Tyrell Corporation never found a way to accomplish this. Roy asks absolution for his sins,
confessing that he has done "questionable things". Tyrell dismisses Roy's guilt, praising Roy's advanced design and
his accomplishments. He tells Roy to "revel in his time", to which Roy comments "Nothing the god of biomechanics
wouldn't let you into heaven for". Roy then holds Tyrell's head in his hands, gives him a kiss, and kills him.
Sebastian runs for the elevator, with Roy following. Roy rides the elevator down alone, and Sebastian is not seen
Deckard arrives at Sebastian's apartment and is ambushed by Pris. He retires her just as Roy returns. Roy punches
through a wall, grabbing Deckard's right arm, and breaks two of his fingers in retaliation for Zhora and Pris. Roy
releases Deckard and gives him time to run before he begins hunting him through the Bradbury Building. The
symptoms of Roy's limited lifespan worsen and his right hand begins failing; he jabs a nail through it to regain
control. Roy forces Deckard to the roof. As Deckard attempts to escape Roy, he leaps across to another building but
falls short and ends up hanging from a rain-slicked girder. As Deckard loses his grip, Roy, having made the same
leap effortlessly, seizes his arm and hauls him onto the roof. As Roy's life ends, he says "I've seen things you people
wouldn't believe: Attack ships on fire off the shoulder of Orion; I've watched c-beams glitter in the dark near the
Tannhauser Gate. All those moments will be lost in time; like tears in rain. Time to die."
''Blade Runner''
Gaff arrives and shouts over to Deckard, "It's too bad she won't live; but then again, who does?" Deckard returns to
his apartment to find Rachael alive. As they leave, Deckard finds an origami unicorn, a calling card left by Gaff.
Depending on the version, the film ends with Deckard and Rachael either leaving the apartment block to an uncertain
future or driving through an idyllic pastoral landscape.
Cast and characters
With the exception of Harrison Ford, Blade Runner used a number of less well-known actors such as Daryl Hannah
and Sean Young.
The cast includes:
• Harrison Ford as Rick Deckard. Coming off some success with Star Wars (1977), The Empire Strikes Back
(1980) and Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), Ford was looking for a role with dramatic depth. After Steven
Spielberg praised Ford, he was hired for Blade Runner. In 1992, Ford revealed, "Blade Runner is not one of my
favorite films. I tangled with Ridley."
Apart from friction with the director, Ford also disliked the voiceovers:
"When we started shooting it had been tacitly agreed that the version of the film that we had agreed upon was the
version without voiceover narration. It was a f**king [sic] nightmare. I thought that the film had worked without
the narration. But now I was stuck re-creating that narration. And I was obliged to do the voiceovers for people
that did not represent the director's interests."
"I went kicking and screaming to the studio to record it."
• Rutger Hauer as Roy Batty, the violent yet thoughtful leader of replicants;
regarded by Philip K. Dick as "the
perfect Batty—cold, Aryan, flawless".
Of the many films Hauer has done, Blade Runner is his favorite. As he
explained in a live chat in 2001, "BLADE RUNNER needs no explanation. It just IZZ [sic]. All of the best. There
is nothing like it. To be part of a real MASTERPIECE which changed the world's thinking. It's awesome."
• Sean Young as Rachael, Tyrell's assistant. Rachael is a replicant with memories that belonged to Tyrell's niece.
• Edward James Olmos as Gaff. Olmos used his diverse ethnic background, and some in-depth personal research, to
help create the fictional "Cityspeak" language his character uses in the film.
His initial addresses to Deckard at
the noodle bar is partly in Hungarian, and means, "Horse dick! No way. You are the Blade ... Blade Runner."
• Daryl Hannah as Pris, a "basic pleasure model". The development of her relationship with Roy Batty is shown as
a symbol of the replicants' underlying humanity.
• M. Emmet Walsh as Captain Bryant. Walsh lived up to his reputation as a great character actor with the role of a
hard-drinking, sleazy and underhanded police veteran typical of the film noir genre.
• Joe Turkel as Dr. Eldon Tyrell, a corporate mogul who has built an empire on genetically manipulated humanoid
• William Sanderson as J. F. Sebastian, a quiet and lonely genius who provides a compassionate yet compliant
portrait of humanity. J. F. is able to sympathize with the replicants' short lifespan because he has "Methuselah
Syndrome" (possibly a form of progeria), a genetic disease that causes faster aging and a short lifespan.
• Brion James as Leon Kowalski, a replicant masquerading as a waste disposal engineer; he shoots a Blade Runner
to escape, establishing the physical threat the replicants pose to their would-be captors.
• Joanna Cassidy as Zhora, a special-ops, undercover and assassin model. Cassidy portrays a strong female
replicant who has seen the worst humanity has to offer.
• Morgan Paull as Holden, the Blade Runner initially assigned to the case. He is shot by Leon while screening new
Tyrell employees in an attempt to find the replicants, prompting his replacement with Deckard.
• James Hong as Hannibal Chew, an elderly Asian geneticist specializing in synthetic eyes.
• Hy Pyke as Taffey Lewis. Pyke conveyed Lewis's sleaziness with ease and in a single take, something almost
unheard-of with Scott, whose drive for perfection resulted at times in double-digit takes.
''Blade Runner''
The Bradbury Building in Los Angeles was a
filming location.
Another location was the Ennis House; interior
shots were done in the studio.
Interest in adapting Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of
Electric Sheep? developed shortly after its 1968 publication.
According to Dick, director Martin Scorsese was interested in filming
the novel, but never optioned it.
Producer Herb Jaffe optioned it in
the early 1970s, but Dick wasn't impressed with the screenplay:
"Robert Jaffe, who wrote the screenplay, flew down here to Orange
County. I said to him then that it was so bad that I wanted to know if
he wanted me to beat him up there at the airport or wait till we got to
my apartment."
The screenplay by Hampton Fancher was optioned
in 1977.
Producer Michael Deeley became interested in Fancher's draft and
convinced director Ridley Scott to use it to create his first American
film. Scott had previously declined the project, but after leaving the
slow production of Dune, wanted a faster-paced project to take his
mind off his older brother's recent death.
He joined the project on
February 21, 1980, and managed to push up the promised financing
from Filmways from $13 million to $15 million. Fancher's script
focused more on environmental issues and less on issues of humanity
and faith, which weighed heavily in the novel. Scott wanted changes.
Fancher found a cinema treatment by William S. Burroughs for Alan
E. Nourse's novel The Bladerunner (1974), entitled Blade Runner (a
Scott liked the name, so Deeley obtained the rights to the
titles. Eventually he hired David Peoples to rewrite the script, and
Fancher left the job on December 21, 1980, over the issue, although he
later returned to contribute additional rewrites.
Having invested over $2.5 million in pre-production,
as the date of
commencement of principal photography neared, Filmways withdrew
financial backing. In ten days, Deeley secured $21.5 million in financing through a three way deal between The Ladd
Company (through Warner Bros.), the Hong Kong-based producer Sir Run Run Shaw, and Tandem Productions.
Philip K. Dick became concerned that no one had informed him about the film's production, which added to his
distrust of Hollywood.
After Dick criticized an early version of Hampton Fancher's script in an article written for
the Los Angeles Select TV Guide, the studio sent Dick the David Peoples rewrite.
Although Dick died shortly
before the film's release, he was pleased with the rewritten script, and with a twenty-minute special effects test reel
that was screened for him when he was invited to the studio. Dick enthused after the screening to Ridley Scott that
the world created for the film looked exactly as he had imagined it.
The motion picture was dedicated to Dick.
''Blade Runner''
Some of the costumes used in the movie, such as
Zhora's raincoat and Sean Young's dark suit
(Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame,
Blade Runner has numerous and deep similarities to Fritz Lang's
Metropolis, including a built up urban environment, in which the
wealthy literally live above the workers, dominated by a huge
building—the Stadtkrone Tower in Metropolis and the Tyrell Building
in Blade Runner. Special effects supervisor David Dryer used stills
from Metropolis when lining up Blade Runner's miniature building
Ridley Scott credits Edward Hopper's painting Nighthawks and the
French science fiction comic magazine Métal Hurlant (Heavy Metal),
to which the artist Moebius contributed, as stylistic mood sources.
He also drew on the landscape of "Hong Kong on a very bad day"
and the industrial landscape of his one-time home in the North East of
Scott hired as his conceptual artist Syd Mead, who, like
Scott, was influenced by Métal Hurlant.
Moebius was offered the
opportunity to assist in the pre-production of Blade Runner, but he
declined so that he could work on René Laloux's animated film Les
Maîtres du temps, a decision he later regretted.
Lawrence G. Paull
(production designer) and David Snyder (art director) realized Scott's
and Mead's sketches. Douglas Trumbull and Richard Yuricich
supervised the special effects for the film. Principal photography of Blade Runner began on March 9, 1981, and
ended four months later.
Casting the film proved troublesome, particularly for the lead role of Deckard. Screenwriter Hampton Fancher
envisioned Robert Mitchum as Deckard, and wrote the character's dialogue with Mitchum in mind.
Ridley Scott and the film's producers "spent months" meeting and discussing the role with Dustin Hoffman, who
eventually departed over differences in vision.
Harrison Ford was ultimately chosen for several reasons, including
his performance in the Star Wars films, Ford's interest in the story of Blade Runner, and discussions with Steven
Spielberg, who was finishing Raiders of the Lost Ark at the time and strongly praised Ford's work in the film.
According to production documents, a long list of actors were considered for the role, including, but not limited to,
Gene Hackman, Sean Connery, Jack Nicholson, Paul Newman, Clint Eastwood, Tommy Lee Jones, Arnold
Schwarzenegger, Al Pacino, and Burt Reynolds.
Casting the roles of Rachael and Pris was also challenging; a lengthy series of screen tests were filmed with
numerous actresses auditioning for the roles. Morgan Paull, who played the role of Deckard during the screen tests
with actresses auditioning for the role of Rachael and Pris, was cast as Deckard's fellow bounty hunter Holden based
on his performances in the tests.
Among the actresses tested for the role of Rachael was blonde Nina Axelrod,
who was Paull's recommendation.
Stacey Nelkin tried out for Pris, but was instead given another role in the film,
which was ultimately cut before filming.
Both Axelrod's and Nelkin's screen tests are featured in the 2007
documentary Dangerous Days: Making Blade Runner.
One role that was not difficult to cast was Roy Batty: Ridley Scott cast Rutger Hauer without having met him, based
solely on Hauer's performances in other films Scott had seen.
Joe Pantoliano, who later played the role of Cypher
in The Matrix, was considered for the role of Sebastian.
In 2006, Ridley Scott was asked "Who's the biggest pain in the arse you've ever worked with?" He replied: "It's got
to be Harrison ... he'll forgive me because now I get on with him. Now he's become charming. But he knows a lot,
that's the problem. When we worked together it was my first film up and I was the new kid on the block. But we
''Blade Runner''
made a good movie."
Ford said of Scott in 2000: "I admire his work. We had a bad patch there, and I'm over
More recently in 2006, Ford reflected on the production of the film saying: "What I remember more than
anything else when I see Blade Runner is not the 50 nights of shooting in the rain, but the voiceover ... I was still
obliged to work for these clowns that came in writing one bad voiceover after another."
Ridley Scott confirmed in
the summer 2007 issue of Total Film that Harrison Ford contributed to the Blade Runner Special Edition DVD,
having already done his interviews. "Harrison's fully on board", said Scott.
Although Blade Runner is ostensibly an action film, it operates on multiple dramatic and narrative levels; it is greatly
indebted to film noir conventions: the femme fatale, protagonist-narration (removed in later versions), dark and
shadowy cinematography, and the questionable moral outlook of the hero—in this case, extended to include
reflections upon the nature of his own humanity.

It is a literate science fiction film, thematically enfolding the philosophy of religion and moral implications of human
mastery of genetic engineering in the context of classical Greek drama and hubris,
and draws on Biblical images,
such as Noah's flood,
and literary sources, such as Frankenstein.
Linguistically, the theme of mortality is
subtly reiterated in the chess game between Roy and Tyrell based on the famous Immortal game of 1851,
Scott has said that was coincidental.
Dr. Tyrell polarizing his office window to control
the Sun implies the god-like powers of the Tyrell
Blade Runner delves into the implications of technology for the
environment and society by reaching to the past, using literature,
religious symbolism, classical dramatic themes, and film noir. This
tension, between past, present, and future is mirrored in the retrofitted
future of Blade Runner, which is high-tech and gleaming in places but
decayed and old elsewhere. Interviewing Ridley Scott in 2002, reporter
Lynn Barber in The Observer described the film as: "extremely dark,
both literally and metaphorically, with an oddly masochistic feel".
Director Scott said he "liked the idea of exploring pain" in the wake of
his brother's skin cancer death. "When he was ill, I used to go and visit
him in London, and that was really traumatic for me."
An aura of paranoia suffuses the film. Corporate power looms large, the police seem omnipresent, vehicle and
warning lights probe into buildings, and the consequences of huge biomedical power over the individual are
explored—especially the consequences for replicants of their programming. Control over the environment is
depicted as taking place on a vast scale, hand in hand with the absence of any natural life, with artificial animals
substituting for their extinct templates. This oppressive backdrop explains the frequently referenced migration of
humans to extra-terrestrial ("off-world") colonies.
The dystopian themes explored in "Blade Runner" are an early
example of cyberpunk concepts expanding into film. Eyes are a recurring motif, as are manipulated images, calling
into question reality and our ability to accurately perceive and remember it.


These thematic elements provide an atmosphere of uncertainty for Blade Runner's central theme of examining
humanity. In order to discover replicants, an empathy test is used, with a number of its questions focused on the
treatment of animals—it seems to be an essential indicator of someone's "humanity". The replicants are juxtaposed
with human characters who lack empathy, while the replicants appear to show compassion and concern for one
another at the same time as the mass of humanity on the streets is cold and impersonal. The film goes so far as to put
in doubt whether Deckard is a human, and forces the audience to reevaluate what it means to be human.
The question of whether Deckard is intended to be a human or a replicant has been an ongoing controversy since the
film's release.
Both Michael Deeley and Harrison Ford wanted Deckard to be human while Hampton Fancher
preferred ambiguity.
Ridley Scott has confirmed that in his vision Deckard is a replicant.

''Blade Runner''
unicorn dream sequence inserted into the Director's Cut coinciding with Gaff's parting-gift of an origami unicorn is
seen by many as showing Deckard is a replicant as Gaff could have access to Deckard's implanted memories.

The interpretation that Deckard is a replicant is challenged by others who believe unicorn imagery shows that the
characters, whether human or replicant, share the same dreams and recognise their affinity,
or that the absence of
a decisive answer is crucial to the film's main theme.
The inherent ambiguity and uncertainty of the film, as well
as its textual richness, have permitted viewers to see it from their own perspectives.
The novel and the film
As a result of Fancher's divergence from the novel, numerous re-writes before and throughout shooting the film, and
Ridley Scott's never having read the entire novel on which it was based, the film differed significantly from its
original inspiration.
Some of the themes in the novel that were minimized or entirely removed include: fertility/sterility of the population;
religion; mass media; Deckard's marriage; duality of Rachael and Pris; curiosity/fear of the psychological
implications of sex with androids; Deckard's uncertainty that he is human; and real versus synthetic pets and
Philip K. Dick refused an offer of $400,000 to write a novelization of the Blade Runner screenplay, saying: "[I was]
told the cheapo novelization would have to appeal to the twelve-year-old audience" and "[it] would have probably
been disastrous to me artistically." He added, "That insistence on my part of bringing out the original novel and not
doing the novelization—they were just furious. They finally recognized that there was a legitimate reason for
reissuing the novel, even though it cost them money. It was a victory not just of contractual obligations but of
theoretical principles."
In the end, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? was reprinted as a tie-in, with the film
poster as a cover and the original title in parentheses below the Blade Runner title.
The producers of the film arranged for a screening of some special effects rough cuts for Philip K. Dick shortly
before he died in early 1982. Despite his well known skepticism of Hollywood in principle, he became quite
enthusiastic about the film. He said, "I saw a segment of Douglas Trumbull's special effects for Blade Runner on the
KNBC-TV news. I recognized it immediately. It was my own interior world. They caught it perfectly." He also
approved of the film's script, saying, "After I finished reading the screenplay, I got the novel out and looked through
it. The two reinforce each other, so that someone who started with the novel would enjoy the movie and someone
who started with the movie would enjoy the novel."
Blade Runner was released in 1,290 theaters on June 25, 1982. That date was chosen by producer Alan Ladd, Jr.
because his previous highest-grossing films (Star Wars and Alien) had a similar opening date (May 25) in 1977 and
1979, making the date his "lucky day".
The gross for the opening weekend was a disappointing $6.15 million.
A significant factor in the film's rather poor box office performance was that its release coincided with other science
fiction film releases, including The Thing, Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, and, most significantly, E.T. the
Extra-Terrestrial, which dominated box office revenues that summer.
Film critics were polarized as some felt the story had taken a back seat to special effects and that it was not the
action/adventure the studio had advertised. Others acclaimed its complexity and predicted it would stand the test of
In the United States, a general criticism was its slow pacing that detracts from other strengths;
Sheila Benson
from the Los Angeles Times called it "Blade crawler", while Pat Berman in State and Columbia Record described it
as "science fiction pornography".
Roger Ebert praised both the original and the Director's cut version of Blade
Runner's visuals and recommended it for that reason; however, he found the human story clichéd and a little thin.
In 2007, upon release of The Final Cut, Roger Ebert somewhat revised his original opinion of the film and added it
''Blade Runner''
to his list of Great Movies, saying "I have been assured that my problems in the past with "Blade Runner" represent a
failure of my own taste and imagination, but if the film was perfect, why has Sir Ridley continued to tinker with
Blade Runner has won and been nominated for the following awards:
Year Award Category Nominee Result
1982 British Society of Cinematographers Best Cinematography Award Jordan Cronenweth Nominated
1982 Los Angeles Film Critics Association
Best Cinematography Jordan Cronenweth Won
1983 BAFTA Film Award Best Cinematography Jordan Cronenweth Won
Best Costume Design Charles Knode & Michael Kaplan Won
Best Production Design/Art
Lawrence G. Paull Won
Best Film Editing Terry Rawlings Nominated
Best Make Up Artist Marvin Westmore Nominated
Best Score Vangelis Nominated
Best Sound Peter Pennell, Bud Alper, Graham V. Hartstone,
Gerry Humphreys
Best Special Visual Effects Douglas Trumbull, Richard Yuricich, David Dryer Nominated
1983 Hugo Award Best Dramatic Presentation Blade Runner Won
1983 London Critics Circle Film Awards Special Achievement Award Lawrence G. Paull, Douglas Trumbull, Syd Mead Won
1983 Golden Globes Best Original Score - Motion
Vangelis Nominated
1983 Academy Awards Best Art Direction - Set
Lawrence G. Paull, David L. Snyder, Linda
Best Effects, Visual Effects Douglas Trumbull, Richard Yuricich, David Dryer Nominated
1983 Saturn Award Best Science Fiction Film Blade Runner Nominated
Best Director Ridley Scott Nominated
Best Special Effects Douglas Trumbull, Richard Yuricich Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Rutger Hauer Nominated
1983 Fantasporto International Fantasy Film
Best Film – Ridley Scott Nominated
1993 Fantasporto International Fantasy Film
Best Film – Ridley Scott (Director's cut) Nominated
1994 Saturn Award Best Genre Video Release Blade Runner (Director's cut) Nominated
2008 Saturn Award Best DVD Special Edition
Blade Runner (5 Disc Ultimate Collector's Edition) Won
''Blade Runner''
Lists of the best films
Recognitions for Blade Runner include:
• British movie magazine Empire voted it the "Best Science Fiction Film Ever" in 2007.
• In 2002, Blade Runner was voted the 8th greatest film of all time in Channel 4's 100 Greatest Films poll.
• New Scientist readers voted it as the "all-time favourite science fiction" film in October 2008.
• In 2010, IGN voted Blade Runner number 1 in its list of "Top 25 Sci-Fi Movies of All Time".
Year Presenter Title Rank Notes
2008 Empire The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time 20
American Film Institute (AFI) Top 10 Sci-fi Films of All Time 6
2007 AFI's 100 Years…100 Movies 97

2006 Total Film's Readers 100 Greatest Movies of All Time 32
2005 Total Film's Editors 47
Time Magazine's Critics "All-TIME" 100 Best Movies None


2004 The Guardian, Scientists Top 10 Sci-fi Films of All Time 1


2003 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die None
2002 50 Klassiker, Film
Online Film Critics Society (OFCS) Top 100 Sci-fi Films of the Past 100 Years 2
Cultural influence
A police spinner flying beside huge advertising-laden skyscrapers. These special effects
are benchmarks that have influenced many subsequent science-fiction films.
While not initially a success with North
American audiences, the film was
popular internationally and became a
cult film.
The film's dark style and
futuristic design have served as a
benchmark and its influence can be
seen in many subsequent science
fiction films, anime, video games, and
television programs.
For example,
Ronald D. Moore and David Eick, the
producers of the re-imagining of
Battlestar Galactica, have both cited
Blade Runner as one of the major
influences for the show. Blade Runner
continues to reflect modern trends and concerns, and an increasing number consider it one of the greatest science
fiction films of all time.
The film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry in
1993 and is frequently used in university courses.
In 2007, it was named the 2nd most visually influential film of
all time by the Visual Effects Society.
Blade Runner is one of the most musically sampled films of the 20th century,
and inspired the Grammy
nominated song "More Human than Human" by White Zombie.
The 2009 album, I, Human, by Singaporean band
Deus Ex Machina makes numerous references to the genetic engineering and cloning themes from the film, and even
''Blade Runner''
feature a track entitled "Replicant".
Blade Runner has influenced adventure games, such as Rise of the Dragon,


Beneath a Steel
Flashback: The Quest for Identity,
the anime series Bubblegum Crisis,

the role-playing game
the first-person shooter Perfect Dark,
and the Syndicate series of video games.

The film
is also cited as a major influence on Warren Spector,
designer of the computer-game Deus Ex, which both in its
visual rendering and plot displays evidence of the film's influence. The look of the film (darkness, neon lights and
opacity of vision) is easier to render than complicated backdrops, making it a popular choice for game designers.
Blade Runner has also been the subject of parody, such as the comics Blade Bummer by Crazy comics,
Rubber by Steve Gallacci,
and the Red Dwarf special episodes, "Back To Earth".


Blade Runner curse
Among the folklore that has developed around the film over the years has been the belief that the film was a curse to
the companies whose logos were displayed prominently as product placements in some scenes.
While they were
market leaders at the time, more than half experienced disastrous setbacks during the next decade. RCA, which at
one time was the United States' leading consumer electronics and communications conglomerate, was bought out by
one-time parent General Electric in 1985, and dismantled. Atari, which dominated the home video game market
when the film came out, never recovered from the next year's downturn in the industry, and by the 1990s had ceased
to represent anything more than a brand, a back catalogue of games and some legacy computers. Atari today is an
entirely different firm, using the former company's name. Cuisinart similarly went bankrupt in 1989, though it lives
on under new ownership. The Bell System monopoly was broken up that same year, and most of the resulting
Regional Bell operating companies have since changed their names and merged back with each other and other
companies to form the new AT&T. Pan Am suffered from the terrorist bombing/destruction of Pan Am Flight 103
and after a decade of mounting losses, finally went bankrupt in 1991 with the falloff in overseas travel caused by the
Gulf War. The Coca-Cola Company suffered losses during its failed introduction of New Coke in 1985, but soon
afterward regained its market share.
Future Noir
Before the film's principal photography began, Cinefantastique magazine commissioned Paul M. Sammon to write
an article about Blade Runner's production, which became the book Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner
(referred to as the "Blade Runner Bible" by many of the film's fans).
The book chronicles the evolution of Blade
Runner as a film, and focuses on film-set politics, especially the British director's experiences with his first American
film crew, of which producer Alan Ladd, Jr. has said, "Harrison wouldn't speak to Ridley and Ridley wouldn't speak
to Harrison. By the end of the shoot Ford was 'ready to kill Ridley', said one colleague. He really would have taken
him on if he hadn't been talked out of it."
Future Noir has short cast biographies and quotations about their
experiences in making Blade Runner, as well as many photographs of the film's production, and preliminary
sketches. The cast chapter was deleted from the first edition; it is available online. A second edition of Future Noir
was published in 2007.
The Blade Runner soundtrack by Vangelis is a dark melodic combination of classic composition and futuristic
synthesizers which mirrors the film-noir retro-future envisioned by Ridley Scott. Vangelis, fresh from his Academy
Award winning score for Chariots of Fire,
composed and performed the music on his synthesizers.
He also
made use of various chimes and the vocals of collaborator Demis Roussos.
Another memorable sound is the
haunting tenor sax solo "Love Theme" by British saxophonist Dick Morrissey, who appeared on many of Vangelis'
albums. Ridley Scott also used "Memories of Green" from Vangelis' album See You Later (an orchestral version of
''Blade Runner''
which Scott would later use in his film Someone To Watch Over Me).
Along with Vangelis' compositions and ambient textures, the film's sound scape also features a track by the Japanese
Ensemble Nipponia ('Ogi No Mato' or 'The Folding Fan as a Target' from the Nonesuch Records release "Traditional
Vocal And Instrumental Music") and a track by harpist Gail Laughton ("Harps of the Ancient Temples" from Laurel
Despite being well received by fans and critically acclaimed and nominated in 1983 for a BAFTA and Golden Globe
as best original score, and the promise of a soundtrack album from Polydor Records in the end titles of the film, the
release of the official soundtrack recording was delayed for over a decade. There are two official releases of the
music from Blade Runner. In light of the lack of a release of an album, the New American Orchestra recorded an
orchestral adaptation in 1982 which bore little resemblance to the original. Some of the film tracks would in 1989
surface on the compilation Vangelis: Themes, but not until the 1992 release of the Director's Cut version would a
substantial amount of the film's score see commercial release.
These delays and poor reproductions led to the production of many bootleg recordings over the years. A bootleg tape
surfaced in 1982 at science fiction conventions and became popular given the delay of an official release of the
original recordings, and in 1993 "Off World Music, Ltd." created a bootleg CD that would prove more
comprehensive than Vangelis' official CD in 1994.
A disc from "Gongo Records" features most of the same
material, but with slightly better sound quality. In 2003, two other bootlegs surfaced, the "Esper Edition", closely
preceded by "Los Angeles: November 2019". The double disc "Esper Edition" combined tracks from the official
release, the Gongo boot and the film itself. Finally "2019" provided a single disc compilation almost wholly
consisting of ambient sound from the film, padded out with some sounds from the Westwood game Blade Runner.
A set with three CDs of Blade Runner-related Vangelis music was released on December 10, 2007. Titled Blade
Runner Trilogy, the first CD contains the same tracks as the 1994 official soundtrack release, the second CD contains
previously unreleased music from the movie, and the third CD is all newly composed music from Vangelis, inspired
by, and in the spirit of the movie.
Seven different versions of Blade Runner have been shown:
• Original workprint version (1982, 113 minutes) shown to audience test previews in Denver and Dallas in March
1982. It was also seen in 1990 and 1991 in Los Angeles and San Francisco as a Director's Cut without Scott's
approval. Negative responses to the test previews led to the modifications resulting in the U.S. theatrical

while positive response to the showings in 1990 and 1991 pushed the studio to approve work on
an official director's cut.
It was re-released with 5-disc Ultimate Edition in 2007.
• A San Diego Sneak Preview shown only once in May 1982, which was almost identical to the Domestic Cut
with three extra scenes.
• The U.S. theatrical version (1982, 116 minutes), known as the original version or Domestic Cut, released on
Betamax and VHS in 1983 and laserdisc in 1987.
• The International Cut (1982, 117 minutes) also known as the "Criterion Edition" or uncut version, included
more violent action scenes than the U.S. theatrical version. Although initially unavailable in the U.S. and
distributed in Europe and Asia via theatrical and local Warner Home Video laserdisc releases, it was later released
on VHS and Criterion Collection laserdisc in North America, and re-released in 1992 as a "10th Anniversary
• The U.S. broadcast version (1986, 114 minutes), the U.S. theatrical version edited for violence, profanity and
nudity by CBS to meet broadcast restrictions.
• The Ridley Scott-approved (1992, 116 minutes) Director's Cut; prompted by the unauthorized 1990 – 1
workprint theatrical release and made available on VHS and laserdisc in 1993, and on DVD in 1997. Significant
''Blade Runner''
changes from the theatrical version include removal of Deckard's voice-over, re-insertion of a unicorn sequence
and removal of the studio-imposed happy ending. Ridley did provide extensive notes and consultation to Warner
Bros. through film preservationist Michael Arick who was put in charge of creating the Director's Cut.
• Ridley Scott's Final Cut (2007, 117 minutes), or the "25th Anniversary Edition", released by Warner Bros.
theatrically on October 5, 2007, and subsequently released on DVD, HD DVD, and Blu-ray in December 2007
(U.K. December 3; U.S. December 18).
This is the only version over which Ridley Scott had complete artistic
control as he was not directly in charge of the Director's Cut.
In conjunction with the Final Cut, extensive
documentary and other materials were produced for the home video releases culminating in a five-disc "Ultimate
Collector's Edition" release by Charles de Lauzirika.
Derivative works
On the Edge of Blade Runner (2000)
On the Edge of Blade Runner (55 minutes) was produced in 2000 by Nobles Gate Ltd. (for Channel 4), was directed
by Andrew Abbott and hosted/written by Mark Kermode. Interviews with production staff, including Scott, give
details of the creative process and the turmoil during preproduction. Stories from Paul M. Sammon and Hampton
Fancher provide insight into Philip K. Dick and the origins of Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?
Interwoven are cast interviews (with the notable exceptions of Harrison Ford and Sean Young), which convey some
of the difficulties of making the film (including an exacting director and humid, smoggy weather). There is also a
tour of some locations, most notably the Bradbury Building and the Warner Bros. backlot that became the LA 2019
streets, which look very different from Scott's dark vision.
The documentary then details the test screenings and the resulting changes (the voice over, the happy ending, and the
deleted Holden hospital scene), the special effects, the soundtrack by Vangelis, and the unhappy relationship
between the filmmakers and the investors which culminated in Deeley and Scott being fired but still working on the
film. The question of whether or not Deckard is a replicant surfaces.
Future Shocks (2003)
Future Shocks (27 minutes) is a more recent documentary from 2003 by TVOntario (part of their Film 101 series
using footage compiled over the years for Saturday Night at the Movies). It includes interviews with executive
producer Bud Yorkin, Syd Mead, and the cast, this time with Sean Young, but still without Harrison Ford. There is
extensive commentary by science fiction author Robert J. Sawyer and from film critics, as the documentary focuses
on the themes, visual impact and influence of the film. Edward James Olmos describes Ford's participation, and
personal experiences during filming are related by Young, Walsh, Cassidy and Sanderson. They also relate a story
about crew members creating T-shirts that took pot shots at Scott. The different versions of the film are critiqued and
the accuracy of its predictions of the future are discussed.
Dangerous Days (2007)
Dangerous Days: Making Blade Runner is an approximately three and a half hour long documentary directed and
produced by Charles de Lauzirika for the 2007 Final Cut version of the film. It appears with every edition of The
Final Cut on DVD, HD DVD and Blu-ray. (It is a DVD format disc, even in the HD DVD and Blu-ray editions). It
was culled from over 80 interviews, including Harrison Ford, Sean Young, Rutger Hauer, Edward James Olmos,
Jerry Perenchio, Bud Yorkin and Ridley Scott, and also contains several alternate and deleted shots within the
context of the documentary itself.

''Blade Runner''
The documentary consists of eight chapters, each covering a portion of the film-making—or in the case of the final
chapter, the film's controversial legacy. The chapters and their length:
• Incept Date – 1980: Screenwriting and Dealmaking – 30:36
• Blush Response: Assembling the Cast – 22:46
• A Good Start: Designing the Future – 26:34
• Eye of the Storm: Production Begins – 28:48
• Living in Fear: Tension on the Set – 29:23
• Beyond the Window: Visual effects – 28:49
• In Need of Magic: Post-Production Problems – 23:05
• To Hades and Back: Reaction and Resurrection – 24:12
All Our Variant Futures (2007)
All Our Variant Futures: From Workprint to Final Cut (29 minutes), produced by Paul Prischman, appears on Disc 5
of the Blade Runner Ultimate Collector's Edition and provides an overview of the film's multiple versions and their
origins, as well as detailing the seven year-long restoration, enhancement and remastering process behind The Final
Cut. Included are interviews with director Ridley Scott, restoration producer Charles de Lauzirika, restoration
consultant Kurt P. Galvao, restoration VFX supervisor John Scheele and Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner
author Paul M. Sammon. Behind-the-scenes footage documenting the restoration—from archival work done in 2001
through the 2007 filming of Joanna Cassidy and Benjamin Ford for The Final Cut's digital fixes—are seen
Additional featurettes (2007)
In addition to Dangerous Days: Making Blade Runner, a variety of other supplemental featurettes produced and
directed by Charles de Lauzirika are included both the four- and five-disc collector's editions of Blade Runner
released by Warner Home Video in 2007:
• The Electric Dreamer: Remembering Philip K. Dick – 14:22
• Sacrificial Sheep: The Novel Vs. The Film – 15:07
• Philip K. Dick: The Blade Runner Interviews – 23:03
• Signs of the Times: Graphic Design – 13:40
• Fashion Forward: Wardrobe and Styling – 20:40
• Screen Tests: Rachael and Pris – 8:54
• The Light That Burns: Remembering Jordan Cronenweth – 19:58
• Deleted & Alternate Scenes – 45:47
• Promoting Dystopia: Rendering the Poster Art – 9:35
• Deck-A-Rep: The True Nature of Rick Deckard – 9:30
• Nexus Generation: Fans and Filmmakers – 21:49
• 1982 Promotional Featurettes – 36:21
''Blade Runner''
K.W. Jeter, a friend of Philip K. Dick, has written three official, authorised Blade Runner novels that continue Rick
Deckard's story, attempting to resolve many differences between Blade Runner and the source novel Do Androids
Dream of Electric Sheep?
• Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human (1995)
• Blade Runner 3: Replicant Night (1996)
• Blade Runner 4: Eye and Talon (2000)
In Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human, Eldon Tyrell's niece, Sarah, heads the corporation.
Ridley Scott apparently toyed with the idea of a sequel film, which would have been titled Metropolis. The project
was ultimately shelved due to rights issues. A script was also written for a proposed sequel titled Blade Runner
Down, which would have been based on K. W. Jeter's first Blade Runner sequel novel.
At the 2007 Comic-Con,
Scott again announced that he was considering a sequel to the film.
Eagle Eye co-writer Travis Wright worked
with producer Bud Yorke for a few years on the project. His colleague John Glenn, who left the film by 2008, stated
the script explores the nature of the off-world colonies as well as what happens to the Tyrell Corporation in the wake
of its founder's death.
Blade Runner co-author David Peoples wrote the 1998 action film Soldier, which was refered to by him as a
"sidequel"/spiritual successor to Blade Runner.
In June 2009, The New York Times reported that Ridley Scott, together with his brother Tony Scott, was working on
a prequel to Blade Runner. The prequel, Purefold, will be a series of 5–10 minute shorts, aimed first at the web and
then perhaps television, and will be set at a point in time before 2019. Due to rights issues, the series will not be
linked too closely to the characters or events of the 1982 film.
Archie Goodwin scripted the comic book adaptation, A Marvel Comics Super Special: Blade Runner, published
September 1982. The Jim Steranko cover leads into a 45-page adaptation illustrated by the team of Al Williamson,
Carlos Garzon, Dan Green and Ralph Reese. This adaptation includes one possible explanation of the title's
significance in story context: the narrative line, "Blade runner. You're always movin' on the edge".
In 2009, BOOM! Studios published a 24-issue miniseries comic book adaptation of the Blade Runner source novel,
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?
In April 2010, Boom! Studios announced a follow up comic was in
production. Dust To Dust will be a four issue miniseries starting on May 26, 2010 and will be written by Chris
Robertson and drawn by Robert Adler.
Video games
There are two video games based on the film, one for Commodore 64, Sinclair ZX Spectrum and Amstrad CPC
(1985) by CRL Group PLC based on the music by Vangelis (due to licensing issues), and another action adventure
PC game (1997) by Westwood Studios. The Westwood PC game featured new characters and branching storylines
based on the Blade Runner world. Eldon Tyrell, Gaff, Leon, Rachael, Chew, and J.F. Sebastian are seen, and their
voice files were recorded by the original actors. DNA Row, the Eye Works, the Police Headquarters, Howie Lee's,
the Tyrell Corporation building, and J.F. Sebastian's hotel are faithfully replicated.
The events portrayed in the
1997 game occur not after, but in parallel to those in the film. The player assumes the role of McCoy, another
replicant-hunter working at the same time as Deckard. Although Deckard is seen in photo evidence and referred to in
Deckard and McCoy never meet, preserving the canon of the film and the independence of the game

''Blade Runner''
The PC game featured a non-linear plot, non-player characters that each ran in their own independent AI, and an
unusual pseudo-3D engine (which eschewed polygonal solids in favor of voxel elements) that did not require the use
of a 3D accelerator card to play the game.
A prototype board game was also created in California (1982) that had game play similar to Scotland Yard.
Television series
Though not an official sequel to Blade Runner, Total Recall 2070 was initially planned as a spin-off of the movie
Total Recall but transformed into a hybrid of that movie and Blade Runner.
There are many similarities between
the television series and the Blade Runner universe.
The series takes place in a dark, crowded, industrial, and
cosmopolitan setting. David Hume is a senior detective for the Citizens Protection Bureau (CPB) who is partnered
with Ian Farve, an Alpha Class android. The series focused on questions such as the nature of humanity and the
rights of androids. The series was based on two works by Philip K. Dick: "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale"
(the basis for the film Total Recall), and Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (the basis for Blade Runner).
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• Blade Runner (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=bladerunner.htm) at Box Office Mojo
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• BRmovie (http:// www. brmovie.com)
''Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''
Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi
Star Wars Episode VI:
Return of the Jedi
Theatrical poster
Directed by Richard Marquand
Produced by Howard Kazanjian
George Lucas (executive)
Rick McCallum
(Special Edition)
Screenplay by Lawrence Kasdan
George Lucas
Story by George Lucas
Starring Mark Hamill
Harrison Ford
Carrie Fisher
Billy Dee Williams
Anthony Daniels
Kenny Baker
Peter Mayhew
David Prowse
Ian McDiarmid
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Alan Hume, BSC
Editing by Sean Barton
Duwayne Dunham
Marcia Lucas
Studio Lucasfilm
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) May 25, 1983
Running time 131 minutes
Country United States
''Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''
Language English
Budget $32.5 million
Gross revenue $475,106,177
Preceded by Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back
Followed by Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace
Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi is a 1983 American science fiction film directed by Richard Marquand
and written by George Lucas and Lawrence Kasdan. It is the third film released in the Star Wars saga, and the sixth
and final in terms of internal chronology. It is the first film to use THX technology.
The film is set approximately one year after Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back.
The evil Galactic
Empire, with the help of the villainous Darth Vader, is building a second Death Star in order to crush the Rebel
Alliance. Since Emperor Palpatine plans to personally oversee the final stages of its construction, the Rebel Fleet
launches a full-scale attack on the Death Star in order to prevent its completion and kill Palpatine, effectively
bringing an end to the Empire. Meanwhile, Luke Skywalker, a Rebel leader and Jedi Knight, struggles to bring his
father, Darth Vader, himself a fallen Jedi, back from the Dark Side of the mystical Force.
The film was released in theaters on May 25, 1983, receiving mostly positive reviews. The film grossed over $475
million worldwide. Several home video and theatrical releases and revisions to the film followed over the next
20 years. It was the last Star Wars film released theatrically until Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace began
the prequel trilogy in 1999.
Luke Skywalker, having fashioned himself as a Jedi Knight, initiates a plan to rescue the frozen Han Solo from the
crime lord Jabba the Hutt with the help of Princess Leia, Lando Calrissian, Chewbacca, C-3PO, and R2-D2. Leia
infiltrates Jabba's palace on Tatooine disguised as a bounty hunter and releases Han from his carbonite prison, but is
caught and forced to serve as Jabba's slave. Luke arrives the next morning and allows himself to be captured, after
surviving an attempted feeding to the Rancor. Jabba sentences Luke and Han to be fed to the monstrous Sarlacc. As
he is about to be put to death, Luke breaks free, receives a new lightsaber from R2-D2, and a large battle erupts; in
the ensuing chaos, Leia strangles Jabba to death with her slave chains, Han inadvertently knocks Boba Fett, the
bounty hunter who captured him, into the gaping maw of the Sarlacc, and Luke, escaping with his allies, destroys
Jabba's sail barge. As Han and Leia rendezvous with the other Rebels, Luke returns to Dagobah where he finds that
Yoda is dying. With his last breaths, Yoda confirms that the evil Darth Vader is Luke's father, that Luke must
confront him again to become a true Jedi Knight and mentions "another Skywalker". The spirit of Obi-Wan Kenobi
reveals that Darth Vader was once Anakin Skywalker and that the "other Skywalker" Yoda spoke of is Luke's twin
sister. Luke then realizes that Leia is his sister, and this is confirmed by Obi-Wan who congratulates Luke for his
intuition whilst warning Luke to hide this realisation from his conscious mind as these thoughts may be read by his
The Rebel Alliance learn that the Empire has been constructing a new Death Star, larger and more powerful than the
first. In a plan to destroy the new weapon, Han is elected to lead a strike team to destroy the battle station's shield
generator on the forest moon of Endor, allowing a squadron of starfighters to enter the incomplete superstructure and
destroy the station from within. Returning from Dagobah, Luke joins the strike team along with Leia and the others.
The strike team uses a captured Imperial shuttle to get to Endor, so that the Imperial ships they pass will think they're
one of them. However, Darth Vader senses Luke's presence on the shuttle and knows they're Rebels, but lets them
through anyway so that they will be ambushed by the Imperial forces expecting them and lying in wait on Endor.
Luke, sensing Darth Vader's presence, fears he may be endangering the mission by his presence.
''Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''
On Endor, Luke and his companions encounter a primitive yet intelligent tribe of Ewoks (who mistake C-3PO for a
god, so that when Luke uses the force to make C-3PO levitate, the Ewoks free Luke, Han, and R2D2) and form an
alliance with them. Later, Luke confesses to Leia that Vader is their father, that she is his sister, and that he is
leaving to confront Vader one more time, believing that there is still good in him. Leia tells Luke that she has
somehow always sensed and known that he was her brother. Luke surrenders to Imperial troops, so that they will
bring him to Vader. He then tries to convince Vader to turn from the dark side, but Vader says it is too late for him,
and so he takes Luke to the Death Star to meet the evil Emperor Palpatine.
Palpatine reveals to Luke that his allies on Endor, as well as Lando's flight team trying to penetrate the Death Star,
are both walking into traps. Back on Endor, the Rebels are captured by Imperial forces, but a surprise counterattack
by the Ewoks allows the Rebels to fight back. During the strike team's assault, Lando leads the Rebel fleet in the
Millennium Falcon to the Death Star, only to find the station's shield is still up, and the Imperial Fleet waiting for
them. As fighting between the fleets ensue, Palpatine tempts Luke to give in to his anger and join the dark side of the
Force. A lightsaber duel between Luke and Vader erupts, during which Vader throws his lightsaber at Luke, who is
on a higher platform, and causes the platform to collapse. It is during his search for Luke, that Vader probes Luke's
mind and learns that Luke has a sister. When Vader suggests she would turn to the dark side instead, Luke responds
with an impassioned attack, slicing off his hand. However, realizing that his attack is acquiring a dark character
unbecoming his status as a Jedi Knight he breaks off his attack and, despite Palpatine's goading, spares his father and
declares himself to be a Jedi. Enraged, Palpatine begins to slowly kill Luke with Force lightning. Unable to bear the
sight of his son's torture any longer, Anakin resurfaces and comes to Luke's assistance. He grasps Palpatine and casts
him down a reactor shaft to his death, but is mortally wounded by Palpatine's lightning. At his request, Luke removes
Anakin's mask to look into the eyes of the pale, withered man that is his father. Despite Luke's promise that he will
save his father, Anakin declines, saying that Luke already has. Having seen his son with his own eyes for the first
and last time, Anakin Skywalker dies, finally at peace.
The redeemed Anakin Skywalker, portrayed by Sebastian
Meanwhile, on Endor, the strike team, with the help of the
Ewoks, defeats the Imperial forces (after a long battle during
which many Ewoks and Stormtroopers are killed) and finally
destroys the shield generator, allowing the Rebel fleet to
launch a final assault on the Death Star. Lando leads the
remaining ships deep into the station's core and fires at the
main reactor, causing it to collapse, which slowly engulfs the
Death Star in exploding flames. Luke escapes on an Imperial
shuttle with his father's armor before the Death Star explodes,
and Lando escapes in the Millennium Falcon. On Endor, Han begins to think that Leia is in love with Luke rather
than him. However, Leia tells him that Luke is her brother, relieving Han, and they share a kiss. That evening, Luke
returns to Endor and cremates his father's armor on a funeral pyre. The entire galaxy celebrates the fall of the
Empire. During the Rebels' own celebration on Endor, Luke catches sight of the spiritual figures of Obi-Wan
Kenobi, Yoda, and his redeemed father, Anakin Skywalker, who watch over them with pride.
''Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''
• Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker: In the year since his encounter with Darth Vader at Cloud City in The Empire
Strikes Back, Luke has been training further as a Jedi. He has yet to return to Yoda on Dagobah, still in the
process of rescuing Han Solo.
• Harrison Ford as Han Solo: Frozen in carbonite by Darth Vader at Cloud City, and taken to Jabba the Hutt, Han is
freed by Princess Leia, only to be sentenced to death by Jabba the Hutt. He escapes with the group after Luke
arrives at Jabba's palace.
• Carrie Fisher as Princess Leia Organa: A former princess from Alderaan, Leia has been aiding Luke in his search
for Han. It is later revealed that she is actually Luke's twin sister.
• Billy Dee Williams as Lando Calrissian: After Cloud City was taken over by the Galactic Empire, Lando joined
the Rebel Alliance, and aided Luke in his search for Han Solo.
• Anthony Daniels as C-3PO: Luke Skywalker's protocol droid, Threepio is instrumental in establishing friendly
relations between the Rebels and the Ewoks on Endor, who mistakenly believe him to be a god.
• Kenny Baker as R2-D2: Luke Skywalker's astromech droid.
• Peter Mayhew as Chewbacca: Han Solo's Wookiee co-pilot and close friend.
• David Prowse as Darth Vader: Vader has been relentlessly continuing his search for Luke, but he is set off course
when the Emperor sends him to Endor to oversee the construction of the new Death Star and to prepare for the
Rebel strike. James Earl Jones provided the voice of Vader.
• Ian McDiarmid as Emperor Palpatine/Darth Sidious: Simply known as "The Emperor", Palpatine is the supreme
ruler of the Galactic Empire and the Dark Lord of the Sith, Darth Sidious, and has been pleased by the success of
the Imperial offensive, and the plight of the Rebel Alliance. He now plans to destroy the Alliance with the new
Death Star and turn Luke Skywalker to the dark side of the Force.
• Sebastian Shaw as Anakin Skywalker: Luke's father, Anakin, was a Jedi Knight before being seduced by the dark
side of the Force and becoming Darth Vader. Shaw was partly replaced by Hayden Christensen in the 2004 DVD
release of the film.
• Alec Guinness as Obi-Wan "Ben" Kenobi: Struck down by Vader on the first Death Star four years earlier,
Obi-Wan continues to offer guidance to Luke as a Jedi spirit.
• Frank Oz performing Yoda. After 900 years of training Jedi, Yoda finally prepares to resign his soul and becomes
one with the Force.
• Denis Lawson as Wedge Antilles: Wedge is now the leader of Rogue Squadron, and he prepares to aid (now
General) Lando Calrissian in the fighter attack on the Death Star. This is the only film in the original trilogy in
which Lawson's name is spelled correctly in the ending credits. In the other films, his name is misspelled
• Kenneth Colley as Admiral Piett: Piett, one of the few officers under Vader's command to survive his wrath,
commands the Imperial Fleet at Endor from the Executor. He dies when a damaged Rebel A-Wing crashes into
the Executor's bridge, causing her to collapse into the Death Star and explode.
• Warwick Davis as Wicket: An Ewok who leads Leia and eventually her friends to the Ewok tribe.
• Jeremy Bulloch as Boba Fett: A bounty hunter who, after capturing and delivering Han Solo to Jabba the Hutt,
stays on at the crime lord's palace and engages in the battle above the Sarlacc. As Boba Fett is about to kill Luke
Skywalker, Han Solo accidentally activates Fett's jetpack, which goes haywire and sends Fett into the mouth of
the Sarlacc.
Kenny Baker was originally cast as the Ewok Wicket, but was replaced by 11-year-old Warwick Davis after falling
ill with food poisoning on the morning of the shoot. Davis had no previous acting experience and was cast only after
his grandmother had discovered an open call for dwarfs for the new Star Wars film.
''Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''
With The Empire Strikes Back, George Lucas fought and won his battle for independence from Hollywood; as with
the previous film, Lucas personally funded Return of the Jedi.
Having quit the Directors Guild of America during
post-production of The Empire Strikes Back, it was no longer possible for Lucas to hire his long-time friend Steven
Spielberg as director.

David Lynch, with a Best Director nomination for the 1980 film The Elephant Man, was
approached by Lucas to helm Return of the Jedi, but he declined as he believed the film would be more Lucas's
vision than his own. David Lynch instead directed Dune.
David Cronenberg was also offered the chance to direct
the film, but he declined the offer to make Videodrome and The Dead Zone instead.
Lucas eventually chose Welsh
director Richard Marquand. Some reports have suggested that Lucas was so heavily involved in the shooting of
Return of the Jedi that he could be considered a second or a co-director. It is likely that he directed much of the
second unit work personally as the shooting threatened to go over schedule; this is a function Lucas had willingly
performed on previous occasions when he had only officially been producing a film (e.g. Raiders of the Lost Ark,
The Empire Strikes Back, More American Graffiti).
Lucas himself has admitted to being on the set frequently due
to Marquand's relative inexperience with special effects.
Although the working relationship between Lucas and
Marquand was said to be bad, Lucas has insisted that the opposite was true and praised Marquand for being a "very
nice person who worked well with actors".
Marquand did note that Lucas kept a conspicuous presence on set,
joking, "It is rather like trying to direct King Lear—with Shakespeare in the next room!"
The screenplay was written by Lawrence Kasdan and Lucas (with uncredited contributions by David Peoples and
Marquand), based on Lucas' story. Kasdan claims he told Lucas that Return of the Jedi was "a weak title", and Lucas
later decided to name the film Revenge of the Jedi.
Unusually, the screenplay itself was not created until rather late
in pre-production, well after a production schedule and budget had been created by Kazanjian and Marquand had
been hired. Instead, the production team relied on Lucas's story and rough draft in order to commence work with the
art department. When it came time to formally write a shooting script, Lucas, Kasdan, Marquand, and Kazanjian
spent two weeks in conference discussing ideas; Kasdan used tape transcripts of these meetings to then construct the
The issue of whether Harrison Ford would return for the final film arose during pre-production. Unlike the
other stars of the first film Ford had not contracted to do two sequels, and since the second film Raiders of the Lost
Ark had made him an even bigger star. Ford suggested that Han Solo be killed through self-sacrifice. Kasdan
concurred, saying it should happen near the beginning of the film to instill doubt as to whether the others would
survive, but Lucas was vehemently against it and rejected the concept.
Yoda was originally not meant to appear in
the film but Marquand strongly felt that returning to Dagobah was essential to resolve the dilemma raised by the
previous film.
The inclusion led Lucas to insert a scene in which Yoda confirms that Darth Vader is Luke's father
because, after a discussion with a children's psychologist, he did not want younger moviegoers to dismiss Vader's
claim as a lie.
Many ideas from the original script were left out or changed. For instance, the Ewoks were going to
be Wookiees,
the Millennium Falcon would be used in the arrival at the Forest moon of Endor instead of the
Death Star attack, and Obi-Wan Kenobi would return to life from his existence in the Force.
Gary Kurtz, who worked with George Lucas on The Empire Strikes Back, revealed in 2010 that the ongoing success
with Star Wars merchandise and toys led George Lucas to reconsider Lucas' idea to kill off the character of Han Solo
during action on Endor. Luke Skywalker was also to have walked off alone and exhausted like the hero in a
Spaghetti Western but these ideas were dropped and replaced with a happier ending by Lucas to encourage higher
merchandise sales.
''Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''
The heavy forest of Redwood National Park was used to film
the forests of Endor in Return of the Jedi.
Filming began on January 11, 1982 and lasted through May
20, 1982, a schedule six weeks shorter than The Empire
Strikes Back. Kazanjian's schedule pushed shooting as early as
possible in order to give Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) as
much time as possible to work on effects, and left some crew
members dubious of their ability to be fully prepared for the
Working on a budget of $32,500,000,
Lucas was
determined to keep the budget from skyrocketing the way it
had done on The Empire Strikes Back. Producer Howard
Kazanjian estimated that using ILM (owned wholly by
Lucasfilm) for special effects saved the production
approximately $18,000,000.
However, the fact that
Lucasfilm was a non-union company made acquiring shooting locations more difficult and more expensive, even
though Star Wars and The Empire Strikes Back had been big hits.
The project was given the working title Blue
Harvest with a tagline of "Horror Beyond Imagination." This disguised what the production crew was really filming
from fans and the prying eyes of the press and also prevented price gouging by service providers.
The first stage of production started with 78 days at Elstree Studios in England,
where the film occupied all nine
stages. The shoot commenced with a scene later deleted from the finished film where the heroes get caught in a
sandstorm as they leave Tatooine.
(This was the only major sequence cut from the film during editing.)
attempting to film Luke Skywalker's battle with the rancor beast, Lucas insisted on trying to create the scene in the
same style as Toho's Godzilla films by using a stunt performer inside a suit. The production team made several
attempts, but were unable to create an adequate result. Lucas eventually relented and decided to film the rancor as a
high-speed puppet.
In April, the crew moved to the Yuma Desert in Arizona for two weeks of Tatooine
Production then moved to the redwood forests of northern California near Crescent City where two
weeks were spent shooting the Endor forest exteriors, and then concluded at ILM in San Rafael, California for about
ten days of bluescreen shots. One of two "skeletal" post-production units shooting background matte plates spent a
day in Death Valley.
The other was a special Steadicam unit shooting forest backgrounds from June 15–17, 1982
for the speeder chase near the middle of the film.
Steadicam inventor Garrett Brown personally operated these
shots as he walked through a disguised path inside the forest shooting at one frame per second. By walking at about
5 mph (8 km/h) and projecting the footage at 24 frame/s, the motion seen in the film appears as if it were moving at
around 100 mph (160 km/h).
John Williams composed and conducted the film's musical score with performances by the London Symphony
Orchestra. Orchestration credits also include Thomas Newman. The initial release of the film's soundtrack was on
the RSO Records label in the United States. Sony Classical Records acquired the rights to the classic trilogy scores
in 2004 after gaining the rights to release the second trilogy soundtracks (The Phantom Menace and Attack of the
Clones). In the same year, Sony Classical re-pressed the 1997 RCA Victor release of Return of the Jedi along with
the other two films in the trilogy. The set was released with the new artwork mirroring the first DVD release of the
film. Despite the Sony digital re-mastering, which minimally improved the sound heard only on high-end stereos,
this 2004 release is essentially the same as the 1997 RCA Victor release.
''Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''
The infamous teaser poster titled Revenge of the
Jedi by Drew Struzan
Meanwhile, special effects work at ILM quickly stretched the company
to its operational limits. While the R&D work and experience gained
from the previous two films in the trilogy allowed for increased
efficiency, this was offset by the desire to have the closing film raise the
bar set by each of these films.
A compounding factor was the
intention of several departments of ILM to either take on other film
work or decrease staff during slow cycles. Instead, as soon as
production began, the entire company found it necessary to remain
running 20 hours a day on six day weeks in order to meet their goals by
April 1, 1983. Of about 900 special effects shots,
all VistaVision
optical effects remained in-house, since ILM was the only company
capable of using the format, while about 400 4-perf opticals were
subcontracted to outside effects houses.
Progress on the opticals was
severely retarded for a time due to ILM rejecting about 100000 feet
(30000 m) of film when the film perforations failed image registration
and steadiness tests.
The original teaser trailer for the film carried the name Revenge of the
and a teaser poster created by Drew Struzan containing this title
has since become a rare collector's item. Of note are the lightsaber
colors on the teaser poster: Luke is seen wielding a red lightsaber while Vader wields a blue one.
However, a few
weeks before the film's premiere, Lucas changed the title, saying "revenge" could not be used, as it is not a Jedi
The 2005 prequel trilogy film Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith later alluded to the dismissed
title of Revenge of the Jedi.
Return of the Jedi's theatrical release took place on May 25, 1983. It was originally slated to be May 27, but was
subsequently changed to coincide with the date of the 1977 release of Star Wars: A New Hope.
With a massive
worldwide marketing campaign, illustrator Tim Reamer created the iconic and distinctive image for the movie poster
and other advertising. At the time of its release, the film was advertised on posters and merchandise as simply Star
Wars: Return of the Jedi, despite its on-screen "Episode VI" distinction. The original film was later re-released to
theaters in 1985.
In 1997, for the 20th Anniversary of the release of Star Wars (retitled Star Wars: A New Hope), Lucas released The
Star Wars Trilogy: Special Edition. Along with the two other films in the original trilogy, Return of the Jedi was
re-released on March 14, 1997 with a number of changes and additions, which included the insertion of several alien
band members in Jabba's throne room, the replacement of music at the closing scene, and a montage of different
alien worlds celebrating the fall of the Empire.
According to Lucas, Return of the Jedi required fewer changes
than the previous two films because it is more emotionally driven than the others.
The changes have caused
controversy among the fans as some believe that they detract from the films.
''Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''
Although a critical and commercial hit, grossing more than $475 million worldwide,
Return of the Jedi has, in the
decades that followed, been considered by many critics and fans to be a slightly lesser achievement than its


At Rotten Tomatoes, Return of the Jedi's 78% approval rating is surpassed by The Empire
Strikes Back (97%), A New Hope (94%), and the final film of the prequel trilogy, Revenge of the Sith (80%).
Contemporary critics were largely complimentary. In 1983, movie critic Roger Ebert gave the film four stars out of
and James Kendrick of Q Network Film Desk described Return of the Jedi as "a magnificent
The film was also featured on the May 23, 1983 TIME magazine cover issue (where it was labeled
"Star Wars III"),
with the reviewer Gerald Clarke saying that while it was not as exciting as the first Star Wars
film, it was "better and more satisfying" than The Empire Strikes Back, now considered by many as the best of the
original trilogy.
Vincent Canby, who enjoyed the first film and despised the second, felt that Return of the Jedi
was the worst of all three.
According to Rotten Tomatoes, Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune was somewhat
critical of the film, stating that it "Lack[s] the humanity and richly drawn characters that brighten Star Wars."
However, Siskel later gave Return of the Jedi thumbs up on the television show Siskel & Ebert during the release of
The Star Wars Trilogy: Special Edition, saying: "This is my least favorite of the three episodes. That doesn't make it
bad, the others are just a lot better." Siskel went on to praise the opening sequence at the Sarlaac pit and the chase
sequence involving speeder bikes, but he states his dislike for the closing scenes involving the Ewoks.
The New
York Post's Rex Reed negatively reviewed the film, stating "Let's not pretend we're watching art!"
At the 56th Academy Awards in 1984, Richard Edlund, Dennis Muren, Ken Ralston, and Phil Tippett received the
"Special Achievement Award for Visual Effects." Norman Reynolds, Fred Hole, James L. Schoppe, and Michael
Ford were nominated for "Best Art Direction/Set Decoration". Ben Burtt received a nomination for "Best Sound
Effects Editing". John Williams received the nomination for "Best Music, Original Score". Burtt, Gary Summers,
Randy Thom, and Tony Dawe all received the nominations for "Best Sound". At the 1984 BAFTA Awards, Edlund,
Muren, Ralston, and Kit West won for "Best Special Visual Effects". Tippett and Stuart Freeborn were also
nominated for "Best Makeup". Reynolds received a nomination for "Best Production Design/Art Direction". Burtt,
Dawe, and Summers also received nominations for "Best Sound". Williams was also nominated "Best Album of
Original Score Written for a Motion Picture or Television Special". The film also won for "Best Dramatic
Presentation" at the 1984 Hugo Awards.
While the action set pieces—particularly the sarlacc battle sequence, the speeder bike chase on the Endor moon, the
space battle between Rebel and Imperial pilots, and Luke Skywalker's duel against Darth Vader—are well-regarded,
the ground battle between the Ewoks and Imperial stormtroopers remains a bone of contention.
Fans are also
divided on the likelihood of Ewoks (being an extremely primitive race of small creatures armed with sticks and
rocks) defeating an armed ground force comprising the Empire's "best troops". Lucas has defended the scenario,
saying that the Ewoks' purpose was to distract the Imperial troops and that the Ewoks did not really win.
Home video
The original theatrical version of Return of the Jedi was released on VHS and Laserdisc several times between 1986
and 1995,
followed by releases of the Special Edition in the same formats between 1997 and 2000. Some of these
releases contained featurettes; some were individual releases of just this film, while others were boxed sets of all
three original films.
On September 21, 2004, the Special Editions of all three original films were released in a boxed set on DVD (along
with a bonus disc). It was digitally restored and remastered, with additional changes made by George Lucas. The
DVD also featured English subtitles, Dolby Digital 5.1 EX surround sound, and commentaries by George Lucas,
Ben Burtt, Dennis Muren, and Carrie Fisher. The bonus disc included documentaries including Empire of Dreams:
The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy and several featurettes including "The Characters of Star Wars", "The Birth of the
Lightsaber", and "The Legacy of Star Wars". Also included were teasers, trailers, TV spots, still galleries, and a
''Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''
demo for Star Wars: Battlefront.
Original scene with Sebastian Shaw as Anakin Skywalker
With the release of Star Wars Episode III:
Revenge of the Sith, which depicts how and
why Anakin Skywalker turned to the dark
side of the Force, Lucas once again altered
Return of the Jedi to strengthen the
relationship between the original trilogy and
the prequel trilogy. The original and Special
Edition versions of Return of the Jedi
featured British theatre actor Sebastian
Shaw playing both the dying Anakin
Skywalker and his ghost. In the DVD release, Shaw's portrayal of Anakin's ghost is replaced by Hayden Christensen,
who portrayed Anakin in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones and Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith.
The change drew further fan criticism directed toward Lucas (as well as a lampoon in an episode of Family Guy.
All three films in the original Star Wars trilogy have since been released, individually, on DVD. These versions were
originally slated to only be available from September 12, 2006 to December 31, 2006, although they remained in
print and were packaged with the 2004 versions again in a new set on November 4, 2008.
Although the 2004
versions in these sets each feature an audio commentary, no other extra special features were included to
commemorate the original cuts.
A Blu-ray Disc version of the Star Wars saga has been announced for release in 2011 during Star Wars Celebration
V. A deleted scene from Return of the Jedi was confirmed to be included for the Blu-ray version, in which Darth
Vader communicates with Luke via the Force while he is assembling his new lightsaber just before he infiltrates
Jabba's palace.
3D Re-release
On September 28, 2010, it was announced that all six films in the series will be stereo converted to 3D. The films
will re-release in chronological order beginning with The Phantom Menace in late 2012. Return of the Jedi is
scheduled to re-release in 3D in 2017 and will coincide with the 40th anniversary of the franchise.
The novelization of Return of the Jedi was written by James Kahn and was released on May 12, 1983, thirteen days
before the film's release.
It contains many scenes that were deleted from the final cut as well as certain assertions
which have since been superseded by the prequel trilogy. For example, Kahn writes that Owen Lars is the brother of
Obi-Wan Kenobi, while in Attack of the Clones he is instead shown to be the stepbrother of Anakin Skywalker.
When Leia is captured by Jabba, instead of him saying "I'm sure" to her warning of her powerful friends, he says,
"I'm sure, but in the meantime, I shall thoroughly enjoy the pleasure of your company." Additionally, instead of
simply licking his lips as seen in the movie, he is described as planting "a beastly kiss squarely on the Princess's
lips." Later, the Force spirit of Obi-Wan reveals that he was able to hide Luke and Leia from Anakin because he did
not know that his wife was pregnant when he "left," presumably when he became Vader. A facet of the story which
was made more clear in the novel was the confusion which overtook the Imperial forces upon the death of Palpatine,
who ceased to be the guiding will animating the Empire. It also further supports the events depicted in all
post-Return of the Jedi fiction.
''Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''
Radio drama
A radio drama adaptation of the film was written by Brian Daley with additional material contributed by John
Whitman and was produced for and broadcast on National Public Radio in 1996. It was based on characters and
situations created by George Lucas and on the screenplay by Lawrence Kasdan and George Lucas. The first two Star
Wars films were similarly adapted for National Public Radio in the early 1980s, but it was not until 1996 that a radio
version of Return of the Jedi was heard. Anthony Daniels returned as C-3PO, but Mark Hamill and Billy Dee
Williams did not reprise their roles as they had for the first two radio dramas. They were replaced by newcomer
Joshua Fardon as Luke Skywalker and character actor Arye Gross as Lando Calrissian. John Lithgow voiced Yoda,
whose voice actor in the films has always been Frank Oz. Bernard Behrens returned as Obi-Wan Kenobi and the late
Brock Peters reprised his role as Darth Vader. Veteran character actor Ed Begley, Jr. played Boba Fett. Edward
Asner also guest-starred speaking only in grunts as the voice of Jabba the Hutt. The radio drama had a running time
of three hours.
Principal production of the show was completed on February 11, 1996. Only hours after celebrating its completion
with the cast and crew of the show, Daley died of pancreatic cancer. The show is dedicated to his memory.
The cast and crew recorded a get-well message for Daley, but the author never got the chance to hear it. The message
is included as part of the Star Wars Trilogy collector's edition box set.
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[6] Dale Pollock (1999). Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas. Da Capo.
[7] Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi DVD commentary featuring George Lucas, Ben Burtt, Dennis Muren and Carrie Fisher. Fox Home
Entertainment, 2004
[8] Marcus Hearn (2005). "Cliffhanging". The Cinema of George Lucas. New York City: Harry N. Abrams Inc. pp. 140–1. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7.
[9] Richard Patterson (June 1983). "Return of the Jedi: Production and Direction, p. 3" (http:// www. theasc. com/ magazine/ starwars/ articles/
jedi/ pdir/pg3. htm). American Cinematographer. . Retrieved 2007-08-19.
[10] Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith DVD commentary featuring George Lucas, Rick McCallum, Rob Coleman, John Knoll and
Roger Guyett. Fox Home Entertainment, 2005
[11] George Lucas (June 12, 1981). "Star Wars — Episode VI: "Revenge of the Jedi" Revised Rough Draft" (http:/ / web.archive.org/ web/
20070203075748/http:/ / www.starwarz.com/ starkiller/ scripts/ revenge_revised_rough_draft.htm). Starkiller. Archived from the original
(http:// www. starwarz. com/ starkiller/scripts/ revenge_revised_rough_draft.htm) on February 3, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-02-22.
[12] "Los Angeles Times article on Gary Kurtz discussion about the original ending of Return of the Jedi" (http:/ / latimesblogs. latimes.com/
star-wars-was-born-a-long-time-ago-but-not-all-that-far-far-away-in-1972-filmmakers-george-lucas-and-gary-kurtz-wer.html). .
[13] Richard Patterson (June 1983). "Return of the Jedi: Production and Direction, p. 4" (http:// www. theasc. com/ magazine/ starwars/ articles/
jedi/ pdir/pg4. htm). American Cinematographer. . Retrieved 2007-08-19.
[14] Richard Patterson (June 1983). "Return of the Jedi: Production and Direction, p. 1" (http:/ / www. theasc. com/ magazine/ starwars/ articles/
jedi/ pdir/pg1. htm). American Cinematographer. . Retrieved 2007-08-19.
[15] "Return of the Jedi: Steadicam Plates, p. 3" (http:/ / www.theasc. com/ magazine/starwars/ articles/ jedi/ stcm/ pg3. htm). American
Cinematographer. . Retrieved 2007-08-19.
[16] "Star Wars / The Empire Strikes Back / Return of the Jedi (Original Soundtracks – 2004 reissue)" (http:/ / www.musicweb-international.
com/ film/2004/ Sep04/ star_wars. html). . Retrieved 2007-01-20.
[17] "Return of the Jedi: Production and Direction, p. 2" (http:// www.theasc. com/ magazine/ starwars/ articles/ jedi/ pdir/pg2.htm). American
Cinematographer. . Retrieved 2007-08-19.
[18] Revenge of the Jedi Trailer from Star Wars Trilogy Box Set DVD Bonus Disc, [2004]
[19] "Collecting: Revenge of the Jedi" (http:/ / www. theforce.net/ collecting/ posters/ rotj/advance.asp). TheForce.Net. . Retrieved 2007-08-21.
''Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''
[20] Greg Dean Schmitz. "Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith — Greg's Preview" (http:// movies. yahoo.com/ movie/ preview/
1808406060). Yahoo! Movies. . Retrieved 2007-03-05.
[21] "Episode VI: What Has Changed?" (http:// web. archive. org/web/ 20080229064256/ http:/ / www. starwars.com/ episode-vi/ release/
video/f20060908/index. html). StarWars.com. 2006-09-08. Archived from the original (http:// www.starwars.com/ episode-vi/ release/
video/f20060908/index. html) on February 29, 2008. . Retrieved March 10, 2008.
[22] Steve Dove (2004-09-20). "This Ain't Your Daddy's Star Wars" (http:/ / www.g4tv. com/ gamemakers/ features/ 48017/
This_Aint_Your_Daddys_Star_Wars. html). G4. . Retrieved 2008-03-10.
[23] "Return of the Jedi" (http:// boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=starwars6. htm). boxofficemojo.com. 2006. . Retrieved 2006-07-30.
[24] "Return of the Jedi" (http:// www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ return_of_the_jedi/). Rotten Tomatoes. . Retrieved 2007-03-12.
[25] "User Comments" (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0086190/ usercomments). Internet Movie Database. . Retrieved 2007-03-15.
[26] "The Star Wars Trilogy" (http:/ / www.dvdverdict.com/ reviews/ starwarstrilogy. php). DVD Verdict Review. . Retrieved 2007-03-15.
[27] Ebert, Roger (May 25, 1983). "Return of the Jedi" (http:/ / rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19830525/ REVIEWS/
305250301/1023). RogerEbert.com. . Retrieved 2007-03-10.
[28] James Kendrick. "Star Wars: Episode VI—Return of the Jedi: Special Edition Review of "Return"" (http:// www.qnetwork.com/
?page=review& id=669). Q Network. . Retrieved 2008-03-10.
[29] "Star Wars III: Return of the Jedi" (http:// www. time. com/ time/ covers/ 0,16641,1101830523,00.html?internalid=AC). TIME Magazine.
May 23, 1983. . Retrieved 2007-03-10.
[30] Clarke, Gerald (1983-05-23). "Great Galloping Galaxies" (http:/ / www.time.com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,953915,00.
html?internalid=ACA). TIME magazine. . Retrieved 2007-03-12.
[31] Vincent Canby (May 25, 1983). "Lucas Returns With the 'Jedi'" (http:/ / www.nytimes. com/ library/film/052583jedi. html). New York
Times. . Retrieved 2008-03-10.
[32] YouTube "Return of the Jedi" (http:/ / www.youtube. com/ watch?v=MpoZXG-_Png&feature=related). Siskel & Ebert: At the Movies.
YouTube. Retrieved June 11, 2010.
[33] "Awards for Star Wars: Episode VI — Return of the Jedi (1983)" (http:// www.imdb.com/ title/ tt0086190/ awards). Internet Movie
Database. . Retrieved 2007-03-12.
[34] "The best -- and worst -- movie battle scenes" (http:/ / www.cnn.com/ 2007/ SHOWBIZ/Movies/ 03/ 29/ movie. battles/ index.html).
CNN. 2007-03-30. . Retrieved 2007-04-01.
[35] "Star Wars Home Video Timeline: Return of the Jedi" (http:// www. davisdvd. com/ misc/ starwars/ ep6.htm). davisdvd.com. . Retrieved
June 23, 2007.
[36] "Star Wars Saga Repacked in Trilogy Sets on DVD" (http:/ / www.starwars.com/ movies/ saga/ 20080826news. html). Lucasfilm.
StarWars.com. 2008-08-28. . Retrieved 2008-11-08.
[37] "George Lucas Announces Star Wars on Blu-Ray at Celebration V" (http:// www. starwars.com/ themovies/ saga/ mebd/ bluray/index.
html). Lucasfilm. StarWars.com. 2010-08-14. . Retrieved 2010-08-15.
[38] "The Star Wars Saga in 3D!" (http:// www.starwars. com/ movies/ saga/ announce3d/ index. html). Lucasfilm. Starwars.com. 2010-09-28. .
Retrieved 2010-11-18.
[39] "Star Wars, Episode VI — Return of the Jedi (Mass Market Paperback)" (http:// www.amazon.com/ Star-Wars-Episode-VI-Return/dp/
0345307674/ref=pd_bbs_sr_2/104-0625267-2007955?ie=UTF8&s=books& qid=1173215869&sr=1-2). Amazon.com. . Retrieved
[40] "Return of the Jedi Produced by NPR" (http:// www.highbridgeaudio.com/ returnofjedi.html). HighBridge Audio. . Retrieved 2007-03-06.
Arnold, Alan. Once Upon a Galaxy: A Journal of Making the Empire Strikes Back. Sphere Books, London. 1980.
ISBN 978-0-345-29075-5
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// www. starwars.com/ movies/ episode-vi)
• Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0086190/ ) at the Internet Movie
• Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http:/ / www.allmovie. com/ work/ 41093) at Allmovie
• Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ return_of_the_jedi/) at Rotten
• Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=starwars6.htm) at Box
Office Mojo
''Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''
• Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http:// starwars. yahoo. com/ movies/
star-wars-episode-vi-return-of-the-jedi) at The World of Star Wars
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
Indiana Jones and
the Temple of Doom
Theatrical poster by Drew Struzan
Directed by Steven Spielberg
Produced by George Lucas
Robert Watts
Frank Marshall
Kathleen Kennedy
Screenplay by Willard Huyck
Gloria Katz
Story by George Lucas
Starring Harrison Ford
Kate Capshaw
Jonathan Ke Quan
Amrish Puri
Roshan Seth
Philip Stone
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Douglas Slocombe
Editing by Michael Kahn
Studio Lucasfilm
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date(s) May 23, 1984
Running time 118 minutes
Country United States
Language English
''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom''
$28.17 million
Gross revenue $333,107,271
Preceded by Raiders of the Lost Ark
Followed by Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is a 1984 American adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg. It is the
second film in the Indiana Jones franchise and prequel to Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981). After arriving in India,
Indiana Jones is asked by a desperate village to find a mystical stone. He agrees, stumbling upon a Kali Thuggee
religious cult plotting child slavery, black magic and ritual human sacrifice.
Producer and co-writer George Lucas decided to make the film a prequel as he did not want the Nazis to be the
villains again. The original idea was to set the film in China, with a hidden valley inhabited by dinosaurs. Other
rejected plot devices included the Monkey King and a haunted castle in Scotland. Lucas then wrote a film treatment
that resembled the final storyline of the film. Lawrence Kasdan, Lucas's collaborator on '"Raiders of the Lost Ark,
turned down the offer to write the script, and Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz were hired as his replacement.
The film was released to financial success but mixed reviews, which criticized the on-screen violence, later
contributing to the creation of the PG-13 rating. However, critical opinion has improved since 1984, citing the film's
intensity and imagination. Some of the film's cast and crew, including Spielberg, retrospectively view the film in an
unfavorable light. The film has also been the subject of controversy due to its portrayal of India and Hinduism.
In 1935, Indiana Jones narrowly escapes the clutches of Lao Che, a crime boss in Shanghai. With the gold-digging
nightclub singer Willie Scott and his eleven-year old Chinese sidekick Short Round in tow, Indiana flees Shanghai
on a plane that, unknown to them, is owned by Lao. The pilots leave the plane to crash over the Himalayas, though
the trio manage to escape on an inflatable boat and ride down the slopes into a raging river. They come to Mayapore,
a desolate village in northern India, where the poor villagers believe them to have been sent by the Hindu god Shiva
and enlist their help to retrieve the sacred Sivalinga stone stolen from their shrine, as well as the community's
children, from evil forces in the nearby Pankot Palace. During the journey to Pankot, Indiana hypothesizes that the
stone may be one of the five fabled Sankara stones which promise fortune and glory.
The trio receive a warm welcome from the residents of Pankot Palace, who rebuff Indiana's questions about the
villagers' claims and his theory that the ancient Thuggee cult is responsible for their troubles. Later that night,
however, Indiana is attacked by an assassin, leading Indy, Willie, and Short Round to believe that something is
amiss. They travel through an underground temple where the Thuggee worship the Hindu goddess Kali with human
sacrifice. The trio discover that the Thuggee, led by their evil high priest Mola Ram, are in possession of three of the
five Sankara stones, and have enslaved the children to mine for the final two stones, which they hope will allow
them to rule the world. As Indiana tries to retrieve the stones, he, Willie and Short Round are captured and separated.
Indiana is forced to drink a potion called the "Blood of Kali", which places him in a trance-like state called the
"Black Sleep of Kali Ma". As a result, he begins to mindlessly serve Mola Ram. Willie, meanwhile, is kept as a
human sacrifice, while Short Round is put in the mines to labor alongside the enslaved children. Short Round breaks
free and escapes back into the temple, where Willie is about to be lowered into a pit of lava. He burns Indiana with a
torch, shocking him out of the Black Sleep. While Mola Ram escapes, Indiana and Short Round save Willie, retrieve
the three Sankara stones and free the village children.
After a mine cart chase to escape the temple, the trio emerge above ground only to be cornered by Mola Ram and the
Thuggee on a rope bridge over a crocodile-infested river. Using a sword stolen from one of the Thuggee warriors,
Indiana cuts the rope bridge in half, leaving everyone to hang on for their lives. In one final struggle against Mola
Ram for the Sankara stones, Indiana invokes an incantation, causing the stones to glow red hot. Two of the stones
''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom''
fall into the river, while the last falls into and burns Mola Ram's hand. Indiana catches the now-cool stone, while
Mola Ram falls into the river below, where he is killed by crocodiles. A company of British Indian Army riflemen
from Pankot arrive to apprehend the remaining Thuggee. Indiana, Willie and Short Round return victoriously to the
village with the missing Sivalinga stone and the children.
• Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones: An archaeologist adventurer who is asked by a desperate Indian village to
retrieve a mysterious stone. Ford undertook a strict physical exercise regimen headed by Jake Steinfeld to gain
more muscular tone for the part.
• Kate Capshaw as Wilhelmina "Willie" Scott: An American nightclub singer working in Shanghai. Willie is
unprepared for her adventure with Indy and Short Round, and appears to be a damsel in distress. She also forms a
romantic relationship with Indy. Over 120 actresses auditioned for the role, including Sharon Stone.

prepare for the role, Capshaw watched The African Queen and A Guy Named Joe. Spielberg wanted Willie to be a
complete contrast to Marion Ravenwood from Raiders of the Lost Ark, so Capshaw dyed her brown hair blonde
for the part. Costume designer Anthony Powell wanted the character to have red hair.
• Jonathan Ke Quan as Short Round: Indiana's eleven-year old Chinese sidekick, who drives the Duesenberg 1936
Auburn Boat Tail Speedster which allows Indiana to escape during the opening sequence. Quan was chosen as
part of a casting call in Los Angeles, California.
Around 6000 actors auditioned worldwide for the part: Quan
was cast after his brother auditioned for the role. Spielberg liked his personality, so he and Ford improvised the
scene where Short Round accuses Indiana of cheating during a card game.
He was credited by his birthname,
Ke Huy Quan.
• Amrish Puri as Mola Ram: A demonic Thuggee priest who performs rituals of human sacrifices. The character is
named after a 17th century Indian painter. Lucas wanted Mola Ram to be terrifying, so the screenwriters added
elements of Aztec and Hawaiian human sacrificers, and European devil worship to the character.
To create his
headdress, make-up artist Tom Smith based the skull on a cow, and used a latex shrunken head.
• Roshan Seth as Chattar Lal: The Prime Minister of the Maharajá of Pankot. Chattar, also a Thuggee worshiper, is
enchanted by Indy, Willie and Short Round's arrival, but is offended by Indy's questioning of the palace's history
and the archaeologist's own dubious past.
• Philip Stone as Captain Philip Blumburtt: A British Captain in the Indian Army called to Pankot Palace for
"exercises". Alongside a unit of his riflemen, Blumburtt assists Indiana towards the end in fighting off Thuggee
• Raj Singh as Zalim Singh: The adolescent Maharajá of Pankot, who appears as an innocent puppet of the Thuggee
faithful. In the end he helps to defeat them.
• D. R. Nanayakkara as Shaman: The leader of a small village that recruits Indiana to retrieve their stolen sacred
Shiva lingam stone
• Roy Chiao as Lao Che: A Shanghai crime boss who hires Indy to recover the cremated ashes of one of his
ancestors, only to attempt to cheat him out of his fee, a large diamond.
• David Yip as Wu Han: A friend of Indiana. He is killed by one of Lao Che's sons while posing as a waiter to back
Indy up at the Club Obi Wan.
Actor Pat Roach plays the cruel overseer in the mines. Steven Spielberg, George Lucas, Frank Marshall, Kathleen
Kennedy and Dan Aykroyd cameo at the airport scene.
''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom''
When George Lucas first approached Steven Spielberg for Raiders of the Lost Ark, Spielberg recalled, "George said
if I directed the first one then I would have to direct a trilogy. He had three stories in mind. It turned out George did
not have three stories in mind and we had to make up subsequent stories."
Spielberg and Lucas attributed the film's
tone, which was darker than Raiders of the Lost Ark, to their personal moods following the breakups of their
relationships (Spielberg with Amy Irving, Lucas with Marcia).
In addition Lucas felt "it had to have been a dark
film. The way Empire Strikes Back was the dark second act of the Star Wars trilogy."
Lucas made the film a prequel as he did not want the Nazis to be the villains once more.
Spielberg originally
wanted to bring Marion Ravenwood back,
with Abner Ravenwood being considered as a possible character.
Lucas created an opening chase scene that had Indiana Jones on a motorcycle on the Great Wall of China. In addition
Indiana discovered a "Lost World pastiche with a hidden valley inhabited by dinosaurs". Chinese authorities refused
to allow filming,
and Lucas considered the Monkey King as the plot device.
Lucas wrote a film treatment that
included a haunted castle in Scotland, but Spielberg felt it was too similar to Poltergeist. The haunted castle in
Scotland slowly transformed into a demonic temple in India.
Lucas came up with ideas that involved a religious cult devoted to child slavery, black magic and ritual human
sacrifice. Lawrence Kasdan of Raiders of the Lost Ark was asked to write the script. "I didn't want to be associated
with Temple of Doom," he reflected. "I just thought it was horrible. It's so mean. There's nothing pleasant about it. I
think Temple of Doom represents a chaotic period in both their [Lucas and Spielberg] lives, and the movie is very
ugly and mean-spirited."
Lucas hired Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz to write the script because of their
knowledge of Indian culture.
Gunga Din served as an influence for the film.
Huyck and Katz spent four days at Skywalker Ranch for story discussions with Lucas and Spielberg in early-1982.
Lucas's initial idea for Indiana's sidekick was a virginal young princess, but Huyck, Katz and Spielberg disliked the
Just as Indiana Jones was named after Lucas's Alaskan Malamute, Willie was named after Spielberg's Cocker
Spaniel, and Short Round was named after Huyck's dog, whose name was derived from The Steel Helmet.
handed Huyck and Katz a 20-page treatment in May 1982 titled Indiana Jones and the Temple of Death to adapt into
a screenplay.
Scenes such as the fight scene in Shanghai, escape from the airplane and the mine cart chase came
from original scripts of Raiders of the Lost Ark.
Lucas, Huyck and Katz had been developing Radioland Murders (1994) since the early 1970s. The opening music
number was taken from that script and applied to Temple of Doom.
Spielberg reflected, "George's idea was to start
the movie with a musical number. He wanted to do a Busby Berkeley dance number. At all our story meetings he
would say, 'Hey, Steven, you always said you wanted to shoot musicals.' I thought, 'Yeah, that could be fun.'"
first draft was delivered in early-August 1982 with a second draft in September. Captain Blumburtt, Chattar Lai and
the boy Maharaja originally had more crucial roles. A dogfight was deleted, while those who drank the Kali blood
turned into zombies with physical superhuman abilities. During pre-production the Temple of Death title was
replaced with Temple of Doom. From March—April 1983 Huyck and Katz simultaneously performed rewrites for a
final shooting script.
The filmmakers were denied permission to film in North India and Amber Fort due to the government finding the
script with racism and offense.


The government demanded many script changes, rewritings and final cut
As a result, location work went to Kandy, Sri Lanka, with matte paintings and scale models applied for
the village, temple, and Pankot Palace. Budgetary inflation also caused Temple of Doom to cost $28.17 million, $8
million more than Raiders of the Lost Ark.
Filming began on 18 April 1983 in Kandy,
and moved to Elstree
Studios in Hertfordshire, England on May 5. Producer Frank Marshall recalled, "when filming the bug scenes, crew
''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom''
members would go home and find bugs in their hair, clothes and shoes."
Eight out of the nine sound stages at
Elstree housed the filming of Temple of Doom. Lucas biographer Marcus Hearn observed, "Douglas Slocombe's
skillful lighting helped disguise the fact that about 80 percent of the film was shot with sound stages."
Danny Daniels choreographed the opening music number "Anything Goes". Capshaw learned to sing in Standard
Mandarin and took tap dance lessons. However, when wearing her dress, which was too tight, Capshaw was not able
to tap dance. One of her red dresses was eaten by an elephant during filming; a second was made by costume
designer Anthony Powell.
Production designer Norman Reynolds could not return for Temple of Doom because of
his commitment to Return of the Jedi. Elliot Scott (Labyrinth, Who Framed Roger Rabbit), Reynolds' mentor, was
hired. To build the rope bridge the filmmakers found a group of British engineers working on the nearby Balfour
Beatty dam.
Harrison Ford suffered a severe spinal disc herniation while riding elephants. A hospital bed was
brought on set for Ford to rest between takes. Lucas stated, "He could barely stand up, yet he was there every day so
shooting would not stop. He was in comprehensible pain, but he was still trying to make it happen."
With no
alternatives, Lucas shut down production while Ford was flown to Centinela Hospital on June 21 for recovery.
Stunt double Vic Armstrong spent five weeks as a stand-in for various shots. Wendy Leach, Armstrong's wife,
served as Capshaw's stunt double.
Macau was substituted for Shanghai,
while cinematographer Douglas Slocombe caught fever from June 24 to July
7 and could not work. Ford returned on August 8. Despite the problems during filming, Spielberg was able to
complete Temple of Doom on schedule and on budget, finishing on principal photography on August 26.
pick-ups took place afterwards. This included Snake River Canyon in Idaho, Mammoth Mountain, Tuolumne and
American River, Yosemite National Park, San Joaquin Valley, Hamilton Air Force Base and Arizona.
Frank Marshall directed a second unit in Florida in January 1984, using alligators to double as crocodiles.

mine chase was a combination of a roller coaster and scale models with dolls doubling for the actors.
Minor stop
motion was also used for the sequence. Visual effects supervisors Dennis Muren, Joe Johnston and a crew at
Industrial Light & Magic provided the visual effects work,
while Skywalker Sound, headed by Ben Burtt,
commissioned the sound design. Burtt recorded roller coasters at Disneyland Park in Anaheim for the mine cart
"After I showed the film to George [Lucas], at an hour and 55 minutes, we looked at each other," Spielberg
remembered. "The first thing that we said was, 'Too fast'. We needed to decelerate the action. I did a few more matte
shots to slow it down. We made it a little bit slower, by putting breathing room back in so there'd be a two-hour
oxygen supply for the audience."
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom was released on 23 May 1984 in
America, accumulating a record-breaking $US45.7 million in its first week.
The film went on to gross $333.11
million worldwide, with $180 million in North America and the equivalent of $153.11 million in other markets.
Temple of Doom had the highest opening weekend of 1984, and was the third highest grossing film in North America
of that year, behind Beverly Hills Cop and Ghostbusters.
It was also the tenth highest grossing film of all time
during its release.
LucasArts and Atari Games promoted the film by releasing an arcade game. Hasbro released a toy line based on the
film in September 2008.
The film received mixed reviews upon its release,
but has continued to receive critical praise over the years.
American Movie Classics considers Temple of Doom to be one of the best films of 1984.
Based on 59 reviews
collected by Rotten Tomatoes, 85% wrote positive reviews of the film, with an average score of 7.2/10.
Ebert called Temple of Doom "the most cheerfully exciting, bizarre, goofy, romantic adventure movie since Raiders,
and it is high praise to say that it's not so much a sequel as an equal. It's quite an experience."
Vincent Canby felt
''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom''
the film was "too shapeless to be the fun that Raiders is, but shape may be beside the point. Old-time, 15-part movie
serials didn't have shape. They just went on and on and on, which is what Temple of Doom does with humor and
technical invention."
Colin Covert of the Star Tribune called the film "sillier, darkly violent and a bit dumbed
down, but still great fun."
Dave Kehr gave a largely negative review; "The film betrays no human impulse higher than that of a ten-year-old
boy trying to gross out his baby sister by dangling a dead worm in her face."
Ralph Novak of People complained
"The ads that say 'this film may be too intense for younger children' are fraudulent. No parent should allow a young
child to see this traumatizing movie; it would be a cinematic form of child abuse. Even Harrison Ford is required to
slap Quan and abuse Capshaw. There are no heroes connected with the film, only two villains; their names are
Steven Spielberg and George Lucas."
Kate Capshaw called her character "not much more than a dumb screaming blonde."
Capshaw, who is a feminist,
was annoyed by the criticism she received of her portrayal.
Steven Spielberg said in 1989, "I wasn't happy with
Temple of Doom at all. It was too dark, too subterranean, and much too horrific. I thought it out-poltered Poltergeist.
There's not an ounce of my own personal feeling in Temple of Doom." He later added during the "Making of Indiana
Jones and the Temple of Doom" documentary, "Temple of Doom is my least favorite of the trilogy. I look back and I
say, 'Well the greatest thing that I got out of that was I met Kate Capshaw. We married years later and that to me was
the reason I was fated to make Temple of Doom."
The film's depiction of Hindus caused controversy in India, and brought it to the attention of the country's censors,
who placed a temporary ban on it.
Shashi Tharoor has condemned the film and pointed to numerous offensive and
factually inaccurate portrayals.
Yvette Rosser has criticized the film for contributing to racist stereotypes of
Indians in Western Society, writing "[it] seems to have been taken as a valid portrayal of India by many teachers,
since a large number of students surveyed complained that teachers referred to the eating of monkey brains."
Dennis Muren and the visual effects department at Industrial Light & Magic won the Academy Award for Visual
Effects at the 57th Academy Awards. John Williams was nominated for "Original Music Score".
The visual
effects crew won the same category at the 38th British Academy Film Awards. Cinematographer Douglas Slocombe,
editor Michael Kahn, Ben Burtt and other sound designers at Skywalker Sound received nominations.
the writers, Harrison Ford, Jonathan Ke Quan, Anthony Powell and makeup designer Tom Smith were nominated for
their work at the Saturn Awards. Temple of Doom was nominated for Best Fantasy Film but lost to Ghostbusters.
Temple of Doom caused the Motion Picture Association of America to create the PG-13 rating.
[1] Rinzler, Bouzereau, Chapter 8: "Forward on All Fronts (August 1983—June 1984)", p. 168—183
[2] John Baxter (1999). "Snake Surprise". Mythmaker: The Life and Work of George Lucas. Avon Books. pp. 332–341. ISBN 0380978334.
[3] "The People Who Were Almost Cast" (http:/ / www.empireonline. com/ indy/day1/ 2. asp). Empire. . Retrieved 2008-08-26.
[4] J.W. Rinzler; Laurent Bouzereau (2008). "Temple of Death: (June 1981—April 1983)". The Complete Making of Indiana Jones. Random
House. pp. 129–141. ISBN 9780091926618.
[5] "Adventure's New Name" (http:/ / www. theraider.net/ films/ todoom/ making_1_newideas. php). TheRaider.net. . Retrieved 2008-04-23.
[6] "Scouting for Locations and New Faces" (http:/ / www.theraider.net/ films/ todoom/making_2_newfaces.php). TheRaider.net. . Retrieved
[7] Indiana Jones: Making the Trilogy, 2003, Paramount Pictures
[8] "Temple of Doom: An Oral History" (http:/ /www. empireonline.com/ indy/ day10/ ). Empire. 2008-05-01. . Retrieved 2008-05-01.
[9] Joseph McBride (1997). "Ecstasy and Grief". Steven Spielberg: A Biography. New York City: Faber and Faber. pp. 323–358.
ISBN 0-571-19177-0.
[10] Rinzler, Bouzereau, Chapter 6: "Doomruners (April—August 1983, p. 142—167
[11] Marcus Hearn (2005). The Cinema of George Lucas. Harry N. Abrams Inc. pp. 144–147. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7, 0-8109-4968-7
0-8109-4968-7, 0-8109-4968-7.
[12] The Stunts of Indiana Jones, 2003, Paramount Pictures
''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom''
[13] The Light and Magic of Indiana Jones, 2003, Paramount Pictures
[14] The Sound of Indiana Jones, 2003, Paramount Pictures
[15] "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/movies/ ?id=indianajonesandthetempleofdoom.htm). Box
Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2008-08-24.
[16] "1984 Domestic Grosses" (http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ yearly/chart/ ?yr=1984&p=.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2008-08-24.
[17] Edward Douglas (2008-02-17). "Hasbro Previews G.I. Joe, Hulk, Iron Man, Indy & Clone Wars" (http:// www.superherohype.com/ news/
topnews.php?id=6807). Superhero Hype!. . Retrieved 2008-02-17.
[18] "The Greatest Films of 1984" (http:// www. filmsite.org/ 1984.html). AMC Filmsite.org. . Retrieved May 21, 2010.
[19] "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom" (http:// www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ indiana_jones_and_the_temple_of_doom/ ). Rotten
Tomatoes. . Retrieved 2008-08-24.
[20] "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom" (http:/ / rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs.dll/ article?AID=/19840101/ REVIEWS/
401010348/1023). Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved 2008-08-24.
[21] Vincent Canby (2008-05-21). "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom". The New York Times.
[22] Colin Covert (2008-05-21). "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom". Star Tribune.
[23] Dave Kehr (2008-05-21). "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom". Chicago Reader.
[24] Gogoi, Pallavi (2006-11-05). "Banned Films Around the World: Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom" (http:// images. businessweek.
com/ ss/ 06/ 11/ 1106_banned/ source/ 7. htm). BusinessWeek. .
[25] Tharoor, Shashi. "SHASHI ON SUNDAY: India, Jones and the template of dhoom" (http:/ / timesofindia.indiatimes. com/ home/
sunday-toi/all-that-matters/SHASHI-ON-SUNDAY-India-Jones-and-the-template-of-dhoom/articleshow/ 1746623.cms?flstry=1). The
Times Of India. .
[26] Yvette Rosser. "Teaching South Asia" (http:// web.archive. org/web/ 20050108064134/ http:/ / www. mssu. edu/ projectsouthasia/ tsa/
VIN1/Rosser. htm). Missouri Southern State University. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.mssu. edu/ projectsouthasia/ tsa/ VIN1/
Rosser.htm) on 2005-01-08. . Retrieved 2008-08-27.
[27] "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom" (http:// awardsdatabase. oscars.org/ampas_awards/ DisplayMain.
jsp?curTime=1219724364138). Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. . Retrieved 2008-08-25.
[28] "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom" (http:/ / www. bafta.org/ awards-database.html?sq=Indiana+Jones+ and+the+ Temple+of+
Doom). British Academy of Film and Television Arts. . Retrieved 2008-08-25.
[29] "Past Saturn Awards" (http:/ / www.saturnawards. org/ past.html). Saturn Awards. . Retrieved 2008-08-25.
[30] Anthony Breznican. "PG-13 remade Hollywood ratings system" (http:// www. seattlepi. com/ movies/ 187529_pg13rating24.html). Seattle
Post-Intelligencerdate= 2004-08-24. . Retrieved 12 December 2010.
Further reading
• Willard Huyck; Gloria Katz (October 1984). Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom: The Illustrated Screenplay.
Ballantine Books. ISBN 0345318781.
• James Kahn (May 1984). Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. novelization of the film. Ballantine Books.
ISBN 978-0-345-31457-4.
• Rinzler, J. W.; Bouzereau, Laurent (January 1, 2008). The Complete Making of Indiana Jones. Ebury Publishing.
ISBN 978-0091926618.
• Suzanne Weyn (May 2008). Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. "junior novelization" of the film. Scholastic
Corporation. ISBN 0545042550.
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// www. indianajones.com/ temple)
• Temple of Doom at IndianaJones.com (http:/ / www.indianajones. com/ temple/ )
• Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (http:/ / www.allmovie. com/ work/24755) at Allmovie
• Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/tt0087469/ ) at the Internet Movie
• Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/
indiana_jones_and_the_temple_of_doom/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/
?id=indianajonesandthetempleofdoom. htm) at Box Office Mojo
''Witness (1985 film)''
Witness (1985 film)
Original poster
Directed by Peter Weir
Produced by Edward S. Feldman
Written by William Kelley
Pamela Wallace
Earl W. Wallace
Starring Harrison Ford
Kelly McGillis
Jan Rubes
Danny Glover
Lukas Haas
Viggo Mortensen
Music by Maurice Jarre
Cinematography John Seale
Editing by Thom Noble
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date(s) February 8, 1985
Running time 112 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $12,000,000 (estimated)
Gross revenue
$68,706,993 (US)
Witness is a 1985 American thriller film directed by Peter Weir and starring Harrison Ford and Kelly McGillis. The
screenplay by William Kelley, Pamela Wallace, and Earl W. Wallace focuses on a detective protecting a young
Amish boy who becomes the target of a ruthless killer after he witnesses a brutal murder in Philadelphia's 30th Street
train station.
''Witness (1985 film)''
The film was nominated for eight Academy Awards and won two, for Best Original Screenplay and Best Film
Editing. It was also nominated for seven BAFTA Awards, winning one for Maurice Jarre's score, and was also
nominated for six Golden Globe Awards. William Kelley and Earl W. Wallace won the Writers Guild of America
Award for Best Original Screenplay and the 1986 Edgar Award for Best Motion Picture Screenplay presented by the
Mystery Writers of America. The film is also notable as the screen debut of future stars Viggo Mortensen and Lukas
Haas. The film's script is a frequent model for budding screenwriters, often used to display clear structure in a script.
After the death of her husband in Lancaster County in 1984, a young Amish woman Rachel Lapp (Kelly McGillis)
decides to take her 8 year old son Samuel (Lukas Haas) into the outside world for the first time on a trip to
Baltimore, Maryland to visit her sister. Travelling by train, Samuel is amazed to see people different from him and
sights such as a hot air balloon. When Rachel is waiting to change trains at the 30th Street Station in Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, Samuel uses the men's room. As he does so, he accidentally witnesses the brutal murder of a man
(Timothy Carhart) in the restroom while hiding in the toilet stall. He sees that two men committed the murder, but
could only get a good look at one, a tall African-American man.
Rachel and Samuel are then introduced to Captain John Book (Harrison Ford) and Sergeant Carter (Brent Jennings),
who reveal that the victim was a police officer named Zenovich. Book and Carter take Samuel and Rachel around
inner city Philadelphia and has him study pictures of convicts and a police line-up to try to identify Zenovich's
murderer, but Samuel does not see a match. Wandering around the police station, Samuel sees a newspaper clipping
with a picture of police Narcotics Lieutenant James McFee (Danny Glover), and identifies him as the man he saw at
the train station.
Book reports this to his superior officer, Chief Paul Schaeffer (Josef Sommer), saying that McFee was responsible
for a drug raid where expensive chemicals used to make amphetamines were discovered, but which were never
reported to the police department. Zenovich was investigating the disappearance of these chemicals which, if sold,
would make McFee a very wealthy man. McFee murdered Zenovich to ensure his silence. Schaeffer advises Book to
keep the case secret so they can work out how to move forward with it.
As Book returns home, he encounters McFee in a parking garage. McFee tries to shoot him with a .357 Magnum
Smith & Wesson Model 28 revolver but Book draws his .38 Smith & Wesson Model 10 snub and, after a fierce
shoot-out, McFee flees the scene - but not before Book is wounded. Book realizes that since he only told Schaeffer
about McFee's corruption, then Schaeffer must be corrupt too. Book then phones Carter and tells him to remove all
the police files that include the Lapps' details, and that he is going into hiding. Schaeffer, McFee and Fergie (Angus
MacInnes), the second murderer of Zenovich, start their hunt of Book.
Book returns Rachel and Samuel to their farm in Lancaster County, but as he is about to leave, he passes out from
loss of blood as a result of McFee's gunshot and crashes his car into the Lapps' birdhouse. He cannot go to a hospital,
as doctors are required to report gunshot wounds to the police, which will lead McFee to find and kill Samuel. Eli
Lapp (Jan Rubes), Rachel's father-in-law, who also lives at the farm, reluctantly agrees to shelter Book in their home
for the sake of his grandson and daughter-in-law's safety. Eli recruits an Amish apothecary named Stoltzfus
(Frederick Rolf) to treat Book's gunshot wound, using traditional Amish methods to fight against infection.
One day later, Book recovers and offers to compensate Eli for housing him by doing farm work. Book has some
trouble adjusting at first, such as the early morning risings, but soon adjusts fairly well when he shows his amateur
skills in carpentry by repairing Rachel's damaged birdhouse that he accidentally crashed into when he first arrived,
and making toys for Samuel. Samuel teaches Book about the inner workings of the farm, such as how it makes
running water by way of wheel and the corn silo. Book participates in a celebration with the entire Amish
community, a barn raising for a young Amish couple who just married. In order to blend into the local community as
best he can, Rachel gives Book some of her husband's old Amish clothes. Despite this, the Amish are suspicious of
who Book is when Eli takes him into town so that he can telephone Carter. Another culture clash occurs when Book
''Witness (1985 film)''
surrenders his Model 10 to Rachel after Samuel finds it, forcing Eli to have a serious discussion with Samuel about
the Amish way of non-violence. Samuel admits that since he has seen a man being brutally murdered with his own
eyes, he might use violence if himself or his loved ones are threatened by "the bad men".
Friction also occurs between Book and the Lapp's neighbor, Daniel Hochleitner (Alexander Godunov). Once Rachel
became a widow, Hockleitner hoped to court her, but he senses that she is more interested in Book. Hochleitner's
instincts prove correct as Rachel and Book begin to show signs of their attraction for each other, which is also
noticed by others in the community.
One night, while Book repairs the car in the barn with Rachel present, the car radio plays Wonderful World, and he
begins to dance with Rachel in the manner of a 1950s sock hop. The two are interrupted by a shocked Eli. Although
it was an innocent act by "English" standards, it was an activity in which the Amish do not engage, causing Eli to
claim Rachel is showing open disdain for her ways and that she could be shunned by the elders of their community
for such behavior. Rachel angrily tells Eli that she did nothing wrong.
Later, when Book goes into town to telephone Carter again, he is informed that Carter has been killed. Enraged,
Book calls Schaeffer's private residence (where he cannot be traced), openly calling out Schaeffer on his corruption
and stating that he is through with hiding and is going to hunt down Schaeffer and McFee instead. While returning to
Eli's farm, Hochleitner is harassed by local punks who defile Amish culture and pacifism. An angry Book then
confronts Hochleitner's tormentors, and when one of them harasses him, he strikes back and breaks the nose of one
of the punks. The fight becomes the talk of the town, none of them ever having seen the Amish lash out in that way,
and even makes its way to the local sheriff. Later, Book tells Eli he is leaving the next day. The news upsets Rachel,
who runs out to meet Book in an open field and the two share a passionate kiss.
Before Book gets a chance to leave the farm, Fergie, McFee and Schaeffer arrive at the community and threaten Eli
and Rachel. Book is in the barn with Samuel and orders Samuel to run to the neighbors for safety. Using Samuel's
lessons about the silo, Book tricks Fergie into entering the silo, then releases a cascade of corn which kills Fergie by
way of asphyxiation. Book digs through the corn to retrieve Fergie's shotgun, then uses it to shoot McFee dead.
Meanwhile, Samuel rings the bell on his farm, alerting their Amish neighbors that help is needed. When a crazed
Schaeffer threatens to kill Rachel, Book surrenders to him. At that moment, a large number of Amish arrive at the
Lapp farm in response to the bell. Book challenges Schaeffer, pointing out that he will not be able to murder
everyone there to witness him and get away with it. Schaeffer realizes that he has lost and allows Book to disarm
him. The local police arrive, and take Schaeffer away.
As Book prepares to leave, he shares a quiet moment with Samuel, then exchanges a silent, loving gaze with Rachel.
Eli bids Book goodbye on his return to Philadelphia by saying, "You take care out there among them English". As
Book drives away from the Lapp farm, he passes Hochleitner, who has presumably come to resume his courtship of
• Harrison Ford as John Book
• Kelly McGillis as Rachel Lapp
• Josef Sommer as Schaeffer
• Lukas Haas as Samuel Lapp
• Jan Rubes as Eli Lapp
• Alexander Godunov as Daniel Hochleitner
• Danny Glover as McFee
• Brent Jennings as Carter
• Patti LuPone as Elaine
• Angus MacInnes as Fergie
• Frederick Rolf as Stoltzfus
''Witness (1985 film)''
• Viggo Mortensen as Moses Hochleitner
Producer Edward S. Feldman, who was in a "first-look" development deal with 20th Century Fox at the time, first
received the screenplay for Witness in 1983. Originally entitled Called Home (which is the Amish term for death), it
ran 182 pages long, the equivalent of three hours of screen time. The script, which had been circulating in
Hollywood for several years, had been inspired by an episode of Gunsmoke William Kelley and Earl W. Wallace had
written in the 1970s.
Feldman liked the concept but felt too much of the script was devoted to Amish traditions, diluting the thriller
aspects of the story. He offered Kelley and Wallace $25,000 for a one-year option and one rewrite, and an additional
$225,000 if the film actually was made. They submitted the revised screenplay in less than six weeks, and Feldman
delivered it to Fox. Joe Wizan, the studio's head of production, rejected it with the statement that Fox didn't make
"rural movies".
Feldman sent the screenplay to Harrison Ford's agent Phil Gersh, who contacted the producer four days later and
advised him his client was willing to commit to the film. Certain the attachment of a major star would change
Wizan's mind, Feldman approached him once again, but Wizan insisted that as much as the studio liked Ford, they
still weren't interested in making a "rural movie."
Feldman sent the screenplay to numerous studios and was rejected by all of them, until Paramount Pictures finally
expressed interest. Feldman's first choice of director was Peter Weir, but he was involved in pre-production work for
The Mosquito Coast and passed on the project. John Badham dismissed it as "just another cop movie", and others
Feldman approached either were committed to other projects or had no interest. Then, as financial backing for The
Mosquito Coast fell through, Weir became free to direct Witness, which was his first American film. It was
imperative filming start immediately, because a Directors Guild of America strike was looming on the horizon.
The film was shot on location in Philadelphia and the city and towns of Intercourse, Lancaster, Strasburg and
Parkesburg. Local Amish were willing to work as carpenters and electricians but declined to appear on film, so many
of the extras actually were Mennonites. Halfway through filming, the title was changed from Called Home to
Witness at the behest of Paramount's marketing department, which felt the original title posed too much of a
promotional challenge. Principal photography was completed three days before the scheduled DGA strike, which
ultimately failed to materialize.
There are a few times the dialect of the Pennsylvania Germans, popularly known as Pennsylvania Dutch, is heard in
the film. In one scene, during construction of the new barn, a man says to John Book, "Du huschd hott gschofft. Sell
waar guud!," which means "You worked hard. That was good!" But more often the Amish characters are heard
speaking High German, the standard language of most German-speaking Europeans, which actually is used rarely by
the Amish in particular, or Pennsylvania Germans in general.
Critical response
Witness was generally well received by critics and earned eight Academy Award nominations (including Weir's first
and Ford's sole nomination to date).
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times rated the film four out of four stars, calling it "first of all, an electrifying and
poignant love story. Then it is a movie about the choices we make in life and the choices that other people make for
us. Only then is it a thriller—one that Alfred Hitchcock would have been proud to make." He concluded, "We have
lately been getting so many pallid, bloodless little movies—mostly recycled teenage exploitation films made by
ambitious young stylists without a thought in their heads—that Witness arrives like a fresh new day. It is a movie
''Witness (1985 film)''
about adults, whose lives have dignity and whose choices matter to them. And it is also one hell of a thriller."
Vincent Canby of the New York Times said of the film, "It's not really awful, but it's not much fun. It's pretty to look
at and it contains a number of good performances, but there is something exhausting about its neat balancing of
opposing manners and values… One might be made to care about all this if the direction by the talented Australian
film maker, Peter Weir… were less perfunctory and if the screenplay… did not seem so strangely familiar. One
follows Witness as if touring one's old hometown, guided by an outsider who refuses to believe that one knows the
territory better than he does. There's not a character, an event or a plot twist that one hasn't anticipated long before its
arrival, which gives one the feeling of waiting around for people who are always late."
Variety said the film was "at times a gentle, affecting story of star-crossed lovers limited within the fascinating
Amish community. Too often, however, this fragile romance is crushed by a thoroughly absurd shoot-em-up, like
ketchup poured over a delicate Pennsylvania Dutch dinner."
Time Out New York observed, "Powerful, assured, full of beautiful imagery and thankfully devoid of easy
moralising, it also offers a performance of surprising skill and sensitivity from Ford."
Radio Times called the film "partly a love story and partly a thriller, but mainly a study of cultural collision — it's as
if the world of Dirty Harry had suddenly stumbled into a canvas by Brueghel." It added, "[I]t's Weir's delicacy of
touch that impresses the most. He ably juggles the various elements of the story and makes the violence seem even
more shocking when it's played out on the fields of Amish denial."
The film was screened out of competition at the 1985 Cannes Film Festival.
Although the movie did well at the box office, it was not well received by the Amish communities where it was
filmed. A statement released by a law firm associated with the Amish claimed that the portrayal of the Amish in the
movie was not accurate. The National Committee For Amish Religious Freedom
called for a boycott of the movie
soon after its release citing fears that these communities were being "overrun by tourists" as a result of the popularity
of the movie, and worried that "the crowding, souvenir-hunting, photographing and trespassing on Amish farmsteads
will increase". After the movie was completed, the governor of Pennsylvania at the time, Dick Thornburgh, agreed
not to promote the Amish communities as future film sites.
Box office
The film opened in 876 theaters in the US on February 8, 1985 and grossed $4,539,990 in its opening weekend,
ranking #2 behind Beverly Hills Cop. It remained at #2 for the next three weeks and finally topped the charts in its
fifth week of release. It eventually earned $68,706,993 in the US.
Awards and nominations
• Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay (winner)
• Academy Award for Best Film Editing (winner)
• Academy Award for Best Picture (nominee)
• Academy Award for Best Director (nominee)
• Academy Award for Best Actor (Harrison Ford, nominee)
• Academy Award for Best Art Direction (Stan Jolley and John H. Anderson, nominees)
• Academy Award for Best Cinematography (John Seale, nominee)
• Academy Award for Best Original Score (Maurice Jarre, nominee)
• BAFTA Award for Best Film (nominee)
• BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay (nominee)
• BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role (Harrison Ford, nominee)
''Witness (1985 film)''
• BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role (Kelly McGillis, nominee)
• BAFTA Award for Best Film Music (Maurice Jarre, winner)
• BAFTA Award for Best Cinematography (John Seale, nominee)
• BAFTA Award for Best Editing (nominee)
• Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama (nominee)
• Golden Globe Award for Best Director (nominee)
• Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay (nominee)
• Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama (Harrison Ford, nominee)
• Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture (Kelly McGillis, nominee)
• Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score (Maurice Jarre, nominee)
• Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Film (winner)
• Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor (Harrison Ford, winner)
• Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay (winner)
• Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing - Feature Film (nominee)
• Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack Album for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media
• American Cinema Editors Award for Best Edited Feature Film (winner)
• Australian Cinematographers Society Award for Cinematographer of the Year (winner)
• British Society of Cinematographers Award for Best Cinematography (nominee)
Home media
The film was released on Region 1 DVD on June 29, 1999. It is in anamorphic widescreen format with audio tracks
in English and French. The sole bonus feature is an interview with director Peter Weir.
The film was released on Region 2 DVD on October 2, 2000. It is in anamorphic widescreen format with audio
tracks in English, French, German, Italian, Czech, Spanish, and Polish and subtitles in English, Spanish, German,
French, Italian, Portuguese, Swedish, Turkish, Danish, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, and Croatian. Bonus features
include an interview with Weir and the original trailer.
A Special Collector's Edition was released on Region 1 DVD on August 23, 2005. It is in anamorphic widescreen
format with audio tracks in English and French and subtitles in English and Spanish. Bonus features include the
five-part documentary Between Two Worlds: The Making of Witness, a deleted scene, the original theatrical trailer,
and three television ads. The Special Collector's Edition was released on Region 2 DVD on 19 February 2007, with
different cover art and more extensive language and audio/subtitle options for European countries.
[1] "Witness" (http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=witness. htm). Box Office Mojo. Amazon.com. .
[2] Feldman, Edward S. (2005). Tell Me How You Love the Picture. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 180–190. ISBN 0312348014.
[3] Roger Ebert (February 8, 1985). Chicago Sun-Times. http:/ / rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19850208/ REVIEWS/
[4] New York Times review (http:// movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ review?res=9903E6DD1739F93BA35751C0A963948260) (subscription
[5] "Witness" (http:/ / www.variety. com/ review/VE1117796433.html). Variety. December 31, 1984. .
[6] "Witness Review" (http:/ / www. timeout. com/ film/newyork/ reviews/ 64714/ Witness. html). Time Out New York. .
[7] John Ferguson. "Witness review" (http:/ / www.radiotimes. com/ servlet_film/ com.icl. beeb.rtfilms.client.
simpleSearchServlet?frn=17783& searchTypeSelect=5). Radio Times. .
[8] "Festival de Cannes: Witness" (http:// www. festival-cannes. com/ en/ archives/ ficheFilm/ id/ 927/ year/1985. html). festival-cannes.com. .
Retrieved 2009-07-08.
[9] http:// www. holycrosslivonia. org/amish/
[10] Pitsburgh Press. February 16, 1985. http:// news. google.com/ newspapers?id=h6ccAAAAIBAJ& sjid=GGIEAAAAIBAJ&
''Witness (1985 film)''
External links
• Witness (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0090329/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
The Mosquito Coast
The Mosquito Coast
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Peter Weir
Produced by Jerome Hellman
Screenplay by Paul Schrader
Story by Paul Theroux (novel)
Starring Harrison Ford
Helen Mirren
Andre Gregory
River Phoenix
Music by Maurice Jarre
Cinematography John Seale
Editing by Thom Noble
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) November 26, 1986
Running time 117 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $25 million (estimated)
Gross revenue $14,302,779 (North America)
The Mosquito Coast is a 1986 American film directed by Peter Weir, based on the novel by Paul Theroux. The film
stars Harrison Ford, Helen Mirren, Andre Gregory and River Phoenix. The film tells the story of a family that leaves
the United States and tries to find a happier and simpler life in the jungles of Central America. However, their jungle
''The Mosquito Coast''
paradise quickly turns into a dystopia as their stubborn father's behavior becomes increasingly erratic and aggressive.
It was shot in Cartersville and Rome, Georgia, Baltimore, and Belize.
The film opens with Charlie Fox (River Phoenix) explaining that his father, Allie Fox (Harrison Ford), is a drop-out
of Harvard University and a brilliant inventor with "nine patents, six pending." Despite his position, Allie has grown
fed up with the American Dream and American consumerism, believing that Americans "buy junk, sell junk and eat
junk," and that there is an impending nuclear war on the horizon as a result of American greed and crime.
Allie and Charlie Fox go to a local hardware store to buy some components for a new invention of Allie's, an ice
machine known as Fat Boy, but, upon seeing that the product was made in Japan, Allie refuses to purchase it. Allie
and Charlie then go to a local dump to acquire the final components, and Allie finishes assembling his creation at
home. However, Allie's boss and asparagus farm owner, Mr. Polski (Dick O'Neill) phones Allie's wife, "Mother"
(Helen Mirren), complaining that Allie is not at the barn tending to the asparagus, which is rotting. Allie, Charlie,
and Allie's youngest son, Jerry (Jadrien Steele), meet Mr. Polski at the barn, where Allie shows him "Fat Boy." The
machine, however, leaves Polski unimpressed, and a dejected Allie leaves with his sons, commenting as he drives
past the fields on the state of the immigrants picking the asparagus, commenting that where they come from, they
might think ice was a diamond of some sort. He then proceeds to show the two boys the home of the migrant
workers, which is in a state of disarray, exemplifying their poverty.
Later that night, Jerry tells Mother worriedly that he believes something terrible is about to happen, which Mother
rebuffs, instead explaining that she believes something good will happen. The next morning, Allie throws a party for
the immigrant workers, before telling his family that they're leaving the United States. Boarding a Panamanian boat,
Allie shouts a defiant "Goodbye, America!!! Have a nice day!!!," as the barge sails away. Aboard, Allie's family
meets Reverend Spellgood (Andre Gregory), a Christian missionary, his wife (Melanie Boland), and their daughter,
Emily (Martha Plimpton), the latter of whom flirts with Charlie. Along the journey, Allie and the Reverend
begrudgingly try to get along, despite having entirely different religious views. The barge eventually docks in Belize
City, where both families get off and temporarily go their separate ways. Allie, with the consent of the Belize
government, purchases a small village called Geronimo in the rainforest along the river.
Allie and his family meet Mr. Haddy (Conrad Roberts), who takes them upriver to Geronimo. Upon arriving, Allie
meets the local inhabitants, and proceeds to start building a new, advanced civilization, in the process inventing
many new things. The locals take kindly to Allie and his family, but Allie's will to build a utopic civilization keeps
them working to their limits. One day, Reverend Spellgood and two native missionaries arrive with the mission of
converting Geronimo's citizens. In the process, Allie and Spellgood angrily denounce each other, leading to a
permanent schism between the two, with the former believing Spellgood to be a religious zealot, and the latter
believing Allie to be a Communist. Afterwards, Allie sets to constructing a huge version of "Fat Boy" that can
supply Geronimo with ice. Upon completing the machine, Allie hears rumors of a native tribe in the mountains that
have never seen ice, so he recruits his two sons and proceeds to carry a load of ice into the jungle to supply the tribe.
Upon arriving, Allie find that the load has melted, and that the tribe has already been visited by missionaries. When
Allie returns to Geronimo, he learns that Spellgood has left with much of the populace, scaring them with stories of
God's biblical destruction.
Later on, the once more near-empty town is visited by rebels, who demand to use the space as a base for their
guerrilla activities. Allie and his family accept their demands and accommodate them while Allie constructs a plan to
be rid of them. Set on freezing them to death, Allie bunks the rebels up in the giant ice machine, after which he tells
Charlie to lock the only other exit to the machine, thereby leaving them no escape route. After Allie's started the
machine, the rebels wake up and panic, as they realize what is happening, and, attempting to escape through the
other exit and finding it locked, try to shoot their way through. This results in an explosion, which blows up the ice
machine and, thereafter, Geronimo, as Allie and his family watch on in horror.
''The Mosquito Coast''
Forced downstream by the events of the explosion, Allie and his family arrive at the coast, where Mother and the
children rejoice, believing they can return to the USA. However, a paranoid Allie, refusing to believe his dream has
been shattered, announces that they have all they need on the beach and, lying, tells the family that America's been
destroyed in a nuclear war. Settling on the beach in a houseboat he built, and refusing any assistance from Mr.
Haddy, Allie believes that the family's accomplished building a utopia. However, one night, a terrible storm arises,
nearly forcing the family out to sea, until Charlie reveals he's been hiding motor components given to him by Haddy,
allowing them to start the motor on the boat. The family becomes physically and emotionally weaker apart from
food, shelter and other human companionship. Traveling upstream, Allie and his family stumble across Spellgood's
compound, where Mother wishes to seek help. Upon coming ashore, Allie sees barbed wire, and believes the
settlement to be a Christian concentration camp. While the rest of the family is asleep, Charlie and Jerry sneak over
to the Spellgood home, where they come across Emily Spellgood. After finding out that the US was not destroyed by
a nuclear war and that Emily will assist them in escaping from Allie and the Spellgood compound, Charlie obtains
the keys to a jeep from Emily, and he proceeds to get Mother and his sisters with Jerry's help. Before Charlie can
convince them to leave, the Spellgood church is set on fire by Allie. The angry Reverend Spellgood shoots Allie in
the neck, rendering him paralyzed from the neck down, but the family manages to escape aboard the boat once more.
The film concludes with the group traveling downriver towards the sea again, where Allie comes in and out of
consciousness, discussing death and the weak human body. Allie asks his wife if they are going upstream, and she
lies to him - going against the wishes of her husband for the first time. Charlie's final narration gives hope that the
rest of the family can live their lives freely from now on.
• Harrison Ford as Allie Fox
• Helen Mirren as "Mother" Fox
• River Phoenix as Charlie Fox
• Conrad Roberts as Mr. Haddy
• Andre Gregory as Reverend Spellgood
• Martha Plimpton as Emily Spellgood
• Melanie Boland as Mrs. Spellgood
• Dick O'Neill as Mr. Polski
• Jadrien Steele as Jerry Fox
• Hilary Gordon as April Fox
• Rebecca Gordon as Clover Fox
Producer Jerome Hellman bought the rights to Theroux's novel as soon as it was published, and Weir committed to
filming it. Jack Nicholson was originally offered the lead role, but backed out partly because he could not watch the
LA Lakers from Belize, where part of the film was to be shot.
He instead went on to star in Terms of Endearment,
a role Ford had also been offered.
As the film went into pre-production, and Weir was in Central America scouting for locations, the financial backing
for the film fell through and the project was suspended indefinitely.
In the meantime, Weir was approached to
direct Witness starring Harrison Ford. The film, which was Weir's first American production, was a critical and
commercial success, garnering eight Academy Award nominations including Weir for Best Director, Ford for Best
Actor, and the film itself for Best Film. During the production of Witness, Weir discussed The Mosquito Coast with
Ford who became interested in the role of Allie Fox (though Ford's agent was less enthusiastic). With Ford attached
to the project, financial backing and distribution for the film was easier to find (ultimately from Saul Zaentz and
Warner Brothers).
''The Mosquito Coast''
Filming began the week of February 7, 1986 in Belize and finished there on April 26 before moving to Georgia
(Weir and Ford famously missed the Academy Awards ceremony for which they had both been nominated for
Some post-production editing was done in Australia.
The film contains the last feature film role of Butterfly McQueen, who had a prominent role in Gone With the Wind.
She plays a lapsed churchgoer, and in real life was a vocal atheist.
The film also features a brief appearance by
Jason Alexander, who would go on to star as George Costanza on the television series Seinfeld.
The film met with critical and commercial disappointment. Siskel & Ebert were split, Siskel giving the film a
"thumbs up" and Ebert giving it a "thumbs down,"
criticizing it as "boring."
Vincent Canby of The New York
Times called it "utterly flat."
Film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 75% of 20 sampled critics
gave the film positive reviews and that it got a rating average of 6.4 out of 10.
Out of a budget of $25 million, the film made only a little over $14 million in North America.
Despite being one of his least successful films, Ford has defended it, saying in one interview:
It's the only film I have done that hasn't made its money back. I'm still glad I did it. If there was a fault with the
film, it was that it didn't fully enough embrace the language of the book (by Paul Theroux). It may have more
properly been a literary rather than a cinematic exercise. But I think it's full of powerful emotions.
[1] Duke, Brad. Harrison Ford: the films. McFarland, 2005.
[2] Pfeiffer, Lee. The Films of Harrison Ford. Citadel Press, 2002.
[3] Freedom From Religion Foundation (http:// ffrf.org/news/ 2009/ madison_buscampaign. php)
[4] http:/ / www. tv. com/ siskel-and-ebert-at-the-movies/week-of-november-15-1986/episode/ 1128175/ summary.html
[5] Ebert, Roger (December 19, 1986). "The Mosquito Coast review" (http:// www. webcitation.org/ 5sHteSGrs). Chicago Sun-Times. Archived
from the original (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs.dll/ article?AID=/19861219/ REVIEWS/612190302/ 1023) on August 27,
2010. . Retrieved August 27, 2010.
[6] Canby, Vincent (November 26, 1986). "The Mosquito Coast review" (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ review?_r=1&
res=9A0DE4D7103FF935A15752C1A960948260). The New York Times. . Retrieved August 27, 2010.
[7] "The Mosquito Coast (1986)" (http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ mosquito_coast/ ). Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. . Retrieved August 27,
[8] The Mosquito Coast - Box Office and Business (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/tt0091557/ business)
[9] Ford, Harrison (June 12, 1992). "Regarding Harrison" (http:/ / www.webcitation. org/5sHuOhkfW). Entertainment Weekly (122): 21.
Archived from the original (http:// www.ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,310753,00.html) on August 27, 2010. . Retrieved August 27, 2010.
External links
• The Mosquito Coast (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0091557/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
''Frantic (film)''
Frantic (film)
Frantic movie poster
Directed by Roman Polanski
Produced by Tim Hampton
Thom Mount
Written by Roman Polanski
Gérard Brach
Starring Harrison Ford
Betty Buckley
John Mahoney
Alexandra Stewart
Introducing Emmanuelle Seigner
Music by Ennio Morricone
Cinematography Witold Sobocinski
Editing by Sam O'Steen
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) February 26, 1988
Running time 120 min.
Country United States
Language English, French
Frantic is a 1988 thriller film directed by Roman Polanski starring Harrison Ford and Emmanuelle Seigner.
''Frantic (film)''
Harrison Ford plays Dr. Richard Walker, a surgeon visiting Paris with his wife Sondra for a medical conference. At
their hotel she is unable to unlock her suitcase and Walker determines that she has picked up the wrong one at the
airport. While Walker is taking a shower his wife mysteriously disappears from their hotel room. Still jet-lagged, he
searches for her in the hotel with the help of a polite but mostly indifferent staff, then wanders outside to look further
on his own. A vagrant overhears him in a café and tells Walker he saw his wife being forced into a car. Walker is
skeptical until he finds his wife's ID bracelet on the cobblestones. He contacts the Paris police and the US embassy
but their responses are bureaucratic and there is little hope anyone will look for her.
As Walker carries on the search himself (with input from a very sympathetic but wary desk clerk at the hotel) he
stumbles onto a murder scene and then encounters the streetwise young Michelle (Emmanuelle Seigner) who
mistakenly picked up his wife's suitcase at the airport. It transpires that she is a career smuggler but does not know
for whom she is working. She reluctantly helps Walker in his increasingly frantic attempt to learn what was in the
switched suitcase and to trade whatever it is for the return of his wife.
It turns out that hidden within a small replica of the Statue of Liberty is a krytron, a small electronic switch used in
the detonators of nuclear devices. The film ends with a confrontation beside the River Seine where the terrorists
release Walker's wife. However, a firefight ensues between the terrorists and Israeli agents. During the crossfire the
terrorists are killed but Michelle is also shot. Angry and upset, Walker throws the krytron into the river.
The French locations and Ennio Morricone's musical score create much of the film's atmosphere. Grace Jones'
recording of "I've Seen That Face Before (Libertango)" is heard at key moments in the film.
Frantic was a critical success and moderately successful at the box office. The film received "Two Thumbs Up"
from Gene Siskel and Roger Ebert on the TV show Siskel & Ebert and The Movies.
Pat Collins of WWOR-TV
called it "Polanski's best film ever."
Cultural references
Frantic was mentioned in the Barenaked Ladies' song "One Week" and also referenced in Mos Def's "Ms. Fat
Booty" from Black on Both Sides. The song "Frantic" by Aqueduct has both a "Roman Polanski Version" and an
instrumental "Harrison Ford Version".
[1] (http:// bventertainment. go. com/ tv/ buenavista/ ebertandroeper/index2.html?sec=1& subsec=2739) - Siskel & Ebert and The Movies
[2] Frantic DVD, Warner Brothers, 1998, ISBN 0-7907-3855-4
External links
• Frantic (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0095174/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Frantic (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ 1007832-frantic/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Frantic (http:/ / movies. yahoo. com/ shop?d=hv& id=1800067680& cf=info) at Yahoo! Movies
''Working Girl''
Working Girl
Working Girl
Working Girl movie poster
Directed by Mike Nichols
Produced by Douglas Wick
Written by Kevin Wade
Starring Harrison Ford
Melanie Griffith
Sigourney Weaver
Alec Baldwin
Joan Cusack
Music by Carly Simon (Main song)
Rob Mounsey
Cinematography Michael Ballhaus
Editing by Sam O'Steen
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) December 21, 1988
Running time 115 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $28.6 million
Gross revenue $102,953,112 (Worldwide)
Working Girl is a 1988 romantic comedy film written by Kevin Wade and directed by Mike Nichols. It tells the
story of a Staten Island-raised secretary, Tess McGill (Melanie Griffith), working in the mergers and acquisitions
department of a Wall Street investment bank. When her boss, Katharine Parker (Sigourney Weaver), breaks her leg
skiing, Tess uses her absence and connections, including Parker's errant beau Jack Trainer (Harrison Ford), to put
forward her idea for a merger deal.
''Working Girl''
The film features a notable opening sequence following Manhattan-bound commuters on the Staten Island Ferry
accompanied by Carly Simon's song "Let the River Run", for which she received the Academy Award for Best Song.
The film was a box office hit, grossing a worldwide total of $103 million.
Tess McGill (Melanie Griffith) is smart working-class secretary for a stock broker who has recently earned a
bachelor's degree in Business by attending college at night. Her goal is to move out of the secretarial pool and into an
executive position. As she turns 30, her dream remains unrealized; because her education was not acquired at a
prestigious school, she cannot gain entry to her firm's training program for recent college graduates. After being
misled into thinking that her boss, David Lutz (Oliver Platt), is helping her get a better job, Tess finds herself set up
(Kevin Spacey); she then gets into trouble by publicly calling her boss a "sleazoid pimp with a tiny little dick"
through typing the phrase into the office's electronic stock-ticker crawl display.
Tess is reassigned as secretary to a new financial executive for Petty Marsh, Katharine Parker (Sigourney Weaver) .
Seemingly supportive and benevolent, Katharine encourages Tess to share any good business ideas she has. Tess
suggests to Katharine that Trask Industries, one of the firm's clients, should invest in radio, so it can gain more of a
foothold in the media market. When Katharine seems interested, Tess begins to feel her luck is finally changing.
However, when Katharine breaks her leg on a skiing trip in Europe, she asks Tess to house-sit for her. While at
Katharine's place, Tess accidentally finds evidence that Katharine was planning to steal Tess's idea and pass it off as
her own. That night, when Tess returns home, she finds her boyfriend Mick Dugan (Alec Baldwin) in bed with
another woman, Doreen DiMucci (Elizabeth Whitcraft). Disillusioned with Katharine and disgusted with Mick, she
returns to Katharine's apartment and begins to hatch her own plan.
The next day, Tess calls Dewey Stone executive Jack Trainer (Harrison Ford), using her boss's name as an entree.
She tells Jack that she has a proposal to run by him and sets up a meeting. The evening before the meeting, Tess
attends a merger party, wearing a sophisticated new hairstyle and an expensive cocktail dress from Katharine's
closet, which she models beforehand for her friend Cynthia (Joan Cusack), "Cyn". Upon learning the dress is worth
$6,000, Tess has a minor panic attack. To calm her nerves, she accepts a Valium from Cyn.
At the party, she unknowingly encounters Jack, who never mentions his name, and has a few drinks with him, but
passes out from the combination of alcohol and pills. Jack takes her to his place in a cab; Tess wakes up the next
morning in Jack's bed wearing only her underwear and leaves before Jack awakens. On entering the meeting, she
realizes Jack is the man with whom she spent the night. She submits her proposal to him but his colleagues seem
uninterested. Back at to her own office, Tess laments about her meeting to Cyn, and is mortified about the previous
evening. Jack then arrives at the office and Cyn (at Tess's frantic request) pretends to be Tess's secretary. Jack
announces that they will proceed with Tess's pitch.
After Cyn’s engagement party, Mick and Tess officially break up. Days later, Tess and Jack crash Oren Trask's
(Philip Bosco) daughter’s (Barbara Garrick) wedding, intending to make an appointment and pitch their plan. They
succeed and meet with two of his executives. Trask is interested. Back at Jack's apartment, the pair end up in bed
together. Tess wants to reveal herself to Jack, but learning of his relationship with Katharine, she decides not to.
On the day of the Trask/Metro meeting, Katharine returns home with her leg still in plaster, enlisting Tess's aid as
her personal assistant at home. At Katharine's insistence, Jack visits but extricates himself quickly. Tess, who was
hiding in the closet, emerges after he leaves, gives Katharine her pills and rushes out of the apartment, accidentally
leaving her appointment book behind. Katharine reads it and becomes enraged after she discovers what Tess has
been up to.
At the meeting for the Trask/Metro merger, Jack and Tess realize they're in love. Katharine storms into the meeting,
accusing Tess of stealing her idea, and announces that she is just a secretary. Tess is unable to make the others
understand that Katharine is the liar and leaves the meeting in shame. At Cynthia’s wedding, she finds that Mick is
going on with his life with Doreen.
''Working Girl''
Back at the office, Tess cleans out her desk and packs her belongings. She bumps into Jack, Katharine and Trask in
the lobby. As Katharine tries to lead the group onto the elevator, Trask says that Jack "better not let his Johnson go
on making his business decisions for him." Jack then refuses to come, stating that Tess is this team's leader and he
believes her. He and Tess convince Trask that Katharine has been lying (by asking Katharine to recall what gave her
the idea for the merger, which, of course, she cannot). Trask assures Katharine she will lose her job over this
duplicity and tells her to "get her bony *** out of his sight." He then offers Tess an "entry-level" job, which she
happily accepts. Katharine haughtily stalks out of their lives in disgrace.
Tess moves in with Jack and starts her first day of her new job at Trask Industries. When she arrives, she sees a
woman in an office, talking on the phone, and presumes she is to be the woman's secretary. However, it is quickly
revealed that the woman is, in fact, Tess’s secretary (Amy Aquino), and Tess realizes that Trask's definition of
"entry-level" involves the opportunities she had dreamed of. She insists her new secretary treat her as a colleague,
rather than a superior, proving she is going be a very different boss from Katharine. Tess then calls Cynthia, to tell
her the good news, and Cynthia shouts to everyone that Tess has finally made it out of the typing pool.
• Harrison Ford as Jack Trainer
• Sigourney Weaver as Katharine Parker
• Melanie Griffith as Tess McGill
• Alec Baldwin as Mick Dugan
• Joan Cusack as Cynthia
• Philip Bosco as Oren Trask
• Nora Dunn as Ginny
• Oliver Platt as David Lutz
• James Lally as Turkel
• Kevin Spacey as Bob Speck
• Elizabeth Whitcraft as Doreen DiMucci
• Jeffrey Nordling as Tim Rourke
• Robert Easton as Armbrister
• Olympia Dukakis as Personnel Director
• Amy Aquino as Alice Baxter (Tess' Secretary)
• Timothy Carhart as Tim Draper
• David Duchovny as Tess's Birthday Party Friend
• Zach Grenier as Jim
• Ricki Lake as Bridesmaid
• Lloyd Lindsay Young as TV Weatherman
''Working Girl''
Box office
Working Girl was released on December 23, 1988 in 1,051 theaters and grossed USD $4.7 million on its opening
weekend. It went on to make $63.8 million in North America and $39.2 million in the rest of the world for a
worldwide total of $103 million.
The film received positive reviews from critics with an 84% rating at Rotten Tomatoes and a 73 metascore at
Metacritic. Chicago Sun-Times film critic Roger Ebert gave the film four out of four stars and wrote, "The plot of
Working Girl is put together like clockwork. It carries you along while you're watching it, but reconstruct it later and
you'll see the craftsmanship".
In her review for the Washington Post, Rita Kempley described Melanie Griffith as
"luminous as Marilyn Monroe, as adorable as one of Disney's singing mice. She clearly has the stuff of a megastar,
and the movie glows from her".
Janet Maslin, in her review for the New York Times, wrote, "Mike Nichols, who
directed Working Girl, also displays an uncharacteristically blunt touch, and in its later stages the story remains
lively but seldom has the perceptiveness or acuity of Mr. Nichols's best work".
In his review for Time, Richard
Corliss wrote, "Kevin Wade shows this in his smart screenplay, which is full of the atmospheric pressures that allow
stars to collide. Director Mike Nichols knows this in his bones. He encourages Weaver to play (brilliantly) an airy
shrew. He gives Ford a boyish buoyancy and Griffith the chance to be a grownup mesmerizer".
• 1989: Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture - Musical or Comedy
• 1989: Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy (Melanie Griffith)
• 1989: Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress - Motion Picture (Sigourney Weaver)
• 1989: Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song - "Let the River Run"
• 1989: Academy Award for Best Song - "Let the River Run" (Carly Simon)
• 1990: Grammy Awards of 1990 for Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or Television - "Let the
River Run" (Composing and arranging)
Academy Award nominations
• Best Actress in a Leading Role (Melanie Griffith)
• Best Actress in a Supporting Role (Joan Cusack)
• Best Actress in a Supporting Role (Sigourney Weaver)
• Best Director
• Best Picture
Shooting locations
Many scenes were shot in the New Brighton section of Staten Island in New York City.
The lobby of Tess' office building was located in the 7 World Trade Center, which was destroyed in the September
11 attacks. The scenes of Tess' secretarial pool and Katharine Parker's office were filmed at 1 State Street Plaza at
the corner of Whitehall and State Street. One Chase Manhattan Plaza was featured at the end as the Trask Industries

''Working Girl''
1. "Let the River Run" - Carly Simon
2. "In Love (Instrumental)" - Carly Simon
3. "The Man That Got Away" (Instrumental)
4. "The Scar" (Instrumental) - Carly Simon
5. "Let the River Run" - The St. Thomas Choir Of Men And Boys
6. "Lady In Red" - Chris De Burgh
7. "Carlotta's Heart" - Carly Simon
8. "Looking Through Katherine's House" - Carly Simon
9. "Poor Butterfly" (Instrumental) - Sonny Rollins
10. "I'm So Excited" - Pointer Sisters
TV series
Working Girl was also made into a short-lived NBC television series in 1990, starring Sandra Bullock as Tess
McGill. It only lasted 12 episodes.
[1] "Working Girl" (http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=workinggirl.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2009-01-27.
[2] Ebert, Roger (December 21, 1988). "Working Girl" (http:/ / rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs.dll/ article?AID=/19881221/ REVIEWS/
812210302/1023). Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved 2009-01-27.
[3] Kempley, Rita (December 21, 1988). "Working Girl" (http:// www.washingtonpost. com/ wp-srv/style/ longterm/movies/ videos/
workinggirlrkempley_a0c9d9.htm). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2009-01-27.
[4] Maslin, Janet (December 21, 1988). "The Dress-for-Success Story Of a Secretary From Staten Island" (http:// movies. nytimes. com/ movie/
review?res=940DE5DD153AF932A15751C1A96E948260&partner=Rotten Tomatoes). New York Times. . Retrieved 2009-01-27.
[5] Corliss, Richard (December 19, 1988). "Two Out of Five Ain't Bad" (http://www. time.com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,956569,00.
html). Time. . Retrieved 2009-01-27.
[6] http:/ / www. fast-rewind.com/ workinggirl.htm
[7] http:// www. couleurnewyork.com/ films/ Workinggirl.htm
External links
• Working Girl (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0096463/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Working Girl (http:/ / tcmdb. com/ title/ title. jsp?stid=96258) at the TCM Movie Database
• Working Girl (http:/ / www. allmovie. com/ work/55284) at Allmovie
• Working Girl (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ working_girl/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Working Girl (http:/ / www. metacritic.com/ film/ titles/ workinggirl?q) at Metacritic
• Working Girl (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=workinggirl.htm) at Box Office Mojo
• Working Girl (TV series) (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0098951/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
Theatrical poster by Drew Struzan
Directed by Steven Spielberg
Produced by Robert Watts
Executive producers:
George Lucas
Frank Marshall
Screenplay by Jeffrey Boam
Tom Stoppard
Story by George Lucas
Menno Meyjes
Starring Harrison Ford
Sean Connery
Alison Doody
Denholm Elliott
Julian Glover
River Phoenix
John Rhys-Davies
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Douglas Slocombe
Editing by Michael Kahn
Studio Lucasfilm Ltd.
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date(s) May 24, 1989
Running time 127 minutes
Country United States
Language English
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
Gross revenue $474.17 million
Preceded by Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
Followed by Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade is a 1989 American adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg, from a story
co-written by executive producer George Lucas. It is the third film in the Indiana Jones franchise. Harrison Ford
reprises the title role and Sean Connery plays Indiana's father, Henry Jones, Sr. Alison Doody, Denholm Elliott,
Julian Glover, River Phoenix, and John Rhys-Davies also have featured roles. Set largely in 1938, Indiana searches
for his father, a Holy Grail scholar, who has been kidnapped by Nazis.
After the mixed reaction to the dark Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, Spielberg chose to compensate by
completing the trilogy with a movie lighter in tone. During the five years between Temple of Doom and Last
Crusade, he and executive producer Lucas reviewed several scripts before accepting Jeffrey Boam's. Filming
locations included Spain, Italy, England, and Jordan.
The film was released in North America on May 24, 1989 to mostly positive reviews. It was a financial success,
earning $474,171,806 at the worldwide box office totals.
In 1912, thirteen-year-old Indiana Jones is horseback riding with his Boy Scout troop in Utah. He discovers grave
robbers in a cave who find an ornamental cross which belonged to Coronado. He steals the cross from them and as
they give chase, Indiana hides in a circus train, in the process using a whip, scarring his chin, and gaining a fear of
snakes. Although he escapes, the grave robbers bring the sheriff, and Indy is forced to return it. Meanwhile, his
oblivious father, Henry Jones, Sr., is working on his research into the Holy Grail, keeping meticulous notes in a
diary. The leader of the hired robbers, dressed very similarly to the future Indiana and impressed by the young Indy's
tenacity, gives him his fedora and some encouraging words. In 1938, Indiana recovers the cross from the robbers and
donates it to Marcus Brody's museum.
Indiana is introduced to Walter Donovan, who informs him that Indy's estranged father has vanished while searching
for the Holy Grail, using an incomplete inscription as his guide. Indy receives a package which turns out to be his
father's Grail diary, containing all his life's research. Understanding that his father would not have sent the diary
unless he was in trouble, Indiana and Marcus travel to Venice, where they meet Henry's colleague, Dr. Elsa
Schneider. Beneath the library where Henry was last seen, Indiana and Elsa discover catacombs and the tomb of a
knight of the First Crusade, with a complete version of the inscription that Henry used. They flee when the
catacombs are set aflame by The Brotherhood of the Cruciform Sword, a secret society. They are pursued and escape
on a speedboat, and a chase through Venice ensues in which they capture the secret society's leader, Kazim. After
Indiana convinces him of their intentions, Kazim explains The Brotherhood are protecting the Grail from those with
evil intentions, and that Henry was abducted to Grunwald Castle on the Austrian-German border.
Indiana infiltrates the castle, and finds his father, but learns that Elsa and Donovan are working with the Nazis,
hoping that Indiana would discover the location of the Grail for them. The Nazis capture Marcus, who had traveled
to Iskenderun, Hatay with the map. The Joneses are able to escape and recover the diary from Elsa at a Nazi rally in
Berlin. They then meet Sallah in Hatay, where they learn of Marcus' abduction and that the Nazis are already moving
to the Grail's location. With the help of The Brotherhood, the Joneses ambush the Nazi convoy and rescue Marcus.
Donovan and Elsa continue on to the Canyon of the Crescent Moon, the location of the Grail.
Indy, Henry, Marcus, and Sallah catch up and find that the Nazis are unable to pass through traps set before the
Grail. After the four are discovered, Donovan shoots Henry, mortally wounding him, and forces Indiana to
circumvent the traps using the information in his father's diary, with Donovan and Elsa following. Indiana succeeds
and finds himself in a room with the last Knight, kept alive with the power of the Grail, which has been hidden
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
among several other cups. Elsa selects a gilded cup encrusted in jewels for Donovan; when Donovan drinks from it,
he rapidly decays and crumbles into dust. Indiana, recognizing that the Grail would be that of a humble carpenter
instead of a wealthy king, selects the correct vessel, and quickly takes it to his father with the holy water, which
heals his wounds. As they prepare to leave, the Knight warns them to not take the Grail past the temple's seal, but
Elsa disobeys, causing the temple to collapse. Elsa falls into an abyss while attempting to recover the Grail, Indiana
nearly suffers the same fate until his father tells him to let it go. The Joneses, Marcus, and Sallah narrowly escape the
collapsing temple. The four then ride out of the canyon, and into the sunset.
• Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones: The archaeologist adventurer who seeks to rescue his father and find the Holy
Grail. Ford said he loved the idea of introducing Indiana's father because it allowed him to explore another side to
Indiana's personality: "These are men who have never made any accommodation to each other. Indy behaves
differently in his father's presence. Who else would dare call Indy 'junior'?"
Ford signed to the project on
February 9, 1987.
He insisted on performing many of his own stunts, to the point that double Vic Armstrong
joked his toughest stunt was to coerce Ford into letting him perform some. Among those Armstrong performed
was the ten feet leap from Indiana's horse onto the tank, and Indiana's leaping from a rock to steal the horse,
which Armstrong only convinced Ford to let him do because he felt he would have been out of a job.
• River Phoenix played the 13-year-old Indiana. Phoenix had portrayed Ford's son in The Mosquito Coast
(1986). Ford recommended Phoenix for the part; he said that of the young actors working at the time, Phoenix
looked the most like him when he was around that age.
Phoenix had been looking for a lighter, more comic
Ford was present during filming to advise Phoenix on his portrayal.
Lucasfilm was secretive about
Phoenix's casting, referring to the young Indiana as "boy on train" in the script. When it was leaked, they
spread a rumor he was playing Indiana's younger brother.
Phoenix performed opposite the lion, although a
stuntman was required for the more dangerous shots of Indiana being swiped at and the shot of Indiana
cracking his whip at the animal.
• Sean Connery as Professor Henry Jones: Indiana's father, a professor of Medieval literature who cared more about
looking for the Grail than raising his son. Alex Hyde-White stood in for Connery in the prologue. Spielberg had
Connery in mind when he suggested introducing Indiana's father, though he did not tell Lucas at first.
Consequently, Lucas wrote the role as "a crazy, eccentric" professor resembling Laurence Olivier, whose
relationship with Indiana is "strict schoolmaster and student rather than a father and son".
Spielberg had been a
fan of Connery's work as James Bond and felt that no-one else could perform the role as well.
biographer Joseph McBride wrote, "Connery was already the father of Indiana Jones since the series had sprung
from the desire of Lucas and Spielberg to rival (and outdo) Connery's James Bond movies."
Connery initially
turned the role down as he is only twelve years older than Ford, but he relented. Connery—a student of
history—began to reshape the character, and revisions were made to the script to address his concerns. "I wanted
to play Henry Jones as a kind of Sir Richard [Francis] Burton," Connery commented. "I was bound to have fun
with the role of a gruff, Victorian Scottish father."
Connery believed Henry should be a match for his son,
telling Spielberg that "whatever Indy'd done my character has done and my character has done it better".
Connery signed to the film on March 25, 1988.
He improvised the line, "She talks in her sleep", which was left
in because it made everyone laugh;
in Boam's scripts, Henry telling Indiana that he slept with Elsa occurs
• Alison Doody as Dr. Elsa Schneider: An Austrian art professor who is in league with the Nazis. She seduces the
Joneses to trick them. Doody was 21 when she auditioned and was one of the first actresses who met for the
Doody scarred herself while filming the catacombs scene, when hot wax on the torch she held dripped
onto her hand; Ford noticed and dipped her hand into the water, preventing a burn.
Although Doody drove the
boat for the Venetian chase, no one had instructed her in driving it. The filmmakers regretted their decision when
she almost crashed her boat into the one in which they were filming.
She did not mind filming with the rats,
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
noting the animals were probably more afraid of her than she was of them.
• Denholm Elliott as Dr. Marcus Brody: Indiana's English bumbling colleague. Elliott returned after Spielberg
sought to recapture the tone of Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), following the actor's absence in the darker Temple
of Doom (1984).
Elliott felt his small role in the first film had been boring, so he enjoyed that in The Last
Crusade, Brody is revealed to have "two left feet". He added, "I love comedy, life is too boring and sad without
Elliott and Connery improvised the "Genius of the restoration... Aid our own resuscitation" University Club
• Julian Glover as Walter Donovan: An American businessman who sends the Joneses on their quest for the Holy
Grail. Donovan works for the Nazis and desires immortality. Glover previously appeared as General Veers in
Lucas's Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back. Glover lived next door to producer Robert Watts, and
auditioned for the role of Vogel. He did not get the part but the producers wanted him for Donovan.
who is English, adopted an American accent for the film,
although he was dissatisfied with the result.
suggested that Glover's wife, Isla Blair, cameo as Donovan's wife.
• John Rhys-Davies as Sallah: A friend of Indiana and a professional excavator living in Cairo. Like Elliott's,
Rhys-Davies' return was an attempt to recapture the spirit of Raiders of the Lost Ark.
Rhys-Davies said that
since the previous film, Sallah "has gotten older and a little fatter. This time, we see him without the
appurtenances of his wife and children. He's a little more resolute now, and he's more ready to have a physical go
at the Germans himself. But other than that, he's still the same old Sallah."
Rhys-Davies suffered from sciatica
during filming, which was not helped by the horse riding required.
He fell from his horse while mounting it for
the film's final scene after it was spooked by Connery's, but was uninjured.
• Michael Byrne as Colonel Vogel: A brutal SS colonel. Byrne and Ford had previously starred in Force 10 from
Navarone (1978), in which they also played a German and an American.
• Kevork Malikyan as Kazim: The leader of the Brotherhood of the Cruciform Sword, an organization that protects
the Holy Grail. Malikyan had impressed Spielberg with his performance in Midnight Express (1978) and would
have auditioned for the role of Sallah in Raiders of the Lost Ark had a traffic jam not delayed his meeting with the
• Robert Eddison as the Grail Knight: The guardian of the Grail who drank from the cup of Christ during the
Crusades and is immortal as long as he stays within the temple. Eddison was a stage and television veteran only
appearing once before in film (a supporting role in Peter Ustinov's 1948 comedy Vice Versa). Glover recalled
Eddison was excited and nervous for his film debut, often asking if he had performed correctly.
• Vernon Dobtcheff as the Butler: He opens the door to the Austrian castle to Indiana, who claims to be the Scottish
Lord Clarence MacDonald. The butler replies, "If you are Scottish lord, then I am Mickey Mouse", forcing
Indiana to knock him unconscious. Spielberg and Lucas initially intended the butler to quip that he was Jesse
Owens, and then Mae West, but felt younger viewers would not understand the joke. The scene was shortened
during editing to exclude Indiana hiding the butler in a sarcophagus that has an uncanny resemblance to him.
• Michael Sheard as Adolf Hitler: The Nazi leader, who literally bumps into a disguised Indiana during a
book-burning rally. Not realizing that he has encountered Indiana or that he is holding the Grail Diary, he opens
the diary to a random page, autographs it, and gives it back to Indiana. Sheard, who could speak German, had
auditioned for the role of Toht in Raiders of the Lost Ark, but was cast as the U-boat captain. Like Julian Glover,
he was previously seen in Lucas's Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back in which he played Admiral
Ozzel. Weather and scheduling difficulties forced Sheard to leave before completing his scenes, so Spielberg cut
him out and promised he would find him another role in the series. The close-up of Hitler signing his autograph
with his right hand was added with another actor during pickups, although Hitler was left-handed.
Ronald Lacey, who played Toht in Raiders of the Lost Ark, cameos as Heinrich Himmler. Alexei Sayle played the
sultan of Hatay. Paul Maxwell portrayed "the man with the Panama Hat" who took possession of the Cross of
Coronado. Wrestler and stuntman Pat Roach, who played three roles in the previous two films, made a short cameo
as the Nazi who accompanies Vogel to the Zeppelin. Roach was set to film a fight with Ford, but it was cut.
In a
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
deleted scene, Roach's agent boards the second biplane on the Zeppelin with a World War I flying ace (played by
Frederick Jaeger), only for the pair to fall to their deaths after the flying ace makes an error.
Lucas and Spielberg had intended to make a trilogy of Indiana Jones films since Lucas had first pitched Raiders of
the Lost Ark to Spielberg in 1977.
After the mixed critical and public reaction to Indiana Jones and the Temple of
Doom, Spielberg decided to complete the trilogy to fulfill his promise to Lucas and "to apologize for the second
The pair had the intention of revitalizing the series by evoking the spirit and tone of Raiders of the Lost
Throughout development and pre-production of The Last Crusade, Spielberg admitted he was "consciously
regressing" in making the film.
Due to his commitment to The Last Crusade, the director had to drop out of
directing Big and Rain Man.
Chris Columbus's script featured the
Monkey King in Africa
Lucas initially suggested making the film "a haunted mansion movie", for which
Romancing the Stone writer Diane Thomas wrote a script. Spielberg rejected the
idea because of the similarity to Poltergeist, which he had co-written and
Lucas first introduced the Holy Grail in an idea for the film's
prologue, which was to be set in Scotland. He intended the Grail to have a pagan
basis, with the rest of the film revolving around a separate Christian artifact in
Africa. Spielberg did not care for the Grail idea, which he found too esoteric,
even after Lucas suggested giving it healing powers and the ability to grant
immortality. In September 1984 Lucas completed an eight-page treatment
entitled Indiana Jones and the Monkey King, which he soon followed with an
11-page outline. The story saw Indiana battling a ghost in Scotland before
finding the Fountain of Youth in Africa.
Chris Columbus—who had written the Spielberg-produced Gremlins, The
Goonies, and Young Sherlock Holmes—was hired to write the script. His first
draft, dated May 3, 1985, changed the main plot device to a Garden of Immortal
Peaches. It begins in 1937, with Indiana battling the murderous ghost of Baron Seamus Seagrove III in Scotland.
Indiana travels to Mozambique to aid Dr. Clare Clarke (a Katharine Hepburn type, according to Lucas) who has
found a 200-year-old pygmy. The pygmy is kidnapped by the Nazis during a boat chase, and Indiana, Clare and
Scraggy Brier—an old friend of Indiana—travel up the Zambesi river to rescue him. Indiana is killed in the climactic
battle but is resurrected by the Monkey King. Other characters include a cannibalistic African tribe; Nazi Sergeant
Gutterbuhg, who has a mechanical arm; Betsy, a stowaway student who is suicidally in love with Indiana; and a
pirate leader named Kezure (described as a Toshirō Mifune type), who dies eating a peach because he is not pure of
heart. The tank is three stories high and requires Indiana to ride a rhinoceros to commandeer it.
Columbus's second draft, dated August 6, 1985, removed Betsy and featured Dash — an expatriate bar owner
working for the Nazis — and the Monkey King as villains. The Monkey King forces Indiana and Dash to play chess
with real people and disintegrates each person who is captured. Indiana subsequently battles the undead, destroys the
Monkey King's rod, and marries Clare.
Location scouting commenced in Africa but Spielberg and Lucas
abandoned Monkey King because of its negative depiction of African natives,
and because the ridiculous script
was unrealistic.
Spielberg acknowledged that it made him "...feel very old, too old to direct it."
script was leaked onto the Internet in 1997, and many believed it was an early draft for the fourth film because it was
mistakenly dated to 1995.
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
Unsatisfied, Spielberg suggested introducing Indiana's father, Henry Jones, Sr. Lucas was dubious, believing the
Grail should be the focus of the story, but Spielberg convinced him that the father–son relationship would serve as a
great metaphor in Indiana's search for the artifact.
Spielberg hired Menno Meyjes, who had worked on Spielberg's
The Color Purple and Empire of the Sun, to begin a new script on January 1, 1986. Meyjes completed his script ten
months later. It depicted Indiana searching for his father in Montségur, where he meets a nun named Chantal.
Indiana travels to Venice, takes the Orient Express to Istanbul, and continues by train to Petra, where he meets Sallah
and reunites with his father. In the denouement, the Nazis touch the Grail and explode; when Henry touches it, he
ascends a staircase into Heaven. Chantal chooses to stay on Earth and marries Indiana. In a revised draft dated two
months later, Indiana finds his father in Krak des Chevaliers, the Nazi leader is a woman named Greta von Grimm,
and Indiana battles a demon at the Grail site, which he defeats with a dagger inscribed with "God is King". The
prologue in both drafts has Indiana in Mexico battling for possession of Montezuma's mask with a man who owns
gorillas as pets.
Indiana Jones (River Phoenix) finds the Cross of
Coronado as a 13-year-old Boy Scout. Spielberg
suggested making Indiana a Boy Scout as he was
one as a child.
Spielberg suggested Innerspace writer Jeffrey Boam perform the next
rewrite. Boam spent two weeks reworking the story with Lucas.
Boam told Lucas that Indiana should find his father in the middle of
the story. "Given the fact that it's the third film in the series, you
couldn't just end with them obtaining the object. That's how the first
two films ended," he said, "So I thought, let them lose the Grail, and let
the father–son relationship be the main point. It's an archaeological
search for Indy's own identity and coming to accept his father is more
what it's about [than the quest for the Grail]."
Boam said he felt there
was not enough character development in the previous films.
Boam's first draft, dated September 1987, the film is set in 1939. The
prologue has Indiana retrieving an Aztec relic for a professor in
Mexico and features the circus train. The leader of the Brotherhood of the Cruciform Sword is Kemal, a Hatayan
secret agent who allies with the Nazis because he wants the Grail for the glory of his country. He shoots Henry and
dies drinking from the wrong chalice. Henry and Elsa (who is described as having dark hair) were searching for the
Grail on behalf of the Chandler Foundation. The Grail Knight battles Indiana on horseback, while Vogel is crushed
by a boulder when stealing the Grail.
Boam's February 1988 rewrite utilized many of Connery's comic suggestions. It included the prologue that was
eventually filmed; Lucas had to convince Spielberg to show Indiana as a boy because of the mixed response to
Empire of the Sun, which was about a young boy.
Spielberg—who was later awarded the Distinguished Eagle
Scout Award—had the idea of making Indiana a Boy Scout.
Indiana's mother, named Margaret in this version,
dismisses Indiana when he returns home with the Cross of Coronado, while his father is on a long distance call.
Walter Chandler of the Chandler Foundation features, but is not the main villain; he plunges to his death in the tank.
Elsa shoots Henry, then dies drinking from the wrong Grail, and Indiana rescues his father from falling into the
chasm while grasping for the Grail. Vogel is beheaded by the traps guarding the Grail, while Kemal tries to blow up
the temple during a comic fight in which gunpowder is repeatedly lit and extinguished. Leni Riefenstahl appears at
the Nazi rally.
Boam's revision the following month showed Henry causing the seagulls to strike the plane. Tom
Stoppard rewrote the script by May 8, 1988 under the pen name Barry Watson.
He polished much of the
and created the character of "Panama Hat" to link the segments of the prologue featuring the young and
adult Indianas. Stoppard also renamed Kemal to Kazim and Chandler to Donovan, and made Donovan shoot
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
The tank chase was filmed in Almería, Spain
Principal photography began on May 16, 1988 in the Tabernas Desert
in the Almería province of Spain. Spielberg originally had planned the
chase to be a short sequence shot over two days, but he drew up
storyboards to make the scene an action-packed centerpiece.
Thinking he would not surpass the truck chase from Raiders of the Lost
Ark (because the truck was much faster than the tank), he felt this
sequence should be more story-based and needed to show Indiana and
Henry helping each other. He later said he had more fun storyboarding
the sequence than filming it.
The second unit had begun filming two
weeks before.
After approximately ten days the production moved to
Bellas Artes to film the scenes set in the Sultan of Hatay's palace. Cabo
de Gata-Níjar Natural Park was used for the road, tunnel and beach sequence in which birds strike the plane. The
Spanish portion of shoot wrapped on June 2, 1988 in Guadix, Granada with filming of Brody's capture at İskenderun
train station.
The filmmakers built a mosque near the station for atmosphere, rather than adding it as a visual
Filming for the castle interiors took place from June 5 to 10, 1988 at Elstree Studios, England. The fire was filmed
last. On June 16, the Royal Horticultural Society was used for the airport interiors. Filming returned to Elstree the
next day to capture the motorcycle escape, continuing at the studio for interior scenes until July 18. One day was
spent at North Weald Airfield on June 29 to film Indiana leaving for Venice.
Ford and Connery acted much of the
Zeppelin table conversation without trousers on because of the overheated set.
Spielberg, Marshall and Kennedy
interrupted the shoot to make a plea to the Parliament of the United Kingdom to support the economically
"depressed" British studios. July 20–22 was spent filming the temple interiors. The temple set, which took six weeks
to build, was supported on 80 feet of hydraulics and ten gimbals for use during the earthquake scene. Resetting
between takes took twenty minutes while the hydraulics were put to their starting positions and the cracks filled with
plaster. The shot of the Grail falling to the temple floor—causing the first crack to appear—was attempted on the
full-size set, but proved too difficult. Instead, crews built a separate floor section that incorporated a pre-scored crack
sealed with plaster. It took several takes to throw the Grail from six feet onto the right part of the crack.
July 25–26
was spent on night shoots at Blenheim Palace for the Nazi rally.
Filming resumed two days later at Elstree, where Spielberg swiftly filmed the library, Portuguese freighter, and
catacombs sequences.
The steamship fight in the 1938 portion of the prologue was filmed in three days on a
sixty-by-forty-feet deck built on gimbals at Elstree. A dozen dump tanks—each holding three hundred imperial
gallons (360 U.S. gallons; 3000 lb) of water—were used in the scene.
Henry's house was filmed at Mill Hill,
London. Indiana and Kazim's fight in Venice in front of a ship's propeller was filmed in a water tank at Elstree.
Spielberg used a long lens to make it appear the actors were closer to the propeller than they really were.
Two days
later, on August 4, another portion of the boat chase using Hacker Craft sport boats, was filmed at Tilbury Docks in
The shot of the boats passing between two ships was achieved by first cabling the ships off so they would
be safe. The ships were moved together while the boats passed between, close enough that one of the boats scraped
the sides of the ships. An empty speedboat containing dummies was launched from a floating platform between the
ships amid fire and smoke that helped obscure the platform. The stunt was performed twice because the boat landed
too short of the camera in the first attempt.
The following day, filming in England wrapped at the Royal Masonic
School in Rickmansworth, which doubled for Indiana's college (as it had in Raiders of the Lost Ark).
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
Al Khazneh was used for the
entrance to the temple housing the
Holy Grail
Shooting in Venice took place on August 8.
For scenes such as Indiana and
Brody greeting Elsa, shots of the boat chase, and Kazim telling Indiana where his
father is,
Robert Watts gained control of the Grand Canal from 7 am to 1 pm,
sealing off tourists for as long as possible. Cinematographer Douglas Slocombe
positioned the camera to ensure no satellite dishes would be visible.
Barnaba di Venezia served as the exterior to the library.
The next day, filming
moved to the ancient city of Petra, Jordan, which stood in for the temple housing
the Grail. The cast and crew became guests of King Hussein and Queen Noor.
The main cast completed their scenes that week, after 63 days of filming.
The second unit filmed part of the 1912 segment of the prologue from August 29
to September 3. The main unit began two days later with the circus train
sequence at Alamosa, Colorado. They filmed at Pagosa Springs on September 7,
and then at Cortez on September 10. From September 14 to 16, filming of
Indiana falling into the train carriages took place in Los Angeles. The production
then moved to Arches National Park in Utah to shoot more of the opening. A
house near the park was used for the Jones family home.
The production had intended to film at Mesa Verde
National Park, but Native American representatives had religious objections to its use.
When Spielberg and editor
Michael Kahn viewed a rough cut of the film in late 1988, they felt it suffered from a lack of action. The motorcycle
chase was shot during post-production at Mount Tamalpais and Fairfax near Skywalker Ranch. The closing shot of
Indiana, Henry, Sallah and Brody riding into the sunset was filmed in Texas in early 1989.

Mechanical effects supervisor George Gibbs said The Last Crusade was the most difficult film of his career.
visited a museum to negotiate renting a small French World War I tank, but decided he wanted to make one.
tank was based on the Tank Mark VIII, which was 36 feet and 28 tons. Gibbs built the tank over the framework of a
28-ton excavator and added seven ton tracks that were driven by two automatic hydraulic pumps, each connected to
a Range Rover V8 engine. Gibbs built the tank from steel rather than aluminum or fiberglass because it would allow
the realistically suspensionless vehicle to endure the rocky surfaces. Unlike its historical counterpart—which had
four side guns—the tank had a turret and two guns on its sides. It took four months to build and was transported to
Almería on a Short Belfast plane and then a low loader truck.
Composite photograph of the tank on location
The tank broke down twice. The rotor arm
in the distributor broke and a replacement
had to be sourced from Madrid. Then two of
the valves in the device used to cool the oil
exploded, due to solder melting and mixing
with the oil. It was very hot in the tank,
despite the installation of ten fans, and the
lack of suspension meant the driver was
unable to stop shaking during filming breaks.
The tank only moved at ten to twelve miles per hour, which Vic
Armstrong said made it difficult to film Indiana riding a horse against the tank while making it appear faster.
smaller section of the tank's top made from aluminum and which used rubber tracks was used for close-ups. It was
built from a searchlight trailer, weighed eight tons, and was towed by a four-wheel drive truck. It had safety nets on
each end to prevent injury to those falling off.
A quarter-scale model by Gibbs was driven over a 50-foot (15 m)
cliff on location; Industrial Light & Magic created further shots of the tank's destruction with models and
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
Michael Lantieri, mechanical effects supervisor for the 1912 scenes, noted the difficulty in shooting the train
sequence. "You can't just stop a train," he said, "If it misses its mark, it takes blocks and blocks to stop it and back
up." Lantieri hid handles for the actors and stuntmen to grab onto when leaping from carriage to carriage. The
carriage interiors shot at Universal Studios Hollywood were built on tubes that inflated and deflated to create a
rocking motion.
For the close-up of the rhinoceros that strikes at (and misses) Indiana, a foam and fiberglass
animatronic was made in London. When Spielberg decided he wanted it to move, the prop was sent to John Carl
Buechler in Los Angeles, who resculpted it over three days to blink, snarl, snort and wiggle its ears. The giraffes
were also created in London. Because steam locomotives are very loud, Lantieri's crew would respond to first
assistant director David Tomblin's radioed directions by making the giraffes nod or shake their heads to his
questions, which amused the crew.
For the villains' cars, Lantieri selected a 1912 Ford Model A and a 1914
Saxon, fitting each with a Ford Pinto V6 engine. Sacks of dust were hung under the cars to create a dustier
Spielberg used doves for the seagulls that Henry scares into striking the German plane because the real gulls used in
the first take did not fly.
In December 1988, Lucasfilm ordered 1000 disease-free gray rats for the catacombs
scenes from the company that supplied the snakes and bugs for the previous films. Within five months, 5000 rats had
been bred for the sequence;
1000 mechanical rats stood in for those that were set on fire. Several thousand snakes
of five breeds—including a boa constrictor—were used for the train scene, in addition to rubber ones onto which
Phoenix could fall. The snakes would slither from their crates, requiring the crew to dig through sawdust after
filming to find and return them. Two lions were used, which became nervous because of the rocking motion and
flickering lights.
Costume designer Anthony Powell found it a challenge to create Connery's costume because the script required the
character to wear the same clothes throughout. Powell thought about his own grandfather and incorporated tweed
suits and fishing hats. Powell felt it necessary for Henry to wear glasses, but did not want to hide Connery's eyes, so
chose rimless ones. He could not find any suitable, so he had them specially made. The Nazi costumes were genuine
and were found in Eastern Europe by Powell's co-designer Joanna Johnston, to whom he gave research pictures and
drawings for reference.
Gibbs used Swiss army training planes for the German planes. He built a device based on an internal combustion
engine to simulate gunfire, which was safer and less expensive than firing blanks.
Baking soda was applied to
Connery to create Henry's bullet wound. Vinegar was applied to create the foaming effect as the water from the Grail
washes it away.
Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) built an eight-foot foam model of the Zeppelin to complement shots of Ford and
Connery climbing into the biplane. A biplane model with a two-foot wingspan was used for the shot of the biplane
detaching. Stop motion animation was used for the shot of the German fighter's wings breaking off as it crashes
through the tunnel. The tunnel was a 210 feet model that occupied 14 of ILM's parking spaces for two months. It was
built in eight-foot sections, with hinges allowing each section to be opened to film through. Ford and Connery were
filmed against bluescreen; the sequence required their car to have a dirty windscreen, but to make the integration
easier this was removed and later composited into the shot. Dust and shadows were animated onto shots of the plane
miniature to make it appear as if it disturbed rocks and dirt before it exploded. Several hundred tim-birds were used
in the background shots of the seagulls striking the other plane; for the closer shots, ILM dropped feather-coated
crosses onto the camera. These only looked convincing because the scene's quick cuts merely required shapes that
suggested gulls.
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
Indiana discovers a bridge hidden by forced
perspective. Ford was filmed in front of a
bluescreen for the scene, which was completed by
a model of the bridge filmed against a matte
Spielberg devised the three trials that guard the Grail.
For the first,
the blades under which Indiana ducks like a penitent man were a mix
of practical and miniature blades created by Gibbs and ILM. For the
second trial, in which Indiana spells "Iehovah" on stable stepping
stones, it was intended to have a tarantula crawl up Indiana after he
mistakenly steps on "J". This was filmed and deemed unsatisfactory, so
ILM filmed a stuntman hanging through a hole that appears in the
floor, 30 feet above a cavern. As this was dark, it did not matter that
the matte painting and models were rushed late in production. The
third trial, the leap of faith that Indiana makes over an apparently
impassable ravine after discovering a bridge hidden by forced
perspective, was created with a model bridge and painted backgrounds.
This was cheaper than building a full-size set. A puppet of Ford was
used to create a shadow on the 9-foot-tall (2.7 m) by 13-foot-wide (4.0
m) model because Ford had filmed the scene against bluescreen, which
did not incorporate the shaft of light from the entrance.
Spielberg wanted Donovan's death shown in one shot, so it would not look like an actor having makeup applied
between takes. Inflatable pads were applied to Julian Glover's forehead and cheeks that made his eyes seem to recede
during the character's initial decomposing, as well as a mechanical wig that grew his hair. The shot of Donovan's
death was created over three months by morphing together three puppets of Donovan in separate stages of decay, a
technique ILM mastered on Willow (1988).
A fourth puppet was used for the decaying clothes, because the
puppet's torso mechanics had been exposed. Complications arose because Allison Doody's double had not been
filmed for the latter two elements of the scene, so the background and hair from the first shot had to be used
throughout, with the other faces mapped over it. Donovan's skeleton was hung on wires like a marionette; it required
several takes to film it crashing against the wall because not all the pieces released upon impact.
Ben Burtt designed the sound effects. He recorded chickens for the sounds of the rats,
and digitally manipulated
the noise made by a Styrofoam cup for the castle fire. He rode in a biplane to record the sounds for the dogfight
sequence, and visited the demolition of a wind turbine for the plane crashes.
Burtt wanted an echoing gunshot for
Donovan wounding Henry, so he fired a .357 Magnum in Skywalker Ranch's underground car park, just as Lucas
drove in.
A rubber balloon was used for the earthquake tremors at the temple.
The Last Crusade was released in
selected theaters in the 70 mm Full-Field Sound format, which allowed sounds to not only move from the front to the
rear of the theater, but also from side to side.
Matte paintings of the Austrian castle and German airport were based on real buildings; the Austrian castle was a
small West German castle that was made to look larger. Rain was created by filming granulated Borax soap against
black at high speed. It was only lightly double exposed into the shots so it would not resemble snow. The lightning
was animated. The airport used was at San Francisco's Treasure Island, which already had appropriate art deco
architecture. ILM added a control tower, Nazi banners, vintage automobiles and a sign stating "Berlin Flughafen".
The establishing shot of the Hatayan city at dusk was created by filming silhouetted cutouts that were backlit and
obscured by smoke. Matte paintings were used for the sky and to give the appearance of fill light in the shadows and
rim light on the edges of the buildings.
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
Indiana's relationship with his estranged father is a common theme in Spielberg's films, including E.T. the
Extra-Terrestrial and Hook.
The Last Crusade's exploration of fathers and sons coupled with its use of religious imagery is comparable to two
other 1989 films, Star Trek V: The Final Frontier and Field of Dreams. Writing for The New York Times, Caryn
James felt the combination in these films reflected New Age concerns, where the worship of God was equated to
searching for fathers. James felt neither Indiana or his father are preoccupied with finding the Grail or defeating the
evil Nazis, but finding a professional respect for one another on their boys' own adventure. James contrasted the
Biblical destruction of the temple with the more effective and quiet conversation between the Joneses at the end of
the film. James noted Indiana's mother is not in the prologue and stated to have died by the events of the film.
Cultural references
The 1912 prologue refers to events in the lives of Indiana's creators. When Indiana cracks the bullwhip to defend
himself against a lion, he accidentally lashes and scars his chin. Ford gained this scar in a car accident as a young
Indiana taking his nickname from his pet Alaskan Malamute is a reference to the character being named after
Lucas's dog.
The train carriage Indiana enters is named "Doctor Fantasy's Magic Caboose", which was the name
producer Frank Marshall used when performing magic tricks. Spielberg suggested the idea, Marshall came up with
the false-bottomed box through which Indiana escapes,
and production designer Elliott Scott suggested the trick be
done in one take.
Spielberg intended the shot of Henry with his umbrella—after he causes the bird strike on the
German plane—to evoke Ryan's Daughter.
The teaser trailer for The Last Crusade debuted in November 1988 with Scrooged and The Naked Gun.
MacGregor wrote the tie-in novelization that was released in June 1989;
it sold enough copies to be included on
the New York Times Best Seller list.
MacGregor went on to write the first six Indiana Jones prequel novels during
the 1990s. Following the film's release, Ford donated Indiana's fedora and jacket to the Smithsonian Institution's
National Museum of American History.
No toys were made to promote The Last Crusade; Indiana Jones "never happened on the toy level", said Larry
Carlat, senior editor of the journal Children's Business. Rather, Lucasfilm promoted Indiana as a lifestyle symbol,
selling tie-in fedoras, shirts, jackets and watches.
Two video games based on the film were released by LucasArts
in 1989: Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The
Action Game. A third game was produced by Taito and released in 1991 for the Nintendo Entertainment System.
Ryder Windham wrote another novelization, released in April 2008 by Scholastic, to coincide with the release of
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008). Hasbro released toys based on The Last Crusade in July
Box office
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade was released in North America on May 24, 1989 in 2,327 theaters, earning
$29,355,021 in its opening weekend.
This was the third-highest opening weekend of 1989, behind Ghostbusters II
and Batman.
Its opening day gross of $11,181,429 was the first time a film had made over $10 million on its first
day. It broke the record for the best six-day performance, with almost $47 million, added another record with
$77 million after twelve days, and $100 million in nineteen days. It grossed $195.7 million by the end of the year
and $450 million worldwide by March 1990.
In France, the film broke a record by selling a million admissions
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
within two and a half weeks.
The film eventually grossed $197 in North America and $277 internationally, for a worldwide total of $464. At the
time of its release, The Last Crusade was the 11th highest-grossing film of all time.
Despite competition from
Batman, The Last Crusade became the highest-grossing movie worldwide in 1989.
In North America, Batman
took top position.
Behind Kingdom of the Crystal Skull and Raiders, The Last Crusade is the third-highest
grossing Indiana Jones film in North America, though it is also behind Temple of Doom when adjusting for
The Last Crusade opened to mixed reviews. It was panned by Andrew Sarris in The New York Observer, David
Denby in New York magazine, Stanley Kauffmann in The New Republic and Georgia Brown in The Village Voice.
Jonathan Rosenbaum of the Chicago Reader called the film "soulless".
The Washington Post reviewed the film
twice; Hal Hinson's review on the day of the film's release was negative, describing it as "nearly all chases and dull
exposition". Although he praised Ford and Connery, he felt the film's exploration of Indiana's character took away
his mystery and that Spielberg should not have tried to mature his storytelling.
Two days later, Desson Thomson
published a positive review praising the film's adventure and action, as well as the thematic depth of the father–son
Joseph McBride of Variety observed the "Cartoonlike Nazi villains of Raiders have been replaced
by more genuinely frightening Nazis led by Julian Glover and Michael Byrne," and found the moment where Indiana
meets Hitler "chilling".
In his biography of Spielberg, McBride added the film was less "racist" than its
Peter Travers of Rolling Stone said the film was "the wildest and wittiest Indy of them all". Richard Corliss of Time
and David Ansen of Newsweek praised it, as did Vincent Canby of The New York Times.
"Though it seems to have
the manner of some magically reconstituted B-movie of an earlier era, The Last Crusade is an endearing original,"
Canby wrote, deeming the revelation Indiana had a father he was not proud of to be a "comic surprise". Canby
believed that while the film did not match the previous two in its pacing, it still had "hilariously off-the-wall
sequences" such as the circus train chase. He also said that Spielberg was maturing by focusing on the father–son
a call echoed by McBride in Variety.
Roger Ebert praised the scene depicting Indiana as a Boy
Scout with the Cross of Coronado; he compared it to the "style of illustration that appeared in the boys' adventure
magazines of the 1940s", saying that Spielberg "must have been paging through his old issues of Boys' Life
magazine... the feeling that you can stumble over astounding adventures just by going on a hike with your Scout
troop. Spielberg lights the scene in the strong, basic colors of old pulp magazines."
The Hollywood Reporter felt
Connery and Ford deserved Academy Award nominations.
The film was evaluated positively after its release. Internet reviewer James Berardinelli wrote that while the film did
not reach the heights of Raiders of the Lost Ark, it "[avoided] the lows of The Temple of Doom. A fitting end to the
original trilogy, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade captures some of the sense of fun that infused the first movie
while using the addition of Sean Connery to up the comedic ante and provide a father/son dynamic."
Neil Smith
of the BBC praised the action, but said the drama and comedy between the Joneses was more memorable. He noted,
"The emphasis on the Jones boys means Julian Glover's venal villain and Alison Doody's treacherous beauty are
sidelined, while the climax [becomes] one booby-trapped tomb too many."
Based on 55 reviews listed by Rotten
Tomatoes, 89% of critics praised The Last Crusade, giving it an average score of 7.9/10.
Metacritic calculated an
average rating of 65/100, based on 14 reviews.
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
Sean Connery received Golden Globe and
BAFTA nominations for his performance
The film won the Academy Award for Best Sound Editing; it had also
received nominations for Best Original Score and Best Sound, but lost
to The Little Mermaid and Glory respectively. Sean Connery received a
Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor.
Connery and the visual and sound effects teams were also nominated at
the 43rd British Academy Film Awards.
The Last Crusade won the
1990 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation,
and was
nominated for Best Motion Picture Drama at the Young Artist
John Williams' score won a BMI Award, and was
nominated for a Grammy Award.
The prologue depicting Indiana in his youth inspired Lucas to create
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles television show, which featured Sean Patrick Flanery as the young adult
Indiana and Corey Carrier as the 8–10 year-old Indiana.
The 13-year-old incarnation played by Phoenix in the
film was the focus of a Young Indiana Jones series of young adult novels that began in 1990;
by the ninth novel,
the series had become a tie-in to the television show.
German author Wolfgang Hohlbein revisited the 1912
prologue in one of his novels, in which Indiana encounters the lead grave robber—whom Hohlbein christens
Jake—in 1943.
The film's ending begins the 1995 comic series Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny, which
moves forward to depict Indiana and his father searching for the Holy Lance in Ireland in 1945.
intended to have Connery cameo as Henry in Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008), but Connery turned it down as he
had retired.
• Rinzler, J.W.; Laurent Bouzereau (2008). The Complete Making of Indiana Jones
. Random House.
ISBN 9780091926618.
• Joseph McBride (1997). Steven Spielberg: A Biography. New York City: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-19177-0.
• Douglas Brode (1995). The Films of Steven Spielberg. Citadel. ISBN 0-8065-1540-6.
• "Bibliography"
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[1] Rinzler, Bouzereau, "The Professionals: May 1988 to May 1989", p. 204 - 229.
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[4] "Filming Family Bonds" (http:/ / www.theraider.net/ films/ crusade/ making_3_production.php). TheRaider.net. . Retrieved 2009-02-06.
[5] (DVD) Indiana Jones: Making the Trilogy. Paramount Pictures. 2003.
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[7] "Last Crusade Opening Salvo". Empire: pp. 98–99. October 2006.
[8] Richard Corliss; Elaine Dutka; Denise Worrell; Jane Walker (1989-05-29). "What's Old Is Gold: A Triumph for Indy" (http:// www. time.
com/ time/ magazine/ article/0,9171,957848-1,00. html). Time. . Retrieved 2009-01-06.
[9] McBride, "An Awfully Big Adventure", p. 379 – 413
[10] "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: An Oral History" (http:// www.empireonline.com/ indy/ day17/ default. asp). Empire. 2008-05-08. .
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[11] "Crusade: Viewing Guide". Empire: pp. 101. October 2006.
[12] Marcus Hearn (2005). The Cinema of George Lucas. New York City: Harry N. Abrams Inc. pp. 159–165. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7.
[13] "Deleted Scenes" (http:/ / www. theraider.net/ films/ crusade/ deleted_scenes. php). TheRaider.net. . Retrieved 2009-02-06.
[14] Ettore Mariotti (2003-04-03). "Michael Sheard interview" (http:// www.theraider.net/ features/interviews/ michael_sheard.php).
TheRaider.net. . Retrieved 2009-02-05.
[15] (2003). The Stunts of Indiana Jones (DVD). Paramount Pictures.
[16] Susan Royal (December 1989). "Always: An Interview with Steven Spielberg". Premiere: pp. 45–56.
[17] Nancy Griffin (June 1988). "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade". Premiere.
[18] McBride, p.318
[19] David Hughes (November 2005). "The Long Strange Journey of Indiana Jones IV". Empire: pp. 131.
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[20] "A Quest's Completion" (http:/ / www. theraider.net/ films/ crusade/ making_4_postproduction. php). TheRaider.net. . Retrieved
[21] (2003). The Sound of Indiana Jones (DVD). Paramount Pictures.
[22] Caryn James (1989-07-09). "It's a New Age For Father–Son Relationships" (http:// query.nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage.
html?res=950DEEDE143AF93AA35754C0A96F948260&sec=& spon=& pagewanted=all). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2009-02-18.
[23] Aljean Harmetz (1989-01-18). "Makers of 'Jones' Sequel Offer Teasers and Tidbits". The New York Times.
[24] Rob MacGregor (September 1989). Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (http:/ / www. randomhouse.com/ rhpg/catalog/ display.
pperl?isbn=9780345361615). Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-36161-5. .
[25] Staff (1989-06-11). "Paperback Best Sellers: June 11, 1989". The New York Times.
[26] "Apotheosis" (http:/ / www. theraider.net/ films/ crusade/ making_5_apotheosis. php). TheRaider.net. . Retrieved 2009-02-06.
[27] Aljean Harmetz (1989-06-14). "Movie Merchandise: The Rush Is On" (http:// query.nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage.
html?res=950DE2D71F31F937A25755C0A96F948260&sec=& spon=& pagewanted=all). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2009-02-12.
[28] Edward Douglas (2008-02-17). "Hasbro Previews G.I. Joe, Hulk, Iron Man, Indy & Clone Wars" (http:/ / www.superherohype.com/ news/
topnews.php?id=6807). Superhero Hype!. . Retrieved 2008-02-17.
[29] "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (http:// www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=indianajonesandthelastcrusade. htm). Box Office
Mojo. . Retrieved 2009-01-06.
[30] "1989 Domestic Grosses" (http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ yearly/chart/ ?yr=1989&p=.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2009-01-06.
[31] "1989 Worldwide Grosses" (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ yearly/chart/?view2=worldwide& yr=1989&p=.htm). Box Office Mojo. .
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[32] "Indiana Jones" (http:// www.boxofficemojo.com/ franchises/ chart/?id=indianajones.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2009-01-06.
[33] Jonathan Rosenbaum. "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (http:/ / onfilm. chicagoreader.com/ movies/ capsules/
4529_INDIANA_JONES_AND_THE_LAST_CRUSADE). Chicago Reader. . Retrieved 2009-01-07.
[34] Hal Hinson (1989-05-24). "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (http:/ / www.washingtonpost. com/ wp-srv/style/ longterm/movies/
videos/ indianajonesandthelastcrusadepg13hinson_a0a93b. htm). The Washington Post. . Retrieved 2009-02-05.
[35] Desson Thomson (1989-05-26). "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (http:/ / www.washingtonpost. com/ wp-srv/ style/ longterm/ movies/
videos/ indianajonesandthelastcrusadepg13howe_a0b214. htm). The Washington Post. . Retrieved 2009-02-05.
[36] Joseph McBride (1989-05-24). "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (http:/ / www.variety.com/ review/ VE1117791934.
html?categoryid=31&cs=1). Variety. . Retrieved 2009-02-23.
[37] Vincent Canby (1989-06-18). "Spielberg's Elixir Shows Signs Of Mature Magic" (http:// movies. nytimes. com/ mem/ movies/ review.
html?_r=2& res=950DEFDB1139F93BA25755C0A96F948260& scp=6& sq=Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade& st=cse). The New York
Times. . Retrieved 2009-02-05.
[38] Roger Ebert (1989-05-24). "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/
19890524/ REVIEWS/905240301/ 1023). Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved 2008-01-06.
[39] James Berardinelli. "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (http:/ / www.reelviews.net/ php_review_template. php?identifier=393).
ReelViews. . Retrieved 2009-01-07.
[40] Neil Smith (2002-01-08). "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (http:/ / www. bbc.co.uk/ films/ 2002/ 01/ 08/
indiana_jones_and_the_last_crusade_1989_review.shtml). bbc.co.uk. . Retrieved 2009-02-05.
[41] "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (http:// www.rottentomatoes.com/ m/indiana_jones_and_the_last_crusade/ ). Rotten Tomatoes. .
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[42] "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (http:/ / www.metacritic.com/ video/ titles/ indianajoneslastcrusade). Metacritic. . Retrieved
[43] Tom O'Neil (2008-05-08). "Will 'Indiana Jones,' Steven Spielberg and Harrison Ford come swashbuckling back into the awards fight?"
(http:/ / goldderby.latimes. com/ awards_goldderby/ 2008/ 05/ will-indiana-jo.html). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2008-05-08.
[44] "Film Nominations 1989" (http:// www.bafta.org/awards/ film/ nominations/ ?year=1989). British Academy of Film and Television Arts. .
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[45] "1990 Hugo Awards" (http:/ / www.thehugoawards. org/ ?page_id=30). Thehugoawards.org. . Retrieved 2009-02-05.
[46] "Eleventh Annual Youth in Film Awards 1988-1989" (http:// www. youngartistawards.org/pastnoms11. htm). Youngartistawards.org. .
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[47] "John Williams" (http:// www.gsamusic. com/ Composers/ WLLMS-JN.pdf) (PDF). The Gorfaine/Schwartz Agency, Inc. 2009-02-05. .
[48] William McCay (1990). Young Indiana Jones and the Plantation Treasure. Random House. ISBN 0-679-80579-6.
[49] Les Martin (1993). Young Indiana Jones and the Titanic Adventure. Random House. ISBN 0-679-84925-4.
[50] Wolfgang Hohlbein (1991). Indiana Jones und das Verschwundene Volk. Goldmann Verlag. ISBN 3-442-41028-2.
[51] Elaine Lee (w), Dan Spiegle (p). Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny (4) (April to July 1995), Dark Horse Comics
[52] Lucasfilm (2007-06-07). "The Indiana Jones Cast Expands" (http:/ / www.indianajones. com/ site/ index. html?deeplink=news/ n13).
IndianaJones.com. . Retrieved 2009-02-15.
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[54] http:/ / www. theraider.net/ films/ crusade/ making_6_bibliography.php
''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// www. indianajones.com)
• Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0097576/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (http:/ / www. allmovie. com/ work/24754) at Allmovie
• Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ indiana_jones_and_the_last_crusade/
) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/
?id=indianajonesandthelastcrusade.htm) at Box Office Mojo
• Review of Chris Columbus's first draft (http:// www.theraider.net/ features/articles/ lost_drafts_04a. php)
''Presumed Innocent (film)''
Presumed Innocent (film)
Presumed Innocent
Theatrical Release Poster
Directed by Alan J. Pakula
Produced by Sydney Pollack
Mark Rosenberg
Written by Scott Turow (novel)
Frank Pierson
Alan J. Pakula
Starring Harrison Ford
Brian Dennehy
Raúl Juliá
Bonnie Bedelia
Paul Winfield
Greta Scacchi
Music by John Williams
Richard Wolf
Cinematography Gordon Willis
Editing by Evan A. Lottman
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) July 27, 1990
Running time 127 min.
Language English
Gross revenue $221,300,000
$43,800,000 (rentals)
Presumed Innocent is a 1990 film adaptation of the best-selling novel of the same name by Scott Turow, which tells
the story of a prosecutor charged with the murder of his female colleague and mistress.
Directed by Alan J. Pakula, the film stars Harrison Ford, John Spencer, Brian Dennehy, Raúl Juliá, Bonnie Bedelia,
Paul Winfield and Greta Scacchi.
''Presumed Innocent (film)''
Rozat "Rusty" Sabich (Harrison Ford) is a prosecutor in Kindle County and the right-hand man of Kindle County
Prosecuting Attorney Raymond Horgan (Brian Dennehy). Sabich is married with a young son. He arrives at work
one day to learn that his colleague Carolyn Polhemus (Greta Scacchi) has been found raped and murdered in her
apartment. Horgan insists that Sabich take charge of the investigation, especially since the election for County PA is
due in a few days' time and Tommy Molto (Joe Grifasi), the acting head of Homicide, has left to join the rival
campaign of Nico Della Guardia (Tom Mardirosian).
Sabich faces a conflict of interest since he had an affair with Polhemus. She dumped him when he showed little in
the way of ambition — such as taking over from Horgan — and would therefore be of little use to her and her own
career. Sabich has since made up with his wife, Barbara (Bonnie Bedelia), though he is still obsessed with Polhemus
and finds it hard to get her out of his mind.
Although Detective Harold Greer (Tucker Smallwood) is initially in charge of the case, Sabich has him replaced
with his friend Detective Lipranzer (John Spencer), whom he persuades to narrow the inquiry so that details of his
relationship with Polhemus are left out. Sabich soon realises that Molto is making his own inquiries into the case.
Aspects of the crime suggest that the killer knew something of the way police gather evidence and covered it up
accordingly — suggesting a cop or a private detective or even a PA. Semen has been found in the victim's body but
contains only dead sperm. The killer's blood type was A, which is the same as Sabich's blood type.
A prosecutor is prosecuted
When Della Guardia wins the election for County PA, he and Molto are quick to accuse Sabich himself of the crime
and pull out all the stops to get evidence against him, including the way he conducted the investigation. They have a
beer glass from Polhemus' apartment with Sabich's fingerprints on it, and fibers from his carpet at home match ones
found on the body.
Things aren't helped by the fact that Horgan suddenly turns against his friend and former protégé and claims that
Sabich insisted on handling the investigation — when in fact he didn't — thus confirming the prosecution's claim of
a cover-up. The claim is strengthened when Lipranzer is removed from the case and Greer's subsequent inquiries
uncover the affair.
Sabich calls on Sandy Stern (Raúl Juliá), a top defense attorney with whom he has often clashed in court. Stern
acknowledges Sabich as his "toughest adversary," but agrees to take the case. When it comes to trial, however, it is
revealed that the beer glass has gone missing. This was a crucial piece of the prosecution's case and Stern persuades
Judge Larren Lyttle (Paul Winfield) to keep this from the jury.
In the course of his investigation, Sabich discovers that Polhemus had acquired a B-file from Horgan which dealt
with a bribery case involving law-enforcement officials. It concerned a man called Leon (Leland Gantt) who paid a
bribe to get his case of public indecency thrown out of court. His probation officer, who set the whole thing up, was
Carolyn Polhemus (prior to her joining the PA's office) and the deputy prosecutor in charge of the case was Tommy
The main thrust of Stern's defense is that Molto and Della Guardia have set Sabich up due to their personal loathing
for him or, Stern hints, as part of a cover-up of the bribery case since it involves Molto. But then Lipranzer tracks
Leon down and he reveals that the official who took the bribe was in fact Larren Lyttle, the judge handling Sabich's
During the cross-examination of the coroner (Sab Shimono), it is revealed that Polhemus had undergone a tubal
ligation. This would make it impossible for a woman to become pregnant, so logically she would have no reason to
use a spermicidal contraceptive which was found on her. Stern asserts that the only explanation for this discrepancy
''Presumed Innocent (film)''
is that the incriminating fluid sample was not actually taken from Polhemus' body.
Based on the disappearance of the beer glass, the lack of motive (since the prosecutor was unable to present proof of
the affair), and the fact that the fluid sample was rendered meaningless, there is little direct evidence to tie Sabich to
the murder. In a fair ruling, Lyttle dismisses the charges and Sabich is let off.
Pressed by Sabich, Stern later admits, in private, that both he and Horgan knew that Lyttle was taking bribes and that
Polhemus was his courier. Lyttle was going through a bad period due to his recent divorce and succumbed to a
"beautiful but, uh, self-serving woman." He offered his resignation but Horgan believed that he was in fact a brilliant
judge and should be given another chance. Stern appears to have kept the bribery issue hanging over Lyttle's head
during the trial. On the other hand, he also believes Lyttle handled Sabich's case with integrity.
Lipranzer reveals to Sabich that he has the beer glass, which he never returned to the evidence room due to
bureaucratic mishandling on Molto's part. Molto signed it as "returned to evidence" when in fact it was still at the lab
and, when it was returned to Lipranzer, he had already been taken off the case. Since nobody asked for it back he
simply kept it in the drawer of his desk. As far as the cop is concerned "the lady was bad news." Sabich throws the
beer glass into the river.
Sabich is none too pleased with how he was exonerated, especially since it is implicitly shown that Stern and
Lipranzer (though they do not actually say so) appear to believe that he killed Polhemus.
Some time later, while doing some work in his garden, Sabich comes across a small hatchet with blood and hair
fibers on it and realizes that they are Polhemus's. He then confronts his wife. Somewhat demented, referring to
herself in the third person (in a manner similar to the manner in which Sabich reenacts criminal motives and events),
Barbara confesses that, following his affair, she fell into a state of depression and even considered suicide before
deciding that it would be better to destroy the "destroyer," Polhemus. She did so by buying beer glasses similar to
some given to Polhemus as a house-warming gift. She got Sabich's fingerprints on them and saved his sperm in a
basement freezer after they had had sex. After killing Polhemus, Barbara set up other evidence in order to make it
look like a man attacked and raped her. She claims that she did not actually intend to frame her husband: she
assumed that he would soon realize it was her and would file it under unsolved cases, not anticipating he would be
charged with the murder.
Sabich cannot bring himself to separate his son from his mother and destroys the evidence. In a final voiceover he
says that the murder of Carolyn Polhemus has been written off as unsolved, though he still feels guilt over his
indirect role in causing her death.
• Harrison Ford ... Rozat "Rusty" Sabich
• Brian Dennehy ... Raymond Horgan
• Raúl Juliá ... Sandy Stern
• Bonnie Bedelia ... Barbara Sabich
• Paul Winfield ... Judge Larren Lyttle
• Greta Scacchi ... Carolyn Polhemus
• John Spencer ... Det. Lipranzer
• Joe Grifasi ... Tommy Molto
• Tom Mardirosian ... Nico Della Guardia
• Sab Shimono ... 'Painless' Kumagai
• Bradley Whitford ... Jamie Kemp
• Christine Estabrook ... Lydia 'Mac' MacDougall
''Presumed Innocent (film)''
• Michael Tolan ... Mr. Polhemus
• Madison Arnold ... Sgt. Lionel Kenneally
• Ron Frazier ... Stew Dubinsky
• Jesse Bradford ... Nat Sabich
• Joseph Mazzello ... Wendell McGaffen
• Tucker Smallwood ... Det. Harold Greer
• Leland Gantt ... Leon Wells
• David Wohl ... Morrie Dickerman
Location of events
While the city where the film takes place is never mentioned, it was filmed in Detroit. In the scene after Raymond
hands Rusty the B-file, it cuts to a scene where the first camera shot is of the B-file itself. The top of the file's page
says "Michigan." 11 Midwestern cities were scouted for filming and Detroit was chosen to be unfamiliar but
representative to most Americans.
Also, there is a skyline view of the city very early in the film clearly shows the Renaissance Center in downtown
Detroit, filmed across the river in Windsor, Ontario. The place where Rusty boards and unboards the ferry is located
in Reaume Park, also in Windsor. In addition, the family station wagon has a distinctive Michigan license plate.
Many scenes from the movie were filmed around Newark, New Jersey. They include Newark City Hall and the
Newark morgue. In both the meeting room and the courthouse scenes, the Michigan state flag is displayed in the
backdrop. Carolyn Polhemus' funeral was filmed at the North Reformed Church on Broad Street. In a bizarre
coincidence, the first preacher of the church was Abraham Polhemus who died in 1857. There is a plaque
commemorating him on the outside of the church. A housing project that was scheduled for demolition was used for
the scene were Ford and Spencer's characters confront Leon. The courtroom in the film was built on a back lot
However, the Chicago, Illinois skyline can be seen in the background outside the window of Horgan's new office.
A home in Allendale, New Jersey was used for the interior and exterior settings for the Sabich suburban home
The credits state the movie was filmed in New York at Kaufman Studios, Astoria [NY]."
On the film review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes, Presumed Innocent received a 91% approval rating, based
on 27 reviews, with an average rating of 7.2/10.
John Spencer, Bradley Whitford, and Jesse Bradford later worked together on Aaron Sorkin's The West Wing TV
[1] Duke, Brad (2005). Harrison Ford - The Films. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company.
[2] "Presumed Innocent" (http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ presumed_innocent/ ). Rotten Tomatoes. . Retrieved 2008-09-30.
External links
• Presumed Innocent (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0100404/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
''Regarding Henry''
Regarding Henry
Regarding Henry
Original poster
Directed by Mike Nichols
Produced by Mike Nichols
Scott Rudin
Written by J. J. Abrams
Starring Harrison Ford
Annette Bening
Mikki Allen
Bill Nunn
Music by Hans Zimmer
Cinematography Giuseppe Rotunno
Editing by Sam O'Steen
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date(s) July 12, 1991
Running time 108 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Gross revenue
$43,001,500 (US)
Regarding Henry is a 1991 American romance drama film directed by Mike Nichols. The screenplay by J. J.
Abrams focuses on a New York City lawyer who struggles to regain his memory and recover his speech and
mobility after he survives a shooting.
''Regarding Henry''
Ambitious, callous, narcissistic, and at times unethical, Henry Turner is a highly successful Manhattan attorney
whose obsession with his work leaves him little time for his prim socialite wife Sarah and troubled pre-teen daughter
Rachel. He has just won a malpractice suit in which he defended a hospital against a plaintiff who claims, but is
unable to prove, that he warned the hospital of a problem. Running out to buy cigarettes one night, he is shot when
he interrupts a convenience store robbery in progress. One bullet hits his right frontal lobe, which controls some
behavior and restraint, while the other pierces his chest and hits his left subclavian vein, causing excessive internal
bleeding and cardiac arrest. He experiences anoxia, a lack of oxygen to the brain, resulting in brain damage.
Henry survives, but initially he can neither move nor talk, and he suffers retrograde amnesia. He regains movement
and speech with the help of his physical therapist Bradley. Upon returning to his luxurious apartment, the almost
childlike Henry is impressed by the surroundings he once barely noticed. As he forges a new relationship with his
wife and daughter, he slowly realizes he does not like the person he was before the attack.
As his firm takes away his old assignments and large office and essentially assigns him only busy work, Henry finds
it difficult to remain a lawyer. The family decides to relocate to a smaller residence.
He finds letters from a former colleague disclosing an affair he had with Sarah, becomes angry and upset, and leaves
home. He is confronted by Linda, a fellow attorney at his firm, who reveals that they were also having an affair and
that he had said he would leave his wife. Henry, realizing that (as his wife had said) everything had been wrong
before, returns to his wife and is reconciled. Also, he gives documents from his last case that were suppressed by his
firm to the plaintiff whom he now realizes was in the right. He also goes to take Rachel out of the elite school where
she is unhappy.
• Harrison Ford as Henry Turner
• Annette Bening as Sarah Turner
• Mikki Allen as Rachel Turner
• Bill Nunn as Bradley
• Donald Moffat as Charlie Cameron
• James Rebhorn as Dr. Sultan
• Bruce Altman as Bruce
• Elizabeth Wilson as Jessica
• Rebecca Miller as Linda
The film was shot on location in New York City, White Plains, and Millbrook.
The soundtrack includes the song "Walking on the Moon," written by Sting and performed by The Police.
Critical response
Initial critical reception was mainly lukewarm to negative. Vincent Canby of the New York Times described it as "a
sentimental urban fairy tale" that "succeeds neither as an all-out inspirational drama nor as a send-up of American
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times rated the film two out of four stars and commented, "There is possibly a good
movie to be found somewhere within this story, but Mike Nichols has not found it in Regarding Henry. This is a film
''Regarding Henry''
of obvious and shallow contrivance, which aims without apology for easy emotional payoffs, and tries to manipulate
the audience with plot twists that belong in a sitcom. "The reviewer also described the way the movie makes a
connection between Ritz Crackers and the Ritz-Carlton hotel (which reveals that Henry's affair had in fact been
deeply embedded in his apparently lost memories) as "especially annoying", apparently regarding it as comic.
Rita Kempley of the Washington Post called the film "a tidy parable of '90s sanctimony"
while Peter Travers of
Rolling Stone described the film as a "slick tearjerker" that "has a knack for trivializing the big issues it strenuously
raises." However he praised Ford's performance.
Variety however called the film "a subtle emotional journey impeccably orchestrated by director Mike Nichols and
acutely well acted."
Box office
The film opened in 800 theaters in the United States on July 12, 1991 and grossed $6,146,782 on its opening
weekend, ranking #7 at the box office. It eventually earned $43,001,500 in domestic markets.
Awards and nominations
Annete Bening was named Newcomer of the Year for her work in this as well as Guilty by Suspicion, The Grifters,
Valmont, and Postcards from the Edge by the London Film Critics' Circle.
The film was nominated for the Young Artist Award for Best Family Motion Picture - Drama, and Mikki Allen was
nominated Best Young Actress Starring in a Motion Picture.
Home media
The film was released on Region 1 DVD on September 9, 2003. It is in anamorphic widescreen format with audio
tracks in English and French and subtitles in English.
[1] "Regarding Henry" (http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=regardinghenry.htm). Box Office Mojo]. Amazon.com. .
[2] New York Times review (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ review?res=9D0CE7DF113AF933A25754C0A967958260)
[3] Chicago Sun-Times review (http:/ / rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19910710/REVIEWS/107100301/ 1023)
[4] Washington Post review (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-srv/ style/ longterm/ movies/ videos/ regardinghenrypg13kempley_a0a116.
[5] Rolling Stone review (http:/ / www.rollingstone. com/ reviews/ movie/ 5948133/ review/5948134/ regarding_henry)
[6] Variety review (http:// www.variety.com/ review/ VE1117794383.html)
External links
• Regarding Henry (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0102768/) at the Internet Movie Database
• Regarding Henry (http:/ / www. allmovie. com/ work/40811) at Allmovie
• Regarding Henry (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ regarding_henry/) at Rotten Tomatoes
''Patriot Games (film)''
Patriot Games (film)
Patriot Games
Theatrical poster
Directed by Phillip Noyce
Produced by Mace Neufeld
Robert G. Rehme
Screenplay by W. Peter Iliff
Donald E. Stewart
Steven Zaillian
Based on Patriot Games by
Tom Clancy
Starring Harrison Ford
Patrick Bergin
Sean Bean
Samuel L. Jackson
Anne Archer
Music by James Horner
Cinematography Donald M. McAlpine
Editing by William Hoy
Neil Travis
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date(s) June 5, 1992
Running time 117 min.
Country United States
Language English
Budget $25,300,200
Gross revenue Domestic:
''Patriot Games (film)''
Preceded by The Hunt for Red October
Followed by Clear and Present Danger
Patriot Games is a 1992 film based on the novel of the same name by Tom Clancy, and is the sequel to the 1990 film
the Hunt for Red October. It was released on June 5, 1992 and directed by Phillip Noyce. In the movie, Jack Ryan is
played by Harrison Ford, Jack's surgeon-wife, Dr. Cathy Muller Ryan, by Anne Archer and the vengeful and
psychopathic Irish Republican terrorist, Sean Miller, is played by Sean Bean.
Jack Ryan (Ford) is on a "working vacation" in London with his family. He has retired from the CIA and is a
Professor at the US Naval Academy. They witness a terrorist attack on Lord William Holmes, British Secretary of
State for Northern Ireland and a distant member of the British Royal Family (the cousin of the Queen Mother). Ryan
intervenes and kills one of the attackers, Patrick Miller, while his older brother Sean (Sean Bean) looks on. Ryan is
badly wounded.
The remaining terrorists flee and leave Miller to be apprehended by the police. Whilst recovering, Ryan is called to
testify in court against Sean Miller, who is part of the Ulster Liberation Army—a fictional breakaway group of the
Provisional IRA. Ryan is awarded a knighthood—a KCVO: Knight Commander of the Victorian Order—and
eventually returns to the United States.
While being transferred to Albany Prison on the Isle of Wight, Miller's escort convoy is ambushed by his ULA
comrades who kill the police officers, and he escapes from custody. Miller and his companions flee Britain for North
Africa to plan their next kidnapping attempt on Lord Holmes. Miller however, cannot shake his anger towards Ryan
for killing his younger brother and persuades several members of his entourage to accompany him to the United
States to murder Ryan and his family.
Ryan survives an attack outside the United States Naval Academy. Simultaneously, Miller and a colleague attack
Ryan's wife and daughter as they're driving on a busy highway. They crash; both Cathy and her daughter are severely
Enraged over the near-loss of his family, Ryan decides to go back to work for the CIA, having earlier rejected the
appeal of his former superior, Vice Admiral James Greer (James Earl Jones).
Ryan's tireless work leads him to conclude that Miller has taken refuge in a training camp, one of many located in
Libya. A SAS strike team attacks and kills everyone in the camp while Ryan looks on through a live satellite feed.
But unbeknownst to Ryan, Miller and his companions had already fled the camp and were on their way to the US to
stage their next attack on Lord Holmes.
Lord Holmes decides to visit Ryan at his home to formally present his KCVO. With the aid of Lord Holmes'
traitorous assistant, Miller's group tracks Holmes to this location, kills the U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (DSS)
agents and Maryland state troopers guarding the house, and attempts once more to kidnap Lord Holmes. Ryan leads
Holmes and his family to safety while he attempts to lure Miller and his companions away from his home.
The FBI Hostage Rescue Teams are scrambled to pick up Holmes. Upon realising that Ryan is leading them away
from Holmes, Miller's companions try to persuade Miller to turn around, but an enraged and deranged Miller kills his
terrorist companions and continues his pursuit of Ryan. Ryan and Miller fight hand to hand; Miller is killed when
Ryan impales him backward on a boat anchor, and his body is obliterated in the subsequent explosion of the craft.
Credits roll just after Caroline Ryan learns the gender of the child she is going to have, and before she tells Jack and
''Patriot Games (film)''
• Harrison Ford as Jack Ryan
• Anne Archer as Dr. Caroline "Cathy" Ryan
• Patrick Bergin as Kevin O'Donnell
• Sean Bean as Sean Miller
• Thora Birch as Sally Ryan
• James Fox as Lord William Holmes
• Ellen Geer as Rose
• Samuel L. Jackson as Lieutenant Commander Robby Jackson
• Polly Walker as Annette
• J. E. Freeman as Marty Cantor
• James Earl Jones as Vice Admiral Jim Greer
• Richard Harris as Paddy O'Neil
• Alex Norton as Dennis Cooley
• Hugh Fraser as Geoffrey Watkins
• David Threlfall as Inspector Robert Highland
Author Tom Clancy distanced himself from the movie because of a number of plot changes. Most significantly, the
Prince became "Lord Holmes", the Queen Mother's cousin; and Sean Miller is killed at the end.
The movie was filmed in England and in the Washington, D.C. area including Annapolis, Maryland.
skyscrapers shown in Annapolis are fictitious.
Harrison Ford accidentally hit Sean Bean with a boat hook while shooting the final scene; Bean has a scar over his
eye as a result. (In Bean's subsequent Sharpe series, this would be emphasized with makeup to add credibility to his
The actors who played Jack and Caroline Ryan in The Hunt for Red October, Alec Baldwin and Gates McFadden,
were unavailable due to other commitments. At the time, Baldwin was performing A Midsummer Night's Dream on
Broadway. McFadden, who appeared in Red October only for a moment, didn't accept Patriot Games' greatly
expanded screen role for Cathy Ryan due to her regular role as Dr. Beverly Crusher in Star Trek: The Next
Generation. Despite the film's plot and setting, Richard Harris, Patrick Bergin and Jonathan Ryan, are the only Irish
actors to appear in the film.
The score by James Horner contains musical references to works by Aram Khachaturian (Adagio from "Gayane"
Suite) and Dmitri Shostakovich (Symphony No. 5, 3rd mvt.). One particular sequence in the music accompanying the
scene in which Ryan, Greer, et al. view the live satellite feed of the SAS attack contains a nearly direct sampling
from the latter. Horner's score is also very reminiscient in places of the score for Aliens (film).
A music video is shown in an early scene featuring Clannad's song "Theme from Harry's Game", originally made for
an ITV drama about The Troubles in 1982. Patrick Bergin's character Kevin O'Donnell watches it during the scene
where the Provisional IRA tries to kill him. Its appearance proved influential, and when the song was included on the
Patriot Games soundtrack in 1992, it helped jump-start Clannad's popularity in the U.S.
When Jack Ryan meets Paddy O'Neil in the IRA bar the song "Pride of Our Land" can be heard in the background.
The song is being performed by the band "Blended Spirits"
''Patriot Games (film)''
Differences between the book and film
There were several differences between the original novel and the film, some minor and some major. These include:
• In the book, Ryan visits London to carry out research in the WW2 naval archives. In the film, he is invited to give
a talk to an audience of military officers.
• The entire storyline where Sean Miller wanted to attack Ryan because he killed his brother was not in the novel.
His rage against Ryan was because he has never failed a mission before Ryan intervened, and he grew angrier
when he failed to kill his wife and daughter.
• In the film Ryan saves Lord Holmes and his family; in the book he saves TRH The Prince and Princess of Wales
and the newborn Prince William of Wales.
• In the book the Queen and the Prince of Wales visit Ryan while he is recovering in a London hospital; this doesn't
happen in the film.
• Cathy tells Jack in the book while they are in England that she is pregnant. In the film Cathy tells Jack when they
are back home
• In the film, when Sean Miller escaped, he executed the three police officers. In the novel, he spared their lives.
• In the film, a ULA operative was stalking Ryan as he exited the academy, they fought, and the assassin was soon
killed by the Marine guards. In the novel, Ryan was never hurt, the ULA operative was waiting outside the gates
for Ryan to arrive, only for him to get unwanted attention by the Marine guards and be promptly arrested.
• In the film, it was the British SAS that raided the camp in North Africa. In the novel, it was the French DGSE.
• In the film, Dennis Cooley, the rare-book collector and ULA informant, was executed by Sean Miller in Libya. In
the novel, Dennis actually was welcomed to join the story's upcoming climactic raid.
• The climax where the ULA raid Ryan's home played out differently. In the novel, the ULA raided Ryan's home
and managed to capture most of the inhabitants, until Robby Jackson managed to ambush them to get them
outside. Everyone escaped down the cliff to the awaiting boats where a chase ensued, leading them all the way to
the harbor of the Annapolis Academy, and they got many units to trap and corner Sean Miller and his small band
on an ocean liner. Meanwhile, an FBI HRT unit arrived at the Ryan home to deal with the surviving ULA
members remaining. In the ocean liner, Ryan captures Sean Miller but doesn't kill him. Instead, he allows him to
be captured by the police where he will get the death penalty for previously killing a police officer on U.S. soil.
• At the very end of the movie, the viewer is left wondering what sex the child is (which was revealed in Clear and
Present Danger to be a boy). In the novel, Cathy gave birth to a son.
[1] IMDB: Locations for Patriot Games (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0105112/ locations)
External links
• Patriot Games (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0105112/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Patriot Games (http:/ / www.allmovie. com/ work/ 37441) at Allmovie
• Patriot Games (http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=patriotgames.htm) at Box Office Mojo
''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles''
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles
"Before the world discovered Indiana, Indiana discovered the world."
Also known as The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones
Genre Edutainment/Adventure/Serial
Created by George Lucas
Developed by George Lucas
Starring Sean Patrick Flanery
Corey Carrier
George Hall
Ronny Coutteure
Narrated by George Hall
Theme music composer Laurence Rosenthal
Composer(s) Laurence Rosenthal
Joel McNeely
Country of origin  United States
Language(s) English
No. of seasons 3
No. of episodes 24 & 4 TV Movies (List of episodes)
Executive producer(s) George Lucas
Producer(s) Rick McCallum
Cinematography David Tattersall
Camera setup Single-camera setup
Running time approx. 45 min. per episode
Production company(s) Amblin Entertainment
Paramount Television
Original channel ABC
Picture format 16 mm film (1.33:1 aspect ratio)
Audio format Dolby Stereo
''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles''
Original run March 4, 1992 - July 24, 1993 (Series)
October 15, 1994 – June 16, 1996 (Movies)
External links
Official website
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones) is an Emmy Award winning
American television series that ran from 1992 to 1996. The series explores the childhood and youth of the fictional
character Indiana Jones. The series primarily stars Sean Patrick Flanery and Corey Carrier as the title character, and
George Hall played an elderly version of the character for the bookends of most episodes, though Harrison Ford
bookended one episode. The show was created and executively produced by George Lucas, who also created,
co-wrote and executively produced the Indiana Jones feature films. Following the series' cancellation, four TV
movies were produced from 1994 to 1996 which continued the series.
During the production of the Indiana Jones feature films, the cast and crew frequently questioned creator George
Lucas about the Indiana Jones character's life growing up. During the concept stages of Indiana Jones and the Last
Crusade, Lucas and director Steven Spielberg decided to reveal some of this backstory in the film's opening scenes.
For these scenes, Lucas chose River Phoenix to portray the character, as Harrison Ford believed that Phoenix most
resembled Ford as a young man (Phoenix had appeared as Ford's son in The Mosquito Coast). This decision to reveal
an adventure of a young Indiana led Lucas and crew to the idea of creating the series.
Lucas wrote an extensive time-line detailing the life of Indiana Jones, assembling the elements for about 70 episodes,
starting in 1905 and leading all the way up to the feature films. Each outline included the place, date and the
historical persons Indy would meet in that episode, and would then be turned over to one of the series writers. When
the series came to an end about 31 of the 70 stories had been filmed. Had the series been renewed for a third season,
Young Indy would have been introduced to younger versions of characters from Raiders of the Lost Ark: Abner
Ravenwood ("Jerusalem, June 1909") and René Belloq ("Honduras, December 1920"). Other episodes would have
filled in the blanks between existing ones ("Le Havre, June 1916", "Berlin, Late August, 1916"), and there would
even have been some adventures starring a five year old Indy (including "Princeton, May 1905").
During production of the series, Lucas became obsessed with the crystal skulls.
He originally called for an episode
which would have been part of the third season involving Jones and his friend Belloq searching for one of the
The episode was never produced, and the idea ultimately evolved into the 2008 feature film Indiana Jones
and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull.
Ford appeared as a middle-aged Indy (age 50) in the episode "Young Indiana Jones and the Mystery of the Blues",
which aired in March 1993. Paul Freeman, who played Rene Belloq in Raiders of the Lost Ark, portrayed Frederick
Selous in a couple of episodes. Additionally, the late William Hootkins (Major Eaton from Raiders of the Lost Ark)
played Russian ballet producer Sergei Diaghilev in "Barcelona, May 1917". In the episode Attack of the Hawkmen,
Star Wars veteran Anthony Daniels played Francois, a French Intelligence scientist (in the mode of James Bond's
"Q") who gives Indy a special suitcase filled with gadgets for a special mission in Germany.
''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles''
A variety of filmmakers wrote and directed many episodes of the series, including Frank Darabont, Nicolas Roeg,
Mike Newell, Deepa Mehta, Joe Johnston, Jonathan Hensleigh, Terry Jones, Simon Wincer, Carrie Fisher, Dick
Maas and Vic Armstrong. Lucas was given a 'Story By' credit in many episodes, along with his input as a creative
Old Indiana Jones in The Young
Indiana Jones Chronicles
The series was unusual in that it was shot on location around the world. Partly
to offset the cost of this, the series was shot on 16mm film, rather than 35. The
series was designed so that each pair of episodes could either be broadcast
separately, or as a 2-hour film-length episode. Each episode cost about $1.5
million and the filming with Young Indy usually took around 3 weeks. The first
production filming alternated between "Sean" and "Corey" episodes. The
segments with old Indy were referred to as "bookends." Filming a pair of them
typically took a day and most were shot at Carolco Studios in Wilmington,
North Carolina and on location in Wilmington. The show also featured footage
from other films spliced into several episodes.
The series was shot in three stages. The first production occurred from 1991 to
1992, and consisted of sixteen episodes; five with younger Indy, ten with older
Indy, and one with both—for a total of seventeen television hours. The second
production occurred from 1992 to 1993 and consisted of twelve episodes; one
with younger Indy and eleven with older Indy, for a total of fifteen television
hours. The third and final production occurred from 1994 to 1995, and consisted of four made-for-television movies,
for a total of eight television hours. In 1996, additional filming was done in order to re-edit the entire series into
twenty-two feature films.
The series' main theme was composed by Laurence Rosenthal, who wrote much of the music for the series. Joel
McNeely also wrote music for many episodes ; he received an Emmy in 1993 for the Episode "Scandals of 1920".
French composer Frédéric Talgorn composed some music for the episode set in World War I France ("Somme, Early
August 1916", "Verdun, September 1916"). Music for "Transylvania, September 1918" was composed by Curt
Map of countries Indiana Jones visits in the series
The series was designed as an educational program for
children and teenagers, spotlighting historical figures
and important events, using the concept of a prequel to
the films as a draw. Most episodes feature a standard
formula of an elderly (93-year-old) Indiana Jones
(played by George Hall) in present day (1993) New
York City encountering people who spur him to
reminisce and tell stories about his past adventures.
These stories would either involve him as a young boy
(10, played by Corey Carrier) or as a teenager (16 to
21, played by Sean Patrick Flanery). In one episode, a fifty-year-old Indy (played by Harrison Ford) is seen
reminiscing. Initially, the plan was for the series to alternate between the adventures of Indy as a child (Corey
Carrier) and as a teenager (Sean Patrick Flanery), but eventually the episodes featuring Flanery's version of the
''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles''
character dominated the series. The series' bookends revealed that the elderly Jones has a daughter, grandchildren,
and great-grandchildren. There is no mention if he had a son, though he was revealed to have a son in the movie
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull.
Many of the episodes involve Indiana meeting and working with famous historical figures. Historical figures
featured on the show include Leo Tolstoy, Howard Carter, Charles de Gaulle, and John Ford, in such diverse
locations as Egypt, Austria-Hungary, India, China, and the whole of Europe. For example, Curse of the Jackal
prominently involves Indy in the adventures of T. E. Lawrence and Pancho Villa. Indy also encounters (in no
particular order) Edgar Degas, George Patton, Pablo Picasso, Eliot Ness, Charles Nungesser, Al Capone, Manfred
Von Richthofen, Norman Rockwell (same episode as Picasso) Louis Armstrong, Sean O'Casey, Siegfried Sassoon,
Patrick Pearse, Winston Churchill, and Sigmund Freud; At one point, he competes against a young Ernest
Hemingway for the affections of a girl, is nursed back to health by Albert Schweitzer, and goes on a safari with
Theodore Roosevelt.
The show provided a lot of the back story for the films. His relationship with his father, first introduced in Indiana
Jones and the Last Crusade, was further fleshed out with stories about his travels with his father as a young boy. His
original hunt for the Eye of the Peacock, a large diamond seen in Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, was a
recurring element in several stories. The show also chronicled his activities during World War I and his first solo
adventures. The series is also referenced in Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, when Indy describes
his adventures with Pancho Villa (chronicled in the first episode) to Mutt Williams.
• Sean Patrick Flanery .... Henry "Indiana" Jones, Jr. (age 16-21)
• Corey Carrier .... Henry "Indiana" Jones, Jr. (age 8-10)
• George Hall .... Dr. Henry "Indiana" Jones, Jr. (age 93)
• Harrison Ford .... Dr. Henry "Indiana" Jones, Jr. (age 50)
• Ronny Coutteure .... Remy Baudouin
• Lloyd Owen .... Professor Henry Jones, Sr.
• Margaret Tyzack .... Miss Helen Seymour
• Ruth de Sosa .... Anna Jones
''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles''
Guest appearances
Notable guest stars include Catherine Zeta-Jones, Daniel Craig, Christopher Lee, Peter Firth, Vanessa Redgrave,
Elizabeth Hurley, Timothy Spall, Anne Heche, Jeffrey Wright, Jeroen Krabbé, Jason Flemyng, Jay Underwood,
Kevin McNally, Ian McDiarmid, Max von Sydow, Jon Pertwee and Terry Jones.
An early advertisement for the show
The pilot episode was aired by ABC in the United States in
March 1992. The pilot, the feature-length Young Indiana
Jones and the Curse of the Jackal, was later re-edited as two
separate episodes, "Egypt, May 1908" and "Mexico, March
1916." Eleven further hour-long episodes were aired in 1992
(seven in the first season, four were part of the second
season). Only 16 of the remaining 20 episodes were aired in
1993 when ABC canceled the show. USA Network later
broadcast the unaired episodes and also produced eight more
episodes (each part of two-part television movies, making
four TV movies) that were broadcast from 1994 to 1996.
Though Lucas intended to produce episodes leading up to a
24-year-old Jones, the series was cancelled with the character
at age 21.
Home video re-edits
The revised and updated edition of the book George Lucas:
The Creative Impulse, by Charles Champlin, explains how
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles series would be
re-edited into the new structure of twenty-two Chapter TV
films, for the 1999 VHS release. New footage was shot in
1996 to be incorporated with the newly re-edited and re-titled "chapters" to better help it chronologically and provide
smooth transitions. The newly shot Tangiers, 1908 was joined with Egypt, 1908 from the Curse of the Jackal to form
My First Adventure, and Morocco, 1917 was joined with Northern Italy, 1918 (now re-dated as 1917) to form Tales
of Innocence. Also included in the home video release were four unaired episodes made for the ABC network,
Florence, May 1908, Prague, 1917, Transylvania, 1918, and Palestine, 1917. The series itself was also re-titled as
The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones.
The 93-year-old Indy bookends for the original series were removed (to the outrage of some fans [6]), as well as
Sean Patrick Flanery's bookend for "Travels With Father". However, the Harrison Ford bookend, set in 1950, from
"Mystery of The Blues" was not cut.
''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles''
VHS and Laserdisc
The series received its first home video release on April 21, 1993, when a Laserdisc box set was released in Japan
containing fifteen of the earlier episodes and a short documentary on the making of the series. The discs were
formatted in NTSC and presented with English audio in Dolby surround with Japanese subtitles. In 1994, eight
NTSC format VHS tapes with a total of fifteen episodes from the first two seasons were released in Japan.
On October 26, 1999, half of the series was released on VHS in the United States for $14.99 each, along with a box
set of the feature films. The series was labeled as Chapters 1-22, while the feature films were labeled as Chapters
23-25. In an effort to promote the series, Treasure of the Peacock's Eye was included with the purchase of the movie
trilogy box set in the US, In other countries different chapters were included, for example in the UK The Phantom
Train of Doom was included. The twelve VHS releases were released worldwide over the course of the year 2000,
including the UK, Netherlands, Hungary, Germany, Mexico, France, and Japan. The UK, German, French,
Hungarian and Netherlands tapes were in PAL format, while the tapes released in the rest of the countries were in
NTSC format.
The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones:
Volume One — The Early Years DVD cover
In 2002, series producer Rick McCallum confirmed in an interview with
Variety that DVDs of the series were in development, but would not be
released for "about three or four years".
At the October 2005 press
conference for the Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith DVD,
McCallum explained that he expected the release to consist of 22
DVDs, which would include around 100 documentaries which would
explore the real-life historical aspects that are fictionalized in the show.
For the DVDs, Lucasfilm upgraded the picture quality of the original
16 mm prints and remastered the soundtracks. This, along with efforts to
get best quality masters and bonus materials on the sets, delayed the
It was ultimately decided that the release would tie into the
release of the fourth Indiana Jones feature film.
Two variations of Volume 1 were released by CBS DVD through
Paramount Pictures Home Entertainemnt, one simply as "Volume One",
and the other as "Volume One — The Early Years" in order to match
the subtitle of Volume 2.
The History Channel acquired television rights to all 94 of the DVD
historical documentaries.

The airing of the documentaries was meant to bring in ratings for the History
Channel and serve as marketing for the DVD release and the theatrical release of Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of
the Crystal Skull.
The History Channel and History International began airing the series every Saturday morning
at 7AM/6C on The History Channel, and every Sunday morning at 8AM ET/PT on History International. A new
division of History.com was created devoted to the show. As Paramount and Lucasfilm had already reserved
IndianaJones.com solely for news and updates related to Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull,
StarWars.com temporarily served as the official site for the DVDs—providing regular updates, insider looks and
promotions related to them.
However, Lucasfilm and Paramount soon set up an official website proper for the
Paramount released a press kit for the media promoting the DVDs, which consists of a
.pdf file
and several videos with interviews with Lucas and McCallum, and footage from the DVDs.
A trailer
for the DVDs was also published on YoungIndy.com, with a shorter version being shown on The History Channel
and History International.
''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles''
Lucas and McCallum hope that the DVDs will be helpful to schools, as they believe the series is a good way to aid in
teaching history. Lucas explained that the series' DVD release will be shopped as "films for a modern day high
school history class."
He believes the series is a good way to teach high school students 20th Century history.
The plan was always to tie the DVD release of the series to the theatrical release of the fourth Indiana Jones feature
film, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the C