pmMunfhwdkufESifhokwynmXme

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH

EkdifiHawmfor®wESifh0efBuD;csKyfrsm;tw¬KyÜwåd
(1948 ckESpfrS 1988ck ESpf txd)
jyKpk o l
armifrif;rif;pkd;

0d Z Æ m bG J U (Oya')
2006 ckESpf

pmMunfhwdkufESifhokwynmXme
jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH?

EkdifiHawmfor®wESifh0efBuD;csKyfrsm;tw¬KyÜwåd
(1948 ckESpfrS 1988ckESpf txd)

jyKpkol

armifrif;rif;pk;d

0dZÆmbGJU(Oya')
pmMunfhwdkufynm'DyvdkrmbGJUtwGuf vdktyfcsufrsm;\
wpfpdwfwpfa'otjzpf þusrf;i,fudkwifjytyfygonf/
2006 ckEpS f

rmwdum
pOf

taMumif;t&m

pmrsuEf mS
tykdif;(1)

1?1/

&nfp;l vTm

u

1?2/

aus;Zl;wifvmT

1?3/

ed'gef;

*-C

1?4/

jrefrmEkid if t
H yk cf sKyaf &;orkid ;f

i-ps

1?5/

&nf&,
G cf suf

n-#

1?6/

pmwrf;pDpOfyEkH iS t
hf usKH ;0ifrI

1?7/

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hf wkt
d rSwt
f om;rsm;

!-¡

1?8/

yHt
k ñTe;f rsm;

P

c

X

tydkif;(2)
jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmfor®wrsm;ESi0hf efBu;D csKyrf sm;\tw¬Kyw
Ü då
(1948-1988)
2?1/

or®wrsm;\tw¬Kyw
Ü (då 1948-1988)

2?1?1/ p0fa&Tou
dk f (1896-1962)

1-10

2?1?2/ a'gufwmbOD;(1887-1963)

11-21

2?1?3/ OD;0if;armif(c)ref;0if;armif(1916-1989)

22-27

2?1?4/ OD;ae0if;(1911-2002)

28-55

2?1?5/ OD;pef;,k(1918-1996)

56-65

2?1?6/ OD;pdev
f iG (f 1924-2004)

66-70

2?1?7/ a'gufwmarmifarmif(1925-1994)

71-77

2?1?8/ OD;apmarmif(1928-1997)

78-98

2?2/

0efBu;D csKyrf sm;\tw¬Kyw
Ü (då 1948-1988)

2?2?1/ OD;Ek(1907-1995)

99-119

2?2?2/ OD;AaqG(1915-1987)

120-132

2?2?3/ OD;pde0f if;(1919-1993)

133-140

2?2?4/ OD;armifarmifc(1920-1995)

141-146

2?2?5/ ol&OD;xGef;wif(1923-

)

147-151

tyk d i f ; (3)
3/

ed * H k ; ES i f h t BuH j yKoH k ; oyf c suf

152-154

usrf;ukd;pm&if;

155-161

aemufqufwGJ
&Jabmfo;kH usyd f
1943 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f (1) &ufaeY *syefay;aomvGwv
f yf
a&;acwftyk cf sKycf sKyaf &;tzGUJ

162
163

1948 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv(4)&ufaeY jynfaxmifpo
k r®w

164

jrefrmEkid if aH wmftpk;d &tzGUJ
1958 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv (28)&uftrd af pmift
h pk;d &tzGUJ

165

1962 ckEpS ?f rwfv (2)&ufaeY jynfaxmifpo
k r®w

166

jrefrmekid if aH wmf? awmfveS af &;aumifpD
1962 ckEpS ?f rwfv (2)&ufaeY jynfaxmifpo
k r®w

167

jrefrmekid if aH wmf? awmfveS af &;tpk;d &tzGUJ
1962 ckEpS ?f rwfv 4 &ufaeYjynfaxmifpo
k r®w

168

jrefrmEkid if aH wmf? awmfveS af &;tpk;d tzGUJ
1968ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 4 &uf jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if H
jynfwGif;nDnTwfa&; tBuHay;tzGJU

169

1974 ckEpS ?f jynfaxmifpq
k &dk ,
S v
f pfor®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmf

170

tpk;d &tzGUJ
Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ

171

a'gufwmarmifarmifa&;cJah ompmtkyrf sm;

172

OD;Eka&;cJah ompmtkyrf sm;

173

OD;AaqGa&;cJah ompmtkyrf sm;
uG,fvGefNyD;aomyk*¾dKvfrsm;\ema&;aMumfjim

174
175

tñTef;
jrefrmpmtñTe;f
t*Fvyd pf mtñTe;f

176-228
229

u

teaEÅmteEÅig;yg;ukd OD;xdyfxm;í
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c

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tm;aus;Zl;wif&ydS gonf/ 'kw,
d taejzifh pmMunhw
f u
dk Ef iS o
hf w
k ynmbGUJ vGe'f yD vkrd moifwef;
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f ufa&mufciG ahf y;cJah om Ekid if aH wmfumuG,af &;wuúov
dk f ausmif;tkyBf u;D tm;
aus;Zl;wif&ydS gonf/
jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf? Ekid if aH wmfor®wrsm;ESi0hf efBu;D csKyrf sm;\tw¬Kyw
Ü då
pmwrf;ukd wifoiG ;f cGijhf yKc&hJ o
kH mru uk,
d w
f idk Bf u;D Muyfvrf;nTerf aI y;cJah om pmMunfw
h u
dk Ef iS hf
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q&mBu;D \vufaxmuftul tjzpfteD;uyfBu;D Muyfay;cJah om pmMunfw
h u
dk Ef iS hf okwynmXme
vufaxmufuxdu q&mra':vJv
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dk Ef iS hf okwynmXme
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vnf;aumif;? xkdenf;wlpGm tultnDay;cJhMuaom EkdifiHawmfumuG,fa&;wuúokdvf
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Ü då [lívnf;aumif;? wpfenf; ]] tw¬Kyw
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d af &;tw¬Kyw
Ü då
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1

OD;vSBuKd i(f yg&*l)? ]]tw¬Kyw
Ü pdå may}}/ a&;ol OD;vSBuKd i(f yg&*l)ESit
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2
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dk av;rsm;ukd oH;k í vkw
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ae&yfvyd pf mwku
Yd dk azmfjyxm;ygonf/
tw¬Kyw
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olawmfpifw\
Ydk tw¬Kyw
Ü då (Hagiography)ESib
hf &k ift
h w¬Kyw
Ü w
då rYdk S pwifaMumif;od&&dS ygonf/
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olawmfpifw\
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jrefrmwk\
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tw¬Kyw
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f El idk yf gonf/
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vnf; awG&Y EdS idk yf gonf/
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i

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kH qifq
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a&S;acwfa[mif;umvrsm;utkycf sKyaf &;(Administration)onf tkypf ;kd olrsm;\tmPmpOf
vrf;aMumif;(Authoritarism)jzifh tpysKd ;cJNh y;D ?aESmif;ydik ;f umvrsm;wGif Edik if aH &; tawG;tac:rsm;
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´d tpd;k & uomtkycf sKyrf t
I mPm usio
hf ;kH cJh aMumif;awGU&ygonf/
1935ckESpf(91)XmetkyfcsKyfa&; wGif NAw
d o
d QygvDrefu (1935)ckEpS ?f tdE,
´d
tufOya' jyKvkyfí jrefrmjynfukd csefvSyfítdEd´,udk(91)XmetkyfcsKyfa&;ay;cJhonf/
jrefrmjynfolrsm;u uefYuGufMuíjrefrmjynfukd tdEd´,rScGJxGufcGifhjyKNyD;(1935)ckESpf?
jrefrmEdik if t
H ufOya'(The Government of Burma Act-1935) jy|mef;í(91)Xmetkycf sKyaf &;
ay;onf/ 1937 ckESpfwGif jrefrmEdkifiHudktdEd´,EdkifiHA[dktpdk;& jynfe,ftjzpfrS cGJxGufNyD;
aemufjrefrmEdkifiHtpdk;&onf tkyfcsKyfrI0efBuD;Xmersm;zGJUpnf;&mjynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme
tygt0if(10)Xme&Sdonf/jynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme\tBuD;tuJrSm twGif;0efcsKyfjzpfí
A[dt
k qifw
h iG t
f axGaxG tkycf sKyaf &;vkyif ef;udw
k m0ef,í
l e,frsm;wGif A[dt
k pd;k &ud,
k pf m;
wdik ;f rif;Bu;D ? c&dik 0f ef? e,fyikd ?f NrKd Uydik Ef iS o
hf Bl u;D rsm;uwm0ef,&l onf/
1942-1945 *syefacwftyk cf sKyaf &; ukd avhvmwifjy&aomf 'kw,
d urÇmppfonf
jrefrmEdkifiHodkUul;pufíjrefrmEdkifiHonf *syefvufatmufa&muf&SdcJhonf/ 1942ckESpfwGif
*syefppfaoeywdcsKy*f sief &,ft'D g;u jrefrmjynf A[dt
k yk cf sKyaf &;tzGUJ udk zGUJ pnf;ay; ygonf/
tkycf sKyaf &;tzGUJ wGiaf 'gufwmbarmf acgif;aqmif í 0efBu;D (10)OD;yg0ifyg onf/4if;tzGUJ onf
*syefw\
Ykd &kyaf o;tpd;k &jzpfí trSepf ifppfwiG f tkycf sKyrf t
I mPmonf *syef\vufxw
J iG f
&So
d nf/ xkpd Ofue,frsm;wGi,
f ciftwdik ;f tkycf sKyaf &; 0efxrf;rsm;u qufvufaqmif&u
G f
Muonf/
1945-1948 tkyfcsKyfa&; üppfNy;D acwftyk cf sKyaf &;wGit
f ydik ;f (3)ydik ;f &Syd gonf(u)

(1944)ckEpS Mf o*kwv
f rS(1945) ckEpS af tmufwb
kd mvtxd ppftyk cf sKyaf &;/

q
(c)

(1945) ckESpfatmufwdkbmvrS (1946) ckESpftxdpuúLjzLpmwrf;
tkycf sKyaf &;/

(*)

(1946) ckEpS f pufwifbmvrS (1948) ckEpS Zf efe0g&Dv txdtrsKd ;om;
tpdk;&,m,DtkyfcsKyfa&;/

'kwd,urÇmppfNyD;*syefrsm;qkwfcGmNyD;aemuft*Fvdyfrsm; jyef0ifvmum
ppftyk cf sKyaf &;jzifh tkycf sKyyf gonf/xdaYk emuf(1945)ckEpS t
f ukew
f iG Nf rKd Ujytkycf sKyaf &;(Civil Service
h yk cf sKyyf gonf/tqdyk gumvrsm;wGif A[dük bk&ifco
H nf
Affair CSA(B)-Burma) tzGUJ jzift
tkycf sKyaf &;tmPmudw
k pfO;D wnf; udik w
f ,
G us
f io
hf ;kH íe,frsm;wGiNf Aw
d o
d Q vlrsKd ;tkycf sKyaf &;
0efxrf;rsm;uwm0efcH aqmif&u
G yf gonf/
1948-1958 tkyfcsKyfa&; umvrsm;ukad vhvm&mü 1948 ckEpS w
f iG f jrefrmEdik if H
vGwv
f yfa&;&cJyh gonf/ 1948 ckEpS t
f xdomygvDref tkycf sKyaf &; umv[kowfrw
S Ef ikd yf g
onf/ 1947ckESpfjynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHzGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya't&A[dkwGif tkyfcsKyfa&;
tzGUJ om ajymif;vJcyhJ gonf/ tpd;k &\ vkyu
f idk Ef idk o
f nfh enf;pepfrmS 1941 ckEpS ?f rwfv(15)
&ufaeYü twnfjyKa&;qGJonfhtwGif;0ef&Hk; vufpGJygtwdkif; qufvuftoHk;jyKonfh
enf;pepfjzpfygonf/
1957 ckEpS w
f iG t
f pd;k &onf twGi;f 0efcsKyw
f m0ef0wå&m;rsm;udk jyefvnfowfrw
S f
&mü twGi;f 0efcsKy\
f yif;&if;Xmeudjk ynfxaJ &;0efBu;D Xmetpm; 0efBu;D csKy&f ;kH vufatmufoYkd
ajymif;vJowfrSwfcJhygonf/,if;owfrSwfcsuft& 1958 ckESpf? ZGefv(13) &ufaeYrSpí
jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D XmetwGi;f 0efonf taxGaxGtyk cf sKyaf &;vkyif ef;rsm;\ tBu;D tuJtjzpf
wm0ef,cl yhJ gonf/
1958-1960 tk y f c sKyf a &; u@ü1958) ckESpfwGifwdkif;jynf\tajctae
t&yf&yfaMumifh Edik if aH &;tpd;k &rS tdraf pmift
h pd;k &zGUJ pnf;Ny;D wdik ;f jynfwm0ef ukd tdraf pmift
h pk;d &
tm; vTt
J yfcyhJ gonf/1958ckEpS ?f atmufwb
kd mv(28) &ufaeYygvDreftxl;tpnf;ta0;
wGiftdrfapmifhtpdk;&tzGJU udk wyfrawmfESifhe,fzufqdkif&m yk*d¾KvfBuD;(14)OD; OD;aqmifí
zGJUpnf;cJhygonf/tdrfapmifhtpdk;& tzGJUonfNidrf0yfydjym;rI &&Sd&ef tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUrsm;
zGUJ pnf;ítkycf sKyrf I tmPmudk vkyif ef;pOf(4) &yfjzifh csrw
S af qmif&u
G cf yhJ gonf/ ¤if;wkrYd mS
(u)w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;ESifh Nidrf0yfydjym;a&;/ ( c )a&G;aumufyGJ usif;ya&;/ ( * )aexdkif
pm;aomufrI p&duaf vQmch sa&;/ (C)pD;yGm;a&; ysujf ym;aejcif; udk jyefvnfjyKjyifa&;wkjYd zpfonf/
1958 ckESpf?Edk0ifbmv(3)(4)(5) &ufaeYrsm; wGif usif;yaom tpnf;ta0;rSEdkifiHawmf
Nidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;pDrHudef;udk csrSwfíazmfjyygtwkdif; taumiftxnfazmf

Z
aqmif&Guf&efpDpOfcJhygonf-(u)EdkifiHawmfvHk; qdkif&m aqmif&Gufa&;/ (c)A[dktpdk;&
&Hk;pdkuf&ma'owGifaqmif&Gufa&;/(*)wdkif;tqifhwGif aqmif&Gufa&;/ (C)c&dkifESifhNrdKUe,f
tqifw
h iG af qmif&u
G af &;wkjYd zpfygonf/
1960-1962 tkyfcsKyfa&; ukdavhvm&mü 1960)jynfhESpf?azazmf0g&DvwGif
a&G;aumufyt
JG Edik &f aom Edik if aH &;tzGUJ odUk tkycf sKyaf &; vTaJ jymif;ay;í0efBu;D (13)OD;yg0ifaom
jynfaxmifpt
k pd;k &rS qufvuf aqmif&u
G yf gonf/tkycf sKyaf &;yHpk rH mS xl;jcm;ajymif;vJrrI &Sad y/
1962-1972ckESpftxdtkyfcsKyfa&; onf xl;jcm;pGmajymif;vJcyhJ gonf/ 1962
ckESpfwGifawmfvSefa&;aumifpDonf ,kd,Gif;vmaomEdkifiHawmf\tajctaet&yf&yfudk
xdef;odrf;cJhygonf/awmfvSefa&; aumifpDonfEdkifiHawmfvGwfvyfa&; t"GefY&Snfa&;?
tcsKyftjcmwnfwHh cdkifNrJa&;? w&m;rQwrI&Sdaomom,m0ajymonfhqdk&S,fvpfvlUabmif
wnfaqmufa&;[laom &nfrSef;csufjzifh EdkifiHawmfudkjyefvnfwnfaqmufcJhygonf/
,if;&nfrSef;csuf rsm;t&atmufygrl0g'rsm;udkcsrSwf cJhygonf-(u)tkyfcsKyfrItmPmudk
awmfvSefa&; aumifpDu usifhoHk;jcif;/( c ) EdkifiHawmfvHkNcHKa&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfrIpDrHudef;
csrSwfaqmif&Gufjcif;/ ( * )tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopfazmfxkwfjcif;/(C)qdk&S,fvpf'Drdkua&pD
tavhtusirhf sm; ysKd ;axmifjcif;/
xdaYk emufawmfveS af &;aumifpo
D nf(1962)ckEpS ?f rwfv(9)&ufaeY aeYpyJG g aMunm
csuf trSwf(20)jzifhOya'jyKrItmPm?tkyfcsKyfrItmPm?w&m;pD&ifrI tmPmrsm;ukd
awmfveS af &;aumifpD uusio
hf ;kH aMumif;aMunmcJyh gonf/
awmfvSefa&;aumifpDonf 1962 ckESpf?rwfv(2)&ufaeYpGJyg aMunmcsuf
trSwf(2)jzifh awmfvSefa&;tpdk;&tzGJUudkzGJUpnf;cJhygonf/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDOuúX
tm;tkyfcsKyfrItmPmtyfESif; íusifhoHk;cJhygonf/tpdk;&\tkyfcsKyfrIqdkif&m ta&;,l
aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;ESifhywfoufí 12-3-62 &ufpGJygaMunmcsuftrSwf(23)jzifh 0efxrf;
tzGUJ tpnf;udw
k m0efay;tyfí 1972 ckEpS t
f xd usio
hf ;kH cJyh gonf/
1972-1974ckESpftkyfcsKyfa&;pepf üjrefrmEdik if \
H tkycf sKyaf &;onf (1948)
ckESpfvGwfvyfa&;&NyD;aemuf jyKjyif ajymif;vJrIrsm;r&SdcJh ojzifhwdkif;&if;om;rsm;udk
tusdK;rjyKEdkifjcif;? qdk&S,fvpfpepfxlaxmif&mwGif vdkufavsmnDaxGjzpfap&eftwGuf
tkycf sKyaf &;pepfjyKjyif&efvt
kd yfjcif;wdUk aMumifh awmfveS af umifpo
D nf15-3-72&ufpyJG g aMunm
csut
f rSwf (97) jzift
h yk cf sKyaf &;pepfopfwpf&yf azmfxw
k af qmif&u
G cf yhJ gonf/
1974-1988ckEpS x
f t
d yk cf sKyaf &; umvonf A[krd OS ;D aqmifí tkycf sKyo
f nfph epfjzpf
cJyh gonf/ 1974ckEpS w
f iG jyf nfaxmifpq
k &kd ,
S v
f pfor®w jrefrmEdik if aH wmf zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'

ps
udk jy|mef;cJhygonf/tqdkygzGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'yk'fr28?29t& EdkifiHawmfudk A[dku
OD;aqmifjyKía'otvdkuf pDrHaqmif&GufonfhpepfudkusifhoHk;NyD; pDrHcefYcGJa&;a'orsm;ukd
jyifqifzUJG pnf;cJah Mumif;awGU&ygonf/tqdyk gOya'yk'rf 35?36 t& e,frsm;wGif Ekid if aH wmf
aumifpDESifh A[dktzGJUtpnf;rsm;udk,fpm; aqmif&Guf&ef atmufygtzGJUtpnf;rsm;
zGUJ pnf;ygonf(u)

jynfe,f? wdkif;? NrdKUe,f? &yfuGuf? aus;&Gmtkyfpk toD;oD;wGif jynfolU
aumifpDwpf&yfpzD UJG pnf;jcif;/

(c)

jynfe,f? wdkif;? NrdKUe,fjynfolUaumifpDrsm;wGif tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU?
w&m;olBu;D tzGUJ ?vkyif ef;ppfaq;a&;tzGUJ wpfzUJG pDzUJG pnf;xm;&Sjd cif;/

( * ) &yfuu
G Ef iS ahf us;&Gmtkypf jk ynfoUl aumifprD sm;wGif tvkyt
f rIaqmiftzGUJ
ESihf w&m;olBu;D tzGUJ wpfzUJG pDxm;&Sjd cif;/
1988-ckESpftxdtkyfcsKyfa&; ukad vhvmwifjy&aomf 1988 ckEpS w
f iG 'f rD u
kd a&pD
awmif;qdkqE´jyrIrsm;ESifhtwl rif;rJhp&dkufrsm; ay:aygufvmNyD; EdkifiHawmftkyfcsKyfa&;
,EÅ&m;&yfqikd ;f oGm;cJyh gonf/jynfwiG ;f jynfy tzsut
f arSmihyf a,m*rsm;aMumifh 19-9-88
aeYwGifwyfrawmfuEdkifiHawmftmPm t&yf&yfudkxdef;odrf;cJhygonf/ 1988 ckESpfrSpí
jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJa&;? wdkif;&if;om; pnf;vHk;nDñGwfrI rNydKuGJa&;? tcsKyftjcmtmPm
wnfwhHcdkifNrJa&; qkdonfhtrsdK;om;a&; 0g'csrSwfvsuf ,if;trsdK;om;a&;0g'udk
umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&ef twGufOya'jyKrI tmPm? pDrHcefYcGJr I(tkyfcsKyfa&;)tmPm?
w&m;pD&ifrI tmPmrsm;usifhoHk;rnfjzpfaMumif; EdkifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;
tzGJU\ 27-7-90&ufpGJyg aMunmcsuf1^90 udkxkwfjyefí jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH\
tkycf sKyaf &;ukd wm0efvaJT jymif;,lcyhJ gonf/
þuJo
h t
Ydk yk cf sKyaf &;pepftrsKd ;rsKd ;jzift
h yk cf sKycf &hJ mwGif 1948ckEpS rf S 1988 ckEpS t
f xd
jrefrmEkid if v
H w
G v
f yfa&;&&SNd y;D aemufyidk ;f rSpí tpOftqufO;D aqmiftyk cf sKycf ahJ om or®wrsm;
ESifh0efBuD;csKyfrsm;\tw¬KyÜwådtaMumif;rsm;ukdavhvmwifjyygonf/ olrsm;taMumif;
avhvmí þpmwrf;rSazmfjycJhjcif;jzpfygonf/ xkdokdYavhvmwifjy&mwGif ouf&Sdxif&Sm;
&Sdaomolrsm;jzpfaeygu ukd,fwkdif oGm;a&mufar;jref;íwifjyygonf/ xkdokdUtajctae
ray;ygu rSwfwrf;rsm;t&aomfvnf;aumif;avhvmí wifjyxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/
tw¬KyÜwådukd wifjy&mwGif acwfumvtapmqHk;jzpfonfh 1948 ckESpfrSpwifí acwfESifh
pepftrsdK;rsdK;ukd ESpftpOfvkdufwm0ef,lxrf;aqmifcJhonfh yk*¾dKvfBuD;rsm;ukd tpOfvkduf
avhvmpDpOf wifjyxm;ygonf/

n

&nf&G,fcsuf
toufarG;0rf;ausmif;ynm&yftvku
d x
f ;l cReo
f rl sm;? xifay:ausmMf um;olrsm;\
b0ukd &ke;f uefc&hJ yH?k Bu;D yGm;wk;d wufvm&yHw
k o
Ydk nf omrmefvw
l b
Ydk 0xuf pdw0f ifpm;zG,&f m
yifjzpfonfudk awG&Y &dS ygonf/ ¤if;wkv
Yd yk &f yfrsm;atmifjrifrrI sm;ukt
d m;usjcif;? erlem,lvjdk cif;
wkdYaMumifh þtw¬KyÜwådpmwrf;ukd a&;om;jzpfygonf/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHwGif
acwftqufqufwm0efxrf;aqmifcJhMuaom EkdifiHawmf tBuD;tuJrsm;ukd EkdifiHol^
EkdifiHom;rsm;taejzifh xm0pOf od&SdrSwfom;Ekdif ap&efomru twk,ltm;uszG,f&m
rsm;ukv
d nf; pHerlemxm;twk,v
l u
dk ef mMuap&efvnf; &nf&,
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jzpfap? tzGUJ tpnf;vku
d jf zpfap jyKpx
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h pfae&mrS rSww
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wpfct
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dk ½f aI xmift
h aejzifv
h nf;
&nfñTef;trsdK;tpm;jzpfaom tw¬Kywåd tbd"mef(Biographical Dictionaries )uJhokdYaom
EkdifiHawmftBuD;tuJrsm;\tw¬Kywådudk tw¬Kywådaygif;csKyftaejzifhwifjyxm;aom
þpmwrf;onf aemiftcgtrsdK;om;tw¬Kywåd tbd"mef(Dictionary of National
Biography)jyKpk & mwG i f wpf p d w f w pf a 'otaejzif h taxmuf t yH h j zpf a p&ef v nf ;
&nf&,
G yf gonf/
þpmwrf;onf tBuD;tuJrsm;\tw¬KyÜwådrsm;rSefuefwdusrI&Sdap&efESifh
tBuD;tuJrsm;tay:rSefuefonfhoabmxm;rsm;ukd wwfEkdiforQ&SmazGpkaqmif;jcif;?
qifjcifoHk;oyfjcif;jyKum tusOf;&Hk;íomwifjyEkdifygonf/ ,if;okdYwifjy&mwGif EkdifiHESifh
trsKd ;om;a&;rSwpfyg; rnfonfh yk*Kd¾ vpf ?JG 0g'pGu
J if;&Si;f pGmjzihf wifjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf/
tw¬Kywård nfaomusr;f rsm;onf &mZ0iforkid ;f \wpfpw
d w
f pfa'oyifjzpfí pmayavmu
wGif tzk;d xku
d w
f efaom usr;f rsKd ;jzpfygonf/ Ekid if aH wmfwiG x
f if&mS ;aom Ekid if aH &;? pD;yGm;a&;ESihf
pmayqkdif&m? ppfrIppfa&;qkdif&m ponfhynm0ef;usift&yf&yfrS toD;oD;aomxl;cRef
ajymifajrmufonfh yk*¾dKvfrsm;\taMumif;t&mrsm; aysmufuG,froGm;ap&eftwGuf
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þEkid if aH wmftBu;D tuJrsm;tw¬Kyw
Ü pdå mwrf;onf pmayavhvmvku
d pf m;olrsm;
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f v
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twGuf taxmuftyHhwpfck&ap&eftwGufvnf; &nf&G,fygonf/ pmayavhvmvkdol
yk*Kd¾ vw
f idk ;f onf tcsed u
f ek cf í
H pmESUH atmif wyifwyef; &SmazGavhvmjcif;rjyKEidk af omaMumifh

#
tcsed o
f ufompGmjzifh vG,v
f ifw
h ul wpfpw
k pfpnf;wnf;avhvm odrw
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d Qif
þusrf;jyKpkoltzkdY auseyf0rf;ajrmufrnf jzpfygonf/ ,ckacwfuJhokdYaom owif;ESifh
enf;ynmwk;d wufxeG ;f um;aeaomumvwGif tcsed u
f v
dk í
k vkyu
f idk af qmif&u
G af eMu&aom
umvü twdwf\tarGukd vufvSrf;rDSorQ&weforQpkaqmif;okdrSD; xdef;odrf;vkdolrsm;
twGufvnf; &nf&G,fygonf/ þtw¬KyÜwådtusOf;pmwrf;onf EkdifiHawmftwGuf
tkww
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f rd rf nf[k arQmv
f ifyh gonf/

X

pmwrf;pDpOfyHkESifhtusHK;0ifrI
1948 ckEpS rf S 1988 ckEpS t
f xd jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmfwiG w
f m0efxrf;aqmif
cJMh uaom Ekid if aH wmfor®wESi0hf efBu;D csKyrf sm;\tw¬Kyw
Ü pdå mwrf;ukd t"dutm;jzifh tykid ;f Bu;D
(5)ykid ;f cGí
J pDpOfwifjyxm;ygonf/
tykid ;f (1)wGif &nfp;l vTm? aus;Zl;wifvmT ? ed'gef;? jrefrmEkid if t
H yk cf sKyaf &;orkid ;f
&nf&,
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hf wkt
d rSwrf sm;?
yHt
k ñTe;f [lí u@(8)ckjzifh wifjyxm;ygonf/
tykid ;f (2)wGif u@(2)ckcí
JG wifjyxm;&m yxru@wGif Ekid if aH wmfor®w(8)OD;\
tw¬KyÜwådtm;azmfjyxm;NyD; 'kwd,u@wGif EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyf(5)OD;\tw¬KyÜwådukd
wifjyxm;ygonf/ xko
d w
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då dk arG;ouú&mZft&
Bu;D pOfrjyKpyk J pwifwm0efxrf;aqmifco
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k m;ygonf/
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t"dutm;jzifh acgif;pOf(7)ckjzifh cGJjcm;wifjyxm;ygonf/ i,fpOfb0? ynmoifb0?
0efxrf;b0? EkdifiHa&;b0? *kPfjyKcsD;usL;cH&jcif;? jynfyc&D;rsm;ESifh rdom;pk [lí
wifjyxm;ygonf/ tBu;D tuJrsm;\ wm0efxrfaqmifco
hJ nfh acwfumvtay: rlwnfNy;D
t"duacgif;pOf(1)ckpD\atmufwGif vkdtyfygu acgif;pOfcGJi,frsm;jzifh qufvufwifjy
xm;ygonf/ Oyrm? OD;ae0if;taMumif; wifjy&mwGif EkdifiHa&;b0 ü ]]&JabmfoHk;usdyf}}?
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f yfa&; acwfwiG Bf uKd ;yrf;rI(19451948)}} ponfjzifah o;pdww
f ifjyxm;ygonf/
tykid ;f (3)wGif þpmwrf;\ ed*;kH ESit
hf BujH yKo;kH oyfcsurf sm;ukd wifjyxm;ygonf/
qufvufí þusrf;jyKpk&mwGif &nfñTef;ukd;um;xm;aompmtkyfrsm;ukd
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!

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6/

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7/

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8/

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9/

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11/

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12/

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13/

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14/

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ArmEkid if v
H ;kH qkid &f mawmifov
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15/

Aru

ArmEkid if v
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16/

Avrp

ArmEkid if v
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17/

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18/

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19/

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20/

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21/

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22/

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¡
23/

&rnw

&ckid jf ynftrsKd ;om;nDñw
G af &;wyfaygif;pk

24/

K.I.A

Kachin Independence Army

25/

K.N.D.O

Karen National Defence Organization

26/

K.N.U

Karen National Union

P

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apmarmif? OD;

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120

armifarmif? a'gufwm -

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0if;armif? ref;-

22

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armifarmifc? OD;

141

tydkif;(2)
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0efBuD;csKyfrsm;\tw¬KyÜwåd
(1948-1988)

1

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[ 1948 ckESpf ]

2

p0fa&Tou
dk f
(or® w )
(arG
arG ; 16-10-1896 uG,fvGef 21-11-1962)
1/

i,fpOfb0

or®wBuD; p0fa&Tokdufonf anmifa&TNrdKUü tif;wdefNrdKUpm; tz p0fcsHK ? trd
p0feef;wkdYrS 1896 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 16 &ufaeYwGif arG;zGm;cJhonf/ p0fa&Tokduf\
trnf&if; rSm p0fa&Tqkduf jzpfonf/ taMumif;rSm 4if;arG;zGm;csdefwGif &Srf;jynfanmifa&T
a'o&Sd wefckd;BuD;bk&m;wpfqljzpfaom azmifawmfOD;apwDawmfjrwfBuD; yGJawmfusif;y
aecku
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avmuD,Mwmtjzifh a&Tx;D rk;d ay;cJah omfvnf; rD;rzGm;Ekid yf jJ zpfaeonf/ rD;wxdex
f ed t
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vSnfhum apwDawmfjrwfBuD;tm; uefawmhOD;wkduf qkdufrdcsdefwGif arG;zGm;cJhaomaMumifh
p0fa&Tqu
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2/

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3/

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yxrurÇmppftwGi;f u Armhaoewfuidk w
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awmhrnfh tajctaejzpfae onf/ jrefrmEkdifiHonfvnf; NAdwdoQvufatmufcH
Ekid if w
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dS nf/
p0fa&Tokdufonfvnf; ppfrsufESmokdYcsDwuf&ef &efukefNrdKUü oabFmxGufrnfh&ufukd
apmifah rQmv
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f Ydk
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1
pmayAdrmefr*¾Zif;? twGJ 1? trSwf 1? (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1952) pm
153-165/

3
ta&SUajrmufykdif;ppfXmecsKyfü 1920jynfhESpfrS 1923ckESpftxdaqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1929
wGif OD;&D;awmf qmapmarmifewf&GmpHí anmifa&Te,f\ apmfbGm;tjzifh wifajr§mufjcif;
cH&Ny;D 1929 ckEpS ?f rwfv 8 &ufaeYwiG f todtrSwf jyKjcif;cH&onf/ e,foel ,fom;rsm;\
cspfMunfav;pmrI ukd cHcJh&onf/ þokdYya'o&mZfbk&if apmfbGm;&mxl; t½kduft&mukd
qufcHNyD;onfh aemuf 1937 ckESpf? ZGefvwGif odEDéapmfbGm;\ESrawmf p0f[kefcef;tm;
r[ma'0Dtjzifh wifajrm§ ufchJ onf/ p0fa&Tou
dk o
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dk jf cif; ponfrsm;tjyif awmvku
d f
ypfcwfjcif; ukdvnf;0goemygcJhonf/ yxrurÇmppfBuD; NyD;aomtcg ppfrIxrf;tjzpfrS
tem;,lcJhonf/ 'kwd,urÇmppfjzpfcgeD; 1939 ckESpfwGif ppfrIxrf;aqmif&efjyefvnfac:
aqmifcJhojzifh 1942 ckESpfxd ArmhwyfawmfwGif trIxrf;cJhonf/
4/

EkdifiHa&;b0

or®wBu;D p0fa&Tou
dk o
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tmomabmhweG v
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AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf c&D;a&mufrqkdufyif1947 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 12 &ufaeYwGif
yif v H k n D v mcH B uD ; uk d taqmwvsif usif ; y&jyef o nf / xk d y if v H k n D v mcH N uD ; ok d Y
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e,f&iS af pmbGm;rsm;? usridk ;f rsm;? &Sr;f vlxu
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pnf;vHk;rItiftm;ukdtxl;xif&Sm;apaom nDvmcHBuD; yifjzpfonf/ xkdnDvmcHBuD;u
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1947 ckESpfwGif EkdifiHawmfzGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'rlMurf; a&;qGJa&;aumfrwD
1

(u)
(c)

Mr. A. G. Bottomley.

AkdvfrSL; baomif;(armifokw)? ArmhawmfvSefa&;orkdif;/
&efukef? t½kPfOD;pmay? 1967/ pm 337/

4
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1

armifaZ,sm? jrefrmvlausmf 100 yxrwGJ/ (&efukef? EG,feDpmay?
2002) pm 175-177/

5
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oyfoyf&yf&yf cefYcefYnm;nm; qifjref;xm;cJhonf/1
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wpfwyfNyD;wpfwyf vSnfhpm;½Ipm;avonf/ xkdtcsdefwGif u&iftrsdK;om;wyfu
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trsdK;om;oDcsif;oHonf r*Fvmtaygif;ESifh NidrfYNidrfYav;av;ay: xGufvmonf/
tvH a wmf B uD ; onf wk d i f x d y f o k d Y a &muf o nf E S i f h wNyd K if e uf yk P Ö m ;awmf r sm;onf
c&koif;rsm;ukd wD;rIwfumqkdif&mwyfzGJUtoD;oD;ESifh rif;y&dwfowf taygif;wkdYonf
1

jrefrmEkdifiH?jyefMum;a&;ESifhtoHvTifhXme jrefrmEkdifiHawmfvGwfvyfa&;
atmifyGJ/ (&efukef? &efukefa*ZufvDrdwuf? 19 -) pm-4/

6
tvHawmfukd tav;jyKMuonf/ pnfawmfukdvnf; &Grf;vsuf&Sdonf/
þokdYjzifh anmifa&TapmbGm;BuD; p0fa&Tokdufonf 1948 ckeSpf Zefe0g&Dv 4
&ufaeYwGif vGwfvyfa&; &aomtcg jynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om;xJrS yxrqHk;aom
jrefrmEkdifiHor®wBuD;tjzpf wifajr§mufjcif; cH&jcif;jzpfNyD;EkdifiHawmfor®wBuD; yxrqHk;
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tajccHOya'ukd wnfNraJ tmif xde;f odr;f í jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if \
H
w&m;Oya'rsm;ukd apmifha&Smufygrnf/ uREkfyfonf zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya' ESiw
hf uG w&m;Oya'wkEYd iS ahf vsmn
f pD mG rdr\
d wm0ef0wå&m;
rsm;ukd ,HkMunfav;jrwf ajzmifhrwfrSefuefpGmaqmif&Gufygrnf/
jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if H ab;&eftEÅ&m,f taygif;wku
Yd dk wGe;f vSezf ,f&mS ;
&ef BuD ; pG m aom owd 0 d & d , jzif h tm;xk w f y grnf / uREk f y f o nf
jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH\tusdK;iSm jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHtm;
uREkfyf\toufESifh ukd,fukd tyfESif;onf[k av;eufwnfMunfpGm
ausnmí uwdopömjyKonf/}}1
EkdifiHawmfor®wBuD;\aMunmcsufwGif
]] jrefrmor®wEkid if aH wmfBu;D onf vGwv
f yfaom wkid ;f jynfjzpfonfEiS hf
tnD wpfO;D ESiw
hf pfO;D ESyd pf ufjcif;? wpfO;D ukw
d pfO;D aMumuf&UT &H jcif;rSpí
raumif;aom tavhqkd;rsm;ukd vHk;0y,fzsuf&ef uREkfyf&nf&G,fonf/
&mZ0ifwiG f a&S;tcgupí a&S;rif;rsm;\ tmPmpufaMumifh 'Ge;f p@m;?
olawmif;pm;? bk&m;uRe?f ausmif;uRe?f oifcsD ponfwu
Ydk dk ,aeYrpS í
a&S;rif;wk\
Yd tmPmukd uREykf f y,fzsuí
f xko
d w
l \
Ydk vkyu
f idk Ef idk Mf uap[l
í uREk f y f t rd e f Y c srS w f o nf / þjynf a xmif p k E k d i f i H a wmf twG i f ;
&S d & S d o rQaom Ek d i f i H o m;rsm;onf zG J U pnf ; tk y f c sKyf y H k Oya'wG i f
yg&So
d nft
h wkid ;f wpfO;D ESiw
hf pfO;D tcGit
hf a&;wlnMD uap}}2[kyg&So
d nf/
or®wBu;D p0fa&Tou
dk v
f ufxuf vGwv
f yfa&;&Ny;D jrefrmjynfwiG f zqyvtpd;k &

1

&JabmfvSrsdK;? jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHorkdif;0ifpmcsKyfpmwrf;
rsm;
rsm;/ (&efukef? vSrsdK;pmay? 1968) pm 294/
2/
,if; pm/

7
ukd jzKwcf sí Ekid if aH wmftmPmukd &,lvadk om ocifoef;xGe;f acgif;aqmifonfh uGejf rLepf
ygwDonf zqyvtpk;d & &,lcahJ om vGwv
f yfa&;onf tppfr[kw/f twkomjzpfonf[k
pGypf í
JG wku
d cf u
dk cf o
hJ nf/ &uftenf;i,ftwGi;f rSmyif uGejf rLepfygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;onf
vufeufpu
JG idk yf ek u
f ef awmhrnf[al om owif;uk&d &So
d nfEiS w
hf NyKd ief uf 1948 ckEpS ?f rwfv
28 &ufaeYeHeufwGif uGefjrLepfygwD0ifacgif;aqmifrsm;ukd zrf;qD;&ef ta&;,l&mwGif
vGefcJhaom nuyif awmckdoGm;cJhaMumif;od&onf/1 uGefjrLepfygwD0ifwkdY awmckdoGm;NyD;
aomtcg jynfolY&Jabmf wkdYu zqyvESifh uGefjrLepfwkdYukd aphpyfay;&ef BudK;pm;cJhonf/
uGefjrLepfwkdUonf olwkdYEkdifacs&Sdonf[k wGufqcJhMuonf/ jynfolY&Jabmf wkdYutpwGif
aphpyfa&;ukad rQmv
f ifMh uaomfvnf; zqyvuGejf rLepfrsm; vufeufuidk v
f rf;pOfudk pGeNYf y;D rS
om awGq
Y akH qG;aEG; Ekid rf nf[k qko
d nf/ tay;t,lrwnfyh J tmCmwjyif;xefaecsed w
f iG f
jynfolY&JabmfwkdYuGJí Akdvfzkd;uGef;? Akdvfxdef0if;ESifh AkdvfxGef;vif;wkdYacgif;aqmifaom
&J a bmf j zLrsm;onf ZG e f v 26 &uf a eY w G i f awmck d M u onf / Ak d v f r S L ;atmif ?
Akv
d pf ed rf eS w
f aYdk cgif;aqmifaom &Jabmf0gwkt
Yd zGUJ onf zqyvESiu
hf secf o
hJ nf/2 o&ufNrKd UESihf
r*Fvm'HkwGif toD;oD;wyfpGJaeonfh wyfrawmfwyf&if; 1 ESifh 3-rS uGefjrLepfwkdYESifh
&JabmfjzLwkdY\ 0g'oabmxm;atmufü &kef;xGufír&aom wyfom;rsm;onf 1948
ckESpf? Mo*kwfvqef;wGif awmckdoGm;Mujyefonf/ vGwfvyfa&;&cgp jrefrmEkdifiHwGif
a&mifpHkolykefrsm; qlyl aomif;usef;vmcJhojzifh wkdif;jynftajctaerSm twkdif;rodqkd;0g;
vsuf&Sdonf/ txl;ojzifhaemufqHk; ü u&ifolykefwkdY\ aomif;usef;rI ay:aygufvm
aomtcgwG i f wjynf v H k ; aoG ; acsmif ; pD ; avawmh o nf / Ek d i f i H j cm;owif ; pmrsm;u
]]&efukeftpkd;&}} [kac:a0:cH&avmufatmifyif (&efukefNrdKUteD;ywf0ef;usif rSwyg;)
wwkid ;f jynfv;kH ukd a&mifpkH aomif;use;f olrsm;u odr;f yku
d x
f m;Ekid cf ahJ vonf/ 1948 ckEpS ?f
Mo*kwv
f 19 &ufaeYnbufwiG f Ekid if aH wmf or®wBu;D onf jrefrmjynftajctaeqk;d okYd
a&muf&adS eNyD jzpfaMumif;ESihf ta&;Bu;D aom raumif;qk;d 0g; b0a&mufaeNyjD zpfaMumif;ukd
jrefrmjynftoHvTifhXmerSaeí aMunmcJhonf/3 or®wBuD; p0fa&Tokduf vufxufwGif
tcuftcJrsm;pGmESihf &ifqidk cf &hJ onhMf um;rSyif 1948-1949 ckEpS rf sm;wGif a&mifpo
kH yl ek w
f Ydk
1

odef;azjrifh? awmfvSefa&;umv tawGUtBuHKrsm;
rsm;/ 'k- Budrf?
(&efukef? ,rkem pmay/ 1967)? pm 403/
2
a'gufwmarmifarmif? jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/
(&efukef? yk*H pmtkyfwkduf? 1969)? pm 308/
3
OD;jrifha0 (wyfrawmfjrifhoEÅm)? ArmhawmfvSefa&;tbd"mef/
(&efukef?py,fOD;? pmay? 1972)? pm 129/

8
onf tpkd;&ukdtikdufzrf;í NrdKU&Gmrsm;ukdodrf;NyD; qufum qufum atmifyGJcHEkdifcJh
aomfvnf; 1950 ckESpfa&mufaomtcg wyfrawmf\xkd;ppfukd cHEkdifpGrf; r&Sdawmhay/
,if;wkdYodrf;ykduf xm;cJhaom NrdKU?&Gmrsm;ukd wpfckNyD; wpfckvufvTwfcJh&onf/ 1951
ckESpfukefcgeD;wGif a&mifpHkolykefwkdY\ qlylaomif;usef;rI,kwfavsmhusqif;oGm;ojzifh
EkdifiHawmf Nidrf;csrf;a&; onf pdwfat;zG,f&m jzpfvmcJhonf/ okdYaomf jynfyusL;ausmfrI
udpw
ö pf&yf ay:aygufvm jyefonf/ 1950 ckEpS ?f rwfv 1 &ufaeYwiG f autrfww
D yfom;
17,000 cefYonf usdKif;wHka'owGif;okdY tvHk;t&if;jzifh 0ifa&muf vmMuonf/ 1951
ckESpf? arv 25 &ufaeY wGif twifh&Jvmaom autrfwDrsm;onf jrefrme,fpyf&Sd
usLukwNf rKd Uukd wku
d cf u
dk zf suq
f ;D cJMh u onf/1oHviG jf rpf\ ta&SUbufa'o&Sd rkid ;f qwfNrKd Uukd
tcdkiftrm wyfpGJaeonf/ jynfaxmifpktpkd;&u ,if;wkdYtm; vufeufcs&ef(okdYr[kwf)
azmfrkdqmokdYjyefykdYay;jcif;ukd oabmwl&ef &mZoHay;onfukd vufrcHcJhay/ xkdYaMumifh
tpkd;&rS ukvor*¾okdYwkdifMum;í wzufwGif jrefrmwyfrawmfu ]]bk&ifhaemif}}
]]&efBuD;atmif}} ]]e*g;Ekdif}} ppfqifa&;rsm;jzifh autrfwDwkdYtm; acsrIef;wkdufckdufEkdifcJhNyD;
or®wBuD; p0fa&Tokdufonf 1951 ckESpf? ZGefv 12 &ufaeYrSpwifNyD; ygvDref
a&G;aumufyGJukdusif;yay;EkdifcJhonf/
or®wBuD;p0fa&Tokdufonf aA'ifynmukd t,HktMunfr&Sd twdwfedrdwf
t,lonf;rIukd vnf; rBudKufay/ &ckdifjynfokdYwkdif;cef;vSnfh&ef tdrfawmfrSxGufcJhpOf
ajreDukef;t0kdif;teD; ü ukd,f&Hawmfrsm;vkdufygcJhaom *spfum;arSmufojzifh ukd,f&Hawmf
wpfOD; 'Pf&m&&SdcJhonf/ or®wBuD;onf ukd,fwkdifoGm;a&mufMunfh½INyD;aemuf r*Fvm'Hk
avqdyo
f Ydk c&D;qufco
hJ nf/ wpfzef avqdyw
f iG f av,mOfysx
H u
G rf nft
h jyKwiG f av,mOfysH
puftenf;i,fcRwf,Gif; aeojzifh &kwfw&ufwGufír& jzpfcJhjyefonf/ or®wBuD;
p0fa&Tou
dk o
f nf edrw
d t
f wdwpf onfrsm;ukd r,HMk unfojl zpfojzifh c&D;pOfudk rzsucf ahJ Mumif;
od&Sd&ygonf/
or®wBu;D onf bmoma&;uko
d uf0if,MkH unfow
l pfO;D jzpfNy;D Ekid if aH wmfor®Bu;D
tjzpfESifhyif om;awmfrsm;tm;omoemabmifokdYoGwfoGif;csD;jr§ifhay; cJhonf/ or®wBuD;
ukd,fykdifaiGjzifh yJcl;a&Tarma"mapwDawmfjrwfBuD;tm; 666 usyfwdwdESifh urÇmat;
apwDawmfjrwfBuD; tm; 333 usyf vSL'gef;cJhonf/
jrefrmowif;q&mwpfOD;rS or®wtjzpf&aomvcESifhywfoufí ar;jref;&m
1

OD;oefY? jynfawmfomc&D;('kwd,ykdif;))/ (&efukef? jrefrmEkdifiHbm
omjyefpmaytoif;? 1961) pm246-247/

9
]] or®wtjzpf vc 7000 usy&f w,f? 'gayrJh 4 ESpMf umor®wvkyNf y;D vkYd
pm&if;&Si;f vku
d af wmh wpfjym;rSrpkaqmif; rdwt
hJ jyif &Sr;f jynfu,lvm
wJh 5 aomif;avmufyg ukefcef;wmukdawGU&w,f? bmawGukefrSef;vJ
rodbl; 'DvkdbJ wwdwd b,fa&mufukef;rSef;rodbl; }} 1 [kajzMum;cJh
ygonf/
1952 ckEpS ?f rwfv 12 &ufaeYwiG f or®woufwrf;ukeq
f ;kH aomtcg vlrsKd ;pk
vTwaf wmfem,uBu;D tjzpf a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufjcif;cH&onf/ 1959 ckEpS ?f atNyv
D 29&uf
aeYwGif tjcm;e,f&Sif p0fzvHkwkdYESifhtwl apmfbGm;qkdaom tmPmukdpGefYvTwfcJh&onf/2
5/

*kPfjyKcsD;usL;cH&jcif;

or®wBu;D p0fa&Tou
dk o
f nf trsKd ;bmom omoemynmwGif BuKd ;pm;tm;xkwrf I
aMumifh t*¾r[moa&pnfolbGJUtjyif t*¾r[moD&dok"r®bGJUwHqdyfukdyg csD;jr§ifhjcif;cH&
onf/
6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

1929-30wGif t*Fvef? Oa&my? a[mifaumif? w½kwfEkdifiHokdY oGm;a&muf
cJo
h nf/1947ckEpS w
f iG f tJvZD Aufrif;orD;\ vufxyfyt
JG crf;tem;okYd r[ma'0DEiS t
hf wl
oGm;a&mufco
hJ nf/ 1931 ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmvwGif t*Fvefü usi;f yonfh jrefrmjynftwGuf
oD;jcm;rsuEf mS pHn
k D tpnf;ta0;okYd wufa&mufonfu
h ,
dk pf m;vS,f 23 OD;wGif wpfO;D tyg
t0ifjzpfonf/ 1958 ckESpf? arv 22 &ufaeYwGif w&kwfokdYoGm;cJhonf/ 1960jynfhESpf?
Mo*kwfvwGif jrefrmhcspfMunfa&;tzGJUukd acgif;aqmifí csufukdpvkdAufuD;,m;EkdifiH
okdYoGm;a&mufcJhonf/
7/

rdom;pk

1937 ckESpf? ZGefvwGif ajrmufodefeDapmfbGm;\ESrawmf p0f[kef;crf; ESifh
vufxyfcNhJ y;D OD;,l*si;f oku
d (f c) p0faq;0kid (f c)p0fqv
dk efz tygt0if om;orD; (11)a,muf
1

pmayAdrmefr*¾Zif;? twGJ 1? trSwf 1? (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1952) pm
153-165/
2
a&TOMo? wpfcsdefuxif&Sm;cJhaomacgif;aqmifBuD;rsm;
rsm;/ 'kBudrf?
( &efukef? 0if;jrifhatmifpmay? 1997) pm 51-53/

10
xGef;um;cJhonf/ om;awmftBuD;qkH; p0fpHzonf t*Fvefjynfbk&ifhwuúokdvf ?
urf;b&pfcsfuifwm&D wuúokdvfwkdUrS ynmoifcJhonf/ 4if;\nDawmfp0fpHtkef;uvnf;
uif;b&pfcsEiS hf x&de'd uf wuúov
dk rf S ynmoifMum;cJMh uonf/ om;awmfBu;D p0fpzH onf
anmifa&Te,fawmftm; tkyfcsKyfae&mrS tcGifh,lí t*Fvefjynfü tem;,laecJhonf/
om;awmfp0fpt
H ek ;f onf anmifa&Te,f\ pku
d yf sKd ;a&;t&m&St
d jzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/
orD;awmfp0fpH'g;onf t*Fvefjynf urf;b&pfcsfwuúokdvfü ynmoifcJh onf/
jrefrmjynfwGif or®wBuD;ESifh twlaecJhaomom;orD;rsm;rSm -p0fqkdcHz? p0fqkdvkHz?
p0feef;&if&if? p0feef;a[rm? p0frnfrnf? p0fjynf;jynf;? p0feef;,if;,if; wkdYjzpfMuonf/
or®wBu;D p0fa&Tou
dk o
f nf 1962 ckEpS ?f rwfv 2 &ufaeYawmfveS af &;aumifpt
D yk cf sKyaf &;
vTJajymif;,lNyD;aemuf xkdESpf Ekd0ifbmv 21 &ufaeYwGif uG,fvGefcJhonf/trSwf(74)?
urÇmat; bk&m;vrf;? &efukefwGif aexkdifcJhaMumif;od&Sd&ygonf/

11

yHk (2)
a'gufwm bOD; (or®w)
[ 1952 ckESpf ]

12

a'gwfwmbOD;
(or®w)
(arG
arG; --26-5-1887 uG,f 9-11-1963 )
i,fpOfb0
or®wBu;D a'gufwmOD;bOD;onf 1887ckEpS ?f arv 26 &ufaeYwiG f ykord Nf rKd Uü
arG;zGm;cJo
h nf/ bk;d ab;rsm;onf rif;rsKd ;rif;EG,rf sm;jzpfaMumif; or®wBu;D uk,
d w
f idk af &;aom
My Burma pmtkyw
f iG f &Si;f vif;azmfjyxm;onfuadk wG&Y &dS ygonf/ 1zcifrmS ta&;ydik f OD;bd;k vS
(pD-tdik -f tD;? au-tuf? trf-at)jzpfNy;D rdcifrmS a':ñGejYf zpfonf/ a'gufwmOD;bOD;onf
om;tBu;D qk;H jzpfonf/
ynmoifb0
2/
armifbOD;\zcifonf NrKd Utkyjf zpfojzifh wm0eft& a'owpfcrk S aemufa'o
wpfckokdY ajymif;a&TUtrIxrf;aqmif&oljzpfonf/ i,fpOfu ykodrfNrdKU t*Fvdyf-jrefrm
ESpb
f momoif ausmif;wGif pmoifc&hJ onf/ xdrk w
S pfqifh armifbOD; 9 ESpo
f m;t&G,w
f iG f
zciftrIxrf;aqmif&m rtlyifNrdKU&Sd t*Fvdyf-jrefrmESpfbmomoif tpkd;&tv,fwef;
ausmif;wGif wufc&hJ jyefonf/ 9-vcefMY umaomtcg zcif uomNrKd UokYd ajymif;&jyefonf/
xkaYd Mumifh armifbOD;ESin
hf jD zpfol armifbBuL;ukd rdcifbufrS bk;d bGm;rsm;jzpfaom OD;qdwEf iS hf
a':&dyfxHtyfESHí ynmoifMum;apygonf/ armifbOD;wkdY nDtpfukdtm; atbDtrf
(tar&duefrufo'pf omoejyK)tv,fwef;ausmif;ü yxrwef;rS pwifwufa&mufc&hJ
onf/ armifbOD;onf atbDtrfausmif;aepOfwiG f xl;qef;aom tdrrf ufrsm;ukrd ufco
hJ nf/
yxrtywf aomMumaeYnwGif ]]aumif;uif,rH S aerif;Bu;D xdev
f if;pGm
xGef;awmufaeonf[k rufcJhonf/}} 'kwd,aomMumaeYnwGif
]]vrif ; BuD ; xd e f x d e f o maeonf u k d j rif o nf [ k vnf ; aumif ; ?
wwd,aomMumaeYnwGif Mu,fawGay:vmonf[kvnf;aumif;?
pwkw¬aeYnwGif pGeftjrifhBuD;vTifh&m tjcm;pGefrsm;u armifbOD;\
pGefBudK;em;ywfvnfwGif 0kdif;vsuf OD;ckdufaeoa,mif awGY&onf[k
vnf;aumif;? yOöraeYnwGif armifbOD;onf vlom;pm;NyD; ykodrfNrdKU
tdraf cgifr;dk rsm;ay: avQmufyso
H ef;onf[í
l vnf;aumif;}}2
1/

1

U Ba U. My Burma : The Autobiography of a President. (USA:

Taplinger Publishing Co,Inc.,1958). p. 1-5.
2

U Ba U. My Burma : The Autobiography of a President.p. 12.

13
tdrfrufrsm; rufcJhygonf/ tdrfrufrsm;taMumif;ukd tbdk;jzpfol
OD;qdwt
f m;ajymjycJ&h m tbk;d jzpforl S
]]ighajr;? om;wpfaeY vlBu;D wpfa,ufjzpfvrd Uf r,f? bmjzpfr,fqw
dk mawmh
tbkd;rodbl;? tbdk;wkdYwpfawG vGwfvGwfvyfvyfae&NyDqkd&ifawmh
rif;wpfaeY Ekid if ahH cgif;aqmifjzpfvrd rYf ,f/ 'gayrJh tckorl sm;vufatmuf
jzpfaeawmh 'DvkdawmhrajymEkdifao;bl;/ tdrfrufawG taMumif;ukd
tjcm;olawGukd oGm;rajym aveJY}} 1
[k rSmMum;cJhygonf/
xkt
d csed rf pS í armifbOD;onf a&SUaeESiw
hf &m;olBu;D jzpf&rnf[k oEéXd mefcsrw
S cf hJ
onf/ armifbOD;owårwef; atmifjrif aomtcg ykodrftpkd;&txufwef;ausmif;okdY
ajymif;cJh&onf/ xkdrSwpfqifh rdbrsm;onf armifbOD;wkdYnDtpfukdtm; &efukefNrdKU
aq;&HBk u;D ESirhf suEf mS csi;f qkid f aumfr&Sief m;vrf; (Akv
d cf sKyf vrf;)ay:wGi&f adS om tpk;d &aumvdyf
ausmif;okdYykdYcJhonf/ armifbOD;onf ausmif;pmukd pdwfrygawmhbJ 0wfvHkjzpfvkdaom
qE´jzpfvmcJo
h nf/ xkaYd Mumifh bdvyfoyYdk aYdk y;&ef rdbrsm;tm; awmif;yefco
hJ nf/ zcifjzpforl S
&mxl;wufvQiyf aYdk yrnf[k uwdjyKco
hJ nf/ zcif\t&nftcsi;f uko
d ad om armifbOD;onf
bdvyfokdYynmoifoGm;&ef jyifqifcJhawmh onf/ rpöpf[ife&D0k'f 2? *kdifbkofbD 3 ?
tmomukdeef'GdKif;vf 4 ? uyÜwdefrm;,uf 5 ponfhpma&; q&mrsm;a&;aom 0w¬rsm;ukd
pwifavhvmzwf½cI o
hJ nf/ we*FaEGaeYwidk ;f Ak'b
¨ mom uvsmP,k0toif;rS OD;pD;usi;f y
aom aumvdypf um;&nfvyk rJG sm;ukv
d nf; wufa&mufco
hJ nf/ toif;\aMunm xm;aom
OD;wnfcsufrSm bmoma&;avhvmrIukdjr§ifhwif&ef jzpfaomfvnf; a&G;cs,faomacgif;pOf
trsm;pkrSm vlrIa&;? EkdifiHa&;rsm;jzpfaMumif; od&onf/ xdkYaemuf &efukef aumvdyfodkY
wufa&mufí wuúodkvfynmrsm;udk oif,lcJhonf/ 1907ckESpf pufwifbmv wGif
t*Fvefjynf urf;b&pfcsw
f uúov
kd 6f okYd ynmoGm;a&mufoif,cl o
hJ nf/ a&aMumif;c&D;jzifh
xGucf mG cJ&h m ukv
d rfb?dk at'if? ykq
Yd ufwjYdk zwfoef;cJ&h onf/ *sb
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1

U Ba U. My Burma : The Autobiography of a President. p. 13.

2

Mrs. Henry Wood

3

Guy Boothby

4

Arthur Conan Dayle

5

Captain Marryat

6

University of Cambridge

14
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Dr. Voelker

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jALwDr*¾Zif;? Beauty Magazine? twGJ 6? trSwf 73 (rwf 2006) pm 116/

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L. Robinson

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Sir. Curzon Wylie

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Mr. Shirres

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White Notley

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Hugh Tinker. Burma : The Struggle for Independence, 19441948. p.339-340.

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aomtcg zJGUpnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya't& a'gufwmqmbOD;tm; vGwfvyfaom
jref r mEd k i f i H a wmf o r® w BuD ; tjzpf vT w f a wmf E S p f & yf a ygif ; um wnD w ñG w f w nf ;
wifajr§mufjcif;cH&onf/ 1953 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 7 &ufaeYwGif jynfaxmifpkor®w
jrefrmEkid if üH yxrqH;k pwifomG ;vmrnfh a&aMumif;c&D;ukd or®wBu;D uk,
d w
f idk f ]]jynfawmfom}}
oabFm ay:rSaeí pwifziG v
hf pS af y; cJo
h nf/ or®wBu;D onf bmoma&;ukd ouf0if,MkH unf
oljzpfonfESifhtnD 1953 ckESpf? rwfv 21 &ufaeYwGif uarÇm'D;,m; omoemykdif
q&mawmfBu;D rsm;ESihf tzGUJ 0ifrsm;? 0efaqmifoC
H mtzGUJ 0if q&mawmfBu;D rsm;tm; tdraf wmfoYdk
yifzh w
d í
f qGr;f uyfvLS 'gef;cJo
h nf/ 1954 ckEpS ?f {Nyv
D 11 &ufaeYwiG f yJc;l a&Tarmfa"gapwDawmf
yxrqifhukd EkdifiHawmfor®wBuD;? 0efBuD;csKyfOD;EkESifh vlxky&dwfowfwkdYrS atmifjrifpGm
wifvSLcJhonf/ 1954 ckESpf? arv 17 &ufaeYwGif q|o*Fg,em r[m"r®obifBuD;udk
o*Fg,em'g,umtjzpfc,
hJ cl o
hJ nf/ arv 20 &ufaeYwiG f q|o*Fg,emr[m"r®obifBu;D okYd
wufa&mufvsuf&SdMuaom oHCmawmftyg; 2500 ukd tdrfawmf0ef;twGif; yifhzdwfum
aeYqrG ;f qyfuyf vSL'gef;cJo
h nf/1956 ckEpS ?f rwfv 22 &ufaeYwiG f qkAd ,
D ufEidk if aH wmftpk;d &rS
jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf or®wBu;D tm; qkAd ,
D ufarmfawmfum;wpfp;D ay;tyfco
hJ nf/
1957ckESpf? or®w&mxl; oufwrf; ukefqkH;aomtcg tNidrf;pm;,lcJhonf/ odkYaomf
1960jynhEf pS w
f iG f OD;Ek OD;aqmifaom yxptpk;d &wufvmaomtcg {Nyv
D 29 &ufaeYwiG f
Edik if aH wmftpd;k &tBuaH y;tzJUG OuúXtjzpf aqmif&u
G cf &hJ onf/3 a'gufwmbOD; OD;aqmifaom
tBuaH y;tzGUJ rsm;? &ckid jf ynfe,f? rGejf ynfe,ftzGUJ tpnf;rsm;rS uk,
d pf m;vS,rf sm;? Ekid if aH &;tzGUJ
tpnf;rsm;yg0ifaom aqG;aEG;yGJ wpf&yfukd 1961 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 3 &ufaeYwGif
usi;f ycJo
h nf/ a'gufwmbOD;onf aqG;aEG;yGüJ rGev
f x
l ?k &ckid v
f x
l \
k qE´rnfo&Ydk o
dS nfudk
od&SdEkdif&ef qE´cH,lyGJ(Plebiscite)jyKvkyfonfh enf;onf ygvDref'Drkdua&pDenf;tusqHk;?
1

jrefrmhorkid ;f jzpf&yfreS rf sm;jyKpak &;tzGUJ ? jrefrmEkid if aH &; 1958-1962 (yxrwG)J /
(&efuek ?f wuúov
dk rf sm; yHEk ydS w
f u
dk ?f 1991)pm 129/
2
jrefrmEkid if ?H ppfordik ;f jywdu
k Ef iS hf wyfrawmfarmfueG ;f wdu
k ?f wyfrawmfordkif;
(pwkw¬ wJG)1948-62 (&efuek ?f owif;ESihf pme,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1996)
pm 31
3
jrefrmEkid if ?H ppfordik ;f jywdu
k Ef iS hf wyfrawmfarmfueG ;f wdu
k ?f wyfrawmfordkif;
(yOörwJ)G 1962-74 (&efuek ?f owif;ESihf pme,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1999)
pm 3/

20
taumif;qH;k enf;vrf;jzpfaMumif;? vlxq
k E´c,
H yl JG jyKvyk o
f nfph epfudk urÇmüvnf; toH;k jyK
vsu&f adS Mumif;? vlxq
k E´c,
H yl jJG yKvyk &f mü tajctaeESiu
hf u
dk n
f o
D nf ruku
d n
f o
D nfqadk om
tcsufrSm tpdk;&ESifhom oufqkdifaMumif; &Sif;vif;ajymMum;cJhygonf/1 qufvufNyD;
a'gufwmbOD; OD;aqmifaomtBuaH y;tzGUJ onf 1960jynfEh pS ?f arv 6 &ufaeYrpS wifNy;D
&ckid jf ynfe,fEiS yhf wfoufí &ckid t
f rsKd ;om; acgif;aqmifBu;D rsm;? vlraI &;toif;tzGUJ rsm;tm;
zdwMf um;í aqG;aEG;cJyh gonf/2
1955 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 6 &ufaeYwGif or®wa[mif; a'gufwmbOD;onf
vlr0I efxrf;vkyif ef;rsm;jzpfaom MuufajceDtoif;? jynfoo
Yl el mjyKtzJUG ? wuúov
kd &f efyaHk iGtzGUJ ?
yef;O,smOftoif; ponfwdkYwGif OuúXtjzpf aqmif&GufcJh&aom yk*¾dKvfxl;jzpfonf/
1957ckEpS w
f iG f ]uREykf \
f jrefrmEdik if }H ac: ud,
k af &;tw¬Kyw
Ü d pmtkyu
f kd t*Fvyd b
f momjzifh
a&;om;xkwaf 0cJo
h nf/
*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;
5/
1955 ckESpf? Zefe0g&DvwGif 6 ,l*kdpvm;AD;,m;EkdifiHor®w rm&S,fwDwkd;\
,l*pdk vyfwcH eG af wmfbYJG (yxrqif)h Yugoslav Banner(First Class) cs;D jri§ jhfcif;cH&onf/ Ekid if aH wmf
tpd;k &u a'gufwmqmbOD;tm; t*¾r[moa&pnfob
l UGJ ESihf t*¾r[m od&o
d "k r®bUGJ rsm;udk
csD;jr§ifhjcif;cH&jyefonf/ ,if;tjyif &efukefwuúodkvfu Oya'yg&*l (a'gufwm) bJGUudk
cs;D jri§ jhf cif;cH&jyefonf/ a'gufwmqmbOD;onf or®wtjzpf wifajrm§ ufjcif;cH&onfah eYrpS í
NAdwdoQtpdk;&u ay;aom qmbJGUudk pGefYvTwfcJhonf/
jynfyc&D;rsm;
6/
ausmif;om;b0wGif vef'efoyYdk nmoifom oGm;a&mufcyhJ gonf/ or®wjzpfvm
tcg jynfyc&D;xGucf mG jcif;ukd rawGU&S&d yg/
rdom;pk
7/
1913 ckEpS w
f iG f a'gufwmbOD;onf c&kid w
f &m;olBu;D a[mif; OD;atmifZ\
H orD;
a':Nidrf;Nidrf;ESifh vufxyfcJh&m om;ESpfa,mufxGef;um;cJhonf/ a':Nidrf;Nidrf;onf 1922
ckEpS w
f iG f uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;cJo
h nf/ a':a':Nird ;f uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;Ny;D aemuf a'gufwmbOD;onf 1923
ckEpS f &dum© awmf& ta&;ykid f OD;qk;d az\orD; a':at;ESihf vufxyfc&hJ m orD; 3 a,mufEiS hf

1

&efukefowif;pm (4 az 1961 ) pm -19/
2
jrefrmhorkid ;f jzpf&yftrSerf sm;a&;om;jyKpak &;tzGUJ ? 1958-1962 jrefrmEkdifiHa&;
(wwd,wGJ)/ (&efuek ?f wuúov
dk rf sm;yHEk ydS w
f u
dk ?f 1991)pm 218/

21
om; 2 a,muf &&SdcJhonf/ a':at;onfvnf; 1941 ckESpfwGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf/1
a'gufwmbOD;onf awmfveS af &;aumifpt
D pd;k & tkycf sKyaf &; vTaJ jymif;,lNy;D 1963
ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmv 9 &ufaeYwiG f uG,v
f eG cf o
hJ nf/ trSw(f 54)? a&TawmifMum;vrf;? &efuek Nf rKd U
wGiaf exkid o
f nf/

1

a&TOMo? wpfcsdefuxif&Sm;cJhaomyk*¾dKvfBuD;rsm; (&efuek ?f a&Tord o
f m;
yef;csED iS hf pmay?1986) pm 164-167/

11-u

yHk (3)
a'gufwm bOD; (or®w)
[ 1953 ckESpf ]

22

yHk (4)
ref;0if;armif (or®w)
[ 1957 ckESpf ]

23

OD;0if;armif(c)ref;0if;armif
(or®w)
( arG; 17-4-1916 uG,fvGef 4-7-1989)
1/

i,fpOfb0

OD;0if;armifukd ykodrfc&kdif usHKaysmfNrdKUe,f vSnf;qdyf&Gmü c&pfESpf 1916 ckESpf?
atNyDv 17 &ufaeYwGif tzynmtkyf OD;a&T&if? trd a':om,mwkdYuarG;zGm;onf/
OD;0if;armif onf EkdifiHa&;avmuwGif ref;0if;armif[lí vlodrsm; xif&Sm;cJhonf/
2/

ynmoifb0

i,fpOfu vSnf;qdyf&GmüynmoifNyD; ykodrf rGef u&iftxufwef;ausmif;rS
1933 ckESpfwGif q,fwef;atmifjrifNyD;aemuf 1937 ckESpfwGif &efukefwuúokdvf
*syfqifaumfvdyf rS bDatbGJU &cJhonf/
3/

0efxrf;b0

oefvsifNrdKUbDtkdpDukrÜPDpm&if;XmewGifvnf;aumif;? twGif;0efrsm;&Hk;wGif
vnf;aumif; tpk;d &0efxrf;tjzpf vkyu
f idk cf í
hJ 1940 jynfEh pS w
f iG f ppfbufoaYdk jymif;a&TUum
t&mcHAv
dk t
f qifjh zifh trIxrf;cJNh y;D 1941 ckEpS w
f iG f arNrKd U Akv
d o
f ifwef;ausmif; wufco
hJ nf/
'kwd,urÇmppftwGif; t*Fvdyfrsm;tdE´d,okdY qkwfcGm&m rsufESmjzLAkdvfoifwef;
ausmif;tkyBf u;D u tdE,
d´ okv
Yd u
dk yf gvQif axmufvrS ;f a&;bufü Akv
d t
f qif&h mxl; ay;rnf[k
ajymcJhaomfvnf; rvkdufbJ jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ae&pfcJhonf/1
4/

EkdifiHa&;b0

ref;0if;armifonf 1943-44 ckESpfrSpí AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; OD;aqmifaom
attufzt
f dk (zwyv)ESiq
hf ufo,
G u
f m jrpf0uRe;f ay: u&ifwidk ;f &if;om;rsm;ukpd nf;&H;k í
zufqpfawmfvSefa&;vkyfief;rsm;wGifyg0ifcJhonf/ 1944 ckESpf? pufwifbmvwGif
awmfvSefa&;twGuf uom? jrpfBuD;em;rSwpfqifh tdE´d,okdY cufcJyifyef;pGmoGm;a&mufcJh
d´ jynf umvuwåm;ppfwuúov
dk Ef iS hf ukv
d b
H pdk pfpcef;rsm;wGif ppfa&;avhusirhf I
onf/2 tdE,
1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1990 (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1990) pm 303/
2

&Jabmfjr? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;jynfolY&Jacgifajymufusm;
sm;/ (&efuek ?f
jr&myifpmaytkyfwkduf? 1971) pm- 153? 486 pm/

24
jyKvkyfcJhonf/11945 ckESpf? rwfv 31 &ufaeYwGif xef;wyifNrdKUe,f? BudKYyifteD;wGif
avxD;jzifhqif;cJh&m wGif yg0ifNyD; zufqpfawmfvSefa&;ü u&ifArm &Jacgifajymufusm;
rsm;ukd OD;aqmifcJhonf/ avxD;jzifhqif;csdefwGif ajcusdK;oGm;cJhaomfvnf; *syefrsm;ukd 2
vrQwkdufckdufNyD;rS aq;0g;uko&ef umvuwåm;aq;&HkokdYoGm;a&mufukocJhonf/2
ppftNy;D wGif vGwv
f yfa&; wku
d yf üJG zqyvtzGUJ ESit
hf wl yl;wGyJ g0ifco
hJ nf/ ref;0if;armif
onf Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf csKyfqkd&mwGifa&SUajy;tzGJUü yg0if vkdufygoGm;cJhonf/
1945 ckESpfwGif u&ifvli,frsm; tpnf;t&Hk;ü ref;bckdifonfOuúX?
ref;0if;armif onf 'kw,
d OuúXtjzpf ta&G;cHc&hJ onf/ wpfcsed w
f nf;rSmyif wkid ;f &if;om;
pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&; ukd a&S;&Ivsuf wkdif;&if;om;*sme,fukd xkwfa0um t,f'Dwmtjzpf
vkyu
f idk cf o
hJ nf/ atmifqef;-tufwvDpmcsKyu
f dk autif,u
l uefu
Y u
G af eonft
h csed w
f iG f
wkdifjyKjynfjyK vTwfawmfa&G;aumufyGJukd u&ifvli,frsm;tpnf;t&Hk;acgif;aqmif
ref;bckid Ef iS hf ref;0if;armifwYdk yg0ifcMhJ uonf/ 1947 ckEpS f a&G;aumufyw
JG iG f ykord af jrmufyidk ;f
rJqE´e,f rS ta&G;cH&í "gwfow¬KXme0efBuD;? 1948 ckESpf? {NyDv 4 &ufaeYwGif
vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;? taqmuftOD;ESifhtvkyform;0efBuD;Xme0efBuD;tjzpf wm0ef
xrf;aqmifcJhNyD; xkdESpfZlvkdifv 15 &ufaerSmyifEIwfxGufcJhygonf/1949 ckESpfwGif
ykdYaqmifa&;ESifhvrf;yef;qufoG,fa&; 0efBuD;Xme0efBuD;tjzpfvnf;aumif;?1949-50
ckEpS w
f iG f &efuek w
f uúov
dk t
f "dywdtjzpf vnf;aumif; wm0efxrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf/ 1951
ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 22 &ufaeYwGif jynfaxmifpk u&iftrsdK;om; tzGJU OuúX? 1952 ckESpf?
rwf 16 &ufaeYwiG f rtlyif awmifyidk ;f rJqE´e,f trwftjzpf a&G;aumufwifajrm§ ufjcif;
cH&NyD;aemuf o,f,lykdYaqmifa&;ESifhvrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;0efBuD;? 1956 ckESpf? ZGefv 13
&ufaeYwiG f rtlyifawmif;ykid ;f rSwpfzef jyefvnf ta&G;cH&Ny;D jynfwiG ;f qdyu
f rf; a&aMumif;?
avaMumif;ESifh yifv,fqdyfurf;oGm;vma&; Xme0efBuD; ponfjzifh EkdifiHwm0efrsm;ukd
tBudrfBudrfxrf;aqmifcJhonf/3
1957 ckEpS ?f rwfv 11 &ufaeYeeH uf 10 em&Dtcsed w
f iG f Ekid if aH wmf or®wopf
1

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf? wyfrawmforkdif;
('kwd,wGJ) 1945 zufqpfawmfvSefa&;umv
&;umv/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESihf
pme,fZif;vkyfief;? 1999) pm 69/
2

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/
&efukef?yk*Hpmtkyfwkduf? 1969/ pm- 270/
3

jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm (24 ZGefv 1956) pm 4/

25
a&G;aumuf wifajr§mufa&;twGuf vlrsdK;pkvTwfawmfESifh jynfolYvTwfawmfygvDref 2 &yf
wGJbufnDvmcHusif;ycJh&m vlrsdK;pkvTwfawmfem,uBuD; p0fa&Tokdufu obmywdtjzpf
aqmif&GufcJhonf/ nDvmcHponfESifhwNydKifeuf em,uBuD; p0fa&TokdufrS or®wavmif;
trnfpm&if; wifoGif;vTm 3 apmif&&SdcJh&m 3 apmifpvHk; OD;0if;armifwpfOD;wnf;ukdom
trnfpm&if;wifoGif;xm;aMumif;? or®wavmif;trnfpm&if;wifoGif;vTmrsm;rSm
Oya'ESifhjynfhpHknDnTwfí or®wwifajr§mufa&;twGuf a&G;aumufyGJ jyKvkyf&ef
rvkdawmhojzifh ygvDrefvTwfawmf 2 &yfu OD;0if;armiftm; or®wtjzpf ,SOfjyKdifolr&Sd
a&T;aumufwifajrm§ ufaMumif; aMunmvku
d &f m MobmoHrsm;vGr;f oGm;aMumif;? qufvufNy;D
0efBuD;csKyf OD;EkrS
]] ref;0if;armifESifh uRefawmfwkdY[m vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJ0ifuwnf;u
vuf w G J a qmif & G u f c J h y gw,f / vG w f v yf a &;&NyD ; aemuf rMumcif b J
jzLeDaMumifusm;olykefxNyD; autif'Dtkdaomif;usef;rIay:aygufcJhygw,f/
tJ'DtcsdefrSm ref;0if;armifu vufeufeJU tmPmodrf;wmukd rvkdvm;bJ
'Dru
dk a&pDeYJ tmPmodr;f wmuko
d m axmufccH yhJ gw,f/ 'gaMumifh awmf&w
kH ef&kH
&J&ifhwJholvkdYyk*¾dKvfrsdK; &Sm;ygw,f/ ref;0if;armifukd autif'Dtkduvnf;
opö m azmuf v k d Y a MunmcJ h y gw,f / wu,f v k d Y r sm; autif ' D t k d v uf x J
wkdif;jynfusa&mufoGm;&if a&S;OD;pGm opömazmuftjzpfeJU owfypf&if
ref;0if;armifyxrqHk;cH&rSmyJ...}} 1
[kajymMum;cJhygonf/
1957 ckEpS ?f rwfv 13 &ufaeYwiG jf ynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf\ or®wtjzpf ta&G;cHc&hJ
onf/ OD;0if;armifwm0efxrf;aqmifaomumvonf ygwDwiG ;f NyKd urJG rI sm;? tmPm&&Sad &;
twGuf tNyKd it
f qkid Bf uKd ;pm;rIrsm;jyKvyk af eMuojzifh Ekid if aH &;wnfNird rf &I adS y/ 1958 ckEpS ?f
ZGev
f 30 &ufaeYwiG f OD;0if;armifrS owif;q&mrsm;ukd tdraf wmfozYdk w
d af c:í vSnv
hf nf
jyo{nfch cH o
hJ nf/ or®wBu;D onf zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'ukad vhvmaeaMumif;? ,if;Oya'
t& or®wonf &kyfjyrQomjzpfaMumif;? rnfonfhtmPmrQr&SdaMumif;? or®wjzpfNyD;rS
ynmoHk;&yfomwwfajrmufaMumif;? ¤if;wkdYrSm ykqkd;awmif&Snfukd 2 rdepftwGif; 0wfqif
wwfonf/ jrif;pD;wwfonf/ a*gufoD;&kdufwwfonf [k or®wBuD;rS&ifzGifhcJhygonf/2
1

jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm (rwf 12 1957) pm 1?12/
2

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/
&efukef? yk*Hpmtkyfwkduf? 1969/ pm 366/

26
1958 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 28 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if; OD;aqmifaom
tdraf pmift
h pd;k &zGUJ pnf;cJNh y;D aemuf 1958ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 29 &ufaeYwiG f tdraf pmifh
tpkd;&tzGJU\ 0efBuD;csKyfESifh0efBuD;rsm; or®wa&SUarSmufusrf;opömqkdyGJ tcrf;tem;ü
EkdifiHawmfor®wBuD;OD;0if;armifrS rdefYcGef;ajymMum;&mwGif AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;tpdk;&tzGJU
aqmif&u
G &f rnft
h "duwm0ef0wå&m;rsm;rSm ]]1/ jynfwiG ;f Nird ;f csr;f rI&&Sad &; 2/ w&m;rQw
aoma&G;aumufyjJG zpfajrmufa&;ESihf 3/ 'Dru
dk a&pDtcGit
hf a&;rsm;wif;jynfu
h syjf ynf&h &Sad &;}}
jzpfaMumif;rdefYMum;cJhonf/1 or®wBuD; OD;0if;armifonf 1959 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 11
&ufaeYwGif oefY&Sif;zqyvAkdvfrSL;atmifESifh OD;atmify? wnfNrJzqyv OD;AaqG?
OD;ausmfNidrf;? &wnacgif;aqmifOD;vSxGef;jzLwkdYESifhawGUqHkcJhNyD;2 AkdvfcsKyfae0if;tpkd;&tm;
aemufxyf 6 v tmPmqufvufívTo
J ifah Mumif;qE´udk ajymMum;cJyh gonf/3 or®wBu;D
OD;0if;armifonf 14 Budrfajrmufjynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;tcrf;tem;wGif
]] vGwv
f yfcahJ omESpt
f wGi;f pD;yGm;a&;? vlraI &;ESihf ,Ofaus;rIu@toD;oD;wGif
txl;tjcm;qHk;aom aqmif&GufcsufrSm jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;
rSDwif;aexkdifMuaom vltrsm;pkrSmAk'¨bmom0ifwkdYvkdvm;awmifhwMuonfh
Ak'b
¨ momukd Ekid if aH wmfbmomtjzpf jyXmef;Ekid jf cif;yifjzpfonf}} [kred MYf um;cJh
onf/4
1961 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 5 &ufaeYwiG f &Sr;f jynfe,frS uk,
d pf m;vS,t
f zGUJ 0ifrsm;onf
Ekid if aH wmfor®wBu;D OD;0if;armifEiS ahf wGq
Y í
kH zuf'&,frt
l aMumif; &Si;f vif;wifjyMucJMh u
onf/ xkdokdYawGYqHk&mü or®wBuD; OD;0if;armifrS zuf'&,frlukd ñ§dEIdif;aqG;aEG;Mu&mwGif
pdwf&Snf&Snfxm;um rdom;pktoGifrsdK;jzifh ajz&Sif;MuapvkdaMumif; ajymMum;cJhygonf/5
1961 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 25 &ufaeYwGif oHCmawmfrsm; onf Ak'¨bmomukd
Ekid if aH wmfbmom tjzpfjyXmef;&mwGif yxptpk;d &\ tajccHOya' pwkwj¬ yifqifcsuu
f kd
1

a'gufwma':jrifhMunf?jrefrmEkdifiHa&;1958-1962 ('kwd,wGJ)/
wGJbufa&;ol a'gufwmaemftif*svif;/ 'k-Budrf? (&efukef? wuúokdvfrsm;
yHkESdyfwkduf? 1991)pm 158/
2
(u) taaxmufawmfowif;pm (13 azazmf0g&Dv 1959) pm 2 /
( c ) &efukefowif;pm (13 azazmf0g&Dv 1959) pm 2 /
3
taaxmufawmfowif;pm (13 azazmf0g&Dv 1959) pm 1 /
4
OD;ausm0f if;? jrefrmEkdifiHa&;1958-1962 (wwd,wGJ)/ wGb
J ufa&;
ol OD;jr[efEiS hf OD;ode;f vIid /f (&efuek ?f wuúov
dk rf sm;yHEk ydS w
f u
dk ?f 1991)pm 144/
5
aMu;rHkowif;pm (6 Zlvkdifv 1961) pm 15/

27
rauseyfojzifh or®wtdrfawmfokdYcsDwuf qE´jycJhMu&m or®wBuD; onf jyifOD;vGifNrdKUokdY
a&muf&Sdaeckduf tcsdefjzpfonf/1 awmfvSefa&;aumifpDonf 1962 ckESpf?rwfv (2)
&ufaeYwGif EdkifiHawmftmPmudk xdef;odrf;apmifha&SmufcJhonf/ awmfvSefa&;tpdk;&
vufxyfwiG f 1962 ckEpS rf S 1967 ckEpS t
f xd ig;ESpt
f Mum xde;f odr;f cHc&hJ Ny;D aemuf 1968
ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmvü awmfvSefa&;tpkd;&u zdwfMum;aom jynfwGif;tBuHay;tzGJU0if
33 OD; ü ref;0if;armif yg0ifcJhonf/ ref;0if;armifonf 1988 ckESpfrS 1989 ckESpf
ruG,v
f eG rf t
D csed x
f d 'Dru
dk a&pD ESihf Nird ;f csr;f a&;tzGUJ csKyOf uúXtjzpf aqmif&u
G cf ahJ o;onf/
5/

*kPfjyKcsD;usL;cH&jcif;

1960 ckESpfwGifvGwfvyfa&; armfuGef;0if('kwd,qifh)ESifh EkdifiHh*kPf&nf
(yxrqif)h ? 1957 ckEpS w
f iG f t*¾r[moa&pnfoEl iS hf t*¾r[moD&o
d "k r®bUJG rsm; cs;D jri§ jhf cif;
cH&onf/ 1959 ckESpfwGif xkdif;bk&ifhrif;jrwf\ Most Illustrious order of Chula Chom
Kloa of Thailand bGJYukdvufcH&&SdcJhonf/
6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

1957 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 25 &ufaeYwGif tar&duefEkdifiHokdY aq;0g;uko&ef
oGm;a&mufco
hJ nf/ 1960 jynfEh pS ?f Zlvidk v
f wGif tar&dEidk if o
H aYdk vhvma&;c&D;oGm;a&muf
cJhonf/ 1959 ckESpf? ZlvkdifvwGif w&kwfEkdifiHokdYoGm;a&mufcJhonf/
7/

rdom;pk

ref;0if;armifonf 1942 ckESpfwGif &efukefNrdKUae OD;pHvS? a':a'G;wkdY\orD;
a':jrarESifh vufxyfcJhNyD; om;orD; 6 a,mmufxGef;um;cJhonf/
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pnf;vH;k \nDnw
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(ref;0if;armif)onf 1989 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 4 &ufaeYwGif &efukefNrdKUü uG,fvGefonf/
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif ZeD; a':jrarESifh om;orD;rsm;usef&pfonf/

1

[Hom0wDowif;pm (26 pufwifbm 1961) pm 2/

28

yHk (5)
OD;ae0if; (or®w)
[ 1974 ckESpf ]

29

OD;ae0if;
(or®w)
arG; 14-11-1911 uG,fvGef 5-12-2002 )
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14 &ufaeUwGif jynfc½dik ?f aygif;wvnfNrKd UüarG;zGm;cJo
Y nf/ zcifrmS OD;zd;k c(aygif;wvnf)ESihf trd
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onf tvkyrf S xGuí
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ygcJholjzpfonfhtjyif txl;ojzifh abmvHk;upm;jcif;wGif xl;cRefcJhonf/ ynmOmPfvnf;
xufjrufcyhJ gonf/
2/

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armif&SKarmifoli,fwef;rS pwifNyD; aygif;wvnfNrdKU jrefrmpmoifausmif;wGif
wufa&mufynmoifco
hJ nf/ 1920jynfEpS f wGif wuúov
dk 0f ifpmar;yGJ atmifjrifcí
hJ 1922 ckEpS w
f iG f
jynfNrdKU trsKd;om;ausmif;odkY ajymif;a&TUwufa&mufcJhonf/ 1929 ckESpfwGif &efukefwuúodkvfü
aq;ynmbmom&yfoif,cl o
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f t
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3/

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ausmif;rSxGufNyD;aemuf rD;&xm;XmewGif 6 vcefYtvkyfvkyfcJhonf/ 1936 ckESpfwGif
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qufo,
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h nf/

30
4/

Ekid if aH &;b0

wdAYk rmtpnf;t½H;k 0ifocif½aI rmifonf trsK;d om;vGwaf jrmufa&;wdu
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onfomru tvkyv
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pDrEH idk cf yhJ gonf/
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hJ nf/
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d urÇmppfBu;D
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31
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1

Hailee

2

Keji Suzuki
3

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ (&efuek ?f
yk*pH mtkyw
f u
dk ?f 1969) pm- 135 /
4

Minami Kikan

32
4-1/

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1

Kouryumaru

2

Mr. Iwasaki

3

Kawashima

33
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dk cf E¨mjzpfap&ef xk&u
dk jf yKjyif
ay;cJhMuonfomru [kdifeefuRef;&Sd avhusifha&;onf Murf;wrf;onfqkdvQif wu,fhjrefrmjynf
vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJonf ykdíyif Murf;wrf;OD;rnf jzpfygonf/ tEkdifrcHt&HI;ray; aompdwf"gwf
aqmifonfo
h rl sm;jzpfap&efEiS hf atmifycJG EH idk &f eftwGuf pdwt
f cs&qH;k aomtmrcHcsuf jzpfaMumif;
þtcsuu
f dk *syefoifwef;q&mwkYd onf tNrrJ jywfajyma[mí vufawGUvnf; avhusiahf y;onf/
trsKd ;om;pdw"f gwfcyH gNyjD zpfaom jrefrm&Jabmfwo
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d jf zifv
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tm;xkwcf MhJ uonf/
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I Zdk ,m;csí
rSwx
f m;ay;Muonf/ wpfO;D pD\t&nftaoG;ukd tuJcwf&mü &Jabmfo;kH usyd u
f dk tzGUJ oH;k zGUJ cGí
J vnf;
txl;ynmwkdYukdoifapcJhonfhtjyif ]]'kdiftpfyef}} yxrtzGJUwGif wyfrSL;jzpf&efoifhawmfonfh
vli,frsm;ukd avhusifhay;NyD; ]] 'kdifeD[ef }} 'kwd,tzGJUonf &efol aemufaMumif;wGif yOörHenf;
wkdufckduf&ef txl;avhusifh &onf/ 'kwd,tzGJUukd ]] olckd;tzGJU }} [kac:Mu onf/ ¤if;tzGJUonf
ntcg tdyfcsdefü vIyf&Sm;&aomaMumifh jzpfonf/ ]] 'kdqefyef }} [kac:aom wwd,tzGJUwGif
ppfacgif;aqmif? ppfXmecsKyfrSL;rsm;jzpfrnfh &Jabmfrsm;yg0ifMuonf/ ocifatmifqef;ESifh
ocif&aI rmifwo
Ydk nf wwd,tzGUJ wGif yg0ifavhusichf &hJ aMumif;od&cdS &hJ onf/
ocif&Iarmifonf t&yf&Snfoljzpfjzifh olUukduRefawmfwkdYtzGJUu wumpl*D;1 [k
*syefemrnfay;MuaMumif;? t"dymÜ ,f jrifrh m;ajzmifph if;wJh qkid 'f gyifjzpfaMumif;ESihf *syef&mZ0ifrmS
xif&mS ;cJo
h nfah r*saD wmfveS af &;rSm ol&aJ umif;wpfO;D \emrnfjzpfaMumif; *syefppfAv
dk cf sKyq
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rS rSww
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hJ nf/ *syefoifwef;q&mwku
Yd ]] wumpl*;D }}ac: ocif&aI rmifuadk v;pm;Muonf/
r[kwfvQifrcH? n§Of;yef;ívnf;r&aom ]] &Iarmifqef }}ukdaMumufvnf;aMumufcJhMuonf/
aemiftcgay:aygufrnfh ArmhwyfrawmfwGif xdyfwef;acgif;aqmifwpfOD; jzpfxkdufonfh[k
t&nftcsi;f owfrw
S f Muonf/ ocifatmifqef;uk,
d w
f idk u
f vnf; ]] &Jabmf&aI rmif [m uReaf wmf&h UJ
nmvuf&Hk;jzpfvmvdrfh r,f }} 2[k AkdvfrSL;BuD; qlZluD;u rSwfwrf;wifxm;cJhonf/
*syefppfXmecsKyrf x
S u
G cf mG Ekid cf iG rhf &Sad o;í tcsed Mf umaecJ&h ao;onf/ *syeftpk;d &onf
t*Fvyd -f tar&duefwEYdk iS hf oHwrefqufqaH &;&Sad eaomtcsed jf zpfonf/ xkaYd Mumifh ppfrufjyifqifrrI sm;

1

Takasugi
2

tdZkrd,wwfpka&m/ uRef a wmf y g0if c J h a omrd e mrD u d u ef ;/ bmomjyefol
a':cif&D (&efuek ?f bmomjyefEiS phf mtkyx
f w
k af 0a&;Xme? 1981) pm 66/

34
ukd txl;vQdKU0SufpGmjyKvkyfae&onf/ atmifwkdbmv 25 &ufaeYpGJjzifha&;om;xm; aom qlZluD;
rSww
f rf;wGif ]] &Jabmfo;kH usyd o
f nf avhusiafh &;rsm;Ny;D cJMh uNyD }} jrefrmjynfurdk jyefMu&yJ *syefjynfudk
oGm;Mu&r,fq&dk ifawmh &JabmfawG awmfawmfpw
d "f gwfysuMf uvdrrhf ,f/ ppfXmecsKyu
f bmvkYd csw
D ckH swkH
hJ nf/
jzpfaeovJ rajymwwfb;l / rDemrDuefuawmh vkypf &mawGqufvyk &f rSmyJ }} 1 [kyg&Scd o
atmufwkdbm 30 &ufaeYwGif ppfXmecsKyfu rDemrDuefokdY aMu;eef;jzifh tm;vHk;aom
tpDtpOfawG &yfqidk ;f xm;&rnf[k nTeMf um;cJo
h nf/ qlZu
l ;D u ]] jrefrm&Jabmfrsm;tm;vH;k xGuaf jy;
MuNy?D vku
d v
f &H mS azGvsu&f &dS m 4 a,mufuo
dk mzrf;rdonf? qufvuf&mS azGaeao;onf }} 2[laom
t"dymÜ ,foufa&mufonfph um;0Sujf zifh jyefMum;cJo
h nf/ &Jabmfrsm;tm; tzGUJ i,frsm;zGUJ í a&aMumif;?
ukeaf Mumif;? avaMumif;toG,o
f ,
G jf zifh qk*d eG ;f NrKd UESihf [EGKd iNf rKd UwkrYd w
S pfqifh AefaumufNrKd UokyYd cYdk o
hJ nf/
AefaumufNrdKUwGif vQdKU0SufpGmaexkdifcJhMuonf/ *syefow¬KwGif;ukrÜPDrS tif*sifeD,mrsm;?
blrad A'ynm&Sirf sm; [efaqmifí vIy&f mS ;cJMh u&ygonf/
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;onfvnf; ppfBuD;ukdapmifhpm;aeMuaomtcsdefjzpfojzifh
vli,fEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;onfvnf; ukd,fhEkdifiHtwGufvIyf&Sm;aeMuaomtcsdefjzpfonf/
&Jabmfrsm;onfvnf; ocifatmifqef;wkx
Yd rH S owif;ukd apmifah rQmaf ecJMh uonft
h csed w
f iG f eef;&if;0ef
qmay:xGef; ESifh0efBuD;tzGJUtm; bk&ifcHrS avaMumif;&efrSumuG,fa&; at? tm? yD (ARP- Air
Raid Precaution)vkyi
f ef;rsm;udk wm0efay;tyfcahJ Mumif;od&jyefonf/
1941 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbm 8 &ufaeYwiG f *syefonf ppfaMunmjcif;rjyKyJ ypdzw
d o
f rk'&´ mtwGi;f
[m0kdif,DuRef;3&Sd tar&duefwkdY\tBuD;qHk;a&wyfpcef; ykvJqdyfurf;4 udk wkdufckdufcJh ojzifh
ta&SUawmiftm&Swpfcv
k ;kH omru tm&Sa'owpfcv
k ;kH 'kw,
d urÇmppfyBJG u;D okYd 0ifa&mufc&hJ onf/
emZD-zufqpftiftm;pkrsm;ESiyhf ;l aygif;í 0if;&k;d wef; Ekid if rH sm;wGif yg0ifvmonft
h jyif *syefonf
r[mrdww
f o
Ydk rd ;f yku
d x
f m;aom ta&SUawmiftm&S Ekid if rH sm;ukd wr[kwcf si;f odr;f yku
d &f efppD OfcjhJ cif;jzpf
onf/ ocif&Iarmiftygt0if jrefrmvli,f &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifwkdYonfvnf; ,kd;',m;okdY
0ifa&mufvmMuNyD; ,kd;',m;EkdifiHwGif 1941 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 26 &ufaeYwGif(bD-tkdif-at)
ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf ( Burma Independence Army ) ukdzGJUpnf;í ArmhvGwfvyfa&;
1

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ (&efuek ?f
yk*Hpmtkyf wkduf? 1969) pm- 162 /
2

ausmfNidrf;/ &JabmfoHk;usdyf/ (&efukef? tif;0pmaywkduf? 1998) pm 10/

3

Hawaii

4

Pearl Harbour

35
twGuftoufpGefYwkdufckduf&ef vufarmif;aoG;azmufumopöma& aomufMuonf/ a&S;jrefrm
ppfonfw\
Ydk cH,cl sujf zpfaom opömqkí
d aoG;aomuf&aJ bmftjzpfudk cH,u
l m ppfxu
G af vh&o
dS nfh
tavhtxukd jyKvyk cf MhJ uonf/
opömqkdNyD;aemuf &JabmfoHk;usdyfonf AkdvfbGJUcHcJhMuonf/ ocif&IarmifrSmArmh
vGwv
f yfa&; wyfrawmfudk OD;pD;&eftwGuf Akv
d af e0if; [lítrnfopfu,
dk cl \
hJ / *syefuay;aom
*syefemrfrnfonf ]] wupkudplplrk }}[líjzpfavonf/ AkdvfrSL;BuD; qlZluD;\trnfukdvnf;
Akv
d rf ;dk BuKd ;[k ajymif;vJco
hJ nf/ xko
d aYdk jymif;vJjcif;rSm tif;ukd [oFmqif;rnf/ [oFmukd rkq;dk av;ESihf
cGif;rnf/ rkqkd;ukd xD;&kd;&kdufrnf/ xD;&kd;ukd rkd;BudK;ypfrnf[laom wabmiftwkdif; paeeHjzpfonfh
NAw
d ed x
f ;D &k;d ukd Akv
d rf ;dk BuKd ;u atmifEidk rf nf[k jrefrmjynforl sm; ,HMk unfap&efjzpfonf/1 Akv
d af e0if;
acgif;aqmifaom &Jabmfig;a,muf ukd a&SUajy;taeESihf ArmjynfwiG ;f okaYd pvTwu
f m ykeu
f efx<urIudk
jyKaprnf[
h k nTeMf um;jcif;cH&onfh tcsed rf pS í jynfawmfujdk yefcsipf w
d rf sm; rsm;aecJo
h nf/ ok&Yd mwGif
Akv
d af e0if; wkrYd xGuMf u&ao;ay/ *syefMunf;wyfO;D pD;csKyEf iS hf a&wyfO;D pD;rsm;u &Jabmfo;kH usyd u
f dk
tBuw
d t
f e,fvak ecJMh uonf/
4-2/

*syefacwfwm0efxrf;aqmifrI(1942-1945)

1942 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 12 &ufaeYwiG f Akv
d rf ;dk BuKd ; (ume,fqZl u
l ;D )? Akv
d af wZ? tkcs'D g;?
wyfa&;Akdvf uDrl&mESifh tD*sDrmwkdY ]]&[kdif;zuf}}okdYxGufcGmcJhMuonfhtcsdefwGif jynfwGif;qlylrIukd
vHUI aqmfrnfh Akv
d af e0if;ESiihf g;OD;tjyif vrf;jy 3 OD;vnf;ygoGm;cJo
h nf/ Akv
d af e0if;tygt0if 8 OD;
onf &[kid ;f rS Zefe0g&Dv 14 &ufaeYwiG pf wifxu
G cf mG cJo
h nf/ awmawmif jrpfacsmif;ukd jzwfausmv
f m
cJ&h ojzifh c&D;onf Murf;wrf;cJah Mumif; Akv
d af e0if;ESit
hf zGUJ onf vufeuf? txkyt
f yk;d rsm;ukd xrf;Mu&
aMumif;? awmcsKH ucdk w
k x
f iG ;f í oGm;Mu&onft
h cg oGm;Mu&onft
h jyif vrf;c&D;Mumjrifrh rI &Sad p&ef
tjyif;ESifMu&onf/ u&if&GmwGifwpfnem;cJh&m olBuD;ESifh&Gmol&Gmom; rsm;u cifrifazmfa&GpGm
{nfhcHMuonf/ aomif;&if;jrpfukda&mufaomtcg azmifzGJUíul;cJhMuonf/ jrpfonf ,kd;',m;ESifh
jrefrme,fpyfjzpfí wzufurf;okdYa&mufaomtcg jrefrmhajray:okdYajccscHMu&onf/ Akdvfae0if;
azmifay:rS rqif;rD *syef&Jabmfrsm;jzpfaom ]]wkdif&m}} ESifh ]]uDqaum}} wkdYonf OD;pGmckefqif;NyD;
vufcsif;,Suf vsuf Akdvfae0if;ukd csDrícsay;cJhMuaMumif;ESifh jrefrmhajray:okdY [dwf[efygyg
qif;ap&efqadk om t"dymÜ ,fjzifjh yKvyk af y;cJMh uonf/
wkdif&mESifh uDqaumwkdYonf Akdvfae0if;wkdYtm;EIwfqufNyD;aemuf jyefoGm;cJhonf/
Akv
d af e0if;wkYd jrefrmjynf wGi;f okYd a&mufomG ;aMumif; Akv
d rf ;dk BuKd ;ESihf Akv
d af waZwkx
Yd H owif;ykcYd o
hJ nf/
1

ausmfNidrf;/ &JabmfoHk;usdyf/ (&efukef? tif;0pmaywkduf? 1998) pm 13/

36
Akdvfae0if;wkdYtzGJU a&TuGif;BuD;&GmokdY a&mufMuaomtcg &Gm;om;rsm;rouFmí 0kdif;vmMuonf/
Akdvfae0if;rS ]] usKyfwkdYonf pwD;b&m; om; opfukrÜPDuyg qifrav;wpfaumif aysmufaevkdY
vkduf&Smaewm }} [kajymaomfvnf; r,HkMuacs/ acwfBuD;u qifaysmuf&Smaeonfhacwf
r[kwfawmhojzifh aemufqHk;wGif Akdvfae0if;rS olBuD; OD;b[eftm; trSeftwkdif;ajymjyojzifh
vIdufvSJpGmulnDcJhaMumif;ESifhoHvGifjrpftwdkif;pHkqif;&m 0ufBuD;&GmokdYa&muf&SdcJhonf/ bkefBuD;
OD;aZmwdurS ulnDcJhaomfvnf; odrfqdyfwGif yxrbkef;BuD;ausmif;rS vufrcHcJhay/ vrf;ü
ykvdyfuif;tzGJUESifhwkd;í vlpkcGJuma&SmifcJh&onf/ eD;pyf&mbkef;BuD;ausmif;okdY 0ifíckdvIHMu&m
bke;f awmfBu;D rS ]]trsKd ;om;a&; atmifjrifrS omoemvnf; xGe;f ajymifrnf }} [kqu
kd m ulnaD y;cJo
h nf/
tkypf jk zifo
h mG ;vQif tEÅ&m,f&o
dS jzifh vufeufypön;f rsm;ukcd aJG 0,lum vlpck cJG MhJ u&onf/
Akv
d af e0if;onf &efuek o
f v
Ydk nf;aumif;? Akv
d w
f m&monf ysO;f rem;? Akv
d rf ;dk ñkd yJc;l ESihf Akv
d v
f if;,keo
f nf
jynfwiG ;f ukw
d m0ef,cl o
hJ nf/ Akv
d af e0if;ESiv
hf rf;jywpfO;D onf ESi;f ykvb
J w
l mrS rD;&xm;jzifo
h mG ;cJMh u&m
&efuek Nf rKd UokYd azazmf0g&Dv 2 &ufaeYwiG af &muf&cdS o
hJ nf/ rsuEf mS okyyf 0gacgif; aygif;í &kyaf zsmufchJ
&onf/ aemufq;kH wGif Akv
d af e0if;wkYd a&SUajy;wyfzUJG onf jrefrmjynfwiG ;f 0ifa&muf jzpfcMhJ uonf/
awmawmifukd ausmfjzwfí &efukefokdYa&mufMuvQif (bD-tm&f-yD)(Burma Revolutionary PartyBRP)ArmhawmfvSefa&; acgif;aqmif ocifausmfNidrf;ESifhtzGJUudk qufoG,frdcJhMuonf/ &efukefü
ykev
f QKd ;um apmifph m;aecJMh uonfh &Jabmfrsm;twGuf Akv
d af e0if;wkaYd &mufvmjcif;onf tm;wk;d aq;
ozG,fjzpfcJh&onf/ Akdvfae0if; wkdY,laqmifvmaom ypöwkdtdwfaqmifaoewfuav;rsm;onff
xkdtcsdefwGif vufeufwkdufBuD;wpfckuJhokdYjzpfcJhonf/ Akdvfae0if;wkdYonf awmfvSefa&;twGuf
pkid ;f jyif;vsuf 0g'jzefpY m&Gupf mwrf;rsm;ukd jzefaY 0cJMh uNy;D aemuf t*Fvyd w
f yfrsm;onf Arm&Jabmfrsm;ukd
pnf;&H;k vku
d o
f nf/ vufeufrsm;uk&d &menf;jzifh pkaqmif;Muí ]]yOöraH ysmufusm;ppf}}ukd qifEMJG uonf/
&efuek rf S wpfvufrrQqw
k cf mG íray;[k BuKH ;0g;aom t*Fvyd w
f yfrsm;ESihf t*Fvyd af oemywdrsm;onf
tvHk;t&if;jzifhupifhuvsm; qkwfcGmxGufajy;cJhMu&onf/ ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfESifh Armh
vlxBk u;D \ pnf;vH;k nDnw
G rf jI zifh wku
d cf u
dk cf MhJ uojzihf t*Fvyd w
f yfrsm; ppft&H;I Bu;D &H;I cJ&h avonf/
*syefppfAkdvfcsKyfume,fqlZluD;ESifh AkdvfcsKyf atmifqef;wkdYOD;pD;aom bD-tkdif-at
wyfrawmf onf 0dw&dk ,
d tilrS ppfwpfaMumif;? xm;0,fe,frpS pfwpfaMumif;? zmyGerf S ppfwpfaMumif;?
ppfaMumif; oH;k aMumif;jzefu
Y m jrefrmjynfwiG ;f okYd 0ifa&mufcMhJ uonf/ bD-tkid -f at wyfrawmfom;rsm;
onf jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf wkdufckduf&ef a'gif;wHqdyf(0g? pdrf;? eD)? vufywfrsm;ukd
0wfqifvsuf ,kd;',m;rS ppfaMumif;rsm;twkdif;0ifa&mufcJhMuonf/ Akdvfae0if;OD;pD;aom
vQKd U0Suw
f yfzUJG 0ifrsm; onf 1942 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 2 &ufaeYuwnf;u &efuek o
f Ydk a&mufEiS Mhf u
onf/ bD-tkdif-at wyfrawmfzGJUpnf;pwifzGJUpnf;csdefwGif tiftm; 1500 rQom&Sdaomfvnf;
wjznf;jznf;rsm;jym;vmonfh bD-tkdif-at wyfrawmfonf 1942 ckESpf? rwfv 8 &ufaeYwGif

37
&efukefNrdKUukdodrf;ykdufEkdifcJhonfhtjyif rEÅav;ukd 1942ckESpf arv 1 &ufaeYwGifvnf;aumif;?
jrpfBuD;em;ukd 1942 ckESpf? arv 12 &ufaeYwGifvnf;aumif;? jrefrmwjynfvHk;ukd 1942 ckESpf?
ZGev
f 15 &ufaeYwiG v
f nf;aumif;? t*Fvyd w
f x
Ydk rH t
S Ny;D tykid f wku
d cf u
dk o
f rd ;f ykid Ef idk cf o
hJ nf/ armfvNrKd iu
f dk
odr;f yku
d Nf y;D vQif jrefrmEkid if t
H m; vGwv
f yfa&;aMunmay;ygrnf[k uwday;cJMh uaom *syefwyfonf
armfvNrdKifukd odrf;ykdufNyD; &efukefNrdKUokdYa&mufonfhwkdif aMunmjcif;rjyKcJhay/ bD-tkdif-at onf
&efuek u
f o
dk rd ;f yku
d Nf y;D 1942ckEpS ?f rwfv 3 &ufaeYwiG f ,m,Dtpk;d &ukzd UJG cJo
h nf/ ,m,Dtpk;d &tzGUJ wGif
*syefwu
Ydk 0ifa&mufrpGuzf uf[q
k adk omfvnf; bD-tkid -f at OD;pD;csKyf Akv
d rf LS ;Bu;D qlZu
l ;D (Akv
d rf ;dk BuKd ;)
onf aMunmcsuf (9)csujf zifch sKyu
f idk x
f m;cJo
h nf/ 1942 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 4 &ufaeYwiG f *syeftBuKd uf
tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUwpfckukd a'gufwmAarmf? a'gufwmodef;armif wkdYtygt0iftzGJU0if (12)OD;
jzifzh UJG pnf;cJjh yefonf/ bD-tkid -f atukd 1942 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 27 &ufaeYwiG &f yk o
f rd ;f Ny;D *syefrif;{u&mZf
trdet
Yf & Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D tD;'g;u ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmf bD-'D-at (Burma Defence Army) ukd
tiftm; 5000 txdavQmhcszGJUpnf;cJhonf/ AkdvfawZ tm; AkdvfrSL;BuD;&mxl;jzifh bD-'D-at
ppfaoemywdcefí
Y bD-'D-atwyf&if; 3 &if;teuf wyf&if; (1)ukd Akv
d af e0if;uwm0ef,cl o
hJ nf/
AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;xuf Akdvfae0if;utoufBuD;í EkdifiHa&;ESifhb0tawGYtBuHKpHkonf/
Akv
d af tmifqef;udk av;pm;cJrh o
d nft
h csurf S uk,
d u
f sKd ;rzufwidk ;f jynftwGuf oufoufjzpfonfyh *k Kd¾ vf
jzpfaMumif; [kdifeefuRef; wGifpwifawGUuwnf; Akdvfae0if; od&SdcJhonf/ Akdvfae0if;onf
Akv
d af tmifqef;\ acgif;aqmifru
I dk av;pm;pGmcH,Nl y;D aemuf Akv
d af e0if;onf 1942 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f wGif
bD-'D-at ESihf bD-tife-f atwk\
d ppfaoemywd? ppfO;D pD;XmecsKyrf LS ;? axmufyahH &; XmeBu;D rSL;tjzpf
wm0efxrf; aqmifco
hJ nf/
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Ydk nf1943 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f 1 &ufaeYwiG af &T&nfprd v
f w
G v
f yfa&;ukad y;cJjh yef&m
Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;onf umuG,af &;0efBu;D jzpfvmcJo
h nf/ ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmf (B.D.A)ukd
Armhwyfrawmf(Burma Army)trnfjzifh jyefvnfzUJG pnf;cJNh y;D aemuf Akv
d af wZ? Akv
d af e0if;? Akv
d v
f usmf ?
Akv
d pf MumESihf jrefrmppfacgif;aqmifrsm;u jrefrmhvw
G v
f yfa&;wyfrawmfudk jrefrmrsm;OD;aqmifoifNh yD
jzpfaMumif; Akdvfrkd;BudK;xHpma&;awmif;qkdcJhojzifh AkdvfawZtm; ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf
ppfaoemywdceft
Y yfaMumif; trdex
Yf u
G v
f mcJo
h nf/ wyfrBu;D 2 wyfzUJG íppfxu
G &f efjzpf&m wyfr(1)ukd
]]u*}} wyfr[k *syefrsm;ac:í AkdvfaZ,sukd tkyfcsKyfaponf/ wyfr(2)ukd ]]wumpl*D; }}wyfr[k
ac:í Akv
d af e0if;ukt
d yk cf sKyaf pcJo
h nf/ uyÜwed f uDw*srD m;onf Akv
d af e0if;\ tBuaH y;t&m&Sjd zpf
onf/ Akv
d af e0if;onf [oFmwNrKd Uok0Yd ifa&mufí u&if-Arm acgif;aqmifrsm; ESiahf wGUqHNk y;D rsKd ;cspyf gwD
vlBu;D rsm;jzpfMuaom OD;jr? OD;atmifomwkt
Yd m; tiftm;&Sad p&ef u&if-Arm vlBu;D ? vli,f? tpk;d &
1

Captain Kitajima

38
trIxrf;? v,form;? tvkyo
f rm;? tm;vH;k twl yl;aygif;aqmif&u
G Mf urS jzpfvrd rYf nf[k ajymqkpd nf;&H;k
cJo
h nf/
1943 ckEpS ?f pufwifbmv 16 &ufaeYwiG f ArmhwyfrawmfjyefvnfzUJG pnf;&m tiftm;
5,000 rS 15, 000txd wk;d vmcJo
h nf/ ppfO;D pD;tzGUJ ukv
d nf; jyefvnfzUJG pnf;cJo
h nf/ jyefvnfzUJG pnf;
aom ppfOD;pD;tzGJUwGif AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf umuG,fa&;0efBuD;jzpfí AkdvfrSL;BuD;ae0if;onf
ppfaoemywd jzpfvmcJo
h nf/ *syefwo
Ydk nf jrefrmwGi;f xGuo
f bm0ypön;f rsm;ukd aoG;pkycf s,v
f ,
S &f ef?
jrefrmjynfol rsm tm;n§i;f yef;ESyd pf ufjcif;om;jzpfonf/ þonfudk xkpd OfuumuG,af &;0efBu;D jzpfol
AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;rS pdwfrcsrf;ajrUojzifh 1944 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 23 &ufaeYwGif rdrdtdrfwGif
vQKd U0Sut
f pnf;ta0;usi;f ycJo
h nf/ Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;onf xkv
d QKd U0Sut
f pnf;ta0;wGif ]] zufqpf
wku
d zf suaf &;jynfov
Yl w
G v
f yfa&;tzGUJ (z.w.y.v) Anti Fascist Organization (A.F.O) ukzd UJG pnf;cJh
onf/ xkt
d csed w
f iG f urÇmph pfrsuEf mS wGif zufqpfemZDwt
Ydk a&;edrí
Yf r[mrdww
f Ydk ta&;omaeonf
jzpf&m rlvuxGufajy;oGm;aom NAdwdoQ r[mrdwfwyfrsm;onf jrefrmjynfwGif;okdY jyefvnf
0ifa&mufpjyKaeavNyD xkt
d csed w
f iG f Armhwyfrawmf(Burma Army)ukd rsKd ;cspw
f yfrawmf(Patriotic
Burmese Forces-P.B. F)[k trnfajymif;vJ ac:a0:cJo
h nf/
*syefawmfveS af &;wGif Akv
d rf LS ;Bu;D ae0if;onf ppfaMumif;(2)jzifh jrpf0uRe;f ay:(zsmyHb
k uf)
ukd wm0ef,lcJh&onf/ *syefawmfvSefa&;aeYukd 1945 ckESpf? atNyDv 4 &ufaeY owfrSwfxm;
aomfvnf; tajctaet& 1945 ckESpf? rwfv 27 &ufaeYokdYajymif;vJowfrSwfvkdufcJh&onf/
txufArmjynfwiG f rl wyfwiG ;f vIy&f mS ;rIaMumifh rwfv * &ufaeYuwnf;u *syefukd pwifwu
dk cf u
dk f
cJhonf/ *syefwkdY r&dyfrdap&ef AkdvfrSL; Axl; acgif;aqmifaomtxufArmjynfawmfvSefa&;onf
AkdvfcsKyf atmifqef; ukdaomfvnf;aumif;? *syeftvkdawmf&d a'gufwm Aarmftpkd;&ukdaom
vnf;aumif;? wNydKifwnf; aMunmí wkdufckduf&avonf/ okdYr[kwfygu usefwyfrsm;rS
rvIyo
f mr,Suo
f m *syefw\
Ydk zrf;qD; jcif;cH&rnfjzpfonf/ ]] 1945 ckEpS ?f atNyv
D 2 &ufaeY aeY 1
em&DrpS í zufqpf*syefudk Armwkid ;f ol jynfom;tm;vH;k ESiw
hf uG Armhwyfrawmfu ppfaMunmvku
d Nf yD
}} [lí *syefppfaMunmcsufxkwfí wkdufckdufwGef;vSefcJhonf/ AkdvfrSL;BuD;ae0if;onf zufqpf
awmfveS af &;wGif wkid ;f 2 jzpfaomjrpf0uRe;f ay: \ ta&SUykid ;f wkid ;f rSL;tjzpf aqmif&u
G cf &hJ onf/
4-3/

vGwfvyfa&;wGifBudK;yrf;rI(1945-1948)

zufqpfawmfveS af &;tNy;D 1945 ckEpS ?f arv 3 &ufaeYwiG f t*Fvyd w
f yfrsm; &efuek Nf rKd Uukd
jyefvnf0ifa&mufco
hJ nf/ jrefrmEkid if o
H nfvnf; NAw
d o
d Qw\
Ydk ppftyk cf sKyaf &;vufatmuf usa&mufchJ
onf/1945 ckESpf? arv 17 &ufaeYwGif NAdwdoQtpkd;&onf jrefrmEkdifiHqkdif&m tkyfcsKyfa&;rl0g'
oabmxm;aMunmcsujf zpfonfh puúLjzLpmwrf;udx
k w
k jf yefaMunmNy;D jrefrmEkid if \
H tkycf sKyaf &;ESihf

39
pD;yGm;a&;qufvufcsKyu
f idk x
f m;&efppD Ofco
hJ nf/ Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;OD;aqmifonfh zwyvtzGUJ csKyf
onf 1945 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 19 &ufaeYwGif uefawmfBuD;apmif;&Sd aeol&def&HkBuD;wGif
jynfot
Yl pnf;ta0;wpf&yfusi;f ycJo
h nf/ Armhwyfrawmfopfudk rs;kd cspAf rmhwyfrawmfom;rsm;jzifh
zGUJ pnf;&eftqk?d zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'a&;qGaJ &;twGuf wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw
T af wmfac:,l&eftqkEd iS hf
jrefrmwpfEkdifiHvHk; nDnTwfa&;tqkdrsm;wifoGif; qHk;jzwfcJhonf/aeol&defvlxktpnf;ta0;wGif
]]zufqpfqefu
Y siaf &;tzGUJ csKy}f }[laomtrnfudk ]]zufqpfqefu
Y siahf &; jynfov
Yl w
G v
f yfa&;tzGUJ csKyf
(z-q-y-v)(The Anti Fascist People's Freedom League or the A F P F L)1 [kajymif;vJac:a0:&ef
qHk;jzwfcJhMuonf/ tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU0ifrsm;ukd a&G;aumufwifajr§mufcJh&m &JabmfoHk;usdyf0if
AkdvfcsKyf atmifqef; onf OuúXtjzpfvnf;aumif;? Akdvfae0if;ESifh AkdvfvusfmwkdYonf
A[kOd ;D pD;tzGUJ 0ifrsm; tjzpfvnf;aumif; a&T;aumufwifajrm§ ufc&H onf/ aeol&ed v
f x
l t
k pnf;ta0;
wGif wifoiG ;f cJo
h nfh ArmhwyfrawmfzUJG pnf;a&;udpEö iS yhf wfoufí aqG;aEG;&eftwGuf ta&SUawmif
tm&SppfaoemywdcsKyf avmhv0l aD rmifb
h ufwefonf jrefrmuk,
d pf m;vS,t
f zGUJ ukd uE´ND rKd UokzYd w
d af c:cJh
onf/xkzd w
d af c:csut
f & Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;? Akv
d v
f ufsm? Akv
d af e0if; Akv
d af Z,s? Akv
d af usmaf ZmwkEYd iS hf
AkdvfaZmfrif;wkdYygoGm;cJh onf/ 1945 ckESpf? pufwifbm 7 &ufaeYwGif uE´DoabmwlnDcsufukd
vufrw
S af &;xk;d Ekid cf o
hJ nf/
1945 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbm 15 &ufaeY uE´oabmwlncD sut
f & topfzUJG pnf;wnfaxmif
aomwyfrawmfwGif AkdvfrSL;BuD;ae0if;onf AkdvfrSL; tqifhjzifh Armhaoewfukdifwyf&if;(4)\
'kwyf&if;rSL;tjzpf pmwifwm0efxrf;aqmifcJh&onf/ 1946 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 16 &ufaeYwGif
'kw,
d Akv
d rf LS ;Bu;D wyf&if;rSL;tqifo
h Ydk wk;d jri§ w
hf m0efxrf;aqmifapjcif; cH&onf/ 1947 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f
19 &ufaeYwiG f Mum;jzwftpk;d &tzGUJ 0if 0efBu;D rsm;onf tpk;d tzGUJ \ 'kw,
d OuúX Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;
\&Hk;cef;wGif pnf;a0;aeMupOf OD;apm\ vufyg;apvlowform;rsm;u aoewfjzifh 0ifa&muf
ypfcwfí Ekid if aH cgif;aqmifrsm;ukd vkyBf uo
H wfjzwfcMhJ uavonf/ vlowform;wk\
Yd vufcsujf zifh
Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;tygt0if Ekid if ahH cgifaqmifBu;D 9 OD;usq;kH cJ&h onf/
Ekid if w
H pfcv
k ;kH uaomif;ueif;jzpfaecsed w
f iG f Akv
d cf sKyo
f nf wyfrawmfudk wnfNird rf &I adS p&ef
xde;f xm;íEkid cf o
hJ nft
h jyif Ekid if aH wmftay:opöm&S&d dS wm0efuadk usyeG pf mG xrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/ Akv
d cf sKyf
atmifqef;r&SdvQif &Jabmfrsm;u AkdvfcsKyf ae0if; ukdacgif;aqmifwifcJhMuonf/ bD-tkdif-at ^
bD-'D-at &Jabmfrsm;onff AkdvfcsKyftm; av;pm;Muonf/ AkdvfcsKyfae0if;\trSmpum; ukd
aumif;pGmem,lcMhJ uonf/
1

Akv
d rf LS ; baomif;? ArmhawmfvSefa&;orkdif;/ (&efuek ?f t&kPOf ;D pmay? 1967)
pm 307/

40
1947 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 8 &ufaeYwiG f Akv
d rf LS ;Bu;D tqifw
h ;dk jri§ jhf cif;cH&Ny;D ? 1947
ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 12 &ufaeYwiG f Akv
d rf LS ;csKyt
f qifjh zifh ajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f wkid ;f rSL; wm0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/
Mum;jzwftpk;d &tzGUJ onfh 1947 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 17 &ufaeYwiG f ]]jrefrmhvw
G v
f yfa&;pmcsKy}f }
ukd csKyq
f Edk idk cf o
hJ nf/ OD;EkEiS hf NAw
d o
d Qeef;&if;0ef tufwvDwrYdk ]S ] Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyf }} ukd vufrw
S f
a&;xkd;cJhMuonf/ jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;pmcsKyf csKyfqkdNyD;aemuf jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;ukd 1948 ckESpf?
Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeY eHeuf 4 em&D 20 rdepf 37 puúefYtcsdefwGif vGwfvyfaom ]] jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEkid if aH wmf }} tjzpfaMunmcJah vonf/
4-4/

vGwv
f yfa&;&Ny;D acwfwiG Bf uKd ;yrf;rI(1948-1962)

vGwv
f yfa&;Ny;D wqufwnf;rSmyif ykeu
f efjcm;em;rIrsm;ukzd ,f&mS ;jcif;jzifh pnf;urf;jynf0h
aom acwfrDaomwyfrawmfBuD;ukd xlaxmifEkdifcJhonfhacgif;aqmifrSm AkdvfcsKyfae0if; jzpfonf/
xkdtaMumif;ukd AkdvfcsKyf\vuf&Hk;ozG,fjzpfaom AkdvfrSL;BuD; atmifBuD;u a'gufwmarmifarmif
(or®w tNidrf;pm;) tm; aemufaMumif;jyefajymjybl;aMumif;od&Sdygonf/ AkdvfcsKyfae0if;ESifh
Akv
d af tmifBu;D wkYd onf jynfvrf;&Spd pf&w
J yf&if;xJrS tkww
f u
dk w
f wku
d u
f dk ppfXmecsKyv
f yk Nf y;D aemuf
vufeufrsm; pkaqmif;jcif;cJhMuonf/ wkdufyGJxGufonfhwpfBudrfwGif &ufav;q,fvHk;vHk;?aeYpOf
(24)em&De;D yg; wku
d cf u
dk cf MhJ u &onf/ xk&d ufav;q,fonf jrefrmhorkid ;f aMumif;ukd ajymif;aponfh
tcsed u
f mv jzpfí Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;ukd rwdr;f &atmifxed ;f cJ&h onfh tcsed u
f mv jzpfonf/
1948 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f 1 &ufaeYwiG f 'kw,
d ppfaoemywdcsKy(f wyfaygif;pk)jzpfvmcJNh y;D
1948 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 13 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfcsKyftqifhokdY wkd;jr§ifcefYtyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1949 ckESpf?
azazmf0g&Dv 1 &ufaeYwiG f Armhwyfrawmf 'kw,
d umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyjf zpfvmcJo
h nf/
1949 ckESpfonf wkdif;jynf\tajctaeqkd;&Gm;qHk;aomESpfjzpfcJh&m autif'Dtkdrsm;
qlyal omif;use;f cJo
h jzifh a&mifpo
kH yl ek af omif;use;f olrsm;\tEÅ&m,fonf tjrifrh m;qH;k okYd a&mufchJ
onf/ jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd jrdKUrsm;teuf &5 %onfa&mifpHkolykefrsm;\vufwGif;okdY usa&mufaeonfh
tajctaeü &efuek Nf rKd Uonfyif autif't
D rdk sm;vufou
Ydk sa&mufawmhrnffh tajctaersm;jzpfco
hJ nf/
tpkd;&tMuyftwnf;awGUaecsdefwGif jynfaxmifpkwnfNrJa&;twGuf t"dutiftm;jzpfonf
wyfrawmfukdpnf;&Hk;um EkdifiHawmftmPmukd odrf;&efBudK;yrf;rIwpf&yfay:aygufvmonf/
zqyvtpk;d &onfa&mifpakH omif;use;f olrsm;\ ab;tEÅ&m,fomru trIxrf;rsm;\oydwu
f v
dk nf;
&ifqkdifcJh&m EkdifiHawmf\tajctaerSm txl;pkd;&drfzG,f&mjzpfonf/ 1949 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 8
&ufaeY nwGif ppfO;D pD;csKyf Akv
d cf sKyaf e0if;rS toHviT Xf merSwidk ;f jynfoYdk arwåm&yfccH suaf jymMum;cJo
h nf/
1949 ckEpS ?f rwfv 3 &ufaeYwiG f 'kw,
d Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D tqifo
h Ydk wk;d jri§ chf eft
Y yfjcif;cH&onf/
1949 ckESpf? atNyDv 4 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfcsKyfae0if;tm; 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyftjzpf

41
jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D XmeESiu
hf muG,af &;0efBu;D Xmewku
Yd dk tkycf sKy&f efwm0efay;aomtcg wm0eftaeESihf
trIxrf;cJhonf/ AkdvfcsKyfae0if;onf 1948 ckESpfwGifwpfBudrf? 1949 ckESpfwGifwpfBudrf
vuf0Jtiftm;pkESifh vuf,mtiftm;pkwkdY\tmPmodrf;&efpnf;&Hk;rIrsm;ukd vufrcHjcif;jzifh
wyfrawmftwGi;f pnf;vH;k nDnw
G rf u
I dk xde;f xm;Ekid cf o
hJ nf/ 'kw,
d 0efBu;D csKyw
f m0efxrf;aqmifpOfwiG f
xkd;ESufwkdufckdufvsuf&Sdaoma&mifpHkaomif;usef;olrsm;tjyif autrfwDwyfrsm;\usL;ausmf
0ifa&mufru
I dk [efw
Y m;wku
d x
f w
k cf NhJ y;D wkid ;f jynftay:opöm&S&d w
dS m0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/ 1949 ckEpS ?f
ZlvkdifvwGif vef'efokdYoGm;a&mufí AkdvfcsKyfBuD; ]]qm0DvsHpvif;}}ESifhawGYqHkcJhonf/ jrefrmEkdifiH
tESHUtjym; &Sdaomif;usef;aeaom a&mifpHkolykefrsm;ukd &SdorQtiftm;ESifh wkdufckdufESdrfESif;cJhonfh
twGuf jrefrmEkid if t
H wGi;f Nird ;f csr;f a&;&&Sv
d mcJo
h nf/ wkid ;f jynfNird ;f csr;f a&;&vmNy;D aemuf 1950
jynfhESpf? pufwifbmv 9 &ufaeYwGifwyfrawmf\wm0efukd jyefvnfxrf;aqmifcJhonf/ 1956
ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 1 &ufaeYwiG f Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D &mxl;wk;d jri§ jf cif;cH&onf/
1958 ckEpS ?f ar 6 &ufaeYwiG f zqyvtzGUJ csKyo
f nf oef&Y iS ;f zqyv? wnfNrzJ qyv[lí
ESpjf crf;uGcJ o
hJ nf/ 1958 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 9 &ufaeYwiG f jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if yH gvDref jynfov
Yl w
T af wmf
txl;tpnf;ta0;wGif wnfNrzJ qyvrS OD;AaqGrS OD;Ekacgif;aqmifaomtpd;k &tay: t,Ht
k Munf
r&Sd tqkdwifoGif;cJh&m &IH;ESdrfhcJhonf/ OD;EkOD;aqmifaom tmPmqufvufwnfNrJcJhaomfvnf;
ESpzf uftyk pf u
k jJG ym;rI*,ufaMumifh Ekid if aH &;tajctaewpfaeYwpfjcm;qk;d &Gm;vmcJo
h nf/ xkaYd Mumifh
1958 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 28 &ufaeYwGif 0efBuD;csKyf OD;Ek\tmPmvTJajymif;ay;csuf
t&Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;onf tdraf pmift
h pk;d &tzGUJ \ 0efBu;D csKyEf iS u
hf muG,af &;0efBu;D wm0efrsm;ukd
xrf;aqmifchJ onf/ ]] uReaf wmf0efBu;D csKy&f UJ wm0ef0wå&m;ukd tckvv
dk ufc&H jcif;[m uReaf wmfeUJ wuG
trwfrif;rsm;tm;vH;k tjrwfwEk;d OD;xdy&f u
G yf efxm;wJh Ekid if aH wmfzUJG pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'eJU'Dru
dk a&pD
tpOftvmukd tEÅ&m,ftrsKd ;rsKd ;u Ncrd ;f ajcmufaESmif,
h u
S v
f maewmawGU&wJt
h wGuf 'DtEÅ&m,fudk
umuG,zf w
Ydk m0ef,l vufcv
H u
dk jf cif;jzpfygw,f/ uReaf wmf'v
D w
dk m0ef,jl cif;[m jynfaxmifpo
k m;
yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;taeESifhvnf;aumif;? ppfom;wpfa,muftaeESifhvnf;aumif; wm0ef&SdwJhtwkdif;
wm0ef,v
l u
dk jf cif;yJjzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh ygvDrefuay;tyfw'hJ w
D m0efBu;D ukd uReaf wmf&&J 0J 0hH hH vufcH
vku
d jf cif;jzpfygw,f }} [kajymMum;cJyh gonf/1
tdraf pmihf tpd;k &tzGUJ wGif 0efBu;D (13) OD;yg&So
d nf/ 2 wdik ;f jynftwGi;f Nird 0f yfyjd ym;rI?
1

OD;pHNird ;f ? jrefrmEkdifiHa&; 1958-1962 (yxrwGJ)/ wGb
J ufa&;ol a'gufwm
a':jrifMh unf/ 'k-Burd /f (&efuek ?f aMu;rHo
k wif;pmwku
d ?f 1991) pm-159/
2

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku
d Ef iS w
hf ufrawmfarmfueG ;f wku
d /f wyfrawmfordkif; pwkw¬wGJ
(1948-1962)/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1996) pm - 246/
(1948-1962)

42
vH k N cH K rI & S d N yD ; tk y f c sKyf a &; ,EÅ & m; yH k r S e f v nf y wf Ed k i f a &;twG u f td r f a pmif h t pd k ; &onf
txl;*½kjyKaqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1959 ckESpf {NyDvrukefrD vGwfvyfí w&m;rQwaom taxGaxG
a&G;aumufyGJBuD; usif;yEdkifa&;twGuf pDpOfaqmif&Guf ay;rnfjzpfaMumif; AdkvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;
uwdjyKco
hJ nf/ tdraf pmiht
f pd;k & vufxufwiG f tkycf sKyaf &; ,EÅ&m; odompGmwd;k wuf aumif;rGef
vmaMumif; 1959 ckEpS f vGwv
f yfa&;aeUtxl;xkwf Armhacwf owif;pmu a&;om;azmfjycJo
h nf/
0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek\ zdwfac:csuft& AdkvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if; tdrfapmihftpdk;& odkUr[kwf
wyfrawmftpd;k &\wm0ef,rl rI mS tcsed t
f cgtajctaeESihf vku
d af vsmnDaxGr&I NdS y;D jynfow
l Ukd \
axmufcHrIudkvnf; aumif;pGm&&SdcJhaMumif; tdE´d,EdkifiH a'vDwuúodkvfrS a&;om;xm;aom
pmtkyw
f iG af zmfjyxm;onf/1 AdkvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if;onf a&G;aumufyGJudk 1959 ckESpf {NyDvrukef rD
usif;yay;rnf[k uwdjyKajymMum;xm;aomfvnf; a&G;aumufyGJudk owfrSwfxm;aom tcsdef
umvtwGi;f usi;f yjyKvyk af y;&efrmS rjzpfEikd cf ahJ cs/ wdik ;f jynfNird 0f yfyjd ym;a&;twGuf a&mifpo
kH yl ek f
rsm;udkESdrfeif;aeqJ wyfrsm;tm;a&G;aumufyGJtwGuf jyefvnf½kyfodrf;ygu olykefrsm;touf½SL
ayguf&oGm;NyD; wdkif;jynfjyefvnf'ku©a&mufoGm;rnfjzpf&m EdkifiHa&;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;tcsif;csif;
rajyvnfrIrsm;? EdkifiHtESHUtjym;wGif &Sdaeaomvufeufrsm;udk ukefpifatmifrodrf;Edkifao;í
a&G;aumufyJGusif;yay;&efrjzpfEdkifcJhacs/ xdkpOfutajccHOya'yk'fr tcef; (7) yk'fr (116) t&
0efBuD;csKyftopfonf ygvDreftrwfr[kwfvQif ¤if;\oufwrf;umvrSm (6) vom&Sd ojzifh
Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;u 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;rSEw
k x
f u
G cf iG u
hf kd 1959 ckEpS f azazmf0g&Dv (13) &ufaeUwGif
wifjycJo
h nf/ 0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpfjyefvnfaqmif&u
G af pvdyk gu yk'rf (116) udk jyefvnfjyifqifay;yg&ef
wpfqufwnf;tBuHjyKwifjycJhonf/ AdkvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;jyefvnfwifjy csufrsm;ESifhywfoufí
jynfoUl vTwaf wmftrwfrsm;? Edik if aH &;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;u Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;tm; 0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpf
jyefvnfwifajrm§ ufEikd &f ef tajccHOya'yk'rf (116) wGiyf g0ifonhf jy|mef;csurf sm;udk aemufwpfBurd f
a&G;aumufyGJusif;yNyD; jynfolUudk,fpm;vS,ftpdk;&zGJUpnf;onhf tcsdefxd acwå½kyfodrf;xm;&ef
tajccHtyk cf sKyyf kH Oya'twnfjyKcsuu
f kd twnfjyKco
hJ nf/ Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;tm; 0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpf
qufvufwm0ef,al pvko
d nht
f wGuf tajccHOya'yk'rf (116) udk ,m,Djyifqifjcif;jzpfonf/
1956 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv (27) &ufaeUwGif AdkvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if; OD;aqmifonhf
tdrfapmihftpdk;&udk 'kwd,tBudrfzGJUpnf;cJhonf/ 'kwd,tBudrfzGJUpnf;cJh aom tdrfapmifhtpdk;&
0efBu;D tzGUJ wGif umuG,af &;0ef;Bu;D XmerS yk*Kd¾ vf (2) OD;yg0ifvmonf/ wdik ;f jynfNird 0f yfyjd ym;a&;
ESihf vkyif ef;wGiu
f s,x
f ad &mufa&;twGuf ppfbuft&m&SBd u;D rsm;udk 0efBu;D Xmevufatmufü 1958
1

Government and Politics of Asian Countries: Myanmar/ edited by Verlinder

Grover.--New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publications PVT.LTD, 2000.

43
ckESpfrSpí wm0efrsm;ay;tyfcJhonf/ 1959 ckESpf rwfv (10) &ufaeUwGif umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf
xkwfjyefaom trdefUjyefwrf;wGif ¤if;udk,fwdkif tpdk;&tzGJU 0efBuD;csKyftjzpf wm0ef,laqmif&Guf
aeonhftcsdeftcgwGif ppfrIxrf;tm;vHk; tjcm;tzGJU tpnf;rsm;ESifh qufqH&mwGifvnf;aumif;?
jynforl sm;ESiq
hf ufq&H mwGiv
f nf;aumif; ydrk kd pnf;urf;ao0yfMu &efEiS hf pnf;urf;azmufzsuyf gu
jyif;xefpmG ta&;,lrnfjzpfaMumif;yg&So
d nf/
1957 ckESpf rwfvESifh Mo*kwfvrsm;wGif tdrfapmifhtpdk;&oufwrf; (3)vausmfrQ
tcsdeftwGif;wGif wdkif;jynfNidrf0yfydjym;a&;? ukefaps;EIef; usqif;a&; tajctaet&yf&yfwdkU
wnfNird o
f mG ;ap&ef tm;oGecf eG pf u
kd af qmif&u
G cf ahJ Mumif;? pufrv
I ufrv
I yk if ef;rsm; wd;k wuf atmifjrifrI
&Sad Mumif; NrKd U&GmoefU&Si;f a&;ESiw
hf uG pnf;urf; ao0yfa&;twGuf tm;oGecf eG pf u
kd f jyKvyk af qmif&u
G f
Edik af Mumif;a&;om;azmfjycJo
h nf/1
a&G;aumufyGJusif;yEdkifa&;twGuf wdkif;jynfNidrf0yfydjym;a&;tygt0if tjcm;vkyf
ief;t&yf&yfudk tm;oGefcGefpdkufaqmif&GufaeonhfMum;rS tdrfapmifhtpdk;&onf &Srf;jynfe,f
twGufvnf; ordkif;0ifajymif;vJrIvkyfudkifaqmif&Gufay;cJhonf/ a&S;acwftqufqufu
tjrpfwG,fcJhaom &Srf;ya'o&mZfapmfbGm;rsm;\ tkyfcsKyfrItmPmudk tNyD;wdkifpGefYvTwfapcJh
jcif;jzpfonf/ &Sr;f jynfe,fonf jrefrmEdik if \
H jynfe,fwpfcjk zpfygvsuyf a'o&mZfpepfqufvuf
&Sio
f efaejcif;udk vGwv
f yfa&;&Ny;D (10)ESpt
f wGi;f zqyvtpd;k &u jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif; rjyKEikd cf o
hJ jzifh
tdrfapmifhtpdk;&wufvmNyD; (6)vwm tcsdefumvtwGif; apmfbGm;rsm;tm; tmPmpGefUvTwf
apEdik cf jhJ cif;rSm xl;jcm;aomaqmif&u
G cf sujf zpfonf/2
1960 jynfEh pS f azazmf0g&Dv (6) &ufaeUwGif a&G;aumufyu
JG si;f yay;rnf jzpfaMumif;
tdraf pmift
h pd;k &u twdtvif;aMunmvdu
k Nf y;D zqyv ygwDBu;D ESpcf o
k nf a&G;aumufyt
JG Edik &f &Sad &;
twGuf NyKd iq
f ikd rf t
I &Sed t
f [keyf rkd w
kd ;kd jri§ v
hf yI &f mS ;cJh Muonf/ a&G;aumufyEJG iS phf yfvsO;f í wyfrawmfom;
rsm; vdu
k ef m&eftrdeUf pmwpfapmifukd 1959 ckEpS f Ed0k ifbmv (11) &ufaeU aeUpGjJ zifh xkwjf yefco
hJ nf/
(u)tjzpfEdkifqHk; w&m;rQwaom taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJjzpfap&ef/(c)wyfrawmfu&&Sdaeaom
jynfov
l x
l \
k ,HMk unfav;pm;rI udk qufvuf&dS ap&efjzpfonf[ak zmfjyxm;&So
d nf/ 1960 jynfEh pS f
Zefe0g&Dv (16) &ufaeUrSpwifí EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; (13) OD;udk jyefvnfvTwfay;cJhonf/
a&G;aumufyu
JG mv twGi;f bufvu
kd jf cif;? rw&m;jyKvyk jf cif;? Ncrd ;f ajcmufjcif;p onfrsm;&Scd o
hJ nf/
tdraf pmiht
f pd;k & onf ay;xm;onhu
f wdtwdik ;f a&G;aumufyw
JG iG t
f Edik &f &Sd oGm;onhf Edik if aH &;ygwD
1

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ (&efuek ?f
yk*pH mtkyf wku
d ?f 1969) pm- 373-377 /
2

,if;/ pm 387/

44
vufodkU tmPmvTJajymif;ay;&ef tpDtpOftwdkif;aqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1960 jynfhESpf {NyDv (4)
&ufaeY jynfoUl vTwaf wmfnv
D mcHwiG f jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if \
H 0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpf OD;Ekukd NyKd ib
f ufr&Sd
a&G;aumufwifajrm§ ufvu
kd af Mumif; aMunmcJo
h nf/ Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; OD;pD;aom tdraf pmiht
f pd;k &
onf uwdtwdik ;f a&G;aumufyu
JG si;f y ay;cJo
h nfomru jynfov
l x
l t
k vdu
k s rJay;a&G;aumufaom
tpd;k &tzGUJ opfvufxo
J Ukd tmPmvTaJ jymif; ay;cJo
h nf/ tdraf pmift
h pd;k & tzGUJ onf 4if;\oufwrf;
(14)vwm umvtwGi;f jynfoUl qE´EiS t
hf nD a&G;aumufyJG usi;f yay;Ny;D tpd;k &tzGUJ opfoUkd tmPm
vTaJ jymif;ay;Edik cf o
hJ nfomru tcsed w
f u
kd mvtwGi;f Edik if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rI&&Sad &;? Edik if aH wmfw;kd wuf
pnfyifa&;wdkUudk aqmif&GufcJhonf/ ¤if;tcsdefu tbufbufucsdeJYaeonhf EdkifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;?
tkycf sKyaf &;? vlraI &;ponhf u@toD;oD;wGif wd;k wufr&I adS p&ef pepfwusppD Ofaqmif&u
G Ef ikd o
f uJo
h Ukd
tdraf pmiht
f pd;k &vufxufwiG f wyfrawmf\ ppfa&; qdik &f m pGr;f aqmifEikd rf aI Mumihf aomif;use;f ol
rsm;pGm txdemtajc,dik cf &hJ onf/ epfjzL? epfe?D autrf't
D ?kd trftif't
D ?kd &Sr;f aomif;use;f ol? rl*sm[pf?
w½kwfjzLponhf aomif;usef;ol tzGJUtpnf;rsm;udk ppfqifa&;rsm;jyKvkyfqifETJjcif;? wyfpcef;rsm;
xdef;odrf;&jcif;wdkUaMumihf wdkufyGJBuD; (386) BudrfESifhwdkufyGJi,f (2743) BudrfqifEJTcJh&onf/1
&eforl sm;bufrS txdemcJo
h vdk wyfrawmfbufrS vnf; tqH;k t½I;H rsm;&Scd yhJ gonf/ aomif;use;f ol
rsm;tcsif;csif; oabmxm; uGJcJhMuaomaMumifh vnf;aumif;? wyfrawmf\ xkd;ppfqifrI'Pfudk
rcHEikd í
f vnf;aumif; vufeufuikd v
f rf;pOfukd pGev
Yf w
T &f ef tjrifreS &f &Scd MhJ u ojzifh vufeufcstyfErHS I
rsm;&Scd o
hJ nf/ xl;jcm;aomatmifjrifrI wpf&yftaeESihf vufeufyek ;f tajrmuftrsm;udk azmfxw
k Ef ikd cf hJ
onf/
Edik if aH wmfw;kd wufwnfNird af &;twGuf xl;jcm;aomatmifjrifrw
I pf&yftaeESihf NrKd Uopf?
aps;opfrsm;wnfaxmifay;jcif;? usL;ausmfaqmufvkyfxm;aom wJtdrfrsm;udkajymif;a&TU
ae&mcsxm;ay;jcif;rsm; vkyaf qmifco
hJ nf/ &efuek Nf rKd Uawmfae&mtESUH tjym;wGif vlO;D a& (3) ode;f cefu
Y kd
ajymif;a&TUae&mcsxm;ay;EdkifcJhonf/ ajymif;a½TUae&mcsxm;ay;Edkifa&;twGuf jynfol tdk;tdrf
jyefvnfxal xmifa&;tzGUJ jynfov
Yl yk if ef;0efBu;D Xme?qnfajrmif;XmeESiw
hf yfrawmfwUkd u wdak wmif;
onhf tcsed u
f mvtwGi;f Ouúvmy? omauwNrKd Uopfrsm;udw
k nfaqmufay;cJo
h nf/ ykZeG af wmif
acsmif;udjk zwfu;l aomrD;&xm;wHwm;udk wyfrawmf tif*sief ,
D mtzGUJ rS armfawmf,mOf ESihf vlomG ;
wHwm;tjzpf jyKjyifwnfaqmufay;jcif;jzifh &efukefESifhomauwNrdKUopfudk vG,fulpGmqufoG,f
oGm;vmEdik af &; aqmif&u
G af y;cJo
h nf/

1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku
d Ef iS w
hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku
d /f wyfrawmfordkif; pwkw¬wGJ
(1948-1962)/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1996) pm - 36/
(1948-1962)

45
usL;ausm&f yfuu
G rf sm;udzk suo
f rd ;f Ny;D NrKd Uopfrsm;csxm;ay;cJjh cif;aMumifh &efuek Nf rKd UESihf
wuGjrefrmjynft&yf&yfwiG f rD;avmifreI nf;yg;oGm;ouJo
h Ukd &mZ0wfrrI sm;vnf;usqif;oGm;cJh onf/
tjcm;xl;jcm;onhaf qmif&u
G cf suw
f pf&yfrmS &efuek jf rLeDpy,ftzGUJ udk wyfrawmfom;rsm;? jynfoUl &J
wyfzUJG rsm;? jynfov
l x
l t
k iftm;rsm;jzifh pkaygif;um tywfpOfaqmif&u
G cf rhJ aI Mumifh wd;k wufajymif;vJrI
rsm;&Scd o
hJ nf/
tdraf pmift
h pd;k &vufxufwiG f vl0ifrBI u;D Muyfa&;Xme\ vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf qufE,
T af e
onhf Edik if jH cm;om;rSwyf w
kH ifa&;udpu
ö kd 1958 ckEpS f Zefe0g&Dv (1) &ufaeUrS pwifaqmif&u
G Ef ikd f
cJo
h nf/ Edik if jH cm;qufqaH &;u@wGif ,d;k ',m; (xdik ;f )? uarÇm'D;,m;? tpöa&;? tm&yf? ygupöwef?
tdE,
d´ ponhEf ikd if rH sm;ESihf cspMf unf&if;ES;D pGm qufqcH o
hJ nf/1960 jynfEh pS f Zefe0g&Dv (28) &ufaeYü
jrefrm-w½kwf e,ferd w
d pf mcsKyu
f kd csKyq
f Ekd ikd af tmif aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf/ 1 ESp&f n
S v
f rsm; rNy;D jywfonhf
w½kw-f jrefrm e,fjcm;owfrw
S af &; udpjö zpfNy;D bbppfqifa&; 2 trnfay;xm;Ny;D atmifjrifpmG
pmcsKycf sKyq
f ckd o
hJ nf/ w½kw-f jrefrm e,ferd w
d jf yóemESihf ywfoufí ESpEf ikd if t
H pd;k &\ cspMf unfa&;
wpfEikd if EH iS w
hf pfEikd if H usL;ausmf wdu
k cf u
kd jf cif; rjyKvyk &f ef pmcsKycf sKyq
f Ekd ikd cf o
hJ nf/ tdraf pmift
h pd;k &\
EdkifiHjcm;qufqHa&;wGif tay:vGifqHk; aqmif&GufrIjzpfonf/ tdrfapmifhtpdk;&vufxufwGif
wyfrawmft&m&SBd u;D rsm; OD;pD;í BuchH ikd af &; toif;rsm;udk jrefrmEdik if w
H pfEikd if v
H ;kH wGif wnfaxmif
cJhMuonf/ 3 BuHhcdkifa&;toif;rsm;\ wuf<upGm yg0ifulnDrIaMumifh EdkifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;a&;ESifh
Nidrf;csrf;om,ma&;vkyfief;rsm; wdk;wufcJhonf/ tdrfapmifhtpdk;&onf EdkifiHawmftwGif;
pnf;urf;ao0yfonhf zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufrI &&Sad p&ef aqmif&u
G af y;cJNh y;D 1960 jynhEf pS f azazmf0g&Dv (6)
&ufaeUwGif taxGaxGa&G;aumuf yGJudk atmifjrifpGm usif;yay;cJhonf/ a&G;aumufyGJwGif
tEdkif&&Sdaom oefU&Sif;zqyv tzGJUodkU 1960 jynfhESpf {NyDv (4) &ufaeUwGif tmPmvTJajymif;
ay;tyfco
hJ nf/
oefU&Si;f zqyv tzGUJ onf OD;Ektm;0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpfwifajrm§ ufNy;D tpd;k &tzGUJ zGUJ pnf;cJh
onf/ oefU&Sif;zqyv tzGJUudkvnf; jynfaxmifpkygwD ( yxp ) [k trnfajymif;vJ cJhonf/
OD;Ekonf aiGaMu;ukeu
f sro
I ufomap&ef tpd;k &tzGUJ udk 0efBu;D OD;a& enf;enf;jzihf zGUJ pnf;cJo
h jzifh
1

=acwf
acwf j ref r mwnf [ ef /
bmomjyefol OD;wifarmif&if/ (&efuek ?f jrwfE;dk olpmay? 1978) pm 639/
Dorothy Woodman. The Making of Burma

2

Burma Boundary Operation

3

ppforkid ;f jywku
d Ef iS w
hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku
d rf LS ;&H;k / wyfrawmfordkif;pwkw¬wGJ(19481962)/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1996) pm - 257/
1962)

46
ygwDwiG ;f rauseyfrrI sm;jzpfay:cJo
h nf/ tkycf sKyrf o
I ufwrf; (1) ESprf jynfrh D OD;? Adv
k t
f yk pf Ek iS o
hf ciftyk pf k
tzGUJ uGNJ y;D tkypf pk q
JG E´rsm;jyif;jyif;xefxefay:aygufco
hJ nf/1 jynfaxmifpk ygwDonf pnf;vH;k rIysujf ym;
vmum tkyfcsKyfa&;,EÅ&m;rsm;yg ysufjym;vmcJhonf/ jynfaxmifpk ygwDtpdk;&vufxufwGif
Ak'¨bmomudk EdkifiHawmfbmomtjzpfjy|mef;&efBudK;yrf;rIonf EdkifiHa&; rwnfNidrfrIudkay:ayguf
apcJo
h nf/ 1960 jynfEh pS f {Nyv
D (4) &ufaeUwGif Ak'b
¨ momudk Edik if aH wmf bmomtjzpfjy|mef;a&;
qdkif&m tBuHay;tzGJUudkzGJYpnf;cJhonf/ ucsifjynfe,fwGif c&pf,mefbm omudk;uG,folrsm;ESifh
ewfudk;uG,folrsm;aexdkifMuojzifh Ak'¨bmomudk EdkifiHawmfbmomtjzpf todtrSwfjyKa&;udk
jyif;xefpmG qefu
Y siMf uygonf/ Ak'b
¨ momudk Edik if aH wmfbmomtjzpf jy|mef;oifo
h nf? roifo
h nf
0g'jiif;cHrk rI sm;? axmufco
H rl sm;? uefUuGuo
f rl sm; ponfjzifh qlyv
l yI &f mS ;vmMuonf/ 1960 jynfEh pS f
Mo*kwv
f (11) &ufaeUwGif jynfrESihf jynfe,frsm;rS c&pf,mefbmom0ifrsm;? tpövmrfbmom0ifrsm;
ESifh ewfudk;uG,folwdkif;&if;om;rsm;u wdkif;&if;om;bmoma&;vlenf;pkaygif;pHkr[mrdwftzGJUudk
zG J Y p nf ; wnf a xmif u m qE´ j ycJ h M uonf / tpd k ; &tzG J Y t wG i f ; Ak ' ¨ b mom0if r [k w f o nh f
0efBuD;rsm;twGif;wGif uefUuGufrIrsm; jzpfvmcJhonf/2 1961 ckESpf Bo*kwfv (26) &ufaeUwGif
ygvDrefü zGpYJ nf;yHt
k ajccHOya'udk jyifqifum Ak'b
¨ momudk Edik if aH wmfbmomtjzpfjy|mef;cJo
h nf/
Ak ' ¨ b momud k Ed k i f i H a wmf b mom tjzpf j y|mef ; ay;jcif ; jzif h Ak ' ¨ b mom0if r [k w f a om
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;twGi;f rauseyfí qlyrl rI sm;ay:aygufc&hJ onf/ trsKd ;om;pnf;vH;k nDñw
G f
a&;udk xdcdkufcJh&onf/ Ak'¨bmom0if r[kwfonhf jynfolrsm;\pdk;&drfxdwfvefUrI? rauseyfrIrsm;
yaysmufap&ef ygvDrefwGif jyifqif csufOya'udk xyfrHjy|mef;ay;cJhonf/ þOya't&
tjcm;bmom0ifrsm;\ vGwv
f yfpmG ud;k uG,rf ?I vGwv
f yfpmG oifMum;Edik cf iG w
hf nf;[laom &SNd y;D jzpfonhf
bmoma&;ESihf ywfoufaom tajccHtcGit
hf a&;rsm;udk jznhpf u
G af y;onf/ Ak'b
¨ mombke;f awmfBu;D
rsm;u 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek tdrfESifhvTwfawmf? twGif;0ef½Hk; ponfwdkUudk 0dkif;0ef;ydwfqdkUonhfudpö?
ajrmufOuúvmy AvDta&;tcif;ay:aygufco
hJ nf/ 3 ucsijf ynfe,fwiG v
f nf; ucsiv
f w
G af jrmufa&;
wyfrawmf ay:ayguf cJhonf/ 1962 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvukefwGif wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;\
acgif;aqmifrsm;? Edik if aH &; tzGt
YJ pnf;aygif;pHrk S acgif;aqmifrsm;ESihf tpd;k &acgif;aqmifrsm; toHviT ½hf kH
(1) ü jynfe,frsm;\ aemifa&;udk aqG;aEG;Muonf/ 1947 ckEpS f zGpYJ nf;yHk tajccHOya't& (10)
1

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ (&efuek ?f
yk*Hpmtkyf wkduf? 1969) pm- 424/
2

OD;ausmf0if;/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;1958-1962 (wwd,wGJ)/ wGJbufa&;ol
OD;jr[efEiS hf OD;ode;f vdiI /f (&efuek ?f wuúov
dk rf sm;yHEk ydS w
f u
dk ?f 1991) pm 106/
3

rdk;BudK;owif;pm
pm/ (14 Ekd 1961) pm 1-2/

47
ESpfMumvQif cGJxGufvdku cGJxGufEdkifonf[laom tcef; (10) yg cGJxGufEdkifaom tcGifhta&;udk
jyif;xefpmG ajymqdv
k mMuonf/ cGx
J u
G rf nft
h ajctaersm;ESihf zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'udk ypfy,fxm;rnhf
tajctaersm;jzpfay:vmcJo
h nf/ Edik if aH &;wnfNird rf rI &Sjd cif;? tkycf sKyaf &;,EÅ&m; ,dr;f ,dik v
f mjcif;?
vlrsdK;a&;y#dyu©ydkrdkBuD;xGm;vmjcif;? aomif;usef;olrsm; ydkrdkx<uvmjcif;? jynfytm;udk;aom
ya'o&mZfwdkUu jynfaxmifpkBuD;udk NzdKcGJ&efBudK;yrf;vmjcif;rsm;aMumifh wyfrawmfonf
Edik if aH wmfvw
G v
f yfa&;ESihf tcsKyt
f jcmtmPm wnfwchH ikd Nf raJ &;twGuf Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; OD;aqmif
onhf awmfvSefa&;aumifpDudk zGJYpnf;NyD; 1962 ckESpf?rwfv (2) &ufaeYwGif EdkifiHawmftmPmudk
xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufco
hJ nf/
4-5/

1962 rS 1988 ckESpftwGif;BudK;yrf;rI

Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;onf awmfveS af &;aumifpD OuúXtjzpfvnf;aumif;? awmfveS af &;
tpk;d &OuúXESihf umuG,af &;Xmewm0efct
H jzpfvnf;aumif;? ArmhwyfrawmfppfaoemywdcsKyt
f jzpf
vnf;aumif; wm0ef,lxrf;&GufcJhonf/ 1962 ckESpf Zlvdkifv (4) &ufaeUwGif jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpf
vrf;pOfygwDukd tjrKaw ygwDtjzpf pwifzUJG pnf;cJ&h mrS 1971 ckEpS f {Nyv
D (30) &ufaeUxd jynfoUl ygwD
tjzpfu;l ajymif; zGUJ pnf;cJo
h nf/ jynfoUl awmifov
l ,form;aumifpED iS hf jynfoUl tvkyo
f rm;aumifpu
D kd
pnf;½H;k zGUJ pnf;cJo
h nf/ 1972 ckEpS w
f iG f aMunm csut
f rSwf (97) udk xkwjf yefNy;D AsL½du
k a&pDtyk cf sKyaf &;
,EÅ&m;\ tajccHjzpfonhf twGi;f 0ef ½H;k rsm;udk ½kyo
f rd ;f cJNh y;D 0efBu;D Xmersm;udk jyKjyif zGUJ pnf;cJh onf/
1969ckEpS af zazmf0g&Dv(26)&ufaeUwGif A[djk ynfoUl awmifov
l ,form; aumifpu
D kd
zGJUpnf;cJhonf/ tvkyform;ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJBuD;rsm;udk 1963 ckESpfrS 1967 ckESpfxd &efukefNrdKUESifh
acsmufNrKd Ursm; wGiu
f si;f yay;cJo
h nf/ 1968 ckEpS f {Nyv
D (27)&ufaeUwGif A[dt
k vkyo
f rm;aumifpD
udk zGUJ pnf;cJo
h nf/
Edik if aH wmfzUJG pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'opf a&;qG&J ef Adv
k rf LS ;csKyf pef;,k Ouú|tjzpf yg0ifaom
tzGUJ 0if (97) OD;yg0ifonhf Edik if aH wmfzUJG pnf;tkycf sKyyf akH &;qGaJ &;aumfr&Siu
f kd 1963 ckEpS f pufwifbmv
(25) &ufaeYwGif &efukefNrdKUuarÇmZ &dyfomwGif ½Hk;zGifhí aumfr&SiftzGJU (15) zGJUcGJNyD;
EdkifiHawmfzGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya' yxrrlMurf;udk a&;qGJcJhonf/ 1972 ckESpf arvESifh ZGefvwGif
aumfr&SiftzGJUonf jrefrmEdkifiHwpf0ef;odkUoGm; a&mufí EdkifiHawmfzGJUpnf;yHk tajccH Oya'
xyfqifh&Sif;vif;a&;aqmif&GufcJhonf/ OD;'def&wef acgif;aqmifonhf tzGJU0if (26) OD;jzihf
jynfv;kH uRwq
f E´c,
H yl aJG umfr&Sio
f nf jynfe,f? wdik ;f ESihf NrKd Uaumfr&Sizf UJG pnf;um 1973 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv
(15) &ufaeUrS (31)&ufaeUxd jynfoUl qE´c,
H yl JG jyKvyk cf o
hJ nf/ yxrtBurd f jynfoUl vTwaf wmf ESihf
jynfolYaumifpD tqifhqifh a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufyGJudk 1974 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv (27) &ufaeUrS
azazmf0g&Dv (10) &ufaeYxd usi;f yay;cJo
h nf/ awmfveS af &;aumifpo
D nf Edik if aH wmf\ tcsKyt
f jcm

48
tmPmudk jynfoUl vTwaf wmfoUkd 1974 ckEpS f rwfv (2) &ufaeUwGif jyefvnfvaJT jymif;ay;tyfchJ
aMumif; awGU&S&d ygonf/ 1 Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;onf 1974 ckEpS f rwfv 2 &ufaeYwiG f jynfaxmifpk
qk&d ,
S v
f pfor®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmf\ yxrqH;k or®wjzpfvmcJo
h nf/
Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;OD;aqmifaom awmfveS af &;aumifpo
D nf 1963 ckEpS f {Nyv
D (30)
&ufaeUwGif jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOf rl0g'oabmxm; aMunmcsufudk xkwfjyefaMunmcJhonf/
1963 ckEpS f atmufwb
kd mv (29) &ufaeUwGif vkyif ef;rsm; jynfoyl ikd jf yKvyk jf cif;Oya'? 1964 ckEpS f
rwfv (13) &ufaeUwGif qd&k ,
S v
f pfp;D yGm;a&;pepf wnfaqmufru
I kd qefUusijf cif;rS umuG,o
f nhf
Oya'rsm; udjk y|mef;cJo
h nf/ 1964 ckEpS f rwfv (19) &ufaeUrS 1972 ckEpS Zf efe0g&D v (1) &ufaeUxd
jynfoyl ikd o
f rd ;f qnf;jcif;vkyif ef;rsm;udk qufvuf aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf/
1964 ckESpf arv (17) &ufaeUwGif usyf(100) wef? (50) wef aiGpuúLrsm;udk
f rd ;f a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk aqmif&u
G &f m
w&m;0iftjzpfr&S yfpo
J nhOf ya' xkwjf yefco
hJ nf/2 ajr&Sipf epf zsuo
wGif 1963 ckEpS f rwfv (25) &ufaeUwGif 1963 ckEpS f oD;pm;csxm;a&;Oya'ESihf 1963 ckEpS f awmifol
v,form;rsm; tcGit
hf a&;umuG,af &;Oya'? 1965 ckEpS f {Nyv
D (5) &ufwiG f 1965ckEpS f oD;pm;cs
xm;a&; Oya'rsm;udk jyifqifonhOf ya'rsm;udjk y|mef;Ny;D oD;pm;rsm;udzk suo
f rd ;f cJo
h nf/ ajr&Sirf sm;onf
awmifolv,form;rsm;ydkifqdkifonhf uRJ? EGm;? xGefwHk;? xGefwHrsm;udk 0&rf;uyfcGifhr&Sdonhfjyif
awmifov
l ,form;rsm;xHrS oD;pm;c awmif;cHciG hf r&Syd g/ 1965 ckEpS f atmufwb
kd mv (18) &ufaeU
wGiu
f ek o
f ,
G af &; aumif pDuzkd UJG pnf;jcif;? ukeo
f ,
G af &; aumfyakd &;&Si;f (22) ckzUJG pnf;cJo
h nf/ 1973
- 1974 ckEpS w
f iG f or0g,rtoif; (16400) &Scd o
hJ nf/
1967 ckEpS f atmufwb
kd mv (2) &ufaeUwGif Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; Ouú|tjzpfyg 0ifaom
qdk&S,fvpfpD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;aumfrwDwpf&yfudk zGJUpnf;ay;cJhonf/ EdkifiHjcm;0ifaiG&&Sda&;twGuf
ausmufrsu&f wemjyyG?J urÇmu
h ek pf nfjyyG?J urÇmvSnchf &D;onfrsm;udk vufcjH cif;rsm;jyK vkycf o
hJ nf/
ausmufrsuf&wemjyyGJ(10) Budrf cif;usif;jyoa&mif;cscJh&m usyfaiG (13.07) uka#&&SdcJhNyD;
urÇmhukefpnfjyyGJwGifvnf; (361) Budrfyg0ifjyocJhonf/ urÇmvSnfhc&D;onfrsm;tm; jrefrmEdkifiH
twGi;f vSnv
fh nfavhvmEdik &f ef cGijhf yKc&hJ mESppf Of jrefrmusyf wpfuak #cefUESin
hf rD Qaom Edik if jH cm;aiGrsm;
&&Scd o
hJ nf/

1

jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if ?H awmfveS af &;aumifp/D awmfvSefa&;aumifpD\ vkyfaqmif
csuf orkdif;tusOf;csKyf / (&efukef? awmfvSefa&;aumifpD? ckESpfryg) pm 32/

2

,if;/ pm 42/

49
Muufarmufawmifqnf? 0ga&Smifqnf? awmifwiG ;f wl;ajrmif;? rkew
f ikd af & avSmifuef?
ajymif;jyma&avSmifwrH? aiGawmifqnf? [J[;kd csKd i0hf rS ;f qnfajrmif;? bk&m;Bu;D uke;f ? catmifyifwm?
cufvefwrH? a'g&xwmwrH? ausmuftdk;a&eDacsmif; qnfajrmif;rsm; wnfaqmufay;cJhonf/
Edik if w
H pf0ef;wGif jynfol ydik t
f vkyv
f yk af eonhpf uf½akH ygif; (1458)½Hjk zpfNy;D wnfaqmufqpJ uf½akH ygif;
(18)½H&k cdS o
hJ nf/1 1973 ckEpS w
f iG f a&eHprd ;f wdik u
f D (9.33) ode;f xGu&f cdS o
hJ nf/ obm0"mwfaiGUrsm;
udv
k nf; pavESihf uRe;f acsmif; "mwfajrMoZmpuf½rkH sm; odUk wpfaeUvQif "mwfaiGUukAay (11.5)oef;
jzefUjzL;ay;Edik cf ahJ Mumif;avhvmawGU&S&d ygonf/
awmfvSefa&;aumifpDonf 1964 ckESpfwGif wuúodkvfynma&;pepfudkjy|mef;í
pepfopfynma&; udkvnf;aumif;? 1966 ckESpfü tajccHynma&;udkjy|mef;í pepfopf tajccH
ynma&;udk 1967 ckESpfwGifvnf;aumif; taumiftxnfazmfcJhonf/ 1962 ckESpfwGif &efukef
wuúodkvfOya'ESifh rEÅav; wuúodkvf Oya'wdkUudk½kyfodrf;onhf Oya'rsm;jy|mef;cJhonf/21963
ckESpfwGif udk,fydkifausmif; (814) ausmif;ukd jynfolydkifjyKvkyfcJhonf/ 1973 ckESpfwGif wuúodkvf
ynma&;Oya'? tajccH ynma&;Oya'? ynma&;okawoeOya'udkjy|mef;cJhonf/ jrefrmpm
ta&;tom; toHk;tEIef;rsm; rSefuefzGHUNzdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf jrefrmpm aumfr&Sif Oya'jy|mef;
cJo
h nf/ 1974 ckEpS w
f iG f pufrpI u
kd yf sKd ;a&;ESit
hf oufarG;ynma&; Oya'udjk y|mef;cJo
h nf/ acwfEiS hf
avsmn
f rD rI &So
d nhf ynma&;Oya'rsm;udv
k nf; jyifqifítopf jy|mef;cJo
h nf/
usef;rma&;tqifhtwef; jrifhrm;vmap&ef? aus;&GmESifhNrdKUrsm;wGif usef;rma&;
tusdK;cHpm;rI qif;&J? csrf;omra&G; wef;wl&Sdap&ef? a&m*gumuG,fa&;ESifh ukoa&;wGif a&m*g
umuG,fa&;udkOD;wnfí aqmif&Gufay;&ef? udk,fvufBuHhcdkifa&;ESifhtm;upm;jr§ifhwifa&;wdkUudk
aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf/ 1961 ckEpS w
f iG f jynfoUl ppfrx
I rf;tufOya'udk jyifqifonhOf ya'jy|mef;cJh onf/
q&m0efrsm;onf Edik if t
H usKd ;twGuv
f t
kd yfygu wyfrawmfwiG o
f mru NrKd Ujytkycf sKyaf &; bufwiG f
touft&G,f? tcsdeftcg? ae&ma'ora&G; trIxrf;aqmifMu&rnf/3 1965 ckESpfwGif
qif;&JEGrf;yg;aomvlemrsm;tm; aus;vufrS vlBuD;rsm;\aq;½Hkrsm;odkU tpdk;&p&dwfjzifh
ydkUaqmifukoay;jcif;rsm;udkaqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1965 ckESpfrS 1969 ckESpftwGif; omoemjyK
tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;\ aq;½Hk (9) ½Hu
k kd jynfoyl ikd jf yKvyk cf o
hJ nf/
1

jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if ?H awmfveS af &;aumifp/D awmfvSefa&;aumifpD\ vkyfaqmifcsuf
orkdif;tusOf;csKyf/ (&efuek ?f awmfveS af &;aumifp?D ckEpS rf yg) pm - 66/
2
jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku
d Ef iS w
hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku
d /f wyfrawmfordkif;pwkw¬wGJ
(1962-1974)
(1962-1974)/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1999) pm - 229/
3
awmfveS af &;aumifp\
D 1962ckEpS rf pS í xkwjf yefaomOya'rsm;;/ trSw(f 1) rS(15)xd/

50
aeUuav;xde;f Xme (18) ck? rlvwef;BuKd ausmif; (9) ausmif;? uav;jyKpak &;Xme (1)
ck? apwemh0efxrf; aeUuav;xde;f Xme (279) ck zGiv
hf pS jf cif;jyKvyk cf o
hJ nf/ u,fq,fa&; vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf
ywfoufí 1962 ckEpS w
f iG f tdE,
d´ ydik f uyÜvu
D Re;f rSjrefrmtrsKd ;om; tdraf xmifpk (622) vlO;D a&
(2189) OD;tm; pepfwusae&mcsxm;ay;jcif;? 1972 ckESpfwGif yJcl;wdkif; ausmufwHwm;NrdKUwGif
awmifay: (14)&GmrS tdrfaxmifpkaygif; (426) pktm; aomif;usef;rI uif;a0;&me,fajrwGif
&Gmopfrsm;wnfaqmufay;rsm;jyKvyk cf o
hJ nf/
1962 ckEpS f yHEk ydS f vkyif ef;rsm;ESix
hf w
k af 0olrsm; rSwyf w
kH ifOya'udjk y|mef;jcif;? 1964
ckEpS f pmMunhw
f u
kd ?f jywdu
k Ef iS fh NyyGrJ sm;Bu;D Muyftyk cf sKyaf &; Oya'udjk y|mef;jcif;? ½ky&f iS ½f kH (182)½Hu
k kd
jynfoyl ikd o
f rd ;f í ½ky&f iS v
f yk if ef; aumfyakd &;&Si;f udzk UJG pnf;aqmif&u
G jf cif;? rl0g'ESihf rqefu
Y sif aom
jrefrm½ky&f iS u
f m; rsm; ½du
k u
f ;l &ef Zmwfvrf;rsm;? BuKd wifppd pf cGijfh yKjcif;rsm; aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf/ 1
1957 ckEpS f a&S;a[mif;txl;ypön;f rsm; tufOya' t& a&S;a[mif; taqmufttHk
(120) ud k xd e f ; od r f ; apmif h a &S m uf j cif ; ? a&S ; a[mif ; taqmuf t tH k (500) ausmf
xdef;odrf;apmifha&SmufokawoejyKEdkif&ef 1962 ckESpf a&S;a[mif;0w¬Kypönf; tufOya'udk
jyifqifonhOf ya'jy|mef;jcif;? ordik ;f 0iftxdr;f trSwt
f aqmufttH?k aMu;½ky?f ausmufwikd ?f O,smOf?
yefNcHrsm;udk ordkif;0ifyk*d¾Kvfrsm;\ *kPft*FgESifhtnD aqmif&GufEdkif&ef ordkif;0ifyk*¾dKvfrsm;
txdr;f trSwaf rmfueG ;f Oya'udk jy|mef;cJo
h nf/ pmaytaxmuftxm; enf;yg;onhf ydóEd;k NrKd Ua[mif;?
[ef v if ; Nrd K Ua[mif ; ? oa&acwå & mNrd K Ua[mif ; rsm;ud k wl ; azmf í ok a woejyKjcif ; ?
ordkif;uGif;qufrsm;azmfxkwfjcif;? ordkif;0iftaqmufttHk? apwDykxdk;? ausmufpmrsm;udk
a&S;rlrysux
f ed ;f odr;f jcif;? trsKd ;om;pmMunhw
f u
kd ?f jywdu
k ?f a&S;a[mif; okawoejywdu
k rf sm;zGiv
hf pS í
f
a&S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rIypön;f rsm;jyojcif;? yef;cs?D yef;yk? yefwsm ausmif;rsm;zGiv
hf pS í
f yef;cs?D yef;yk
tEkynm&yfrsm;jzefUjzL;jcif;? a&S;a[mif;urÜnf;pmay? yk&ydkuf? eH&Hyef;csD? oDcsif;BuD;rsm;udk
ok a woejyKí pmtk y f x k w f a 0jcif ; ? jref r mEd k i f i H o rd k i f ; usrf ; twG u f jynf w G i f ; jynf y rS
taxmuftxm;rsm;pkaqmif;jcif; ponhv
f yk if ef;rsm;udak qmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf/2
Ak'b
¨ momomoema&;ESiyhf wfoufí y&d,wd?å y#dywd?å y#da0' omoemawmfo;kH &yf
wd;k wufpnfyif&ef c&pf,mefbmom? tpövmrfbmom? [dEL´ bmom0ifrsm;ESihf aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf/

1

jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if ?H awmfveS af &;aumifp/D awmfvSefa&;aumifpD\ vkyfaqmif
csuf orkdif;tusOf;csKyf / (&efuek ?f awmfveS af &;aumifp?D ckEpS rf yg) pm - 112/
2
jrefrf mEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku
d Ef iS w
hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku
d /f wyfrawmfordkif; (yÍörwGJ)
1962-1974
1962-1974/ 'k-Burd /f (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1999) pm237/

51
ewfudk;uG,folrsm; vGwfvyfpGmudk;uG,fEdkifa&; BudK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhonf/ ¤if;tjyif bmoma&;
toif;tzGUJ rsm;odUk ESppf OfaxmufyahH iGrsm;vSL'gef;cJo
h nf/
jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if H oefacgif; pm&if;Oya'udk {Nyv
D (28) &ufaeUwGijf y|mef;
cJhonf/ 1973 ckESpf? {NyDv (1) &ufrS (5) &ufaeUxdtrsdK;om;a&; vkyfief;BuD;wpf&yf
taejzifhaqmif&GufcJhonf/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpD\ &nfrSef;csufrSm jynfolUw&m;pD&ifa&;pepf
taumif txnfazmf&efjzpfonf/ w&m;½H;k csKyzf UJG pnf;jcif;? jynfow
Yl &m;pD&ifa&;udak rQmrf eS ;f onhf
tajccH ajymif;vJrIrsm;jyKvkyfjcif;? jynfolUw&m;pD&ifa&;pepfudkpwiftaumiftxnfazmfjcif;?
tjypf'Pf ay;onhfpepfudk jyKjyifusifhoHk;jcif;rsm;aqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1 1974 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv
(15) &ufaeUwGif EdkifiHjcm; wdkif;jynfrsm;ü jrefrmEkdifiHrSzGifhvSpfxm;onhf jrefrmoH½Hk; (27)½Hk;?
aumifppf0efcsKyf½Hk; (3) ½Hk;? ukvor*¾qdkif&m jrefrmtNrJwrf; udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJU½Hk; (1)½Hk;?
wdu
k sKd NrKd UjrefrmtzGUJ ½H;k (1) ½H;k pkpak ygif; (32) ½H;k &Sad Mumif; avhvmawGU&S&d ygonf/ 2
1967 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif Auyrsm;onf jrpf0uRef;ay:a'otm; jrpf0uRef;ay:
wdik ;f tjzpf aqmif&u
G af epOf wyfrawmfrS ]] jynfom,mppfqifa&; }} trnfjzifh 1968 ckEpS f {Nyv
D
(16) &ufaeUwGif AuyXmecsKyftm; awGU&Sdodrf;ydkufEdkifcJhonf/ 1968 ckESpf pufwifbmv (19)
&ufaeUwGif 'kw,
d tBurd f Auy A[dXk mecsKyt
f m; tvpftidu
k 0f ifa&muf wdu
k cf u
kd cf hJ onf/ Auy
A[dkXmecsKyfonf a&Smifwdrf;&if; pufwifbmv (24) &ufwGif jr&myifaMum\ ta&SU
aZmif;ausmufacsmif; urf;yg;wGif acwåpcef;cspOf ocifoef;xGef;onf &JabmfjrBuD;\
vkyBf urH aI Mumifah oqH;k cJ&h onf/ 1975 ckEpS f rwfv (15) &ufwiG f wyfrawmfrS atmifp;kd rd;k ppfqifa&;
jzifh ocifwifESifh ocifcspfwdkUtm; yJcl;½dk;r? &JEG,f? zGwfusm;acsmif;wGif tao&rdcJhNyD; yJcl;½dk;r&Sd
Auyrsm;onf wyfrawmfEiS hf jynforl sm;\ vufcsujf zihf usq;kH csKyNf ird ;f cJ&h onf/ 1967-68ckEpS rf pS Ny;D
&Srf;jynfta&SUajrmufa'owGif Auyrsm; tiftm;BuD;xGm;vmNyD; 1972 ckESpf ESpfukefydkif;wGif
uGrf;vHk&uf (40)wdkufyGJBuD; jzpfyGm;cJhonf/ wyfrawmfrS&Gyf&GyfcRHcRH wGef;vSefwdkufcdkufcJhonf/
awmfveS af &;aumifpt
D pd;k &vuf xufwiG f Edik if t
H wGi;f aomif;use;f ol tEÅ&m,fuif;a0;atmif
aqmif&GufcJhaomfvnf; e,fpGef e,fzsm;a'orsm;wGif EdkifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? vlrsdK;a&;t&if;cHonhf
aomif;use;f olrsm; use&f cdS hJ aMumif; avhvmawGU&S&d ygonf/

1

jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if ?H awmfveS af &;aumifp/D awmfvSefa&;aumifpD\ vkyfaqmif
csuf orkdif;tusOf;csKyf / (&efuek ?f awmfveS af &;aumifp?D ckEpS rf yg) pm - 187/
2
,if;? pm - 228/

52
AkdvfcsKyfu ZmwfedygwfyHkjyifjzifh jrefrmh&kd;&m,Ofaus;rI aumif;&mrGef&mwkdYukd
jyefvnfazmfxkwfapcsifonf/ wdrfjrKyfaep jyKaeNyDjzpfaompma[m? uGufpdwf? &kyfao;wkdYukd
azmfxkwftm;ay;onf/ ynm&SdBuD;rsm;\a[majymcsuf? wD;rIwfoDqkdoHwkdYukd tem*wftwGuf
toHoiG ;f xm;aponf/ rEÅav;rS&yk af o;q&mBu;D rsm;ukd &efuek o
f yYdk ifzh w
d í
f tdraf wmfüjyoaponf/
NrdKUawmfolNrdKUawmfom;wkdYtwGufyGJwifonf/ NyD;vQif&kyfao;q&mBuD;rsm;tm; vufaqmifay;í
Akv
d cf sKyaf e0if;u uefawmfah Mumif;od&&dS onf/ 1981 ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmv 8 &ufaeYwiG f ygwDnv
D mcHrS
a&G;cs,jf cif;cH&aomOD;pef;,ktm; or®w&mxl; vGaJ jymif;ay;cJo
h nf/
eDaygEkdifiH bk&ifrif;jrwfxHrS "r®yPÖmawmfvufaqmif&&Sdaom Ak'¨&kyfyGm;awmfESifh
yOö"gwk[ewdbufapwDawmf? "gwfawmfMuKwrf sm;ukd ylaZmfXmyemí 1980 jynfEh pS f jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEkdifiHawmf*kdPf;aygif;pHkoHCmnDnGwfrI&Sdjcif;txdrf;trSwftjzpf r[m0dZ,apwDawmfukd
wnfxm;&mwGif ukd;uG,fylaZmf xm;&Sdygonf/ blrdzórkj'm Ak'¨&kyfyGm;awmf ylaZmfzG,f&mrsm;ukd
1987 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 5 &ufaeYwiG f usa&mufaomxkid ;f bk&ifrh if;jrwfoufawmf 60 jynfah rG;aeY
vufaqmiftjzpf AefaumufNrKd UokYd uk,
d w
f idk yf ifah qmifí oGm;a&mufay;ykcYd yhJ gonf/
acwfwpfacwfrS wpfacwfokdY? pepfwpfckrSwpfckokdY ajymif;vJjzpfay:jcif;[lonf
¤if;ESio
hf ufqidk o
f nfh aemufco
H rkid ;f aMumif;rsm;&Sw
d wfygonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh twdwu
f mvrS
taMumif;t&mrsm;aygif;qHkjzpfysufcJhjcif;onf rsufarSmufacwfumvtwGuf tusdK;w&m;
wpfpHkwpf&mukd jzpfxGef;apygonf/ wpfzef rsufarSmufumvwGif jzpfysufaeorQ tusdK;&v'f
wpfpw
kH pfcu
k dk ay;pGr;f vmrnfom jzpfayonf/ vrf;pOfygwD tm;enf;csurf sm;? aysmu
h u
G [
f muGurf sm;
ukd tajcjyKum jynfwiG ;f jynfy&Sd vuf0v
J uf,m tiftm;pkrsm;\ aoG;xk;d ajrm§ ufyifah y;rIrsm;aMumifh
1988ckEpS o
f aYdk &mufaomtcg ta&;tcif;Bu;D wpfck jzpfay:vmcJ&h onf/ ta&;tcif;jzpfay:ap&ef
t"duwGe;f ykaYd y;cJo
h nfh Ekid if aH wmf\ t"dujyóemBu;D ESp&f yf&cdS yhJ gonf/ ,if;wkrYd mS pD;yGm;a&;jyóem
ESihf Ekid if aH &;jyóemyifjzpfygonf/ ta&;tcif; tBuKd umvrsm;twGi;f Ekid if aH wmfEiS hf jynfov
l x
l k
twGi;f pD;yGm;a&;jyóemrsm;wpfaeYwpfjcm; wk;d wufvmcJo
h nfEiS t
hf rQ ,if;\tusKd ; quftjzpf
0efxrf;rsm;ESihf jynfov
l x
l t
k wGi;f ü rormrIrsm;? tusiyhf surf rI sm;? pm&dwaå zmufjyefrrI sm;? uk,
d u
f sKd ;
&Sm a&omckrd rI sm;? t*wdvu
dk pf m;rIrsm; ykrd rdk sm;jym;vmcJyh gonf/ tkycf sKyaf &;ykid ;f wGiv
f nf; &yfuu
G rf S
wkdif;tqifhxd zGJUpnf;xm;aom jynfolYaumifpD tzGJUtpnf;rsm;wGif jynfolrsm;\qE´ ESifhvnf;
ruku
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f ?D vkyif ef;uRr;f usirf v
I nf;r&S?d uk,
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hf u
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d nf; apmifx
h ed ;f &ef tm;enf;cJMh u onfh
yk*¾dKvfrsm;ukd xnfhoGif; wm0efay;cJhjcif;rsm;aMumifh jynfolvlxktwGif; rw&m;rI? rrSefruef
qH;k jzwfc&H rI armufrmrIrsm;ukd cHpm;cJMh u&onf/ wm0ef&t
dS zGUJ tpnf;tqifq
h ifh ESijhf ynfov
l x
l rk mS
uGm[rI Bu;D rm;vmcJ&h rkH Qru jynfov
l x
l \
k rauseyfrrI sm;ukv
d nf; wk;d íom jzpfay:cJo
h nf/ bDbpD ?D
AGt
D adk t? atmvftEd ,
d´ ponftoHviT Xhf mersm;ESihf jynfypme,fZif;tcsKd w
Y o
Ydk nf jrefrmEkid if t
H wGi;f

53
jzpfay:aeaom EkdifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? tkyfcsKyfa&; tajctaersm;ukd yHkBuD;csJU xkwfvTifhay;jcif;?
trsKd ;rsKd ;aomenf;rsm;ukd toH;k jyKum aoG;xk;d vIaH qmfrrI sm;ukd jyKvyk v
f mcJMh uyg onf/ 1988 ckepS ?f
rwfv 12 &ufaeY n 9 em&D 15 rdepf tcsed cf efw
Y iG f BuKd Uuke;f blwmteD; pE´m0if;vufzuf&nfqidk üf
pufrIwuúokdvf'kwd,ESpfausmif;om; 2 OD;ESifh t&ufrl;aeonfh&yfuGuf vli,f 5 OD;wkdYonf
uufqufocD si;f acGziG chf idk ;f &mrStp cku
d &f efjzpfymG ;cJMh uygonf/ ,if;&efponf xkrd QEiS yhf if &yfwefrY oGm;
cJb
h J aemufwpfaeYjzpfonfh rwfv 13 &ufaeYn 8 em&D 30 rdepf tcsed cf efrY S pí BuKd Uuke;f &yfuu
G rf S
t&yfom;rsm;ESihf pufrw
I uúov
dk af usmif;om;rsm; wpfzufEiS w
hf pfzuf tkypf zk UJG tMurf;zufwu
dk cf u
dk rf I
rsm; jzpfymG ;cJyh gonf/ trIu
d u
f p jyó'fr;D avmifqo
dk uJo
h Ydk ausmif;om;rsm; qlyq
l E´jyrIrsm; wpfNrKd UNy;D
wpfNrdKUjzpfay:vmcJhygonf/ EdkifiHawmftusdK;twGuf wm0ef&SdoltzGJUtpnf;rsm;rS rnfrQyif
aqmif&Gufay;apumrl EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh vuf0Jvuf,mya,m*rsm;? qlylvkdolrsm;rS
wpfjynfvHk;twkdif;twmjzifh qlyltHk<ua&;ukdom tm;pkdufvkyfaqmifcJhMuygonf/ 9-8-88
&ufaeYrSpwifNyD; vltkyfBuD;rsm;jzifh vHkNcHKa&;wyfzGJU0ifrsm;tm; tMurf;zufowfjzwfrIrsm;?
wkdufckduf&efjyKrIrsm; jyKvkyfvmcJhMuygonf/ xkdtawmftwGif; ausmif;0if;rsm;twGif;wGif
Ekid if aH &;orm;rsm;omru Ekid if jH cm;oHwreftcsKd UwkyYd g 0ifxu
G af jc&Iyjf cif;rsm; jyKvyk v
f mMuygonf/
xkdhYaMumifh ausmif;om;rsm;onf ,if;wkdY\ajr§mufyifhay;rIrsm;? 0g'jzefYvIHUaqmfay;rIrsm;aMumifh
ausmif;om;rsm;ta&;oufoufuo
dk m awmif;qkcd MhJ u&mrS ]] ppfreS af om'Dru
dk a&pD&&Sad &; aqmif&u
G f
ay;&ef}} [lonfh Ekid if aH &;oabmouf0ifonfh awmif;qkcd surf sm;uku
d dk pwifawmif;qkv
d mcJMh uonf/
ausmif;0if;rsm;twGif;wGifvnf; vuf0Jvuf,mya,m*rsdK;pHk 0ifa&mufvmrIwkdYaMumifh
ausmif;yk&0d P
k rf sm;twGi;f wGif Ekid if aH &;ykrd &dk yI af xG;vmcJyh gonf/
&efukefNrdKUwGif qlyltMurf;zufrIrsm;jzpfyGm;aepOftwGif; Zlvkdifv 7 &ufaeYwGif
awmifBuD;NrdKUüvnf;qlylrIrsm;jzpfyGm;cJhygonf/ Zlvkdifv 23 &ufaeYwGif vrf;pOfygwD? ta&;ay:
ygwDnv
D mcHusi;f yjyKvyk cf yhJ gonf/ ,if;tpnf;ta0;wGif Ekid if aH wmfp;D yGm;a&;qkid &f mrl0g' vrf;nTerf I
rsm;jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;ESihf ygwDzUJG pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'pnf;rsO;f rsm; jyifqifa&;wkt
Yd wGuf aqG;aEG;
aqmif&u
G cf MhJ uygonf/ xkt
Yd jyif ,if;tpnf;ta0;ü vrf;pOfygwDOuúXBu;D OD;ae0if; uk,
d w
f idk rf S
wpfygwDpepf okdYr[kwf ygwDpHkpepf ESpfckwkdYteuf rnfonfukdESpfoufaMumif; wpfjynfvHk;
qE´cH,lyGJusif;ya&;? ygwDOuúXBuD;tygt0if EkwfxGufvkdolrsm;\qE´ukd vkdufavsma&;? 1962
ckESpf ausmif;om;or*¾ taqmufttHkukd zsufqD;cJhjcif;ESihfpyfvsOf;í tjrif&Sif;ap&efwkdYtwGuf
tus,w
f 0ifh &Si;f vif;cJyh gonf/ Zlvidk v
f 25 &ufaeYwiG f ta&;ay:ygwDnv
D mcHrS qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;
csrSwfcJh&m ,if;wkdYteufygwDOuúXBuD; OD;ae0if;ESifh 'kwd,ygwDOuúXBuD; OD;pef;,kwkdYtm;
Ekwx
f u
G cf iG jhf yKNy;D ygwD0iftjzpfrS tem;,lciG jhf yKcyhJ gonf/

54
5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;

1949 ckEpS w
f iG f ]]r[moD&o
d "k r®mbGUJ }}(Maha Thiri Thudhama) cs;D jri§ jhf cif;cH&onf/ 1955
ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&DvwGif ,l*pdk vm;AD;,m;Ekid if o
H r®w rm&S,w
f w
D ;dk \ ,l*pdk vyfwcH eG af wmfb(YJG yxrqif)h
Yugoslav Banner(First Class) cs;D jri
§ jhfcif;cH&onf/ 1955 ckEpS ?f rwfv 3 &ufaeYwiG f ]]owk;d oD&o
d "k r®bUJG }}
(Thado Thiri Thudhama) ukd or®wBu;D a'gufwmbOD; uk,
d w
f idk cf s;D jri§ chf yhJ gonf/1956 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f wGif
tar&dueftpk;d &\ ]]ppfo&l aJ umif;bGUJ }} (Legion of Merit) cs;D jri§ chf &H onf/ 1959 ckEpS ?f rwfv 27
&ufaeYwGif vGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0if (yxrtqifh)ukd vnf;aumif;? 1960 jynfhESpf rwfv 5
&ufaeYwiG f xkid ;f bk&ifrif;jrwf blrad bmt'l,m'uf\ ]]qifjzL&Si}f } The Most Exalted order of the
White Elephant *kPx
f ;l aqmifbUJG cs;D jri§ chf o
hJ nf/ 1960 jynfEh pS ?f Mo*kwv
f 16 &ufaeYwiG f zdvpfyidk Ef idk if rH S
csD;jr§ifhrnfh ]]a&rGefruf aq;aq; }} (Ramon Magsaysay) qkukd jiif;y,fcJhonf/ 1960jynfhESpf?
'DZifbmvwGif ]]t*¾r[moD&o
d "k r®bUJG }} Agga Maha Thiri Thudhama vnf;cs;D jri§ chf &H onf/ 1981
ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeYwiG f Ekid if *H P
k &f nfbUJG (yxrtqif)h wku
Yd dk cs;D jri§ jhf cif; cHc&hJ onf/
6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

1952 ckEpS w
f iG f tar&duef? 1953 ckEpS w
f iG f tif'edk &D mS ;? w&kwjf ynfoo
Yl r®wEkid if o
H Ydk
1955 ckEpS ?f pufwifbmvwGiv
f nf;aumif;? 1960 jynfEh pS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 24 &ufaeYwiG v
f nf;aumif;?
1965 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 24 &ufaeYwiG v
f nf;aumif;? 1971 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 9&ufaeYwiG v
f nf;aumif;?
1971 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 6 &ufaeYwGifvnf;aumif;oGm;a&mufcJhonf/ 1959 ckESpf? ZGefvwGif
tpöa&;Ekid if ?H 1959 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mvwGif tm&yfjynfaxmifpEk idk if ?H 1965 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv
2 &ufaeYwiG f tdE,
´d Ekid if ?H 1965 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 12 &ufaeYwiG f ygupöwef? vmtkEd idk if ?H 1966
ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 10 &ufaeYwiG f oD[Edk idk if ?H 1966ckEpS ?f rwfv 4 &ufaeYwiG f tdE,
d´ Ekid if ?H 1966
ckEpS ?f arv 5 &ufaeYwiG f ygupöwef? 1966 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 20 &ufaeYwiG f csuu
f pdk vkAd ufu;D ,m;Ekid if ?H
1966ckESpf ZGefv 24 &ufaeYwGif &lar;eD;,m;? 1966 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 21 &ufaeYwGif tar&duef?
*syef? 1966ckEpS f Zlvidk v
f 28 &ufaeYwiG f t*Fvef? 1966ckEpS ?f pufwifbmv 7 &ufaeYwiG f tar&duef?
1966 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 19 &ufaeYwGif *syef? 1966 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 30 &ufaeYwGif eDayg?
1971 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 5 &ufaeYwiG f NAw
d ed ?f 1977 ckEpS ?f arv 22 &ufaeYwiG b
f *Fvm;a'h&?fS
1979 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 22 &ufaeYwiG f avmEkid if ?H 1980 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk m 20 &ufaeYwiG f
w&kwf? Ekd0ifbmv 20 &ufaeYwGif tdE´d,? 1984 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 28 &ufaeYwGif w&kwf?
1984 ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmv 20 &ufaeYwiG f tdE,
d´ ? 1985 ckEpS ?f arv 4 &ufaeYwiG w
f &kw?f 1987 ckEpS ?f
atNyDv 3 &ufaeYwGif *smreD? 1987 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 30 &ufaeYwGif xkdif;? 1987 ckESpf?

55
atmufwkdbmv 20 &ufaeYwGif ,l*kdqvm;AD;,m;? atmufwkdbm 23 &ufaeYwGif &lar;eD;,m;?
1987 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 4 &ufaeYwGif rav;&Sm;EkdifiHokdYvnf;aumif; EkdifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? ppfa&;?
cspMf unf tpDtpOftoD;oD;jzifh oGm;a&mufcyhJ gonf/
7/

rdom;pk

a':wifwifESifhvufxyfNyD; om;OD;aiGpkd; (av,mOfrSL; a[mif;) xGef;um;cJhonf/
&efukefjynfolaq;&HkBuD;rS yxrwef;q&m0ef a'gufwmboef;(Nidrf;)\orD; a':cifaroef;ESifh
vufxyfcJhonf/ a':cifaroef;ESifhorD; 3 OD;xGef;um;cJhonf/ orD;rsm;rSm a':pE´m0if;+
OD;at;aZmf0if;? ? a':oDwm0if;? a':aMu;rH0k if;+ OD;at;oG,(f Ekid if jH cm;a&;0efBu;D a[mif; OD;uku
d o
dk m;)
wkdYjzpfonf/ orD; a':pE´m0if;ESifh OD;at;aZmf0if;wkdY om; at;ae0if;? ausmfae0if;? ZGJae0if;wkdY
arG;zGm;cJo
h nf/ arcvrf;? r&rf;uke;f NrKd Ue,f? &efuek w
f iG af eonf/ a':eDejD rifEh iS v
hf nf;vufxyfcahJ o;
aMumif;awG&Y &dS ygonf/
28-10-1958 ckEpS rf S 4-4-1960 ckEpS t
f xd tdraf pmift
h pk;d &wm0eftjzpf vnf;aumif;?
2-3-1962 ckEpS rf S 2-3-1974 ckEpS t
f xd awmfveS af &;aumifpOD uúXtjzpfvnf;aumif;? 2-3-1974
ckEpS rf S 8-11-1981 ckEpS t
f xd jynfaxmifpq
k &dk ,
S v
f pfor®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmf or®wESihf Ekid if aH wmf
aumifpOD uúXtjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0efxrf;axmifcahJ om OD;ae0if; onf 2002 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv
5 &ufaeYwiG f uG,v
f eG cf o
hJ nf/

56

yHk (6)
OD;pef;,k (or®w)
[ 1981 ckESpf ]

57

OD;pef;,k
(or®w)
(arG
arG; 3-3-1918 rS uG,f 28-1-1996)
1/

i,fpOfb0

OD;pef;,konf zcif OD;pHaz? rdcif a':a&Tvw
hJ rYkd S 1918ckEpS ?f rwfv 3 &ufaeYwiG f
jynfc&dik ?f oJuek ;f NrKd Uü arG;zGm;cJo
h nf/
OD;pef;,kuzkd mG ;jrifNy;D aemuf rdcifu,
G v
f eG o
f mG ;cJo
h nf/ zcifonf bD-tk-d pD XmewGif
trIxrf;aqmifcJhNyD; aemuftdrfaxmifjyKcJhonf/ OD;pef;,konf a':a&TvJh\rdcifjzpfol
tbGm;ESit
hf wlig;ESpt
f &G,t
f xdaexdik Nf y;D aemuf a&TawmifNrKd UwGif aexdik o
f nhf zcifxo
H Ykd
ajymif;a&TUaexdik cf o
hJ nf/
2/

ynmoifb0

a&TawmifNrKd UESihf jynfNrKd U&dt
S rsK;d om;ausmif;ESihf tpd;k &ausmif;rsm;wGif ynmoif,cl hJ
onf/ ausmif;aepOf oydwfarSmufvkyfief;rsm;ü wuf<upGmyg0if vIyf&Sm;jcif;aMumifh
tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm; ESit
hf wl wpf&uftzrf;cH&onf/ 10 wef;pmar;yJu
G kd a&TawmifNrKd UrS
atmifjrifí &efuek Nf rKd U&dS aq;ausmif;wGif 'kw,
d ESpt
f xdwufa&muf ynmqnf;yl;onf/
&efuek af q;ausmif; ausmif;om;or*¾vyI &f mS ;rIEiS hf ausmif;om;oydww
f iG f yg0ifco
hJ nf/
3/

0efxrf;b0

3-1/

*syefacwfwm0efxrf;aqmifr(I 1942-1945)

OD;pef;,konf 1942ckESpfwGif ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf (bD-tdkif-at)odkY
jynfNrKd UrS 0ifa&mufonf/ *syefppft&m&drS sm;oifMum;ay;onhf tajccHppfynmoifwef;rsm;
wufa&mufNy;D aemuf 'kw,
d Akv
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ppfaMumif;csw
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hJ nf/ 1944ckEpS w
f iG f trSwf 2 ajcvsiw
f yf&if;?trSwf 3
wyfcüGJ wm0efxrf;aqmifaecsed f tmvHNrKd rY ;kd aumif;&Gmüpcef;csxm;Ny;D jynfNrKd ?Y e0if;acsmif;rS
a&eHacsmif;NrdKU? rusOf;usnfawmuf&Gmtxd a&eHydkufvdkif;apmifhwm0efudkxrf;aqmif
cJo
h nf/ 1 1945ckEpS ?f rwfv 24 &ufaeYwiG f wdik ;f (7)ppfXmecsKyf pcef;cs&m tmvH(ajrxJ)NrKd Ue,f?
1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppfordik ;f jywdu
k Ef iS w
hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wdu
k /f wyfrawmfordkif;
(wwd,wJ)G 1945- 1948/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESih f pme,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1995)
pm 318/

58
jyvd&Yk mG wGif Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESit
hf wl wdik ;f (7)wdik ;f rSL; Adv
k rf LS ; atmif? wyf&if;(2) wyf&if;rSL;
Adv
k Bf u;D pef;,k? wyf&if;(6)wyf&if; Adv
k Bf u;D pde0f if; wdEYk iS t
hf wl zufqpf awmfveS af &;jyifqifrI
rsm;udk aqG;aEG;cJhMuonf/ 1945ckESpf? rwfv 26 &ufaeYwGif wkdif; (7) ppfXmecsKyf?
wyf&if;(2)ESihf ppfO;D XmecsKyt
f zJUG 0ifrsm;onf {&m0wDjrpfaemufzufurf;odYk csw
D ufco
hJ nf/
rwfv 27 &ufaeY eHeuf(7)em&DcefYwGif o&ufNrdKUtpGef&Sd wyf&if;(6)ppfXmecsKyf
odaYk &muf&NdS y;D aemuf Adv
k rf LS ;atmif? Adv
k Bf u;D pderf eS ?f Adv
k Bf u;D pde0f if;? wyf&if;(2)wyf&if;rSL;
Adkvf pef;,k wdkYonfrwfv 27 &ufaeYnwGif zufqpf*syefwdkYtm; pwifawmfvSefrnfh
tpDtpOfESifh wyf&if;^wyfcJGrsm;csDwufMurnfhtpDtpOf? wyfcsxm;rnfh pcef;rsm;ESifh
wdu
k yf rGJ sm;pwifonfEiS hf wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyEf iS hf wyf&if;rsm;tquftoG,rf jywfa&; &efoo
Yl wif;
rsm; tvsit
f jrefyaYkd &;ESihf jynfov
l x
l t
k m; zufqpfawmfveS af &;ESihf ywfowfí 0g'jzefcY sD
vIHaqmfa&; tpDtpOfrsm;? &yf&GmumuG,fa&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;udpörsm;udk aqG;aEG;cJh
Muonf/1 rwfv 27 &ufaeY nae(5)em&DtcsdefwGif Adkvfpef;,k wdkYonf ysOfaxmifrif;wJvrf;twdik ;f rif;wke;f e,focYkd sw
D ufco
hJ nf/ n(11)em&?D (30)rdepf tcsed w
f iG f rif;wJ&mG odYk
a&muf&NdS y;D &Gmbke;f Bu;D ausmif;ESihf teD;tem;&Sd acsmif;jyifwiG f wyfzrYGJ sm;&yfem;cJo
h nf/atNyv
D
25 &ufaeYwGif ykPÖm;&Gmü zufqpf*syefwdkYtm; wdkif;(7)ppfe,fajrtwGif; ppfqifa&;
vkyif ef;rsm; vlxpk nf;½H;k a&;ESihf tkycf sKyaf &;vkyif ef;rsm;udk Adv
k rf LS ; atmifEiS t
hf wl Adv
k pf ef;,k
tygt0ifwyf&if;rSL;rsm; aqG;aEG;cJhMuonf/ wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf wyf&if;wyfcJGrsm;onf
o&ufNrKd UwGif (5)&ufcefw
Y yfpcef;cscNhJ y;D jrpf ta&SUbufjcrf;jyvdpYk cef;odYk a&muf&cdS MhJ uonf/
1945ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 1 &ufaeYwiG f tmvHNrKd U? iysi;f &Gmü wyf&if;(2)udk jyefvnfzUGJ pnf;cJo
h nf/
wyf&if;rSL; AdkvfBuD; pef;,kESifh trSwf(1)wyfcJGrSL; Adkvfjr? trSwf(2)wyfcJGrSL; Adkvfodef;a&T ?
trSw(f 3)wyfcrGJ LS ; Adv
k af ersK;d ESihf wyfc(GJ 3)cJzG UGJ Ny;D wyfom;(204)a,muf yg0ifygonf/ZGev
f
17 &ufaeYwGif AdkvfBuD;pef;,k OD;pD;aom trSwf(2)wyf&if;onf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;\
trdefYt& a&TawmifodkY qufvufcsDwufcJh&m n(7)em&DwGifa&muf&SdcJhonf/ ZGefv 18
&ufaeYwiG f r[mrdww
f yfrsm; xHrS ulnaD omppfum;(8)pD;jzifh ewfwvif;odcYk sw
D ufco
hJ nf/
ewfwvif; ta&SU"r®i,f&GmodkYn(7)em&DwGif a&muf&SdcJhonf/ ZGefv 23 &ufaeYwGif
pef;Bu;D &GmodcYk sw
D ufc&hJ m u&ifa&aemuf(awmifay:pcef;)wGif *syefrsm;pcef;cs aeaMumif;
owif;&&Scd o
hJ nf/Zlvikd v
f 13 &ufaeYwiG f Adv
k Bf u;D pef;,k OD;pD;aom wyf&if;(2)onfzg;,m;Bu;D
uefpkodkY wyfjyefacgufí Zlvdkif 14 &ufaeYwGif "r®i,fudkjzwfí aygufukef;odkY
a&muf&pdS cef;csco
hJ nf/ 1945ckEpS ?f pufwifbm 2 &ufaeYwiG f wdu
k sKyd ifv,fatmftwGi;f &Sd
1

ocifwifjr? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;XmecsKyfESifh wdkif; (10) wdkif; /
3- Burd /f (&efuek ?f r[meE´ pmay? 1976) pm 334/

59
tar&duefppfoabFm tufpf? tufpf? rpfql&Drpf r[mrdwfwyfrsm;\ ppfaoemywdcsKyf
Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D rwftmom a&SUarSmufü *syefwv
Ykd ufeufcstnHch aH Mumif;vufrw
S af &;xk;d cJo
h nf/
þodkYjzifh ydpdzdwfppfrsufESmppfyJGBuD; NyD;qHk;cJhonf/ zufqpf awmfvSefa&;wGif acsrIef;
wdkufcdkufa&;ESifh taemufwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf\ vkHNcKHa&; wm0efrsm;xrf;aqmif&onf/
yJc;l &d;k rbuf wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyf ppfqifa&;wGif a&S;OD;csw
D yf&if;udk OD;aqmifyg0if wdu
k cf u
kd o
f nf/
zufqpfawmfveS af &; Ny;D qk;H í rsK;d cspAf rmhwyfrawmf zsuo
f rd ;f onftxd wm0efxrf;aqmif
cJo
h nf/
1946ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 10 &ufaeYwGif OD;pef;,konf uE´DpmcsKyfoabmwlnD
csut
f & topfjyefvnfzUGJ pnf;aom ArmhwyfrawmfwiG f trSwf 3 Armhaoewfuikd w
f yf&if;ü
'kw,
d Adv
k t
f qifjh zifh wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/1 Junior Officer Course (J.O.C) ESihf UDOS
Course No.4 oifwef; wufNy;D aemuf zsmykc
H &dik w
f iG f rNird rf oufjzpfí EdrS ef if;a&;wm0ef,l
&onf/ &cdkifjynfe,fppfqifa&;wGifyg0ifonf/ zsmykH? usKdufvuf? bdkuav;? rtlyif?
anmifwek ;f a'owdu
k yf ?GJ pufaumfwu
kd yf ?GJ tif;pdew
f u
kd yf ?GJ yJc;l ? 'du
k Of ;D ppfrsuEf mS rsm;rSwpfqifh
awmifBu;D ppfrsuEf mS txd yg0ifwu
kd cf u
kd cf o
hJ nf/OD;pef;,konf 1947ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 23
&ufaeYwiG f Adv
k Bf u;D tqifjh zif'h w
k ,
d wyfcrGJ LS ;? wyfcrGJ LS ;wm0efrsm;ukx
d rf;aqmifco
hJ nf/
3-2/

vGwv
f yfa&;&Ny;D acwfwm0efxrf;aqmifr(I 1948-1962)

1949ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 24 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfrSL;tqihfjzifh 'kwd,wyf&if;rSL;
wm0efudk trSwf(3) Armhaoewfudkifwyf&if;üyif qufvuf wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/
1949ckEpS ?f Ed0k ifbmv 25 &ufaeYwiG f 'kw,
d Adv
k rf LS ;Bu;D tqifo
h Ykd wd;k jri§ chf eft
Y yfjcif;cH&Ny;D
trSwf(1) ta&;ay:u,m;aoewfudkifwyf&if;ü wyf&if;rSL;tjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;
cH&onf/ uavmNrKd UwGif tajcpdu
k Nf y;D uavm? rdwv
D¬ mESihf vdKG iaf umf a'orsm;udk wm0ef,&l
onf/ rauG;odw
Yk yf&if;ajymif;Ny;D awmifwiG ;f Bu;D ukd &efov
Yl ufrS jyefvnford ;f ydu
k &f mwGif
yg0ifonf/ 1950jynfEh pS w
f iG f r*Fvm'küH ppfO;D pD;wuúov
kd f oifwef; trSwpf Of 3 wufaepOf
ppf&;Hk rS jyefvnfac:,lNy;D trSwf 2 ta&;ay:csi;f aoewfuikd f wyf&if;ü wyf&if;rSL;tjzpf
wm0efay;tyfonf/ wyf&if;rSL;wm0eftjyif ppfawGNrdKUe,fwyfrSL; wm0efudkvnf;
xrf;aqmifonf/
OD;pef;,konf 1951ckESpfarv 29 &ufaeYwGif ajrmufydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyfü
1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppfordik ;f jywdu
k Ef iS hf wyfrawmfarmfueG ;f wdu
k /f wyfrawmfordkif;
(wwd,wJ)G 1945- 1948/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiph f me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1995)
pm 60/

60
,m,Dvufaxmuf ppfa&;ESihf ppfaxmufcsKyt
f jzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1952ckEpS ?f
ZGev
f wGif trSw2f 1 ajcvsiw
f yf&if; wyf&if;rSL;wm0efuykd ;l wJx
G rf;aqmifonf/ 1952ckEpS ?f
ZlvdkifvwGif ajrmufydkif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyfü vufaxmufppfa&;ESifh ppfaxmufcsKyftjzpf
wm0efay;tyfjcif; cH&onf/ 1952ckESpf?'DZifbmvwGif ppf&mxl;cefYcsKyf&kH; ppf&mxl;cefY
twGi;f 0eftjzpf ajymif;a&TUwm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ 1956ckEpS w
f iG f Adv
k rf LS ;Bu;D tqifo
h w
Ykd ;kd jri§ hf
cefYtyfjcif; cH&onf/ 1959ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 25 &ufaeYwGif AdkvfrSL;BuD;tqifhjzifh
ajrmufydkif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyf wdkif;rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1959ckESpf?{NyDv 9 &ufaeYwGif
Adv
k rf LS ;csKyt
f qifo
h Ykd wd;k jri§ chf eft
Y yfjcif; cH&onf/ 1961ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f 16 &ufaeYwiG f wdik ;f rSL;
wm0eftjyif wyfr[m 1 wyfr[mrSL; tjzpf vnf;aumif;wm0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/ 1960
jynfEh pS f ? atmufwb
dk mv 1 &ufaeYwiG f ajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f wkid ;f rSL;tjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifaepOf
yDuif;NrdKUokdY w&kwf-jrefrme,fedrdwfpmcsKyfvufrSwfa&;xkd;yGJtcrf;tem;tm; OD;ae0if;?
OD;EkwEYdk iS t
hf wl Akv
d rf LS ;csKyf pef;,kvnf;wufa&mufco
hJ nf/ 1atmufwb
kd mv 16 &ufaeYwiG f
ta&SUydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf wdkif;rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif;? Edk0ifbmv 29 &ufaeYwGif
taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyf wdik ;f rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ wdik ;f rSL;
wm0efxrf;aqmifpOf Auyrsm;? wefY,ef;e,fajrqlylaomif;usef;rIrsm;? ucsifjynfe,f
vIy&f mS ;rIrsm;ESifh w&kwjf zLvIy&f mS ;rIrsm;udk wdu
k cf u
kd af csreI ;f onf/
OD;pef;,konf 1963ckEpS ?fazaz:0g&Dv 15 &ufaeYwiG f 'kw,
d umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf
(Munf;)tjzpf wd;k jri§ hf ceft
Y yf jcif;cH&onf/ 1972ckEpS f atNyD 20 &ufaeY wGif Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D
tqifhodkY wdk;jr§ifhcefYtyfjcif;cH&NyD; umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/
1978ckEpS f rwfv 3 &ufaeYwiG f Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D tqifjh zifh umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyw
f m0efrS tNird ;f pm;
,lonf/
4/

Ekid if aH &;b0

4-1/

1962-1988 ckEpS Ef idk if aH &;BuKd ;yrf;rI

OD;pef;,konf 1962ckEpS ?f rwfv 2 &ufaeYwiG f awmfveS af &;aumifpt
D zJUG 0iftjzpf
wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1963ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 3 &ufaeYwiG f awmfveS af &;tpd;k &tzJUG
b@ma&; ESit
hf cGeXf mewm0efc(H 0efBu;D )tjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1969ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 18&ufaeYwiG f
rlvwm0efrsm;tjyif trsK;d om;pDru
H ed ;f 0efBu;D Xme 0efBu;D tjzpfvnf;aumif; xrf;aqmifonf/
1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku
d Ef iS w
hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku
d /f wyfrawmforkdif;
pwkw¬wGJ (1948-1962)
(1948-1962)/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1996)
pm 158/

61
1971ckESpf? Zlvdkifv 9&ufaeYwGif awmfvSefa&;aumifpDudk topfjyefvnfzJGUpnf;&m
awmfveS af &; aumifpt
D zJUG 0iftjzpf qufvufwm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1971ckEpS ?f Zlvik d v
f
15&ufaeYwGif jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH tpdk;&tzJGU zJGUpnf;&m b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;
tjzpfxrf;aqmifonf/ 1971ckESpf? pufwifbmv 20&ufaeYwGif rlvwm0efrsm;tjyif
jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHtpdk;&tzJGU 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyftjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/
1972ckESpf? {NyDv 20&ufaeYwGif jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHtpdk;tzJGUudk jyifqifzJGUpnf;&m
'kw,
d 0efBu;D csKyEf iS hf umuG,af &;0efBu;D tjzpfwm0ef xrf;aqmifonf/
OD;pef;,konf 1962ckEpS ?f Zlvikd v
f wGif jrefrmhq&kd ,
S v
f pfvrf;pOfygwD ygwDpnf;urf;
xdef;odrf;a&;aumfrwDü tzJGU0iftjzpfaqmif&Gufonf/ 1963ckESpf? pufwifbmvwGif
ygwDpnf;&kH;a&;A[dkaumfrwD tzJGU0iftjzpfwm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1964ckESpf?
Mo*kwv
f wGif ygwDpnf;&k;H a&;A[dak umfrwDtaxGaxG twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf aqmif&u
G o
f nf/
1965ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&DvwGif ygwDpnf;&k;H a&;aumfrwDuw
kd ;kd csUJ zJUG pnf;&m taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;
tjzpf qufvufwm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1967ckEpS ?f atmufwb
kd mvwGif qd&k ,
S v
f pf
pD;yGm;a&;pDru
H ed ;f aumfrwD tzJUG 0iftjzpf aqmif&u
G o
f nf/ 1971ckEpS ?f rwfvwGif qd&k ,
S v
f pf
pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;aumfrwDudk jyefvnfzJGUpnf;&m 'kwd,OuúXtjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;
cH&onf/ 1971ckESpf?pufwifbmvwGif zJGUpnf;aom tzJGU0if 97 OD;yg0ifonhf EkdifiHawmf
zJUG pnf;ykt
H ajccHOya'opf(rlMurf;)a&;qJaG &; aumfr&SiOf uúXtjzpfvnf;aumif;? jynforl sm;\
qE´oabmxm;ESifh tBuHay;csufrsm; &,la&; tzJGUcJG 5 (ucsifjynfe,f)? tzJGUcJG 12
(rEÅav;wdkif;)? tzJGUcJG 15 (&efukefwdkif;)wdkYwGif tzJGUcJGacgif;aqmiftjzpf vnf;aumif;
aqmif&Gufonf/ 1974ckESpf? ZlvdkifvwGif wyfrawmfygwD aumfrwDOuúXtjzpf wm0ef
ay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/
OD;pef;,konf 1971ckESpf yxrtBudrfygwDnDvmcH? 1973ckESpf 'kwd,tBudrf
ygwDnv
D mcH? 1977ckEpS f wwd,tBurd f ygwDnv
D mcHEiS hf 1977ckEpS f ta&;ay: ygwDnv
D mcH
wdw
Yk iG f ygwDA[dk aumfrwD0ifEiS yhf gwDtaxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf a&G;cs,w
f m0efay;tyfjcif;
cH&onf/ 1981ckEpS ?f pwkwt
¬ Burd yf gwDnv
D mcHwiG f ygwDA[dak umfrwDEiS hf A[dt
k vkyt
f rI
aqmifaumfrwD 'kw,
d OuúXjzpf a&G;cs,w
f m0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1988ckEpS ?f ta&;ay:
ygwDnv
D mcHwiG f ygwDA[dak umfrwDEiS hf A[dt
k vkyt
f rIaqmifaumfrwD 'kw,
d OuúXtjzpfrS
tem;,lonf/
OD;pef;,konf 1974 ckEpS f yxrtBurd f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfEiS jhf ynfoaYl umifpt
D qifq
h ifh
a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufy?JG 1978 ckEpS f 'kw,
d tBurd jf ynfov
Yl w
T af wmfEiS jhf ynfoaYl umifpt
D qifq
h ifh
a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufyrJG sm;wGif A[ef;NrKd Ue,frq
J E´e,frS jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfu,
dk pf m;vS,t
f jzpf

62
ta&G;cH&NyD; oufqkdif&m jynfolYvTwfawmf yxrtpnf;ta0;rsm;u EkdifiHawmfaumifpD
twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufjcif;cH&onf/ 1981ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbm 9 &ufaeYwwd,
tBurd f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfEiS hf jynfoaYl umifpt
D qifq
h ifh a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufyw
JG iG f A[ef;NrKd Ue,f
rJqE´e,frS jynfolYvTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpfta&G;cH&NyD; wwd,tBudrfjynfolY
vTwaf wmfyxrtpnf;ta0;u Ekid if aH wmfaumifpOD uúXESihf Ekid if aH wmfor®wtjzpf a&G;cs,f
wifajrm§ ufonf/ 1985 ckEpS ?f pwkwt
¬ Burd f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfEiS jhf ynfoUl aumifpt
D qifq
h ifh
a&G;cs,f wifajrm§ ufyw
JG iG f A[ef;NrKd Ue,f? rJqE´e,f trSwf 1 rS jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfu,
dk pf m;vS,f
tjzpfta&G;cH&Ny;D pwkwt
¬ Burd jf ynfov
Yl w
T af wmf yxrtpnf;ta0;u Ekid if aH wmfaumifpD
OuúXESiEhf idk if aH wmfor®wtjzpf xyfraH &G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufonf/ OD;pef;,konf 1987 ckEpS ?f
Zlvikd v
f 21 &ufaeYwiG f tltwufa&mifa&m*gjzifh r*Fvm'Hpk pfaq;½Ho
k w
Ykd ufa&mufc&hJ ygonf/
OD;pef;,kEkdifiHawmfor®wBuD;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOf 1987ckESpf? pufwifbmv
5&ufaeUwGif EkdifiHawmfaumifpDonf jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHrS xkwfa0xm;aom
ESpq
f ,fig;usy?f ok;H q,fig;usyEf iS hf ckEpS q
f ,fig;usyw
f efaiGpuúLrsm;ukd w&m;0ifaiGtjzpfrS
&yfpJonfhOya'uJhokdY tmPmwnfaomtrdefY(trdefY trSwf 1^1987) ukdxkwfjyef
aMunmcJo
h nf/ xkt
Yd jyif,if;trdet
Yf & 1987ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f twGuf vpmaiGEiS hf yifpifaiGrsm;
xkw,
f Nl y;D aom 0efxrf;rsm;ESihf yifpif aiGrsm;tm; ,if;Mo*kwt
f wGuf aemufxyfwpfvpmykd
tjzpf vpmaiGESifh yifpifaiGrsm;ukd xyfrHxkwf,lcGifhjyKonfh trdefYaMumfjimpmwkdYukd
xkwfjyefaMujimcJhonf/1 1987ckESpf? pufwifbmv 22 &ufaeYwGif jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEkdifiHawmfbPfrS av;q,fhig;usyfwef? usyfukd;q,fwef aiGpuúL trsdK;tpm;opf
rsm;ukd pwifxw
k af 0onf/2 1988 ckEpS f Zlvidk v
f 27 &ufaeYpwkwt
¬ Burd f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmf
ta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;wGif Ekid if aH wmfaumifpD OuúXESihf Ekid if aH wmfor®wwm0efrt
S Nird ;f pm;
,lonf/
1986 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 11 &ufaeYwiG f rGejf ynfe,f armfvNrKd iNf rKd U&Sd armfvNrKd if
'D*&Daumvdyf ukd wu o
ú v
dk t
f qifo
h v
Ydk nf;aumif;? ucsijf ynfe,fjrpfBu;D em;NrKd U&Sd jrpfBu;D em;
aumvdy?f &ckid jf ynfe,f ppfawGaumvdyEf iS hf &Sr;f jynfe,f awmifBu;D NrKd U&Sd awmifBu;D aumvdyf
wkdUukd 'D*&Daumvdyfrsm;tqihfokdY vnf;aumif; 39 ESpfajrmuf jynfaxmifpkaeYrSpí

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1988
1988/ pmayAdrmef/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1988/
pm 253/

2

,if;/

63
toD;oD;wk;d jri§ zhf UJG pnf; ay;Ekid cf o
hJ nf/ 1983 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv(1)&ufaeY wGif &cdik ?f ajrmufO;D
AE¨Kv wHwm;opfuv
kd nf;aumif;? 1983ckEpS ?f arv(4)&ufaewGif {&m0wDwikd ;f ? usKaH ysm¼f
wHwm;opf udkvnf;aumif;? 1983ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv(4)&ufaeYwGif rGefjynfe,f?
bD;vif;wHwm;opfBuD;udkvnf;aumif;? 1983ckESpf rwfv(2)&ufaeYwGif rJZmBudK;wHwm;
udv
k nf;aumif;? 1983ckEpS f rwfv(19)&ufaeYwiG f rGejf ynfe,f? armfvNrKd irf S rkwrå odu
Yk ;l onfh
jrpfqyd f armfawmf,mOfa&qif;wHwm;udk vnf;aumif; toD;oD;zGiv
hf pS af y; Edik cf o
hJ nf/
jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHawmfomoemawmf oefY&Sif;wnfwHhjyefYyGm;a&;
*kdPf;aygif;pkH oHCmhtpnf;ta0;yGJBuD; xajrmufatmifjrifjcif;ESifh *kdPf;aygif;pkH
oH C mh n D ñ G w f r I & &S d j cif ; txd r f ; trS w f t jzpf a&T w d * k H a pwD a wmf j rwf w nf & S d & m
od*Fkwå&ukef;awmf\ awmifbuf ukdufig;&mcefY tuGmta0;üwnf&Sdonfh "r®&ud©w
uke;f awmfay:wGif r[m0dZ,apwD awmfudk &[ef;&Siv
f jl ynfot
l rsm;ESit
hf wl 1986 ckEpS ?f
rwfv 4 &ufaeY? t*Fgae eHeuf 5 em&Dtcsed w
f iG f atmifjrifpmG wnfxm;ay;cJo
h nf/
"r®&udw
© uke;f awmf[o
l nfrmS w&m;apmifah omuke;f awmf[k t"dymÜ ,f&onf/
rGeb
f &k ifrBu;D &Siaf pmykonf xku
d ek ;f awmfay:wGif Oykoo
f w
D if;oDvapmifo
h ;Hk í ur®Xmef;
w&m;pD;jzef; tm;xkwzf ;l onft
h wGuaf Mumifv
h nf;aumif;? vlom;wkw
Yd &m;ukd apmifMh uvQif
w&m;awmfu vlom;wku
Yd dk jyefvnfapmifah &Smufonfqo
dk nfh Ak'a¨ 'oemawmfudk aemifvm
aemifom;wkdY odrSwfapvkdaomaMumifhvnf;aumif;? wdyd#"& "r®b@m*g&du tbd"Z
r[m&X*k½k b'´EÅ 0dpdwå om&mbd0Ho q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;u xkdukef;awmfukd "r®&u©dw
ukef;awmf[lítrnfay;awmfrlcJhonf/ r[m0dZ,[laoma0g[m&ukd (r[m+0d+Z,)
[ko;Hk yk'cf jJG cm;í t"dymÜ ,fziG v
hf Qif (r[m=Bu;D us,af om? 0d=xl;jcm;aom? Z,=atmify)JG [k
wpfyk'fpD teuft"dyÜm,f&onf/ xl;jcm;aom atmifyGJBuD;[kqkdvkdygonf/ jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEdkifiHawmf omoemhorkdif;wGif rBuKHpzl;BuD;us,f xl;jcm;vSaom *kdPf;aygif;pkH
oHCmawmfrsm;pnf;vkH;nDñGwfrIatmifyGJ&&Sdjcif; txdrf;trSwftjzpf wnfaqmufaom
apwDawmfjzpfaomaMumifh wdyd#u"& "r®b@m*g&du tbd"Zr[m&X*k½kb'´EÅ0dpdwå
om&mbd0Ho q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;u apwDawmf\ bGJUawmfukd r[m0dZ,apwDawmf[k
owfrw
S af wmfrjl cif;jzpfaMumif;od&&dS ygonf/1

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1987
1987/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1987) pm 27/

64
5/

*k P f j yKcsD ; usL;cH & jcif ;

OD;pef;,konf jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rIwGif yg0ifcJhjcif;? EkdifiHawmfu
ay;tyfonfh wm0efrsm;ukd BudK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhjcif;wkdYaMumifh EkdifiHawmfu csD;jr§ihfaom
ta&;awmfyHk wHqdyf? vGwfvyfa&;pnf;&Hk;rIwHqdyf? vGwfajrmufa&;wHqdyf? vGwfvyfa&;
wHqdyf? pwm;wHqdyf? bm;rm;pwm;wHqdyf? urÇmppfwHqdyf? ppfrIxrf;aumif;wHqdyf?
EkdifiHawmfppfrI xrf;wHqdyf? jynfy&efESdrfwHqdyf? jynfolYppfwkdufyGJ0ifwHqdyf? oD&dysHcsDbGJU?
oa&pnfob
l UJG ? vGwv
f yfa&;armfueG ;f 0if (yxrqif)h ESihf Ekid if *hH P
k &f nfbUJG (yxrqif)h wku
Yd dk
&&Scd o
hJ nf/
6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

OD;pef;,konf 1952 ckeSpf? atmufwkdbmvwGif AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if; OD;pD;onfh
ppfrpf&iS t
f zGUJ \ twGi;f a&;rSLK;tjzpfaqmif&u
G í
f tar&duefEidk if o
H Ydk oGm;a&mufonf/ 1954f ifwef;
55 ckEpS w
f iG f tar&duefEidk if üH Command and General Staff College Course wpfEpS o
wufa&mufonf/ 1960 jynfEh pS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 1 &ufaeYwiG f w&kwjf ynfoo
Yl r®wEkid if o
H Ydk
ESpBf urd o
f mG ;a&mufí w&kw-f jrefrm e,fjcm;udpaö qmif&u
G o
f nf/ 1983ckEpS f pufwifbmv
4 &ufaeYwGif [efa*&D jynfolYor®wEdkifiH odkYvnf;aumif;? cspfMunfa&;c&D;tjzpf 1984
ckEpS ?f Zlvikd v
f 1 &ufaeYwiG f *syefEidk if EH iS hf atmufwb
dk mv 28 &ufaeYwiG f w&kwjf ynfoo
Yl r®
wEkdifiHokdY vnf;aumif;? 1986 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmvwGif b*Fvm;a'h&SfjynfolYor®wEkdifiH
okdYvnf;aumif;? ukd;&D;,m;or®wEkdifiH or®wcsef'l;0Srf\ zdwfMum;csuft& EkdifiHawmf
or®wBuD; OD;pef;,konf ZeD;a':oef;&SdefESifh twl tzGJU0ifrsm; vkdufygvsuf udk;&D;,m;
or®wEkid if o
H Ydk 1987 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f * &ufrS 12 &uftxd cspMf unfa&;c&D; oGm;a&mufco
hJ nf/
1987ckESpfZGefv 29 &ufaeY tif'dkeD;½Sm;EdkifiH odkYvnf;aumif;? Zlvdkifv 4 &ufaeYwGif
rav;&Sm;Edik if o
H v
Ykd nf;aumif;? atmufwb
kd m 20 &ufaeYwiG f ,l*q
dk vm;AD;,m;qk&d ,
S v
f pf
jynfaxmifpkor®wEkdifiH OD;aoQmiftzGJUOuúX rpöwmvmZmrGdKifaqmh\ zdwfMum;csuft&
vnf;aumif;? ½kad reD;,m; qk&d ,
S v
f pfor®wEkid if H or®wrpöwm eDuv
dk u
dk af csmuf&u
S pf ul\
zdwfMum;csuft& atmufwkdbmv 23 &ufrS 27 &uftxdvnf;aumif;? jynfaxmifpk
or®w*smreDEkdifiH or®wBuD;zdwfMum;csuft& atmufwkdbmv 28 &ufrS Ekd0ifbmv 2
&uftxdvnf;aumif; tqkyd gEkid if t
H oD;oD;okYd Ekid if aH wmfor®wBu;D ESihf Ekid if aH wmfaumifpD
OuúX OD;pef;,konf ZeD;a':oef;&Sed Ef iS t
hf wl tzGUJ 0ifrsm;vku
d yf gvsuf {nfo
h nfawmftjzpf
cspMf unfa&; c&D;rsm; oGm;a&mufco
hJ nf/

65
7/

rdom;pk

OD;pef,o
k nf 1947 ckEpS ?f atNyv
D 24 &ufaeYwiG f &efuek Nf rKd Uae ynmrif;Bu;D \
tyg;awmfNrJ OD;&Sdef0SufESifha':oef;a&TwkdY\orD;? tif;pdeftpkd;&ausmif;? ausmif;q&mr
a':oef;&SdefESifhvufxyf cJhonf/ orD;av;OD;xGef;um;í orD;rsm;rSm a':vJhvJh,k+
OD;armifarmif0if;? a':cifaqG,k+ OD;atmifausmf? a':at;oef;,kESifh a':apm,krGef+
OD;jrihMf unfwjYdk zpfMuonf/ trSwf (16)? uarÇmZ&dyo
f m? A[ef;NrKd Ue,fwiG f aexkid o
f nf/
jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;twGuf oufpGefYBudK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhNyD; EkdifiHhwm0efrsm;ukd
uk,
d u
f sKd ;rzuf? pGr;f pGr;f wrHBuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u
G cf ahJ om Ekid if aH wmfaumifpOD uúX(tNird ;f pm;)?
Ekid if aH wmfor®w (tNird ;f pm;)ESihf umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKy(f tNird ;f pm;) OD;pef;,konf 1996 ckEpS ?f
Zefe0g&Dv 28 &ufaeYwiG f &efuek Nf rKd Uü uG,v
f eG o
f nf/ uG,v
f eG cf sed w
f iG f ZeD; a':oef;&Sed Ef iS hf
orD;av;OD;? ajr;ajcmufO;D use&f pfonf/

66

yHk (7)
OD;pdev
f iG f (or®w)
[ 1988 ckESpf ]

OD;pdefvGif
(or®w)
( arG; 27-1-1924 uG,v
f eG f 9-4-2004 )
1/

i,fpOfb0
OD;pdev
f iG o
f nf 1924 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 27 &ufaeYwiG f aygifNrKd UüarG;zGm;cJo
h nf/

2/

ynmoifb0

3/

0efxrf;b0

tv,fwef;jyq&mtjzpf wm0ef xrf;aqmifcJhonf/ 1942 ckESpfwGif
Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;wyfrawmfwiG f 0ifa&muftrIxrf;cJyh gonf/ 1943 ckEpS w
f iG f ArmhumuG,f
a&;wyfrawmf wyf&if;(1)wGif t&m&St
d jzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf/ 1944 ckEpS ?f arv
27 &ufaeYwiG f *syefacwfwwd,ywf ppfwuúov
dk f Akv
d o
f ifwef;wufa&mufNy;D Ek0d ifbmv
30 &ufaeYwGif ausmif;qif;cJhonf/1 1945 ckESpfwGif wkdif;(2) jrpf0uRef;ay:a'oü
zufqpf*syefawmfveS &f mwGif wyf&if;(83)ü wyfcrJG LS ;tjzpf wm0ef,x
l rf;aqmifcyhJ gonf/
1946 ckEpS w
f iG f aoewfuidk w
f yf&if;(4)üwyfom;tqifw
h m0efxrf;aqmifcNhJy;D 1948 ckEpS w
f iG f
jyefwrf;0ift&m&Sjd zpfcyhJ gonf/ weoFm&Dwidk ;f rif;Bu;D \ tyg;awmfNrw
J m0efxrf;aqmif&ef
jynfxJa&;XmeokdY wGJzufxm;jcif;cHcJh&onf/ 1949 ckESpfwGifjynfxJa&;okdYwGJzuf&mrS
xm;0,fppf0efxrf;wyf&if;rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1950 jynfEh pS w
f iG f trSw(f 3)ajcvsiw
f yf&if;
üf wyfcGJrSL;? 1951-52 ckESpfwGif trSwf(1)avhusifha&;wyf wyfcGJrSL;? 1952-53 ckESpfwGif
wyfxed ;f trSw(f 2)wyfcw
JG yfrLS ;? 1953-54 ckEpS üf csi;f aoewfuidk f wyf&if;wGif 'kwyf&if;rSL;ESihf
trSw(f 1)avhusiahf &;wyf 'kw,
d wyf&if;rSL;? 1957 ckEpS w
f iG f trSw(f 4) aoewfuidk f wyf&if;
wyf&if;rSL; ponfjzifh toD;oD;wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhygonf/ 1965-69 ckESpftxd
taemufawmifwkdif; ppfXmecsKyf 'kwd,wkdif;rSL;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhNyD; 1969-70
jynfEh pS t
f xd ta&SUykid ;f wkid ;f AsL[mrSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1970-72 ckEpS x
f d wkid ;f Bu;D Muyfa&;
Ouú|tjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1972-74 ckESpfxd taemufajrmufwkdif;ppfXmecsKyf wkdif;rSL;
tjzpfvnf;aumif; tqifq
h ifw
h m0efxrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf/

1

Akv
d rf if;ñk?d *syefacwfppfwuúokdvf/ (&efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw
f u
dk ?f 1969)

pm223/

68
4/

Ekid if aH &;b0

1962 ckESpf? rwfv 2 &ufaeYwGif wyfrawmfu EkdifiHawmfukdxdef;odrf;&mü
uGyfuJrI acgif;aqmifwpfa,muftaejzifhyg0if aqmif&GufcJh&ygonf/ 1965 ckESpftxd
jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D Xme 'Dru
dk a&pDa'oEÅ&tkycf sKyaf &;ESihf a'oEÅ& tzGUJ tpnf;rsm; 0efBu;D Xme?
vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESifh trsdK;om;rSwfyHkwifa&;0efBuD;Xme? w&m;a&; 0efBuD;XmewkdY wGif
twGi;f 0ef? ygwDvyk if ef;pdppfa&;aumfrwD0iftjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1978 ckEpS ?f
atmufwkdbm v 7 &ufaeYwGif jynfxJa&;0efBuD; AkdvfrSL;BuD; pdefvGifonf &ckdifjynfe,f?
armifawmfNrdKUe,f? awmifNydKvuf0JvufcHa&;pcef;wGif [oFmpDrHcsuft& b*Fvm;a'h&Sf
bufoYdk wdr;f a&Smif oGm;olrsm; vufcaH &;tm; wm0ef,al qmif&u
G cf &hJ ygonf/1 ta&;ay:
ygwDnDvmcHwGif ygwDA[kdtvkyftrI aqmifaumfrwD0iftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifjcif;?
or0g,r0efBu;D Xme 0efBu;D ? ykaYd qmifqufo,
G af &; 0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D 1980 jynfEh pS w
f iG f
jynfxaJ &;ESio
hf moema&; 0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D ? 1981-82 ckEpS t
f wGuf tm&SzUHG NzKd ;a&;bPf
*gAemrsm;bkwt
f zGUJ \ obmywdtjzpf ceft
Y yfjcif; cH&onf/ 1981 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv
4 &ufaeYrS 18 &ufaeYtxdusi;f ycJah om jynfoYl vTwaf wmfEiS jhf ynfoaYl umifpt
D qihq
f ifh
a&G;cs,fyGJwGif EkdifiHawmfaumifpD0iftjzpf a&G;cs,fjcif; cH&NyD; EkdifiHawmfumuG,fa&;ESifh
vHNk cKH a&;&maumfrwDwiG v
f nf; tzGUJ 0iftjzp w
f m0efay;tyf jcif;cHc&hJ ygonf/2 1985 ckEpS ?f
atmufwb
dk mv 6 &ufaeYr2S 0 &ufaeYtxdusi;f ycJah om pwkwt
¬ Burd jf ynfov
Yl w
T af wmfEiS hf
jynfoYl aumifpD tqifq
h ifh a&G;cs,yf w
JG iG Ef idk if aH wmfaumifpD twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpfa&G;cs,f
wifajrm§ ufjcif;cHc&hJ jyefygonf/3 wGzJ uftaxGaxG ygwDtwGi;f a&;rSL; tjzpfvnf;wm0ef
xrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/ 1981 ckEpS f ZGev
f 17 &ufaeYwiG f jynfxaJ &;ESio
hf moema&;0efBu;D tjzpf
a&G;cs,jf cif;cHchJ &onf/ 1988 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 27 &ufaeYwiG u
f si;f ycJah om pwkwt
¬ Burd jf ynfoYl
vTwfawmfta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;ukd jynfolUvTwfawmfcef;rü usif;y&m OD;pdefvGiftm;
EkdifiHawmfaumifpDOuú|ESifh EkdifiHawmfor®w tjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufjcif;cHcJh&ygonf/
jynfaxmifpk qk&d ,
S v
f pfor®w jrefrmEkid if aH wmf zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'yk'rf 76 t& tyfEiS ;f
xm;aom vkyyf idk cf iG u
hf o
dk ;kH pGv
J suf &efuek w
f idk ;f &efuek Nf rKd Uawmfpnfyifom,ma&; e,ferd w
d f
twGif;&Sd NrdKUe,f 27 NrdKUe,fwGif ta&;ay:tajctaeaMujimí ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'ukd

1

a&SUokdY/ trSwf 343? (1 Ekd 1978) pm 25/

2

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1982
1982/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1982) pm 101/

3

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1986
1986/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1986) pm 44/

69
Ekid if aH wmfaumifpOD uú| OD;pdev
f iG u
f vufrw
S f a&;xk;d vsuf Ekid if aH wmfaumifpaD Munmcsuf
trSwf 5^88 jzifh 1988 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f 3 &ufaeYwiG f xkwjf yefco
hJ nfuadk wG&Y &dS ygonf/1
tqkdygppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'ukd Mo*kwfv 24 &uf aeYwGif&kyfodrf;cJhygonf/ 1988 ckESpf?
Zlvidk v
f 28 &ufaeYcefrY pS wifNy;D &efuek Nf rKd UwGif qE´jyrIrsm;jzpfymG ;cJyh gonf/ xkad emufMo*kwv
f
8 &ufcefYrSpí &efukef? oefvsif? rEÅav;? a&eHacsmif;? rif;bl;? yckuúL? yJcl;? armfvNrdKif?
awmifBu;D ? xm;0,f? jrpfBu;D em;? ppfuidk ;f ? bku
d av;? a&Tb?dk awmifi?l Nrw
d pf aom NrKd Ursm;wGif
vlpv
k al 0;jzifh qE´jyrIrsm;jzpfymG ;cJNh y;D taxGaxGoydwaf rSmuf vlxq
k E´jyyGBJ u;D txd us,jf yefY
vmcJhygonf/3
1988 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 9 &ufaeY wGif jrefrmwpfEkdifiHvHk;&Sd pmoifausmif;rsm;
tm;vHk;ukd ydwfvkduf&ygonf/ jynfolY0efxrf;rsm;? puf&Hk? tvkyf&Hk vkyfief;Xmersm;&Sd
vkyo
f m;0efxrf;rsm;? wyfrawmfom;rsm;ESihf tNird ;f pm;0efxrf;rsm;tm; vuf&t
dS ykad xmufyhH
aMu;tjyif wk;d jri§ chf pH m;cGijhf yKvu
dk &f m vpmEIe;f usy(f 100-2-110 rS 150-10-220) twGi;f &Sd
rlvtykad xmufyahH Mu;tjyif xyfrí
H vpOf(45)usyu
f v
dk nf;aumif;? vpmEIe;f (usyf 16010-230 rS 260-15-380)twGif;&SdrlvtykdaxmufyHhaMu;tjyif vpOfusyf (40)ukd
vnf;aumif;? vpmEIe;f usy(f 300-15-420 rS 450-25-700)twGi;f &Sd rlvtykad xmufyahH Mu;
tjyif xyfrí
H vpm (35)usyu
f v
dk nf;aumif;? vpmEIe;f usy(f 500-30-800 rS 800-401000)txd rlvtykad xmufyahH Mu;tjyif xyfrí
H usy(f 30)ukv
d nf;aumif;? aeYpm;vkycf EIe;f
xm;ukv
d nf; (6)usy?f jym;(50)rS (8)usy?f jym;(50)okw
Yd ;dk jri§ í
hf vnf;aumif; cGijhf yKco
hJ nfudk
awGU&S&d ygonf/3
jrefrmhqidk &f ,
S v
f pfvrf;pOfygwDOuú|tjzpfvnf;aumif;? Ekid if aH wmfaumifpOD uú|
ESihf Ekid if aH wmfor®wtjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0efxrf;aqmifcahJ om OD;pdev
f iG f onf ygwDOuú|
wm0efrSvnf;aumif;? EkdifiHawmfaumifpDOuú|? EkdifiHawmfor®wwm0efrsm;ESifh jynfolY
vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpfrSvnf;aumif; 1988 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 12 &ufaeYwGif
Ekwx
f u
G cf yhJ gonf/4

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1989
1989/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1989) pm 244/

2

,if;pm/

3

,if;pm 11/

4

,if;pm 244/

70
5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;

6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

1980 jynfhESpf? 'DZifbmv 18 &ufaeYwGif b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiHokdYvnf;aumif;?
1981 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 15 &ufaeYwiG f uk;d &D;,m;Ekid if o
H v
Ydk nf;aumif;oGm;a&mufcyhJ gonf/

71

yHk (8)
a'gufwm armifarmif (or®w)
[ 1988 ckESpf ]

72

a'gufwmarmifarmif
(or®w)
(arG
arG; 11-1-1925 uG,fvGef 2-7-1994)
1/

i,fpOfb0

a'gufwmarmifarmifonf 1925 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 31 &ufaeY t½kPw
f ufcsed w
f iG f
tz txufwef;a&SUae OD;qif?h trd a':at;wifwrYdk S rEÅav;NrKd Uü arG;zGm;cJo
h nf/ a'gufwm
armifarmif rarG;zGm;rD rdcifa':at;wifrS om;wpfa,mufarG;zGm;cJah omfvnf; wpfEpS o
f m;
t&G,fwGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf/ xkdaMumifha'gufwmarmifarmif arG;zGm;vmaomtcg
rdbrsm;aysm&f iT f cJMh uonf/ om;OD;uav;uJo
h Ydk i,fi,fEiS hf uG,v
f eG rf nfudk pk;d &drcf MhJ uonf/
okjYd zpfí ykcuftwGi;f üyif ouFe;f qnf;ay;jcif;cH&oljzpfonf/
2/

ynmoifb0

rEÅav;NrKd U trsKd ;om;txufwef;ausmif;wGif ynmoif,cl o
hJ nf/ uif;axmuf
tzGJUwGif yg0ifcJhonf/ 0HykavGrS uif;axmufvli,f? aemufykdif;wGif &kdAmpaumufBuD;
jzpfvmonf/ txufjrefrmjynfpaumufrif;Bu;D onf OD;vSBu;D jzpfonf/ tm;vyfcsed rf sm;wGif
OD;vSBu;D &H;k wGif tvHtcsujf yjcif;? aMu;eef;jzift
h csujf yjcif;wku
Yd dk avhusichf o
hJ nf/ ausmif;ydwf
&ufrsm;wGif awmxGufpcef;csonf/ a&ul;wHqdyf? xrif;csufwHqdyf rsdK;pHk&&SdcJhonf/
rdbrsm;onf om;ukd bDpt
D ufjzpfapcsio
f nf/ zcifjzpfoo
l nf om;jzpfot
l m; ]] ynma&;?
tdrfaxmifbufa&G;cs,fa&;ESifh tvkyftudkifa&G;cs,fa&;wkdYwGif zcif\qHk;jzwfrItwkdif;
vkdufem&rnf jzpfaMumif;? usefudpörsm;tm;vHk; rdrdbmomvGwfvyfpGm a&G;cs,fvkyfukdif
Ekid af Mumif;ajymjycJo
h nf/}}1 [k od&&dS ygonf/
1938 ckEpS w
f iG f ausmif;om;oydww
f iG f rEÅav;ausmif;wku
d rf S trsm;pkyg0ifchJ
onf/ tdraf wmf&mbk&m;? pMumoD[bk&m;wGif oydwpf cef;csonf/ &efuek w
f iG f twGi;f 0ef&;kH
rsm;ukd oydwfwm;aom ausmif;om;rsm;tm; ykvdyfwkdYu &kdufESufMuonf/ ausmif;om;
acgif;aqmif ukdatmifausmf usqHk;cJhí tmZmenf Akdvfatmifausmfjzpfvmonf/
Akv
d af tmifausmEf iS hf tmZmenf 17 OD;usq;kH Ny;D aemufyidk ;f wGif rEÅav;wGif &[ef;ysKd rsm;u
trsKd ;orD;rsm;tm; tuØsyg; r0wfMu&ef aqmfMoMuonf/ Ekid if jH cm;rSwifoiG ;f aom 0kid pf rsm;ukd
1

a'gufwmarmifarmif? om;armifppfonfokdY / (&efukef? yk*Hpmtkyf
wkduf? 1973) pm 37/

73
oydwaf rSmufMujcif;jzpfonf/ aqmfMoqH;k rí r&aomolrsm;tm; Burd af qmifíqH;kH ronf/
uwfaMu;jzifh tuØsuu
dk u
dk jf zwfypfonf/ a,mufsm;av; rsm;xHrS bkad uukt
d vSLcHMuonf/
a'gufwmarmifarmifvnf; rdciftwGuf aps;0,fxGufpOf oHCmawmfrsm;ESifhawGYNyD;
ukv
d edk pD epfq;dk \tarGq;dk jzpfaom acgif;ay:rS t*Fvyd q
f aH wmufudk &dwjf cif; cHc&hJ bl;onf/
þenf;jzifh 1300 jynft
h a&;awmfyBkH u;D Ny;D qH;k cJo
h nf/ 1939 ckEpS w
f iG f rEÅav;NrKd U Ak'o
¨ moemh
Ek*¾[ausmif;rS 10 wef;atmifjrifNyD; rEÅav;OypmaumvdyfodyÜHwef;okdY wufa&muf
ynmoifMum;cJo
h nf/ toufi,faeojzifh ausmif;wufciG rhf &bJ ausmif;tkyBf u;D rpöwm
rm&S,\
f cGijhfyKcsujf zifh twef;wufc&hJ onf/ a'gufwmarmifarmifonf &efuek w
f uúov
dk w
f iG f
qufvuf ynmoif,lcJh&m 1946 ckESpf wGif &efukefwuúokdvfrS t*Fvdyfpm*kPfxl;jzifh
0dZmÆ bGUJ &&So
d nf/
a'gufwmarmifarmifonf 1949 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmvwGif vef'efokdY
owif;jzefcY saD &;ynmjzifh ynmawmfoifapvTwjf cif;cH&onf/ a'gufwmarmif Ekid if jH cm;okYd
xGufcGmrnfhtcsdefumvonf wkdif;jynfrNidrfroufjzpfí a&mifpHkaomif;usef;olrsm;
qlylvIyf&Sm; aeonfhtcsdefjzpfojzifh wyfrawmfokdYjyefvnftrIxrf;aqmif&efBudK;yrf;cJ
haomfvnf; txufvlBuD;rsm;\wkdufwGef;csuft& ynmawmfoifxGufcGmcJh&onf/
ynmawmfoifapvTwfonfhbmom&yfrsm;ukdoifMum;&if 0wfvHkynmukdvnf; qnf;yl;cJh
onf/ aEG&moDausmif;ydw&f ufwiG f a[mfvefEidk if o
H o
Ydk mG ;a&mufí tjynfjynfqidk &f mOya'
ynmuko
d if,cl o
hJ nf/ vef'efNrKd UwGif NcKd ;NcaH cRwmpGmaexkid &f if; 0wfvykH nmukd vif;uGe;f tif;1
ü naeykid ;f wufco
hJ nf/ Oya'pmtkyrf sm;onf wefz;dk Bu;D rm;ojzifh wuúov
dk pf mMunfw
h u
dk f
rsm;wGif oGm;a&mufzwf&Ium rSwfpkxkwfcJh&onf/ wuúokdvfpmMunfhwkdufrsm;onf
noef;acgiftcsed t
f xd zGiahf Mumif;od&&dS onf/ um;coufom&ef ausmif;okYd toGm;^tjyef
vrf;avQmufco
hJ nf/ wpfcgwpf&w
H iG f r*¾Zif;wku
d rf sm;okYd aqmif;yg;rsm;ykcYd o
hJ nf/ rEÅav;tdrrf S
*so;l taMumif;aqmif;yg;wpfy'k af &;cJ&h m q,faygif&bl;aMumif;od&&dS onf/ 1953 ckEpS t
f xd
t*FvefEkdifiHvef'efNrdKUü Oya'tjynfjynfqkdif&mqufqHa&;? jyefMum;a&;ynmrsm;ukd
avhvmqnf;yl;onf/ a[mfvefEidk if &H dS Academy of International Law rS tjynfjynfqidk &f m
Oya' 'Dyvkrd m&&So
d nf/ Utrecht wuúov
dk rf S ausmMf um;aomOya'ynm&Sif ygarmu© AmZD;
xHwiG f a'gufwmbGUJ twGuu
f sr;f jyKciG &hf onf/ 1952 ckEpS w
f iG f vef'efNrKd Uvif;uGe;f tif; rS
Barrister-At-Law 0wfvHktjzpfcH,lonf/ 1956 ckESpf? ZGefvwGif a[mfvefEkdifiH Utrecht
wuúokdvfrS tjynfjynfqkdif&m Oya'bmom&yfjzifh Oya'yg&*l L. L. D (Doctor of Law)
1

Lincoln's Inn

2

Prof. J. H. W. Verzijl

74
bGJU&&Sdonf/ 1960 jynfhESpfrS 1962 ckESpftxd tar&duefEkdifiH Yale a,;vfwuúokdvfü
uxdutjzpf pmayykcYd s&if;usr;f jyKum 1961 ckEpS w
f iG f tjynfjynfqidk &f mOya' bmom&yf
twGuf a'gufwmbGJUukd &&Sdonf/
3/

0efxrf;b0

1943 ckEpS w
f iG f ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmf(bD-'D-at) axmufyahH &;wyf&if;okYd
0ifa&muftrIxrf;onf/ wyfMuyftqifh&&SdNyD;aemuf 1944 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 7
&ufaeYwiG *f syefacwf r*Fvm'Hk ppfwuúov
dk f pwkwy¬ wfAv
dk o
f ifwef; wufa&mufcNhJ y;D 1945
1945 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 31 &ufaeYwiG f Akv
d o
f ifwef;qif;cJo
h nf/ 1ppf0efBu;D &H;k ppfynmXmeBu;D
wGif Akdvfav;tqifhjzifh wm0ef xrf;aqmifonf/ awmfvSefa&;wGif [oFmwc&kdif?
rsdK;cspfArmhwyfrawmf wkdif;(1)XmecsKyf? yJEG,fukef;wkdYü wyfrsm;odrf;onftxd wm0ef
xrf;aqmif onf/
1946 ckEpS ?f pufwifbmvrSpí &efuek w
f uúov
dk f t*Fvyd pf mXmeenf;jytjzpf
vnf;aumif;? 1946 ckESpfrS 1947 ckESpftxd jyefMum;a&;Xme? e,l;wkdif;atmhzfbm;rm;
owif;pmt,f'w
D mtjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/ jrefrmEkid if v
H w
G v
f yfa&;aMunmpmwrf;
ukd t*FvdyfbmomokdY jyefqkda&;om;ay;cJhonf/ 2 1948 ckESpf ESpfOD;ykdif;rS 1949 ckESpf?
atmufwb
dk mv txd jrefrmEkid if rH ;D &xm;Xme vufaxmuf twGi;f 0eftjzpfvnf;aumif;
wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifonf/
1953-1955 ckEpS w
f iG t
f pk;d &a&SUaetjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmif&if; Oya'ynmukd
qnf;yl; avhvmcJo
h nf/ 1955 ckEpS w
f iG f Oya'owif;axmufwm0efxrf;aqmifcNhJ y;D 1958
ckEpS w
f iG f vufaxmufa&SUaecsKyt
f jzpf ceft
Y yfjcif;cH&onf/ 1959 ckEpS ?f tdraf pmift
h pk;d &
vufxufwiG f ukvor*¾oaYdk pvTwo
f nfY jrefrmuk,
d pf m;vS,t
f zGUJ wGif yg0ifco
hJ nf/ *syefEidk if H
okdY0ifcJhNyD; [mrmrwfpkNrdKU&Sd Akdvfrkd;BudK;ESifhoGm;a&mufawGYqHkcJhaMumif;od&Sd&onf/ 3 1960
jynfEh pS ?f azazmf0g&DvwGif vufaxmufa&SUaecsKyt
f jzpfrES w
k x
f u
G cf o
hJ nf/ &efuek w
f uúov
dk f
Oya'uxdu wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/
1

Akdvfrif;ñkd/ *syefacwfppfwuúokdvf/ (&efukef? yk*Hpmtkyfwkduf?
1969) pm 340/
2

a'gufwmarmifarmif? om;armifppfonfokdY/ (&efukef? yk*Hpmtkyf
wkduf? 1973) pm 37/
3

a'gufwmarmifarmif/ ]]Akdvfrkd;BudK;eJUawGUcJhpOf}}}? rS [Hom0wD
owif;pm
pm/ (27 rwf 1970 )? pm tcsyfydk-u/

75
4/

Ek d i f i H a &;b0

a'gufwmarmifarmifonf awmfvSefa&;aumifpDvufxufwGif w&m;&Hk;csKyf
w&m;olBu;D csKyt
f jzpfwm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ jrefrmhq&dk ,
S v
f pfvrf;ygwD tjrKawygwD
umv wGif ynma&;&maumfrwD0iftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ 1971 ckESpf
yxrtBudrfygwDnDvmcHwGif ygwDpnf;urf;xdef;odrf;a&;aumfrwDOuúXtjzpf a&G;cs,f
wifajrm§ ufjcif;cH&onf/ 1971 ckEpS w
f iG f zGUJ pnf;aomtzGUJ 0if 97 OD;yg0ifonfh Ekid if aH wmf
zGUJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'opf(rlMurf;)a&;qGaJ &;aumfr&Siw
f iG f tzGUJ 0iftjzpfyg0ifonf/ 1972
ckEpS w
f iG f awmfveS af &;aumifpt
D zGUJ 0ifjzpfvmNy;D 1972 ckEpS rf S 1974 ckEpS t
f xd awmfveS af &;
tpk;d & tzGUJ 0iftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/
a'gufwmarmifarmifonf 'kwd,tBudrfygwDnDvmcH? wwd,tBudrfygwD
nDvmcHESifh pwkw¬tBudrfygwDnDvmcHwkdYwGif A[kdtvkyftrIaqmifaumfrwD0iftjzpf
oHk;Budrfqufwkduf a&G;cs,fjcif;cH&onf/ 1974 ckESpf yxrtBudrfjynfolYvTwfawmfESifh
jynfoaYl umifpt
D qifq
h ifh a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufyw
JG iG f tr&yl&NrKd Ue,f rJqE´e,ftrSw(f 2)rS
vnf;aumif;? 1978 ckESpf 'kwd,tBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmfESifhjynfolYaumifpD tqifhqifh
a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufyGJESifh 1985 ckESpf? pwkw¬tBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmfESifhjynfolYaumifpD
tqifq
h ifh a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufyrJG sm;wGif rEÅav;ta&SUajrmuf NrKd Ue,frq
J E´e,ftrSw(f 1)rS
vnf;aumif; jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfu,
dk pf m;vS,t
f jzpfa&G;cH&Ny;D oufqidk &f m jynfov
Yl w
T af wmf
tpnf;ta0;rsm;u Ekid if aH wmfaumifp0D iftjzpfa&G;cs,f wm0efay;tyfjcif; cH&onf/ 1978
ckEpS w
f iG f Oya'aumfr&SiOf uúXwm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ 1988 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 27 &ufaeYwiG f
jynfolYOya'tusdK;aqmiftzGJUOuúXtjzpf a&G;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&ygonf/ jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpf
vrf;pOfygwD A[kad umfrwD 11 Burd af jrmuftpnf;ta0;ukd 1988 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f 19 &ufaeY
eHeuf 8 ; 30 em&DwGif &efukefNrdKU jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0;cef;rüusif;ycJhonf/
tpnf;ta0;wGif a'gufwmarmifarmiftm; jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwDOuúXtjzpf
a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufcMhJ uygonf/ 1988ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f 19 &ufaeY ? eHeuf 10 ; 15 em&DwiG f
&efuek Nf rKd U jynfoUl vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0;cef;rü pwkwt
¬ Burd jf ynfov
Yl w
T af wmfta&;ay:
tpnf;ta0;usi;f ycJ&h m Ekid if aH wmfaumifpOD uúXESihf Ekid if aH wmfor®wtjzpf rEÅav;wkid ;f ?
rEÅav;ta&SUajrmufNrKd Ue,f rJqE´e,f trSw(f 1)? jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfu,
dk pf m;vS,f a'gufwm
armifarmiftm; a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufcMhJ uygonf/1 1988 ckEpS ?f pufwifbmv 10 &ufaeYwiG f

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1989
1989/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1995) pm 244/

76
jrefrmhq&dk ,
S v
f pfvrf;pOfygwD ta&;ay:nDvmcHudk &efuek Nf rKd U jynfov
Yl w
T af wmftpnf;ta0;
cef;rü usif;y&m wpfygwDpepfESifhygwDpHkpepfteuf rnfonfhpepfukd jynfolrsm;u
BuKd uEf pS o
f ufaMumif; jynfoq
Yl E´c,
H yl u
JG si;f yjcif;rjyKawmhbJ ygwDppkH epfjzifh taxGaxGa&G;
aumufyGJ usif;y&ef ygwDnDvmcHukd,fpm;vS,f 75 &mckdifEIef;ausmfrS oabmwlqHk;jzwfcJh
Muygonf/ Ekid if aH wmfor®wESiEhf idk if aH wmfaumifpOD uúX a'gufwmarmifarmif trSL;jyKaom
pwkw¬tBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmfta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;rS tajccHOya'ukd>cif;csufjyKNyD;
ygwDpHkpepfjzifh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJusif;yEkdif&ef a&G;aumufyGJ aumfr&SifukdzGJUpnf;
ay;cJo
h nfudk awG&Y &dS ygonf/ wpfzef pufwifbmv 16 &ufaeYrpS wifNy;D jynfo0Yl efxrf;rsm;
onf EkdifiHawmftay:opömxm;í jynfolY0efukdom xrf;aqmif&rnfjzpfojzifh ygwDpHk
pepfwGif usifhoHk;cJhonfhtpOftvmESifhtnD jynfolYwyfrawmf? jynfolY&JwyfzGJU paom
umuG,fa&;wyfzGJU0ifrsm;? jynfolY0efxrf;tzGJUtpnf;toD;oD;? EkdifiHykdifpD;yGm;a&;?
bkwaf umfyadk &;&Si;f tzGUJ tpnf;toD;oD;rS 0efxrf;rsm;eSihf Ekid if aH wmfb@mrS vpmcHpm;Mu
aom tjcm;0efxrf;rsm;tm; jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD? ygwD0iftjzpfrS EkwfxGufcGifh
jyKvu
dk af Mumif; xkwjf yefcyhJ gonf/1 1988 ckEpS ?f pufwifbmv 17 &ufaeYwiG f Ekid if aH wmfor®w
tjzpfrS tNird ;f pm;,lco
hJ nf/
a'gufwmarmifarmifonf jrefrmbmom? t*Fvyd b
f momwkjYd zifh pmaya&;om;
jyKpkcJhonf/ jrefrmbmomjzifh a&;om;xkwfa0cJhaom pmtkyftcsdKUrSm aoG;eD(1946)?
ouf&&dS mZ0if (1956)? wkjYd ynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if zH UJG pnf;tkycf sKyyf (kH 1959)? Ekid if aH wmfvyk Bf urH I
jynfaxmifpkESifh OD;apm (1965)? jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifh AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;(1969)?
om;armifppfonfo(Ydk 1972)? w&m;Oya'taxGaxG A[kow
k (1974)ESihf jynfo0Yl efxrf;
om;orD;rsm;okdY(1987)pmtkyfwkdYjzpfonf/ xkdpmtkyfrsm;teuf jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifh
Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;(1969)pmtkyo
f nf 1969 ckEpS ?f trsKd ;om;pmayqk (Ekid if aH &;pmay) &&So
d nf/
t*Fvyd b
f momjzifah &;om; xkwaf 0cJah ompmtkyt
f csKd UrSm Note on A Book of English Verse
for Matriculation Students. The Forgotten Amrmy (1946). Burma's Teething Time(1949).
London Diary (1952). Grim War Against KMT (1953). Burma in the Family of Nations (1956).
Burma's Constitution(1959). A Trail in Burma (1960). Aung San of Burma (1961). Law and
Custom in Burma and the Burmese Family (1961). Burma and General Ne Win(1969). ESih f To
A Soldier Son (1972) pmtkyw
f jYdk zpfonf/

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1989
1989/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1989) pm 245/

77
5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;

a'gufawmarmifarmifonf jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rIwGif yg0ifcJhjcif;
aMumifh Ekid if aH wmfucs;D jri§ o
hf nfv
h w
G v
f yfa&;armfueG ;f 0if('kw,
d tqih)f ukd 1975 ckEpS w
f iG f
vnf;aumif;? EkdifiHawmfuay;tyfonfhwm0efrsm;ukd BudK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhjcif;aMumifh
Ekid if aH wmfu cs;D jri§ o
hf nfEh idk if H *kP&f nfbUJG (yxrqif)h ukd 1984 ckEpS w
f iG v
f nf;aumif;&&So
d nf/
6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

a'gufwmarmifarmifonf EkdifiHwm0efrsm;xrf;aqmifaepOftwGif; t*Fvef?
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jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1995
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78

yHk (9)
AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; apmarmif (or®w)
[ 1988 ckESpf ]

79

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Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ OuúXESiw
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1

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Nidrf0yf ydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGJU\ aqmif&Gufcsuforkdif;0if
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4-2/

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1962 ckEpS ?f rwfv 3 &ufaeYwiG f Ekid if aH wmftwGi;f ütbufbufr,
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f ef;acgif;aqmif emrnfBu;D rykBu;D
qkdol vIyf&Sm;cJhaom wGHaw;awmBuD;wef;a'owGif e,fajrpkd;rkd;a&;ESifhppfqifa&;wm0ef
xrf;aqmifcJhonf/1963 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 31 &ufaeYwGif trSwf(5)ajcvsif wyf&if;?
rkdif;wHkokdY,m,DvufeufBuD;wyfcGJrSL; tjzpf ajymif;a&Twm0efxrf;aqmifcJh&onf/
OD;apmarmifonf rkid ;f wH?k yHyk gusiaf 'owGif ppfqifa&;wm0efrsm;ukd xrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/
trSw(f 5)ajcvsiw
f yf&if;onf rkid ;f wHrk S awmifio
l aYdk jymif;a&TvmNy;D aemuf yJc;l &k;d r&Sd
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDtMurf;zufaomif;usef;olrsm;ukd tvif;a&mifppfqifa&;jzifh
qifEw
JT u
dk cf u
dk f &mwGif &efuek w
f idk ;f ? xef;wyifNrKd Ue,f? abmv,fuRe;f ? tkid u
f avmifuRe;f
a'orsm;\vHkNcHKa&; wm0ef,lcJh&onf/ OD;apmarmifonf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD
tMurf;zufaomif;usef;olrsm;ukd wkdufckduf&mwGiftawGUtBuHKrsm;jym;cJholjzpfonf/
trSw(f 11)ajcvsiw
f yf&if;wGif wm0efxrf;aqmif pOfumvtwGi;f awmifi?l xef;wyif?
Z&yfBu;D ? jzL;? ausmufBu;D a'orsm;wGipf pfqifa&;wm0ef,pl Of umvtwGi;f xkad 'orsm;ü
rif;rlaeMuonfh(KNDO)ESifh AuytzGJUrsm;tm; vkdufvHacsrIef;wkdufckduf cJh&onf/
xkt
d csed u
f Auywko
Yd nf xef;wyifNrKd Ue,f(awmifi)l a'owGipf pfaMumif;ESpaf Mumif;h cGu
J m
vIy&f mS ;aecJMh uonf/ AuyppfaMumif;rSL;rsm;rSm rif;'ifEiS ahf rmifarmifoef;(vufjywf) wkjYd zpfMu

84
onf/ xkAd uyppfaMumif;rsm;\trnfrmS rif;&Jausmpf mG ESihf wyifa&Tx;D ppfaMumif;rsm;jzpfMu
onf/ awmifit
l eD;rS tkww
f iG ;f a'owGif xkpd OfuAuy ]]aygufp}} qko
d rl mS ausmMf um;emrnf
&aecsed f jzpfonf/ Auy aygufprSm ocifoef;xGe;f cs;D jri§ o
hf nfAh uywk\
Yd tjrifq
h ;kH pGr;f &nf
wHqdyfukd &&Sdxm;ol jzpfonf[kqkdonf/
trSwf(5)ajcvsifwyf&if;ESifhawmifile,fajrwGif wm0efxrf;aqmifpOfu
Akv
d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D onf a&Tusif ta&SUjcrf;a'o? Oykoaf csmif;e,fajrwGiBf u;D pk;d aeonfh Auy
jrrif;OD;pD;tzGUJ tm; vku
d v
f H &Si;f vif;wku
d cf u
dk cf &hJ onf/ u&ifjynfe,ftwGi;f oa&'k;d ? yqD*g;
a'orsm;wgif(KNDO)rsm;ukv
d nf; &Si;f vif;wku
d cf u
dk cf &hJ onf/ 1965 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv
13 &ufaeYwiG f &ufaeYwiG f acwåAv
dk rf LS ; tqiho
f Ydk wk;d jri§ chf eft
Y yfvmjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ 1967
ckEpS ?f arv 29 &ufaeYwiG t
f rSw(f 29)ajcvsif wyf&if;\ vufeufBu;D wyfcrJG LS ;wm0eftjyif
wyf&if;rSL;wm0efrsm;ukdyg yl;wGJwm0efay;tyfcJhonf/ ucsifjynfe,ftwGif; ]]c&rf}}
ppfqifa&;wGiv
f nf;yg0ifc&hJ onf/
OD;apmarmif onf 1968 ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmv 22 &ufaeUwGif trSw(f 29)ajcvsif
wyf&if;odkU ,m,DwyfrSL;tjzpf ajymif;a½TUcefUtyfjcif;cHcJh&onf/ OD;apmarmif onf
ucsifjynfe,frS tvGefawmawmifxlxyfvSonhf Bwd*Ha'owGif ppfqifa&;wm0efrsm;
xrf;aqmifcJh&onf/ Bwd*Ha'oqdkonfrSm arcESifh arvdcqHk&m ajrmufbuf jrpfESpfoG,f
tMum;e,fajrudk awmifBwd*H[lí ESpfydkif;&Sdjyefonf/ xdka'o wGif tcsdeftawmftMum
wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh&í 4if;a'orS wdkif;&if;om;rsm;\ ,Ofaus;rIESifh &dk;&mtpOftvm
"avhx;kH pHrsm;udk pl;prf;avhvmcGi&hf &Scd o
hJ nf/ trSw(f 29) ajcvsiw
f yf&if;\ wyf&if;rSL;wm0ef
xrf ; aqmif p Of td E ´ d , Ed k i f i H b uf ü em*tMurf ; zuf aomif ; usef ; ol r sm;onf
ucsiaf omif;use;f olrsm;\ XmecsKyo
f Ukd vma&mufNy;D oifwef; wufa&muf jcif;? vufeuf
cJ,rf;rsm;&,ljcif; jyKvkyfaeonhftcsdefumvyifjzpfonf/ 4if; em*aomif;usef;olrsm;
jzwfoef;oGm;vmonht
f csed üf OD;apmarmifO;D pD;aom ppfaMumif;rsm;u jzwfawmufwu
kd cf u
kd f
acsreI ;f cJh &onf/OD;apmarmif onf ,if;wyf&if;ESit
hf wl ucsijf ynfe,f qGryf &mbHak 'oodUk
ppfqifa&;wm0efjzifh 0ifa&mufco
hJ nf/ Akv
d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D onf wyf&if;rSL;tjzpf wm0ef,al epOf
umvwGif rHpDNrdKUe,fESifhAef;armfNrdKUe,fajrmufjcrf;a'orsm;üvnf; ppfqifa&;ESifh
vHkNcHKa&;wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifcJh&onf/ em;azmh? tmavmbGef? qrm;a'owdkUwGif
AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;uGyfuJaom wyf&if;rSppfaMumif;? wyfcGJ rsm;tajcjyKvIyf&Sm;aecJhMuonf/
xdkpOfu ,if;a'oESifh qufpyfonhf w&kwfjynfolUor®wEdkifiHwGif r[m,Ofaus;rI
awmfvSefa&; qifETJaeonhf umvjzpfonf/ xdkpOfu em;azmhonf autdkifat
aomif;use;f olrsm;\ tcdik t
f rmpcef;wpfck jzpfco
hJ nf/ em;azmhpcef;ESihf Aef;armfta&SUajrmuf

85
a'o ½Sd autdik af tpcef;rsm;udk wdu
k cf u
kd o
f rd ;f ydu
k f cJo
h nf/
OD;apmarmif onf 1970 ckEpS ?f rwfv 17 &ufaeUwGif acwå 'kw,
d Adv
k rf LS ;Bu;D
tqifo
h Ukd wd;k jri§ chf efUtyfjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ 1970 jynfEh pS ?f Mo*kwv
f 20 &ufaeUwGif trSwf
(47)ajcvsiw
f yf&if;odUk wyf&if;rSL;tjzpf ajymif;a½TUwm0efxrf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ wyf&if;rSL;
wm0eftjyif c&dik v
f NkH cKH a&;ESihf tkycf sKyrf I aumfrwDOuúwm0efrsm;udyk g yl;wGx
J rf;aqmifc&hJ onf/
1970 jynfhESpf? pufwifbmv 30 &ufaeUwGif taemufajrmufwdkif;ppfXmecsKyfodkU
ppfOD;pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)tjzpf vTJajymif; wm0efxrf; aqmifcJh&NyD;? ppfwdkif;BuD;rsm;\
zGUJ pnf;yHjk yifqifvu
kd o
f nht
f cg rEÅav;wdik ;f vHNk cKH a&;ESit
hf yk cf sKyrf I aumfrwD OuúXwm0efuykd g
yl;wGx
J rf;aqmifc&hJ onf/
OD;apmarmif onf taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyw
f iG f ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)
wm0ef xrf;aqmifcsed w
f iG f tdE,
d´ ESihf jrefrmhwyfrawmftMum;ü ESppf Of ESpzf uf wyfrawmf
ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm; awGUqHak qG;aEG;jcif;ESihf BuKd ;rJah Mu;eef;pufjzifh tjyeftvSef qufo,
G jf cif;rsm;
jyKvyk v
f su&f o
dS nf/ tdE,
d´ qufo,
G af &;puf&&dS mae&mXmerSm ESpaf e&mjzpfonf/ Kohima
ESifh Aizwal jzpfonf/ jrefrmh wyfrawmftaeESifh tjcm;tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;ESifh
,if;odUk qufo,
G rf t
I vsi;f r&Sad y/ tdE,
d´ wyfrawmf wpfcw
k nf;ESio
hf m qufo,
G rf &I o
dS nf/
þonfrmS ESpzf ufwyfzUJG rsm;\ &if;ES;D rIukd o&kyaf zmfcsuyf if jzpfonf/ OD;apmarmif onf
wyf&if;rSL;b0uyif tdE,
d´ Ekid if rH S jrefrmEkid if t
H a&SUydik ;f odUk jzwfoef;0ifa&mufco
hJ nhf tdE,

em*aomif ; usef ; ol r sm;ud k vd k u f v H w d k u f c d k u f a csrI e f ; cJ h & onf / qG r f y &mbH k \
ta&SUajrmufbufa'o ESifh ta&SUbuf xdefeefa'oe,fajrrsm;wGifjzpfonf/ xdkpOfu
Bwd * H a wmif b uf j crf ; a'owG i f Ad k v f r S L ;BuD ; a[mif ; pH o m OD ; pD ; aomwyf z G J U rsm;
vIy&f mS ;aecJMh uonf/ trSw(f 15)ajcvsiw
f yf&if;rS wyfcJG ESpcf o
JG nfvnf; qGryf &mbHb
k ufrS
vIy&f mS ;cJo
h nf/ tdE,
d´ Edik if b
H ufrS rDZekd m* aomif;use;f olrsm;onf qwf*&m;,ef bufoUkd
0ifa&mufvmcJjh cif;jzpfonf/
OD;apmarmif onf taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyüf ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)wm0ef
rsm;udk xrf;aqmifaepOf 1971 ckEpS f Zefe0g&DvtwGi;f ume,f Zlqu
l ;D (ac:)Adv
k rf ;kd BuKd ;\
ZeD; jrefrmEkid if H odUk vma&mufvnfywfcsed Ef iS hf BuKH BuKd uaf eojzifh wm0ef,{l nh0f wfjyKc&hJ onf/
1972 ckEpS f azazmf0g&DvtwGi;f wGiv
f nf; avmh'af rmifb
h ufwefEiS hf 4if;\orufjzpfow
l Ukd
rEÅav;odUk vma&muf vnfywf&mwGiOf ;D apmarmif onf ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)taejzifh
wm0ef,{l nh0f wfjyKc&hJ onf/ avmh'af rmifb
h ufwefonf 'kw,
d urÇmppfNy;D qH;k umeD;tcsed w
f iG f
ta&SUawmiftm&SppfrsufESmü r[mrdwfwyfrsm;\ aoemywdtjzpfwm0ef,lcJhNyD;aemuf
Adv
k cf sKyf atmifqef;ESihf oD[|kd Ef ikd if H uEéD NrKd UwGif uEépD mcsKyu
f kd vufrw
S af &;xd;k csKyq
f ckd o
hJ jl zpfNy;D

86
tdE,
d´ Ekid if üH bk&ifcEH iS hf NAw
d o
d Qwyfrawmf umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyt
f jzpf wm0ef,cl &hJ oljzpfonf/
OD;apmarmif onf taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyüf ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)tjzpf
wm0ef,lcsdefwGif xl;jcm;onhfjzpfpOfwpfck ay:aygufcJhonf/ ,if;rSm ucsifjynfe,frS
wdkif;&if;om;tkyfpktcsKdUudk ac:aqmifNyD; acsmfuefawmifMum;rSwpfqifh tdE´d,EkdifiHodkU
xGuaf jy;cJMh uonhf tar&duef omoemjyK armhp(f Moss)rdom;pkukd jyefvnfzrf;qD;&rdcjhJ cif;
jzpfonf/ rdrw
d Ukd atmiferd w
d f ppfqifa&; ppfaMumif; wpfaMumif;jzpfonfh trSw(f 16)ajcvsif
wyf&if;rS ppfaMumif;onf jrefrm-tdE,
d´ Edik if H e,fpyf jrifrh m;vSonhaf wmifwef;a'owGif
tqkyd garmhpt
f zGUJ tm; zrf;qD;rdcjhJ cif;jzpfonf/ ,if;tzGUJ tm; wyfrawmfppfaMumif;rsm;rS
cEÅ;D NrKd UodUk jyefvnfac:,lvmNy;D 4if;wdUk udk jrefrmEkid if rH S xGuf cGmoGm;apcJo
h nf/
tvHeu
D eG jf rLepfygwDacgif;aqmif ocifp;kd tm; taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyf
e,fajrwGif zrf;qD;&rdcphJ Ofuvnf; OD;apmarmif ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmif
aecsdefjzpfonf/ xdkpOfu ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDrS taemufajrmufwdkif; wm0efcH
oufxGef;rSmvnf; &Srf;wyfBuD;? wdkif;wm;? *efUa*ga'obufwGif vSnhfvnfusufpm;
aecsed jf zpfonf/
ppfOD;pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)wm0efxrf;aqmifpOfwGifyif ,cifu(East Parkistan)
ac:aom EdkifiHonf(General Aurora)qdkol OD;pD;aom(India)wyfzGJUrsm;\ tultnDjzifh
(Bangaladesh)Edik if aH y:aygufap&ef aqmif&u
G v
f monfuv
kd nf; BuKH co
hJ nf/ Adv
k cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D
onf taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyw
f iG f ppfO;D pD;rSL; (yxrwef;)tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif
aepOf twGi;f 1972ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 24 &ufaeUwGif ta&SUydik ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyo
f Ukd ,m,D
'kw,
d wdik ;f rSL;tjzpf cefUtyfjcif;cHc&hJ onf/
xd k U tjyif Ad k v f c sKyf r S L ;BuD ; onf f vuf & S d ' k w d , wk d i f ; rS L ;wm0ef r sm;tjyif
&Sr;f jynfe,fajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f ? wdik ;f vHNk cKH a&;ESihf tkycf sKyrf aI umfrwDOuúXwm0efuykd g yl;wJw
G m0ef
xrf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ 1972 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 27 &ufaeUwGif ta&SUajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyu
f kd
vm;½d;I NrKd Uü wd;k csUJ zGiv
hf pS cf o
hJ nf/ Adv
k cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D rSm 1972 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 29 &ufaeUrSpwifí
,if;wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyo
f Ukd 'kw,
d wkid ;f rSL; tjzpf ajymif;a½TUcefUtyf jcif;cHc&hJ onf/
4-3/

1974-1988 ckESpftwGif;wm0efxrf;aqmifrI

OD;apmarmif onf vm;½d;I NrKd UwGif ta&SUajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyf 'kw,
d wdik ;f rSL;tjzpf
wm0ef ,laepOf 1975 ckEpS f azazmf0g&dv 20 &ufaeUwGif er®wal jrmufbuf erf[
h ikd ;f wGif
rHk;wyfü autdkifat tMurf;zufaomif;usef;oltzGJUESifh Auyrsm;wdkufyGJjzpfyGm;cJh&m 4if;
autdkifattzGJUudk acgif;aqmif vmcJhaom aZmf'efrSm usqHk;cJhonf/ aZmfwl;onfvnf;

87
autdkifattzGJU\ xdyfoD;acgif;aqmif oHk;OD;jzpfMuonhf aZmfnDtpfudkrsm; teufrS
wpfO;D jzpfonf/ þjzpfpOfjzpf&yfaMumifh autdik af t zGUJ twGi;f AuyqefUusiaf &;pdw"f mwfrsm;
jyif;xefpGmay:aygufcJhNyD; EdkifiHawmftpdk;&ESihf autdkifat tzGJUu aqG;aEG;vdkygaMumif;
awmif;qdkvmcJhonf/ þodkUjzifh autkdifatudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzpfMuonfh vrkefwl;*sdKif?
a,m,H ESifh aZmfrdkif wdkUukd jrpfBuD;em;odkU wGifatmfwmav,mOfjzifh ydkUaqmifNyD;
Edik if aH wmftpd;k &ud,
k pf m;vS,jf zifh aqG;aEG;a&;tpDtpOfay:aygufvmcJo
h nf/ OD;apmarmif
onf ta&SUajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyw
f iG f wm0ef,al qmif&u
G af epOf er®wal 'oowåKrikd ;f wGif
tBuHay; ynm&Siftjzpfyl;wGJvkyfudkifaeol *smrefuRrf;usifol rpöwm 0if;[dkif; udk
autdkifattMurf;zuf aomif;usef;olrsm;rS jyefay;qGJoGm;cJhonhf jzpfpOfwpfckvnf;
ay:ayguf c J h o nf / OD ; apmarmif o nf ,if ; jzpf p Of E S i f h y wf o uf í wm0ef , l u m
tqdyk guRr;f usio
f t
l m; &SmazGaomtzGUJ rsm;tm; aygif;pyf ñSEd iId ;f aqmif&u
G af y;cJ&h onf/
OD;apmarmif onf ,if;odkU ta&SUajrmufwdkif;ppfXmecsKyfwGif wm0ef,laepOf
1973 ckESpf? rwfv 13 &ufaeUrSpwifí acwåAdkvfrSL;BuD; tqifhodkU wdk;jr§ifhcefUxm;jcif;
cHc&hJ onf/ wpfzef 1975 ckEpS ?f rwfv 18 &ufaeUwGif trSw(f 99)ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKy\
f
wyfrrSL;tjzpf cefUtyf wm0efay;jcif;cH&onf/ wyfrrSL;wm0efjzifh ta&SUajrmufwdkif;
e,fajrwGif Auyrsm;ESihf jzpfymG ;cJo
h nhf Bu;D rm;aom wdu
k yf BJG u;D rsm;udk Bu;D MuyfuyG u
f cJ o
hJ nf/
AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;onf 1976 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 21 &ufaeUwGif vuf&SdwyfrrSL; wm0eftjyif
ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKy\
f wdik ;f rSL;tjzpf cefUtyf wm0efay;jcif;cHc&hJ onf/ 30-9-1977
&ufaeUwGif ucsifjynfe,f a'oygwDaumfrwDOuúX wm0efrsm;udkyg yl;wGJxrf;aqmifcJh
&onf/
OD;apmarmif onf ajrmufydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyfwGif wdkif;rSL;tjzpf wm0ef
xrf;aqmifpOf jrefrmEdkifiHajrmufydkif;rS wdkif;&if;om;rsdK;pHkwdkU\ "avh p&dkufrsm;? cH,lcsuf
oabmxm;rsm;? tusiAhf ZD rsm;? Edik if aH &;arQmrf eS ;f csurf sm;udk jynfjh ynhpf pkH kH av;av;eufeuf
avhvmEdik cf o
hJ nf/OD;apmarmif onf wdik ;f rSL;tjzpf wm0ef,cl phJ OfwiG f csi;f jynfe,frS 0DvQEH iS hf
&cdik jf ynfe,frS cdik rf ;kd vif; wdUk acgif;aqmifaom aomif;use;f ol tkypf Ek pS pf o
k nf u&ifjynfe,frS
wpfqifh &Sr;f jynfe,fEiS hf ucsif jynfe,fawmifyikd ;f rSjzwfoef;Ny;D csi;f jynfe,fEiS hf &cdik jf ynfe,f
twGif;odkU xdk;azmufvIyf&Sm;&ef BudK;pm;cJh&m ,if;tzGJUonf wyfrawmfppfaMumif;rsm;\
0dik ;f ywfyw
d q
f Ukd rIukd &ifqikd cf hJ &Ny;D aemufq;kH wGif taemufajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyef ,fajr
ajrmufbufjcrf;ü acsreI ;f jcif;cHc&hJ onf/ tdE,
d´ Edik if b
H ufrS em*tMurf;zuf aomif;use;f olrsm;
onf jrefrmEdik if t
H wGi;f &Sd em*vlrsKd ;pk rsm;udk taMumufw&m;jzifh pd;k rd;k odr;f oGi;f aeonhf
tcsed v
f nf;jzpfonf/ tdE,
d´ Edik if b
H ufrS em*tMurf;zufaomif;use;f olrsm;u jrefrmEkid if H

88
twGif; v[,fajrmufjcrf;&Sd 'Hk[D;&Gm wpf&GmvHk;udk &GmvHk;uRwf tpkvdkuf tNyHKvdkuf
owfjzwfcMhJ uonf/
1979 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 1 &ufaeUwGif Adv
k rf LS ;csKyf tqifo
h Ukd wd;k jri§ hf cefUtyfjcif;
cHcJh&onf/ 1979 ckESpf? arv 4 &ufaeUwGif taemufawmifwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf wdkif;rSL;
tjzpfEiS hf {&m0wDwikd ;f a'oygwDaumfrwD OuúXtjzpf ajymif;a½Twm0efxrf;aqmif cJ&h onf/
OD;apmarmif onf 198a ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f 7 &ufaeUwGif ppfa&;csKyt
f jzpf wd;k jri§ ahf jymif;a½TU
cefUtyfjcif;cHcJh&onf/ 1982 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 7 &ufaeUwGif AdkvfcsKyftqifhwkd;jr§ifh
ceft
Y yfjcif;cHc&hJ onf/
OD;apmarmif onf 1983 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 22 &ufaeUwGif 'kw,
d umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf
(Munf;) jzpfvmcJhNyD; 1984 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 23 &ufaeUwGif 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfBuD;tqifhodkU
wdk;jr§ifhcefUtyfjcif;cHcJh&onf/ OD;apmarmif ppfa&;csKyfjzpfvmNyD;aemufydkif;wGif 'kwd,
umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyftjzpfodkU wdk;jr§ifhwm0efay;tyfjcif;rSm ,cifutpOftvm
r&Scd zhJ ;l aomjzpfpOfwpf&yfjzpfaMumif; od&&dS ygonf/ OD;apmarmif 'kw,
d umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf
tjzpf wm0ef,pl OfumvtwGi;f 1983 ckEpS f atmufwb
kd mv 9 &ufaeU wGif jrefrmEkid if o
H Ukd
tvnftywfa&muf&Sdaeaom awmifudk&D;,m;EdkifiH (udk&D;,m;or®wEdkifiH) or®w
cRef'l;0Srftm; &efukefNrdKU&Sd tmZmenfAdrmefü AHk;azmufcGJtqHk;pD&if&ef ajrmufudk&D;,m;
tMurf;zuform;rsm;u BupH nftm;xkwrf jI zpfpOfwpf&yf ay:aygufcyhJ gonf/ ,if; udpt
ö m;
pHpk rf;ppfaq;&ef tqifjh rift
h zGUJ udk zGUJ pnf;&mü xdpk Ofu jynfxaJ &;ESihf omoema&;0efBu;D
jzpfonfh Adv
k cf sKyf rif;a*gif onf tzGUJ acgif;aqmifjzpfNy;D OD;apmarmifonf 'kw,
d acgif;aqmif
tjzpf wm0ef,lcJh&onf/ udk&D;,m;tMurf;zuform;rsm;udk azmfxkwfzrf;qD;onhf
ppfqifa&;rsm;udv
k nf; ud,
k w
f ikd u
f ,
kd u
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f cJ o
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1984 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 16 &ufaeUwGif OD;apmarmif tm; EdkifiHawmf
aumifp\
D trdeUf aMumfjimpm trSw?f 95^84 ESihf 0efBu;D tzGUJ \ trdeUf aMumfjimpmtrSw?f
9^84 wdUk t& umuG,af &;0efBu;D Xme? 'kw,
d 0efBu;D tjzpfcefUtyfwm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/
1984 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 28 &ufaeUrS Ek0d ifbmv 7 &ufaeYtxd Ekid if aH wmfor®wBu;D
OD;pef;,k\ w&kwfjynfolUor®wEdkifiHcspfMunfa&;c&D;pOf wGifyg0ifcJhygonf/ w&kwf
acgif;aqmifBuD;rsm; onf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDESifh qufpyfywfoufonhf udpö&yftm;
jywfjywfom;om; odMum;aponho
f abmjzifh jrefrmacgif;aqmifBu;D rsm;tm; rlvtpDtpOf
wGif yg0ifjcif;r&SdbJ xdkpOfu w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwD\ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf
[la,mifyef;ESihf awGUqHak pcJyh gonf/ [la,mifyef; rSm ab*si;f NrKd U wGirf &Sb
d J wm0efjzifh c&D;
vGeaf eaomaMumifh 4if;&S&d mae&modUk wul;wuefUoGm;a&mufawGUqHck &hJ onf/ xdo
k Ukd awGUqHk

89
&mü w&kwaf cgif;aqmifBu;D [la,mifyef; rS ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD ESiyhf wfoufí jrefrmEkid if H
\ jynfwiG ;f a&;jzpfygaMumif; ESihf jrefrmwdUk tcsi;f csi;f om ajz&Si;f &rnhf udp&ö yfjzpfygaMumif;
w&kwu
f eG jf rLepfygwD\ ud,
k pf m;twnfjyKajymMum;cJyh gonf/ 1
1985 ckESpf rwfvwGif w&kwfjynfolUor®wEdkifiH\ or®wBuD; vD&Sifeifh onf
jrefrmEkid if o
H Ukd w&m;0ifvma&muf vnfywf&mwGif 4if;ESit
hf wl w&kwjf ynfoUl vGwaf jrmufa&;
wyfrawmf yxr? 'kw,
d OD;pD;csKyf Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D ½SL½Si;f vnf; yg&Scd o
hJ nf/ OD;apmarmif onf
ArmjynfueG jf rLepf ygwD\udpö tm; Ny;D jywfomG ;ap&ef w&kwjf ynf? jynfoUl vGwaf jrmufa&;
wyfrawmftBuD;tuJjzpfol AdkvfcsKyfBuD; ½SL½Sif; tm; oD;jcm;{nhfcHawGUqHkNyD; AuyESifh
ywfoufí tmrcHcsufawmif;cHcJh&m w&kwfppfbuf acgif;aqmifBuD; rS Auyrsm;tm;
ppfvufeufypön;f ? cJ,rf;rsm;axmufyrhH jI yKrnfr[kwyf gaMumif;ESihf 4if;tcsuu
f kd uwdu0wfjyK
EdkifygaMumif; ajymMum;cJhonf/ xdkodkU tmrcHuwdjyKcsuf wpfck&&SdcJhjcif;\ &v'fwpfckrSm
Auyrsm;taejzifh rdrw
d Ukd \ pDp0D rfwmyefa'oudk xd;k azmufppfqif wku
d cf u
kd &f mü wpfzufEikd if H
e,fpyftwGi;f rS jzwfoef;í wdu
k pf pfqifjcif;ESihf wdu
k pf pfwyfrsm;tm; axmufyhH jznhw
f if;jcif;
rsm;jyKvkyfvdkaomfvnf; ,if;odkU vkyfaqmifcGifhr&cJhaMumif; awGU&ygonf/ þc&D;pOfrsm;
aMumifh Auyrsm;tm; w&kwfjynfu tNyD;tydkiftqufjzwfrItajctaersm; ydkrdk
vsijf refcikd rf mpGm ay:aygufvmcJ&h onf/ 2
AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;onf 1985 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 4 &ufaeUwGif umuG,fa&;
OD;pD;csKyt
f jzpf cefUtyfwm0ef ay;tyfjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ 1985 ckEpS jf yKvyk cf o
hJ nhf yÍörtBurd f
ygwDnDvmcHrS A[dktvkyftrI aqmifaumfrwD0iftjzpf a&G;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&onf/ ,if;odkU
wm0efr sm;xrf; aqmif aepOf r S m yif 1986 ck E S p f ? atmuf w k d b mv 31&uf a eUü
'kw,
d Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D tqifrh S Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D tqifo
h Ukd wd;k jri§ chf efUtyfjcif;cHc&hJ ygonf/
OD;apmarmif onf umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOfumv
twGi;f 1987 ckEpS f 'DZifbmvxJwiG f autdik af ttMurf;zufaomif;use;f ol b&efqikd ;f rS
1

jrefrmEkid if ?H Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ ? wkdif;usdK;jynfjyK?
Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ \aqmif&u
G cf suo
f rkid ;f 0if
rSwfwrf; (1988 ckESpfrS 1991ckESpf)? ((&efukef? ,if;tzGJU? 1991)
pm 19/
2

jr0if;? wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifrsm;orkdif;tusOf; (1941
ckESpfrS1990 jynhfESpf txd) / 3- Budrf/ ( &efukef?
owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1992) pm-100/

90
tar&duef EkdifiHtwGif; okdYjynf0ifcGifhADZm&&Sda&;twGufvDq,fvkyfBuHvdrfnmrIwpfck
ay:aygufco
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tar&duefEidk if &H dS pDtm&f'b
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f l \ tBuOH mPfay;csut
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jyKEikd &f ef BuKd ;yrf;tm;xkwrf v
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H pnfrmS atmifjrifrI
r&Scd ahJ cs/ xdpk Ofu autdik af t tMurf;zuf aomif;use;f ol b&efqikd ;f onf vef'efNrKd UrSwpfqifh
tar&duefEkdifiHodkU 0ifa&mufEdkifa&;twGuf ADZm&&Sd&ef BudK;pm;cJh&m tar&dueftpdk;&u
jiif;qdkcJhonf/ odkU&mwGif wpfvcefUtMumü b&efqdkif; u 4if;wdkUxHwGif 'kwd,urÇmppf
twGi;f u ucsijf ynfe,fwiG f ysuu
f scahJ om pD-47 trsKd ;tpm; av,mOfrS tydik ;f tprsm;ESihf
tar&duefavol&JESpfOD;wdkU\t&dk;rsm;&Sdaeí ay;tyfvdkaMumif;jzifh ,if;EdkifiH&Sd
tzd;k tc,laqmif&u
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autdkifat tMurf;zufaomif;usef;olrsm;ESifh qufoG,faqmif&GufoifhaMumif;
wifjycJhonff/ odkU&mwGif tar&duefEdkifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xmeu autdkifattMurf;zuf
aomif;use;f olrsm; onf Ekid if aH &;t&aomif;use;f olrsm;r[kwb
f J rl;,pfaq;0g;ESiphf ;D yGm;a&;
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onf/ xdkUtjyif ,if;av,mOfysuf&mae&mtm; autdkifatrsm;u awGU&Sdxm;aMumif;
owif;wpf&yfukd tar&duef&dS twåvEÅmuGepf wDusL&Si;f owif;pmü 24-10-87 &ufaeUwGif
azmfjyyg&Sv
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f v
kd nf; &efuek Nf rKd U&Sd tar&duefo&H ;kH rS pHpk rf;vmcJ&h m
jrefrmEkdifiHtpdk;&u av,mOfysufudpöESifhywfoufí wpfpHkwpf&m owif;ESifhtpte
ponfwUkd udak wGUvsif taMumif;Mum;rnfjzpfaMumif;jzifh jyefMum;xm;cJyh g onf/f
20-9-91 &ufaeUwGif EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;tHk;a*smf rS wyfrawmf
ppfaMumif; &SmazGawGU&Scd ahJ om 'kw,
d urÇmppftwGi;f jrefrmEkid if aH jrmufyikd ;f ü ysuu
f sco
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,m,Dwm0efcH rpöwm z&efuvif? [m',f*sLeD,mtm; EdkifiHjcm;a&;&Hk;odkU zdwfac:í
today;ajymMum;cJhonf/,if;odkUajymMum;&mwGif vloHk;a,mufwdkU\ udk,fydkifeHygwfjym;
av;ckwUkd \ eHygwfjym; rsm;? av,mOfysu\
f tpdwt
f ydik ;f tysut
f pD;pm&if;? ypöwakd oewf
tysufESpfvuf? tar&duef wyfrawmf\ a&S;OD;olejyKaowåmtysufwdkU\ tao;pdwf
taMumif;t&mwdkUudk "mwfyHkrdwåLay;tyf cJhonf/ ysufpD;cJhonhfav,mOfrSm tar&duef
ppfav,mOf pD-47 at trsdK;tpm;jzpfonfudk awGU&Sd&onf/ autdkifattMurf;zuf
aomif;use;f olrsm;u ,if;ppfav,mOfysuu
f kd awGU&Sx
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f m

91
aMunmcJzh ;l onf/
OD;apmarmifonf ,if;ppfav,mOfysuu
f pd u
ö kd pdw0f ifpm;Ny;D wyfrawmfppfaMumif;
rS &SmazGawGU&SdonhftcgwGif tjzpfrSefudkazmfxkwfNyD; oufqdkifolwdkUtm; today;&ef
vufatmufrS wm0ef&Sdolrsm;udk ñTefMum;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ pifppf OD;apmarmiftaejzifh
ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyf e,fajrrsm;twGi;f wm0efxrf; aqmifpOftcsed u
f wnf;uyif
xdke,fajrtwGif; 'kwd,urÇmppftwGif; umvu ysufuscJhonfqdkaom tar&duef
ppfav,mOfyg avol&w
J Ukd \ &kyu
f vmyft<uif;tusef rsm;udk tav;teufxm; &SmazGcNhJ y;D
jzpfonf/ odUk jzifh 1988 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 27 &ufaeUrSpwifí OD;apmarmiftm; umuG,af &;
0efBu;D Xme 0efBu;D tjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cHc&hJ ygonf/
4-4/ EkdifiHawmftm;wm0ef,l&jcif;(EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGJU)
vrf;pOfygwD tm;enf;csufrsm;? aysmhuGuf[muGufrsm;ukd tajcjyKum
jynfwGif;jynfy&Sd vuf0Jvuf,m tiftm;pkrsm;\ aoG;xkd;ajr§mufyifhay;rIrsm;aMumifh
1988ckESpfokdYa&mufaomtcg ta&;tcif;BuD;wpfck jzpfay:vmcJh&onf/ ta&;tcif;
jzpfay:ap&ef t"duwGef;ykdYay;cJhonfh EkdifiHawmf\t"dujyóemBuD; ESpf&yf&SdcJhygonf/
,if;wkrYd mS pD;yGm;a&;jyóem ESihf Ekid if aH &;jyóemyifjzpfygonf/ ta&;tcif;u tBuKd umv
rsm;twGi;f Ekid if aH wmfEiS hf jynfov
l x
l k twGi;f pD;yGm;a&;jyóemrsm;wpfaeYwpfjcm; wk;d wuf
vmcJo
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hf rQ ,if;\tusKd ;quftjzpf 0efxrf;rsm; ESihf jynfov
l x
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k wGi;f ü rormrIrsm;?
tusiyhf surf rI sm;? pm&dwaå zmufjyefrrI sm;? uk,
d u
f sKd ;&Sm a&omckrd rI sm;? t*wdvu
dk pf m;rIrsm;
ykrd rdk sm;jym;vmcJyh gonf/ tkycf sKyaf &;ykid ;f wGiv
f nf; &yfuu
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jrefrmEkid if t
H wGi;f jzpfay:aeaom Ekid if aH &;? pD;yGm;a&;? tkycf sKyaf &; tajctaersm;ukd yHBk u;D csUJ
xkwv
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f m
cJMh uygonf/ 1988 ckepS ?f rwfv 12 &ufaeY n 9 em&D 15 rdepf tcsed cf efw
Y iG f BuKd Uuke;f blwm
teD; pE´m0if;vufzuf&nfqkdifü pufrIwuúokdvf'kwd,ESpfausmif;om; 2 OD;ESifh
t&ufrl;aeonfh&yfuGuf vli,f 5 OD;wkdYonf uufqufoDcsif;acGzGifhckdif;&mrStp
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h J aemufwpfaeYjzpfonfh

92
rwfv 13 &ufaeYn 8 em&D 30 rdepf tcsed cf efrY S pí BuKd Uuke;f &yfuu
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pufrIwuúokdvfausmif;om;rsm; wpfzufESifhwpfzuf tkyfpkzGJU tMurf;zufwkdufckdufrI rsm;
jzpfyGm;cJhygonf/ trIdufup jyó'frD;avmifqkdouJhokdY ausmif;om;rsm; qlylqE´jyrIrsm;
wpfNrKd UNy;D wpfNrKd Ujzpfay:vmcJyh gonf/ Edik if aH wmftusKd ;twGuf wm0ef&o
dS t
l zGUJ tpnf;rsm;rS
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qlyv
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tMurf;zufowfjzwfrrI sm;? wku
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ausmif;0if;rsm;twGi;f wGif Ekid if aH &;orm;rsm;omru Ekid if jH cm;oHwreftcsKd UwkyYd g 0ifxu
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Yd ajrm§ ufyifah y;rI
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dk m awmif;qkcd MhJ u
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vuf0Jvuf,mya,m*rsdK;pHk 0ifa&mufvmrIwkdYaMumifh ausmif;yk&d0kPfrsm;twGif;wGif
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ta&;ay:ygwDnv
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1988 ckEpS t
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ya,m*jzifh wpfpxufwpfp qk;d 0g;vmcJo
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f zk;d wefpuf&?kH tvky&f rkH sm;ESihf
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f ef;aygif; 500 ausmf cefv
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f ;D jcif; cH&onfh
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93
awmhrnfh tajctaeodUk wGe;f ydUk &m a&mufco
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vuf0J vuf,m tzsuform;rsm;aMumifh EdkifiHawmftwGif; rNidrfroufrIrsm;jzpfyGm;cJhNyD;
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tmPm yg vufvGwfqHk;½HI;&awmhrnhf tajctaersm; ay:aygufvmcJhonf/ xdkUaMumifh
OD;apmarmifonf wyfrawmftBuD;tuJ wpfOD;yDyD EdkifiHawmfa&&SnftusdK;udkarQmfudk;í
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onf EdkifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&; tzGJUOuúXtjzpf vnf;aumif;? wyfrawmf
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orkdif;rSwfausmufwpfck pkdufxl&rnf jzpfayonf/ rsufarSmufacwfwyfrawmfBuD;ukd
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wyfrawmf\ aumif;jrwfaom? BuD;jrifhaom tpOftvmrsm;ukd vufqifhurf;qufvuf
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rkid ;f ,ef;a'oukd rD;uke,
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l m;tjyif;txef

94
acsreI ;f wku
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xkdYjyifrGefaomif;usef;ol wkdY\ pcef;wpfckjzpfaom bk&m;oHk;qlpcef;ukdvnf; wkdufckduf
odr;f yku
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hJ nf/
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hf pfe,f? wpfNrKd UESiw
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G af &;twGuf vrf;opfrsm;
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qufvufazmufvyk jf cif; ponfwu
Ydk t
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f [kejf zifh Ny;D pD;atmifaqmif&u
G Ef idk cf o
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f saiG 4498.31 oef;txd&cdS o
hJ nf/
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95
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rsm;tygt0if vkyfief; 37ckudkvkyfaqmifay;cJhonf/ bPfvkyfief;rsm;? taumufcGef
vkyif ef;rsm; jyifqifw;dk csUJ cJo
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hJ nf/ v,f,mpku
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pm;oH;k oD;ESpH u
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rsm;? pku
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hf su&f NdS y;D
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vQyfppfrD;rsm;? ukefoG,fa&;vkyfief;rsm; ponfvkyfief;rsm;zGHUNzdK;vmcJhonf/ wkdif;&if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm; zGUH NzKd ;a&;odyu
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vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;vkyfief;rsm;? vrf;wHwm;rsm;? cHk;ausmfwHwm;rsm;? apwDykxkd;rsm;?
ausmif;uef bk&m;? pmoifausmif;? aps;? aq;&H?k yef;O,smOf ponfwu
Ydk dk opfviG v
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hf nDwnfaqmufjyKjycJ&h m
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wk;d csUJ cefx
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hf OS Nf yKd if &ifabmifwef;Ekid &f eff trsKd ;om;tm;upm;vkyif ef;ukd
jr§ifhwifay;cJhonf/ tm;upm;ESifhtm;upm;&Hkrsm;ukd usyfaiG 196 oef;tukeftuscHum
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96
vkdufoGm;rdMuonfh ausmif;om;vli,frsm;ukdvnf; BudKqkda&;pcef; (27)ckzGifhvSpfum
jyefvnfac:,lvufccH o
hJ nf/ 1988 ckEpS t
f a&;tcif;ukt
d aMumif; jyKNy;D ydwx
f m;cJ&h aom
tajccHausmif;rsm;ESifh wuúokdvf? aumvdyf? odyÜHausmif;rsm;ukdvnf; jyefvnfzGifhvSpf
ay;cJhonf/ ynma&;zGHUNzdK;a&;zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufrItwGuf rlvwef;ausmif;opf 5000?
tv,fwef;ausmif;opf 360? txufwef;ausmif;opf 132 ausmif; wkdYukd zGifhvSpfay;
Ekid cf o
hJ nf/
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vli,f&yd o
f m? vli,foifwef;ausmif;? vli,fzUHG NzKd ;a&;y&[dwa*[m? trsKd ;orD;apmifah &Smuf
a&;? oufBuD;&G,fvGefapmifha&Smufa&;? roefrpGrf;olrsm;apmifha&Smufa&;? awmif;&rf;
pm;aomufolrsm; yaysmufa&;? rl;,pfaq;pGJolrsm;ukoa&;? jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;?
bde;f tpm;xk;d pku
d yf sKd ;a&;vkyif ef;rsm; ukv
d nf; aqmif&u
G Ef idk cf o
hJ nf/
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¨ moemawmfwnfwx
hH eG ;f um; jyefyY mG ;a&;
twGuv
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hJ nf/ y&d,wåo
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trsKd ;aygif; 183 rsKd ;? tkyaf & 742769 tkyf xkwaf 0cJo
h nf/ Ekid if aH wmfoC
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Mo0g'ESit
hf nD tajcjyK rlvwef;pmar;yGrJ sm;? yxri,f? yxrvwf? yxrBu;D pmar;yGrJ sm;?
wdyd#u"&pmar;yGJrsm;? tbd"r®mpmar;yGJrsm;ukd usif;yay;cJhonf/ pmatmif&[ef;
oHCmawmfrsm;tm; wk;d jri§ yfh al Zmfco
hJ nf/ Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjyd m;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ OuúX
AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;apmarmifonf EkdifiHawmftwGif; Mo0g'gp&d, q&mawmfBuD;rsm;xH
vSnfhvnfylaZmfNyD; omoema&;udpörsm;ukd avQmufxm;cJh&m q&mawmfBuD;rsm;u
Mo0g'uxmrsm;cs;D jri§ chf o
hJ nf/ omoemawmfwnfwjhH yefyY mG ;a&;twGuf oHCmtzGUJ tpnf;
qkid &f mOya'ukx
d w
k jf yefco
hJ nf/ Ak'o
¨ moemawmfwnfw
h jhH yefyY mG ;a&;twGuf BuKd ;yrf;awmf
rlMuaomq&mawmfBu;D rsm;tm;bGUJ wHqyd af wmfEiS hf taqmifta,mifrsm; qufuyfvLS 'gef;yGJ
wku
Yd dk 1988-89? 1989-1990? 1990-1991 ckEpS rf sm;wGif usi;f ycJyh gonf/ Ekid if aH wmfwpf0ef;vH;k
&Sd tNrKd UNrKd Ut&Gm&GmrS ausmif;uefb&k m;apwDyx
k ;dk rsm;ukd bufprkH rG ;f rHjyKjyifí omomemawmf
wnfwjhH yefyY mG ;a&;ukd BuKd ;yrf;wnfaqmufco
hJ nf/ &efuek w
f idk ;f twGi;f a&Tw*d akH pwDawmf?
r[m0d Z ,apwD a wmf ? urÇ m at;apwD a wmf r S p í tNrd K UNrd K Ut&G m &G m &S d w ef c k d ; BuD ;
apwDawmftqlqlukd usyfaiGodef;aygif; 2080 tukeftuscHjyKjyifrGrf;rHcJhygonf/
apwDyx
k ;dk rsm; bufprkH rG ;f rHjyKjyifay;&Hrk u bke;f awmfBu;D ausmif;rsm; aqmufvyk v
f LS 'gef;jcif;?
"r®m&Hkrsm;wnfaqmuf vSL'gef;jcif;? odrfawmfBuD;rsm;ukd jyKjyifwnfaqmufvSL'gef;jcif;?
awmifwef;a'oomoemjyK ausmif;rsm;wnfaqmufvSL'gef;jcif; ponfwkdYukdvnf;
wpfEkdifvHk;tNrdKUNrdKUte,fe,fwGif vSL'gef;cJhonfjzpf&m omomemawmfwnfwhHjyefYyGm;a&;

97
twGuf tm;oGefcGefpkdufBudK;yrf;aqmif&Guf aepOfyif e0wywåjrm;? e0&wfo&zlywåjrm;
paomywåjrm;BuD;rsm;ESifh ausmufrsuf&wemrsm; ukdvnf; AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; OD;aqmifaom
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wyfrawmfBu;D udk wd;k csUJ zGUJ pnf;&mwGif wyfrawmf\ zGUJ pnf;rIwm0ef0wå&m;rsm;?
tkyfcsKyfuGyfuJrIqdkif&mudpö&yfrsm;ESifh vdkufavsmnDaxGpGm&Sdrnhf jyifqifzGJUpnf;rIrsm;udk
jyKvyk cf &hJ m wGif umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Adv
k cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D apmarmif onf 18-3-90 &ufaeUrS
tpjyKí AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; tqihfjzifh wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf? wyfrawmfwGif
atmufajctqifyh nmay;aumfrwD OuúX? wkid ;f tqifph nf;&H;k a&;aumfrwDtwGi;f a&;rSL;?
wkdif;^wyfrtqifhpnf;&Hk;a&;aumfrwDOuúX? ucsifjynfe,fESifh {&m0wDwkdif;a'oygwD
aumfrwDOuúX? EkdifiHa&;ynmay;ESifh ,Ofaus;rIa&;&m aumfrwD0if(tcsdefykdif;)?
oabmw&m;avhvmjyKpkysdK;axmifa&;tzGJU tzGJU0if? wyfrawmfpnf;&Hk;a&; aumfrwD0if
wm0efrsm;udv
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hJ nf/ Akv
d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D apmarmifonf 1992 ckEpS ?f atNyv
D
23 &ufaeYwiG t
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f iG f wpfvMumzGiv
hf pS cf o
hJ nfh 0ufx;D uefwu
dk yf JG
avhusifha&;oifwef;okdYwufa&mufcJhonf/ ajcvsifwyfcGJrSL; oifwef;trSwfpOf(20)okdY
wufa&muf&mtqif(h 1)&&Scd o
hJ nf/ 1958 ckEpS w
f iG f wyf&if;tkycf sKyrf q
I idk &f mt&m&So
d ifwef;okYd
vnf;wufa&mufcJhonf/ 1962 ckESpf? ESpfOD;wGifzGifhvSpfcJhonfh xkd;ppftulESifho,f,l
ykaYd qmifa&;tuloifwef;? 1962 ckEpS u
f ek yf ikd ;f ü yPmr ppfO;D pD;wuúov
kd f oifwef;? 1965
ckEpS ?f ESpq
f ef;ydik ;f wGif jrefrmhq&kd ,
S v
f pfvrf;pOfygwD A[dEk ikd if aH &; odyaHÜ usmif;rS zGiv
hf pS af om
wyfwGif;ynmay;oifwef; trSwfpOf(4)? 1966 ckESpfwGif ppfOD;pD;wuúodkvfoifwef;
ponfhoifwef;rsm;okdYwufa&mufcJhonf/ ppfOD;pD;wuúodkvfoifwef;wGif tqifhjrifhpGm
atmifjrifco
hJ rl sm;pm&if;wGiyf g0ifco
hJ jl zpfonf/
6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

OD;apmarmif onf 1982 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 2 &ufaeUwGif jynfaxmifpkor®w
*smreDEdkifiHodkU ,m,Dwm0efjzifh oGm;a&mufcJhonf/ 1984 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 28
&ufaeYwGif w&kwfEkdifiHokdY vnf;aumif;? 1986 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 19 &ufaeUwGif
'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfBuD;tqifhjzifh qGpfZmvefEkdifiH odkUvnf;aumif;? xdkrSwpfqifh vef'ef
[D;o&d;k avqdyrf w
S pfqif(h Isles of Wright)uRe;f i,foUkd ESp&f uf c&D;pOftjzpfvnf;aumif;?
1986 ck E S p f ? Ek d 0 if b mv 27 &uf a eUwG i f Ad k v f c sKyf B uD ; tqif h j zif h b*F v m;a'h & S f
jynfoUl or®wEdik if o
H Ukd vnf;aumif;? 1987 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 8 &ufaeUrS 12-6-1987 &ufaeUtxd

98
ud&k ;D ,m;or®wEdik if o
H Ukd vnf;aumif;? 1987 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 27 &ufaeUrS 30 &ufaeUtxd
xdik ;f Ekid if o
H Ukd vnf;aumif;? 1987 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 10 &ufaeUrS Ek0d ifbmv 3 &ufaeU
txd ,l*dkqvm;AD;,m;EdkifiH? &lar;eD;,m;EdkifiHESifh jynfaxmifor®w *smreDEkdifiH
toD;oD;odkUvnf; aumif;? or®wBuD; OD;pef;,k\ cspfMunfa&;tzGJU tzGJU0iftjzpf
oGm;a&mufcJh&onf/ odkUjzpfívnf; AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; onf EdkifiHwum\ tawGUtjrifudk
rsm;pGmxdawGUavhvm oH;k oyf Edik cf o
hJ nf/
7/

rdom;pk

om;orD;rsm;rSm OD;oD[apm+ a':cifolZmjrifh? a'gufwmauoDapm+
OD;ol&apmwkjYd zpfonf/ trSw(f 79^ps)? aiG0wfrkH &yfuu
G ?f a&TawmifMum;(1)vrf;? A[ef;?
&efuek Nf rKd UwGiaf exkid o
f nf/
Ekid if aH wmfwm0efudk ausyeG pf mG xrf;axmifcahJ om Akv
d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D apmarmifonf
1997 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 24 &ufaeYwiG u
f ,
G v
f eG cf o
hJ nf/

99

yHk (10)
OD;Ek (0efBuD;csKyf)
[ 1956 ckESpf ]

100

OD;Ek
(0efBuD;csKyf)
(arG
arG; 25-5-1907 rS uG,fvGef 7-2-1993)
1/

i,fpOfb0

1907 ckEpS ?f arv 25 &ufae? paeaeYwiG f 0g;c,frNrKd Uü OD;Ektm; zGm;jrifcyhJ gonf/
zcifrmS OD;pHxeG ;f jzpfí rdcifrmS a':apmcifjzpfygonf/ zcifO;D pHxeG ;f rSm 0g;c,frNrKd Ue,f&dS *s?D
pD? bD? at (G.C.B.A)ac: jrefrmekdifiHa&;tzGJUcsKyfBuD;\ acgif;aqmifwpfOD; jzpfygonf/
OD;Ek\zcif OD;pHxGef;onf 0g;c,frNrdKUomjzpfí rdcifrSm yef;waemfoljzpfonf/ rdom;pk\
pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;ukd rdcifjzpfolrS OD;aqmifí vkyfukdifcJhygonf/ OD;Ekonf i,fpOfu
usef;rma&;nHhaomuav;wpfOD;jzpfcJhojzifh rdbrsm;rS pdwfylcJhí vGefpGmqkd;vGef;aom
uav;tjzpf uav;a&m^vlBuD;ygrusef todtrSwfjyKcJhonf/ 0g;c,frwpfNrdKUvHk;rS ]]
wmawpaeom;}}1 [kqkdvQif OD;EkjzpfaMumif;odcJh&onf/ OD;EkwpfESpfom; t&G,fwGif
]]armifO}}qkad om arG;csi;f wpfO;D ay:xGe;f cJo
h nf/
zcif O D ; pH x G e f ; onf om;armif E k t m;rsd K ;cspf p d w f " gwf t jynf h t 0&S d a p&ef
EkdifiHa&;rsdK;aphcsay;cJholjzpfonf/ armifEk (10)ESpfom;t&G,fa&mufaomtcsdefwGif
]]tdEd´,jynfqkdif&m twGif;0efBuD; ]]rpöwmrGefaw*l}} onf 1917 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 20
d´ jynfudk NAw
d o
d Qtifyg,mEkid if aH wmfwiG f
&ufaeYwiG af Munmcsuw
f pf&yfxw
k jf yefco
hJ nf/2 tdE,
tusHK;0ifaomjynfBuD;wpfcktjzpfjzifhwkd;wufapí wjznf;jznf; ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfa&;&&Sd
aprnf[k azmfjycJo
h nf/ xkad Munmcsut
f & 1919 ckEpS w
f iG f tdE,
d´ jynftyk cf sKyaf &; pnf;rsO;f
Oya'[lí Oya'wpf&yfudk NAw
d o
d QygvDrefüyif wifoiG ;f cJh onf/ xko
d aYdk om tpDtpOfudk
t*Fvyd w
f jYdk yKvyk &f mwGif jrefrmjynfudk csev
f yS x
f m;cJah omaMumifh jrefrmrsm;u rauseyfcahJ cs/
2/

ynmoifb0

armifEkonf 0g;c,frNrdKU? t*Fvdyf?jrefrmESpfbmomoiftpkd;&ausmif;wGif
ynmoifMum; cJo
h nf/ xkpd Ofu t*Fvyd t
f pk;d &\uReyf nma&;pepfudk jrefrmwpfrsKd ;om;vH;k u
rauseyfcJh&mrS 1282 ckESpf? wefaqmifrkef;vjynfhausmf 10 &uf? we*FaEGaeYwGif yxr
1

armifp;dk armif/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ (&efuek ?f ormrdw?å 1955) pm-113/

2

OD;oef?Y jynfawmfomc&D;(yxrykdif;))/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1961)
pm 18-19/

101
ausmif;om;oydwf jzpfyGm;cJh&m OD;EkrSm yOörwef;wGif wufa&mufoifMum;aeaom
ausmif;om;wpfO;D jzpfcNhJ y;D xko
d ydww
f iG f yg0ifqifEJT cJo
h nf/ xkaYd emuftpd;k &tamxuftyHh
r,laom yxrqH;k trsKd ;om;ausmif;ü ynmqufvufoif,l cJo
h nf/ OD;EkonfqXrwef;ü
ynmoifMum;aepOf xkdausmif;ü oifMum;jyoay;rnfh ausmif;q&m tcuftcJaMumifh
¤if;xuftwef;i,faomausmif;om;uav;rsm;tm; OD;Ektygt0if ausmif;om;Bu;D rsm;u
tm;vyfaomtcsed w
f iG f 0ifa&mufpmoifay;cJah vonf/
txl;ojzifh OD;Ekonf &mZ0ifESifhjrefrmpmayukd pdwf0ifpm;íavhvmcJhonf
omru Ak'0¨ if &mZ0ifuydk gpdw0f ifpm;avhvmcJo
h nf/ zcifjzpfoOl ;D pHxeG ;f onf NrKd Uay:üEkid if aH &;
ESiphf nf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif aqmif&u
G af tmifjrifaecJah omtcsed üf om;jzpfol OD;Ekonfvnf;
ausmif;om;nDnw
G af &; vIy&f mS ;rItiftm;rsm;pkpnf;Ekid af om tcsed jf zpfonf/ zcifEiS t
hf wl
&efukefNrdKU *sD?pD?bD?at nDvmcHukd wufa&mufcJhNyD;aemuf EkdifiHa&;ESifh ywfoufaom
oabmw&m;rsm;ukd avhvmod&SdcJhonf/
1921 ckEpS w
f iG f jrefrmEkid if t
H m; ]] 'kid t
f mcDtyk cf sKyaf &;}}1ay;&ef NAwdoQtpk;d &rS
pDpOfay;aom tcgwGif OD;Ekoonf owårwef;wGif ynmoifMum;aeaom t&G,fjzpf
aomfvnf; xkdpOfu ]]'kdiftmcD tkyfcsKyfa&;}} ukdvufcHí vma&mufpnf;&Hk;rJqG,fol
0g;c,frNrdKUe,fukd,fpm;vS,f OD;bpDtm; ]]'kdiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;}}\r&Sif;vif;onfh
taMumif;tcsurf sm;ukd &J0phH mG ar;jref;cJyh gonf/ þonfyifvQif vGwv
f yfaomjynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEkid if aH wf\ yxrqH;k 0efBu;D csKyjf zpfvmrnfh OD;Ek\ owåpd rG ;f &nfudk jyojcif; jzpfygonf/
&ef u k e f N rd K U&S d N rd K Urtxuf w ef ; ausmif ; wG i f y nmoif M um;í tajccH y nm
txufwef; atmifjrifNyD;aemuf 1929 ckESpf &efukefwuúokdvfokdY wufa&mufcJh&m
jyZmwfpmayrsm;ukd txl;pdw0f if pm;cJNh y;D ynmoifumvwpfavQmuf jyZmwfpmaya&;om;
jcif;jzifh tcsed u
f ek af pcJo
h nf/ xkad emuf &efuek w
f uúov
dk rf S ay;tyfaom 0dZmÆ bGUJ ukd &&Scd o
hJ nf/
2-1/

wuúokdvfokdYjyefvnf0ifa&mufjcif;

0dZÆmbGJY(BA)&NyD;aemuf 1934ckESpfwGif bD?t,fvfac: Oypmwef;wuf&ef
wuúov
dk o
f Ydk 0ifa&mufcNhJ y;D xkpd Ofu ausmif;wufazmfrsm;jzpfaom ukad tmifqef;? uko
d [
D ef?
ukdausmfNidrf;? ukdodef;az (wufbkef;BuD;) wkdYESifhtwl ausmif;om;or*¾trIaqmif
a&G;aumufyGJwGif trIaqmiftjzpf0ifa&muf ,SOfjyKdifí EkdifiHa&;ywfoufonfhrsm;ukd
OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u
G Ef idk &f ef BuKd ;yrf;cJo
h nf/
1

OD;oef?Y jynfawmfomc&D;(yxrykdif;))/ (&efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1961) pm 21/

102
xkdaemufOD;Ekonf wuúokdvfor*¾trIaqmifwpfOD;tjzpfa&G;cs,fcH&NyD;
ausmif;om;rsm;\ txifBu;D av;pm;rIu&dk &Scd o
hJ nf/ 1935 ckEpS w
f iG f OD;Ekonf wuúov
dk o
f r*¾
OuúXjzpfvmcJo
h nf/
2-2/

&efukefwuúokdvf'kwd,ausmif;om;oydwfESifhOD;Ek

wuúokdvfor*¾üOuúXjzpfaeaomtcsdefwGif q&m? rrsm;rS ausmif;om;rsm;
tnTerYf vlEidk af p&ef ESrd Ef iS ;f pjyKonft
h csed jf zpfonf/ wuúov
dk Of ya'ajymif;vJ&ef a[majymcJh
aom OD;Ektm; ausmif;tkyfBuD; ]]'D? a*s? pavmh}} 1rS ausmif;xkwfypfcJhonf/
þuJo
h jYdk zpfaepOftwGi;f rSmyifwuúov
dk o
f r*¾\tmabmf ]]td;k a0r*¾Zif;}}wGif
]]i&JacG;BuD; vGwfaeNyD}} [laomaqmif;yg;udpöjzifh aqmif;yg;&Siftm; azmfjyay;&ef
jiif;qef;cJah om t,f'w
D m ukad tmifqef;tm; ausmif;rSxyfrx
H w
k yf pfcjhJ yefonf/
¤if;udpö&yfrsm;jzpfay:cJhNyD;aemufausmif;om;rsm;onf uRefynma&;tm;
tvkdr&Sd[k oHk;oyfcJhMu&mrS aoG;pnf;rdí 1936 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 22 &ufaeYwGif
ausmif;tkyfBuD;\tjyKtrlukd oydwfarSmufcJhMuonf/ wpfcsdefwnf;rSmyif OD;Ekonf
wuúokdvfrS&&SdcJhaom bD? at bGJUtm; jyefvnftyfESHcJhonf/
OD;Ekonf ukad tmifqef;? ukt
d ek ;f wkEYd iS t
hf wl a&Tw*d t
kH v,fypö,&H dS armfvNrKd iZf &yf
tm; oydwfpcef;zGifhí aexdkifNyD;vQif aeYpOfpnf;a0vQuf pDrHcefYcGJay;cJhonf/ xkdYaemuf
oydwfarSmuf ausmif;om;rsm;tm; OD;aqmifí ykvdyf&Hk;BuD;okdY csDwufum ]]uRefynmukd
tvkdr&Sd}} [ka<u;aMumfí t*FvdyfwkdY\ ,leD,H*suftvHukd OD;EkrS rD;&IdUzsufqD;cJhonf/
xkpd Oftcgu OD;Ek\Ekid if aH &;pdw"f gwf tjynft
h 0&Scd o
hJ nfudk t*Fvyd w
f o
Ydk &d cdS MhJ uonf/
oydwfarSmufonhftaMumif;udpöNyD;pD;aomtcgü OD;Ekonf ausmif;okdY
qufwufjcif;r&Sdawmhay/ okdYaomf ausmif;om;rsm;ESifhOruGJokdufrysuf&Sdap&efESifh
ausmif;om;or*¾ESifhwGJí tvkyf vkyfap&ef ukdatmifqef;? ukdtkef; paomausmif;om;
acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; ausmif;okdYjyefoGm;apcJhonf/ þokdYjzifh wuúokdvfoufqkdif&m
tmPmykdifwkdYrS ausmif;om;rsm;\ awmif;qkdcsufrsm;ukd vkdufavsmcJhMuonf/
aemifwGif oydwfNyD;oGm;aomtcgü OD;Ek\ ]]oydwfarSmufausmif;om;}}
ZmwfneT ;f tm; NAw
d o
d Qbm;rm;&ky&f iS rf S 'g&ku
d w
f mwpfO;D onf &ky&f iS &f u
dk cf ahJ vonf/ xkt
d csed u
f
vlBuKd urf sm;aom Zmwfum; jzpfaMumif;od&&dS ygonf/
1

arNrdKUcspfaqG? jynf o l c spf a omAk d v f c sKyf a tmif q ef ; / (&efukef?
ajreDuek ;f pmaywku
d ?f 1970) pm 171/

103
3/

0efxrf;b0

1929 ckEpS w
f iG f bDat atmifNy;D aomtcg OD;oef\
Y wku
d w
f eG ;f csut
f & yef;waemf
trsdK;om;txufwef;ausmif;\ ausmif;tkyftjzpfaqmif&GufcJhonf/ xkdaemufoHk;cGNrdKU
trsd K ;om; ausmif ; wG i f ausmif ; tk y f t jzpf ajymif ; a&T U wm0ef x rf ; aqmif c J h o nf /
OD;Ekonfyef;waemfNrKd UtrsKd ;om; ausmif;aumfrwDOuúX\orD; rjr&D ESiv
hf ufxyfco
hJ nf/
xkaYd emuf OD;Ekonf tpk;d &tvkyw
f pfcu
k dk 0ifa&mufvyk u
f idk &f ef &efuek o
f aYdk jymif;a&TUcJo
h nf/
4/

Ek d i f i H a &;b0

OD;Ekonf ]]jrefrmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&m vli,frsm;tpnf;t&Hk;}} wnfaqmuf&mwGif
t"duyg0ifcJh onf/ xkdtoif;onf EkdifiHjcm;ukefrsm;ukd vli,frsm;roHk;Mupwrf;[k
t"d|mefjyKvsuf Ekid if jH cm; ukeo
f nfrsm;ukd oydwaf rSmufaomtoif;jzpfonf/ 1929 ckEpS w
f iG f
urÇmw0Sr;f vH;k pD;yGm;a&; Muyfwnf;cJMh uonf/ xkt
d csed w
f iG f uk,
d Mhf ur®muk,
d rf zefw;D Ekid af om
tajctaeukd jyKjyifEidk af p&ef omru uReb
f 0rS vGwaf jrmufap&efenf;vrf; &SmazGvpdk w
d f
jyif;xefcMhJ uonf/
jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;ukd csKyfukdifxm;aomEkdifiHjcm;t&if;&Sifrsm;\ tkyfcsKyfrIukd
wkdufzsufcJhMu onf/ om,m0wD? a';'&J? zsmyHk? paomae&mrsm;ü t*Fvdyftpkd;&ukd
awmfveS yf ek u
f efMuonf/ 1930 jynfEh pS üf tkycf sKyaf eaom t*Fvyd b
f &k ifcH qmcsm;tif;epf
onf bdvyfokdYjyefoGm;cJhonf/ om,m0wDe,f tvHaxmifwGif q&mpHonf ]]okyPÖu
*VKef&mZm }}trnfcHvsuf awmifolv,form;rsm;tm; pnf;&Hk;íolykefxcJhavonf/
q&mpH\aus;Zl;aMumifh vlxw
k pf&yfv;kH ü awmfveS af &;pdw"f gwf wk;d wufjyif;xefco
hJ nf/
&efuek w
f uúov
dk üf vnf; ]] ausmif;om;or*¾ }}toif;ukw
d nfaxmifcMhJ uonf/
ukdEkonf 1937 ckESpfwGif owif;pmq&mOD;bckdifESifh 'D;'kwfOD;bcsdKwkdY zGJUpnf;xm;aom
]]azbD,H }} Ekid if aH &;ygwDü 0ifa&mufun
l cD o
hJ nf/ xkyd gwDrmS xkt
d csed u
f ]] wkAYd rmtpnf;t&H;k
}} avmuf emrnf rxif&Sm;cJhay/
]] wkdYArmtpnf;t&Hk; }}okdY? ukdEkESifh ukdatmifqef;wkdYonf wpfaeYwnf;
toif;0ifjzpfcJhMuonf/ xkdrSpí ]] ocifEk }} jzpfvmcJhonf/ wkdYArmtpnf;t&Hk;ü wm0ef
xrf;aqmifaepOf tpnf;t&Hk;\ b@ma&;ESifh0g'jzefYyGm;a&;rSL;tjzpf t"duwm0ef
xrf;aqmifcJh \/ 1937 ckESpf? atNyDv (1)&ufaeYrS pí 91XmetkyfcsKyfa&;jzifh
vGwv
f yfa&;ukad y;&m vH;k 0 tvSr;f uGma0;onf[t
k aMumif;jyvsuf wkAYd rmtpnf;t&H;k rS
vli,frsm;u tjyif;txefuefu
Y u
G cf ahJ vonf/

104
OD ; Ek o nf a'guf w mbarmf t pk d ; &vuf x uf w G i f ausmif ; om;rsm;tm;
Ekid if jH cm;ynmoifapvTw&f efwu
dk w
f eG ;f cJo
h nf/ txl;ojzifh wk;d wufaeaomta&SUzufEidk if H
rsm;okYd ynmawmfoifapvTw
G &f ef OD;EkrS tBuaH y;cJo
h nf/ ]] Armhxu
G &f yf*P
dk ;f }}rScsrw
S cf ahJ om
tqkdjyKcsuf (7)csufukd om,m0wDNrdKU&Sd ]]wkdYArmtpnf;t&Hk;}} nDvmcHwGif zwfMum;
wifoiG ;f &ef OD;Ektm; wm0efay;tyfjcif;cHc&hJ onf/
4-1/

*syefacwfwm0efxrf;aqmifrI (1942-1945)

1941 ckEpS o
f aYdk &mufaomtcg 'kw,
d urÇmppfBu;D onf tm&Swu
dk q
f o
D u
Ydk ;l pufí
vmaomtcsdeftcgwGif OD;EkrSmrEÅav;NrdKU\tusOf;axmifwGif a&mufaecJhonf/
axmifxüJ tusO;f usaepOf ocifp;dk onf OD;Ektm; uGejf rLepf0g'pmayrsm;ukad vhvmckid ;f cJ&h m
avhvmjcif;r&SdbJ ¤if;pdwf0ifpm;onf jyZmwfpmayukdomavhvmcJhonf/ OD;Ekonf
xdt
k cdseu
f ocifp;dk tm;
]]cifAsm;u Armjynf&UJ vDeifjzpf uReaf wmfu Armjynf&UJ rufZifa*:uD
jzpfraygh }} 1 [kajymqkdcJhbl;onf/
EkdifiHa&;e,fxJokdY0ifa&mufjcif;rjyKawmh[kqHk;jzwfcsufcsvkdufaom OD;Ekonf
a'gufwmbarmfaumfrwDwGif trsm;qE´t&yg0ifaqmif&GufcJh&jyefonf/ xkdYaemuf
*syeftpkd;&vufatmufwGif a'gufwmbarmftpdk;&tzGJU zGJUcJhjyef&mOD;EkrSmtpkd;&tzGJUwGif
0ifa&mufvyk u
f idk jf cif; r&Scd ahJ cs/ okaYd omf jyifyrS tultnDay;cJo
h nf/ xkaYd emufjrefrmjynftm;
vGwv
f yfa&;ay;&ef ]]Armh vGwv
f yfa&;pDpOfrt
I zGUJ }} ukx
d yfrzH UJG pnf;cJ&h m ¤if;tzGUJ wGif OD;Ekyg0if
cJ&h onf/ xkjYd yif 1943 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f (1)&ufaeYwiG f jrefrmjynforl sm;\ac:qkcd sut
f &
jrefrmEkdifiHtm; ]]a&T&nfpdrf}} vGwfvyfa&; wenf;tm;jzifh twkta,mifaqmifay;aom
jrefrmEkid if \
H vGwv
f yfa&;&&Scd o
hJ nf/ *syefacwf vGwv
f yfaom jrefrmEkid if \
H yxrqH;k aom
Ekid if jH cm;a&;0efBu;D tjzpf OD;EkonfvufccH o
hJ nf/ rMumrDr[mArmXmeokaYd jymif;a&TUNy;D aemuf
1944 ckEpS w
f iG f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D wm0efjzifh xrf;aqmifc&hJ jyefonf/
jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;wm0efjzifh OD;Ekxrf;aqmifpOf tcsdefu *syefowif;pm
q&mrsm;\ ar;jref;csurf sm;ukd OD;EkrS ajzMum;cJ&h m ]] ArmESi*hf syefcspcf spcf ifcifjyefjzpfatmif
vkyb
f [
Ydk mvJ *syefawGu usKyw
f AYdk rmbufuulaeygw,f/ *syefucdk spyf g/ bmnmatmfae&HEk iS hf
r&bl;? *syefu wu,fpw
d x
f m; ajymif;rS&r,f/ tcktcgrSm *syefppfbufvJ &rf;Muw,f/
1

ocifEk? ig;ESpf&moDArmjynf/ (&efukefNrdKU? jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm
yHEk ydS w
f u
dk v
f rD w
D uf? 1946) pm 53 /

105
*syefuek o
f nfawGuvJ avmbBu;D vku
d f wmvGeaf &m/ 'Dawmh*syeft,f'w
D mawGu Armjynf
a&mufaeMuwJ*h syefrsm; pdwaf jymif;vmatmif jyKjyifa&;om;ay;Mubkv
Yd adk eNyD }} 1[kyiG ;f vif;pGm
ajymMum;cJo
h nf/
xkjYd yifbek ;f awmfBu;D rsm;\udpt
ö &yf&yfrsm;ukd ajz&Si;f ay;&mwGiv
f nf; ]]t&Sib
f &k m;
'Dvt
kd rdeaYf y;ckid ;f jcif;jzifh t&Sib
f &k m;wkrYd mS omtjypfBu;D ygw,f? 'Dawmh ausmif;jyefNy;D om
w&m;b0em ukdtm;xkwfawmfrlyg}}2 [kavQmufxm;cJhonfukdod&onf/ þuJhokdYaom
jyóemtaxGaxGrsm;tm; ajz&Si;f ay;Ny;D aemufyidk ;f wGif OD;Ekonf Ekid if jH cm;a&;0efBu;D jyKvyk f
&ef wm0efay;aomtcg jiif;qefco
hJ nf/
*syeftm; awmfvSef&ef Akdvfatmifqef;ESifhacgif;aqmifrsm;rS BudK;pm;&mwGif
OD;EkxHa&muf&Sd vmcJhonf/ ]] 1945 ckESpf rwfvwGif Akdvfatmifqef;? Akdvfvufsm?
ocifoef;xGe;f ? udak usmNf ird ;f ESihf ocifp;dk wko
Yd nf ocifEx
k aH &mufvmMuonf/ ocifp;dk vufxJ
wGif awmfr*D ef;[kac:aom pufaoewf wpfvufygvmonf/ ocifoef;xGe;f awmckad wm
hrnfjzpfaMumif;? ocifoef;xGef;aysmufoGm;vQif AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ocifEkwkdY\
aexdik af &;rSmcufcv
J mrnfjzpfaMumif;? ocifEEk iS hf Akv
d cf sKyf atmifqef;ygawmcko
d mG ;Mu&ef
oabmwlMuavonf/ 3
xkrd w
S zef ocifEt
k m;touftEÅ&m,fEiS phf ;dk &dr&f ojzifh *syefppfXmecsKyrf S OD;Ekudk
ac:aqmif o G m ;cJ h o nf / xk d Y t wl y if t jcm;aomtpk d ; &0ef B uD ; rsm;tm;vH k ; uk d v nf ;
tapmift
h a&SmufEiS hf ppfbufXmecsKyw
f iG af eapcJo
h nf/ *syefrsm;&efuek rf S rxGucf mG rD ukAd aqG
(vGwv
f yfa&;&Ny;D acwf 0efBu;D csKy)f tm;zrf;qD;ac:aqmifxm;ojzifh vGwaf jrmufr&I &Sad p&ef
vnf; OD;Ek aqmif&GufcJhonf/
1945 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv (12)&ufaeYwGif ocifEkonf a'gufwmbarmftdrfü
&SdaepOf t*Fvdyfav,mOfysHwpfpif; AHk;BuJcH&ojzifh xkdtdrfrSmysufpD;í ocifEkrSmvnf;
touftEÅ&m,fEiS hf &ifqidk cf &hJ avonf/ Mo*kwv
f (14)&ufaeYwiG f *syefrsm;vufeufcsrnf
taMumif;BudKwifí OD;Eku od&SdcJhonf/ xkdYtaMumif;t&mukd ]]cifyGef;jzpfol ocifEku
yxrqHk;tBudrfEkdifiHa&;ESifhpyfvsOf;aom vQdKU0Sufxm;csufwpfckukd ajymjyjcif;aMumihf
1

ocifEk?ig;ES p f & moD A rmjynf/(&efukefNrdKU? jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm
yHEk ydS w
f u
dk f vDrw
D uf? 1946) pm 18/
2

,if;/ pm 118/

3

armifpkd;armif/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ (&efukef? ormrdwå? 1955) pm-63/

106
ZeD;jzpforl mS 0rf;omcJ&h jcif;jzpfaMumif; ocifEu
k qkcd o
hJ nf/}} 1
4-2/

vGwv
f yfa&;&Ny;D acwfwiG f BuKd ;yrf;rI(1945-1948)

*syefrsm;vufeufcsNyD;aemuf jrefrmwpfEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&macgif;aqmifBuD;rsm;
yg0ifaom ]]zufqpfwkdufzsufa&;jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyfBuD; }}onf 1945 ckESpf?
Mo*kwfv 19 &ufaeY 12 em&Dtcsdefü ]]aeol&deftpnf;ta0;cef;r}} üwpfEkdifiHvHk;ESifh
ywfoufaom taMumif;rsm;ukd aqG;aEG;í wnDwnGww
f nf;qH;k jzwfcMhJ uonf/ xkt
d csed f
*syefrsm;jrefrmhajray:rS qkwcf mG cJph Of a'gufwmbarmf tpd;k &ESit
hf wl ocifEo
k nf *syefoYdk
vkdufygoGm;cJhNyD;aemuf 1945 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 3 &ufaeYwGif jrefrmjynfokdY jyefvnf
a&muf&Sd cJhavonf/
xkdtcsdefwGifArmhwyfrawmfta&;ESifhqufpyfí &efukefNrdKUü usif;yaom
jynfot
Yl pnf; ta0;Bu;D rS qH;k jzwfco
hJ nft
h wkid ;f zufqpfwu
dk zf suaf &;tzGUJ Bu;D rS oD[Vdk u
f Re;f &Sd
uE´ND rKd Uü usi;f yjyKvyk o
f nfh uGezf &ifo
h Ydk Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESit
hf zGUJ onf wufa&mufcMhJ uonf/
jrefrmukd,fpm; vS,ftzGJUonf vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&&ef[laom yef;wkdifokdY ra&mufrcsif;
BuKd ;pm;Mu&ef &nf&,
G x
f m;Muonf/
1946 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 20 &ufaeYwiG f OD;Ekonf zufqpfwu
dk zf suaf &;ESijhf ynfoYl
vGwfvyfa&;tzGJUcsKyftrIaqmiftjzpfa&;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&NyD;aemuftzGJUcsKyfESifh AkdvfcsKyf
atmifqef;wkdY tm; xdckdufepfemaprnfhtaMumif;rsm; jzpfay:vmygu vlxkrsm;oHo,
&Si;f vif;ap&ef jyóemrsm;ukd ajz&Si;f ay;cJah vonf/
xkdYtjyifwkdif;&if;om;aoG;pnf;nDnGwfap&ef awmif;wef;a'oESifhjynfrwkdY
pnf;vHk;rI twGufaqmif&GufcJh&m &Srf;jynfe,fokdYoGm;a&mufí pnf;&Hk;ay;cJhonf/
apmbGm;Bu;D rsm;ESiahf wGq
Y í
kH tpnf;ta0;jyKvyk cf ahJ omom"uwpfcrk mS ocifE(k OD;Ek)rS ]],ckvdk
aoG;csif;om;csif;awGeJU &if;&if;ESD;ESD; awGYcsifaewmMuvSygNyD/ 'gayrJh e,fcsJUorm;awG&JU
ya,m*aMumifh ckrSbJ awGYMu&ygw,f/ tckvkdaoG;csif;om;csif;awG &if;&if;ESD;ESD;
rawGjY zpfatmif Oya'awG tmPmawGeUJ om umqD;xm;&Hk ruao;bl;/ ArmawG[m&Sr;f ?
u&if? csif;awGukd ESdrfvdrfYrnf/ ArmawGu wG,fvdrfYrnftp&Sdaom 0g'rsm;ukdvJ
olwdkYwawGrodromjzefYjzL;cJhygw,f/ okd[efbGm;ukd rif;BuD;&efaemifu okwfoifvkduf
xm[m Armu &Srf;ukdapmfum;vTwfvkdufxmbJ tp&SdwJh 0g'awGukd olwkdY&JU&mZ0ifxJrSm
jzefMY uw,f/ trSepf ifppf&rS ;f ukd Armuapmfum;vTww
f ,fqw
dk m r[kww
f hJ taMumif;[m
1

armifpkd;armif/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ (&efukef? ormrdwå? 1955) pm-68/

107
ok[
d efbmG ;uko
d wfNy;D rif;Bu;D &efaemif[m olu,
dk w
f idk rf if;rvkyb
f J tke;f abmif apmfbmG ;ukb
d J
ArmawGtay:rSm rif;vkyfawmfrlyg qkdwJhtcsufeJYyif xif&Sm;aeygNyD/ oDaygrif;ukd
t*F v d y f a wG zrf ; oG m ;wH k ; u r[mjrwf r k e d b k & m;BuD ; xJ u vl i g;&meJ U "g;xrf ; NyD ;
oDaygrif;ukjd yefvrk ,fvYdk apmifah eMuwm[m tjcm;r[kwyf gbl;/ anmifa&TapmbGm;Bu;D bJ
jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifhtckvkd &if;&if;ESD;ESD;jyefvnf aygif;oif;&wJhtcgrSm NzdKzsufr&EkdifwJh
aoG;pnf;a&;tkwfjrpfukd csMuygpkdY }} 1 ponfjzifhajym&m apmfbGm;BuD;rsm;ESifhawmifwef;
uk,
d pf m;vS,rf sm;rSm rsm;pGmauseyfomG ;Muonf/
OD;EkEiS t
hf zGUJ 0ifrsm;onf &efuek Nf rKd UokjYd yefa&mufaomtcg vGwv
f yfa&;r&vQif
rae[laom oEdXé mefjzifh vlxBk u;D ESit
hf wlqE´jyyG?J tiftm;jyyGBJ u;D rsm;ukd csrd cYf srd o
Yf rH QjyKvyk f
usif;ycJhMuonf/ NAdwdoQ tpkd;&onfar*sm*sife&,fqm[l;bwf&efYpftm; bk&ifcHcefYtyf
vku
d o
f nft
h csed üf zqyvtzGUJ csKyBf u;D wGif trIaqmif0efBu;D tzGUJ opfudk jyefvnfzUJG pnf;í
toif;\vkyfief;rsm;ukd wkdif;jynftm;&Sif;vif; jy&onfhwm0efukd 'kwd,OuúXjzpfaom
ocifEu
k xrf;aqmifc&hJ onf/
uGefjrLepfwkdY\vIHUaqmfrIaMumifh ay:aygufvmaomoydwfarSmufqE´jyonfh
udpörsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;í OD;EkrSyif tzGJUcsKyfukd,fpm;ajz&Sif;ay;cJh&onf/ NAdwdoQtpdk;&rS
jrefrmud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;jzpf aom Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;wkt
Yd zGUJ tm; tdE,
´d oko
Yd mG ;a&mufpOf
OD;Ekonf zqyvtzGJUcsKyfrS wm0efrsm; ,lí AkdvfcsKyfukd,fpm; wkdif;jynfukdxdef;odrf;
xm;cJ&h onf/
1947 ckkESpf? atNyDv 9 &ufaeYwkdif;jyKjynfjyKvTwfawmfa&G;aumufyGJBuD;ukd
pepfwus usi;f yEkid cf NhJ y;D aemuf tEkid &f cJo
h jzifh OD;Ekonf Ekid if aH &;e,fxo
J 0Ydk ifc&hJ jyefygonf/
taMumif;rSm zqyv tzGUJ csKyrf S ta&G;cHxm;&aom armifarmifcif onf oabFmjrKk§ y&f mwGif
ygoGm;ojzifh ¤if;ae&mukd,fpm; AkdvfcsKyfrS OD;Ektm; Nrdwfe,frS 0ifa&mufta&G;cH&ef
wku
d w
f eG ;f cJah omaMumifjh zpfonf/
1947 ckESpf? ZGefv 11 &ufaeYwGif ocifEkonfvTwfawmfOuúXtjzpf
a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw
T af wmf\yxrtBurd q
f ;kH jzwfcsuEf iS hf
pyfvsO;fí zqyvtzGUJ csKyf 'kw,
d OuúX OD;Ektygt0if 0efBu;D OD;ausmNf ird ;f ? Akv
d x
f eG ;f vif;?
OD;ukdukdBuD;ESifh Akdvfcifarmifuav; wkdYonfbdvyftpkd;&(xkdacwfac:qkdcsuft&)ESifh
t*Fvefjynfoljynfom;wkdYtm; jrefrmEkdifiHa&; tajctaeem;vnfoabmaygufap&ef
1

armifpkd;armif/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ (&efukef? ormrdwå? 1955) pm-82/

108
twGuf &Sif;vif;ay;apvkdojzifh ZGefv 16 &ufaeYwGif bdvyfokdYxGufcGmoGm;cJh&m ZGef 23
&ufaeYwiG f a&muf&cdS o
hJ nf/
OD ; Ek o nf NAd w d o Quuf b d e yf t zG J U jref r mjynf q k d i f & mtwG i f ; 0ef
avmh'v
f pf(p)wk0d v
J Ef iS hf awGq
Y ckH o
hJ nf/ OD;Ekonf ]] Armjynfawmifwef;a'otrsKd ;om;wkt
Yd m;
¤if;wkdY\ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfa&; jyXmef;&mü jrefrmrsm;u Ncdrf;ajcmufvsuf&Sdonfqkdjcif;rSm
r[kwrf rSeEf idk yf g/ pHpk rf;odomEkid yf g&ef NAw
d o
d Q ygvDrefu,
dk pf m;vS,t
f zGUJ wpfcak pvTwv
f Qif
jrefrmjynfrS BuKd qv
dk ufc&H eftoifjh zpfygonf}}1 [kajymcJyh gonf/
aemufq;kH wGif ocifEBk u;D rSL;aom jrefrmjynfrcS spMf unfa&;uk,
d pf m;vS,t
f zGUJ tm;
NAdwdoQ tpkd;&rS jrefrmjynfokdYtmPmvTJajymif;ay;a&;ukd 1947 ckESpf? Ekdif0ifbmvwGif
ygvDrefvTwfawmf tpnf;ta0;okdY tjrefqHk;wifoGif;&ef tm;oGifaqmif&Gufay;rnf
htaMumif;ukd uwday;vkdufonf/ ocifEkESifhcspfMunfa&;tzGJUonf yxrtqifhtmPm
vTJajymif;a&;aphpyfñ§dEIdif;rIYukd NAdwdoQuufbdeuf tzGJUESifhomru tdE´d,ESifhjrefrmha&;&m
yg&*lrsm;ESiv
hf nf; tBurd Bf urd af qG;aEG;cJMh uonf/
ocifEkvef'efrS jyefra&mufvmrDtcsdefwGif tpkd;&tzGJUukdjzKwfcsNyD;vQif
tpkd;&opfzGJUpnf; aomtcgwGif 0efBuD;csKyf? 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyf? jynfxJa&;0efBuD;
ponfae&mrsm;wGif rnfou
l wm0ef,l rnf ponfjzifh vQKd U0Supf mG vkyaf qmifvsu&f MdS uonf/
Zlvkdifv 13 &ufaeYeHeufwGif &efukefNrdKU ql;avbk&m;vrf;&Sd NrdKUawmfcef;rBuD;ü
zqyvtzGJUcsKyfBuD;rS BuD;rSL;í vlxktpnf;ta0;BuD;wpf&yf usif;y&mocifEkrS
rdecYf eG ;f ajymMum;cJo
h nf/ xkaYd emufZv
l idk v
f 23 &ufaeYwiG f NAw
d o
d Qtpd;k &ESihf jrefrm tpd;k &wk\
Yd
aMunmcsufxkwfjyefonf/ xkdaMunmcsufrSmNAdwdoQtpkd;&ESifh jrefrmekdifiH wkdif;jyKjynfjyK
vTwaf wmfOuúXESijhf refrmekid if aH wmftpk;d &trIaqmifaumifpt
D zGUJ 0if'w
k ,
d OuúXjzpfaom
ocifEk acgif;aqmifonfh jrefrmrdwq
f uftzGUJ onf vef'efNrKd UwGio
f mG ;a&muf aqG;aEG;cJo
h nf/
xkad qG;aEG;csurf sm;teuft"dutcsurf sm;rSm- 1/ ArmEkid if aH wmfMum;jzwftpk;d &tzGUJ onf
24-7-1947 aeUpí Armjynf,m,Dtpkd;& jzpfvmrnf/2/bk&ifcH\trIaqmiftzGJU
'kwd,OuúXonf ,m,Dtpkd;&tzGJUwGif 0efBuD;csKyf[líjzpfvmrnf/ 3/tjcm;trIaqmif
0efBu;D rsm;onf rifepfpwmqkad om 0efBu;D rsm;jzpfvmrnf/ 4/ArmEkid if aH wmf wkid ;f jyKjynfjyK
vTwfawmfutwnfjyKaom tkyfcsKyfa&;t& Armtpkd;&tm; tmPmvTJajymif;a&;
Oya'Murf;ukd atmufwkdbmvavmufwGif pwifusif;yrnfh ygvDrefü wifoGif;ay;rnf/
1

armifpkd;armif/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ (&efukef? ormrdwå? 1955) pm-93/

109
5/ NAdwdoQ"eo[m,e,fy,ftjyifbufwGif vHk;0vGwfvyfaomEkdifiHwpfEkdifiHjzpfbkd
qH;k jzwfcsucf s onf&adS omf NAw
d o
d QwEYdk iS &hf if;ES;D pGmqufqyH grnf [k ESpOf ;D aoabmwlco
hJ nf/
xkad Munmcsurf sm;ukd uG,v
f ,
G o
f l Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESijhf refrmEkid if t
H rIaqmif
aumifpDtzGJUwkdYonf 1947 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 18 &uf aomMumaeYwGifoabmwlcJhonf/
xkdtcsdefrSpí OD;Ekonf ,m,Dtpkd;&tzGJUwGif 0efBuD;csKyfjzpfvmcJhonf/ OD;Ekonf
0efBuD;csKyftjzpf wm0efukd pwifxrf;aqmif &aom tcsdefwGif vlxkBuD;wpf&yfvHk;ukd
AkdvfcsKyf&SdpOfouJhokdY tpktpnf;rajy&ef xdef;odrf;xm;cJhonf/ vef'eftpkd;&ESifhaqG;aEG;
&,lcahJ om tcsurf sm;ukv
d nf; vlxBk u;D tm;wifjycJo
h nf/ Akv
d cf sKyo
f m touf&iS af eOD;rnf
qkv
d Qif xk0d wå&m;ukd Akv
d cf sKyx
f rf;aqmif&rnfjzpf&m ,cktcgwGirf l OD;Eku,
dk w
f idk f &Si;f jy&OD;rnf/
xkw
d m0efuv
dk nf; OD;Ekonf Ekid ef if;atmifjrifpmG aqmif&u
G Ef idk cf o
hJ nf/
ocifEkonf Zlvkdifv 26 &ufaeYwGif wkdif;jyKjynfjyKvTwfawmfOuú|&mxl;rS
EIwfxGufNyD [kaMunmvsuf 1947 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 27 &ufaeYwGif tpkd;&0efBuD;tzGJU
tpnf;ta0;ukd yxrqH;k tBurd u
f si;f y&m 0efBu;D csKyOf ;D EkrS obmywdtjzpfaqmif&u
G o
f nf/
Zlvidk v
f 30 &ufaeYtpnf; ta0;wGif 0efBu;D csKyOf ;D EkrS wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw
T af wmfOuú|tjzpf
anmifa&TapmfbmG ;Bu;D tm; ceft
Y yf&ef tqkw
d ifoiG ;f í vTwaf wmfrv
S ufct
H wnfjyKco
hJ nf/
vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&awmhrnfh jrefrmEkdifiH awmfonf tmPmvTJajymif;&awmhrnfh
pufu;l rwfu;l tcsed w
f iG f wkid ;f jynfNird 0f yfyjd ym;a&;twGuf txl;ta&;Bu;D avonfh tcsed w
f iG f
0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpfoaYdk &muf&adS eaom OD;Ekonf bmoma&; vkyif ef;rsm;vkyaf eaomtcsed w
f iG f
NAw
d o
d QygvDrefü jrefrmEkid if v
H w
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f yfa&;Oya'Murf;ukd avbmtpk;d &wbuf? uGeq
f maA;wpf
twku
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f nf;jzpfonf/ ]] 1948 ckEpS ?f
Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeYrSpí NAdwdoQpD;yGm;bufjynfaxmifpk jyifbufwGif vGwfvyfaom
Ekid if t
H jzpf wnfciG &hf o
dS nf/ }} qkad om jrefrmjynfvw
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288 rJ 114 rJjzifh uGefqmaA;wpftwkduftcH *kdPf;\ uefYuGufcsufukdy,fcscJhonf/
0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ekonf 27 Budrfajrmuf trsdK;om;aeYBuD;ukd 1947 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 7 &uf?
aomMumaeYwGif &efukefNrdKU AE¨Kvyef;NcHü usif;yaomtcg jrefrmtrsdK;om;vlxkBuD;tm;
wyfveS EYf ;dI aqmfciG hf &&Scd o
hJ nf/ 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ek trsKd ;om;rdecYf eG ;f ajymMum;&mwGif ]]'DaeYupNy;D
t&uf 58 &ufajrmufwJhaeYrSm ArmEkdifiHBuD;[m tcsKyftjcmtmPmykdif EkdifiHBuD;jzpfvm
awmhr,f? ArmEkdifiHBuD;twGif;rSm rSDwif;aexkdif MuwJh &Srf;? u&if? ucsif? csif;? rGef? Arm
tp&SdwJh wkdif;&if;om;awGvJ uRefb0uvGwfajrmufNyD; ukd,fhMur®m ukd,fzefwD;EkdifwJh
tmPmykdifvlrsdK;awGjzpfvmMuawmhr,f/ tJ'Dvkdta&;BuD;wJhtcsdefrSm ta&;BuD;wJh
pum;av;cGe;f ukd uReaf wmfajymcsiw
f ,f/ 'Dpum;av;cGe;f [m trSepf ifppfawmh odycf ufwhJ

110
pum;awG r[kwyf gbl;/ cifAsm;wkMYd um;aeuspum;awGygbJ/ 'gayrJh ynm&So
d wdjzpfcq
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dk hJ
pum;vkd arYaerSmpk;d wJh twGuf owday;wJt
h aeeJaY jym&jcif;jzpfw,f/ 'Dpum;av;cGe;f ukd
tpDtpOfeUJ ajymyghr,f/ eHygwf (1) tpGr;f uken
f n
D w
G Mf uprf;yg/ eHygwf(2) tpGr;f ukeo
f ef&Y iS ;f Mu
prf;yg/ eHygwf(3) tpGr;f uke&f Ny;D om; tiftm;ukjd znfMh uprf;yg/ eHygwf(4) tpGr;f uket
f vkyf
h nf/
vkyMf uprf;yg/ }}2ponfjzifh rdeMYf um;oGm;cJo
0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ekonf wbufwGifvnf; wkdif;jynftm; tarSmifukdcGif;um
tvif;aqmif&ef pDrHcJhonf/ vGwfvyfaomjrefrmEkdifiHonf tjcm;EkdifiHrsm;ESifh acwfrDpGm
&ifabmifwef; Ekid &f ef ]]jrefrmEkid if b
H momjyefpmaytoif; }} [laomtoif;wpfcu
k dk 0efBu;D csKyf
OD;Ekuyif obmywdtjzpf aqmif&u
G u
f m zGUJ pnf;cJo
h nf/ 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ekonf 1947 ckEpS f
atmufwb
dk mv 13 &ufaeYwiG f NAw
d o
d Qtpk;d &ESihf aemufq;kH tmPmvTaJ jymif;a&;pmcsKyu
f dk
vufrSwfa&;xkd;&ef bdvyfokdY xGufcGmoGm;cJh onf/ av,mOfpufcsdKU,Gif;í ukdif&kdNrdKUokdY
qif;ae&ojzifh bdvyfoYdk atmufwb
dk m 16 &ufaeYwiG f a&muf&o
dS nf/ 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ekonf
]] *a&mhpAf if;em;a[mufpf }} a[mfw,fwiG f wnf;ckad e cJah vonf/ 1948 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&DvwGif
NAdwdoQrSjrefrmEkdifiHokdY tmPmvTJtyfNyD;aemuf ay:aygufvmrnfh oabmwlnDcsufukd
NAdwdoQ0efBuD;csKyf rpöwmtufwvDESifh jrefrmjynftpkd;& 0efBuD;csKyf ocifEkwkdYonf
a'gif;eif;vrf;? trSwf 10 NAw
d o
d Q0efBu;D csKy&f ;kH tpk;d &tzGUJ tpnf;ta0; cef;ü atmufwb
dk mv
17 &ufaeYwiG f Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyv
f ufrw
S af &;xk;d cJMh uonf/
jrefrmjynfwGifum; vGwfvyfa&;aMunmrnfh aeY&ufrwkdifcif 1948 ckESpf?
Zefe0g&Dv 3 &uf? paeaeY? wkid ;f jyKjynfjyK vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0;ü jrefrmEkid if aH wmftpk;d &
tzGUJ 0efBu;D rsm;\pm&if;ukd ocifEu
k wifoiG ;f &m vGwv
f yfaom jrefrmEkid if \
H yxr0efBu;D csKyf
tjzpf OD;Ek yifaqmif&u
G &f ef emrnfyg0ifvmcJo
h nf/
1948 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeYeeH ufyidk ;f t&kPw
f uf 4 em&D 20 rdepftcsed w
f iG f
vGwv
f yfa&;aeYatmifyt
JG crf;tem;ü jrefrmEkid if \
H yxrqH;k 0efBu;D csKyrf S rdecYf eG ;f ajymMum;
&mwGif ]] uReaf wmfwjYdk ynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if o
H m;awG[m 'DaeYupNy;D vGwv
f yfa&;awmh&Ny/D
'gayrJh urÇmh tajctaeuawmhjzihf ppf&yd pf pfaiGUawG oef;aeovkv
d b
dk /J 'Dawmh uReaf wmfwYdk
&wJv
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f yfa&;[m ppf&yd pf pfaiGUoef;ae ovkv
d &dk w
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hJ cgrSm &wJv
h w
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f yfa&;vkq
Yd &dk rSmbJ/
'gayrJh pdwfysuftm;i,fbkdY r&Sdygbl;/ wbufuppf&dyfppfaiGYoef;ae ovkdvkd&SdayrJY
1

OD;pHNidrf;? jrefrmEkdifiHa&; 1958-1962(yxrwGJ)/ wGJbufa&;ol
a'gufwm a':jrifMh unf/ (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1991) pm-94/
2
,if;/ pm-96/

111
wbuf u vJ h tm;wuf p &m awG t rsm;BuD ; &S d a o;w,f / uRef a wmf w k d Y w awG [ m
tckurÇmah cwfopfeUJ BuKH BuKd uaf eygw,f/ acwfopf oabm w&m;0g' awGeUJ BuKH BuKd uaf e
ygw,f/ avmu"gwfoyd yHÜ nm\wefb;dk tpGr;f uk-d pk;d rk;d toH;k csEidk w
f hJ acwfeUJ BuKH BuKd uaf eyg
w,f/ wu,fvo
Ydk m uReaf wmfwv
Ydk o
l m;awG[m ppfrufqw
dk hJ tusiq
hf ;dk tavhq;dk Bu;D ukd
h nf/
zsuyf pfEidk rf ,fq&dk if- avmuedAmÁ efBu;D tvkv
d adk ygufvmrSm trSeyf gbJ}} 1[k ajymMum;cJo
xko
d v
Ydk w
G v
f yfaom or®wEkid if aH wmf\yxr0efBu;D csKyjf zpfvmaom OD;Ekonf
vGwv
f yfaomtcsKyt
f jcmtmPmykid t
f jzpf aMunmaomaeYwiG f jynfaxmifpjk refrmjynfol
vlxBk u;D tm; owday;cJo
h nf/ 0efBu;D csKyo
f cifEu
k - ]] ,aeYonfum; rGejf rwfaomaeYBu;D
jzpf\/ vGefcJhaom 5 ESpfausmfu uREfkyfwkdYonf vGwfvyfa&;twGuf rnfrQyiftjyif;
txefBudK;yrf;Muonfjzpfapumrl vGwfvyfa&;&&efaeYonf þrQavmufeD;uyfaeNyD[k
pdwu
f ;l rQyif rxnfch MhJ uay/ ,ckru
l m; jrefrmEkid if o
H nf rdrad emifa&;ukd rdrzd efw;D Ekid af om
vGwfvyfa&;ukd &&SdcJhjyefavNyD/ uREfkyfwkdYonf rnfonfhenf;ESifhrqkd jrefrmEkdifiHBuD;ukd
vGwfvyfaomEkdifiHBuD;tjzpf tpOfwnfí aeap&eftpGrf;ukef tm;xkwfMu&ayrnf/
jrefrmEkdifiHwkd;wufBuD;us,fvmatmif tpGrf;ukefaqmif&GufMu&ayrnf/ vGwfvyfa&;
atmifyef;ukd vufqkyfvufukdiftykdifqGwfcl;Ekdifonftxd rsdK;cspfpdwfjzifh BudK;yrf;cJhonfh
uREfkyfwkdYvkyfief;BuD;onf vmvwHhaomumvtwGuf r,drf;r,kdifBuHUckdifwnfwefYygap/
uREfkyfwkdY onf ukd,fusdK;ukda&SU&Iaom pdwfxm[lorQukdy,f&Sm;Mu&efESifh uREfkyfwkdYrSDwif;
aexkid &f mjzpfaom þae&m? þXme? þa'o? þEkid if BH u;D \csr;f oma&;ESihf Nird ;f csr;f a&;twGuf
wpfv;kH wnf; tm;oGef BuKd ;yrf;&ef ,aeYt"dXmefjyKMuygukepf /Ydk }} 2[kopömjyKcahJ vonf/
4-3/

vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;acwfBudK;yrf;rI(1948-1962)

vG w f v yf a &;&NyD ; acwf j ynf a xmif p k o r® w jref r mEk d i f i H t ajctaeonf
uGefjrLepfygwD\ tmPm&&Sda&;vrf;pOfrsm;rsm;ukd t"duxm;NyD; jynfwGif;ppfjzpfatmif
zefw;D cJo
h nfh tajctaexd jzpfco
hJ nf/ wpfzef 1948 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 13 &ufaeYwiG f ocifEk
\vuf0n
J n
D w
T af &;rludk aMunmcJ&h m xkad eYrmS yif ocifErk u
l v
dk ufcaH om Akv
d rf LS ;atmifEiS hf
Akv
d pf ed rf eS f (&Jabmf0g)wko
Yd nf zqyvtzGUJ ESihf yl;aygif;oGm;Muonf/ ocifErk u
l dk vufrcHaom
Akv
d zf ;dk uGe;f ESihf Akv
d v
f a&mif (&JabmfjzL)wko
Yd nf 1948 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 29 &ufaeYwiG af wmcku
d m
1

jrefrmEkdifiH? jyefMum;a&;ESifhtoHvTifhXme/ jrefrmEkdifiHawmfvGwfvyfa&;
atmifyGJ/ (&efuek ?f &efuek af *ZufvrD w
d uf? ckEpS rf yg)? pm-7/
2
armifpkd;armif/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ (&efukef? ormrdwå? 1955) pm -9/

112
qlyal omif;use;f rIudk pwifco
hJ nf/ 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ekonf Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;vkyBf ucH &H Ny;D aemuf
,m,Dtpk;d &\ 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;ukv
d ufcpH Ofuyif jrefrmEkid if v
H w
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f yfa&;&&SNd y;D ygu rdro
d nf
0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;rS Ekwx
f u
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h nf/ qly;l aomif;use;f rIrsm;us,jf yefv
Y mcsed f
wGiv
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k x
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opömazmufwyfrsm; awmckdoGm;onfhtcg a&mifpHkaomif;usef;olrsm;tm;wyfrawmfrS
ckcw
H u
dk cf u
dk o
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JG mG ; onf/
EkdifiHa&;tajctaeonf vGwfvyfa&;ukdyif tEÅ&m,fjyKrnfhtajctaeokdY
qku
d af &muf &So
d nf/ &efuek t
f pk;d &[ktac:cHae&csed w
f iG f wkid ;f &if;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf
jynfaxmifpt
k pk;d & bufrS tckid t
f rm&yfwnfco
hJ nf/ &Sr;f ? ucsi?f csi;f acgif;aqmifrsm;onf
0efBuD;csKyf OD;EkESifhvma&muf awGUqHkNyD; ]] rdrdwkdYukd vufeufom&Smay;yg? olykefawGukd
uRefawmfwkdYwkdufr,f }} 1[líajymMum;cJh onf/ autif'Dtkdrsm; tif;pdefNrdKUukd odrf;ykduf
xm;csed o
f nf tpk;d &\tajctaetqk;d &Gm;qH;k tcsed yf ifjzpfonf/
tpk d ; &tusyf t wnf ; awG U aecsd e f w G i f jynf a xmif p k w nf N rJ a &;twG u f
t"dutiftm;jzpf onfhwyfrawmfukdpnf;&Hk;um EkdifiHawmftmPmodrf;&efBudK;yrf;rI
wpf&yfay:aygufvmcJhonf/ aomif;usef;olrsm; vufokdYusa&mufaeaom rEÅav;NrdKUukd
jyefvnford ;f yku
d &f ef 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ek uk,
d w
f idk f oGm;a&mufppD OfaepOf 1949 ckEpS af tNyv
D wGif
qkd&S,fvpfygwD0if 0efBuD;rsm;onf tpkd;&tzGJU0iftjzpfrS EkwfxGufoGm;Muonf/ 1949
ckESpfonf aomif;usef;rIt&Sdeft[keftBuD;rm;qHk; ESpfjzpfonf/ EkdifiHa&;t& 0efBuD;csKyf
OD ; Ek r S wk d i f ; &if ; om;pnf ; vH k ; rI u k d zef w D ; ay;jcif ; ? ppf a &;t& Ak d v f c sKyf ae0if ; rS
aqmif&u
G af y;aomaMumifh jynfaxmifpBk u;D NyKd uo
JG mG ;jcif;r&Scd ahJ cs/
OD;Ekonf 1956 ckepS ?f ZGev
f 12 &ufaeYwiG f 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;rS Ekwx
f u
G cf o
hJ nf/
xkad emuf zqyvtzGUJ csKyOf uúXtaejzifh zqyvoef&Y iS ;f a&;ESiphf nf;&H;k a&;ukd aqmif&u
G cf hJ
onf/2 OD;Ek0efBuD;csKyf&mxl;rS EkwfxGufonfhudpörSm ,ckrSay:aygufcJhjcif; r[kwfay/
vGwv
f yfa&;&Ny;D ajcmufvceft
Y MumrSpí 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl; Ekwx
f u
G rf nf[ak MunmcJzh ;l onf/
Ekwx
f u
G &f jcif;taMumif; \ yxrtcsurf mS e,fcsUJ ukad wmfveS pf Ofu touft;dk tdrpf nf;pdrf
ukkd pGefYvTwf wkdufckdufcJhaom EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;u tcGifhta&;rsm;awmif;qkdvmjcif;?
'kw,
d tcsurf mS wpfO;D tay: wpfO;D r,Ho
k uFmpdwrf sm;aMumifh tmPmvkcsio
f rl sm;ay:vm
jcif;? tmPmvufukdifxm;olrsm; uvnf; ykdívkdcsifvmjcif;? aemufqHk;tcsufrSm
1

jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm
pm? (13 ZGef 1956)/ pm 10-12/
2
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm
pm? (12 ZGef 1956)/ pm 3/

113
tmPmtvGJoHk;pm; jyKvmMujcif;wkdYjzpfonf/1 jynfwGif; aomif;usef;rIrsm;aMumifh
vnf;aumif;? zqyvtzGUJ 0iftcsUd \ arwåm&yfccH suaf Mumifh vnf;aumif; rxGujf zpfcahJ y/
1954 ckEpS af &mufaomtcg tpövmrfbmom? c&pf,mefbmom? Ak'b
¨ mom oifMum;a&;ESihf
ywfoufí bmoma&;tH<k urIjzpfco
hJ nf/ 1956 ckEpS ?f arvwGif o*Fg,emyGaJ wmfNy;D qH;k csed üf
OD;Eku 0efBuD;csKyftjzpfrS EkwfxGuf&efwifjycJhonf/ 1958 ckESpf? arv 6 &ufaeYS
Armhacwfowif;pm wGif OD;EkaxmufcHaomtkyfpkESifh OD;ausmfNidrf;axmufcHaomtkyfpk
zqyvtzGJU twGif;wGifuGJvmcJhonf[kazmfjycJhonf/ zqyvOuúX OD;Ekukd 1957 ckESpf
azazmf 0 g&D v 28 &uf ? jynf o l Y v T w f a wmf t pnf ; ta0;wG i f 0ef B uD ; csKyf t jzpf
a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufonf/ OD;AaqG? OD;ausmfNidrf;? ocifwifESifh p0fcGefcsdKwkdYonf
'kwd,0efBuD;csKyfrsm;tjzpf wm0ef,lMuonf/ 0efBuD; 30 yg0ifaom OD;Ektpkd;&tzGJUonf
rwf v 1 &uf a eY w G i f usrf ; usd e f o nf /1 1957 ck E S p f ? rwf v 12 &uf a eY w G i f
ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmtwlwuGvufwGJí jrefrmjynfaumif;pm;a&; twGufBudK;yrf;cJhMuaom
yk * ¾ d K vf r sm;\ yk * ¾ d K vf p G J ? *k d P f ; *PpG J r sm;aMumif h vG w f v yf a &;&NyD ; 10 ES p f t wG i f ;
pnf;vH;k rINyKd uo
JG mG ;&onf/ OD;Ektpk;d & tzGUJ onf 1958 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 4 &ufaeYwiG zf UJG pnf;cJo
h nf/
use&f adS om 0efBu;D 15 OD;tjyif? 0efBu;D topf 5 OD;ukcd efx
Y m;cJo
h nf/ ¤if;0efBu;D tzGUJ pm&if;ukd
EkdifiHawmfor®wu vufcHvkdufí ZGefv 5 &uf? aomMumaeYeHeuf 11 em&DwGif
jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfudk pwifusi;f ycJo
h nf/ 1958 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 9 &uf aeY eHeuf 11 em&DwiG f
vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0; pwifusi;f ycJNh y;D aemuf axmufco
H l 119 rJjzifh OD;EkO;D aqmifaom
oef&Y iS ;f zqyvonf tpk;d &tmPmukd qufvufxed ;f odr;f oGm;cJo
h nf/2 oef&Y iS ;f zqyvonf
rdrt
d zGUJ tm;axmufcrH &I &Sad &;twGuf yrnwrsm;ESihf jynfe,ftrwfrsm;okYd ay;tyfxm;aom
uwd r sm;uk d j znf h q nf ; aqmif & G u f & mü tcuf t cJ r sm;awG U vm&onf / xk d Y a Mumif h
oef&Y iS ;f zqyvtpk;d &rSm jyóemrsm;ukd qufvuf&ifqidk cf &hJ onf/
1958 ckESpf? atmufwdkbmv 28 &ufaeYwGif jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0;
pwif usi;f ycJo
h nf/ vTwaf wmfwiG f 0efBu;D csKyf OD;EkrS rdecYf eG ;f ajymMum;cJo
h nf/ rdecYf eG ;f wGif
yxrykid ;f ü zqyvESpjf crf;uG&J mrSpí Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;ESiphf mtjyeftvSeaf y;yHrk sm;azmfjyNy;D
vGwfvyfíw&m;rQw aoma&G;aumufyGJusif;ya&;ukd a&S;&Ií AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;tm;
&mxl;vufcHatmif wkdufwGef;&jcif; jzpfaMumif;? ,if;tcsufukd pufwifbmv 26
1

William C. Johnston, A Chronology of Burma's International

Relations 1945-1958, Rangoon, Rangoon University,1959,, p.75. 159
2

'kw,
d jynfov
Yl w
GT af wmf? 6^2? pm 132-139/

114
&ufaeYvufcH&ef AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;ukd zdwfac:7mrSm rnfonfhya,m*rS ryg0ifaMumif;?
Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;rSm tpOftvmt& wkid ;f jynf\qE´udk jznfq
h nf;cJah Mumif;? pdwaf pwem?
owå d A swå d t jyif tk y f c sKyf a &;qk d i f & muk d , f a wG U A[k o k w rsm;vnf ; &S d aeNyD ; jzpf í
Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;ukd 0efBu;D csKycf efjY cif;tm;jzifh jynfaxmifpBk u;D twGuf rsm;pGmpdwcf s&onf
[k ,HMk unfaMumif;? xkaYd Mumif'h rD u
dk a&pD rqdwo
f Ok ;f a&;twGuf Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0i;fEiS w
hf zJG ufí
tpGr;f ukeyf ;l aygif;aqmif&u
G Mf u&ef wku
d w
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h nf/1
jynfov
Yl w
T af wmftpnf;ta0;ukd 1958 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 31 &ufaeYtxd
qufvufusif;y&m EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyf AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;rS rdefYcGef;ajymMum;csufrSm
jynfaxmifpBk u;D a&wdrrf epf&atmif BuKd BuKd wifwif vHNk cKH a&;tpDtpOfrsm;ukd aqmif&u
G cf hJ
&aMumif;? &ifqidk v
f m&aomtajctaeqk;d rsm;ukd tcsed rf x
D ed ;f odr;f ay;&ef tdraf pmift
h pk;d &
wpfczk UJG &ef OD;EkrS wm0efay;aMumif;? þwm0efudk acgif;ra&Smifvadk omaMumifh 'Dru
dk a&;pD
enf;ususygvDrefu tmPmay;tyfjcif;ukd vufc&H aMumif; rdeMYf um;cJo
h nf/2
Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; OD;aqmifaom tdraf pmift
h pk;d &tzGUJ rS jynfaxmifpt
k zGUJ Ouú|
OD;Ekacgif;aqmifonfhtpkd;&tzGJUokdY vTJajymif;ay;&ef wwd,jynfolYvTwfawmfnDvmc
Htpnf;ta0; ukd 1960 jynfhESpf? atNyDv 1 &ufwGifpwifusif;ycJhonf/ 1960 jynfhESpf
atNyv
D 4 &ufae jynfoYl vTwaf wmf nDvmcHBu;D wGif jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if \
H 0efBu;D csKyf
tjzpf OD;Ekukd a&G;aumufwifajr§muf vkdufaMumif; aMunmcJhonf/
taxGaxGa&G;aumufyBJG u;D wGif tjywftowftEkid &f &Scd o
hJ nfOh ;D Ek OD;aqmifaom
oef&Y iS ;f zqyv tzGUJ csKyo
f nf 1960 jynfEh pS ?f rwfv 17 &ufaeYü jynfv;kH uRwn
f v
D mcHBu;D
usi;f ycJo
h nf/ xkn
d v
D mcHwiG f Ouú| OD;EkrS ]] 'Dru
dk a&pDb0 xlaxmifa&;[m uReaf wmfwYdk
twGuf t"duta&; qkdwm xif&Sm;apcsifwJhtwGuf zqyvtzGJUa[mif;ukdzsufNyD;?
jynfaxmifpktzGJUopfukd uRefawmfwkdY zGJUpnf;vkdufjcif; }} 3 jzpfonf[kajymMum;cJhonf/
xkt
d csed rf pS í oef&Y iS ;f zqyvtzGUJ ukd jynfaxmifpt
k zGUJ (yxp)[lí ajymif;vJac:a0:cJo
h nf/
yxptzGUJ csKyt
f wGi;f ü vlxv
k w
l ef;pm;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;ukq
d ufvufxm;&Sv
d adk omtkypf Ek iS hf
xkt
d zGUJ tpnf;rsm;ukzd suo
f rd ;f í yxptzGUJ wpfzUJG wnf; om&Sv
d adk omtkypf [
k í
l tkypf Ek pS pf u
k JG

1

'kwd,jynfolYvTwfawmf? 7^1? pm 8-17/
2
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm
pm?(20 ar 1960) pm 1/
3
[Hom0wDowif;pm (18 rwf 1960) pm 10-11/

115
cJhonf[kqkdonf/1 1961 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 29 &ufaeYwGif Ak'¨bmomukd EkdifiHawmfbmom
tjzpfowfrw
S cf o
hJ nf/ xkaYd Mumifh wkid ;f jynfrNird rf oufrrI sm; jzpfco
hJ nf/ 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ek\
jynfaxmifpt
k pk;d &vufxufwiG f &Sr;f apmfbmG ;rsm;onf zuf'&,fru
l dk wifjy awmif;qku
d m
zuf'&,frlr&vQif jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHrS cGJxGufrnf[k Ncdrf;ajcmufcJhMuojzifh
jynfaxmifpNk yKd urJG nfh tEÅ&m,fjzpfay:vmcJjh yefonf/ xko
d jYdk ynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf\
txl;,kd,Gif;vmaomtajctae qkd;ukd xdef;odrf;pdrfYaomiSm 1962 ckESpf? rwfv 2
&ufaeYwGif AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if; OD;aqmifaom ArmhwyfrawmfrS EkdifiHawmftmPmukd
xde;f odr;f cJo
h nf/
Ak'¨jrwfpGmyGifhawmfrlcJh&m tdE´d,EkdifiH Ak'¨*g,mrSaAm"dyifysdKrsm;? oD[kdVfuRef;rS
aAm"dyifysKd rsm;ukd yifah qmifcNhJ y;D vQif jrefrmEkid if t
H &yf&yfü pku
d yf sKd ;apcJo
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´d Ekid if rH S
vuf0J&H? vusfm&Hrsm;jzpfaom &Sifr[marm*¾vH? &Sifom&dykwå&mrax&fjrwfESpfyg;\
"gwfawmfrsm;ukv
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hJ jrefrmEkid if t
H &yf&yfoYdk a'opm&DjzefcY sv
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tyl a Zmf c H a ponf / wpf j ynf v H k ; ü ql y l x <uvsuf & S d a omol y k e f a omif ; usef ; ol w k d Y \
ab;&eftEÅ&m,fukd OD;Ekonf jrwfpGmbk&m; w&m;awmfrsm;jzifh Nidrf0yfydjym;&ef?
wkid ;f oljynfom;vltrsm;ab;&efuif;Nird ;f csr;f omap&ef? tusiphf m&dwaå zmufjyefysujf ym;
vsuf&Sdolrsm; owdw&m;&ap&ef ]] r[mor,aeY}} ]] "r®pMumaeY}} ponfjzifh
owf r S w f a y;vsuf " r® p Mumok w f r[mor,ok w f ? tewå v u© P ok w f paom
okweå af 'oemawmfrsm;ukd &efuek Nf rKd UESiw
hf uG tNrKd UNrKd Ut&Gm&GmwGif &Gwb
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ö Ef idk af tmif
tm;xkwcf o
hJ nf/ orma'0ewfrsm;tm; trQtwef;ay;a0vsuf AvdewfpmauR;cJo
h nf/
tdE,
d´ Ekid if H rS Ak'j¨ rwfpmG \vuf0&J ?H vusmf &Hrsm;jzpfaom &Siaf rm*¾vefEiS hf &Sio
f m&dyw
k &å m
&[EÅmESpfql\ "gwfawmfrsm;rS tcsdKUukd jrefrmEkdifiHüukd;uG,fEkdifatmif tdE´d,0efBuD;csKyf
&S&aD e&l;xHwiG f tvSLcHNy;D vQif &efuek Nf rKd U? a&ul;&yf oD&rd *Fvmuke;f ajr&Sd urÅmat;apwDawmfü
Xmyemí ukd;uG,fcJhonf/
omoemawmfwGif Ak'¨bmom rGef-jrefrmtaygif;wkdYMunfnkdonfxuf
Munfnkdvmatmif 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek tm;xkwfaqmif&Gufcsufrsm;teuf urÇmhorkdif;?
jrefrmhorkid ;f rsm;wGirf w
S w
f rf;wif &pfrnfh twkid ;f rodx;l jcm;vSaom tcsuBf u;D wpf&yfrmS
qXoH*g,emwifyBJG u;D ukd qifEu
JT si;f yEkid cf hJ jcif;yifjzpfonf/
1

OD;ausmf0if;? jrefrmEkdifiHa&; 1958-1962 (wwd,wGJ)/ wGJbuf
a&;ol OD;jr[efEiS hf OD;ode;f vIid /f (&efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1991) pm 168/

116
1316 ckESpf? uqkefvjynfhaeY (1954 ckESpf? arv 17 &ufaeY)wGif
q|oH*g,emwif yGaJ wmfBu;D ukd &efuek Nf rKd U? a&ul;&yf oD&rd *Fvmuke;f ajr&Sd vkP
d *f al wmfBu;D wGif
pwifziG v
hf pS cf o
hJ nf/ yxro*Fg,emwifawmfr&l m owåyPÖv
d P
dk *f al wmfBu;D \ oP²mefudk
yHpk ,
H í
l &efuek Nf rKd U urÇmat; apwDawmfteD;wGif vkP
d *f al wmfBu;D ukd aqmufvyk &f ef 1314
ckEpS ?f wykw
d v
JG qef; 1 &ufaeY (1953 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 15 &ufaeY) aomMumaeY eHeufwiG f
yEéu&f u
dk t
f w
k jf rpfcsum pwifwnf aqmufc&hJ m 1 ESp?f 2 v? 10 &ufaetMumwGif Ny;D pD;
atmifjrifcJhonf/ xkdvkdPf*lawmfBuD;rSm ausmufawmifo@mef&Sdí r[mygomP*k[m
vkP
d *f al wmfBu;D [k trnfwiG af vonf/ tjyifywf0ef;usirf mS 455 ay? teH 370 ay&So
d nf/
awmifEiS ahf jrmuftvsm;vku
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f nfaqmufxm; onf/ aiGaygif; ode;f 90 rQuek u
f sco
hJ nf/
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dk *f al wmfBu;D ukd qXoH*g,emwifonfh txdr;f trSwaf y:vGiaf p&ef 0ifaygufwcH g;
6 ckEiS t
hf wGi;f wkid Bf u;D 6 wkid jf zifw
h nfaqmufxm;onf/ twGi;f bufwiG f tvsm;ay 220?
teHay 140 us,0f ef;onf/ vkP
d *f al wmfBu;D twGi;f bufrMS unfh vQif eH&t
H m;azmufxiG ;f
xm;aom tayguf 3 qifjh zifh bk&m;?w&m;? oHCm &wemoH;k yg;tm; &nfreS ;f í jyKvyk x
f m;
onf/ tayguf&Sdaom eH&HwpfxyfwpfxyfvQif y|mef; 24 ypönf;ukd &nfrSef;vsuf 24
qifhpDjyKvkyfxm;onf/ tqifhwpfckvQiftxufatmuf 7 qifhpD&SdítqifhwpfqifhpDwGif
oHCmawmf tyg; 60 oDwif;oH;k awmfrEl idk o
f nf/ oHCmpifaygif; 16 ck&&dS m rsuEf mS MuufEiS hf
txufqHk; avpkwfayguftm;vHk;wGif "r®pMumyHko@mefrsm;jzifh 0ef;&Htkyfrkd;xm;onf/
pkpkagyif;oH*g,emwif yGJBuD;NyD;pD;onftxd usyfaiGodef;aygif; 400 cefYukefuscJhonf/
0efBuD;csKyf OD;Ekonf q|oH*g,emwif yGJawmfBuD;ukd ta&SU tm&SwkdufwpfwkdufvHk;&Sd
Ak'¨bmom0ifolawmfpiftaygif;uyg 0kdif;0efulnDtm; ay;atmifaqmif&GufcJhonf/
xko
d aYdk qmif&u
G cf &hJ mwGif atmifjrifonfo
h m"u rSm oD[Vdk ?f tdE,
d´ ? ,k;d ',m;? uarÇm'D;,m;?
w&kwEf idk if pH aomEkid if rH sm;rS oHCmawmfrsm;? bk&ifrif;jrwfrsm;? oHwrefBu;D rsm; wufa&muf
jcif;jzifh xif&mS ;cJo
h nf/
OD;Ekonf ukdodef;azESifh ukdvSaz (Akdvfvusfm)wkdYrS zdwfac:ojzihf tdE´d,okdY
e*g;eD
oGm;cJhonf/ tdE´d,EkdifiHa&;ukdvnf; avhvmMunhf&IcJhonf/ bdvyfrS tjyefwGif ]]e*g;eD
pmtk y f t oif ; }}trnfjzifh bdvyf ]]vuf0Jpmtkyftoif;}}qefqef pmtkyftoif;
wpfcu
k zdk UJG pnf;cJo
h nf/ e*g;eDpmtkyt
f oif;wku
d f wGif jyZmwfrsm;a&;om;cJo
h nf/ okaYd omf
jyZmwfa&;om;NyD;aomtcg pifwifvkdaomqE´&Sdvmjyef&m pifwif&ef BudK;pm;jyefonf/
xk d Y a Mumif h vrf ; rawmf r S t Nid r f Y t zG J U wpf c k u k d iS m ;&rf ; NyD ; vQif e*g;eD w k d u f x k w f
acwfrjDS yZmwfrsm;xJrS ]] aemifawmfcRwfcPf; }} jyZmwfudk Zmwfwu
dk af vonf/ OD;Ekonf
e*g;eDpmtkyf toif;wkduf tay:xyfwGif aeYa&m? nOfYyg ZmwfwkdufaeonfhumvwGif

117
a&eHajrtvkyo
f rm;oydwf ay:aygufvmojzifh Zmwfwu
dk o
f nft
h vkyu
f edk m;um Ekid if aH &;wGif
vlay: vlaZmfvyk ef nf;}} pmtkyu
vH;k yrf;&jyefonf/ e*g;eDpmtkyf wku
d w
f iG f &Sad epOf OD;Ekonf ]]vl
f dk
bmomjyefqcdk o
hJ nf/
1939 ck E S p f a&muf a omtcg w&k w f j ynf c sef a u&S d w f t pk d ; &xH o k d Y
cspfMunfa&;rdwfquftzGJU wpfzGJUapvTwfcJhonf/ xkdrdwfquftzGJU \&nf&G,fcsufrSm
zufqpf*syefrsm; ukd tultnDay;&ef jzpfonf/ OD;bvGif(oD[kdVfoHtrwfBuD;a[mif;)rS
acgif ; aqmif í 'D ; 'k w f O D ; bcsd K ? ocif E k ? a':jrpd e f w k d Y yg0if M uonf / OD ; Ek o nf
uGejf rLepfacgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfaom armfpw
D ;kH ? csLaw;? csLtifvidk ;f wkEYd iS hf awGU&efBuKd ;pm;&m
*E¨ m v&mZf } }
ratmif j rif c J h a y/ OD ; Ek o nf w&k w f j ynf c &D ; oG m ;tjzpf t ysuf u k d ]]*E¨
[laomtrnfjzifh pmtkyw
f pftyk f xkwaf 0cJo
h nf/
1940 ckESpf? axmifxJwGif yxrqHk;tBudrf jyZmwfwpfyk'fukd ukd,fwkdifa&;?
uk,
d w
f idk f pifwifjyocJo
h nf/ axmifxw
J iG f OD;Ektm; Zmwfq&m[kac:Muonf/ axmifxw
J iG f
t*FvdyfjyZmwf 15 yk'fcefY bmomjyefcJh&m ¤if;wkdYteuf ]] EGm;okd;MudK;jywf }} ESifh ]]
ykxkZaemOr®waum }} jyZmwfrsm;ukd yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0cJo
h nf/ ]] &ufpufygayhuG,f }} [laom
axmifwiG ;f tajctaeqk;d &Gm;yHrk sm;ukd o&kyaf zmfonfh 0w¬Kwpfy'k v
f nf;a&;cJo
h nf/
OD;Ekonf armfvNrKd iu
f Re;f okYd oGm;a&mufípma&;jcif;tvkyjf zifh tem;,laepOf
rufpZÆif;0g'qkdwmbmvJ}} [laompmtkyfjzpfonf/ OD;Ekonf
a&;cJhaompmtkyfrSm ]]ruf
jrefrmEkid if aH &; ESiphf yfvsO;f í ]]jrefrmhtvif;}} owif;pmokYd aqmif;yg;rsm;a&;om;ay;ykcYd o
hJ nf/
¤if;aemuf&efuek o
f jYdkyefí ]]jrefrmhtvif;acgif;Bu;D ykid ;f }}owif;tmabmfrsm;ukd a&;om;cJo
h nf/
OD;Ekonf*syefacwfrS awGUBuKH c&hJ aom tjzpftysurf sm;yg0ifaom ]] ig;ESpf&moDArmjynf
}}[laompmtkyu
f dk a&;om;cJo
h nf/
1951 ckEpS w
f iG f From peace to stability 1952 ckEpS w
f iG f The people win through
.1953 ckEp
S w
f iG f Burma Looks ahead . 1954 ckEpS w
f iG f Burma under the Japanese : picutres
and portraits. 1955 ckEp
S w
f iG f Forward with the people. pmtkyrf sm;vnf;a&;cJyh gonf/
5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;

1981 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeYwiG f &ufaeYwiG f Ekid if *hH P
k &f nfbUJG cs;D jri§ chf &H onf/
rm&S,w
f ;D wk;d \ ,l*q
dk vyfMu,fbUJG cs;D jri§ jhf cif;cH&onf/

118
6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ekonf t*FvefEkdifiHokdY 1947 ckESpf? ZGefv 23 &ufaeYwGif
vnf;aumif;? atmufwkdbmvv 10 &ufaeYwGifvnf;aumif; oGm;a&mufcJhonf/
w&kwfEkdifiHokdY 1954 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 14 &ufaeYwGifvnf;aumif;? Ekd0ifbmv 29
&ufaeYwiG v
f nf;aumif;? 1955 ckEpS f rwfv 7 &ufaeYwiG f xkid ;f Ekid if ?H rwfv 25 &ufaeYwiG f
tdE,
d´ Ekid if ?H {Nyv
D 16 &ufaeYwiG f tif'ekd ;D &Sm;Ekid if ?H arv 28 &ufaeYwiG t
f pöa&;Ekid if ?H ZGev
f
5 &ufaeYwiG f ,l*q
dk vm;AD;,m;Ekid if ?H ZGev
f 22 &ufaeYwiG f t*FvefEidk if ?H ZGev
f 23 &ufaeYwiG f
tar&duefEkdifiH? Zlvkdifv 19 &ufaeYwGif *syef? atmufwkdbmv 17 &ufaeYwGif &k&Sm;?
tdEd´,? atmufwkdbmv 19 &ufaeYwGif tmz*epöwef EkdifiH? Ekd0ifbmv 8 &ufaeYwGif
qDG'ifEkdifiH? 'DZifbmv 17 &ufaeYwGif uarÇm'D;,m;EkdifiH? 'DZifbmv 26 &ufaeYwGif
w&kwfEkdifiHtoD;oD;okdYoGm;a&mufcJhygonf/ 1956 ckESpfwGif w&kwfjynfolYor®wEkdifiH?
AD,uferfEidk if rH sm;oko
Yd mG ;a&mufco
hJ nf/ Ek0d ifbmv 20 &ufaeYwiG f tdE,
d´ Ekid if o
H v
Ydk nf;aumif;?
OD;Ekonf omoem 2500 jynft
h xdr;f trSwyf o
JG Ydk wufa&muf&ef oD&v
d uFmEkid if o
H Ydk 'DZifbmv
wGifvnf;aumif; oGm;a&mufcJhonf/ 1957 ckESpfarvwGif xkdif;EkdifiH 'DZifbmv 14
&ufaeYwiG f tdE,
d´ Ekid if o
H o
Ydk mG ;a&mufcyhJ gonf/ ukv
d b
H Ndk rKd UwGif tdE,
d´ ? oD[Vdk ?f ygupöwef?
tif'kdeD;&Sm;0efBuD;csKyfrsm; tygt0if usif;ycJhaom ukdvHbkduGefz&if;jzpfajrmuf&ef
pD p Of a omyk * ¾ d K vf w pf O D ; taeES i f h wuf a &muf cJ h N yD ; aemuf tif ' k d e D ; &S m ;Ek d i f i H w G i f
tmz&duESit
hf m&SEidk if rH sm; wpfpw
k pfa0;wnf; urÇm&h mZ0ifwiG f yxrOD;qH;k usi;f ycJah om
befa'gifnv
D mcHBu;D jzpfajrmufonfh wkid af tmif BuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf/
0efBuD;csKyf OD;Ekonf urÇmhNidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhpyfvsOf;í aqmif&Guf&mwGif
w&kwjf ynfoo
Yl r®w Ekid if o
H o
Ydk mG ;a&mufí armfpw
D ;kH ? csLtifvidk ;f paom w&kwaf cgif;aqmifrsm;
ESifhaqG;aEG;cJhonf/tpöa&;vfEkdifiH? ,l*kdpav;AD;,m;EkdifiH? NAdwdefEkdifiH? tar&duef
jynfaxmifpkEkdifiH? *syefEkdifiH ponfrsm;okdYvnf;aumif;? tmz*efepöwefEkdifiH? qkdAD,uf
&k&Sm;EkdifiHrsm; okdYvnf;aumif; oGm;a&mufí Nidrf;csrf;a&;\ta&;ygaomjyórsm;ukd
aqG;aEG;cJo
h nf/
7/

rdom;pk

OD;Ek\ZeD;a':jr&D onf 1993 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv & &ufaeYwiG u
f ,
G v
f eG cf o
hJ nf/
om;orD;rsm;rSm a':pef;pef;Ek+(OD;oufwif)? OD;atmif&jJ rif+h a':jrjrat;? OD;aomif;xku
d +f
a'gufwmaroZifoef;xkduf? OD;atmif+a':cifpef;EGJU? oef;oef;Ek(attkdtm? jrefrmykdif;
tpDtpOf)+ OD;atmifNidrf;? a'gufwm cifat;oufwif(c) a':cifat;EkwkdYjzpfonf/

119
trSw(f 42)? jynfaxmifpv
k rf;oG,?f q&mpHvrf;rBu;D ? &efuek w
f iG f aeonf/
*syefacwfEkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;? zqyvOuúX? wkdif;jyKjynfjyKvTwfawmfOuú|?
vGwv
f yfaom jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf\ yxrqH;k 0efBu;D csKyjf zpfcahJ om OD;Ekonf 1995
ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 14 &ufaeYwiG f uG,v
f eG cf o
hJ nf/

120

yHk (11)
OD;AaqG (0efBuD;csKyf)
[ 1956 ckESpf ]

121

OD;AaqG
(0efBuD;csKyf)
(arG
arG; 17-10-1915 uG,fvGef 6-12-1987 )
1/

i,fpOfb0

EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyfa[mif; OD;AaqGonf weoFm&Dwkdif;? xm;0,fNrdKUESifh
rkdif;ig;q,fuGma0; aom tHk;yifuGif;&GmwGif tzOD;xGef;vIdif? trd a':yJav;wkdYrS 1915
ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv (7)&ufaeY wGif arG;zGm;cJo
h nf/ arG;csi;f oH;k a,mufteufti,fq;kH
jzpfonf/ xdt
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d w
f iG f ow¬KwiG ;f vkyif ef;onf vsijf refpmG wk;d wuf
vmcJah omaMumifh olx
Y ufigOD;atmifaeYcsi;f ncsi;f olaX;jzpfcsiv
f o
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h nf/
wkid ;f &if;om;rsm;rnfrQyifBuKd ;pm;aqmif&u
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ae&m,lomG ;cJNh y;D aemuf Arm? &Sr;f ? rGe?f u&if ponfw
h idk &f if;om; wko
Yd nf ow¬KwiG ;f rsm;ü
ulv?D vcpm;tvkyo
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þokjYd zifjh refrmwkid ;f &if; om;wkrYd mS qif;&JraJG evsuf e,fcsUJ t*Fvyd Ef iS hf w&kw?f ukvm;Ekid if jH cm;
om;awGom olaX;jzpfZdrf&pfaeaomtcsdefjzpfonf/ þuJhokdYaomtajctaewGif
armifAaqG onf BuD;jyif;vmcJh&ojzifh rsdK;cspfpdwf? EkdifiHjcm;om; rkef;wD;pdwfrsm;onf
i,fpOfuyifued ;f atmif; jzpfwnfvmcJo
h nf/
2/

ynmoifb0

armifAaqGonf jrefrmwk\
Yd "avhx;kH pHtwkid ;f &Gmbke;f Bu;D ausmif;ü ynmoifMum;
cJo
h nf/ xkrd w
S pfqifh &Sio
f mraPjyKNy;D aemuf vlxu
G cf o
hJ nf/ &Siv
f x
l u
G f armifAaqGonf
xm;0,ftrsdK;orD;txufwef;ausmif;okdYoGm;í (2)ESpfynmqnf;yl;cJhonf/ pdwf"gwf
jyif;xefNy;D t&G,x
f mG ;BuKd i;f oljzpfonfh tavQmuf rde;f uav;rsm;Mum;wGif roifah vsmí
f
trsKd ;om;tv,fwef;ausmif;okaYd jymif;í ynmoifay;cJ&h onf/ 1936 ckEpS w
f iG f xm;0,fNrKd U
tpdk;&txufwef;ausmif;rS q,fwef;pmar;yGJ ajzqkdatmifjrifcJhonf/ armifAaqGonf
i,fi,fuyif &JpGrf;owåd&SdcJhonf/ tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;u olYukdaMumufMuonf/
OD;AaqGonf r[kwrf cHaompdw&f o
dS jl zpfaomfvnf; tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;ü tvkyv
f yk af omtcg
onf;cHpdwfarG;oljzpfonf/ ausmif;Ak'¨bmomtoif;wnfaxmif&mwGif OD;AaqG onf
acgif;aqmifí yg0ifcJhonf/ ausmif;om;or*¾tzGJUukdzGJUpnf;&mwGifvnf; OD;AaqGyif
acgif;aqmifjzpfcJhonf/ OD;AaqG onf rsdK;cspfpdwfjyif;xefvGef;NyD; vlrsdK;jcm;ukdvnf;

122
tvGerf ek ;f wD;\/ ]] ukvm;xk;d toif;}}1 [lí pkNy;D aemuf ukvm;rsm;ukd acsmif;í&ku
d cf ahJ om
aMumifh 0kid ;f íxk;d Muonf/ xm;0,frS ukvm;rsm; tawmfyif'u
k r© sm;cJ&h onf/
xko
d q
Ydk q
l yl yl v
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aqmif;yg; a&;jcif;rsm;ukd tcsdef&vQif &ovkdavhvmcJhonf/ tcsdefweft&G,fa&mufí
ynmoifNy;D todw&m;rsm;&&Sv
d maomtcsed w
f iG f wkAYd rmrsm;uReo
f uf&n
S í
f qif;&JepfreG ;f jcif;
uif;rS aumif;rnf[k tawG;&um ]]ukvm;xk;d toif; }} ukzd suNf y;D pdwo
f abmxm;jcif;wGif
wlrQaom &Jabmfuav;rsm;ESiw
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f idk zf iG jhf cif;}}
]]uGr;f ,mqkid zf iG hf jcif;}} paompD;yGm;a&;udprö sm;ukd aqmif&u
G v
f mcJo
h nf/
OD;AaqGq,fwef;atmifjrifcahJ om 1936 ckEpS w
f iG f &efuek w
f uúov
dk rf S aygufzmG ;
vmcJhaomf 'kwd,tBudrfausmif;om;oydwfBuD;onf e,ftoD;oD;okdYjyefYESHUvmcJhMu&m
AaqGwu
Ydk supf m;aeaom xm;0,foYdk ul;pufa&muf&v
dS mcJo
h nf/ ukEd ?k ukad tmifqef; paom
wuúov
dk f rS oydwaf cgif;aqmif rsm;onf ukAd aqGtm;pnf;&H;k Ekid cf o
hJ nf/ or*¾acgif;aqmif
ukdAaqGonf ukdEk? ukdatmifqef;wkdYESifh tquftoG,fjyKum &efukefwuúokdvfokdYa&muf
onftxdc&D;jyif;ESicf MhJ uonf/
aumvdyaf usmif;om; ukAd aqGonf tEktMurf;a&m,Suv
f Qu&f o
dS nfukd Oyrmjy
&aomf q,fwef;ausmif; om;b0uyif tEkynmrsm;ukd avhvmvku
d pf m;cJo
h l wpfa,muf
jzpfí wuúokdvfwGif olY\uavmifukd qufaoG;cJhonf/ ]][kdufpul;oef;oef;}} ]] jrifhaqG
}} paom uavmifemrnfqef;awGjzifh *sme,frsm;wGif aqmif;yg;? 0w¬K-uAsmrsm;vIid v
f iId Bf u;D
a&;om;ay;ykcYd o
hJ nf/ OD;AaqGpmayrsm;um; pum;vH;k ajymifajrmufvo
S nft
h jyif uAsmav;csKd ;
wkrYd mS vnf; t*Fgajrmufonf/ ]] '*Hrk *¾Zif;}} ]],k0wD}} ]]u0drsurf eS }f } ]]Bu;D yGm;a&;}} ]]'D;'kw*f sme,f}}
]]AE¨Kv*sme,f}} paom*sme,fr*¾Zif;BuD;rsm;wGif OD;AaqGa&;om;onfhpmrsm;onf
vuf&majymifí ygpNrjJ zpfco
hJ nf/
wuúokdvfor*¾\ ]] tkd;a0r*¾Zif; }} wGifvnf; OD;AaqG\uavmifpGrf;ukd
jrifawGUEkdifygonf/ ]]uufo&if*Gufaxmf ]} taMumif;aqmif;yg;wGif olYuavmif
vuf&majymifajrmufq;kH jzpfco
hJ nf/ tkid pf t
D uf&mxl;&Sirf sm;ukd xk;d ESux
f m;onfh aqmif;yg;
jzpfí &mxl;*kPfodrfrufaomrEl;reyftif;,m;ausmif;aqmif Akdvfqefol ]]ruufo&if
*Gufaxmf }} ukdvnf;vufoHajymifajymifESifh rnSmrwmoa&mfía&;om;xm;yHkrSm
xdrad wmufajymifcahJ om pum;vH;k rsm;jzifh xGií
f a&;om;cJah Mumif;avhvmawGU&Scd yhJ gonf/
1

armifarmif? ouf&Sd&mZ0if / (&efuek ?f ormrdw?å 1956) pm- 63/

123
3/

0efxrf;b0

1945 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 1 &ufwGif qkd&S,fvpfygwDOuúXtjzpf wm0ef
xrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/ 1947 ckEpS rf S 1952ckEpS t
f xd zufqpfwu
dk zf suaf &;ESijhf ynfov
Yl w
G v
f yfa&;
tzGUJ wGit
f wGi;f a&;rSL;csKyt
f jzpfaqmif&u
G cf NhJ y;D 1952 ckEpS w
f iG f zqyv 'kw,
d OuúX tjzpf
vnf;aumif;? jrefrmEkdifiHukefonfrsm;uGef*&ufwGif OuúXtjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0ef
xrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf/ 1952 ckEpS w
f iG f wku
d Bf u;D rJqE´e,f wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw
T af wmf trwf?
1952 ckESpfwGif umuG,fa&;0efBuD;tjzpfa&G;cs,fwifajr§mufjcif;cH&NyD; 1953 ckESpfwGif
ow¬KwGif;0efBuD;tjzpfwm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&jyefonf/ 1953 ckESpfwGif tm&Sqkd&S,fvpf
uGefz&ifhOuúX? 1956 ckESpfwGif vrf;rawmfNrdKUe,fygvDreftrwf? 1956 ckESpf? ZGefv 12
&ufaeYwiG f 0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpf a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufjcif;cHc&hJ onf/ 1957 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv
25 &ufaeYwGif0efBuD;csKyf&mxl;rS EkwfxGufcJhonf/ 1957ckESpf? rwfv 1 &ufaeYwGif
'kw,
d 0efBu;D csKyEf iS u
hf muG,af &;0efBu;D tjzpf usr;f used cf o
hJ nf/ trsKd ;om;pDru
H ed ;f 0efBu;D XmeESihf
pD;yGm;a&;ESiv
hf rl aI &;tzGUJ ukw
d u
Ydk v
dk nf; yl;wGí
J tkycf sKycf ahJ Mumif;awGU&S&d ygonf/ 1958 ckEpS ?f
ZGev
f 4 &ufaeYwiG f 'kw,
d 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;rS Ekwx
f u
G cf yhJ gonf/
4/

Ek d i f i H a &;b0

OD;AaqGonf EkdifiHa&;vkyfaqmifcsuftaxmuftxm;jzpfonfh urÇmhorkdif;
&mZ0if? peaA' ponfb
h mom&yfrsm;uk,
d Nl y;D ausmif;rwufcahJ y/ emrnfco
H m ausmif;pm&if;
wGif oGif;xm;onf/ ukdAaqG onfausmif;rwuf? pm;ar;yGJrajzyJ wuúokdvfe,fajrwGif
pkpak ygif;(5)ESpcf efY wuúov
dk pf m&if; 0ifí wuúov
dk ef ,fajrüaexkid cf o
hJ nf/ ausmif;om;
or*¾rsm;ukd acgif;aqmifí EkdifiHa&;ukdvkyfcJhonf/ Oypmtxufwef;(tkdif-at
txufwef;)txdomwufa&mufco
hJ nf/
ukdatmifqef;ESifhukdEkwkdY\ qGJaqmifrIaMumifh ukdAaqGEkdifiHa&;e,fxJhokdY
0ifa&mufcJh&m 1938 ckESpfwGif ArmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾\ taxGaxG
twGi;f a&;rSL; jzpfvmcJo
h nf/ 1938 ckEpS o
f nf 1300jynfh a&eHajroydwBf u;D toGiaf qmif
aom ta&;awmfyHkESpfjzpfvmonf/ wwd,tBudrfausmif;om;oydwf (Akdvfatmifausmf
usqHk;jcif;) rEÅav;ü tmZmenf (17)OD;usqHk;jcif;rsm;jzpfay:cJhNyD; a&eHajroydwfBuD;ü
ukAd aqGonf or*¾twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf xkt
d a&;awmfyw
kH iG f acgif;aqmifc&hJ onf/ uGejf rLepfrmhupf 0f g'rsm;ukv
d nf; avhvmNy;D aemuf q&mBu;D rsm;jzpfMuaom ocifp;dk ? ocifoef;xGe;f
wkdYukdvnf; q&mwifqnf;uyfcJh&avonf/
a&eHajroydwo
f nf&efuek o
f Ydk OD;vSní
hf pkaygif;wyfBu;D zGUJ umcsD wufvm&mvrf;

124
wavQmuf ukdAaqGESifhukdA[def;wkdYonf wyfOD;rSacgif;aqmifí vkdufyhgvmcJhMuonf/
a&eHajroydwu
f m; e,fcsUJ t*Fvyd rf sm;Bu;D pk;d Ny;D aemif wku
d Bf u;D rsm;? Nc0H ef;Bu;D rsm;Bu;D rm;pGm
aqmufvyk Nf y;D ? um;w0D0ED iS hf armfv<Ydk um;vk&Yd adS epOfrmS jrefrmtvkyo
f rm;rsm;tzkUd xrif;
riwf&Hkwr,f? aeylusJwJ acR;oH&J&JESifh tdrfpkwfuav;rsm;ESifh Oya' csKyfcs,frIatmufü
eif;jym;jzpfaecJMh u&onf/ xkaYd Mumifh vkt
d yfaomawmif;qkcd surf sm;ukd awmif;um ta&;qkd
oydwaf rSmufí csw
D ufvmcJMh ujcif;jzpfonf/ jrefrmrsm;onf e,fcsUJ t*Fvyd w
f \
Ydk tkypf ;dk rI
eif;jym;b0üyif r&IrvStvl;tvJcHaecJhMu&onfhtcsdefü oydwftiftm;rSmvnf;
BuD;oxufBuD;vmNyD; ukdAaqG\ owif;rSmvnf;jyefYESHUí jrefrmjynfwpf0Srf;vHk;
odvmMuavonf/ ]] AaqGuG- AaqGuG }}[kvnf; a<u;aMumfvmonf/ ]] usm;BuD;-AaqG
}} [kvnf; tm;ay;Muonf/ tvkyform; oydwfwyfBuD; tm; tm;ay;ulnDí
w&m;a[mcJhaomaMumifh rauG;axmifrS csKyfaESmifjcif;cHcJU&onf/ axmifajcmufv
jypf'PfusNyD; rauG;axmifrS tif;pdefaxmifokdY ajymif;a&TUjcif;cH&onf/ ausmif;om;
rsm;qE´jyMuaomaMumifh axmifrS ukdAaqG vGwfajrmufcJhonf/
ukAd aqG axmifrS jyefvw
G v
f mcJNh y;D aemuf Ekid if aH &;ukyd if vky&f efq;kH jzwfcsco
hJ nf/
Ekid if aH &;ukd tm;oGicf eG pf u
dk Bf uKd ;yrf;vkyv
f adk omqE´aMumifh 1939 ckEpS w
f iG f ausmif;rS xGuu
f m
xm;0,fojYdk yefvmcJNh y;D tvkyv
f yk af ecJo
h nf/ wuúov
dk w
f iG f r&Sq
d if;&Jaomoli,fcsi;f rsm;ESihf
EGr;f yg;aeaom ukAd [de;f ESiu
hf x
dk eG ;f &Sed f (Akv
d &f efEidk )f wkt
Yd m; axmufyu
H n
l cD o
hJ nf/
1940 jynfEh pS w
f iG f ausmif;om;or*¾udk acgif;aqmif&ef txl;ac:,ljcif;cH&í
jyefvmcJh &onf/ ukdAaqGonf pnf;vHk;a&;ukdvnf;jyKvkyf&? t*Fvdyfukdvnf;awmfvSef
ykeu
f ef&ef zGUJ pnf;xm;aom bD-tm&f-yD ac:olyek yf gwDtwGuf xda&mufaomvQKd U0Suv
f yk if ef;
rsm;ukd vkyfaqmifcJh&onf/ ]]e*g;eD}}pmapmifwGifvnf; e,fcsJUt*FvdyfawG npfywfyHk?
jrefrmh*h w
k af oG;pkyaf eyH?k jrefrmawG evefrxlEidk af tmif eif;jym;jzpfaeyHpk aomEkid if aH &;aqmif;yg;
rsm; raerem; a&;om;cJo
h nf/ pmapmifxu
G cf gpqkv
d Qif ukAd aqGEiS ehf *g;eDxeG ;f a&TwEYdk pS Of ;D onf
pmapmifwpfckvHk;ukd yifyrf;BuD;pGm a&;om;cJh&onf/ ¤if;wkdY\ pmayvufoHaMumifh
e*g;eDpmapmifonf vlBuKd urf sm;vmcJo
h nf/
bD-tm&f-yD(Burma Revolutionary Party) ArmhawmfveS af &;wyfO;D ? yD-tm&f-yD(
People's Revolutionary Party)ac: jynfolYta&;awmfyHkygwDwGif ocifjracgif;aqmifí
ukad usmNf ird ;f ? ukAd aqG? ocifcspw
f o
Ydk nfO;D pD;tzGUJ 0ifjzpfNy;D ukAd aqGonf pnf;&H;k a&;t"du
wm0efcH jzpfNy;D ukad tmifBu;D (Akv
d rf sL;csKyaf tmifBu;D )? ukad rmifarmif(Akv
d rf LS ;Bu;D armifarmif)

125
wkEYd iS w
hf b
JG ufvyk af qmifco
hJ nf/1 yke;f vQKd í t*Fvyd u
f dk ykeu
f efrjI yKvyk &f onfrmS vG,u
f jl cif;r&Sd
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dk m
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xkdtcuftcJrsm;aMumifh wpfcgwpf&HwGif aiGaMu;t& vG,faomenf;rsm;jzpfonfh
"m;jywku
d cf sipf w
d rf sm; jzpfay:vmaMumif; awGU&S&d ygonf/
ukdAaqGonf *syefjynfokdY ykdYaqmifapvTwfrnfh vli,fvufa&G;pifwpfpkukd
,kd;',m;rSjzwfí ay;ykdY&ef wm0efusvmojzifh tzGJUay;aomaiGav;q,fusyfwdwdukd
aqmifum &onfeh nf;jzifBh uzH efNy;D ,k;d ',m;e,fpyfoYdk ta&mufomG ;cJo
h nf/ e,fcsUJ t*Fvyd f
tapmift
h MuyfwYdk wif;MuyfraI Mumifh ratmifjrifyh J jyefvmcJ&h onf/
4-1/

*syefacwfwm0efxrf;aqmifrI(1942-1945)

Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESit
hf zGUJ onf *syefEiS yhf ;l aygif;í Armhvw
G v
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Bu;D ukd ,k;d ',m;bufrS csw
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onf/ *syefwyfrsm;ukd jrefrmjynftwGif;ykdif; 0ifa&mufcGifhrjyKyJ tajctaeMunfhNyD;
jynfyrSmyif jrefrmhvw
G v
f yfa&;wyfrawmfuo
dk m tm;ay;í apvGw&f efjzpfonf/ okaYd omf
armfvNrdKifukd odrf;NyD;aomtcg tkyfcsKyfa&;ay;&efawmif;qkdaomfvnf; *syeftrSwf(55)
wyfrawmf rS ,wdjywfjiif;cJo
h nf/2 ppftyk cf sKyaf &;jzift
h yk cf sKy&f efjyifqifNy;D ocifacgif;aqmif
rsm;ESiv
hf nf; cyfa&Smifa&SmifaecJo
h nf/ xkad MumifAh v
dk cf sKyaf tmifqef; ESiw
hf yfrawmfO;D pD;Bu;D rsm;?
OD;ausmNf ird ;f ? OD;AaqGwYdk e,fcsUJ ukt
d Ny;D tykid rf Ekid &f ao;rDuyif *syefudk awmfveS pf w
d u
f ;l xm;
cJMh uNy;D jzpfonf/
*syefESifh ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfwkdY e,fcsJUwkdYtm; wkdufckdufaepOftwGif;
weoFm&Dwidk ;f wpfcv
k ;kH eD;yg; Nird 0f yfyjd ym;a&;twGuf OD;AaqGwm0ef,cl &hJ onf/ *syefvrl sKd ;
taMumif;odaom OD;AaqGonf *syefukdawmfvSefEkdif&ef jyifqif&jyefonf/ OD;AaqG \
tBuHtpDukd *syefrsm;odoGm;ojzifh &efolwpfOD;taejzifhrSwfxm;cJonf/ OD;AaqGonf
t*Fvdyfrsm; ajy;MupOftcsdefüvnf; awGU&mae&mowfap[k trdefYxkwfjyefjcif;
cHcJh&oljzpfonf/ *syef0ifvmaomtcsdefüvnf; csufcsif;yif &efolYpm&if;0ifcJh&jyefonf/
1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;tESpfcsKyf(1988)
1988)? (&efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1988) pm -226/
2

tdZrk ,
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(&efuek ?f bmomjyefEiS phf mtkyx
f w
k af 0a&;Xme? 1981) pm- 141/

126
e,fcsJUt*Fvdyf ESifh *syefiykrsm;onf olYtay:BuHpnfrIrsm;ukd OD;AaqGurNzHK/ jrefrmjynf
onf*syefrsm;tkycf sKyrf I atmufwiG &f adS epOf OD;AaqGonf Nrw
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f iG f OD;AaqG
tm; &efukefokdYvm&ef taMumif;Mum;NyD;aemuf jynfxJa&;0efBuD;jzpfaom ocifjru
ae&mcsxm;ay;ojzifh ]]aubkw
d idk f }} ac:NrKd UjyumuG,af &;wyfuOdk ;D aqmifc&hJ onf/ ¤if;wyfzUJG
onf jrefrmtpkd;&\ vufatmufcHvnf; r[kwf? *syefESifhvnf;wkduf&kdufrywfouf
oleY nf;ol[
Y efjzifh jrefrmwpfjynfv;kH \ vGwv
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d idk f Akv
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vHNk cKH a&;? rD;owfzUJG pnf; vkyaf qmifa&;paom vkyif ef;rsm;tjyif tkycf sKyaf &;ykid ;f rsm;ukv
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wkdYukd aubkdwkdifESifhyl;wGJí ]] aubkdwkdif AkdvfcsKyf AaqG }} xHokdYay;ykdYxm;onf/
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trSefwu,f e,fqif;í pnf;&Hk;&mwGifvnf; uGefjrLepfrsm;onf xda&mufrI r&Sdacs/
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1943ckESpf aemufykdif;wGif vkyfMu&ef pDpOfcJhonf/ okdYaomf ratmifjrifcJhay/ 1944
ckEpS w
f iG v
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27 &ufaeYwiG f vGwv
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127
*syefrsm;ukd awmfvSefwkdufckdufae cJhonf/1 rwfvxJwGifvnf; yJcl;ü AkdvfausmfaZm
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}}ukd*syefrsm;rS rodrom0kdif;nSyfxm;Muonf/ apmapmxGufrS tajctaeaumif;rnf?
zdnSyfíwkdufckdufcH&vQif ysufpD;rnfhtajctae&SdaMumif; AkdvfausmfaZmxHrS ta&;BuD;
owif;ay;yko
Yd jzifh 27 &ufaeYuydk if azmufxu
G af wmh[k trdeaYf y;csut
f & rwfv 27 &ufaeY
rSmyifa&muf&mae&mu awmfveS af &;pMuawmh[v
k nf; trdeu
Yf dk wqufwnf;ay;vku
d &f
onf/ Akdvfarmifarmif? AkdvfcspfNrdKif? Akdvfodrf;armif ponfhwyfrsm;onf rif;vS? yJcl;&kd;r
ponfah e&mrsm;ü wyfazsmufí awmfveS af &;ukd pcJMh uawmhonf/
uGejf rLepfrsm;onfawmfveS af &;umvwGiüf yif *syefucdk sr;f omay;í Armvli,f
acgif;aqmifrsm;ukd tjyKwfwkduf&ef pDrHNyD;jzpfonf/ ysOf;rem;e,füwm0efusaom
OD;ausmNf ird ;f ukd okwo
f ifypfrnf/ &efuek üf wm0ef,rl nfh OD;AaqGudk *syefawGowfvQio
f wfrnf
raovQif wjcm;enf;jzifh azsmufypfrnf/ wjcm;olrsm;ukv
d nf; tvm;wl&iS ;f vif;ypfrnf
paom pDru
H ed ;f rsm;csí aqmif&u
G cf MhJ uonf/
1945 ckEpS ?f rwfv 31 &ufaeYwiG f &efuek Nf rKd Uü OD;AaqGudk *syefwu
Ydk zrf;vku
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onf e,fokdY rqif;jzpfyJ OD;AaqGvGwf&efaqmif&Gufay;&mwGif &efukefü OD;vSarmif
(oHtrwfBu;D a[mif;)ESiahf ecJah Mumif;? OD;AaqGudk *syefrsm;u uk,
d af &;&mZ0ifa&;ckid ;f ojzifh
t*Fvyd f bmomjzifh a&;ay;cJah Mumif;awG&Y ygonf/ OD;AaqG tusO;f axmifü 24 &ufww
d d
axmifuscHcJh&NyD;aemuf 1945 ckESpf? {NyDv 24 &ufaeYwGif vGwfajrmufvmcJhonf/
&efuek w
f iG w
f yfrsm; upOfuvsm;jzpfaeonft
h jyif awmfveS af &;tzGUJ rsm; onfvnf; tuGu
J JG
tjym;jym; jzpfaecJo
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h csed w
f iG f OD;AaqGa&mufvmNy;D tuGu
J JG
tjym;jym; jzpfaeaom wyfrsm;ukd pkpnf;í vlaygif; 2000ausm&f v
dS maomtcg arv (1)
&ufaeYwiG f &efuek Nf rKd Uudk OD;AaqG OD;pD;aomwyfrsm;rS odr;f yku
d cf MhJ uonf/
vGwfvyfa&;acwfBudK;yrf;(1945-1948)

4-2/

OD;AaqGwkdY&efukefukdodrf;ykdufNyD;aemuf jyóemrsdK;pHkukd ajz&Sif;aecJh&onf/
tdE,
d´ trsKd ;om; wyfrS vlaygif; 2000 ausmu
f adk bmufaxmfoCFe;f uRe;f ü ae&mcsxm;ay;
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1

ausmNf ird ;f / &JabmfoHk;usdyf / (&efuek ?f tif;0pmaywku
d ?f 1998) pm 13/

128
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f m;cJMh uonft
h csed üf jrefrmwyfrawmfu &efuek u
f dk odr;f yku
d Nf y;D &eforl sm;&Si;f cJNh y;D rS
tacsmift*Fvyd w
f yfrsm;a&muf&v
dS monf/ &efuek u
f dk t*Fvyd w
f yfrsm;onf odr;f yku
d af Mumif;
aMunmcJNh y;D aemuf jrefrmhwyfrawmfom;rsm;ESihf awmfveS af &;orm;rsm;ukd txifao;pGm
qufqcH MhJ uonf/ OD;AaqGwv
Ydk w
l pfpo
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d cf sipf w
d f aygufvmcH
Muonf/
uGejf rLepfygwD0if ocifp;dk ? ocifoef;xGe;f wko
Yd nf e,fcsUJ t*Fvyd Ef iS hf tar&duef
wkdYukd t<uif;rJhvufeufcscJhMuonfhtjyif axmufcHMuí csD;usL;cJhMuonf/ e,fcsJUtm;
awmfveS &f ef uwdysuu
f u
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f mru tmPm&rI paom
ud p ö & yf r sm;uk d o m OD ; wnf a eaMumif ; yk d í od v mojzif h Ak d v f c sKyf a tmif q ef ; \
oabmwlncD sujf zifh ocifjr? OD;ausmNf ird ;f ? OD;AaqGwYdk acgif;aqmifaom ]] qk&d ,
S v
f pfygwD
}}ukdwnfaxmifcJh&onf/1 qkd&S,fvpfygwDonf uGefjrLepfygwDxuf (7) vausmfausmf
aemufusco
hJ nf/ OD;AaqG tm; qk&d ,
S v
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d ufcaH pcJo
h nf/ þokjYd zifh
OD;ausmNf ird ;f onf qk&d ,
S v
f pfygwD taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;jzpfvmcJo
h nf/ 1947 ckEpS w
f iG f
OD;ausmNf ird ;f onf qk&d ,
S v
f pfygwD OuúX jzpfvmcJNh y;D aemuf OD;AaqGonf ygwDtwGi;f a&;rSL;csKyf
tjzpf vkyu
f idk af qmif&u
G cf jhJ yef&m Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESihf tjcm;acgif;aqmifrsm; t*FvefoYdk
oGm;a&mufta&;qkad epOftwGi;f OD;AaqGonf zqyvtzGcJ sKy\
f twGi;f a&;rSL;csKyt
f jzpf
aqmif&GufcJh&ayonf/ jrefrmouú&mZf 1309 ckESpf? jymokdvjynfhausmf 9 &uf
(t*Fvdyfouú&mZf 1948 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 4 &uf)we*FaEGaeY eHeuf 4 em&D 20 rdepf
tcsed w
f iG f jrefrmjynfonf vH;k 0vGwv
f yfaom tcsKyt
f jcmtmPmykid ?f jynfaxmifpo
k r®w
jrefrmEkid if aH wmfBu;D tjzpfoYdk a&muf&cdS o
hJ nf/
4-3/

vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;acwfBudK;yrf;rI(1948-1962)

OD;AaqGonf qk&d v
S ,fygwDtaxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;csKyt
f jzpf aqmif&u
G cf NhJ y;D
aemuf 1952 ckEpS w
f iG f zqyv 'kw,
d Ouú|jzpfvmcJo
h nf/ taxGaxGa&G;aumufyw
JG iG f
wku
d Bf u;D rJqE´e,frS jynfov
Yl w
T af wmftrwftjzpfa&G;aumuf wifajrm§ ufojzifh 0efBu;D tzGUJ
wGif umuG,af &;0efBu;D tjzpfaqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf/ 1953 ckEpS ?f aEG&moDausmif;ydw&f ufwiG f
&efuek w
f uúov
dk af usmif;om;tzGUJ ig;zGUJ rS ausmif;om; 100 tm; OD;AaqGEiS hf OD;ausmNf ird ;f
tp&Sdaom qkd&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifrsm;u EkdifiHa&;oifwef;ay;cJhonf/ 1953 ckESpfwGif
tm&Sq&dk ,
S v
f pfueG zf &ifh tpnf;ta0;Bu;D wGif OD;AaqGonf obmywdtjzpfa&G;cs,cf cH &hJ

1

OD;AaqG? ygwDwGif;tjzpfrSef/ (&efuek ?f zqyvyHEk ydS w
f u
dk ?f 19 -) pm 7/

129
onf/ 1954 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmv 16 &ufaeYwGif *syefEkdifiH? wkdusdKNrdKUüusif;yaom
tm&Sqkd&S,fvpfESpfywfvnfnDvmcHü obmywdtjzpfaqmif&GufcJhonf/1 1956 ckESpf
jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfa&G;aumufyJG aemufyidk ;f wGif zqyvtzGUJ tm;vlxk axmufcrH I tm;enf;
vmcJhonf/ OD;ausmfNidrf;onf uGefjrLepfqefYusifha&;pdwf"gwfjyif;xefoljzpfonf/
OD;ausmfNidrf;ESifhOD;AaqGwkdYonf yrnwtiftm;BuD;vm jcif;onf aiGukda&vkdoHk;um
uGefjrLepfrsm;u vufeufjzifhNcdrf;ajcmufí rJay;ckdif;jcif;aMumihf jzpfonf[k qkdcJhonf/1
OD;Ekonf 1954 ckEpS rf yS if tpk;d &tzGUJ 0efBu;D rsm; uk,
d u
f siw
hf &m;ysurf I wm;qD;&efaqmif&u
G cf hJ
onf/ OD;Ek ygwDoefY&Sif;a&;vGwfvyfpGmaqmif&GufEkdif&eftwGuf 1956 ckESpf? ZGefv 12
&ufaeYwGif 0efBuD;csKyf&mxl;uEkwfxGufcJhonf/ 1956 ckESpf taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJwGif
OD;AaqGtm; &efukefNrdKU? vrf;rawmftrwf rJqE´e,f jynfolYvTwfawmftrwftjzpf
a&G;cs,fwif ajr§mufjcif; cH&NyD;aemuf 0efBuD;csKyf OD;Ekae&mwGif 0efBuD;csKyf tjzpf
qufvufa&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufjcif; cH&onf/ 0efBu;D csKyw
f m0eftjyif umuG,af &;0efBu;D XmeESihf
trsKd ;om;pDru
H ed ;f 0efBu;D Xmersm;ukv
d nf; OD;pD;aqmif&u
G cf &hJ onf/ 1956 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f 13
&ufaeYwiG f 0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpf usr;f opömused q
f cdk o
hJ nf/ 1956 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 16 &ufaeYwiG f
,leefzef&w
DS iG f w&kw-f Arme,fpyfvx
l t
k pnf;ta0;ukd usi;f y&m w&kwwf-Armvlxk 2000
cefYwufa&mufí w&kwf0efBuD;csKyf csLtifvkdif;ESifh jrefrm0efBuD;csKyf OD;AaqGwkdY
wufa&mufcMhJ uonf/ zqyv Ouú| OD;Ek tpk;d &xJoYdk jyef0ifa&;? r0ifa&;twGuf 1956
ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 29 &ufaeYwiG w
f iG f jyKvyk af om zqyvtvkyt
f rIaqmif tpnf;ta0;wGif
ocifausmx
f eG ;f rS tqkw
d ifoiG ;f í zqyv tvkyt
f rIaqmiftzGUJ qH;k jzwf twnfjyKco
hJ nf/
OD;AaqGonf 1957 ckEpS ?f azazmf&v
D 25 &ufaeYwiG f 0efBu;D csKy&f mxl;rS tem;,lco
hJ nf/
1957 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 28 &uf jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;ta0;wGif OD;Ektm;
0efBuD;csKyftjzpfwifajr§mufcJhjyefonf/ OD;AaqG onf 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyftjzpf wm0ef,lcJh
Ny;D aemuf 0efBu;D 30 OD;yg0ifaom OD;Ektpk;d &tzGUJ onf rwfv 1 &ufaeYwiG u
f sr;f used q
f cdk hJ
onf/
1957 ckEpS ?f rwfv 12 &ufaeYwiG f twku
d t
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t,HktMunfr&SdaMumif;tqkdwif oGif;cJhonf/ vTwfawmftrwf OD;at;armif(jynf)u
tqkdwifoGif;í ocifcspfarmiftygt0if trwf 10 OD;u axmufcHcJhonf/ þokdYjzifh
ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm twlwuGvufwGJí jrefrmjynfaumif;pm;a&; twGufBudK;yrf;cJhMuaom
yk*Kd¾ vrf sm;\yk*Kd¾ vpf ?JG *kP
d ;f *PpGrJ sm;aMumifh vGwv
f yfa&;&Ny;D 10 ESpt
f wGi;f pnf;vH;k rINyKd uJG
1

pmayAdrmefr*¾Zif;? twGJ 3? trSwf 8 / (&efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1954) pm 88/

130
oGm;&onf/ Ek-wiftyk pf Ek iS hf aqG-Nird ;f tkypf k [líuGjJ ym;oGm;cJo
h nf/ OD;AaqGu ygwDwnfNraJ &;
ukd t"du&nf&,
G cf o
hJ jl zpfí ¤if;wkyYd gwDtm; wnfNrzJ qyv[kac:qku
d m OD;Eku ¤if;\ygwD
oef&Y iS ;f a&;twGuf oef&Y iS ;f zqyv [laomtrnfudk cH,cl MhJ uonf/ OD;EkEiS hf OD;ausmNf ird ;f wkYd
\ y#dyu©jyif;xefvmcsdefwGif OD;ausmfNidrf;ESifh ocifwiftkyfpkwkdY\ y#dyu©rSmvnf;
jyif;xefvmcJhonf/ xkdYaMumifh 1958 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv 19 &ufaeYwGif usif;yaom
&efukefc&kdifqkd&S,fvpfygwD tpnf;ta0;wGifvnf; zqyvwGif *kdPf;*PESifhtkyfpkrsm;&Sd
aeaMumif;? ukd,fhvlolY*kdPf;*Prsm;ukd wkdufzsufypf&rnf[k 'kwd,OuúX OD;AaqGrS
xkwaf zmfajymMum;cJo
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Yd nf
OD;EkxH pmwpfapmifay;ykdYcJhonf/ ¤if;pmwGif vTwfawmftpnf;ta0;rwkdifrD arv 31
&ufaeYokdYr[kwf ZGefv 1 &ufaeYxufaemufrusapbJ av;OD;aumfrwDawGYqHkaqG;aEG;
Ekid af &;twGuf tcsed u
f efo
Y wfay;&ef awmif;cHcahJ vonf/ 0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ekonf arv 31
&ufaeY &ufpGJjzifhjyefcJhonf/ jyefMum;pmwGif 1958 ckESpf arv 3 &ufaeY zqyv
tvk y f t rI a qmif t pnf ; ta0;wG i f zqyvOD ; pD ; tzG J U tpnf ; ta0;ac:&ef
owfrw
S jf cif;r&Scd ahJ Mumif;? ¤if;tjyif zqyvtm; wpfzuftyk pf o
k aYdk y;&ef oabmrwlaMumif;
ukd 1958 ckESpf? arv 5 &ufaeY wGif OD;tkef;armifrSwpfqifh OD;ausmfNidrf;okdYjyefMum;NyD;
jzpfaMumif;? Ek-wif-aqG-Nird ;f avOD;aumfrwD awGq
Y akH &;ESiyhf wfoufí uwday;xm;onfh
twkdif; OD;AaqG? OD;ausmfNidrf;wkdYESifh arv 31 &ufaeY naewGif 0efBuD;csKyftdrfü
awGYqHkrnfjzpfaMumif;yg&Sdonf/ Ek-wifESifh aqG-Nidrf;tkyfpkESpfckvHk;onf wpfzuftkyfpkuk
tEkid &f a&; twGuf Ekid if aH &;y&d,m,f<u,f0pGmBuKd ;yrf;ouJo
h Ydk vTwaf wmftrwfrsm; ukv
d nf;
enf;trsdK;rsdK;jzifh rJqG,fpnf;&Hk;cJhMuonf/ 1958 ckESpf? ZGefv 9 &ufaeYwGif OD;AaqGonf
OD;EkO;D aqmifaomtpk;d &tzGUJ tm; t,Ht
k Munfr&Sad Mumif;tqkw
d ifoiG ;f &m 8 rJtuGmjzifh
&I;H ESrd chf o
hJ nf/
&Sr;f jynfe,frS uk,
d pf m;vS,rf sm;onf zqyv tzGUJ csKyf Ouú|Bu;D OD;AaqGEiS 1hf 961
ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 6 &ufaeYwiG f awGq
Y akH qG;aEG;Muonf/ OD;AaqGrS zuf'&,fru
l dk rdrw
d pfO;D wnf;
yk*Kd¾ vw
f pfO;D wnf;taejzihf ESpNf cKd uaf xmufcaH Mumif;? okaYd omfzuf'&,frjl zpfay:vmap&ef
zefwD;ay;yHkukdrl rBudKufaMumif; xnfhoGif;ajymMum;cJhygonf/ aqG;aEG;yGJwGif zuf'&,frl
taMumif;tygt0if vlrsKd ;a&;t"du&kP;f rjzpfa&;ESiphf w
d 0f rf;ruGjJ ym;a&;rsm;ukd aqG;aEG;cJMh u
onf/2
1

xGef;aeYpOfowif;pm
pm/ (20 Zefe0g&Dv 1958 ) pm 15/
2
aMu;rHkowif;pm
pm/ ( 9 Zlvidk f 1961) pm 1?15/

131
1962 ckESpf? rwfv 1 &ufaeYwGif z,f'&,frlESifhyufoufí OD;AaqGrS
]]wkid ;f &if;om;rsm;onf wpfaqGwpfrsKd ;wnf;jzpfcMhJ uyH?k jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if &H jdS ynfe,frsm;ESihf
tar&duef jynfaxmifp&k dS jynfe,frsm;rwlnrD t
I ajctaersm;ukd EIid ;f ,SOaf zmfjyoGm;ygonf/
jynfe,ftrsm;pk onf rzGHUNzdK;rwkd;wufbJ aemufwef;usaeouJhokdY Armjynfr
tcsdKae&mrsm;wGifvnf; zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufrI tvGefaemufusvsuf&SdaMumif;ESifh tajctae
t&yf&yfaMumifh a'otm;vH;k tqif;&JcNH y;D BuKd ;pm;Muzkv
Yd adk o;aMumif;? wkid ;f &if;om;tm;vH;k
vufwNJG y;D BuKd ;pm;Mu&if ratmifjrifEidk pf &m r&Sad Mumif;}} &Si;f vif;ajymMum;cJyh gonf/1
1961 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 29 &ufaeYwGif Ak'¨bmomukd EkdifiHawmfbmomtjzpf
owfrSwfcJhonf/ xkdYaMumifh wkdif;jynfrNidrf;roufrIrsm;jzpfcJhonf/ 0efBuD;csKyf OD;Ek\
jynfaxmifpt
k pk;d & vufxufwiG f &Sr;f apmbGm;rsm;onf z,f'f &,fru
l w
dk ifjy awmif;qku
d m
zuf'&,frrl &vQif jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if rH S cGx
J u
G rf nf[k Ncrd ;f ajcmufcMhJ uojzifh jynfaxmifpk
NyKd urJG nfh tEÅ&m,fjzpfay: vmcJo
h nf/ xko
d jYdk ynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf\ txl;,k,
d iG ;f
vmaomtajctaeqkd;ukd xdef;odrf;pdrfYaomiSm 1962 ckESpf? rwfv 2 &ufaeYwGif
Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; OD;aqmifaom ArmhwyfrawmfrS Ekid if aH wmftmPmukd xde;f odr;f cJo
h nf/
1962 ckEpS ?f rwfv 2 &ufaeYwiG f Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if; OD;aqmifaom awmfveS af &;aumifprD S
EkdifiHtmPmxdef;odrf;cJhonf/ vuf&Sdtpkd;&tzGJUudk xdef;odrf;&mwGif OD;AaqGvnf;
yg0ifco
hJ nf/
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AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;rS EkdifiHa&; acgif;aqmifyk*¾dKvfBuD; 33 OD;tm;awGYqHk&mwGifvnf;
OD;AaqGyg0ifco
hJ nf/ 1968 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmv 4 &ufaeYwiG f jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if jH ynfwiG f
nDnGwfa&;tBuHay;tzGJU zGJUpnf;jcif;? awmfvSefa&;aumifpD ausnmcsuftrSwf 72
ukx
d w
k jf yefcNhJ y;D ? ,if;tBuaH y;tzGUJ wGif txufygacgif;aqmif 33 OD;yg0ifco
hJ nf/2
oCFe;f uRe;f NrKd Ue,f&dS ]] &efrsKd ;atmifapwD }}rSm OD;AaqGO;D pD;wnfxm;uk;d uG,cf ahJ om
apwD a wmf j zpf o nf / xm;0,f o r*¾ e m,uBuD ; wpf O D ; vnf ; jzpf o nf / 1949-50
ckESpfrsm;twGif; jynfaxmifpkBuD;acsmufxJus&efvufESpfvHk;omvkdawmhonfhtcsdefwGif
1

OD;jr[ef? jrefrmEkdifiHa&; 1958-1962 (pwkw¬wGJ)/wGb
J ufa&;ol OD;ode;f vIid /f 'kBurd /f (&efuek ?f jrefrmEkid if ?H jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1991) pm 190-201/
2

cspMf unfa&;MunfneT ?Yf OD;Ek-OD;avm&Hktaygif;tygrsm;ESifhe,fcsJU*kdPf;/ (&efuek ?f
cspMf unfa&;pmaywku
d ?f 1970) pm 38/

132
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f J Mum;aea&;0g'udv
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f m;
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f n
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G cf o
hJ nf/
5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;

OD;AaqGonf 1955 ckESpfwGif ,l*kdpvyfEkdifiHor®wBuD; rm&S,fwD;wkd;\
*kPfxl;aqmif yxrqifhqkwHqdyf? 1959 ckESpfwGif vGwfvyfa&; armfuGef;0if yxrqifh?
xkid ;f Ekid if H bk&ifrif;jrwf\ tjrifq
h ;kH qifjzLwHqyd w
f u
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hJ nf/ 1968 ckEpS af wmfveS af &;
aumifpOD uúXBu;D Akv
d cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;rS ac:,lawGUqHak qG;aEG;cJo
h nfEh idk if aH &;acgif;aqmif
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6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

OD;AaqGonf 1956 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmvwGif tdE´d,EkdifiHokdYoGm;a&mufcJhonf/
w&kwfjynfolY or®wEkdifiHokdY 1956 ckESpf? 'DZifbmvwGifvnf;aumif;? 1957 ckESpf?
Zefe0g&DvwGifvnf;aumif; oGm;a&mufcJhonf/ 1957 ckESpf? {NyDv 26 &ufaeYwGif
tar&duefEidk if o
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oGm;a&mufco
hJ nf/
7/

rdom;pk

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a':aepnfAaqG? a':ae&nfAaqG wkjYd zpfonf/ trSw(f 84)? yef;vIid v
f rf;? prf;acsmif;NrKd Ue,f
wGifaeonf/ 1987 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 6 &ufaeYtouf 73 ESpft&G,fwGif &efukefNrdKU
[krv
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f edpaö &mufonf/

133

yHk (12)
AkdvfrSL;csKyf pdef0if; (0efBuD;csKyf)
[ 1974 ckESpf ]

134

OD;pdef0if;
(0efBuD;csKyf)
(arG
arG; 19-3-1919) ( uG,fvGef29-6-1993)
1/

i,fpOfb0

tNidrf;pm;AdkvfrSL;csKyf? tNidrf;pm;EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyfESifh tNidrf;pm; EkdifiHawmf
aumifpD0if OD;pdef0if;udk tz wdkufydkif&JrSL; OD;oif;NrdKif? trd a':zGm;MuLwdkYu 1919ckESpf?
rwfv 19 &ufaeYwiG f armfvNrKd iNf rKd U 'nif;uke;f &yfü arG;zGm;cJo
h nfonf/ arG;csi;f ig;a,muf
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taemuf&yf&Sd tbd;k tbGm;rsm;ESit
hf wl t&G,af &mufonftxd aexdik cf o
hJ nf/
2/

ynmoifb0

rlvwef;ynmudk xm;0,fNrdKU OD;NyKH;&ifausmif;wGif vnf;aumif;? ig;wef;rS
ckESpfwef;txd trsKd;orD;tv,fwef; ae&Sife,fausmif;wGifvnf;aumif;? ckESpfwef;rS
10wef;txd xm;0,fNrdKUtpdk;&txufwef;ausmif;wGifvnf;aumif; ynmoif,lonf/
10wef;yxrESpu
f s&;HI ojzifh 1938ckEpS w
f iG f armfvNrKd iNf rKd U&dS rdcifEiS t
hf wljyefvnfaexkid Nf y;D
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usKu
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10wef;pmar;yJG ajzqdak tmifjrifojzifh xm;0,fNrKd UodjYk yefí aexdik o
f nf/
3/

0efxrf;b0

OD;pde0f if;onf 1940jynfEh pS w
f iG f &JtzJUG od0Yk ifa&mufNy;D rEÅav;NrKd U&d&S t
J yk o
f ifwef;
ausmif;wGif wpfEpS o
f ifwef;wufonf/ 1941ckEpS w
f iG f &Jtyk o
f ifwef;atmifjrifNy;D xm;0,fNrKd U
wGif tvkyo
f if&t
J yk t
f jzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ 1941ckEpS w
f iG f xm;0,fNrKd Uudk *syefwyfrsm;
odr;f ydu
k v
f u
kd af omtcg armfvNrKd iNf rKd UodYk jyefvmcJo
h nf/
4/

Ekid if aH &;b0

1941 ckEpS w
f iG f usKu
d r© rD rS 'k NHk rKd UodUk csw
D ufvmaom Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;wyfrawmf
(bD-tdkif-at)odkY 0ifa&mufxrf;aqmifcJhonf/ Adkvfvusfm\ wm0efay;csuft&
aumhu&dwfNrdKUwGif ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrsm; zJGUpnf;pk&kH;NyD; rk'kHodkYajymif;a&TU pcef;csum
ppfa&;avhusifhrIrsm;jyKvkyfonf/ rk'kHwGif *syefwdkY\vufeufodrf;,ljcif;cH&onf/

135
Adkvfvufsm\ trdefYay;csuft& wyfrsm;pk&kH;NyD; oabFmjzifh &efukefNrdKUodkYcsDwufcJh&m
oabFmay:a&mufrS *syefwu
Ykd vufeufrsm;jyefvnfay;tyfonf/ &efuek Nf rKd UodaYk &mufaom
tcg pdet
f efaxmfeaD usmif;wGif pcef;csNy;D &efuek Nf rKd UvkNH cKaH &;udk wm0ef,&l onf/ pdeaf xmfeD
ausmif;rS a*:&muke;f odYk wyfrsm;ajymif;a&TU Ny;D aemuf zsmykrH w
S yfrsm;udk wm0ef,o
l ifwef;
ay;um tkycf sKy&f onf/ xdaYk emuf tif;pdecf &dik w
f yfrsm;udk tkycf sKy&f ef xyfrw
H m0efay;tyfjcif;
cH&Ny;D tif;pdew
f yfrsm;udk pk&;Hk um yJc;l NrKd UodYk ajymif;a&GUcJo
h nf/
OD;pde0f if;onf 1942ckEpS w
f iG f Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;wyfrawmfukd ArmhumuG,af &;
wyf r awmf (bD - 'D - at)tjzpf ajymif ; vJ z J G U pnf ; aomtcg bD - 'D - atwyf & if ; (3)
pufaoewfBuD;wyfpk wyfpkrSL; wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ wyf&if;rsm;&Sdt&m&Sd(10)OD;pD
vlaygif;(30)? r*Fvm'Hk- Akdvfoifwef;ausmif;? yxrywf oifwef;wufaeolrsm;ESifhtwl
a&G;cs,fcH,lí oGm;a&mufppfynm oif,l&efjzpfonf/ a&G;cs,fxm; onfht&m&Sdrsm;ukd
wyf&if;rsm;wGif ppfynmrsm; oifMum;ay;vsuf&Sd onf/ *syeftBuHay;t&m&Sd ]'kd;td}rS
olwm0ef,l&onfh wyf&if; (2)rS t&m&Sd(10)OD;ukd ynmoiftjzpf tm;vHk;ta&G;cs,fcH&
apcsio
f nf/ ppfynmrsm;ukd wyf&if;wGif jyif;jyif;xefxef oifMum;ay;cJo
h nf/ t&m&Srd sm;rSm
bD-tkikd -f atwGif wyfrLS ;/ bD-'D-at ü oH;k vkid ;f wpfyiG /hf jyefwrf;0ift&m&St
d jzpf ceft
Y yfjcif;
cH&olrsm;ukd *syeftMuaH y;t&m&Srd sm;rS *syefjynfoYdk ppfynmoif,&l ef apvTwv
f Mdk uonf/
Ekid if aH wmfvw
G v
f yfa&; r&&Sad o;ay/ eHeufyidk ;f ppfynmoifwef;Ny;D onft
h cg aeYv,fwiG f
oifwef;om;t&m&Sd 30 rS ysOf;rem;ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf ppfXmecsKyfü *syefpm
oif,lcJh&onf/ AkdvfBuD; pdef0if;onf oifwef;om;acgif;aqmiftjzpf aqmif&GufcJhNyD;
*syefpmoifoifMum;ykcYd say; olrmS Akv
d rf LS ;tqif&h dS *syefBuaH y;t&m&Sjd zpfonf/ ysO;f rem;NrKd UwGif
ppfoifwef;rsm; Ny;D onft
h cg wyf&if; (2) &efuek o
f aYdk jymif;a&TUcJ&h onf/ &efuek Nf rKd U? odrjf zLvrf;
0efBuD;rsm;&Hk;ESifh rsufESmcsif;qkdif txufwef;ausmif;taqmufttHkwGif ]] OD;Owår*wfaum}}[k *syefbmom pmoifausmif;BuD; wGif t&m&Sd 30 tm; txl;tpDtpOft&
xkdausmif;BuD;wGif *syefpm tcsdefjynfhoifcJh&onf/1 wyf&if;(2)rS wyfcGJrSL; rSm
zufqpfawmfveS af &;wGif txufArmjynfwidk ;f rSL;? &Sr;f jynfe,fawmifyidk ;f ü usq;kH oGm;ol
atmifyef;NrdKUwGif txdef;trSwfausmufwkdif pkdufxl*kPfjyKcH&ol? ppfausmif;BuD;rsm;&Sdae
onfw
h yfe,fudk ]] Axl;wyfNrKd U }}[kowfrw
S *f P
k jf yKc&H aom Akv
d rf LS ; Axl; jzpfonf/ Akv
d Bf u;D
pde0f if;onf xkyd *k Kd¾ vEf iS hf Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;wyfrawmfwiG f xm;0,fNrKd UrS vku
d yf gvmcJo
h nf/
1

rauG;jrifah rmif/ wyfrawmfppfonfwpfOD;\rSwfwrf;rsm;
rsm;/
(&efuek ?f 0if;pmay? 1999) pm 242 /

136
ysOf;rem;NrdKUwGif oifwef;wufNyD;aemuf &cdkif&dk;rodkY jynfNrdKUrSwpfqifh wyf&if;wpfckvkH;
csw
D uf&mwGif yg0ifco
hJ nf/ 1944ckEpS w
f iG f ysO;f rem;NrKd Uü bD-'D-at wyf&if;(6) zJUG pnf;cJ&h m
pufuav;aoewfBuD;wyfcJG wyfcJGrSL;tjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1945ckESpfwGif
wyf&if;rSL;tjzpf wd;k jri§ x
hf rf;aqmifNy;D ysO;f rem;NrKd UrS o&ufNrKd Uodw
Yk yf&if;ajymif;a&GUonf/ o&uf
taemufjcrf; ur®? o&uf? rif;vS? rif;wkef;NrdKUrsm;wGif zufqpfawmfvSefa&;twGuf
pnf;&kH;vIyf&Sm;rI rsm;jyKvkyfonf/ o&ufNrdKUwGif 1945ckESpf?rwfv 27 &ufaeYü zufqpf
awmfvSefa&; pwifqifEJGonf/ awmfvSefa&;wGif AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;u AdkvfrSL;tqifhodkY
wd;k jri§ ahf y;onf/ zufqpfawmfveS af &; qifEaGJ epOf Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESihf r[mrdww
f yfrsm;
awGUqkaH &;udk Akv
d rf LS ;pde0f if;rSwm0ef,al qmif&u
G cf NhJ y;D aemuf zufqpf*syefrsm;udk wdu
k x
f w
k &f ef
ewfwvif;NrdKUodkY wyfrsm;ajymif;a&GUí ewfwvif; ta&SUbufprf;BuD;? "r®i,f? uefpk
ppfrsufESmudk wm0ef,lNyD; yJcl;&dk;rtaemufjcrf;ppfqifa&;udk uGyfuJcJhonf/ zufqpfrsm;
ppfawmif;odkYqkwfcGmaomtcg bD-'D-atwyf&if;(6)udk OD;pD;NyD; yJcl;&dS wdkif;trSwf(4)ESifh
yl;aygif;cJhonf/ ppfawmif;jrpfppfrsufESm wGif anmifudkif? u'Gwf? bdk;pyÜm,f? usKH&J?
AdkvfuawmfwdkYudk ppfrsufESmwpfcktjzpf wm0ef,lcJh&onf/ xdkppfrsufESmwGif bD-'Datwyf&if;(6) udw
k yf&if; (106)rsK;d cspAf rmhwyfrawmf [k jyifqifzUGJ pnf;onf/
4-1/

vGwfvyfa&;acwfwGifwm0efxrf;aqmifrI(1945-1948)

Akv
d Bf u;D tqifjh zifw
h yf&if;(6)wyf&if;rSL; wm0efxrf;aqmif pOf 1945ckEpS ?f rwfv
24 &ufaeYwGif wdkif;(7)ppfXmecsKyf pcef;cs&m tmvH(ajrxJ)NrdKUe,f? jyvdkY&GmwGif
Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESihf twl wdik ;f (7)wdik ;f rSL; Adv
k rf LS ; atmif? wyf&if;(2) wyf&if;rSL; Adv
k Bf u;D
pef ; ,k w d k Y E S i f h t wl zuf q pf awmf v S e f a &;jyif q if r I rsm;ud k aqG ; aEG ; cJ h M uonf /1
Akv
d Bf u;D pde0f if;onf rwfv 27 &ufaeY eHeuf(7)em&Dcefw
Y iG f o&ufNrKd UtpGe&f dS wyf&if;(6)
ppfXmecsKyw
f iG f Adv
k rf LS ;atmif? Adv
k Bf u;D pderf eS ?f wyf&if;(2)wyf&if;rSL; Adv
k f pef;,k wdEYk iS t
hf wl
rwfv 27 &ufaeYnü zufqpf*syefwdkYtm; pwifawmfvSefrnfh tpDtpOfESifh wyf&if;^
wyfcrGJ sm; csw
D ufMurnft
h pDtpOf? wyfcsxm;rnfh pcef;rsm;ESihf wdu
k yf rGJ sm; pwifonft
h pDtpOf
wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyEf iS hf wyf&if;rsm;tquftoG,rf jywfa&; &efoo
Yl wif;rsm; tvsit
f jrefyYkd
a&;ESifh jynfolvlxktm; zufqpfawmfvSefa&;ESifh ywfowfí 0g'jzefYcsD vIHaqmfa&;
tpDtpOfrsm;? &yf&mG umuG,af &;ESihf tkycf sKyaf &;udprö sm;udk aqG;aEG;cJMh uonf/ 1945ckepS ?f
rwfv 27 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfBuD;pdef0if;OD;pD;onfh wyf&if;(6)onf nae 3 em&DtcsdefwGif
1

ocifwifjr? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;XmecsKyfESifh wdkif; (10) wdkif; /
3 -Budrf/ (&efukef? r[meE´ pmay? 1976) pm 334/

137
rif;wkeef ,foYdk csw
D ufco
hJ nf/ n 11 em&D 30 rdepftcsed w
f iG f rif;wJ&mG bkeBf u;D ausmif;ESihf
teD;tem&Sd acsmif;jyifwGif &yfem;cJhNyD;aemuf wyf&if;(6)rS *syeftMuHay;t&m&Sd(2)OD;ESifh
wyfMuyfBuD;(3)OD;? wyfMuyf(1)OD;wkdYtm; zrf;qD;&m tzrf;rcJhbJckcHojzifh ypfcwf
okwo
f ifc&hJ onf/rif;wJrS qufvufcsw
D ufc&hJ m rwfv 28 &ufaeY eHeuf 4 em&Dtcsed w
f iG f
wGif;v,fokdY a&muf&Sd&yfem;cJhNyD; zufqpf*syefwkdYtm; wkdufckduf&efwyfjzefYcJhonf/ /
Akv
d Bf u;D pde0f if;OD;pD;onf wyf&if;(6)onf o&ufpcef;okq
Yd ufvufcsw
D ufcNhJ y;D n11 em&D
tcsed w
f iG f yif;tkid pf cef;wGif wyfpcef;csco
hJ nf/ rwfv 31 &ufaeYwiG f wkid ;f rSL; Akv
d rf LS ;atmif?
'kwidk ;f rSL; Akv
d Bf u;D pderf eS w
f EYdk iS t
hf wl Akv
d Bf u;D pde0f if;onf ppfaoemywd Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;xHoYdk
oGm;cJMh uonf/ {Nyv
D 4 &ufaeYwiG f Akv
d Bf u;D pde0f if;OD;pD;onf wyf&if;(6)onf yif;tkid pf cef;rS
ykPmÖ ;&GmokaYd jymif;a&TUcJo
h nf/ {Nyv
D 16 &ufaeYwiG f &efo(l 300)cefY rif;uke;f rS o&ufbufoYdk
csDwufvmMu&m anmifi,f&GmwGif&Sdaom wyf&if;(6) pufBuD;wyfcGJrS t&mcHwyfMuyf
cspx
f eG ;f ESihf &Jabmfwpfa,mufwo
Ydk nf {&m0wDjrpfaMumif;twkid ;f txufrpS ek q
f if;vmaom
&efoal vSwpfpif;ukd urf;yg;ay:rS ypfcwfwu
dk cf u
dk &f m &efoal vSwpfpif;ESpjf rK§ yí
f avSay:
ygvmaom *syef(30)cefYusqHk;cJhonf/ {NyDv 25 &ufaeYwGif AkdvfBuD;pdef0if;OD;pD;aom
wyf&if;(6) ppfXmecsKyfpcef; ykPÖm;&GmwGif wyfrSL;rsm;tpnf;ta0;usif;ycJhonf/1
tpnf;ta0;okYd wkid ;f (7)wkid ;f rSL; Akv
d rf LS ;atmif? Akv
d Bf u;D pderf eS ?f wyf&if;(2)wyf&if;rSL; Akv
d pf ef;,k?
wyf&if;(6)wyf&if;rSL; Akv
d Bf u;D pde0f if; ponfww
Ydk ufa&mufco
hJ nf/ {Nyv
D 27 &ufaeYwiG f
wGif;v,fpcef;wGif wyf&if;(6)wyfcGJ(1)rS uif;axmufvmaom &efol(7)a,mufESifh
xkdawGYwkdufckdufcJh&m &efol(5)a,mufusqHk;cJhonf/ arv 7 &ufaeYwGif ppfaoemywd
AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhtzGJU ? AkdvfBuD; pdef0if;\ wyf&if;(6)ppfXmecsKyfpcef; ykPÖm;&GmokdY
a&muf&v
dS mcJo
h nf/ Akv
d cf sKyaf tmifqef;trdet
Yf & txufrif;bl;? rif;vSe,fppfa&;tajctae
ESihf pufrv
I ufrw
I yf&if;(2)\ vIy&f mS ;rItajctaersm;ukd od&&dS ef wyf&if;(6)ppfXmecsKyrf S
wyfpw
d w
f pfpw
d u
f dk Akv
d x
f eG ;f wifO;D pD;apNy;D rif;bl;e,foaYdk pvTwf axmufvrS ;f apcJo
h nf/
1945 ckESpf? ZGefvukefwGif AkdvfBuD;pdef0if; OD;pD;onfhwyf&if;(6)onf wkdif;(7)ppfXmecsKyf
vufatmufrS wkid ;f (4)ppfXmecsKyv
f ufatmuf? yJc;l ppfrsuEf mS okYd ajymif;a&TUwm0efxrf;aqmif
1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku
d Ef iS w
hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku
d /f wyfrawmforkdif;
('kwd,wGJ)? 1945zufqpfawmfvSefa&;umv
&;umv/ w-Budrf/ (&efukef?
owif;ESihf pme,fZif; vkyif ef; ?1999) pm 77/

2

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku
d Ef iS w
hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku
d /f wyfrawmforkdif;
(wwd,wG)J ? 1945-1948 / (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1995)
pm 60/

138
cJh&onf/ OD;pdef0if;onf uE´DpmcsKyft& ArmhwyfrawmfjyefvnfzJGUpnf;aomtcg 1946
ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 10 &ufaeYwiG f 'kAv
kd t
f qihjf zifh ppf&;Hk csKyw
f iG Xf mecJt
G &m&dt
S jzpf wm0ef
ay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/2 qufvufíArmhaoewfudkifwyf&if; (3)wGif wyfpkrSL;tjzpf
wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ oefvsiNf rKd UwGif pcef;csaepOftwGi;f wyfc(GJ 3) udOk ;D pD;í a';'&J?
zsmykHodkY ajymif;a&GUwm0ef,l&onf/ 1946ckESpfwGif uavmNrdKUü t&m&dSi,foifwef;
wufa&muf onf/ qufvufí Adv
k Bf u;D tqifjh zifh Armhaoewfuikd w
f yf&if;(3)wGif 'kwyfcrGJ LS ;
wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ 1947ckEpS w
f iG f ppfO;D pD;wuúov
kd o
f w
Ykd ufa&mufNy;D Adv
k rf LS ; tqifjh zifh
Armhaoewfuikd f wyf&if; (3)wGif wyfcrGJ LS ;wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/vGwv
f yfa&;ay;&ef
wdik ;f jyKjynfjyK vTwaf wmfac:aomtcg oefvsiNf rKd UodjYk yefíwyfp&k ;Hk onf/ 1947ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f
19 &ufaeYwiG f Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESit
hf wl tmZmenfacgif;aqmifBu;D rsm; vkyBf ucH &H aom
tcg &efuek o
f w
Ykd yfrsm; ajymif;a&GUNy;D &efuek Nf rKd UvkNH cKaH &;udk wm0ef,&l onf/ 1947ckEpS w
f iG f
ppf&w
J yfrsm;zJUG pnf;a&; twGuf jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D XmeodYk Adv
k rf LS ;tqihjf zifh txl;t&m&dt
S jzpf
ajymif;a&GU xrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/
4-2/

vGwv
f yfa&;&Ny;D acwfwiG Bf uKd ;yrf;rI(1948-1962)

OD;pdef0if;onf 1948ckESpf? vGwfvyfa&;&NyD; ajcvsifwyfrsm;zJGUpnf;aomtcg
r*Fvm'k&H Sd ajcvsiw
f yf&if;(1)wGif Adv
k rf LS ;tqifjh zifh 'kwyf&if;rSL;wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/
u&ifaomif;use;f ol rsm; x<uykeu
f efcsed w
f iG f tif;pdew
f u
kd yf ?GJ pmAl;awmif;wdu
k yf rGJ sm;ü yg0if
wdu
k cf u
kd cf o
hJ nf/ 1948ckEpS w
f iG yf if 'kAv
kd rf LS ;Bu;D tqifo
h Ykd wd;k jri§ jhf cif;cH&Ny;D ajcvsiw
f yf&if;(1)
wyf&if;rSL;wm0ef qufvufxrf;aqmifonf/ 1950jynfEh pS ?f Zefe0g&dv 20 &&ufaeYwiG f
yxrtBudrfwyfrSL;nDvmcHü wyf&if;rSL;wm0efxrf;aqmifpOf wufa&mufcJhonf/1
1951ckEpS f wGif awmifyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyüf ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)tjzpf vnf;aumif;? 1951
ckESpf? rwfv 28 &ufaeYwGif ajcjrefwyfr[m(3)rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif; wyfrSL;nDvmcHokdY
wufa&mufco
hJ nf/1952wGif wef;jrift
h &m&do
S ifwef;wuf&ef t*FvefEikd if o
H Ykd oGm;a&mufchJ
onf/ 1953ckESpfwGif AdkvfrSL;BuD;tqifhodkY wdk;jr§ifhcH&NyD; wyfr[m(2)wyfr[mrSL; wm0ef
xrf;aqmifonf/ 1956ckEpS f wGif ydik ;f avmhoifwef;wuf&ef xkid ;f Edik if o
H o
Ykd mG ;a&mufco
hJ nf/
1957ckESpfwGif wyfr[m(4) wyfr[mrSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif;? 1958ckESpfwGif ppf&kH;csKyfü
wJzG ufppfaxmufcsKyt
f jzpfvnf;aumif; xrf;aqmifonf/
1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku
d Ef iS w
hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku
d /f wyfrawmforkdif;
(pwkww
¬ )JG ? 1948-1962 / (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1996)
pm 133/

139
OD;pde0f if;onf 1958ckEpS ?f tdraf pmift
h pd;k &vufxufwiG f td;k tdrXf me? vrf;XmeESihf
jyefvnfxal xmifa&;Xmersm;ü 'kw,
d OuúXwm0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ nft
h jyif ppfypön;f Bu;D Muyf
a&;tzJUG Ouú|ESihf wJzG ufppfaxmufcsKyw
f m0efrsm;udyk g yl;wJx
G rf;aqmifc&hJ onf/ 1961ckEpS f
wGif AdkvfrSL;BuD; tqifhjzifh awmifydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyf wdkif;rSL;wm0efxrf;aqmifae&mrS
Adv
k rf LS ;csKyf tqifo
h Ykd wd;k jri§ jhf cif;cH&onf/ ppfwikd ;f rsm;jyefvnfzUGJ pnf;aomcg tv,fyikd ;f wdik ;f
ppfXmecsKyf wdik ;f rSL;wm0ef xrf;aqmifonf/
4-3/

1962-1985 twGi;f BuKd ;yrf;rI

OD;;pde0f if;onf 1962ckEpS ?f rwfv 2 &ufaeUwGif awmfveS af &;aumifpu
D Ekid if aH wmf
tajctae t&yf&yfudk xdef;odrf;wm0ef,laomtcg awmfvSefa&;aumifpDtzJGU0if
jzpfvmonf/1 1963 ckEpS ?f rwfv 29 &ufaeYwiG f tv,fyidk ;f wkid ;f wkid ;f rSL;taejzifh wyfrLS ;
nDvmcHwufa&mufcJhonf/21963ckESpfwGifjrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD ygwDpnf;urf;
xde;f odr;f a&;aumfrwD0ifwm0efuykd g yl;wJx
G rf;aqmifonf/ 1964ckEpS w
f iG f awmfveS af &;
tpdk;&tzJGU jynfolYvkyfief;ESifhtdrf&maqmufvkyfa&;Xmewm0efcH(0efBuD;)tjzpf wm0ef
ay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ 1971ckESpf? yxrtBudrf ygwDnDvmcHwGif ygwDvkyfief;pdppfa&;
aumfrwDOuú|tjzpf xyfrHa&G;cs,fwifajr§mufjcif;cH&onf/ 0efBuD;tzJGU0ifrsm;tm;
wyfrawmfrStNidrf;pm; ,lcGifhjyKa&;rlt& 1972ckESpf?{NyDv 20&ufaeYwGif wyfrawmfrS
tNidrf;pm;,lNyD; aqmufvkyfa&; 0efBuD;Xme?0efBuD;wm0efqufvufxrf;aqmifonf/
1974ckEpS ?f {Nyv
D 26 &ufaeY yxrtBurd f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfEiS hf jynfoUl aumifpt
D qifq
h ifh
a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufyJGwGif xm;0,fNrdKUe,f trSwf(1)rJqE´e,frS jynfolYvTwfawmf
ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f jzpf a&G;cs,cf &H Ny;D yxr tBurd f jynfov
Yl w
G af wmftpnf;ta0;u Edik if aH wmf
0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpf a&G;cs,jf cif;cHc&hJ onf/ 1977 ckEpS ?f rwfv 28 &ufaeYwiG f Ekid if aH wmf0efBu;D csKyf
tjzpf tem;,lNy;D 1977ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f wGif jynfoUl vTwaf wmf\ Edikd if aH wmfaumifp0D iftjzpf
a&G;cs,o
f wfrw
S jf cif;cHc&hJ onf/ 1985ckEpS ?f Edik 0f ifbmvwGif Edik if aH wmfaumifp0D iftjzpfrS
tNird ;f pm;,lco
hJ nf/
1

jr0if;? wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifrsm;orkdif;tusOf; (1941 rS 1990
jynfhESpftxd)/ 3Burd ?f &efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;? 1992/ pm 31/
2

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku
d Ef iS w
hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku
d /f wyfrawmforkdif;
(yOörwGJ) 1962-1974 / 'k-Burd /f (&efuek ?f owif;ESiphf me,fZif;vkyif ef;?
1999) pm 123/

140
5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;

OD;pde0f if;onf Edik if w
hH m0efrsm;udk BuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u
G cf jhJ cif;aMumifh Edik if aH wmfu
cs;D jri§ t
hf yf ESi;f onfph nfow
l q
H yd ?f oD&yd scH sb
D UGJ ? ta&;awmfyw
Hk q
H yd ?f vGwv
f yfa&; pnf;&k;H rI
wHqdyf? vGwfajrmufa&; wHqdyf? vGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0if(yxrqifh)ESifh EdkifiHh*kPf&nfbJGU
(yxrqif)h wdu
Yk kd &&dcS o
hJ nf/1
6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

OD;pde0f if;onf Ekid if aH wmfwm0eft&yf&yfukd xrf;aqmifaepOftwGi;f Edik if jH cm;
wdkif;jynfrsm;odkY wm0efjzifhtBudrfBudrfoGm;a&mufcJhonf/ 1952 ckESpfwGif t*FvefEkdifiH?
1958ckESpfwGif a[mifaumif? zdvpfydkifESifh xkdif;EdkifiH rsm;odkYvnf;aumif;? 1959ckESpfwGif
tpöa&;Edik if EH iS hf *smrPDEikd if o
H v
Ykd nf;aumif;? 1960jynhEf pS w
f iG f ESpw
f iG f tar&duef? 1964
ckEpS w
f iG t
f Ed ,
´d Edik if EH iS hf ygupöwefEikd if rH sm;odv
Yk nf;aumif;? 1968ckEpS w
f iG f pifumylEikd if EH iS hf
rav;&Sm;Edik if H rsm;odv
Yk nf;aumif;? 1972ckEpS w
f iG t
f ar&duefEidk if o
H v
Ydk nf;aumif;? 1975
ckESpfwGif eDaygEdkifiHodkYvnf;aumif;? 1976ckESpfwGif oD&dvuFmEkdifiHodkY vnf;aumif;
oGm;a&mufco
hJ nf/
7/

rdom;pk

OD;pde0f if;onf 1943ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 3 &ufaeYwiG f rEÅav;NrKd Uae Adv
k Bf u;D baz?
a':rke;f wd\
Yk orD; a':jra&TEiS hf vufxyfco
hJ nf/ jrefrmhvw
G v
f yfa&;twGuf oufpeG BYf uKd ;yrf;
xrf;aqmifcNhJ y;D Edik if aH wmfwm0efrsm;udk pGr;f pGr;f wrHxrf;aqmifcahJ om tNird ;f pm;Adv
k rf LS ;csKy?f
tNird ;f pm;Ekid if aH wmf0efBu;D csKyEf iS hf tNird ;f pm; Ekid if aH wmfaumifp0D ifO;D pde0f if;onf 1993ckEpS ?f
ZGev
f 29 &ufaeYü &efuek Nf rKd UwGif uG,v
f eG cf yhJ gonf/
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif ZeD;a':jra&TESifhom; OD;zkef;rif;acgif+a':at;at;oG,f?
OD;wifhrif;acgif+a':jrifhjrifhat;? OD;aX;rif;acgif;? OD;Munfrif;acgif+a':Zifrmatmif?
OD;oefYrif;acgif? a':rDrDzkd;om? OD;atmifrif;acgif? orD;a':cifOD;vGif? a':at;at;vGif
wku
Yd secf o
hJ nf/

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1994
1994/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1994) pm 186/

141

yH(k 13)
OD;armifarmifc (0efBuD;csKyf)
[ 1977 ckESpf ]

142

OD;armifarmifc
(0efBuD;csKyf)
(arG; 7-6-1920 uG,v
f eG -f 30-4-1995)
1/

i,fpOfb0

tNird ;f pm;Akv
d rf LS ;Bu;D ESihf tNird ;f pm;Ekid if aH wmf0efBu;D csKyf OD;armifarmifcudk tz
OD;cspaf z? trda':cifwifw
h rYdk S 1920 jynfEh pS ?f ZGev
f 7 &ufaeYwiG f &efuek Nf rKd Uü arG;zGm;cJo
h nf/
arG;csi;f nDtpfuEdk pS Of ;D teufti,fjzpfonf/
i,fpOfwpfEpS o
f m;wGif zcifu,
G v
f eG o
f mG ;Ny;D rdcifrmS vnf; aemuftrd af xmifjyK
oGm;í ta':tysKd Bu;D rsm;ESit
hf wl t&G,af &mufonftxd aexkid cf &hJ onf/
2/

ynmoifb0

1929 ckESpf touf 9 ESpfa&mufrS rlvwef;ynmukdpwifoif,lonf/
ausmif;wGifynm xl;cRefaomaMumifh q&m? q&mrrsm;rS twef;ausmfí wifay;jcif;cH
&onf/ 1936 ckEpS f touf 16 ESpw
f iG f 10 wef;pmar;yGu
J dk jrefrmpm*kPx
f ;l jzifh xl;cRepf mG
atmifjrifonf/ 1937 ckESpfwGif &efukefwuúokdvf okdYwufa&mufíynmoif,lcJhonf/
&efuek w
f uúov
dk af eYausmif;om;toif;ESihf pufro
I yd aHÜ usmif;toif;rsm;wGif toif;0ifjzpf
onf/ 1941 ckESpf bDtufpfpD(tif*sifeD,m) aemufqHk;ESpfwGif bGJUr,lbJwuúokdvfrS
EkwfxGufNyD; awmfvSefa&;wGif yg0ifqifEGJcJhonf/ OD;armifarmifconf 1955 ckESpf?
atmufwkdbmv 29 &ufaeYrS 1956 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 7 &ufaeYtxd refcsufpwm
pufrw
I uúov
dk w
f iG f ynmoif,cl o
hJ nf/
3/

0efxrf;b0

OD;armifarmifconf 1944 ckEpS w
f iG f jrefrmhwyfrawmfo0Ydk ifa&muftrIxrf;Ny;D
1944 ckESpf? arv 27 &ufaeYwGif *syefacwf wwd,ywf ppfwuúokdvf Akdvfoifwef;
wufa&mufco
hJ nf/ 1 Ek0d ifbmv 30 &ufaeYwiG f ausmif;qif;cJNh y;D av,mOfypftajrmufBu;D
wyfwGif wyfpkrSL;tqifhjzifh wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/ *syefawmfvSefa&;wGifwkdif;(1)
wyf&if;(106)ü wyfprk LS ;tjzpf awmfveS af &;Ny;D qH;k onftxd wm0efxrf;aqmifonf/
OD;armifarmifconf awmfveS af &;Ny;D qH;k Ny;D onft
h cg ppfjyefb0jzifh &&mtvkyrf sm;
1

Akv
d rf if;ñk?d *syefacwfppfwuúokdvf/ (&efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw
f u
dk ?f 1969)

pm223/

143
vkyfukdifumb0ukd &kef;uefonf/ 1947 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 6 &ufaeYwGif wyfrawmfokdY
wpfzefjyefvnf0ifa&mufcJhonf/ 1948 ckESpf? atNyDv 19 &ufaeYrS Mo*kwfv 15
&ufaeYtxd Akdvfoifwef;jyefvnfwufa&muf onf/ Akdvfoifwef;qif;NyD; 1948 ckESpfrS
1962 ckEpS t
f xd wyfrawmfvQypf pfEiS phf ufrw
I yfzUJG ? umuG,af &;ypön;f xkwv
f yk rf w
I yfzUJG rsm;
wGif 'kwd,AkdvftqifhrS 'kwd,AkdvfrSL;BuD;tqihftxdvnf;aumif;? umuG,fa&ypönf;
xkwfvkyfrI nTefMum;a&;rSL;tjzpf AkdvfrSL;BuD;tqifhtxdvnf;aumif; wm0efxrf;aqmif
cJo
h nf/
4/

Ek d i f i H a &;b0

OD;armifarmifconf 1962 ckEpS rf pS í pufr0I efBu;D XmewGif wGzJ uftwGi;f 0ef?
twGi;f 0efEiS hf 'kw,
d 0efBu;D wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifonf/ 1974 ckEpS w
f iG f jrefrmqk&d ,
S v
f pf
vrf;pOfygwD tvkyo
f rm;a&;&m XmeBu;D wGif aumfrwD0iftjzpfvnf;aumif;? A[kjd ynfoYl
tvkyform; aumifpDwGif tvkyftrIaqmif aumfrwD0ifESifh OuúXtjzpfvnf;aumif;
wm0efay;tyfjcif; cH&onf/ yxrtBudrfygwDnDvmcHwGif t&efA[kdtvkyftrIaqmif
aumfrwD0iftjzpf a&G;cs,jf cif;cH&Ny;D pufr0I efBu;D XmeESihf tvkyo
f rm;0efBu;D Xme 0efBu;D tjzpf
wm0efay;tyfjcif; cH&onf/ 1973 ckEpS f 'kw,
d tBurd yf gwDnv
D mcHwiG f t&efA[kd tvkyt
f rI
aqmifaumfrwD0iftjzpf xyfrHa&G;cs,fjcif;cH&onf/ 1972 ckESpf? {NyDv 20 &ufaeYwGif
Akv
d rf LS ;Bu;D tqifjh zifh tNird ;f pm;,lco
hJ nf/ 1974 ckEpS f yxrtBurd f jynfoYl vTwaf wmfEiS hf
jynfolYaumifpD tqifhqifha&G;cs,fwifajr§mufyGJwGif vIdifNrdKUe,ftrSwf(2) rJqE´e,frS
jynfolYvTwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f tjzpfta&G;cH&NyD; pufrI0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;tjzpf
wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf/ wwd,tBudrf ygwDnDvmcHwGif A[kdtvkyftrIaqmif
aumfrwD0if tjzpfvnf;aumif;? yxrtBudrftvkyform;tpnf;t&Hk; OuúXtjzpf
vnf;aumif;a&G;cs,jf cif;cH& onf/ 1977 ckEpS ?f rwfv 29 &ufaeYwiG f Ekid if aH wmf0efBu;D csKyf
tjzpf pwifxrf;aqmifcJhygonf/1 1978 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 1 &ufaeYrS 15 &ufaeYtxd
usi;f ycJah om 'kw,
d tBurd f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfEiS jhf ynfoaYl umifpt
D qifq
h ifah &G;cs,yf w
JG iG v
f nf;
0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpfxyfraH &G;cs,jf cif;cHc&hJ onf/ wpfzef 1985 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 4 &ufaeYrS
18 &ufaeYtxdusi;f ycJah om wwd,tBurd f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfEiS jhf ynfoaYl umifpt
D qifq
h ifh
a&G;cs,yf v
JG nf;aumif;? 1985 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
dk mv 6 &ufaeYrS 20 &ufaeYtxdusi;f ycJh
aom pwkw¬tBudrf jynfolYvTwfawmfESifh jynfolUaumifpDtqifhqifha&G;cs,fyGJwGif

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1978
1978/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1978) pm 6 /

144
vnf;aumif; 0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpf 3 Burd q
f ufwu
dk f a&G;cs,jf cif;cHc&hJ olwpfa,mufjzpfonfudk
awG&Y &dS ygonf/
0efBu;D csKyOf ;D armifarmifc wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOfumvjzpfaom 1988 ckepS ?f
rwfv 12 &ufaeY n 9 em&D 15 rdepf tcsed cf efw
Y iG f BuKd Uuke;f blwmteD; pE´m0if; vufzuf&nf
qkid üf pufrw
I uúov
dk 'f w
k ,
d ESpaf usmif;om; 2 OD;ESihf t&ufr;l aeonf&h yfuu
G f vli,f 5
OD;wkdYonf uufqufoDcsif;acGzGifhckdif;&mrStp ckduf&efjzpfyGm;cJhMuygonf/ ,if;&efponf
xkrd QEiS yhf if &yfwefrY oGm; cJb
h J aemufwpfaeYjzpfonfh rwfv 13 &ufaeYn 8 em&D 30 rdepf
tcsdefcefYrSpí BudKUukef;&yfuGufrS t&yfom;rsm;ESifh pufrIwuúokdvfausmif;om;rsm;
wpfzufESifhwpfzuf tkyfpkzGJU tMurf;zufwkdufckdufrIrsm; jzpfyGm;cJhygonf/ trIdufup
jyó'frD;avmifqkdouJhokdY ausmif;om;rsm; qlylqE´jyrIrsm; wpfNrdKUNyD; wpfNrdKUjzpfay:
vmcJyh gonf/ Edik if aH wmftusKd ;twGuf wm0ef&o
dS t
l zGUJ tpnf;rsm;rS rnfrQyif aqmif&u
G af y;
apumrl EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh vuf0Jvuf,mya,m*rsm;? qlylvkdolrsm;rS wpfjynfvHk;
twkid ;f twmjzifh qlyt
l <kH ua&;uko
d m tm;pku
d v
f yk af qmifcMhJ u ygonf/ vltyk Bf u;D rsm;jzifh
vHNk cKH a&;wyfzUJG 0ifrsm;tm; tMurf;zufowfjzwfrrI sm;? wku
d cf u
dk &f efjyKrrI sm; jyKvyk v
f mcJMh u
ygonf/ xkdtawmftwGif; ausmif;0if;rsm;twGif;wGif EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;omru
EkdifiHjcm;oHwreftcsdKUwkdYyg 0ifxGuf ajc&Iyfjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfvmMuygonf/ xkdhYaMumifh
ausmif;om;rsm;onf ,if;wkdY\ ajr§mufyifhay;rI rsm;? 0g'jzefYvIHUaqmfay;rI rsm;aMumifh
ausmif;om;rsm;ta&; oufoufuo
dk m awmif;qkcd MhJ u &mrS ]] ppfreS af om 'Dru
dk a&pD&&Sad &;
aqmif & G u f a y;&ef } } [l o nf h Ek d i f i H a &;oabmouf 0 if o nf h awmif ; qk d c suf r sm;uk d
pwifawmif;qkv
d mcJMh uonf/ ausmif;0if;rsm;twGi;f wGiv
f nf; vuf0v
J uf,mya,m* rsKd ;pHk
0ifa&mufvmrIwaYdk Mumifh ausmif;yk&0d P
k rf sm;twGi;f wGif Ekid if aH &;ykrd &dk yI af xG;vmcJyh gonf/
&efuek Nf rKd UwGif qlyt
l Murf;zufrrI sm;jzpfymG ;aepOftwGi;f Zlvidk v
f 7 &ufaeYwiG f awmifBu;D NrKd Uü
vnf; qlyrl rI sm;jzpfymG ;cJyh gonf/
1988 ckEpS ?f rwfvtwGi;f jzpfymG ;cJah om ta&;tcif;wGif jzpfay:vmaomudpö
rsm;twGuf wm0efruif;aMumif;awGU&Sd&ojzifh 0efBuD;csKyfarmifarmifctm; EkdifiHawmf
0efBuD;csKyf tjzpfrS Ekwfy,fvkdufaMumif; EkdifiHawmfaumifpDrS 1988 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv 26
&ufaeYwiG f aMunmcJyh gonf/1

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 19789
19789/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1989) pm 10/

145
1988 ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&Dv 25 &ufaeYrrS 27 &ufaeYwiG f rav;&Sm;Ekid if 0H efBu;D csKyf
'gwGw&f &S D a'gufwm r[moD,m rk[
d mrufonfvnf;aumif;? azazmf0g&Dv 29 &ufaeYrS
rwfv 5 &ufaeYtxd xkid ;f Ekid if t
H rd af &SUrif;om; r[mAm*s&D m avmifueG o
f nf vnf;aumif;?
xkdif;bk&ifhvufeufukdifwyfzGJUrsm;\ ppfaoemywdESifh ppfOD;pD;csKyf AkdvfcsKyfBuD; csmAvpf
a,mifcsdKif,k'fonf {NyDv 21 &ufaeYwGifvnf;aumif;? b*Fvm;a'h&SfjynfolYor®wEkdifiH
or®wBu;D [lped rf [
dk mruftm&Swo
f nf {Nyv
D 26 &ufaeYrS 28 &ufaeYtxdvnf;aumif;?
Oa&mybHak ps;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;aumfr&Sit
f zGUJ 0if uavmh'af &Sqef onfZv
l idk v
f 5 &ufaeYrS
&ufaeYtxdvnf;aumif; tvnftywfvma&mufco
hJ nfudk awG&Y &dS ygonf/f
5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;

OD;armifarmifconf jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rIwGif yg0ifcJhjcif;aMumifh
Ekid if aH wmfu cs;D jri§ o
hf nfh vGwv
f yfa&;armfueG ;f 0if('kw,
d tqif)h ukv
d nf;aumif;? Ekid if aH wmfu
ay;tyfonfh wm0ef rsm;ukdBudK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhjcif;aMumifh EkdifiHawmfu csD;jr§ifhonfh
aZ,sausmfxif ppfrIxrf;aumif; wHqdyfESifh EkdifiH*kPf&nf(yxrqifh)ukdvnf;aumif;
&&Scd o
hJ nf/
6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

Ekid if aH wmf wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOftwGi;f 1957 ckEpS w
f iG f *syef? a[mifaumifEiS hf
xkid ;f Ekid if rH sm;okYd vnf;aumif;? 1959 ckEpS w
f iG f ta&SUOa&myESihf taemufOa&myEkid if rH sm;okYd
vnf;aumif;? 1960 jynfEh pS ?f Zlvidk v
f wGif tar&duefEidk if o
H Ydk vnf;aumif;?1 1961 ckEpS w
f iG f
xkdif;? uarÇm'D;,m;? rav;&Sm;ESifh w&kwfjynfolYor®wEkdifiHrsm;okdY vnf;aumif;? 1962
ckEpS w
f iG f csuu
f pdk vkAd m;uD;,m;? *smrPD? tDwvDEiS jhf yifopfEidk if rH sm;okYd vnf;aumif;? 1964
ckEpS w
f iG f &lar;eD;,m;? MopaMw;vs? *smrPDEiS hf *syefEidk if rH sm;okv
Yd nf;aumif;? 1965 ckEpS w
f iG f
w&kwfjynfolYor®wEkdifiHokdYvnf;aumif;? 1966 ckESpfwGif &lareD;,m;? csufukdpvkd
Aufu;D ,m;Ekid if EH iS hf MopMw;D ,m;Ekid if rH sm;okv
Yd nf;aumif;? 1969 ckEpS w
f iG f taemuf*smrPDEiS hf
t*Fvef EkdifiHrsm;okdYvnf;aumif;? 1970 jynfhESpfwGif *syef? jyifopfESifh tdE´d,EkdifiHrsm;okdY
vnf;aumif;? 1977 ckEpS w
f iG f taemuf*smrPD? tDwvD? MopaMwvs? t*Fvef? qGpZf mvef?
tif'edk ;D &Sm;ESihf pifumylEidk if H rsm;okv
Yd nf;aumif;? 1979 ckEpS w
f iG f uk&d ;D ,m;? a[mifaumifEiS hf
pifumylEidk if rH sm;okv
Yd nf;aumif;? 1980 jynfEh pS w
f iG f xkid ;f ? jyifopfEiS hf pifumylEidk if rH sm;okYd
1

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku
d Ef iS w
hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku
d /f wyfrawmforkdif;
pwkw¬wGJ (1948-1962)
(1948-1962)? (&efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1995)
pm 158/

146
vnf;aumif;? 1984 ckESpf? {NyDv 4 &ufaeYwGif MopaMw;vsEkdifiH? {NyDv 7 &ufaeYwGif
e,l;ZDvefEidk if ?H Ek0d ifbmv 15 &ufaeYwiG f csuu
f pdk vkAd ufq&dk ,
S v
f pfor®wEkid if ?H 1 1986
ckESpf?{NyDv 10 &ufaeYwGif w&kwfjynfolYor®wEkdifiH? Mo*kwfv 11 &ufaeYwGif
,l*q
dk vm;AD;,m;Ekid if ?H Mo*kwv
f 14 &ufaeYwiG f ,lar;eD;,m;Ekid if ?H pufwifbmv 9 &ufaeY
wGif *syefEidk if ?H pufwifbmv 18 &ufaeYwiG f pifumylEidk if rH sm;okv
Yd nf;aumif;? 1987 ckEpS ?f
{NyDv 9 &ufaeYwGif xkdif;EkdifiH? ZGefv 29 &ufaeYwGif tif'kdeD;&Sm;or®wEkdifiH? Zlvkdifv 4
&ufaeYwGif pifumylESifh rav;&Sm;EkdifiHrsm;okdYvnf;aumif;? 1988 ckESpfwGif pifumyl?
t*FvefEiS hf bla*;&D;,m; Ekid if rH sm;okv
Yd nf;aumif; wm0efjzifh oGm;a&mufco
hJ nf/
7/

rdom;pkb0

OD;armifarmifconf OD;a&T? a':jrwifw\
Ydk orD; a':cifcifav;ESihf vufxyfc&hJ m
om;wpfOD;ESifh orD;wpfOD;xGef;um;onf/ om;jzpfolrSm uG,fvGefoGm;cJhNyD;jzpfonf/
jrefrmhvGwfvyf a&;BudK;yrf;rIwGif wpfwyfwpftm;yg0ifcJhNyD; EkdifiHawmfwm0efrsm;ukd
BudK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhaom tNidrf;pm; AkdvfrSL;BuD;ESifhtNidrf;pm;EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyf
OD;armifarmifconf 1995 ckESpf? {NyDv 30 &ufaeYwGif &efukefNrdKUü uG,fvGefcJhygonf/
uG,v
f eG cf sed w
f iG f ZeD;a':cifcifav;? (OD;rsKd ;nTe)Yf + a':vGiv
f iG jf rif?h a':EkE&k D + (OD;vTr;f rk;d )ESihf
arG;pm;orD;wpfO;D ESihf ajr;ESpOf ;D use&f pfonf/trSw(f 10)? oD&v
d rf;? yg&rD&yd o
f m? &efuif;NrKd Ue,f
wGiaf eonf/

1

1984 ckESpf jynfjrefrmm/ jr0wDt,f'DwmtzGJU/ ( &efukef? jr0wDyHkESdyfwkduf?
1985) pm 227/

147

yHk (14)
ol&OD;xGef;wif (0efBuD;csKyf)
[ 1988 ckESpf ]

ol&xGef;wif
(0efBuD;csKyf)
(arG
arG ; 10-2-1923 1/

)

i,fpOfb0

ol&xGef;wif ukd 1923 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv 10 &ufaeYwGif jrpfBuD;em;NrdKUü
arG;zGm;cJo
h nf/
2/

ynmoifb0

wkdYArmtpnf;t&Hk;0ifausmif;om; oHrPdacgif;aqmifESifh ajratmuf
awmfveS af &; acgif;aqmiftjzpf aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf/ Oypm(odyb
HÜ UJG )&&Scd o
hJ nf/
3/

0efxrf;b0

1944 ckESpf? arv 27 &ufaeYwGif *syefacwf wwd,ywf ppfwuúokdvf
f yfa&;
Akv
d o
f ifwef;wufa&mufNy;D Ek0d ifbmv 30 &ufaeYwiG f ausmif;qif;cJo
h nf/1 vGwv
wku
d yf rJG sm;wGif ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmfwyf&if;(3)? wyf&if;(1)? r*Fvm'Hk ppfwuúov
dk Ef iS hf
wkdif;(7)ppfXmecsKyf? rsdK;cspfArmhwyfrawmfwGif wkdif;(7)e,fajr? oeu(4)wkdYü wm0ef
xrf;aqmifcJhonf/ vGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0if yxrtqifhukd &&SdcJhonf/ 1948-1949
ckEpS t
f xdwyf&if;(5)wGif wyfcrJG LS ;tjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/ jrefrmjynfvw
G v
f yfa&;
&NyD;ptcsdef a&mifpHkolykef[kac:aom aomif;usef;olrsm;x<uaeaomtcsdefjzpfonf/
autrf'DtkdwkdYuvnf; tiftm;tBuD;rm;qHk;ESihf tjyif;xefqHk; xkd;azmufppfukd
BuHKawGUcJh&onf/ wyfcGJrSL; AkdvfBuD; xGef;wifonf wyf&if;(5) ]]*}}wyfcGJudk wm0ef,l&NyD;
tif;pde?f BuKd Uuke;f ESihf &mausmq
f &mawmf bk&m;Bu;D ausmif;Mum;wGif ae&m,lc&hJ onf/
Adv
k Bf u;D xGe;f wif onf ol&Y aJ bmfrsm;ukd
]]nwkid ;f rpkrYd yk&Yd efoal wGu ypfaew,fumG ? tvum;tdyaf &;ysuw
f ,f?
'Dn igaumif;aumif;tdyrf ,f? &efov
l pHS yG v
f mrxk;d rcsi;f ighrEI;d eJU}} 2 [k
1

Akv
d rf if;ñk?d *syefacwfppfwuúokdvf/ (&efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw
f u
dk ?f 1969)

pm223/
2

&efukeftpdk;&acwf tif;pdef&,f---wyf&if;(5)&,f}}?rS
rSL;ordef? ]]&ef
wyfrawmfa&T&wk/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1995/ pm 111/

149
rSmNy;D pdwcf svufcstyd af epOf eHeuf 3 em&Dcefw
Y iG f aoewforH sm;qlnaH eatmif
Mum;&csdefwGif tdyf,mrSxcJhMuonf/ wkdufay:rSatmifqif;NyD; a&wGif;ab;wgif
rsufESmopfaepOf aoewfoHrsm; aygufaygufavSmfouJhokdY rsm;jym;vmcJhonf/ xkdtcg
Adv
k Bf u;D xGe;f wifrS
]]at;...'Dwpfcgxl;jcm;w,f? &efolefwkdufNyDxifw,f? tm;vHk;
owdxm;Mu? ae&m,lMua[h}}1
[ktrdefYay;vkdufonf/ uysmu,m ppf0wfpHkaumuf0wfvkdufNyD; em;pGifh
rsuv
f ;kH zGihf avhvmaepOf eHeuf 4 em&Dceft
Y csed w
f iG f pufrw
I uúov
dk af usmif;bufrS E Coy
(wyf&if;(5)rS tm;jznf&h efyv
Ydk u
dk o
f nfv
h o
l pfrsm;ESizhf UJG pnf;xm;onfh topfwyfc)JG rS wyfMuyfEiS hf
&Jabmfrsm;rS ]] Akv
d Bf u;D ...&efot
l yk ef UJ oif;eJU odyrf sm;w,f? usr;f pmoifausmif; bufu&,f
0yfa&Smhbufu&,f vSdrfhqif;vmw,f? olwkdY&JUtm;rwfum;wef;BuD;vnf; bDtkdpD"gwfqD
qkid v
f eG Nf y;D wHwm;em;a&mufomG ;Ny}D } [kowif;ykcYd o
hJ nf/ xkt
d csed u
f ol&OD;xGe;f wifowå&d ydS u
kH dk
f iG f
a'gufwmarmifarmifa&;cJah om ]] jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifh AkdvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if;}} pmtkyw
]]wyfcrJG LS ; Akv
d Bf u;D armifviG 'f Pf&m&w,f? tustqH;k rsm;vGe;f wJah eUrSm
&JabmfawGwuf&eftrdefYay;aomfvnf; rwufcsif rwufMuawmhbl;?
'geJUxGe;f wif (,ck Ekid if aH wmf0efBu;D csKy-f tNird ;f pm;)rS xNy;D vrf;avQmufjy&
w,f? usnq
f aH wGu oleY m;w0D0ED iS hf wpfcsurf rS eS b
f ;l ? olu ]]Munfyh guG?
vlqkdwm aoaeYaphrSaowm}} qkdNyD; &JabmfawGukd &Jaq;wifw,f?
NyD;awmhwufzkdY trdefY ay;awmh wufMuw,fvkdY AkdvfcsKyfae0if;u
owdw&ajymw,f[ak &;om;xm;ygonf/}} 2
au'DtkdwkdYxkd;ppfonf oHcsyfum;um;rsm;ukd a&SUwef;wifí wkdufckdufojzifh
tif;pde-f &efuek u
f m;vrf;ay:&Sd wyfrawmf\a&S;wef;umuG,af &;pnf;usKd ;aygufomG ;cJo
h nf/
apmbifqifNc&H dS wyf&if;a&SUwef;uGyu
f aJ &;pcef;vnf; usomG ;cJo
h nf/ xkt
d csed f bDtidk af t
OD;xGe;f a&Ttrd üf ae&m,lxm;aom wkid ;f ppfXmecsKyrf S tajctae odocd si;f wyfrLS ;Bu;D uk,
d w
f idk f
toif&h adS om a&wyfrawmfrS bkzd mtajrmuf]]wHjrufpnf;}}ukd um;vrf;ay:wifNy;D &efol
tm;rwfaumfvHtvmukd apmifhtypfckdif;cJhonf/ wHjrufpnf;u ypf&eftoifhjzpfjzpfjcif;
1

&efukeftpdk;&acwf tif;pdef&,f---wyf&if;(5)&,f}}? rS
rSL;ordef? ]]&ef
wyfrawmfa&T&wk/ (&efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1995)? pm 111/
2
a'gufwmarmifarmif? jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/
(&efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw
f u
dk ?f 1969)? pm 322/

150
ypfuGif;xJokdY &efolum;rsm;a&muf&SdvmcJh&m ypfcwfwkdufckduf&m csufaumif;rSefNyD;
&efoltm;rwfum;rD;avmifysufpD;cJhonf/ a&SUqHk;rS &efoltm;rwfum;\um;armif;olukd
t&ufr;l atmifwu
dk x
f m;Ny;D ajcaxmufudk oHBuKd ;cwfcsnf aomhcwfxm;ojzifh qif;rajy;
Ekid b
f J ae&mwGif yGcJ si;f Ny;D aoqH;k cJo
h nf/
umuG,fa&;0efBuD;Xmeppf&Hk;ü ntdyfaom OD;pD;csKyfrSvnf; owif;&&csif;
t&efxm;aoma&wyfrS Akv
d Bf u;D awmfr&D u
dk Ef iS hf bkzd mtajrmufrsm;? Akv
d Bf u;D armifarmifBu;D \
atmfvDuef*rf;rsm; apvTwfcJhygonf/ ,if;uJhokdY tm;rwfum;awGxdrSefNyD; rwufEkdif
aomfvnf; ajcvsiEf iS w
hf pfz?YJG um;ESiw
hf pfzUJG au'Dtw
dk Ydk &efuek u
f dk csw
D uf&ef BuKd ;pm;cJMh uonf/
okaYd omf tif;pdet
f 0if BuKd Uuke;f bk;d awmf&mausmaf usmif;wGif wyfpx
JG m;aom Akv
d Bf u;D xGe;f wif
\ wyfc]JG ]*}}onf aemufrqkwb
f u
J secf o
hJ nf/ Akv
d Bf u;D xGe;f wifu,
dk w
f idk f owå&d &dS EdS iS hf jzwfNy;D
xkd;ppfqifwkdufckdufcJhonf/ &efolonf ppfoabmt& aemufausmrvHkrI ESifhppfxkd;rIukd
txl;aMumufMu&onfh xHk;wrf;pOfvmt& wpfcsdK;wnf;qkwfcJh&onf/ AkdvfBuD;xGef;wif
vnf; tif;pdefwkdufyGJwGif ol&bGJcsD;jr§ifhcHcJh&onf/ trSwf(4)ajcvsifwyf&if;ESifhtwl
&efBuD;atmif ppfqifa&;wGif yg0ifwkdufckdufcJhonf/ wyf&if;rSL;? acwåwyfr[mrSL;?
ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)? 1971 ckEpS w
f iG f wyfrawmfavhusiahf &;rSL;? wyfxed ;f csKyw
f m0efrsm;ukd
xrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/
4/

Ekid if aH &;b0

1971 ckESpf? ZGefv 28 &ufaeYrS Zlvkdifv 11 &ufaeYtxdusif;ycJhaom
yxrtBudrfygwDnDvmcHESifh 1973 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv 8 &ufaeYrS 21 &ufaeYtxd
usif;yaom 'kwd,tBudrfygwDnDvmcHG1981ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 3 &ufaeYrS 8 &ufaeYtxd
usi;f yaom pwkwt
¬ Burd f ygwDnv
D mcHwüYdk ygwDA[kt
d vkyt
f rIaqmifaumfrwD0iftjzpf
a&G;cs,jf cif;cH&onf/ 1974 ckEpfS ? Zefe0g&Dv 27 &ufaeYrS azazmf0g&Dv 10 &ufaeYtxd
usif;ycJhaomfyxrtBudrfjynfolYvTwfawmfESifhjynnfolYaumifpDtqifhqifha&G;cs,fyGJ ESifh
1978 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv 1 &ufaeYrS 15 &ufaeYtxdusif;ycJhaom'kwd,tBudrf jynfolY
vTwfawmf ESifhjynfolYaumifpDtqifhqifha&G;cs,fyGJü jrpfMuD;em;rJqE´e,f(1)rS jynfolY
vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf a&G;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&onf/ tvkyform;0efBuD;Xme0efBuD;?
or0g,r0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D tjzpfwm0ef xrf;aqmifco
hJ nf/ 1981 ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbm 9 &ufaeYrS
12 &ufaeYtxdusif;ycJhaom wwd,tBudrfjynfolYvTwfawmfyxrtpnf;ta0;ü
ewåvif;NrdKUe,f rJqE´e,f(1)rS ol&OD;xGef;wiftm; 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyf? pDrHudef;ESifh
b@ma&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;tjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufjcif;cHcJh&ygonf/ 1985 ckESpf?
atmufwb
dk mv 6 &ufaeYrS 20 &ufaeYtxdusi;f ycJah om pwkwt
¬ Burd f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmf

151
ESijhf ynfoaYl umifpt
D qifq
h ifah &G;cs,yf w
JG iG v
f nf; 'kw,
d Burd af jrmuf 'kw,
d 0efBu;D csKy?f pDru
H ed ;f
ESib
hf @ma&;0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D tjzpf xyfraH &G;cs,jf cif;cHc&hJ ygonf/ 1988 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f
27 &ufaeYwiG f pwkwt
¬ Burd jf ynfov
Yl w
T af wmfta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;ukd jynfov
Yl w
T af wmf
tpnf;ta0;cef;rüusi;f ycJ&h m ol&OD;xGe;f wiftm; 0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpf a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufchJ
f m0efrS tem;,lcyhJ gonf/
Muygonf/1 1988 ckEpS ?f pufwifbmv 17 &ufaeYwiG f 0efBu;D csKyw
5/

*kPjf yKcs;D usL;cH&jcif;
ppfrx
I rf;aumif;wHqyd Ef iS hf Ekid if *hH P
k &f nfbUJG (yxrtqif)h ukd &&Scd o
hJ nf/

6/

jynfyc&D;rsm;

1977 ckESpf? {NyDv 24 &ufaeYwGif MopMwD;,m;ekdifiHokdYvnf;aumif;? 1980
jynfEh pS ?f {Nyv
D 28 &ufaeYwiG f tif'edk ;D &Sm;Ekid if EH iS hf *syefEidk if o
H v
Ydk nf;aumif;? pufwifbmv
23 &ufaeYwGif tar&duefEkdifiHokdYvnf;aumif;? 'DZifbmv 6 &ufaeYwGif jyifopfEkdifodkY
vnf;aumif;oGm;a&mufco
hJ nf/ 1982 ckEpS ?f Zlvidk v
f 6 &ufaeYwiG f *syefEidk if o
H Ydk oGm;a&mufchJ
onf/ 1984 ckEpS ?f {Nyv
D 21 &ufaeYwiG f e,fomvef? NAw
d ed ?f AJv*s,
D rfEidk if o
H Udk vnf;aumif;?
ZGefv 16 &ufaeYwGif w&kwfEkdifiHokdYvnf;aumif;? atmufwkdbmv 28 &ufaeYwGif
w&kwEf idk if o
H v
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f iG f atNyv
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tar&duefEidk if H wko
Yd Ydk toD;oD;oGm;a&mufco
hJ nf/

1

jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf;ESpfcsKyf 1989
1989/ (&efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1989) pm243/

tydkfif;(3)
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152

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xnho
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153
xkrd Qruor®wBu;D OD;ae0if;onf vGwv
f yf&jy;D acwfwidk ;f jynfuu
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e,ferd w
d f e,fyidk ;f jcm;onfph mcsKyu
f dk csKyq
f Edk idk cf yhJ u
kH v
kd nf; awGU&SEd idk yf gonf/ 1974 ckEpS f
Ekid if aH wmfzUJG pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya't& usi;f yaom a&G;aumufyrJG &S &So
d nfh jynfoYl uk,
d pf m;vS,f
rsm;tm; Ekid if aH wmftmPmukd pepfwusvt
JT yfEidk cf yhJ gonf/
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uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;onft
h csed x
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G cf yH u
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awGjY rifEidk yf gonf/
or®wBu;D OD;pdev
f iG o
f nfvnf; jynfxaJ &;ESio
hf moema&;0efBu;D ? ygwDtaxGaxG
twGif;a&;rSL; wm0efrsm;ay;tyfjcif;cH&NyD; jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH awmftwGuf
OD;vnfrokeBf uKd ;yrf;cJ?h aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ w
l pfO;D jzpfygonf/ Ekid if aH &;tajctaeaumif;rGejf cif;
r&Sad omcsed w
f iG f or®wtjzpf a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufjcif;cHc&hJ oljzpfcyhJ gonf/
or®wBuD;a'gufwmarmifarmifonfEkdifiHa&;tajc taeaumif;rGefr&Sdaom
tcsed w
f iG f or®wtjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifc&hJ ygonf/
xkt
Yd jyif Akv
d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D apmarmifonf Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rI wnfaqmufa&;
tzGJU (,aeYEkdifiHawmf at;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpD)OuúXtjzpf vGwfvyfa&;
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h ajctaeokaYd &muf&adS ecsed w
f iG f wkid ;f jynfudk orkid ;f ay;wm0eft&
u,fwifc&hJ oljzpfonf/
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f m0efxrf;aqmifcahJ om0efBu;D csKyf OD;Ek
onfvnf;wkdif;jynfukd vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdatmif AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;wkdYESifhtwl BudK;yrf;
aqmif&u
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hJ jl zpfonf/ Ak'b
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jrefrmvlrsKd ;wk\
Yd bmomomoemxGe;f um;ap&ef &nf&,
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*kPjf yKavmufonf[,
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l &ygonf/
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k &dk ,
S v
f pfor®wEkid if aH wmf\yxrqH;k 0efBu;D csKyjf zpf
onf/ *syefacwfrS 1972 ckEpS f wyfrawmfrS tNird ;f pm;,lonft
h csed x
f d Ekid if aH wmftusKd ;ukd
wyfrawmfom;b0jzihf BudK;yrf;cJholjzpfonf/ AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhtwl zufqpf
awmfveS af &;wGif &Gy&f yG cf RcH RH wku
d cf u
dk Ef idk cf o
hJ jl zpfonf/ wpfzef0efBu;D csKyb
f 0tjzpf Ekid if aH wmfudk
BuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf ukad wG&Y EdS idk yf gonf/

154
0efBuD;csKyf OD;armifarmifconf jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwDacwfwGif
0efBuD;csKyftjzpf 10 ausmfwm0efxrf;aqmifcJholjzpfonfhtjyif xkdygwDwnfNrJEkdifap&ef
twGuf BuKd ;yrf;aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ w
l pfO;D jzpfygonf/
0efBu;D csKyf ol&OD;xGe;f wif Ekid if aH &;qlyrl jl zpfymG ;aeaomtcsed w
f iG f 0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpf
a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufjcif;cH&oljzpfygonf/ 'kw,
d 0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpf 7 ESpcf efw
Y m0efxrf;aqmifchJ
ygonf/ a'gufwmarmifarmifwEYdk iS t
hf wl wm0efxrf;aqmiforl sm;jzpfonf/
þpmwrf;onf 1948 ckESpfrS 1988 ckESpf tcsefumvtxd jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEkid if aH wmfwiG f wm0efxrf;aqmifcahJ om or®wBu;D rsm;ESi0hf efBu;D csKyrf sm;\ tw¬Kyw
Ü u
då dk
wpfpw
k pfa0;wnf; jyKpx
k m;jcif;jzpfojzifh vly*k Kd¾ vw
f pfO;D wpfa,mufp\
D b0ESihf vly*k Kd¾ vt
f pk
tzGJUwpfck\ b0rsm;ukd aygif;pyfavhvmvQif twk,lp&mrsm;? ynm,lp&mrsm;? avhvm
p&mrsm;ukd wpfpw
k pfpnf;wnf; awGjY rifEidk yf gonf/
]]pmayonfacwf\aMu;rH?k pmtkypf mayvlrY w
d af qG? pme,fZif;wkid ;f acwforkid ;f ?
tvdrm® pmrSm&So
d nf? pmMunfw
h u
dk w
f cH g;wpfcsyzf iG x
hf m;jcif;onf tusO;f axmifwcH g;wpfcsyf
ydwo
f nfrnf\}} tp&Sad omaqmify'k rf sm;t& þpmwrf;jzifh pmMunfw
h u
dk Ef iS o
hf yk nmXme
twGuv
f nf;aumif;? rdrw
d m0efxrf;aqmifaeaomwyftwGuv
f nf;aumif;? wyfrawmf
twGufvnf;aumif;? EkdifiHawmftwGuf wpfaxmifhwpfae&mrS tusdK;&SdoGm;rnfqkdvQif
pmwrf;jyKp&k jcif;twGuf yDwjd zpfaernfjzpfygaMumif; ½kad ousKd ;EGpH mG jzifh wifjytyfygonf/

155

usr;f uk;d pm&if;
jrefrmpmtkyrf sm;
1/

ausmNf ird ;f ? &JabmfoHk;usdyf/ &efuek ?f tif;0pmaywku
d ?f 1998/

2/

ausm0f if;? OD;/ jrefrmEkid if aH &; 1958-1962 (wwd,wG)J / wGb
J ufa&;ol OD;jr[efEiS hf
OD;odef;vdIif/ 'k-Budrf? &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1991/

3/

MunfñeT ?Yf cspfMunfa&;
&;/ OD;Ek-OD;avm&Hktaygif;tygrsm;ESifhe,fcsJU*kdPf;/ &efuek ?f
cspfMunfa&;pmaywkduf? 1970/

4/

cspaf qG? arNrdKUU-/ jynfolcspfaomAkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ &efuek ?f ajreDuek ;f pmaywku
d ?f
1970/

5/

cspaf rmif? ocif? 0d"l&--/ uRefb0Armjynf/ &efuek ?f aAmawmhpmay? 1968/

6/

- - - / vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;aemufjrefrmjynf/ &efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw
f u
dk ?f 1969/

7/

pHNidrf;? OD ;/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&; 1958-1962 (yxrwGJ)/ wGJbufa&;ol a'gufwm
a':jrifhMunf/ 'k-Budrf? &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD; Xme? 1991/

8/

pk;d armif? armif? 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek/ &efuek ?f ormrdw?å 1955/

9/

pdejf rif?h OD;/(vkyo
f m;rsm;aumfvyd )f -/ ESpf-200 jrefrmEkdifiHorkdif;tbd"mef/ &efuek ?f
yifra&pD;pmay? 1969/

10/

refrmvlausmf 100 yxrwGJ/ &efuek ?f EG,ef pD may? 2002/
aZ,sm? armif/ jref

11/

nDnD? a'gufwmm/ jrefrmEkdifiHtrsdK;om;armfuGef; (1975)? rsufarSmufumv
jrefrmEkdifiH rSwfwrf;/ &efuek ?f urÇmvH;k pmay? 1978/

12/

awmfvSefa&;aumifpDvkyfaqmifcsuforkdif;tusOf;csKyf/ &efuek ?f jynfov
Yl w
T af wmf?
[1965]/

13/

wifjr? ocif/ zufqpfawmfvSefa&;XmecsKyfESifh wkdif;(10)wkdif;/ w-Burd ?f &efuek ?f
r[meE´pmay? 1976/

14/

1974 ckESpfrS 1987 ckESpftxd jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;XmerSxkwfa0aom vpOfxkwf
a&SUokdY*sme,f/

156
15/

vpOfxw
1948 ckEpS f rS 1959 ckEpS t
f xdxw
k af 0aomvpOf
k pmayAd
fpmayAdrmefr*¾Zif;rsm;/
twGJ(1)? trSwf(12) rS twGJ(7) trSwf(10) txd/

16/

1948 ckESpfrS 1988 ckESpftxd aeYpOf xkwf aMu;rHkowif;pm
pm/

17/

1948 ckEpS rf S 1988 ckEpS t
f xd aeYpOf xkwf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm
pm/

18/

wyfrawmfa&T&wk 1995? rwf/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1995/

19/

xGef;aepOfowif;pm
pm/ (20 Zef 1958)/

20/

Ek? oci
ocif/ ig;ESpf&moDArmjynf/ &efuek ?f jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwku
d ?f 1946/

21/

Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ OuúX? wyfrawmfumuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf
Akv
d cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D apmarmif\ wkid ;f jynfow
Ydk ifjycsuaf rwåm&yfccH surf sm;? Ekid if jH cm;
owif;pmq&mrsm;ESifhawGUqHkaqG;aEG;csufrsm;rdefYcGef;rsm;
rsm;/ p-Burd ?f &efuek ?f
jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1989/

22/

ESi;f auo&m/ jrefrmEkdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;pepftrsdK;rsdK;(at'D 1824rS at'D 1987
txd )/ &efukef? jr0wDyHkESdyfwkduf? 1993/

23/

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHawmf t|rESpfywfvnfpmapmif/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;Xme?
1956/

24/

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHawmf e0rESpfywfvnfpmapmif/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;Xme?
1957/

25/

jynf a xmif p k j ref r mEk d i f i H a wmf {u'orES p f y wf v nf p mapmif / &efukef?
jyefMum;a&;Xme? 1959/

26/

jynfjrefrm 1980
1980/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1981/

27/

jynfjrefrm 1981
1981/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1982/

28/

jynfjrefrm 1982
1982/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1983/

29/

jynfjrefrm 1983
1983/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1984/

30/

jynfjrefrm 1984
1984/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1985/

31/

jynfjrefrm 1985
1985/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1986/

32/

jynfjrefrm 1986
1986/ &efukef? jr0wDykHESdyfwkduf? 1987/

157
33/

jyefvnfxlaxmifa&; 0efxrf;wyf ESpfygwfvnfpmapmi
mapmif/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;Xme?
1951/

34/

AaqG? OD ;/ ygwDwGif;tjzpfrSef/ &efuek ?f zqyvyHEk ydS w
f u
dk ?f [1957]/

35/

AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;rdefYcGef;rsm;
rsm;/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1971/

36/

AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;tw¬KyÜwå/d wnf;jzwfol ocifu,
dk af wmfridI ;f / &efuek ?f trsKd ;om;
yHkESdyfwkduf? 1951/

37/

)-/ ArmhawmfvSefa&;orkdif;/ &efuek ?f t&kPOf ;D pmay?
baomif;? AkdvfrSL; (armifokw)1967/

38/

rkd;BudK;owif;pm
pm/ (14 Ekd 1962)/

39/

armifarmif/ ouf&Sd&mZ0if/ &efukef? ormrdwå? 1956/

40/

armifarmif? a'guf w mm/ EkdifiHawmfvkyfBuHrI? jynfaxmifpkESifhOD;apm/ &efukef?
0if;armfOD;pmay? 1974

41/

- - - / jrefrmEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifh AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ &efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw
f u
dk ?f 1969/

42/

- - - / om;armifppfonfokdY/ &efukef? yk*Hpmtkyfwkduf? 1973/

43/

jr?&J
sm;/( &efukef?
&J a bmf - / zuf q pf a wmf v S e f a &;jynf o l Y & J a cgif a jymuf u sm;
jr&myifpmaytkyfwkduf?1971) pm- 153? 486 pm/

44/

jr0if;/ wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifrsm;orkdif;tusOf; (1941 ckESpfrS 1990jynhfESpf
txd)/w-Budrf? &efukef? jyefMuma&;0efBuD;Xme? 1992/

45/

jr[ef/ ukdvkdeDacwfjrefrmhorkdif;tbd"mef/ w-Burd ?f &efuek ?f orkid ;f Xme? 1999/

46/

J ufa&;ol
jrifMh unf? a'gufwmm/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&; 1958-1962 ('kwd,wGJ)/ wGb
a'gufwm aemftif*svif;/ 'k-Budrf? &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1991/

47/

jrifah rmif? rauG;/ wyfrawmfppfonfwpfOD;\rSwfwrf;rsm;
rsm;/ &efuek ?f 0if;pmay?
1999/

48/

jrifv
h iG ?f uarÇmZZ-/ ArmjynfESpfaygif;200 rSwfwrf;BuD;/ &efuek ?f arh*P
k &f nfpmtkyf
wkduf? 1999/

158
49/

jrifha0? OD ; (wyf r awmf j rif h o EÅ m ))-/ Armh a wmf v S e f a &;tbd " mef / &efukef?
py,fOD;pmay? 1972/

50/

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ wyf r awmf o rk d i f ;
(pwkw¬wGJ) 1948-1962
1948-1962/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1996/

51/

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ wyf r awmf o rk d i f ;
(qXrwGJ) 1974-1988/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1998/

52/

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ wyf r awmf o rk d i f ;
(wwd,wGJ) 1945-1948
1945-1948/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1995/

53/

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ wyf r awmf o rk d i f ;
('k w d , wG J ) 1945 zuf q pf a wmf v S e f a &;umv
&;umv/ w-Bud r f ? &ef u k e f ?
jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1999/

54/

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ wyf r awmf o rk d i f ;
(yxrwGJ)1824-1945
1824-1945/ p-Burd ?f &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 1999/

55/

jrefrmEkid if ?H ppforkid ;f jywku
d Ef iS w
hf yfrawmfarmfueG ;f wku
d /f wyfrawmforkdif; (yOörwGJ)
1962-1974
1962-1974/ 'k-Budrf? &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1999/

56/

jrefrmEkdifiH? ppforkdif;jywkdufESifhwyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf/ wyf r awmf o rk d i f ;
(owårwGJ) 1988-1993
1988-1993/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D Xme? 2000/

57/

jrefrmEkdifiH? EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGJU? wkdif;usdK;jynfjyK?
Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ \aqmif&u
G cf suo
f rkid ;f 0ifrw
S w
f rf;
(1988 ckESpfrS 1991 ckESpf)/ &efuek ?f ,if;tzGUJ ? 1991/

58/

jrefrmEkdifiHa&;pepfajymif;umv (1962-1974)(yxrwGJ)/ OD;jr[efEiS t
hf jcm;
pma&;olrsm;/ &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1993/

59/

jrefrmEkdifiHa&;pepfajymif;umv (1962-1974)('kwd,wGJ)/ OD;jr[efEiS t
hf jcm;
pma&;olrsm;/ &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1993/

60/

jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;atmifyGJ/ &efuek ?f jyefMum;a&;ESit
hf oHviTG Xhf me? (1948)/

61/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1978
1978/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1978/

62/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1979
1979/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1979/

159
63/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1980
1980/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1980/

64/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1981
1981/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1981/

65/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1982
1982/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1982/

66/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1983
1983/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1983/

67/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1984
1984/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1984/

68/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1985
1985/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1985/

69/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1986
1986/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1986/

70/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1987
1987/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1987/

71/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1988
1988/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1988/

72/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1989
1989/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1989/

73/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1990
1990/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1990/

74/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1991
1991/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1991/

75/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1992
1992/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1992/

76/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1993
1993/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1993/

77/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1994
1994/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1994/

78/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1995
1995/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1995/

79/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1996
1996/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1996/

80/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1997
1997/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1997/

81/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1998
1998/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1998/

82/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 1999
1999/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1999/

83/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 2000
2000/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 2000/

84/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 2001
2001/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 2001/

85/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 2002
2002/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 2002/

86/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 2003
2003/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 2003/

160
87/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 2004
2004/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 2004/

88/

jrefrmhpG,fpHkESpfcsKyf 2005
2005/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 2005/

89/ &efukefowif;pm (13 azazmf0g&Dv 1959)/
90/ a&TOMo/ wpf c sd e f u xif & S m ;cJ h a omacgif ; aqmif B uD ; rsm;
rsm;/ 'k-Budrf? &efukef?
0if;jrifhatmif pmay? 1997/
91/

vSrsdK;? &Jabmf-/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHorkdif;0ifpmcsKyfpmwrf;rsm;
rsm;/ &efuek ?f
vSrsdK;pmay? 1968/

92/

vSorde/f urÇmh'kdif,m&DESifhjrefrmh'kdif,m&D/ &efuek ?f tvif;a&mifpmaywku
d ?f 1967

93/

0krif;? a':&kdoD/ acwfjrefrmwnf[ef/bmomjyefol OD;wifarmif&if/ &efukef?
jrwfEkd;olpmay? 1978/

94/

owif;pmq&mwpfO;D / ArmarmfuGef;rSwfwkdifrsm;
sm;/ &efuek ?f ca&zl;pmpOf? (1955)/

95/

oef?Y OD ;? jynfawmfomc&D;(yxrykdif;))/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1961/

96/

- - - ? jynfawmfomc&D;('kwd,ykdif;))/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1961/

97/

oef;xGef;/ jynfolYvTwfawmfESifhEkdifiHa&;jyóemrsm; 1948-1958
1948-1958/ &efukef?
orkdif;Xme? 1978/

98/

ode;f azjrif/h awmfvSefa&;umvtawGUtBuHKrsm;
rsm;/ 'k-Burd ?f &efuek ?f ,rHek mpmay?
1967/

99/

odef;vIdif? OD ;/ jrefrmEkdifiHa&;pepfajymif;umv (1962-1974)(wwd,wGJ)/
wGJbufa&;ol a':cifvS[ef/ &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1993/

100/ [Hom0wDowif;pm (26 pufwifbm 1961)/
101/ tdZrk ,
d wwfpak &m/ uRefawmfyg0ifcJhaomrDemrDuDuef;/ bmomjyefol a':cif&/D
&efukef? bmomjyefESifhpmtkyfxkwfa0a&;Xme? 1981/

161
t*Fvdyfpmtkyfrsm;
1/

Ba U,U. My Burma : The Autobiography of a President. New York : Taplinger
Publishing Co,Inc.,1958.

2/

BURMA : The Fourteenth Anniversary. Rangoon Vol. XI, No. 1. Rangoon :
The Director of Inofrmation, 1962.

3/

BURMA : The Fighth Anniversary. Yangon Vol. VI, No. 2. Rangoon : The
Director of Inofrmation, 1957.

4/

BURMA : The Ninth Anniversary. Yangon Vol. VII, No. 2. Rangoon : The
Director of Inofrmation, 1957.

5/

BURMA : The Tenth Anniversary. Yangon Vol. VIII, No. 2. Rangoon : The
Director of Inofrmation, 1958.

6/

Government and Politics of Asian Countries: Myanmar/ edited by Verlinder
Grover. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications PVT. Ltd, 2000.

7/

Johnston, William C., A Chronology of Burma's International Relations 19451958. Rangoon : Rangoon University,1959.

8/

Aung San, Burma's Challenge. Rangoon : The New Light of Burma Press Ltd,
1946.

162

&JabmfoHk;usdyf
pOf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/
16/
17/
18/
19/
20/
21/
22/
23/
24/
25/
26/
27/
28/
29/
30/

trnf
ocifatmifqef;
ocif½Iarmif
ocifausmfpdef
ocifcifarmifOD;
ocifaiG
ocifapmvGif
ocifpHjr
ocifpHvIdif
ocifpkd;
ukdaqmif;
ocifwifat;
ocifxGef;cif
ukdxGef;&Sdef
ocifxGef;a&T
ocifxGef;vGif
ocifxGef;tkyf
ocifA*srf;
ocifarmifarmif
udka&T
ocifvS
ocifvSaz
ocifvSarmif
ocifvSNrdKif
ocifopf
ocifoef;nTefY
ocifoef;wif(1)
ocifoef;wif(2)
ocifat;armif
ocifatmifoef;
ukdatmifodef;

*syeftrnf
Om'oda Monji
Takasugi Susumu
Takahashi
Monya Masaru
Katsura
Yamaoka Kiyoshi
Nakagawa Ichiro
Omura Tadashi
Kono
Monya Hiroshi
Chinda Seiji
Nakamura Hitoshi
Yamashita Teruo
Utsumi Susumu
Otani Hiroshi
Ichihara Ishiro
Baba Takeshi
Tsuchiya
Taniguchi Shin-ichi
Ito Hitochi
Tani Kiyoshi
Kaga Masashi
Itoda Tei-ichi
Osawa
Okawa
Yamada
Tsubota
Mizuno Saburo
Hirata Masao
Hayashi

AkdvfbGJUtrnf
AkdvfawZ
Akdvfae0if;
Akdvfrkd;ñkd
Akdvfwm&m
Akdvfapmatmif
Akdvfrif;acgif
Akdvfawmufxdef
Akdvfatmif
Akdvfjrifhatmif
Akdvfxdef0if;
Akdvfbkef;jrifh
AkdvfjrifhaqG
Akdvf&efEkdif
Akdvfvif;,kef
AkdvfAv
------------Akdvfva&mif
AkdvfOmP
AkdvfausmfaZm
Akdvfrif;a&mif
Akdvfvufsm
AkdvfaZ,s
Akdvf&efatmif
Akdvfapmaemif
AkdvfZifa,mf
Akdvfoef;wif
Akdvfjr'if
Akdvfrdk;
AkdvfpMufm
Akdvf&JxG#f

163

1943 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv (1) &ufaeY *syefay;aomvGwfvyfa&;acwf
jreffrmEkdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJU
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/

a'gufwm barmf
ocifjr
AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;
ocifEk(OD;Ek)
OD;b0if;
a'gufwmodef;armif
OD;at;
OD;odrf;armif
OD;vSaz
OD;vSrif;
OD;jr (aysmfbG,f)
OD;pdef (AE¨Kv)

-

13/
14/
15/
16/

OD;xGef;atmif
ocifvGef;abmf
ocifoef;xGef;
ocifav;armif

-

t"dywdt&Sifrif;BuD;? 0efBuD;csKyf? ppfaoemywdcsKyf
'kwd,0efBuD;csKyf
umuG,fa&;0efBuD;
EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;
jynfxJa&;Xme0efBuD;
b@ma&;Xme0efBuD;
tcGefawmfXme 0efBuD;
w&m;a&;Xme0efBuD;
opfawmESifhow¬KwGif;Xme0efBuD;
ynm? usef;rm? pnfyifom,ma&;Xme0efBuD;
ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;ESifh pufrIvufrI0efBuD;
0g'jzefYcsDa&;? omoema&;? r[mArmESifh
Armh0efxrf;Xme0efBuD;
yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;Xme0efBuD;
vrf;yef;ESifhjyefvnfxlaxmifa&;Xme0efBuD;
ajrESifhv,f,mpkdufysdK;a&;Xme0efBuD;
vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;ESifh qnfajrmif;Xme0efBuD;

164

1948 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv (4) &ufaeY
jynfaxmifpkor®wjreffrmEkdifiHawmftpkd;&tzGJU
p0fa&Tokduf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

ocifEk
Akdvfvufsm
OD;wifxG#f
OD;ausmfNidrf;
OD;wif
OD;A*srf;
ocifwif
Akdvfbkd;uGef;

-

9/ OD;nkdxGef;
10/ OD;jr ([oFmw)
11/ OD;ukdukdBuD;

-

12/ ref;0if;armif

-

13/
14/
15/
16/
17/
18/

-

OD;xGef;jrifh
apmpHbkd;oif
qrm;'l;0g;qif0gaemif
apm0PÖ
OD;0rf;olarmif
AkdvfpdefrSef

or®w
0efBuD;csKyf
'kwd,0efBuD;csKyfESifhumuG,fa&;0efBuD;
EkdifiHjcm;a&;Xme0efBuD;
jynfxJa&;Xme0efBuD;
b@ma&;ESifhtcGefawmfXme0efBuD;
w&m;Xme0efBuD;
v,f,mpkdufysdK;a&;ESifh opfawma&;Xme0efBuD;
ynma&;-jynfo0Yl efxrf;ESi-hf jyefvnfxal xmifa&;Xme
0efBuD;
owif;ESifhjyefMum;a&;Xme0efBuD;
trsdK;om;pDrHudef;ESifhpufrIvufrIXme0efBuD;
ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;-axmufyahH &;ESio
hf ,f,yl adk qmif
a&;Xme0efBuD;
vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;-taqmuftODESifhtvkyform;
Xme0efBuD;
&Srf;jynfe,f0efBuD;
u&ifa&;&m0efBuD;
ucsifjynfe,f0efBuD;
u&ifeDjynf0efBuD;
csif;a&;&m0efBuD;
Xmevufukdifr&Sd0efBuD;

165

1/
2/

3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

9/
10/
11/

12/

13/

14/

1958 ckESpf? atmufwkdbmv (28)&uf
tdrfapmifhtpkd;&tzGJU
OD;0if;armif
- or®w
owkd;oD&dok"r® AkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if; - EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyf? umuG,fa&;Xme?
trsdK;om;pD;rHudef;Xme
t*¾r[moa&pnfolowkd;
- 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyf? EkdifiHjcm;a&;Xme? om
oD&dok"r® OD;odrf;armif
oema&;Xme? usef;rma&;Xme? jynfolY0ef
xrf;Xme
owkd;r[moa&pnfol
- &Srf;jynfe,f0efBuD;
p0f[Hkz
a'gufwm apmvSxGef;
- u&ifjynfe,f0efBuD;
'l0gaZmfvGef;
- ucsifjynfe,f0efBuD;
p0fpPÖ
- u,m;jynfe,f0efBuD;
OD;xefvsef;
- csif;a&;&m0efBuD;
r[moa&pnfol
- jynfxaJ &;Xme? jyefMum;a&;Xme?'Dru
dk a&pD
OD;cifarmifjzL
a'oEÅ&tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifha'oEÅ&tzGJUrsm;
XmESifh vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESifhtrsdK;om;
rSwfyHkwifa&;Xme0efBuD;
owkd;r[moa&pnfol
- w&m;a&;Xme0efBuD;
OD;csefxGef;atmif
OD;ausmfNidrf;
- b@ma&;ESifhtcGefawmfXme0efBuD;
pnfolOD;bMum;
- ukefoG,frIwkd;wufa&;Xme? or0g,rESifh
ukefpnfjzefYjzLa&;XmeESifhypönf;axmuf
yHha&;Xme0efBuD;
oa&pnfolOD;pHñGefU
- o,f,yl aYdk qmifa&;ESihf vrf;yef; qufo,
G f
a&;XmeESifhjynfolYvkyfief;ESifh tdrf&m
aqmufvkyfa&;Xme0efBuD;
OD;um
- ynma&;Xme? v,f,mpkdufysdK;a&;ESifhopf
awma&;XmeESifhv,f,majrEkdifiHykdif
jyKvkyfa&;Xme0efBuD;
oD&dysHcsDOD;cspfaomif;
- pufrIvufrIXme? ow¬KwGif;XmeESifhtvkyf
orm;Xme0efBuD;

166

1962 ckESpf? rwfv 2 &ufaeY
jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEkdifiHawmf? awmfvSefa&;aumifpDtkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJU
awmfvSefa&;aumifpDOuúX
1/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if;

-

umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf

-

'kwd,umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf(Munf;)
'kwd,umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf(a&)
'kwd,umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf(av)
ppfaxmufcsKyf
wkdif;rSL;? taemufajrmufwkdif;ppfXmecsKyf
wkdif;rSL;? tv,fykdif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyf
wkdif;rSL;? ta&SUawmifwkdif;ppfXmecsKyf
wkdif;rSL;? taemufawmifwkdif;ppfXmecsKyf
wkdif;rSL;? ta&SUykdif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyf
ppfOD;pD; AkdvfrSL;BuD;
ppf&mxl;cefYtwGif;0ef
e,fjcm;a'otkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;csKyf
wGJzufppfaxmufcsKyf
avhusifha&;nTefMum;a&;rSL;
aq;0efxrf;nTefMum;a&;rSL;
'kwd,&JwyfcsKyf? jynfapmifh&JwyfXmecsKyf

tzGJU0ifrsm;
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/
16/
17/

AkdvfrSL;csKyf
AkdvfrSL;csKyf
AkdvfrSL;csKyf
AkdvfrSL;csKyf
AkdvfrSL;csKyf
AkdvfrSL;csKyf
AkdvfrSL;BuD;
AkdvfrSL;BuD;
AkdvfrSL;BuD;
AkdvfrSL;BuD;
AkdvfrSL;BuD;
AkdvfrSL;BuD;
AkdvfrSL;BuD;
AkdvfrSL;BuD;
AkdvfrSL;BuD;
AkdvfrSL;BuD;

atmifBuD;
oef;az
wDuvpf
wifaz
pef;,k
pdef0if;
aomif;Munf
Munfarmif
armifa&T
oef;pdef
ausmfpdef
apmjrifh
cspfNrdKif
cifnkd
vS[ef
wef,kqkdif

167

1962 ckESpf? rwfv 2 &ufaeY
jynfaxmifpkor®wjreffrmEkdifiHawmf? awmfvSefa&;tpkd;&tzGJU

1/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if;
(awmfvSefa&;aumifpDOuúX)
2/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf atmifBuD;
3/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf wifaz

-

4/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf oef;az
5/ OD;oD[ef

-

6/ AkdvfrSL;BuD; ausmfpkd;
7/ AkdvfrSL;BuD; apmjrifh
8/ 'kwd,AkdvfrSL;BuD; beD

-

umuG,fa&;0efBuD;Xm? b@ma&;XmESifh tcGefawmf
0efBuD;Xme? w&m;a&;0efBuD;Xme/
ukefoG,frIESifhul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;0efBuD;Xme?
pufrIvufrI0efBuD;Xme/
v,f,mpkdufysdK;a&;ESifh opfawma&;0efBuD;Xme? or
0g,rESifh ukefpnfjzefYjzLa&; 0efBuD;Xme
ynma&;0efBuD;Xme? usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme
EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xme? tvkyform;a&;0efBuD;Xme?
tdrf&maqmufvkyfa&;0efBuD;Xme? ow¬KwGif;0efBuD;
Xme/
jynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme? vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;0efBuD;Xme/
jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? ,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xme/
vrf;yefqufoG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme/

168

1962 ckESpf? rwfv 4 &ufaeY
jynfaxmifpkor®wjreffrmEkdifiHawmf? awmfvSefa&;tpkd;&tzGJU

1/ AkdvfcsKyfBuD; ae0if;

-

2/
3/
4/
5/

-

AkdvfrSL;csKyf atmifBuD;
AkdvfrSL;csKyf wifaz
AkdvfrSL;BuD; ukdukd
OD;oD[ef

6/ AkdvfrSL;BuD; ausmfpkd;

-

7/ AkdvfrSL;BuD; apmjrifh

-

(1) 0efBuD;csKyf&Hk;
(2) trsdK;om;pDrHudef;0efBuD;Xme
ypönf;axmufyHha&;0efBuD;Xme
v,f,majrEkdifiHykdifjyKvkyfa&;0efBuD;Xm
0efBuD;rsm;tzGJUtwGif;0ef
jynfolYvkyfief;XmeESifhjyefvnfxlaxmifa&;Xmersm;
ukd tdrf,maqmufvkyfa&;0efBuD;XmeESifhyl;aygif;
tkyfcsKyfoGm;&ef
(1) 'Dru
dk a&pD a'oEÅ&tkycf sKyaf &;ESihf a'oEÅ&tzGUJ
rsm;0efBuD;Xme
(2) omoema&;ESifhvlrI0efxrf;0efBuD;XmerS
omoema&;Xmersm;ukdtkyfcsKyfaqmif&Guf
oGm;&ef
(3) trsKd ;om;rSwyf w
kH ifa&;Xmeukv
d 0l ifrBI u;D Muyfa&;
0efBuD;XmeESifhyl;aygif;tkyfcsKyfoGm;&ef
(1) u,fq,fa&;? jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;ESit
hf rsKd ;
om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;0efBuD;Xme
(2) vlrI0xrf;ESifhomoema&;0efBuD;XmerS vlrI0ef
xrf;Xmersm;ukdtkyfcsKyfoGm;&ef

169
jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHawmfvSefa&;aumifpD? aMunmcsuftrSwf 72
(1968ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 4 &uf) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH
jynfwGif;nDnTwfa&;tBuHay;tzGJU
1/ OD;ausmfNidrf;

17/ rGefzkd;csdK

2/ OD;ausmfrif;

18/ OD;AaqG

3/ Akdvfcifarmifuav;

19/ Akdvfrif;acgif

4/ Akdvfcifarmif

20/ OD;a&TBudKif

5/ ocifcspfarmif(0d"l&)

21/ ocifvGif

6/ ocifcspfarmif(jrefatmif)

22/ ocifvSauR

7/ p0fpkdif;vHk

23/ ocifav;armif

8/ ocifpHjrifh

24/ OD;vGefykrf

9/ 'l0gaZmf&pf

25/ p0f0PÖ

10/ 'l0gaZmfvGef;

26/ ref;0if;armif

11/ ocifwif

27/ z'kda0aom

12/ OD;wifnTefY

28/ ocifoif

13/ OD;xyfvIdif;

29/ ocifomcif

14/ OD;xGef;jrifh(vif;ac;)

30/ q&momxkd

15/ OD;Ek

31/ OD;omxGef;

16/ p0fjynfh

32/ AkdvfrSL;atmif
33/EkdifatmifxGef;

1/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH awmfvSefa&;aumifpDokdYwifoGif;aom jynfaxmifpkjrefrm
Ekid if jH ynfwiG ;f nDnw
G af &;tBuaH y;tzGUJ \tpD&ifcpH mm/ (ae? xkw?f ESpf ryg)/ 84pm

170
1974 ckESpf? jynfaxmifpkqkd&S,fvpfor®wjrefrmEkdifiHawmf
tpkd;&tzGJU
OD;ae0if;

-

or®w

1/

OD;pdef0if;

-

0efBuD;csKyf

2/

OD;vGif

-

3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/
16/
17/
18/

OD;ukdukd
OD;armifarmifc
a'gufwmnDnD
OD;omausmf
OD;xifausmf
AkdvfrSL;BuD; pdefvGif AkdvfrSL;BuD; Munfarmif a'gufwm cifarmif0if;AkdvfrSL;csKyf wifOD; OD;&Jacgif
OD;pef0if;
OD;xGef;wif
OD;cspfcif
OD;Aeful;
OD;at;armif
OD;vSbkef;
-

'kwd,0efBuD;csKyf? 0efBuD;? pDrHudef;ESifhb@ma&;
0efBuD;
0efBuD;? jynfxJa&;ESifh omoema&;0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? pufrI0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? ow¬KwGif;0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? ykdYaqmifqufoG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? aqmufvkyfa&;0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? or0g,r0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? ynma&;0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? umuG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? v,f,mESifhopfawm0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? ukefoG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? tvkyform;0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? vlrI0efxrf;0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? ,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD;? EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xme

171
EkdifiHawmf Nidrf0yfydjym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGJU zGJUpnf;jcif;
Ekid if aH wmf Nird 0f yfyjd ym;rI wnfaqmufrt
I zGUJ \ 18-9-88 aeYpyJG gpmtrSwf (1^88)t&
EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;rI wnfaqmufa&;tzGJUukd atmufygyk*d¾Kvfrsm;jzifh zGJUpnf;onf 1/
AkdvfcsKyfBuD; apmarmif
OuúX
2/
'kwd, AkdvfcsKyfBuD; oef;a&T
tzGJU0if
3/
AkdvfcsKyf armifarmifcif
tzGJU0if
4/
AkdvfcsKyf wifxGef;
tzGJU0if
5/
AkdvfrSL;csKyf atmif&Jausmf
tzGJU0if
6/
AkdvfcsKyf bkef;jrifh
tzGJU0if
7/
AdkvfcsKyf pdefatmif
tzGJU0if
8/
AkdvfcsKyf cspfaqG
tzGJU0if
9/
AkdvfrSL;csKyf ausmfb
tzGJU0if
10/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf armifoifh
tzGJU0if
11/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf armifat;
tzGJU0if
12/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf OmPfvif;
tzGJU0if
13/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf jrifharmif
tzGJU0if
14/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf jroif;
tzGJU0if
15/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf xGef;Munf
tzGJU0if
16/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf at;aomif
tzGJU0if
17/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf rsKd;ñGefY
tzGJU0if
18/ AkdvfrSL;csKyf cifñGefY
twGif;a&;rSL; (1)
19/ AkdvfrSL;BuD; wifOD;
twGif;a&;rSL; (2) wkdYjzpfMuonf/

172

a'gufwmarmifarmifa&;cJhaompmtkyfrsm;
jrefrmpmtkyfrsm;
wkdYjynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHzGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk/ &efuek ?f 1959/
1/
EkdifiHawmfvkyfBuHrI/ &efuek ?f 1968/
2/
jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;c&D;ESifhAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;/ &efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw
3/
f u
dk ?f 1946/
om;armifppfonfokdY / &efuek ?f yH*k pH mtkyw
4/
f u
dk ?f 1973/
ouf&Sd&mZ0if/ &efuek ?f 1956/
5/
aoG ; eD/ &efukef? 1946/
6/
t*Fvdyfpmtkyfrsm;
1/
Aung San of Burma / &efukef? 1962/
2/
Burma and General Ne Win/ &efukef? 1969/
3/
Burma in the Family of Nations / &efukef? 1956/
4/
Burma's Constitution / &efukef? 1959/
5/
Burma's Teetrhing Time/ &efukef? 1949/
6/
Eggar's Law of Evidence / &efukef? 1959/
7/
The Forgotten Army / &efukef? 1946/
8/
Grim War against the KMT / &efukef? 1943/
10/ London Dirary / &efukef? 1952/
11/ A Trial in Burma / &efukef? 1962/

173

OD;Eka&;cJhaompmtkyfrsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/
16/
17/
18/
19/

umrwPSm/ &efukef? a'ompmaywkduf? 1982/
urÇmwywf/ &efukef? bmomjyefpmaytoif;? 1957/
urÇmeJUowå0gtp,Ofaus;rItptwGJ(1)
1)/ &efuek ?f atmifavmupmay? 1968/
aus;Zl;&Sif/ &efuek ?f *kPx
f ;l pmay? 1984/
acgif;aqmifrsm;vufpGJ/ &efuek ?f zqyv(oef&Y iS ;f )tzGUJ csKyo
f wif;ESijhf yefMum;a&;
Xme/
*E¨mv&mZfrSwfwrf;/ &efuek ?f bmomjyefpmaytoif;? 1955/
ig;ESpf&moDArmjynf(1941-1945)
1941-1945)? &efuek ?f a,m*DyEkH ydS w
f u
dk ?f 1946/
qkd&S,fvpf0g'
g'/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef/
wmawpaeom;
wmawpaeom;/ bHkab? - ? 1967/
'Drkdua&pDukdumuG,fMu
u/ &efuek ?f Armhacwfowif;pmwku
d /f
zdESdyfrIUwkdufyGJtqifhqifh/ &efuek ?f zqyv(oef&Y iS ;f )tzGUJ csKy?f 1959/
jynfaxmifpkeDwdpä/ &efuek ?f oef&Y iS ;f zqvytzGUJ csKy?f 1960/
jynfaxmifpkyef;wkdif/ &efuek ?f bmomjyefpmaytoif;? 1956/
rdwåAv#Dumm/ &efukef? pmayavmupmtkyfwkduf? 1996/
jrefrmhobifavmu
vmu/ &efuek ?f pmayAdrmef? 1967/
&ufpufygayhuG,f/ &efuek ?f O'gef;pmay? 1967/
vlxkatmfoHjyZmwf/ &efuek ?f oDwmat;yHEk ydS w
f u
dk f 1957/
vkdw&? EkdifiHa&;tbd"mef? &efuek ?f jrefrmjynfpmtkyjf zefcY saD &;Xme? 1940/
tmZmenf/ &efukef? bmomjyefpmaytoif;? 1949/

174

OD;AaqGa&;cJhaompmtkyfrsm;
1/
2/
3/
4/

Armjynfq&dk ,
S v
f pfygwDtaxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;csKyf OD;AaqG&iS ;f vif;csu/f &efuek ?f
Armjynfqkd&S,fvpfygwDXmecsKyf? 1951/
Armjynfqkd&S,fvpfvrf;ñTef/ &efuek ?f jynfawmfp;dk yHEk ydS w
f u
dk ?f 1955/
Armjynfqkd&S,fvpfvrf;ñTefESifhigwkdYEkdifiHa&;vrf;pOf/ &efuek ?f jynfopYl maywku
d ?f
1953/
ArmhawmfvSefa&;ESifhArmhvkyfom;vlxk/ &efuek ?f jynfopYl maywku
d ?f 1955/

175

176
175-u

177
175-c

176

tnTef;
jrefrmpmtñTe;f

(u)
taMumif;t&m
ucsijf ynfe,f
ucsijf ynfe,fvyI &f mS ;rIrsm;
ucsiaf omif;use;f olrsm;
u'Gwf
uae'g
uAsmzGUJ jcif;
u,m;aoewfuidk w
f yf&if;
u&if
u&ifwidk ;f &if;om;rsm;
u&ifjynfe,f
u&if-Armacgif;aqmifrsm;
u&ifArm&Jacgifajymufusm;
u&ifbifc&mtzGUJ
u&ifa&aemuf
u&if&mG
u&ifvil ,frsm;tpnf;t&H;k
u&ifoyl ek f
u&iftrsKd ;om;wyf
uav;jyKpak &;Xme
uavmNrKd U
u0drsurf eS f
uom
uomNrKd U
umuG,af &;ypön;f xkwv
f yk rf w
I yfzUJG rsm;
umuG,af &;0efBu;D
umuG,af &;0efBu;D Xme
umuG,af &;0efBu;D Xmeppf&;kH

pmrsuEf mS
62? 84? 86? 90? 97
60
84
136
77
122
59
106? 121
23
18? 82? 84
37
24
5
58
35
24
7
5
50
59? 138
122
23
12
143
37? 38? 41? 61? 123? 128
88? 91
150

177
taMumif;t&m
umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf
umvuwåm;ppfwuúov
dk f
umvuwåm;aq;&Hk
um0g&S;D rm;
uDqaum
uDr&l mESit
hf *D srD m
ukvor*¾
ukvor*¾qidk &f mtNrw
J rf;uk,
d pf m;vS,t
f zGUJ &H;k
ukvm;
ukvm;xk;d toif;
ulvD
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d idk }f }
autif't
D dk
autif't
D rdk sm;
autif,l
autkid af t
autrfww
D &kwjf zLwyfrrsm;
autrfww
D yfrsm;
autrfww
D yfom;
aumvdyaf usmif;om;
aumvdypf um;&nfvyk JG
aumhu&dwNf rKd U
ukdukdBuD;? OD ;
uked ef'KdG i;f ? tmom
uk&d ,
D mrm&l;
uk&d ;D ,m;
uk&d ;D ,m;Ekid if H
uk&d ;D ,m;or®wEkid if H
ukv
d b
H Ndk rKd U
ukv
d b
H u
dk eG zf &if;

pmrsufESm
43
23
24
32
35
35
8? 74
51
121
122
121
126
19? 25? 44? 150
40? 112
24? 94
84? 86? 90
81
41
8
122
13
134
107
13
32
77? 145
70
64? 97? 151
118
118

178
taMumif;t&m
ukv
d b
H pdk pfpcef;
ukt
d mtiif;tzGUJ 0if
91 Xmetkycf sKyaf &;
]]uufo&if;*Guaf xmf}}
uif;b&pfcsuifwm&D
aumifppf0ef&;kH
ukid &f Ndk rKd U
uefpk
uE´pD mcsKyf
uE´pD mcsKyo
f abmwlncD suf
uE´ND rKd U
ukeo
f ,
G af &;aumifpD
ukeo
f ,
G af &;vkyif ef;
uyÜvu
D Re;f
urÇmppfwq
H yd f
urÇmat;apwDawmf
urÇmat;bk&m;vrf;
urÇmu
h ek pf nfjyyGJ
urÇmNh ird ;f csr;f a&;
urÇm&h mZ0if
urÇmo
h rkid ;f &mZ0if
uarÇmZ&dyo
f m
uarÇm'D;,m;
uarÇm'D;,m;Ekid if H
uarÇm'D;,m;omoemykid q
f &mawmfBu;D
ur®
urf;A&pfcsw
f uúov
dk f
urf;bmvif;ppfoabFm
uk,
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hf &m;
uk,
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f yk cf sKyaf &;

pmrsufESm
13? 23
31
103
122
10
51
110
136
138
59
39? 106
48
94
50
64
8? 96? 116
10
48
118
118
123
47
45? 77? 116? 132? 145
118
19
136
10? 13-16
17
15
100

179
taMumif;t&m
usLukwNf rKd U
usL;ausmpf pfyJG
ausmfNidrf;? uk d
ausmfNidrf;? ocif f
ausmfNidrf;? OD ;
ausmfaZm? Ak d v f
ausmfxGef;? ocif
ausmaf e0if;
ausmufBu;D
ausmufqnf
ausmufww
H m;NrKd U
ausmufrsu&f wemjyyGJ
usKd ur© D
usKd uv
f wf
usKd uo
f v
H efoydwpf cef;
usifjr? a':
usi0hf wf
ausmif;yk&0d P
k f
ausmif;om;oydwf
ausmif;om;or*¾
ausmif;om;or*¾trIaqmifa&G;aumufyJG
usKd i;f wHk
usKd i;f wHak 'o
use;f rma&;
usKH weD;
usKH aysmf
usKH aysmw
f w
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usKH &J

pmrsufESm
8
p
101? 105? 124
36
26? 107? 113? 125? 127
128? 129? 130
39? 127
129
55
81? 83
81
50
48
134
59
134
77
16
144
57
103? 121
101
81
8? 82
15
82
82
63
23
136

180
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

Bu;D yGm;a&;
]]aMujimcsut
f rSw7f 2}}
aMu;rH0k if;? a':
BuKd Uuke;f
BuKd Uuke;f blwm
BuKd Uuke;f bk;d awmf &mausmaf usmif;
BuKd Uuke;f &yfuu
G f
BuKd Uyif
MuufajceDtoif;
Muufarmufawmifqnf
Munfrif;acgif? OD ;
uGupf w
d f
uGeq
f maA;wpftwku
d t
f cHrsm;
uGeyf sLwmvkyif ef;
uGejf rLepf
uGejf rLepfacgif;aqmifrsm;
uGejf rLepfygwD
uGejf rLepfrsm;
uGejf rLepfrmufp0f g'
uGejf rLepf0g'pmay
uGr;f ,mqkid zf iG jhf cif;
uReyf nma&;
uRejf yKtyk pf ;dk jcif;
]]uREyfk \
f jrefrmEkid if }H }

122
131
55
148
91? 144
150
92
24
20
49
140
52
109
94
107? 126
117
7? 111? 128
129
123
104
122
102
15
20

(c)
c&kid af umfrwD0if
c&kid 0f ef
c&pf,mefbmom
c&rfppfqifa&;
cJ,rf;rsm;

134
q
50? 113
84
89

181
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

cufvefwrH
cifcifav;? a':
cifpef;EGUJ ? a':
cifwifh? a':
cifaroef;? a':
cifarmifuav;? Ak d v f
cifjrif?h a':
cifO;D vGi?f a':
cifat;oufwif? a'gufwm
Munfh cifat;Ek? a':
acwåwyfr[mrSL;
csLaw;
csLtifvidk ;f
acsmu
f efawmifMum;
csuu
f pdk vkAd ufu;D ,m;Ekid if H
csuu
f pdk vkAd ufq&dk ,
S v
f pfor®wEkid if H
acsmuf&Sufpul? eDukdvkduf? rpö w m
csi;f
cspf? ocif
cspMf unfa&;rdwq
f uftzGUJ
csppf ed ?f apm
cspw
f if? ocif
cspx
f eG ;f
cspfaz? OD ;
cspaf rmif? ocif
cspNf rKd i?f Akdvf
cseaf u&Swt
f pk;d &
csHK? p0f
cGecf sKd ? p0f
cGepf ed ?f ocif

49
146
118
142
55
79? 107
77
140
118
150
117
117? 118? 129
86
9? 54? 145
146
64
106
124
117
5
30
137
142
129
127
117
2
113
81

182
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

(*)
*a&mhpAf if;em;a[mufpaf [mfw,f
*l*s&D wDausmif;
a*:uD? ruf Z if
a*:&muke;f
*k;dk vfa[mpfwaJ &pfxyd f
*kPx
f ;l aqmifyxrqifq
h w
k q
H yd f
*wf0pfjrif;yGJ
*E¨mv&mZf
*efaY *ga'o
*syef
*syefausmif;om;rsm;
*syefacwf
*syefppfXmecsKyf
*syefppft&m&Sd
*syefawmfveS af &;
*syefEidk if H
*syefjynf
*syefbmompmoifausmif;Bu;D
*syefowif;pm
*syeftpk;d &
*syeft,f'w
D m
*smreD
*smrPDEidk if H
*sD? pD? bD? at
*sb
D a&mfvw
f ma&vufMum;
*sLeD,m[m',f? z&efuvif

110
80
104
135
14
132
16
117
86
37? 54? 77? 118? 145
15
142
105
57
142
64? 74? 132? 145? 146? 151
31? 125
135
104
104
105
54? 77? 145
132? 140
110? 101
13
90

(i)
iysi;f &Gm
iokid ;f acsmif;

58
15

183
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

ig;ykpeG af rG;jrLzrf;qD;a&;vkyif ef;
]]ig;ESp&f moDArmjynf}}
aiGpkd;? OD ;
aiGpuúLrsm;
aiGawmifqnf
Nird ;f csr;f a&;
Nird ;f csr;f a&;oabmwlpmcsKyf
Nird ;f Nird ;f ? a':

94
117
55
48
49
111? 118
19
20

(p)
pMumoD[bk&m;
pwD;bk&m;om;opfurk P
Ü D
pwm;wHqyd f
pwkwt
¬ Burd yf gwDnv
D mcH
pwkwt
¬ Burd jf ynfov
Yl w
T af wmfta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;
pwkwt
¬ Burd jf ynfov
Yl w
T af wmfEiS hf
jynfolUaumifpDtqifhqifha&G;cs,fyGJ
peaA'
pepfopfynma&;
pavESiu
hf Re;f acsmif;"gwfajrMoZmpuf&kH
pmMunfw
h u
dk ?f jywku
d Ef iS jhf yyGrJ sm;Bu;D Muyftyk cf sKyaf &;Oya'
pmwku
d Ef iS ahf Mu;eef;XmecGJ
pmyl;awmif;wku
d yf JG
pmzwfjcif;
pma&;jcif;
pm&if;ppfcsKy&f ;kH
pDp0D rfwmyefa'o
pDru
H ed ;f ESib
hf @ma&;0efBu;D Xme
pdru
H ed ;f ESib
hf @ma&;0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D
pDtm&f'b
D t
D zGUJ
pD;yGm;a&;jyóem

72
36
64
150
151
143? 150
123
49
49
50
29
138
122
122
94
89
150
151
90
91

184
taMumif;t&m
pl*;D ? wum
plprl ?k wupkud
apwemh0efxrf;aeYuav;xde;f Xme
apm? OD ;
apmcif? a':
apmarmif? qm
pHxGef;? OD ;
pH'g;? p0f
pHz? p0f
pHaz? OD;? q&mBuD;pHarmif? uk d
pHvS? OD ;
pkd;? Ak d v f
pkd;? ocif
puúLjzLpmwrf;
pufaumfwu
dk yf JG
pufrpI u
dk yf sKd ;a&;ESit
hf oufarG;ynma&;Oya'
pufrw
I uúov
dk f
pufrw
I uúov
dk af usmif;om;
pufrv
I ufrw
I yf&if;(2)
pufr0I efBu;D Xme
pufro
I yd aHÜ usmif;toif;
puf&akH ygif;
puf&iS w
f &m;olBu;D
pifumylEidk if H
ppfuidk ;f
ppfaq;a&;txl;cH;k &H;k tzGUJ
ppfwuúov
dk f
ppfawmif;
ppfawGaumvdyf

pmrsufESm
33
35
50
39? 76
100
3
79
100
10
81
30
27
82
86? 104? 105? 123? 128
17? 38
59
49
91? 92? 144? 149
53
137
143
142
49
17
77? 140? 145? 146
69? 79
17
142
82
62

185
taMumif;t&m
ppfaxmufcsKyf
ppfynm
ppfNy;D acwftyk cf sKyaf &;
ppfrx
I rf;aumif;wHqyd f
ppfreS af om'Dru
dk a&pD
ppf&mxl;cefcY sKy&f ;kH
ppfa&;csKyf
ppfav,mOf pD-47
ppfvufeufypön;f rsm;
ppfo&l aJ umif;bGUJ
ppfaoemywd
ppfaoemywdcsKyf
ppfO;D pD;wuúov
dk f
ppfO;D pD;rSL;(yxrwef;)
ppftyk cf sKyaf &;
ppftyk cf sKyaf &;Oya'
pnfow
l q
H yd f
pE´m0if;? a':
pE´m0if;vufzuf&nfqidk f
pef;pef;Ek
pef;,k? AkdvfBuD;
pef;,k? AkdvfcsKyfrSL;
pef;,k? AkdvfrSL;csKyf
pef;,k? OD ;
pdefrSef? Akdvf
pdefrSef? AkdvfBuD;
pdefvGif? OD ;
pdef0if;? AkdvfBuD;
pdef0if;? AkdvfrSL;
pdef0if;? AkdvfrSL;csKyf

pmrsufESm
60
31
10
64
144
60
88
90
89
54
38
47? 59
59? 98? 138
150
p? 38? 125
69
140
55
91? 144
118
58? 136
47
60
57? 92? 97
7? 111
136? 137
67
58? 135? 136
136
82

186
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

pde0f if;? OD;
pdet
f efaxmfeaD usmif;
prf;acsmif;NrKd Ue,f

134
135
132

(q)
qrm;a'ao
q&mpH
qmbGJU
qDqidk af 'o
ql*D;? rpf Z l ½ I
qlZu
l ;D
]]qlZu
l ;D }}
qlZluD;? au*sD
qkwmed? tDemtkdrd
ql;avbk&m;vrf;
aq;ausmif;
aq;a';a'o
]]qHyifñy§ q
f idk zf iG jhf cif;}}
qkdifz? p0f
qk*d eG ;f NrKd U
qkAd ,
D ufEidk if aH wmftpk;d &
qk&d ,
S v
f pfpepf
qk&d ,
S v
f pfp;D yGm;a&;pepf
qk&d ,
S v
f pfp;D yGm;a&;pDru
H ed ;f aumfrwD
qk&d ,
S v
f pfygwD
qk&d ,
S v
f pfygwD0if
qk&d ,
S v
f pfygwDOuú|
qkdvHkz? p0f
qkd;az? OD ;
aqmufvyk af &;0efBu;D Xme

84
17? 103
20
81
31
35
36? 37
31
31
108
57
82
122
10
34
19
ps
48
48
128
112
123
10
20
139

187
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

qifjzL&Si*f P
k x
f ;l aqmifbUJG
qifh? OD ;
qif;'0pfvrf;
aqmif;yg;a&;jcif;
qnfajrmif;wmwrHw;l azmfa&;vkyif ef;rsm;
q|o*Fg,emwifyBJG u;D
q|o*Fg,emr[m"r®obifBu;D
qdwf? OD ;
qE´c,
H yl JG
qG'D ED idk if H
aqG-Nird ;f tkypf k
qGpaf umhuw
d cf sb
f w
l m&Hk
qGpZf mvef
qGryf &mbHak 'o

54
72
80
122
95
116
19
12
19
118
130
14
16? 77? 145
84

(Z)
Z&yfBu;D
ZD;uke;f
aZ,s? Ak d v f
aZ,sausmx
f ifppfrx
I rf;aumif;wHqyd f
aZ,s0wD
aZmwdu? OD ;
aZmfw;l
aZmf'ef
aZmfrif;? Ak d v f
Zmwfq&m
Zmwfeyd gwfyjkH yif
ZGaJ e0if;

83
15
39
145
82
36
86
86
39
117
52
55

(ps)
aps;uGupf ;D yGm;a&;pepf

94

188
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

(n)
nD? ocif
anmifuidk f
anmifi,f&mG
anmifwek ;f
anmifwek ;f a'owku
d yf JG
anmifa&TNrKd U
anmifa&TapmfbmG ;Bu;D
nGefU? a':
nTeMf um;a&;rSL;

32
136
137
83
59
2? 10
107? 109
12
143

(X)
aX;rif;acgif? OD ;

140

(w)
wwd,tBurd yf gwDnv
D mcH
43
wwd,tBurd jf ynfoUl vTwaf wmfEiS hf
143
jynfolYaumifpDtqifhqifha&G;cs,fyGJ
wwd,tBurd jf ynfov
Yl w
T af wmfyxrtpnf;ta0;
150
weoFm&Dwidk ;f
94? 121
wyifa&Tx;D
84
w&m;vTwaf wmf
17
w&m;vTwaf wmfcsKyw
f &m;0efBu;D csKyf
18
w&m;0efBu;D
17
w&m;a&;0efBu;D Xme
68
w&m;&H;k csKyzf UJG pnf;jcif;
51
w&kwf
9? 77? 121
w&kwaf usmif;om;rsm;
15
w&kwu
f eG jf rLepfygwD
88? 89
w&kwEf idk if H
9? 27? 97? 116? 117? 118? 151
w&kwjf ynfEiS &hf &k mS ;jynf
31
w&kwjf ynfoUl or®wEkid if H
54? 64? 84? 89? 132? 145? 146

189
taMumif;t&m
w&kwjf zL
w&kwjf zLulrifwef
w&kwjf zLvIy&f mS ;rIrsm;
w&kw-f Arme,fpyfvx
l t
k pnf;ta0;
w&kw-f jrefrme,ferd w
d pf mcsKyf
w&kw0f efBu;D csKyf
wmcsv
D w
d f
wmawpaeom;
wm&m? Ak d v f
wkofbD? &k d i f
wdy#d u"&pmar;yGrJ sm;
wDvb
f m&D
awZ? Ak d v f
awmfrD&kduf? AkdvfBuD;
awmfveS af &;aumifpD
awmfveS af &;aumifpOD uú|
wku
d sKd NrKd UjrefrmtzGUJ &H;k
wkAYd rmtpnf;t&H;k
awmfveS af &;aumifpOD uú|Bu;D
wHwm;OD;
wku
d sKd NrKd U
wkd0Jvf? vpf(p)? avmh'f
wuúov
dk yf nma&;pepf
wuúov
dk yf nma&;Oya'
wuúov
dk &f efyakH iGtzGUJ
wuúov
dk 0f ifpmar;yGJ
wuúov
dk o
f r*¾trIaqmif
wuúov
dk o
f r*¾Ouú|
wku
d yf idk &f rJ LS ;
wif? ocif

pmrsufESm
44
83
60
129
60
129
81
100
36
13
96
13
35
150
ps? Z? 27? 47? 75? 83? 131? 139
47? 55
51
30? 103? 104
131
81
31
108
49
49
20
29
102
102
134
113

190
taMumif;t&m
wifwif? a':
wifrh if;acgif? OD;
wif;(rf)jrpf
awmifu&dk ;D ,m;Ekid if H
awmifBu;D
awmifBu;D aumvdyf
awmifBu;D NrKd U
awmifil
awmificl &kid f
awmifiel ,fajr
awmifwiG ;f Bu;D
awmifwiG ;f wl;ajrmif;
awmifNyKd vuf0v
J ufcaH &;pcef;
awmifov
l ,form;ta&;tcif;
wkid &f m
wkid ;f wm;
wkid ;f (2)
wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw
T af wmf
wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw
T af wmfa&G;aumufyJG
wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw
T af wmftrwf
wkid ;f jyKjynfjyKvw
T af wmfOuú|
wkid ;f rif;Bu;D
wkid ;f &if;om;*sme,f
1972-1974 ckEpS t
f yk cf sKyaf &;pepf
1974-1988 ckEpS t
f xdtyk cf sKyaf &;
1960-1962 tkycf sKyaf &;
1962-1972 ckEpS t
f xdtyk cf sKyaf &;
1958-1960 tkycf sKyaf &;
1954- ckEpS ?f arv 17 &uf
1919- ckEpS f 'kid t
f mcDtyk cf sKyaf &;

pmrsufESm
55
140
13
88
69
62
62? 80? 92? 144
17? 69? 82? 83? 84
82
84
59
49
68
17
35
86
67
4? 39? 108? 138
24? 107
123
109
q
24
ps
ps
Z
Z
Z
19
q

191
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

1988 ckEpS t
f xdtyk cf sKyaf &;
1942-1945 *syefacwftyk cf sKyaf &;
1945-1958 tkycf sKyaf &;
1945-1948 tkycf sKyaf &;
1948- ckEpS f Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufaeY
1935 ckEpS f (91)Xmetkycf sKyaf &;
1300 jynfah &eHajroydwBf u;D
wnfNrzJ qyv
wefpak &Smif
wefvrG af &Smif
wef,
Y ef;e,fajrqlyal omif;use;f rIrsm;
wyfuek ;f NrKd U
wyfMuyf
wyfxed ;f csKyf
wyfrawmf
wyfrawmfavhusiahf &;rSL;
wyfrawmfvQypf pfEiS phf ufrw
I yfzUJG
wyfrawmftpk;d &
wyf&if;rSL;
wyfr[m(2)
wyf&if;(4)
wyf&if;(83)
Bw*d aH 'o
wGzJ ufppfaxmufcsKyf
wGaH w;
wGaH w;awmBu;D wef;

n
q
Z
q
6
q
123
130
31
31
60
83
74
150
126
150
143
42
138? 150
82
67
67
84
138
83
83

(x)
xrif;csuw
f q
H yd f
x&de'd ufwuúov
dk f
xm;0,fNrKd U
xm;0,fNrKd Utpk;d &txufwef;ausmif;

72
10
36? 69? 121? 124? 134
134

192
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

xm;0,for*¾
xm;0,ftrsKd ;orD;txufwef;ausmif;
xD;&k;d abuw
ax&0g'Ak'b
¨ mom
ax&0g'Ak'u
¨ sr;f pm
axmufvrS ;f a&;t&m&Sid ,f
xifp?D ume,f
xifew
D aD [m(vf)(0g)a,&IUaumvdyf
xkid ;f
xkid ;f Ekid if H
xkid ;f Ekid if b
H &k ifrif;jrwf
xkid ;f Ekid if t
H rd af &SUrif;om;
xkid ;f bk&ifrif;jrwf
xkid ;f bk&ifv
h ufeufuidk w
f yfzUJG rsm;
xef;wyif
xef;wyifNrKd Ue,f
xdef0if;? Ak d v f
xGef;wif? AkdvfBuD;? wyfcGJrSL;
xGef;wif? OD;? ol&xGef;&Sdef? ukd (Akdvf&efEkdif)
xGef;a&T? e*g;eDxGef;a&T? OD;? bDtkdifatxGef;vif;? Ak d v f
xGef;vIdif? OD ;
xGe;f OD;? OD;

131
121
82
p
96
2
4
14
77? 145
97? 118? 138? 140? 145? 146? 151
132
145
27? 52? 54
145
82
24? 83
7
148
149
124
124
149
7? 107
121
81

(')
'*kerf *¾Zif;
'*HNk rKd Uopf
'nif;uke;f &yf
'vNrKd Uopf

122
94
134
94

193
taMumif;t&m
'D*&Daumvdyrf sm;
'D? a*s? pavmh
'Dru
dk a&pD
'Dru
dk a&pDa'oEÅ&tkycf sKyaf &;ESihf
a'oEÅ&tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;0efBu;D Xme
'Dru
dk a&;pDEiS Nhf ird ;f csr;f a&;tzGUJ csKyOf uú|
'D;'kw*f sme,f
'kw,
d urÇmppf
'kw,
d urÇmppfBu;D
'kw,
d urÇmppfyBJG u;D
'kw,
d ESpf
'kw,
d 0efBu;D csKyf
'kw,
d 0efBu;D csKyrf sm;
'kw,
d or®w
'kw,
d tBurd af usmif;om;oydwBf u;D
'kw,
d tBurd yf gwDnv
D mcH
'kw,
d tBurd jf ynfov
Yl w
T af wmfEiS hf
jynfolUaumifpDtqifhqifha&G;cs,fyGJ
a';'&J
a'g&xwmwrH
'kq
d efyef
'kAYd rmoDcsi;f
'kAYd rmtpnf;t&H;k
'k;d td
'ku
d Of ;D ppfrsuEf mS
a'gif;wHqyd f
a'gif;eif;vrf;
'kid ef [
D ef
'kid t
f mcDtyk cf sKyaf &;
]]'kid t
f pfyef}}

pmrsufESm
62
102
ps
68
27
122
17? 23? 90? 91
30? 79? 104
34
57
40? 108? 123
113
81
122
143
143? 150
103? 138
49
33
29
29
135
59
36
110
33
p? q? 101
33

194
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

'H[
k ;D &Gm
a'G;? a':

88
27

(")
"EkjzLNrKd Ue,f
"mwfawmfrsm;
"mwfow¬KXme0efBu;D
"r®i,f
"r®apwDvrf;
"r®pMumaeY
"r®&u©w
d uke;f awmf

83
115
24
136
80
115
63

(e)
e*g;eDpmapmif
e*g;eDpmay
e*g;eDpmtkyt
f oif;
e*g;Ekid f
e,l;ZDvefEidk if H
e0wywåjrm;
e0&wfo&zlywåjrm;
e0if;acsmif;
em*tMurrf;zufaomif;use;f olrsm;
em;azmh
eDejD rif?h a':
eDayg
eDaygEkid if H
Ek? uk d
Ek? ocif
Ek? OD ;
Ek? OD ;? 0efBuD;csKyfEk-wiftyk pf k
EkEak qG? a':

124
29
116
8
146
97
97
57
84
84
55
54? 77
52? 140
103? 122
103? 105? 110? 117
60? 100? 102? 113
19? 42
130
132

195
taMumif;t&m
EkE&k ?D a':
Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf
aeMunfAaqG? a':
aepnfAaqG? a':
aeñTefUAaqG? OD ;
aexGe;f AaqG? OD ;
aeEG,fAaqG? OD ;
aezl;AaqG? OD ;
aerif;AaqG? OD ;
aersdK;? Ak d v f
aersKd ;AaqG? OD ;
ae&nfAaqG? a':
ae&Sief ,fausmif;
ae0if;? Ak d v f
ae0if;? AkdvfcsKyf
ae0if;? AkdvfcsKyfBuD;
ae0if;? AkdvfrSL;BuD;
ae0if;? OD ;
aeol&ed &f BkH u;D
aeol&ed t
f pnf;ta0;cef;r
aeYuav;xde;f Xme
aemifawmfcRwcf Pf;
Ekid if jH cm;aiG
Ekid if jH cm;a&;0efBu;D
Ekid if jH cm;a&;0efBu;D Xme
Ekid if jH cm;oHwref
Ekid if jH cm;oHwreftcsKd U
Ekid if aH wmfaumifpD
Ekid if aH wmfaumifp0D if
Ekid if aH wmfaumifpOD uú|

pmrsufESm
146
24? 40? 110
132
132
132
132
132
132
132
58
132
132
79
35? 37? 39
40? 112
26? 76? 77? 82? 113? 115? 131
38
29? 60? 92
39
106
50
116
48
104? 105
90
53
144
ps
134? 139
55? 62? 68? 69? 75

196
taMumif;t&m
Ekid if aH wmfNird 0f yfyjd ym;rIwnfaqmufa&;tzGUJ
Ekid if aH wmfppfrx
I rf;wHqyd f
Ekid if aH wmfw&m;&H;k csKyf
Ekid if aH wmfzUJG pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'Oya'
Ekid if aH wmfbmom
Ekid if aH wmfvNkH cKH a&;ESit
hf yk cf sKyrf pI rD u
H ed ;f
Ekid if aH wmf0efBu;D csKyf
Ekid if aH wmfoC
H em,utzGUJ
Ekid if aH wmfor®w
Ekid if aH wmfor®wBu;D
Ekid if aH wmftpk;d &tBuaH y;tzGUJ Ouú|
Ekid if aH wmftmPm
Ekid if aH &;pdw"f gwf
Ekid if aH &;jyóem
Ekid if *hH P
k &f nf(yxrqif)h
Ekid if *hH P
k &f nfbUJG
Ekid if *H P
k &f nfbUJG (yxrqif)h
ewfwvif;
ewfwvif;NrKd U
ewåvif;NrKd Ue,f
eef;? p0f
eef;NrKd U
eef;,if;,if;? p0f
eef;&if&if? p0f
eef;a[rm? p0f
er®wl
erf[
h idk ;f
e,fyidk f
e,fomvefEidk if H
]]EGm;ok;d BuKd ;jywf}}

pmrsufESm
n? 93? 95? 97
64
94
47
115? 131
ps
139
96
62? 68? 69? 75
19
19
115
102
91
54? 64? 76
117
54? 64? 76
58
136
150
2
80
10
10
10
86
86
q
151
117

197
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

ESi;f ykvb
J w
l m

36

(y)
yckuLú
ypdzw
d pf pfrsuEf mS ppfyBJG u;D
ypdzw
d o
f rk'&´ m
yqD*g;
ynma&;okawoeOya'
y|ef; 24 ypön;f
y'g;acsmif;
yxptpk;d &
yxrausmif;om;oydwf
yxrBu;D pmar;yGrJ sm;
yxri,f
yxrqH;k 0efBu;D csKyf
yxrqH;k or®w
yxrqH;k 0efBu;D csKyf
yxrvwf
yxr0efBu;D csKyf
yxro*Fg,em
yxrtBurd yf gwDnv
D mcH
yxrtBurd jf ynfoUl vTwaf wmfEiS hf
jynfoUl aumifpt
D qifq
h ifah &G;cs,w
f ifajrm§ ufyJG
yxrtBurd t
f vkyo
f rm;tpnf;t&H;k Ouú|
ya'o&mZftyk cf sKyrf pI epf
y&J,m;? AkdvfrSL;
ytkUd 0fwidk ;f &if;om;rsm;
ygupöwefEidk if H
ygwDA[kt
d vkyt
f rIaqmifaumfrwD0if
ygwDvyk if ef;pdppfa&;aumfrwDOuú|
ygarmu©wZD;

69
59
34
84
49
116
82
19? 26
100? 101
96
96
101
48
110
96
111
116
75? 150
143? 150
143
p
82
80
45? 54? 77? 118? 140
150
139
73

198
taMumif;t&m
ygvDrefvw
T af wmf
ygvDreftyk cf sKyaf &;
yDuif;NrKd U
yD-tm&f-yD (People's Revalutionary Party)
ykBuD;? r
ykZeG af wmifacsmif;
]]ykxZk aemOr®waum}}
ykvq
J yd u
f rf;
ykvyd u
f if;tzGUJ
ykvyd &f ;kH Bu;D
ykord cf &kid f
ykord Nf rKd U
ykord af jrmufyidk ;f rJqE´e,f
ykord t
f pk;d &txufwef;ausmif;
yJc;l
yJc;l ppfrsuEf mS
yJc;l wkid ;f
yJc;l NrKd U
yJc;l &k;d r
yJc;l &k;d rtaemufjcrf;
yJc;l a&Tarmfa"m
yJc;l a&Tarmfa"mapwDawmf
yJE,
G u
f ek ;f
yJav;? a':
ay:xGe;f ? qm
ykUd quf
ykUd aqmifqufo,
G af &;0efBu;D Xme
ykaYd qmifa&;ESiv
hf rf;yef;qufo,
G af &;0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D
aygufuek ;f
aygufp

pmrsufESm
25
Z
60
124
83
44
117
34
36
102
23
12? 17
24
13
36? 59? 69
137
50? 81? 94
135
83? 127
136
8
19
74
121
34
13
68
24
58
58? 84

199
taMumif;t&m
yifvn
kH v
D mcH
yif;tkid pf cef;
aygif;wvnfNrKd U
ypfu,f',fvq
D yfuyf
ypöwadk oewf
ypöwt
dk w
d af qmifaoewf
yOö"gwk[ewdbufapwDawmf
]]yOöraH jymufusm;ppf}}
ykPmÖ ;&Gm
yk'rf 116
yef*syf
yef;cs?D yef;yk? yefwsmausmif;
yef;waemf
yef;waemftrsKd ;om;txufwef;ausmif;
yef;vIid v
f rf;
yef;O,smOftoif;
yHEk ydS v
f yk if ef;rsm;ESix
hf w
k af 0olrsm;rSwyf w
kH ifOya'
yHyk gusif
ydóEk;d NrKd Ua[mif;
ysOyf BkH u;D
ysO;f rem;
ysO;f rem;e,f
ysO;f rem;ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmfppfXmecsKyf
jyZmwfpmay
jyZmwfrsm;
jyvkUd &Gm
jyLapmxD;
jyifopf
jyifopfEidk if H
jyifO;D vGif

pmrsufESm
3
137
29
15
90
36
52
36
58? 137
42
14
50
83
103
132
26
50
83
50
81
36
127
135
101? 104
116
136
82
16? 77? 132? 145
151
79

200
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

jyifO;D vGiNf rKd U
ajymif;jyma&avSmifwrH
jynf
jynfc&kid f
jynfNrKd U
jynfawmfomoabFm
jynfwiG ;f qdyu
f rf;a&aMumif;? avaMumif;ESihf
yifv,fqdyfurf;oGm;vma&;Xme0efBuD;
jynfwiG ;f tBuaH y;tzGUJ 0if
jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D
jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D Xme
jynfxaJ &;ESio
hf moema&;0efBu;D Xme
jynfaxmifpq
k &dk ,
S v
f pfor®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmf
jynfaxmifpq
k &dk ,
S v
f pfor®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmf
zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'
jynfaxmifpq
k &dk ,
S v
f pfor®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmfor®w
jynfaxmifpak eY
jynfaxmifpyk gwD
jynfaxmifpzk UJG pnf;tkycf sKyyf t
kH ajccHOya'
jynfaxmifpAk rmhtvHawmfBu;D
jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if H
jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf
jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if t
H pk;d &tzGUJ
jynfaxmifpo
k r®w*smreDEidk if H
jynfaxmifpo
k r®wjrefrmEkid if H
]]jynfaxmifpo
k r®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmfBu;D }}
jynfaxmifpt
k pk;d &
jynfaxmifpt
k zGUJ opf
jynfy&efErdS w
f q
H yd f
jynfv;kH uRwn
f v
D mcHBu;D

27
49
17
29? 57
29? 57
19
24
27
108? 126
68
68
48
ps
55
3
45? 46
18
5
31? 131
40
61
64? 97
111
128
8
114
64
114

201
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

jynfom,mppfqifa&;
jynfoyl idk o
f rd ;f qnf;jcif;vkyif ef;
jynfoUl aumifpD
jynfoUl ppfwu
dk yf 0JG ifwq
H yd f
jynfoUl ppfrx
I rf;tufOya'
jynfoUl w&m;pD&ifa&;pepf
jynfoUl awmifov
l ,form;aumifpD
jynfoUl &Jabmf
jynfoUl vTwaf wmf
jynfoUl vTwaf wmfu,
dk pf m;vS,f
jynfoUl vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0;cef;r
jynfoUl olemjyKtzGUJ
jynfoUl ta&;awmfyykH gwD
jynfoUl tvkyo
f rm;aumifpD
jynf;jynf;? p0f
jyefMum;a&;ynmrsm;
jyefMum;a&;0efBu;D
jyefwrf;0ift&m&Sd
yGw&f idk ;f ? vm;vf&m*sm

51
48
91
64
49
51
47
7
41? 48? 62
143? 150
151
20
124
47
10
73
104
135
14

(z)
zqyv
zqyvtpk;d &
zqyvtzGUJ
zqyvtzGUJ csKyf
zqyvtzGUJ csKyBf u;D
zqyvtzGUJ 0if
zqyvtvkyt
f rIaqmiftpnf;ta0;
zqyvOD;pD;tzGUJ tpnf;ta0;
zqyvOuú|
zvl;

4? 39? 79? 123
6? 7? 40
24? 111
39? 128? 132
108
113
129
130
129
94

202
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

zvH?k p0f
zmyGef
zm;,m;Bu;D uefpk
zdvpfyidk Ef idk if H
zlut
l u
dk m
azbD,H
azmfrq
dk m
zkd;uGef;? Ak d v f
zdk;c? OD; (aygif;wvnf)
zkd;0J? OD ;
zufqpf*syef
zufqpfawmfveS af &;
zufqpfwu
dk zf suaf &;jynfoUl vGwv
f yfa&;tzGUJ (zwyv)
(Anti Fascist Organization)(A.F.O)
zufqpfwu
dk zf suaf &;jynfoUl vGwv
f yfa&;tzGUJ csKyBf u;D
zufqpfemZD
zuf'&,frl
azmifawmfO;D apwD
zke;f rif;acgif? OD ;
zsmyHk
zsmyHck &kid f
jzL;
zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'
zGUJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'opf
zGUJ pnf;tkycf sKyyf t
kH ajccHOya'

9
36
58
54? 140? 151
32
103
8
7? 111
29
30
58? 117? 126
23? 38? 136
38
106
38
26? 115? 130
2
140
59? 103? 138
17? 59
82? 83
25? 39? 46? 47? 68
61? 75
6

(A)
Auy
AuyESiahf utife,
f l
AaqG? uk d
AaqG? armif

83? 84? 86? 89
93
105? 122? 124
121

203
taMumif;t&m
AaqG? OD;
Axl;wyfNrKd U
Axl;? AkdvfrSL;
Arm
ArmEkid if aH wmfMum;jzwftpd;k &tzGUJ
ArmEkid if v
H ;kH qkid &f mausmif;om;or*¾
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD
Armjynfawmifwef;a'o
Armjynf,m,Dtpk;d &
Armvli,facgif;aqmifrsm;
Armtpk;d &
ArmumuG,af &;wyfrawmf(B.D.A)
Armhacwfowif;pm
ArmhawmfveS af &;wyfO;D
Armhwyfrawmf(Burma Army)
Armhxu
G &f uf*P
dk ;f
Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;wyfrawmf
Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;pDpOfrt
I zGUJ
Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;wyfrawmf(bD-tkid -f at)
Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;wyfrsm;
Armhaoewfuw
dk yf&if;
Armhaoewfuidk w
f yf&if;(4)
Aarmf? a'gufwm
A[kt
d zGUJ tpnf;rsm;
A[kt
d vkyo
f rm;aumifpD
A[kt
d vkyt
f rIaqmifaumrwD0if
A[ef;NrKd Ue,f
A[def;? uk d
AD,uferfEidk if H
aA'ifynm

pmrsufESm
26? 113? 125? 128? 129
135
38? 126? 135
106? 121
108]
123
83? 86? 88? 89
108
108
127
108
37? 74? 135
113
124
37? 38? 115
30? 104
125
104
34? 57? 134
134
2? 59
39
38
ps
47
143
61? 62
124
118
8

204
taMumif;t&m
aAm"dyifysKd rsm;
Ak'*¨ g,m
Ak'b
¨ mom
Ak'b
¨ mom0ifoal wmfpif
Ak'b
¨ momtoif;
Ak'b
¨ momuvsmP,k0toif;
Ak'0¨ if&mZ0if
Ak'o
¨ moemhE*k [
¾ ausmif;
AefaumufNrKd U
AE¨Kv*sme,f
AE¨Kvyef;NcH
Aef;armf
Aef;armfNrKd Ue,f
Akv
d &f mnGeUf vrf;
Akv
d o
f ifwef;
Akv
d o
f ifwef;ausmif;
Akv
d af tmifausmo
f ydwf
Akv
d u
f awmf
A,fv*s,
D efEidk if H
Asaumyk
NAw
d o
d Quufbed uftzGUJ
NAw
d o
d Q"eo[m,e,fy,f
NAw
d o
d QygvDref
NAw
d o
d QygvDrefu,
dk pf m;vS,t
f zGUJ
NAw
d o
d Qbm;rm;
NAw
d o
d Q0efBu;D csKyf
NAw
d o
d Qtpk;d &
NAw
d o
d Qtifyg,m
NAw
d o
d Qtyk cf sKyaf &;
NAw
d ed f

pmrsufESm
115
115
26? 46? 50? 113? 115? 141
116
121
13
101
73
34
122
109
57
84
80
142
23
134
136
151
82
108
109
109
108
102
110
18? 38? 110
100
p
54

205
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

NAw
d ed Ef idk if H
AGt
D adk t

118? 151
52? 91

(b)
bMuL;
bMuL;? armif
bckdif? ref ;
bckdif? OD;? owif;pmq&mbcsdK? OD ;? 'D;'kwfbpD? OD ;
bem*sD? ql&efj'me,f
baz? AkdvfBuD;
bbppfqifa&;
barmf? a'gufwm
b&efqidk ;f
bvGif? OD ;
boef;? a'gufwm
b[ef? OD ;
bOD;? qm
bOD;? a'gufwm
bOD;? OD;? a'gufwm
bOD;BuD;? apm
bmrif[rfppfoabFmBu;D
bmoma&;
bm;rm;-urf;b&pfcsw
f uúov
dk f
bm;rm;pwm;wHqyd f
bdvyf
bdvyftpk;d &
bDbpD D
bD'aD t(Burma Defence Army)
bD-tm&f-yD

16
12
24
103
103? 117
101
14
140
45
10? 17? 37? 104? 105
89? 90
117
55
36
18
18
12
19
5
8
15
64
103? 116
107
52? 91
37? 135
36? 124? 126

206
taMumif;t&m
bD-'D-at wyf&if;(6)
bDatbGUJ
bDtpdk u
D rk P
Ü D
bD-tk-d pDXme
bD-tk-d pD "mwfqq
D idk f
bD-tkid -f at
bD;vif;wHwm;opfBu;D
bk&m;oH;k qlpcef;
bk&ifcH
bk&ifc\
H trIaqmiftzGUJ
bk&ifpepf
bk&ifpepftyk cf sKuaf &;
bk&ifraumvdyf
bk&ifrif;jrwfrsm;
bk&ifah emif
bla*;&D;,m;
blrzd órkj'mAk'&¨ yk yf mG ;awmf
blrad A'ynm&Sif
ab*si;f NrKd U
abmv,fuRe;f
abmhwGefvD? tmom
bku
d av;
bkzd mtajrmufrsm;
bk;d pyÜm,f
bkd;vS? OD ;
bufwef? armifh? avmh
b*Fvm;
b*Fvm;a'h&fS
b*Fvm;a'h&jfS ynfoUl or®wEkid if H
b*Fvm;a'h&EfS idk if H

pmrsufESm
136
23? 102
23
57
149
135
63
94
107
108
15
p
15
116
8
146
52
34
88
83
3
59? 69
150
136
12
18
14
54? 68? 77
64? 97
70

207
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

b*Fvm;a'h&jfS ynfoUl or®wEkid if o
H r®wBu;D
abmif'&Dvrf;
bPfvyk if ef;rsm;
b@ma&;ESit
hf cGe0f efBu;D
b@ma&;ESit
hf cGeXf mewm0efc?H 0efBu;D
bwf&efYpf? [l;? qm
befaumufNrKd U
befa'gif;nDvmcHBu;D
bde;f ukeu
f ;l jcif;
bke;f Bu;D ausmif;
bke;f awmfBu;D rsm;

145
80
95
61
60
18? 107
52
118
15
121? 137
105

(r)
rauG;
rauG;awmif
rav;&Sm;Ekid if H
rav;&Sm;Ekid if 0H efBu;D csKyf
r[mArmXme
r[marm*¾vef? &S i f
r[mjrwfrek b
d &k m;Bu;D
r[m,Ofaus;rIawmfveS ;f a&;
r[mygomP*k[mvIP
d *f al wmfBu;D
r[m0dZ,apwDawmf
r[m0dZmÆ bGUJ
r[mor,aeY
r[mor,okwf
r[moD&o
d "k r®bUJG
rtlyifawmifyidk ;f rJqE´e,f
rtlyifNrKd U
rm&S,w
f ;D wk;d
rm&S,w
f ;D wk;d ? or®w

17? 59
124
45? 64? 55? 77? 140? 146? 151
144
104
115
107
84
116
52? 63? 96
16
115
115
54
24
12? 17? 59? 81
20? 132
54

208
taMumif;t&m
rm;,uf? uyÜwdef
rdav;? a': (aygifacgif;)
rDemrDuef
rk'NkH rKd U
rl*sm[pf
rlvwef;BuKd ausmif;
arcESiahf rvdc
ar*saD wmfveS af &;
arNrKd U (,ck jyifO;D vGi)f
aroZifoef;xku
d ?f a'gufwm
rJZmBuKd ;wHwm;
rJav
rJoa0g
armhp(f Moss)
armfpw
D ;kH
armfz;dk au
armfvNrKd iu
f Re;f
armfvNrKd iZf &yf
armfvNrKd i'f *D &Daumvdyf
armfvNrKd iNf rKd U
rHpND rKd Ue,f
rkd[mruf? r[moD,m? a'gufwm? 'gwGwf&S&D
rk;d aumif;&Gm
rkd;BudK;? Ak d v f
rkd;ndk? Ak d v f
rk;d ygavG
rkd[mruf? [lpdeftm&Swf
rufpu
D adk w;rD;,m;
rufpZÆi;f 0g'qkw
d mbmvJ
r*Fvm'Hk

pmrsufESm
13
29
31? 34
134
44
50
84
33
23
118
63
94
93
86
117? 118
94
117
102
62
37? 63? 69? 134
84
145
35? 37? 74
36
83
145
2
117
7

209
taMumif;t&m
r*Fvm'Hpk pfwuúov
dk f
r*Fvm'Hak vqdyf
r*Fvm'HAk v
dk o
f ifwef;ausmif;
rif;acgif;? AkdvfcsKyf
rif;wJ&mG
rif;wJ&mG bke;f Bu;D ausmif;
rif;wke;f e,f
rif;wke;f NrKd U
rif;'if
rif;bl;
rif;&Jausmpf mG
rif;&efatmifppfqifa&;
rif;vS
armifuav;? OD ;
armifawmf
armifarmif? ukd (AkdvfrSL;BuD;armifarmif)
armifarmif? a'gufwm
armifarmif? Ak d v f
armifarmifBuD;? AkdvfBuD;
armifarmifcif
armifarmifoef;
armifhbufwef? vl0D? avmh
rkid ;f qwfNrKd U
rkid ;f wHk
rkid ;f jzwf
rkid ;f r
rkid ;f ,ef;
rkid ;f ,ef;a'o
rnfrnf? p0f
rZsrdö 0g'D

pmrsufESm
74? 148
8
135
88
137
137
58? 137
136
83
69? 137
84
82
127? 136? 137
79
68
124
72
127
150
107
83
39
8? 81
83
81
83
93
93
10
14

210
taMumif;t&m
refusn;f usnaf wmuf&mG
refcsupf wmpufrw
I uúov
dk f
rdwv
D¬ m
rEÅav;
rEÅav;wkid ;f
rEÅav;NrKd U
rEÅav;ta&SUajrmufNrKd Ue,f
rEÅav;Oypmaumvdyf
rkwrå
rkew
f idk af &avSmifuef
rkef;? a':
rH;k wyf
rsKd ;csppf w
d f
rsKd ;cspw
f yfrawmf(Patriotic Barmese Forces; P.B.F)
rsKd ;cspyf gwD
rsKd ;cspAf rmhwyfrawmf
jr? Ak d v f
jr? ocif
jr? OD ;
jrBuD;? &J a bmf
jrpde?f a':
jrwif? a':
jrar? a':
jrjrat;? a':
jr&D? a':
jroef;? uk d
ajreDuek ;f
ajr&Sipf epfzsuo
f rd ;f a&;vkyif ef;rsm;
ajratmufvQKd U0Sut
f zGUJ
NrKd Uawmfcef;rBu;D

pmrsufESm
57
142
59? 81
37? 69? 81? 126
75
79? 80? 104? 112
75
73
63? 82
49
140
86
121
38
37
59? 74? 136? 148
58
124? 126? 128
37
51
117
146
27
118
103? 118
30
8
48
30
108

211
taMumif;t&m
NrKd Uykid f
NrKd UjyumuG,af &;wyf
NrKd UjyumuG,af &;tzGUJ
NrKd Ujytkycf sKyaf &;
NrKd Urtxufwef;ausmif;
NrKd Utkyf
ajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f ppfXmecsKyf
ajrmufO;D
ajrmufOuúvmy
jrifah qG
jrifo
h ed ;f ? ume,f
ajrmif;jrc&kid f
jrpfBu;D em;
jrpfBu;D em;aumvdyf
jrpf0uRe;f ay:
jrw
d f
jrefrmcspMf unfa&;tzGUJ
jrefrmpmaumfr&SiOf ya'
jrefrmpm*kPx
f ;l
jrefrmpmay
jrefrm-w&kwef ,ferd w
d pf mcsKyf
jrefrmwyfrawmf
jrefrmEkid if u
H ek o
f nfrsm;uGe*f &uf
jrefrmEkid if aH wmf*P
dk ;f aygif;pHo
k C
H mnDñw
G rf &I jdS cif;txde;f trSwf
jrefrmEkid if yH a'o&mZfacwftyk cf sKyaf &;
jrefrmEkid if b
H momjyefpmaytoif;
jrefrmEkid if cH &D;ESiAhf v
dk cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;
jrefrmEkid if aH &;tzGUJ csKyBf u;D
jrefrmEkid if v
H ;kH qkid &f mvli,frsm;tpnf;t&H;k
jrefrmEkid if v
H w
G v
f yfa&;Oya'Murf;

pmrsufESm
q
126
126
8
101
12
59? 91
63
46
2
4
17
23? 37? 62? 69
62
23
69
9
49
142
101
45
128
16? 123
52
p
110
149
100
103
109

212
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

jrefrmEkid if o
H rkid ;f usr;f
jrefrmEkid if t
H rIaqmifaumifpt
D zGUJ
jrefrmjynf
jrefrmjynfrcS spMf unfa&;uk,
d pf m;vS,t
f zGjU
jrefrmjynftwGi;f 0ef&;kH
jrefrmjynftoHviT Xhf me
jrefrmrdwq
f uftzGUJ
jrefrm0efBu;D csKyf
jrefrmorkid ;f ESiahf b;awmf? bk;d awmf bk&ifrsm;
jrefrmoH&;kH
jrefrmh&;dk &m,Ofaus;rI
jrefrmhq&dk ,
S v
f pfvrf;pOfygwD
jrefrmhq&dk ,
S v
f pfvrf;pOfr0l g'
jrefrmhwyfrawmf
jrefrmhvw
G v
f yfa&;pmcsKyf
jrefrmhtvif;acgif;Bu;D ykid ;f
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm
r,fx&D
rGef
rGeu
f &iftxufwef;ausmif;
rGeaf w*l? rpöwm
rGejf ynfe,f
rGejf ynfe,ftzGUJ tpnf;rsm;
rGeaf omif;use;f ol
rSwf? a':

50
109
15
108
p
7
108
129
14
51
52
61? 139? 143
48
142
40
117
117
94
19? 121
23
100
62? 63? 81
19
94
79

(,)
,m,Dor®w
,m,Dtpk;d &tzGUJ

19
108? 109

213
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

,k0wD
,l*q
dk vm;AD;,m;qk&d ,
S v
f pfjynfaxmifpo
k r®wEkid if H
,l*q
dk vm;AD;,m;Ekid if o
H r®w
,l*q
dk vyfMu,fbUJG
,l*q
dk vyfwcH eG af wmfbUJG
,l*q
dk vyfEidk if H
,l*q
dk vyfEidk if o
H r®wBu;D
,l*sif;okduf? OD ;
Munf h aq;0kdif? p0f
Munfh qkdvef? p0f
,le,
D *H sut
f vH
,leefzef&dS
,ku
d q
l u
dk ma&wyfpcef;
]],krd t
D &l }D }owif;pm
,k;d ',m;
,k;d ',m;ausmif;om;rsm;
,k;d ',m;e,fpyf
a,mifcsKd i,
f 'k ?f csmAvpf

122
54? 55? 64? 97? 118? 146
20
117
20? 54
132
132
9

5? 102
129
32
31
106
15
125
145

(&)
&ckid jf ynfe,f
&ckid jf ynfe,fppfqifa&;
&ckid t
f rsKd ;om;
&rnf;oif;NrKd Ue,f
]]&[kid ;f }}
&mZ0if
&mausmq
f &mawmfb&k m;Bu;D
&mZuf? OD ;
&k&mS ;
&l;ar;eD;,m;qk&d ,
S v
f pfor®wEkid if H
a&;ul;&yf

8? 19? 62? 63? 68
59
20
83
35
101
148
79
118
54? 55? 64? 97? 145? 146
116

214
taMumif;t&m
a&ul;wHqyd f
a&wm&Snf
a&eHacsmif;
a&eHacsmif;NrKd U
a&rGerf ufaq;aq;qk
a&eHajrtvkyo
f rm;oydwf
&Jausmo
f l
&JneG Uf wyfzUJG
&JabmfjzL
&Jabmf0g
&Jabmfo;kH usyd f
&Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f if
&Jtyk o
f ifwef;
a&mfbifqif? t,fvf
]]&ufpufygayhu,
G }f }
a&mifpo
kH yl ek f
a&mifpo
kH yl ek rf sm;
a&mifpakH omif;use;f ol
&efuek af umvdyf
&efuek u
f efawmfBu;D
&efuek cf &kid q
f &dk ,
S v
f pfygwDtpnf;ta0;
&efuek w
f uúov
dk f
&efuek w
f uúov
dk t
f "dywd
&efuek w
f uúov
dk af usmif;om;tzGUJ
&efuek w
f uúov
dk *f syq
f ifaumvdyf
&efuek w
f uúov
dk Of ya'
&efuek w
f idk ;f
&efuek jf ynfoUl aq;&HBk u;D
&efuek Nf rLeDpy,ftzGUJG

pmrsufESm
72
82
69
57
54
117
90
79
7
7
32? 34? 35
39
134
15
117
148
7
112
13
126
130
20? 29? 73? 74? 82? 101?
103? 122? 142
24
128
23
49
68? 96? 83? 94
55
45

215
taMumif;t&m
&efuek Nf rKd U
&efuek Nf rKd Utkycf sKyaf &;tzGUJ
&efuek jf rpfqyd u
f rf;
&efuek t
f pk;d &
&efBu;D atmif
&efrsKd ;atmifapwD
&yfapmufapmfbmG ;
&dyf? a':
&ky&f iS v
f yk if ef;aumfyUdk a&;&Si;f
&kyaf o;q&mBu;D rsm;
&kyaf o;tpd;k &
½Iarmif? armif
½Iarmif? ocif
½I&Sif;? AkdvfcsKyfBuD;
a&Sqef? uavmh'f
a&S;a[mif;urÜn;f pmay
a&S;a[mif;0w¬Kypön;f tufOya'
a&S;a[mif;okawoejywku
d f
a&S;a[mif;txl;ypön;f rsm;tufOya'
&S&J yfp?f rpöwm
&Sdef0Suf? OD ;
&Sirf [mAk'a¨ Cmoausmif;
&Sio
f mraP
&Siaf pmyk
&Sr[
f J
&Sr[
f NJ rKd U
&Sr;f
&Sr;f apmfbmG ;
&Sr;f ya'o&mZfapmfbmG ;rsm;

pmrsufESm
16? 36? 37? 40? 69? 76?
92? 101? 108? 109? 116? 132? 142
17
5
7
8
131
81
12
50
52
10
29
32? 33? 34
89
145
50
50
50
50
16
65
134
121
63
32
32
106? 121
131
43

216
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

&Sr;f ya'o&mZfrsm;
&Sr;f jynfe,f
&Sr;f jynfawmifyidk ;f
&Sr;f jynfe,fajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f
&Sr;f aomif;use;f ol
a&G;aumufyBJG u;D Muyfa&;aumfr&Sif
a&T? OD ;
a&Tusif
a&TuiG ;f Bu;D &Gm
a&Tw*d akH pwDawmfjrwf
a&Tw*d t
kH v,fypö,H
a&TawmifMum;vrf;
a&TawmifNrKd U
a&Tqkduf? p0f
a&TaygufuNH rKd Uopf
a&TjynfomNrKUd opf
a&Tbdk
a&T&if? OD ;
]]a&T&nfprd v
f w
G v
f yfa&;}}
a&TvJh? a':
a&Tokduf? p0f

80
26? 43? 62? 93? 94? 106
80
86
4
18
46
84
36
63? 96
102
21
57? 58
2
94
94
69
23
37? 104
57
2? 19

(v)
vcpm;tvkyo
f rm;rsm;
va&mif? Ak d v f
v[,f
vmtkEd idk if H
vm;½I;d NrKd U
vDeif
vDrD? AkdvfcsKyf
vD&iS ef ifh

121
111
88
54
86
104
81
89

217
taMumif;t&m
vlxt
k pnf;ta0;Bu;D
vlay:vlaZmfvyk ef nf;
vlrsKd ;pkvw
T af wmf
vlrsKd ;pkvw
T af wmfEiS jhf ynfoUl vTwaf wmfygvDref
vlrsKd ;pka&;t"du&kP;f
vl0ifrBI u;D Muyfa&;Xme
vl0ifrBI u;D Muyfa&;ESit
hf rsKd ;om;rSwyf w
kH ifa&;0efBu;D Xme
avbmtpk;d &
av,mOf
avm
avmu"mwfoyd yHÜ nm
avmuedAmÁ ef
avmvD? AkdvfcsKyf
vufeufc,
J rf;rsm;
]]vufzuf&nfqidk zf iG jhf cif;}}
vufbEGef
vusmf? Ak d v f
vuf0pJ mtkyt
f oif;
vifueG ;f tif;
vif;xif
vif;,kef? Ak d v f
avmifuGef? Am*sD&m? r[m
vIid Nf rKd Ue,ftrSw(f 2)rJqE´e,f
vef'ef
vef'efNrKd U
vef'ef[;D o&k;d avqdyf
vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;
vGiv
f iG jf rif?h a':
vdP
I *f al wmfBu;D
v,form;rsm;tcGit
hf a&;umuG,af &;Oya'

pmrsufESm
108
117
9? 25
25
130
45
68
109
90
77
111
111
82
82? 84
122
77
37? 39? 105? 134
116
73
82
36
145
143
13? 16? 20
90? 108
97
24
146
116
48

218
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

vGKd iaf umf
vGwaf jrmufa&;wHqyd f
vGwv
f yfa&;
vGwv
f yfa&;pnf;&H;k rIwq
H yd f
vGwv
f yfa&;wHqyd f
vGwv
f yfa&;aeYatmifyt
JG crf;tem;
vGwv
f yfa&;armfueG ;f 0if
vGwv
f yfa&;armfueG ;f 0if(yxrqif)h
vGwv
f yfa&;armfueG ;f 0if('kw,
d qif)h
vGwv
f yfa&;atmifyJG
vSBuD;? OD ;
vSxGef;jzL? OD ;
vSaz? ukd (Akdvfvusmf)
vSarmif? OD ;
vSNrdKif? ocif (aemif Akdvf&efaemif)
vIid o
f m,mNrKd Uopf
vSn;f qdy&f mG
vQypf pfynm
vTwaf wmftrwf

59
64? 140
7
64? 140
64
110
54
64? 132? 140
27? 76? 145
4
72
26
116
126
30? 31
94
23
79
129

(0)
0ga&Smifqnf
0g;c(a[mif;)
0g;c,frNrKd U
0dw&dk ,
d til
0DvsHpvif;? qm? AkdvfcsKyfBuD;
a0bm*DNrKd Uopf
a0gav
0ufBu;D &Gm
0ufx;D uefwu
dk yf JG
0if;armif? ref;

49
94
100
36
41
94
94
36
98
23? 24

219
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

0if;armif? OD;
0kdifvD? umZkef? qm
0dZmÆ bGUJ
0wfvpkH mar;yGJ
0wfvykH nm
0wfvb
kH UJG
0k'f? [ife&D? rpöpf
0efBu;D csKyf
0efBu;D csKypf epfjzift
h yk cf sKyaf &;
0efBu;D csKy&f ;kH
0rfwmyif;ESi0hf rfwmyHk
0du
I af emhwvD

23
15
101
16
73
16
13
108? 123
p
Z
83
16

(o)
owk;d oD&o
d "k r®bUJG
oxHak 'o
oydwaf rSmufausmif;om;
obm0"mwfaiGU
or0g,r0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D
or0g,rtoif;
or*¾acgif;aqmif
orkid ;f 0ify*k Kd¾ vrf sm;txdr;f trSwaf rmfueG ;f Oya'
oa&acwå&mNrKd Ua[mif;
oa&pnfob
l UJG
oa&;'k;d
o&ufc&kid f
o&ufNrKd U
omauwNrKd U
om,m? a':
om,m0wDe,f
om,m0wDNrKd U

54
81? 82
102
49
150
48
122
50
50
64
84
17
7? 58? 136? 137
44
23
103
104

220
taMumif;t&m
om&dyw
k &å m? &Sif
omoemjyKtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;
oDwm0if;? a':
oDaygrif;
oD&yd scH sb
D UJG
oD&rd *Fvmuke;f ajr
oD&v
d uFmEkid if H
oD[Vdk f
oD[Vdk u
f Re;f
oD[ef? uk d
oD;pm;csxm;a&;Oya'
okyPÖuiVKe&f mZm
olBu;D
olyek yf gwD
ol&bGUJ
ol&ed f
aoabmbk;d
oJuek ;f NrKd U
oJuiG ;f
oHCmawmfrsm;
oHrPdacgif;aqmif
oHviG jf rpf
ouúv
oufxeG ;f
ouFe;f
od*w
kF &å uke;f awmf
aomif;xkduf? OD ;
aomif;&if;jrpf
oCFe;f uRe;f NrKd Ue,f
opfawmu@

pmrsufESm
115
49
55
107
64? 140
116
118? 140
116? 118
106? 115
101
48
103
10
124
150
82
94
57
82
116
148
8? 36
81
86
72
63
118
35
131
95

221
taMumif;t&m
owåyPÖv
d P
dI *f al wmfBu;D
ow¬KwiG ;f vkyif ef;
ow¬KwiG ;f 0efBu;D
okweå af 'oemawmfrsm;
od'pd¨ pfqifa&;
oefvsiNf rKd U
oefY? OD ;
oefrY if;acgif? OD ;
oef&Y iS ;f zqyv
oef&Y iS ;f zqyvtzGUJ csKyf
oef;acgif;pm&if;Oya'
oef;pdef? AkdvfrSL;BuD;
oef;wif? OD ;
oef;xGe;f ? ocif
oef;oef;? [kdufpul;
oef;&Sed ?f a':
oef;a&T? a':
odEaDé pmfbmG ;
odef;az? ukd (wufbkef;BuD;)
ode;f armif? a'gufwm
odef;a&T? Ak d v f
odef;atmif? uk d
or®wpepf
or®wpepfjzift
h yk cf sKyaf &;
or®wEkid if aH wmf
odrq
f yd f
odrjf zLvrf;0efBu;D rsm;&H;k
odrf;armif? Ak d v f
oH;k cGNrKd U
oH;k vkid ;f wpfyiG hf

pmrsufESm
116
121
123
115
82
23? 69? 138
103
140
45? 113? 130
114
51
80
77
7? 51? 84? 105? 123? 128
122
65
65
3
101? 116
37
58
30
15
p
111
36
135
127
103
135

222
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

o,f,yl aYdk qmifa&;vkyif ef;

95

([)
[ukad eNrKd U
[ukad etyef;ajzpcef;
[EGKd i;f NrKd U
[mrmrufpNk rKd U
[m0kid ,
f u
D Re;f
[d*lcsD? wau&S D
[D'um;
[la,mifyef;
[J[;dk csKd i0hf rS ;f qnfajrmif;
a[mfvefEidk if H
[kw
d ,fEiS chf &D;oGm;vma&;vkyif ef;
[oFmwc&kid f
[oFmwNrKd U
[kid ef efuRe;f
[kid ;f vD
a[mifaumif
[efa*&DjynfoUl or®wEkid if H
[efvif;NrKd Ua[mif;
[defarmif? Ak d v f
[dE´Lbmom
[kecf ef;? p0f

32
32
34
74
34
31
32
88? 89
49
73? 77
95
74
37? 77
32? 33? 37
31
9? 140? 145
64
50
81
50
3? 9

(t)
taumufceG v
f yk if ef;rsm;
tusO;f axmif
tajccHppfynmoifwef;rsm;
tajccHynma&;
tajccHynma&;Oya'
tajccHOya'

95
104
57
49
49
26

223
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

tpd;k &trIvu
dk af &SUae
17
taqmuftODEiS t
hf vkyo
f rm;0efBu;D Xm0efBu;D
24
twGi;f 0efcsKyf
8
twGi;f 0efrsm;&H;k
23
txufjrefrmjynf
126
taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG
43? 45
t'l,'uf? blrabm
54
tEkynmrsm;
122
taemuf*smrPD
145
taemufawmifwidk ;f ppfXmecsKyf
67? 88
taemufajrmufwidk ;f ppfXmecsKyf
67? 86
taemufOa&myEkid if H
145
tewåvu©Pokwf
115
tjynfjynfqidk &f mqufqaH &;
73
tjynfjynfqidk &f mOya'
73? 74
tjynfjynfqidk &f mOya''Dyvkrd m
73
tzGUJ tpnf;jzift
h yk cf sKyaf &;
p
tbd"r®mpmar;yGrJ sm;
96
tr&yl&NrKd Ue,f
75
tar&duef
54? 77
tar&duefppfav,mOf
91
tar&duefEidk if H
27? 64? 74? 90? 118? 132? 140? 145? 151
tar&duefEidk if jH cm;a&;0efBu;D Xme
90
tar&duefavo&J
90
tar&duefo&H ;kH
90
trsKd ;orD;tv,fwef;ae&Sief ,fausmif;
134
trsKd ;om;ausmif;
29
trsKd ;om;pmayqk
77
trsKd ;om;pDru
H ed ;f 0efBu;D Xme
123
trsKd ;om;pDru
H ed ;f 0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D
60

224
taMumif;t&m
trsKd ;om;pmMunhw
f u
dk jf ywku
d f
trsKd ;om;'Dru
dk a&pD;wyfaygif;pk
trsKd ;om;aeY
trsKd ;om;a&;0g'
tjrifq
h ;kH qifjzLwHqyd f
trGKd iNf rKd U
trSw(f 1)wkid ;f A[kad vhusiahf &;ausmif;
trSw(f 1)avhusiahf &;wyf
trSw(f 2)wkid ;f A[kad vhusiahf &;ausmif;
trSw(f 3)ajcvsiw
f yf&if;
trSw(f 4)aoewfuidk w
f yf&if;
trSw(f 5)ajcvsiw
f yf&if;
trSw(f 11)ajcvsiw
f yf&if;
trSw(f 16)ajcvsiw
f yf&if;
trSw(f 29)ajcvsiw
f yf&if;
t&mcHAv
dk t
f qihf
ta&;awmfyw
kH q
H yd f
ta&;ykid f
ta&SUykid ;f wkid ;f ppfXmecsKyf
ta&SUtm&Swu
dk f
t&efA[kt
d vkyt
f rIaqmifaumfrwD0if
ta&SUaZmif;ausmufacsmif;
ta&SUajrmufwidk ;f ppfXmecsKyf
tvHawmif
tvHeu
D eG jf rLepfygwD
tvif;a&mifppfqifa&;
tvkyo
f rm;a&;&mXmeBu;D
tvkyo
f rm;0efBu;D Xme
tvkyo
f rm;0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D
toHviT Xhf me

pmrsufESm
50
90
n
72
132
31
82
67
82
67
67
83? 84
81-83
86
83? 84
23
64? 140
12
3
116
143
51
86
103
80? 83? 86
83
143
143
150
40

225
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

tmZmenfacgif;aqmifBu;D rsm;
tmZmenf(17)OD;
tmPmvTaJ jymif;a&;pmcsKyf
tmPmvGaJT jymif;a&;Oya'Murf;
tmz*epöwefEidk if H
tmz&du
tm&yf
tm&yfjynfaxmifpEk idk if H
tm&Sq&dk ,
S v
f pfueG zf &ifh
tm&Sq&dk ,
S v
f pfEpS yf wfvnfnv
D mcH
tm&SEidk if rH sm;
tm&SzUJG NzKd ;a&;bPf
tm&Sta&SUawmifyidk ;f qkid &f mr[mrdww
f yfzUJG
tmavmbGef
tmvHNrKd U
tmvH(ajrxJ)NrKd Ue,f
tmom? ruf? AkdvfcsKyfBuD;tmV0Dvrf;
tm;rufum;
tD*spf
tDwvD
tD'g;? *sife&,ftD0gquD? rpö w m
tD;'g;
tkcs'D g;
O? armif
Oypmwef;
Oypmodyb
HÜ UJG
Oypmtxufwef;
Oya'yg&*l(a'gufwm)

138
123
110
108
14
118
45
54
128
129
118
68
18
84
57? 58
136
59
80
150
16? 77
16? 145
q
32
37
35
100
101
29
123
20? 73

226
taMumif;t&m
Oykoaf csmif;
Oa&my
Oa&mybkaH ps;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;aumfr&Sit
f zGUJ 0if
OD;NyKH ;&ifausmif;
OD;Owårbwfaum
Ouúvmy
at'if
atbDtrf
at? tm? yD (ARP- Air Raid Precaution)
{&m0wDwidk ;f
{&m0wDwidk ;f jrpf0uRe;f ay:a'o
attufzt
f (dk zwyv)
at;? a':
at;ukd? AkdvfcsKufBuD;at;uRe;f
at;aZmf0if;? OD ;
at;wif? a':
at;ae0if;
at;armif? uk d
at;armif? OD; (jynf)
at;oG,f? OD ;
at;at;vGif? a':
tJvDZyuf? Ak d? a'gufwmatmvftEd ,

MopBu;D ,m;Ekid if H
MopBu;D vs
atmfvu
D ef*rf;rsm;
tk&d ,
D ifu
h vyfOuúX
tk;d a0r*¾Zif;
tufwvD

pmrsufESm
84
9
145
134
135
44
13
12
34
63? 82? 83? 88
81
23
20
81
126
55
72
55
30
129
55
140
14
52? 91
151
77? 145
150
18
102? 122
3

227
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

tufwvD? NAdwdoQ? eef;a&;0ef40
tufwvD? rpö w m
110
tufpf? tuf p f? rpfql&Drpf
59
t*¾r[moa&pnfob
l UJG
9? 27? 20
t*¾r[moD&o
d "k r®bUJG
9? 20? 27? 54
t*FvefEidk if H
9? 54? 77? 118? 132? 138? ?140? 145? 146
t*Fvefjynfb&k ifw
h uúov
dk f
10
t*Fvyd f
121
t*Fvyd jf yZmwf
117
t*Fvyd -f jrefrmESpb
f momoiftpk;d &tv,fwefausmif;
100
tif'edk ;D &Sm;or®wEkid if H
54? 77? 118? 145? 146? 151
tif;pdef
17? 112? 148
tif;pdecf &kid f
17? 135
tif;pdew
f u
dk yf JG
59? 138? 150
tif;pdeaf xmif
124
tif;epf?csm;
csm;? qm
103
atmif? AkdvfrSL;
7? 26? 58? 110? 136? 137
atmif? OD ;
118
atmifausmf? uk d
72
atmifausmf? Ak d v f
72
atmifBuD;? ukd (AkdvfrSL;csKyfatmifBuD;)
124
atmifqef;? uk d
123
atmifqef;? AkdvfcsKyf
3? 18? 23? 36? 38? 39? 58
79? 106? 125? 128? 136? 137
atmifqef;? ocif
30? 31? 33? 34
atmifqef;-tufwvDpmcsKyf
24
atmifZ?H OD ;
20
atmiferd w
d pf pfqifa&;
86
atmify? OD ;
26
atmifrif;acgif? OD;
140

228
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

atmif&jJ rif?h OD;
118
atmifom? OD ;
37
tkid u
f avmifuRe;f
83
tkid pf t
D uf&mxl;&Sirf sm;
122
tpöa&;Ekid if H
45? 54? 77? 118? 140
tpövmrfbmom
50? 103
twåvEÅmuGepf uDusL&Si;f owif;pm
90
tkww
f iG ;f
82? 84
tdE,
d´ ausmif;om;
15
tdE,
d´ Ekid if H
23? 45? 54? 77? 84? 86? 115? 116? 118? 140? 145
tdE,
d´ Ekid if AH [kt
d pk;d &
10
tdE,
d´ jynftyk cf sKyaf &;pnf;rsO;f Oya'
100
tdE,
d´ ESijhf refrmha&;&myg&*lrsm;
108
tdE,
´d vlrsKd ;
15
tkef;? uk d
102
tkef;pH? p0f
10
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Air Raid Precaution-ARP
Burma Looks ahead
Burma under the Japanese : pictures and portraits
East Pakistan
Forward with the people
From peace to Stability
General Awrora
KNDO
Isles of Wright
The People Win Through
Patriotic Barmese Forces; P.B.F
Plebiscite
Prescott
Most Illustrious order of Chula Chom Kloa of Thailand
Yale University
Yugoslav Banner (First Class)

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117
86
117
117
86
83
97
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27
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20

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