SAFE

DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4
Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0
December 2008

Copyright
Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com
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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

5.5.6.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.4 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.2 4.1 4.3 3.6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.1 Design for Flexure 3.6 5 Design for CSA A23.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.5.1 Notations 5-1 ii .1 Design for Flexure 4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.3 4.4 4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.3-04 5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.5.2 3.6.6.5.1 3.5.

1 7.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.28 6.5.5.Contents 5.3 5.3 6.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.5.1 Design for Flexure 5.6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.2 7.2 6.1 Design for Flexure 6.1 6.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .6.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.5.6.5.6.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.4 5.5.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.2 5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.4 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.6.

4.3 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.2 8.5.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.5.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.5.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.6.4 7.6.3 8.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.4.4.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.5.5.6.1 Effects of Torsion 8.1 9.1 Design for Flexure 8.2 9.4 9.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.1 Design for Flexure 7.5.1 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.

1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.5.6.6.2 Design Load Combinations 10.6.6 Slab Design 10.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.5 Beam Design 10.Contents 9.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .6 Slab Design 9.1 Notations 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.5.6.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.6.1 Design for Flexure 9.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.1 Design for Flexure 10.

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SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. 1-1 . The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. shear. This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. and torsion reinforcement. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. Specifically. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. and it designs beam flexural. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process.

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a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. 2. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter. sq-in Notations 2-1 . sq-in Gross area of concrete. For simplicity. The code is based on inch-pound-second units. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1.

psi 2-2 Notations . in Modulus of elasticity of concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Depth to neutral axis. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Width of section. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. in Width of web (flanged section). sq-in Area of tension reinforcement.

(0. lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. in Critical torsion capacity.Chapter 2 . psi Overall depth of a section. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 . lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section. in Factored moment at a section. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. in Height of the flange. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. lb Factored shear force at a section. lb Factored axial load at a section.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete.

2D + 1.6 (0.6W 0.0L + 0.6.2.5S ± 1.9D ± 1. pattern live load (PL).2D + 1.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.2.6S 1.2D + 1.2. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2.1) are the same.6W 1.2. wind (W).1): 1.6L 1.0L + 0. live load (L).0E 1.3) (ACI 9.0E (ACI 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs.8W 1.6W 1.2D + 1.6S ± 0.2. snow (S). These 2-4 Design Load Combinations .0L ± 1.75 PL) 0.0L ± 1.0L + 1.2. and earthquake (E) loads.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).6L + 0.2D + 1.1) (ACI 13.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2S ± 1.2D + 1.0E 1.1) (ACI 9.7. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9.1) (ACI 9.4D 1. For ACI 318-08. degrees 2.2D + 1.2D + 1.2D + 1.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.1) (ACI 9.9D ± 1.5S 1.

The φ factors for flexure. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. shear.3. 2. shear forces.2.Chapter 2 . are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. 2. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 . and torsion are as follows: φ = 0.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.2. shear. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11. f' c . (ACI 9.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. load combination factors.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.3. φ.3) 2.1).4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength.2). fy. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. or if other types of loads are present.1) (ACI 9. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.1.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. fyt. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5. and torsion based on the beam moments.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used.5. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength. however. and other criteria described in this section. torsion. caution is advised. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9.

the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. shear. and torsion only. 2.5. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2.1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.5. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design .2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. for a particular station.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. with the corresponding load factors.

designing top or bottom reinforcement).2). Mu (i. The design procedure used by SAFE. which is equal to 0. 2.1) in the preceding and the following equations. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. fy .3.85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10.e. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. cmax. shear. which by default is 0. as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin. the width. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.3.1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10.003.5.1.90 (ACI 9.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10.and T-beams).005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.2.2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. The maximum depth of the compression zone. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.2.2. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.5). is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. Furthermore. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1).3. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.2) Beam Design 2-7 . where. and torsion only. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.Chapter 2 .3. is summarized in the text that follows.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.4). or the strength of the concrete.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10.

2.85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.2. is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10. amax.3) (ACI 10. εcmax = 0.7. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .003 b A′ s Cs c 0.85 (ACI 10.003 εsmin = 0.7.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.85 − 0.3.3.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.005 (ACI 10. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10.4).2.1) β1 = 0.

10.85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.7.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0.2. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10. 10.2.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 .3. or at the top if Mu is negative.2.Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.2. where ( f 's − 0.3. If a > amax.2.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .Chapter 2 .85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10.

1.5. if the moment is positive. In that case. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0.. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. is assumed if the flange is under compression. If the moment is negative. as shown in Figure 2-2. 2.e.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. the flange comes under tension.003 0. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore. i. a simplified stress block.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 .10 Beam Design . and the flange is ignored. and vice versa if Mu is negative.85 f ′ c 0.2.

1.2. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.5. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously..e.3.3. 2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. amax.11 .2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.2.85 − 0. The maximum depth of the compression zone.1.2.2. i.2) εcmax = 0.85 (ACI 10. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.Design for ACI 318-08 2.2) where. which is equal to 0. ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10. no flanged beam data is used.3.003 εsmin = 0. cmax. which by default is 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10.2.2. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.2.1) β1 = 0.e.1) in the preceding and the following equations.005 (ACI 10.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.7.5. Mu (i. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section..3) (ACI 10.4): cmax = where.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.2.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2.7.Chapter 2 . designing top reinforcement).3) Beam Design 2 .90 (ACI 9.

in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. as shown in Figure 2-2.90 by default. Therefore.3. the balance of the moment. the value for φ is 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. Cw.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f . Mu . to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10.7. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . As1 = given by: (ACI 10. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again. Cf is given by: C f = 0. However. If a > hf.2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.5). and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. the calculation for As has two parts. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. amax ) Therefore. Cf.2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf. 2 .12 Beam Design .1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f .

3.3.7.13 .2. where ( f 's − 0. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us .4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 .85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10. 10.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.2. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10. 10.2.2.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0.Chapter 2 .2.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2. for a particular load combination.4bw d ⎧0. that can be resisted by the concrete.5.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. 2.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. Determine the shear force.5.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10.1. Vc. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. bw d ⎟ As .3) An upper limit of 0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.2. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d .14 Beam Design . 2 . As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10. Vu.

2. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition.Chapter 2 . Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.5. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.5.1. and Vmax. is 0. is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11.15 .5.2. Vc. 2.2. with the corresponding load combination factors.5φVc Av =0 s If 0.6.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. 11. If Vu ≤ 0.3).5.1.3. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where.1) Beam Design 2 .5. Vc.Design for ACI 318-08 2.75 (ACI 9. the strength reduction factor.3.1. φ.2.1.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11.7.3.1.5. fyt. 2.1) For light-weight concrete.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11.9) Given Vu.

2.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required.6. a failure condition is declared. 11. 2 . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. (ACI 11.3 does not need to be satisfied independently.9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.7.3 is not enforced (ACI 11. the equation given in ACI 11. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.5. Tu.5bw. the concrete section should be increased in size.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw .5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.7.3) If Vu > φVmax.1(c)).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11.6. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11. (ACI 11. 2. Determine special section properties.5.6. and 0. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5.5.7.5. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in.16 Beam Design .7.6.5.5.2) ⎛ 0.5hf.1.

3.6. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1.6. Ao.2).Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11. If redistribution is desired. This is equivalent to 1. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.5. such as Acp.Chapter 2 . it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 . the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu.2. Aoh. are calculated. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. such as Aoh. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. and ph. Ao.75 inches. 2.3.5. 2. pcp.17 .1). and ph.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.2). special section properties. However.

3.6.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.1.4).3.6. R11.6.3. Similarly. 2. Tcr. 2. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13. With this assumption.6. 2.1) where.18 Beam Design . the section dimensions b.1.3. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11.1) (ACI11.6.6. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3.1) (ACI 11.3.3.6. With this assumption.1) where the section dimensions bf. h. However. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.6.1.1) (ACI 11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.1. 2. 2.6(b)) (ACI 11.6.3.6. 2. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.6(b)) (ACI 11.1) (ACI 11.6.1.5.1.6. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.2. bw. h.6.1.6.1.3. hf. 2.3.1.6.1) (ACI 11.1. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11. R11. 2. 2. 2. 2.1) (ACI 11.1(c)) 2 .

Beam Design 2 . is limited to 60 ksi. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11. Tcr.75 by default (ACI 9. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.Chapter 2 .6.3.6. fyt.3.3).3.2.5.3) In the preceding expressions. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive). 11.3. 2.1).4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit. even if the material property is defined with a higher value.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11.6.19 . which is equal to 0. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.5. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength.7.3.6.6. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion.6) where.6.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit.6).6).Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section. and compression diagonals (ACI R11. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.5. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11. In that case.3. fy. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.6. At /s. θ is taken as 45 degrees. longitudinal bars.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11.6. Tcr.3. However.

5. a failure message is declared. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw . bw is replaced with b. If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit. ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1.20 Beam Design . the concrete section should be increased in size.75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11.6.2) 2 .6. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr).7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11.1) For rectangular sections. In that case.3.

The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition.3 independently. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis.21 .Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.Chapter 2 . To learn more about the design strips. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.5. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.6.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Slab Design 2 . The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. 2. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. In that case. 2. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.

2): As.6.12.2.min = 0.12. given the bending moment.6. described in the text that follows. 2.12. In some cases. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. This is the method used when drop panels are included.1(a)) (ACI 7. These two steps. at a given design section in a design strip.22 Slab Design .min = (ACI 7.min = 0.2. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. is obtained and reported.12.1(b)) (ACI 7. In that case. 2.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1(c)) 0. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. are repeated for every load combination. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. 2. Where openings occur. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.6.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 .1. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1.2. for each load combination.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.

interior. The column location (i.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.11.3).e. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. edge. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11.2). 2.1.Chapter 2 . 2. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.23 .11. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 .1.2.

γvx = 0.3.2 For corner columns. C-15) (ACI 421.5. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421.4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421. For interior columns. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13.1) For flat plates. C-12) For edge columns.2 Eq. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0.6.2 Eq. C-16) 2 .2 Eq.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates. C-11) (ACI 421.2 Eq.3.2. C-13) (ACI 421.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421.24 Slab Design .5.2 Eq.2 Eq.

2. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.1) where. (ACI 11. bo is the perimeter of the critical section. x and y. and for corner columns. respectively.25 . ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.1.2.11.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11. for edge columns.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11.11.2. 2.6. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.6. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.Chapter 2 . The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 . The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes.

and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.2) (ACI 11. φ.2. where. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section. If this ratio exceeds 1. the strength reduction factor.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11.6. 2. 2 . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.11.5.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11.5. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu.11. 2. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow. and Vmax.3.26 Slab Design .3.6. is 0. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3).11. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.1) (ACI 11.75 (ACI 9.11.11.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.3).0. Vc.1) 2.

2.. edge. 11.11.7. the concrete section should be increased in size. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. and corner column.11.2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax. i.6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. (ACI 11.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.4.3). Slab Design 2 .7.1.27 . Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.4.3.3.e.Chapter 2 . a failure condition is declared.

4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11. edge. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. 1/2-.2) (ACI 11.5. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. 5/8-. and interior columns respectively.5. and 8. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. s. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. g. the distance. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-.5d (ACI 11.3.11.5d. for corner.3) 2 .6. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7. When specifying shear studs.11.2) ⎧0. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5. 6. Height. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. and 3/4-inch diameters.11. The limits of so and the spacing. Therefore.28 Slab Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. so. 2. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0.

mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. mm Notations 3-1 . The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1. 3. For simplicity.1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. mm Mean value of do. mm Overall depth of a section. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). averaged around the critical shear perimeter. MPa 2 3-2 Notations . MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). mm Depth of compression block. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. mm Width of member. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement.

max Tus T* ut V* Vu. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. max εs Notations 3-3 . MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. N-mm Factored moment at section. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. N-mm Factored axial load at section. (0.max Vu. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face. MPa Torsional modulus. N Shear force resisted by concrete. to the effective depth. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement. mm Factored shear force at a section.Chapter 3 . Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy.

2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 1.0-02. 4. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear.0D + 0.2. wind (W). If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion.2(f)) Note that the 0.2D ± 1. 4. 4.1): 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2.0-02.0-02. and earthquake (E) loads.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.5(0.2. other appropriate load combinations should be used.5L 1.2D + 0.0-02.0S 0.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.35D 1.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.0W 1.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170. pattern live load (PL).0-02. 4.2.0E 1.75 PL) 1.0E (AS/NZS 1170.0D ± 1.2.4L + 1. snow (S). 4. 4.0-02. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .2.0-02.0W 1.0-02.2D + 0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2.4L ± 1.9D ± 1.0-02. live load (L).0W 1. 4. For AS 3600-01. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used.2D + 1. degrees 3. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).4L ± 1. 4.2.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.

3(c). Table 6. respectively. 19.1(b)).1. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.1).Chapter 3 . and torsion based on the beam moments.1.3(c)) (AS 2.1. and other criteria described in the text that follows.1.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. caution is advised.Design for AS 3600-01 3. load combination factors.1) (AS 6.2.1. (AS 2.1. 3. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa.1. for all framing type (AS 6. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. is defined as given in AS 2. shear forces. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits.1.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6. 6.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor.3: φ = 0.1. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6.1). however.2.2. torsion. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. Table 2. shear. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6.3(c)) 3. Limits on Material Strength 3-5 .2.1. φ.1.

1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3.5. 3. and torsion only. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5.5. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. for a particular station.1.1. shear. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design .2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.

65 ≤ γ ≤ 0.2. A uniform compressive stress of 0. and torsion only. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber.1a).7.003.2.2).Chapter 3 . hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1).2.85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.1. or the strength of the concrete. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned.2) Beam Design 3-7 . amax.3) γ = [0.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. fy . shear. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.1. is given by amax = γk u d where. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0.85 ku = 0.2.85 − 0.1. as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8.1. (AS 8. is limited to 500MPa (AS 6. the width.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.007( f 'c −28)] 0. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. (AS 8. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.2).15N ) (AS 10.

2.. where.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. M (i.e. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.3) in the preceding and following equations. ε = 0.4). which by default is 0.85 f 'c φb (AS 8.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1). the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design .5.2) where.003 b Cs c 0. designing top or bottom reinforcement).80 (AS 2.85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.1.2. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0.

ku > 0.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 .85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8.Chapter 3 . the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus .Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0.2.4. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8. 6.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8. If a > amax. or at the top * if M is negative.2.1.. where ( f 's − 0. i.1.2.e.1.1.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore.. and vice versa if M is negative.. a simplified stress block. designing top reinforcement).1.2.3).85 f ′ c 0.e.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. the flange comes under tension.5. and the flange is ignored. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above. if the moment is positive.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. In that case. is assumed if the flange is under compression.1.2.2. i. ε = 0. M (i.. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive. If the moment is negative.e.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 . no flanged beam data is used.5.e. 3. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. i.003 bf Ds * 0. 3.10 Beam Design .1. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8. as shown in Figure 3-2.

4.Chapter 3 . amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore.80 by default (AS 2. If a > Ds.4 (AS 8. However.11 . Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.1.1.1. Cf is given by: C f = 0. Cf. the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0. Cw.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds .2. in that case.3) in the preceding and the following equations. as shown in Figure 3-2. which is 0.Design for AS 3600-01 3. ku = 0. amax.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. the width of the beam is taken as bf. As1 = given by: (AS 8. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. is given by: a max = γk u d where.85 f 'c φb f where. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. the calculation for Ast has two parts. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.5. the balance of the moment.2. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds .3) If a ≤ Ds.2. amax ) Therefore. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 .

1.12 Beam Design .1. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.1. where ′ − 0.85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8.85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8.2. the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus . the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore. 6.85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax.003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 .2. If a1 > amax.

04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1.Chapter 3 .13 .04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 .2) An upper limit of 0.04bw d ⎧0.4.22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .5.1) f 'cf = 0.1. 3.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast .6 f 'c (AS 6.04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1.min = 0. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.1.Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.

1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. * 3.14 Beam Design .5. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1.2.2. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 . 3.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3.6 − β2 = 1.2. 13 (AS 8. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. with the corresponding load combination factors.2. for a particular load combination. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.1) β1 = 1. Vuc. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. that can be resisted by the concrete.5.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. Determine the shear force.1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8.2.7. Vuc. V .1) (AS 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.7.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1⎜1.7.

min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu.2. (AS 8.Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression. If φVu.5(c)(i)).35 w ⎜ s f sy. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv.5). If V * ≤ φVuc / 2.15 . ⎟ ⎠ 3.9) (AS 8. f do cot θ v and greater than Asv.Chapter 3 . the strength reduction factor.6) Given V .max . = s fsy.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8. whichever is greater (AS 8. Vuc.min shall be provided. and Vu.8) Beam Design 3 . max = 0.2. is 0. s otherwise Asv. where. V * − φVuc Asv .2.6bv d o Vu .2. min = Vuc + 0.max. Asv = 0.2.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8. φ.3).2.min < V * ≤ φVu. defined as: ( ) (AS 8.5. min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0.6 by default (AS 2.min .10) Asv. if D < bw /2 or 250 mm. Asv = 0 .min.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.
If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.
*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At
ut

=
=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,
2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,
2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,
0.4Σx y
2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c
b

c bw − 2c bw bw
Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:
*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At
where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))
* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.
*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. 3.21 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. 3. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. as described in the following sections.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. To learn more about the design strips. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.6.Chapter 3 . Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Slab Design 3 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.

6.1. 3.1. This is the method used when drop panels are included.1(b)) In addition.6.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9.6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. Where openings occur. 3. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9.1(a)) As ≥ 0.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps. 3.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.22 Slab Design . along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers.1. which are described in the following subsections. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. for each load combination.1): As ≥ 0.1. at a given design section in a design strip. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. is obtained and reported. given the bending moment. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1. are repeated for every load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. In some cases. 3 .1. In that case.

1.2. 3. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites..2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. interior.6. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.1. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.3).Design for AS 3600-01 3. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 .2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9.1). The column location (i.2.e. edge. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.6.23 .Chapter 3 .

3σ cp ≤ 0.2.3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. Vu .24 Slab Design .2.2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0.2.2.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.3(a)) where. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9.3σ cp ) b. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9.2. 3 .6. Vuo .2. is given as (AS 9. is given as (AS 9.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.6.2. when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.4(a)) 3.3(a)): a.5 f c' + 0.3(b)) (AS 9.4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1.2. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided.

2.3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001. where.2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.6. φ. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9.6.max. The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.7. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.25 .2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 .1).min = 3*Vu (AS 92.Given V*. V * − φVu Asv = .2. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. is the strength reduction factor.3.4(a).6. 3. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links.4. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm. and Vu.3 or 9. 3. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8. Vu.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.4.Chapter 3 . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.Design for AS 3600-01 3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.2.

3) (NZS 12.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.26 Slab Design .7. the concrete section should be increased in size.4) If V > φVmax.4.4).3. and corner column. Therefore. the minimum number of 3 . * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.3. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.. a failure condition is declared. i. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.6.4.7. edge. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12. 3.7.e.

The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.Chapter 3 .5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12. and 8.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.4. g.4.4. The limits of so and the spacing.3.4) (NZS 12. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. so.7. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. for corner.4) Slab Design 3 .4) (NZS 12. When specifying shear studs. edge.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5d. Height. the distance.7. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.27 . s.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.6. 3. 6. and interior columns respectively.7.5d s ≤ 0.

.

The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected. For simplicity.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. mm 2 Notations 4-1 . The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. 4. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985]. For light-weight concrete and torsion.

MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm 4-2 Notations . mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. assumed as 200. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. mm Torsional constant.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement.

mm Normalized design moment. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness.Chapter 4 . mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. MPa Neutral axis depth. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. MPa Torsional shear stress. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section. mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section.

4.6L 1.4.75PL) 1.6S 1.3).1.6(0. snow (S).4. mm Lever arm.4D ± 1.3) (BS 2.0D ± 1.2D + 1.2W 1.4. γf (BS 2.4. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2.4D + 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .4D + 1. live load (L). pattern live load (PL).2W 1.6L + 1.4. and wind (W) loads.3) (BS 2. For BS 8110-1997.4D 1. 1.2W (BS 2.2L ± 1.3) (BS 2.2L + 1.4W 1. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain.2S ± 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.4W 1.3).2D + 1.4D + 1.2S ± 1. 0.2D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. and considering that wind forces are reversible.

It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.7. γm.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. as taken from BS Table 2. including pattern live load. 4. should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3. fcu. other appropriate load combinations should be used.50 1.2 (BS 2. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. If other grades are used. the default factor of 1. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table.4. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.15 1. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.2). 4. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 . typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations.1. this value should be overwritten as necessary.Chapter 4 .4. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. Note that for reinforcement. Note that the automatic combination.

torsion. load combination factors.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and torsion only.5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. and torsion based on the beam moments. with the corresponding load factors. In such cases. shear forces.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.5. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. and other criteria described below. the 4-6 Beam Design .1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. shear. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. shear. for a particular station.

The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.4.1. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.5. is first calculated for a section. In addition.Chapter 4 .4.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. βb ≥ 0.4. less than.4). hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. Msingle.1). or equal to Msingle.4. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.4) Beam Design 4-7 .156 2 (BS 3. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.4).9) (BS 3. the width. x/d ≤ 0. Msingle = K'fcu bd . The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3.2. See Figure 4-1. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4.5. Furthermore.4..4. 4.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.1. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. or the strength of the concrete. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. shear.4. where K' = 0.1fcu Ag) (BS 3.5. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4).4. In such cases. The design procedure used by SAFE. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3. 4.e. and torsion only.4.

If M > Msingle. is then given by: As = M .4.4.4.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.95d z = d ⎜ 0. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design .4. or at the top if M is negative.5 + 0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.4. the area of tension reinforcement.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3.87 f y z (BS 3.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.25 − ⎜ 0. where 0.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle.4.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0. As.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.

4.4.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3.2.2. 2.4.1.4. Based on this assumption. Fig 2.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.1.4. and ' f ' s = 0.4.4.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0.4.5 + 0.4. Beam Design 4-9 .e.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. i.1.2..1.777d z = d ⎜ 0. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.e.5. where (BS 3.4.5.87 f y d − d ' ( ) .2.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.3. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.1. 4.2. no flanged beam data is used.25 − ⎜ 0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3. designing top reinforcement).9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4.Chapter 4 . M (i.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0. 2.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.5. Fig 2.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.5.5. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf..3.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.

4.10 Beam Design .9 ⎭ (BS 3.5 + 0.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.45 (BS 3.4. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. See Figure 4-2. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.67 fcu/gm 0.4.0035 0.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.4. e = 0.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 .4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.4.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.95d 0.

However.4. where 0.4) If Kw ≤ 0. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.Chapter 4 .4.87 f y z Beam Design 4 . In that case. 2 As = M + 0.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3. where (BS 3. As = 0. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.4.156 (BS 3.1 f cu bd (0.45d − h f ) 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.4. the width of the beam is taken as bf.11 .5) β f = 0. as shown in Figure 4-2.5h f ) .4). Cw.4.4. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. If a > hf.45d then.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4.4.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3.87 f y (d − 0. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0. Cf. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4.9x (BS 3. in that case.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.87 f y (d − 0.4. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.4) If a ≤ hf.4.4.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0.

5.1.4).67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3. Fig 2.1.777d ) 0. 4 .25 (BS 3.12.4) where.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.4.4. 2.5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.4.5.4. and ' f ' s = 0.12 Beam Design .2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0.4.4.3.2.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.3. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4.5.1.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.5 + 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.95d ⎜ 0. 2.4.87 f y (d − 0.4. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4. Fig 2.87 f f (0.4.5.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.

40 100 0.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.Chapter 4 .13 .24 0.18 100 0.6.20 As' bh Web in tension T.5.or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.32 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.24 0.36 0.12.4 bf bw ≥ 0. which is taken from BS Table 3.12. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.20 An upper limit of 0.or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.4 bf ⎯ 100 0.48 0.3).13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T. if it is required.25 (BS 3.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.1): Beam Design 4 .

5.63 fcu .5.2) For light-weight concrete.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress. that can be resisted by the concrete. 4. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.4.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. Determine the shear stress.4) 4 .14 Beam Design .5. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. v. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3. for a particular load combination. with the corresponding load combination factors.2. vc.04bw d ⎧0. 5 MPa) (BS 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.8 fcu .4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.

4) (BS 3.8) (BS 3.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.4.5.5.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ . vc.4.4.5.4.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.5.4.8) (BS 2.Chapter 4 .5. 4.4.1) However.5. Table 3. Table 3.Design for BS 8110-97 4.2.4. BS 3.5. the following limitations also apply: 0.3): Beam Design 4 . Table 3.4.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3. and vmax.4. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.2. Table 3.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.4.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.4. is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0.15 .4.5.4.12) 0.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3.8. vc.5.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.4.5. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3.4.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.

5. 4. Table 3.4bw = sv 0. 4 . a failure condition is declared.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In the preceding expressions.5.16 Beam Design . Table 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0. Determine critical torsion stress. obtained from each load combination.5. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa. vt.4) Asv 0.3. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.4.4.5. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3.87 f yv If (v’c + 0.4.7) (BS 3.5. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.2) (BS 3.4. (BS 3. Determine special section properties.87 f yv If v > vmax.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0.

5) Beam Design 4 . vt. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.4. In typical framed construction.4. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.17 . with the corresponding load combination factors.5. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.4.Design for BS 8110-97 4. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.4.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2.1) For flanged sections. vt.13). but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.8 f cu .1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.4. The torsional shear stress.Chapter 4 . further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.4.3.5. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2.

Asv. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. vt.4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. is calculated as: Asv .6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. If vt > vt.min is defined as: vt .t /sv.3.min.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.t sv = T 0.8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5.5.6). it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2.4. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2. vt.18 Beam Design .4.6).067 fcu .2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.min.0.3.4N/mm 2 x 0.min.8 x1 y1 (0. vt.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . In that case. vt. For lightweight concrete.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.5) 4.4. However. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.4.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .5.0.7) In the preceding expressions. vt is less than the threshold limit. 4 .min = min 0.067 fcu . x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.4.min = min 0.

In that case. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.19 .4) If the combination of shear stress. v and torsional shear stress. Beam Design 4 . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.63 fcu .5) For light-weight concrete.8 fcu . vt exceeds this limit. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.Chapter 4 . 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5.4. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. the concrete section should be increased in size. a failure message is declared.

refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. 4 . The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. is obtained and reported.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. 4. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. 4.6.20 Slab Design . To learn more about the design strips. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. for each load combination. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.

12.0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3.7.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0.Chapter 4 . 4.5. at a given design section in a design strip.1). the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.Design for BS 8110-97 4.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 4.2.6.12.3) In addition. BS Table 3.6.6. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections.6. given the bending moment.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3. 4. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .7.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.5. In some cases.3.6).12.6.1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3. In that case.7.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. This is the method used when drop panels are included. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.21 .6. Where openings occur.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.

6. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.5d 1.22 Slab Design .5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.4.5d 1. edge. Table 3.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.7.4. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.4.5d 1.2.1).7. The column location (i.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.7. interior.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.4.7.5d Interior Column 1.7.6): 1 1 0.8) 4 ..5. 1. 3.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3.e.7.5.

6.23 .5. 5MPa) (BS 3.4) (BS 3. 4.5.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3. 3.63 fcu .2.4) v ≤ min(0. v.4.2.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.Chapter 4 .4.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 .3) 1.6.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.2) However.7. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.4.4) For light-weight concrete. where (BS 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .4.4.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.8 f cu .6.5.5.7. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.7.7.4. the nominal design shear stress. the following limitations also apply: 0.4.6.5M ⎛ y 1. Table 3.7. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. Table 3.5.8) (BS 3.

25 ⎪1. 4.2.24 Slab Design .7.6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6. 4 .6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.7.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.7.5).3.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3. 3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow. 4. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.7.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv
If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv
If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

Outermost peripheral line of studs
d 2
gx x

Outermost peripheral line of studs
d 2

Free edge

Iy
gx

gy
s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

Critical section centroid
y Ix

Free edge

y
Ix

x
Critical section centroid

Free edge
Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations
Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

2.5L 0.5L + 0.2.4D 1.3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses. Table C. snow (S).5(0. pattern live load (PL). Table C.9D + 1.5S 1.5S ± 0.25D + 1. wind (W).75 PL) 1.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations .3. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).3) (CSA 8.5L + 0. live load (L).25D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.4W 1.4W (CSA 8. Table C.4W 0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.5S + 0.5S 0.5S 1.2.5L ± 0.5S + 0.1) 1.9D + 1.3.25D + 1.9D + 1.8.3. Table C.3-04.5L ± 0.9D + 1.1 Case 2) (CSA 13.25D + 1.5S 0. and earthquake (E) loads. degrees Shear strength factor 5.5S ± 0.4W 0.2.5L 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.25D + 1.9D + 1.25D + 1.25D + 1.9D + 1. For CSA A23.5L 1.3.4.5L 0.

1.3-04 code is used.0D ± 1.1. (CSA 8.5L ± 1.9D ± 1. however.4W 1.4.3. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2.1) 5.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.0E (CSA 8.0D + 0.6. φ. respectively.25D + 0.0D + 0. 5.1).3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten.9D + 0.4W 0.1 Case 4) (CSA 8.1).5L ± 1.0E 1. for all framing types (CSA 8.0E 1.4W 0.2. (CSA 8. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.5S ± 1.25D + 0. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.0E 1.25S ± 1.6.5.4.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.3.5L + 0. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.4W 0.65 for concrete φs = 0.3-04 1.Design for CSA A23.4W 1.5L ± 1.5S ± 1.25D ± 1.Chapter 5 . Table C. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8. Table C. caution is advised.4W 1.2) (CSA 8.9D + 0.25S ± 1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.0D + 0.

In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5. shear. and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and torsion based on the beam moments.5. for a particular station. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design .1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. shear. shear forces.1.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. load combination factors. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. torsion. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5. with the corresponding load factors.

e. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.Chapter 5 .5. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. In such cases.Design for CSA A23. 5.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.1) Beam Design 5-7 . the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.2. designing top or bottom reinforcement). In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10..1. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible. and torsion only. the width. Furthermore.3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement. where.1. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10.4).1. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. or the strength of the concrete. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1). Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1.5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10. 5. shear. Mf (i.7). the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The design procedure used by SAFE.

67 cb = (CSA 10.1.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.7) (CSA 10.1.2).5.2) in the preceding and the following equations. β1.67.85 – 0.0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.97 – 0.0025f'c ≥ 0.4.5. β1 = 0. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.1.7) (CSA 10. The parameters α1.65 (CSA 8. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.0015f'c ≥ 0.

1.5.1.2. If a > ab (CSA 10.Design for CSA A23. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10.0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10.1. or at the top if Mf is negative. 10.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .Chapter 5 . where f ′ = 0.3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive.3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 .2).

5.67 cb = (CSA 10.97 – 0. and vice versa if Mf is negative.e.1.5.2) in the preceding and the following equations. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1.2. no flanged beam data is used.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore.5.4.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0.0015 f' c ≥ 0.1) where.7) 5 .5.2.e.1. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.4. As = As1 + As2. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.0025 f' c ≥ 0.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.10.10 Beam Design .5.2..85 – 0.1.7) (CSA 10. β1.2 5..67 β1 = 0. The parameters α1.1. designing top reinforcement).1.1. the value of φc is 0. i. the total tension reinforcement. Mf (i.65 (CSA 8. 5. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10.2.2.7) (CSA 10.

Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab.1. Cw as shown in Figure 5-2.7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.Chapter 5 . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . However.3-04 If a ≤ hs. As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs .0035 bf hs (CSA 10. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. ab ) c ε = 0. ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 . the balance of the moment. Cf.11 .Design for CSA A23. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. If a > hs. calculation for As has two parts.

compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10. If a1 > ab (CSA 10. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ .1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. where 5 .1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10.2).7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs .12 Beam Design .2).5. and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.5.

1. 5.3.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0.5.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.1) An upper limit of 0.1.2.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.1.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.3) In addition.5.13 .5.1.5. 10.Chapter 5 .Design for CSA A23. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.65 (CSA 8.5.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5.2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. Vc.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. By default it is taken as 0.04bw d ⎧0. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11. that can be resisted by the concrete.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. Determine the shear force.4.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. Vc. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. for a particular loading combination.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. 5.2.2).2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete.14 Beam Design . 5 . Vf.5. 5. with the corresponding load combination factors.3.

β is determined in accordance with the simplified method. It is determined according to CSA 11. When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. (CSA 8. and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force.3. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand.75.3): Beam Design 5 . ⎪0. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data.6.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2. it is the width of the web of the beam.3. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement.21 (CSA 11. its value is 1 (CSA 8.2). For normal density concrete.6.3.3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2.Design for CSA A23.3. which is taken by the program as the default value.5). For rectangular beams.6. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply.3.6. the general method is used (CSA 11. h.00. the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa.3. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand. bw is the effective web width.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.2). and the tensile force is negligible.6. The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.6. Its value is normally between 0.9d or 0.15 .72h. if applicable. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.Chapter 5 . The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8.6. It is taken as the greater of 0.3).4). d v is the effective shear depth. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete.2). For concrete using lower density aggregate.6.85. as follows (CSA 11. β is taken as 0. For flanged beams.6. and described further in the following sections. If the overall beam depth.5): ⎧1.1 and 0.4. it is the width of the beam. ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0.

β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11. However. In summary.c) In the preceding expression.6.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement.3 c) where.18.16 Beam Design .3.18 (CSA 11. sze. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.6. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate. β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm.3. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11. and ag < 20mm. for simplified cases.6. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv.3. β is taken as 0.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa. and ag ≥ 20mm.3. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ .6. ⎪ 0.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa.18 (CSA 11. or 5 . β = 0.3a).3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement. shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement.3. ag.3. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. the crack spacing parameter. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 . s ze = 35s z ≥ 0.

and linearly interpolated between these values. (CSA 11. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.6.4(a)) (CSA 2.40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11. Nf is taken as positive for tension.3.17 .6.3. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations.6. The longitudinal strain.4) In the preceding expression. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11.3.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities.3.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. 11. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.Chapter 5 . εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa.3(b)).Design for CSA A23.85Sz otherwise.3.3.3.6. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv.3.4(a)) (CSA 11. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.6. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11.3. 11.6.4). if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.3. the equivalent crack spacing parameter.3.6. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0.1. Beam Design 5 . ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.3-04 tension is not negligible.6.6.4): β= 0.6. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa.

3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11. In the first pass. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11.6.6.6. Vc.003 (CSA 11.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11.5. the program performs the design in two passes.3. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required. taken as half of the total area. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided.3.18 Beam Design . εx = M f d v + V f + 0. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11.max.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods.6. the shear strength of the section due to concrete. To check this condition. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section.3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr .3. it is recalculated with the following equation. and Vr.max = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative. 5.5.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11.3.3.4(d)). An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0.1) 5 . For sections closer than dv from the face of the support. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf.2.4(e)).

The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11.3).3.6.3.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.Design for CSA A23. 11.3.6.8.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.3. which was described previously.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr . h.2).2. (CSA 11. Beam Design 5 .3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11.6.6.max .1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0.3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .3.3. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees.6. If the overall beam depth.1. It is determined according to CSA 11. the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.8.19 .2) In the preceding equations. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11.3.Chapter 5 . a failure condition is declared. or by calculation. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2.3).5. the term θ is used.4).2.2. whenever applicable.25Tcr. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.1) (CSA 11.8.3. Similar to the β factor.3. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0.

5 .3) If the axial force is tensile.6.6.3. Tf. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa. 5. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 . The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections.3. the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11.6. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6.5. f y ≤ 400 MPa. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load. θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11.3.3). f y > 400 MPa. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. Determine critical torsion capacity.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. Determine special section properties.3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4). The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.20 Beam Design . θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 .

5. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.3. such as Ac.2).Design for CSA A23. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11.Chapter 5 .3. and ph are calculated.9. However. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.3). the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. special section properties. Ao. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2.2. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.3-04 5. With this assumption.21 . If redistribution is desired. pc.5. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 . Aoh. with the corresponding load combination factors.5. However.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. such as Aoh. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. and ph. With this assumption. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. Ao. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.

3.2.3.9.10.3.3) (CSA 11.3.10.3) (CSA 11.10.3.1) (CSA 11. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.1) (CSA 11.2.9.65.4).4) where. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.5. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.1) (CSA 11.9.4) where the section dimensions bf. h. hf. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.3) (CSA 11.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete.3.2. 5.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.3) (CSA 11.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11.1) (CSA 11.2.10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.10. 5 .1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section. Tcr. which is equal to 0.10. and c are shown in Figure 5-3. h.2.22 Beam Design .3. bw.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.9. the section dimensions b.9. Similarly.3.

3-04 5. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11. is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11. Tcr.10. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit.5.23 .1). In that case.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit.Chapter 5 . Tcr. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr.3.Design for CSA A23. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 .5 N f + (V f − 0.3) Mf Al = dv + 0.3).3. However. At /s. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0.2.9. torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.

25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.3. θ is computed as previously described for shear. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. If the general method is being used.10. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0.9) In the preceding expressions.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1. a failure message is declared.3.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11.10. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit.6.10. In that case.8.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.2. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. 11. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr). bw is replaced with b.24 Beam Design . A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0.4) For rectangular sections. the concrete section should be increased in size.3.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11. 5 .

6.304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23.25 . These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.Chapter 5 . is obtained and reported.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. 5. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Slab Design 5 . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.Design for CSA A23. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.3-04 5. To learn more about the design strips. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.

04 times the gross cross-sectional area.002 bh (CSA 7.1.6. for each load combination. 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. given the bending moment.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13.26 Slab Design . the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1) In addition. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.10. In that case. 5.8. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1): As ≥ 0.6.1.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6. 5 . The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. In some cases.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 5. at a given design section in a design strip. Where openings occur.

3.3.6.3.6.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu. edge. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.Chapter 5 . where Slab Design 5 .3-04 5.2). d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5.2.Design for CSA A23.2.1 and CSA 13. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.e.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13.3..3.3. The column location (i. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.3).27 . interior. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.

(CSA 13.3. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums. and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2. 5 .3.3.28 Slab Design .4.38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13.3).4. βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section.1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13. ⎩ The value of (CSA 13. exceeds 300 mm.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span. and (CSA 13. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.4.5.3.3.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0.1) where.6.4. d. and ⎪for corner columns.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 . 5. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.10.2) If the effective depth.

max.6. 5.max = 0.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0.1). The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.3) 5. φs. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13.6.3.8. 5. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. and vf..3-04 5. where. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3. Slab Design 5 .28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13.6.2. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f . is the strength reduction factor.8.2) Given vf.Design for CSA A23.3.6.29 .2. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.Chapter 5 . vc. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.75λφ c (CSA 13.

5) If vf > vf. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.4d. and interior columns respectively. a failure condition is declared. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the concrete section should be increased in size.6.8.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0. (CSA 13. 5. edge. 5 . edge. and corner column. for corner. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.max. i.8.e.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13. Therefore.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf. 6.max.30 Slab Design .. and 8.3.

9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13.3.Design for CSA A23.3-04 5. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7. The limits of so and the spacing.56λφc f 'c v f > 0.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0. s.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. the distance.4 d ⎧ 0. When specifying shear studs.6) Slab Design 5 .6. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.4d.Chapter 5 . Height.6) (CSA 13.8.3.31 . and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.8. so.3.

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Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code. mm 2 Notations 6-1 . For simplicity.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. However. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. 6.

MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. MPa 6-2 Notations . MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs.

max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. N Depth of neutral axis. N Shear force at ultimate design load.max u VRdc VRd. mm Torsion at ultimate design load. mm Flange thickness. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement. mm Lever arm. N-mm Torsional cracking moment. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Design moment at a section.Chapter 6 . mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd. N-mm Normalized design moment.

10a) ∑ξ γ j G. ∑γ j ≥1 G.1Qk . wind (W).1Qk . live load (L). Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq.12b. j + γ P P + γ Q . j Gk . if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). and earthquake (E) loads. j + γ P P + γ Q .2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete. 6. j + γ P P + γ Q . 6.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq.10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs. 6.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.iψ 0. j Gk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq. ∑G j ≥1 k.i Qk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq.iψ 0. pattern live load (PL).1 + ∑ γ Q . 6. 6.10a and 6.i Qk .1ψ 0.12b) For this code. 6.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2.1 + ∑ γ Q .i Qk . 6.10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G.iψ 0. snow (S). and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations .i Qk . j Gk .1Qk .10b.1 + ∑ γ Q .

sup D γGj.inf D ± γQ.i S γGj.1 S ± γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0. 6.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs.sup D ± γQ.1 S + γQ.sup D + γQ. 6.1 ψ0.i L + γQ.1 L γGj.supD + γQ.1 L ξ γGj.75)γQ.1 W + γQ.1 W (EC0 Eq.inf D ± γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq. 6.i L γGj.10) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.0E + ψ2.10a and 6.1 L γGj.i W γGj. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.1 L ± γQ.supD + γQ. 6.sup D ± γQ.1 ψ0.supD + γQ.1 PL ξ γGj.supD + (0.1 W + γQ.i ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.10b) (EC0 Eq.i W γGj.i S γGj. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6. 6.3): γGj.0E D ± 1.10a) (EC0 Eq.10) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.supD + (0.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.i L D ± 1.1 W γGj.i ψ0.i S ± γQ.sup D + γQ.1 L + γQ.i S (EC0 Eq.1 PL γGj.sup D + γQ.sup D γGj.i L + ψ2.i ψ0.i ψ0. 6.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .supD + (0.75)γQ.sup D + γQ. 6.i W γGj. 6. γGj.Chapter 6 .i L D ± 1.1 L + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D ± γQ.1 ψ0.1 S ± γQ. 6. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.4.10a) (EC0 Eq. 6.sup D + γQ.1 W γGj.i ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.sup D ξ γGj. 6.i L γGj.sup D + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.i W + γQ. 6.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.1 PL γGj.0E + ψ2.i ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.75)γQ. 6. 6.i S γGj. 6.1 W + γQ.10b.10a) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.

sup D ± γQ.i L γGj.i ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.5 = 0.00 γQ.1 S + γQ.i ψ0.1 ψ0.1 S ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.sup D + γQ.1 ψ0.i ψ0.i L γGj.i ψ0.i W ξ γGj.1 ψ0.1 ψ0.1 L ± γQ.i ψ0.i S γGj.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.i L D ± 1.10b) (EC0 Eq.10b) (EC0 Eq. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.sup = 1.1 S + γQ.inf = 1. 6. 6.i W ξ γGj.i S ξ γGj.1 W γGj.1 W + γQ.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.1 W + γQ.5 (snow load.1) (EC0 Table A1.sup D ± γQ. 6.sup D + γQ.i L + ψ2.1 L ± γQ.1 L + γQ.7 (live load.i W ξ γGj.i ξ = 1.sup D + γQ.i S γGj.i S (EC0 Eq.i L γGj.1) (EC0 Table A1.1 γQ.0E + ψ2.i ψ0.12b) For both sets of load combinations.inf D ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.35 γGj.5 = 1. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.6 (wind load) = 0.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .inf D ± γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0.0E D ± 1.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 W ξ γGj.i ψ0. assumed not to be storage) = 0.1 ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.inf D ± γQ.85 (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.i ψ0.i S D ± 1.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.1 S ± γQ.i ψ0.0E + ψ2. 6.i W γGj.i L γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 W + γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 W + γQ.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.1 L + γQ.1 W γGj.1 ψ0.1) (EC0 Table A1. γGj. 6.1 ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.

7(2)) (EC2 3. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength. respectively (EC2 3. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1. αcc is taken as 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.1. 6. should be 400 and 600 MPa. f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3.2(2)). fyk.i ψ2. γs and γc as shown here.2.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3. 6. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.6(1)).1.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength.Chapter 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2.3 (live.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied.i = 0. Limits on Material Strength 6-7 .2(3)).1) (EC0 Table A1.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.2.1. fck.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3. other appropriate load combinations should be used.6(1)) (EC2 3.2.

5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. shear. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and torsion based on the beam moments. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design .5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.5. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Table 2. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6. torsion.4(1).2. These values can be overwritten. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. 6.4). however. load combination factors.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2. The user should consider those separately. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. caution is advised.4.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement.2. shear forces. γc = 1.4. shear. For accidental and earthquake situations. γs = 1. the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. for a particular station. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. and torsion only.

The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. or the strength of the concrete. In such cases.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis.7(3)).1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1. Fig 3.Chapter 6 .1.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6.1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. In such cases.5) (EC2 3. with the corresponding load factors.1.5. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. Fig 3. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.7(3). the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.7(3). The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3.1. the width.5. 6. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 . the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.

44 k2 = k4 = 1. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5. the following values are used: k1 = 0.8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0.7(3)) (EC2 3.5(4)) (EC 5.54 (EC 5. δ. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.5(4)) (EC2 5.5(4)) (EC 5. ( x d )lim .1. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.7(3)) λ = 0.10 Beam Design .5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.1.8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore.5(4)).7(3)) (EC2 3.25(0. The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1. 6 . as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa. is summarized in the subsections that follow. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.and T-beams).6 + 0.

and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam. m. or equal to mlim.5. are obtained first. m. less than. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. The normalized design moment.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6.Chapter 6 . mlim. the normalized moment. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.11 .2.1. is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 . mlim.

If m > mlim. a singly reinforced beam is designed. f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement. and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement.12 Beam Design . As. The area of compression and tension reinforcement. and is given by: 6 . A's and As. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'. or at the top if MEd is negative. ωlim. are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.

7(4).1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.e. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6..e.1. designing top reinforcement). MEd (i.. no flanged beam data is used. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 . 3.1.1. i.5.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6.1. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.5. If the stress block extends beyond the flange. 6.2. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. 3.5.2.2. 3. Based on this assumption.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.2.13 . the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.Chapter 6 .2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.2.1.1. The normalized design moment.1.2. Initially. m. additional calculation is required. See Figure 6-2.8) 6. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.5(4). Fig 3.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω.

is determined as follows: 6 . Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. However. If a > hf.14 Beam Design . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. as shown in Figure 6-2. the width of the beam is taken as bf. M1 = M − M2. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. in that case. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web. the calculation for As has two parts.

2.15 . f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. Beam Design 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim.1. ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.Chapter 6 . ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim. 3. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.7(4). Fig 3. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

2.5.0013bd (EC2 9.1(3)).3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As . that can be resisted by the concrete. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. Table 3.5. VEd. 6 .1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.c.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.2): Determine the factored shear force.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.2.12. VRd.12. for a particular load combination.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.1) (EC2 3. Determine the shear reinforcement required.16 Beam Design .1) f ctm = 2.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. Table 3. Determine the shear force.1(1)) As .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1. Table 3.min = 0.12. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0.2. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. the following steps are involved (EC2 6.1.1.min = 0. 6.

2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.2. 6. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.18 γ c ν min = 0.2.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.c = 0.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2.2(1)) (EC2 6.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6. 6.c. VRd.2. and k1 are taken as: C Rd .2. vmin.17 .02 bw d (EC2 6.15 Beam Design 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.5.2.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.2.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2(1)) (EC2 6.Chapter 6 .c = ⎡C Rd . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .2(1)) (EC2 6. is calculated as: 13 VRd .5.c.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.

The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.2.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values.2.max.2.2. VRd.2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc. VRdc.3(3)) (EC2 6. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0.5.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.3(1)) (EC2 6.6⎜1 − z = 0.2(6)) (EC2 6.2. Asw Asw.18 Beam Design .9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd. 6 .3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd .08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9. a failure condition is declared.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw.min s = 0.2.3(3)) (EC2 6.2.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd .3(3)) (EC2 6.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd.3(3)) Asw. obtained from each load combination.max.

However.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. and zi are calculated. If redistribution is desired. 6. TEd. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. tef. uk. 6. Determine special section properties. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.5. u.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. 6. Beam Design 6 . such as Ak.3.3.5. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. special section properties. These properties are described in the following (EC2 6.3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.Chapter 6 . Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Determine critical torsion capacity.2). the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.19 . the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd.3.1(2)).5.

the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6.2(3)) 6 . it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.2(1)) (EC2 6. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i.3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6.3. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm.2(1)) (EC2 6. the section dimensions b.2(1)) (EC2 6. However.3.3.2(3)) where. and uk. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness. With this assumption. With this assumption. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.3. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties.2(1)) (EC2 6. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.20 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls.2(1)) (EC2 6.3.3. h.3.2(1)) (EC2 6. Similarly. such as Ak.

bw.3.05 / γ c (EC2 6.2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6. h. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.2(1)) 6.1.3. is first calculated.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 .c VRd .Chapter 6 .2(5)) where VRd. Vt.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.c (EC2 6.21 .2.3. In that case.5. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6.3.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied. 6. and compression diagonals. hf. longitudinal bars. the shear due to this torsion. calculated as: TRd . followed by the required stirrup area.c is as defined in the previous section and TRd.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0.3. However.c is the torsional cracking moment.2.0 TRd .5. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9. if the equation is not satisfied. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1.

2(4)) where TRd.3(2)).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.3.8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6. as previously defined for beam shear. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd .3.2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts. θ is taken as 45 degrees. while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.3. In the preceding expressions.max (EC2 6. The code allows any value between 21.22 Beam Design .0 VRd .2.2(4)) 6 .max.max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .max + VEd ≤ 1.

6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. 6.Chapter 6 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.6. Slab Design 6 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. In that case. 6. To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. a failure message is declared. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. the concrete section should be increased in size. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.23 .

the slab width is adjusted accordingly.2. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.6.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. 6.1(1)) As .6.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9.0013bd (EC2 9.1.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 . Where openings occur. are repeated for every load combination.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.6.min = 0. In some cases. for each load combination. at a given design section in a design strip.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.1.1.2. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. These two steps.1. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.min = 0.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).24 Slab Design .3. described in the subsections that follow. In that case. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1. 6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1): As . the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. is obtained and reported. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. given the bending moment. 6.

30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.e.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.4.Chapter 6 .6. The column location (i.1) fctm = 2.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6.1) (EC2 Table 3.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. interior.1(3)).2. 6. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized.1.1) (EC2 Table 3.2(1)).4.12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.. edge. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0. Slab Design 6 .6.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. 6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.2.25 .1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2.

2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .4(1)) 6 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.4.2.4.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.6.4.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.c = ⎡C Rd .26 Slab Design .

vEd. and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.4(1)) ν min = 0.4.4. conservatively taken as zeros.4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.c = 0.4. is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .2.4. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.4.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.4(1)) (EC2 6.27 .4(1)) (EC2 6.4.4.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0. conservatively taken as zeros. C Rd . the nominal design shear stress.Chapter 6 .15 6.0 d (EC2 6.6.4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively.02 (EC2 6.4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.18 γ c (EC2 6.

6.75v Rd . (EC2 6.max.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd.c.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams. vRd. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. Asw (v Ed − 0.4.6. Given vEd. 6. a failure condition is declared. and vRd.3.5 f ywd . 6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. the concrete section should be increased in size.28 Slab Design .6. 6 .3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.c ) = u1 sr 1.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6.3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.5).max.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.ef If vEd > vRd.6.4.

The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 . 6. i.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9. Therefore.3. edge. and corner column.6. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. edge.Chapter 6 .4.3. and 8.29 . the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6..e.3(1)). Height.6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. for corner. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and interior columns respectively.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. 6. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.

and 20-millimeter diameter. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.3(1)) 6 .4.3d. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.3(1)) (EC2 9. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.75d g ≤ 1.3(1)) (EC2 9. The limits of so and the spacing. s. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. 12-.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0.30 Slab Design .5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters. When specifying shear studs.4. so. 14-.3(1)) (EC2 9.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0.4.4. 16-.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4. g. the distance.4.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations
Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm
2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm
4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum
2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

Limits on Material Strength
The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

Partial Safety Factors
The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1.4(b)). In such cases. βb ≥ 0. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4(a)).5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.1.2. ⎧0.max is defined as: ε c . In such cases. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. where εc.5. or the strength of the concrete. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.9) (CP 6.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. 7..e. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.2.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design .0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.0035 − 0.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore.1.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0.1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6.5.1. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.2. the width. with the corresponding load factors.

shear.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.2.4(c)) ⎧0.4(a)).094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution.1. In addition.2. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Msingle = K'fcu bd .Chapter 7 .4(b)). Fig 6.2. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.1) The design procedure used by SAFE. As. is obtained first for a section. 7.5.156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. where 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. less than. is obtained from: As = M .1.2. Msingle.1.4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 .1. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than. or equal to Msingle. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. where 2 (CP 6. and torsion only.2.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. hence.1.2.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.1.87 f y z (CP 6. all beams are designed for major direction flexure.4(a). If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.1fcuAg) (CP 6.

If M > Msingle.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.25 − ⎜ 0.2.2.5 + 0.1.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6. or at the top if M is negative.4(c)) (CP 6.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.1.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.1.2.95d z = d ⎜ 0. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.

1.. 7.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.2. designing top reinforcement). Fig.4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.1. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.e.9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.1. no flanged beam data is used. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0. 3.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.2.2.2.4(a). M (i.87 f y .1.5.Chapter 7 . Beam Design 7-9 .45 .2.. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7.87 f y z + 0.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.5.5 + 0. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.36 .25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.2.2. 3.2.5.95d 0. i.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.4(c)) 7. Based on this assumption.1. for ⎪ ⎪d − z . for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.e.4(c).1.2.6. Fig 6.1. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.

25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.95d.2.2.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ . Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. See Figure 7-2.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. 0.2.36 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.1. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.4(a).45 . Fig 6. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6.1.1) If a ≤ hf.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. However.4(c).5 + 0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M . for ⎪ 0.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. Fig 6.1.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. in that case.10 Beam Design . If a > hf .72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6. the width of the beam is taken as bf.2.4(c)) (CP 6. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.1. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.

225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.4. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.5h f ) bf hf ec 0.4.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 . Cf. In that case.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.67 fcu/gm 0. ⎪0.9 x − h f ) 0. x ≤ 0. x ≤ 0.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.4.33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 . as shown in Figure 7-2.5h f ) .45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 .1 f cu bd (0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.Chapter 7 . Cw.11 .5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0.4d then.87 f y (d − 0.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. where (BS 3. x ≤ 0.5) β f = 0.4.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0.

4(c)).12 Beam Design .2. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.1.87 f y ( d − 0. where (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.1. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0.2.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.32 ⎪ ⎪0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. 7 .5h f ) ) .4(d)) ⎧0. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.045 for ⎩ ⎧0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.2.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.1.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.

87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.13 .5h f ) Mf + Mw .87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.4(c).5 + 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.95d ⎜ 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. where 0.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. Fig 3.1.2.5 + 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0.87 f y (d − 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.95d ⎜ 0. and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.6.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0. 3.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K.Chapter 7 .9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 .67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where.2.

20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0.1.20 0.1.32 0.40 0.26 ⎯ 100 0.2.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.13 100 0. if it is required. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.2.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.36 0.5. which is taken from CP Table 9.1.24 fy = 460 MPa 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table. which is taken from CP Table 9.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.1).20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.4 bf bw ≥ 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.2.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.1.2.1 (CP 9.1(CP 9.14 Beam Design .48 0.3): 7 .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.24 0.

1.15 . that can be resisted by the concrete.1. Determine the shear stress. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress.5.2. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6.2.04bw d ⎧0. v.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. 7.5(a)) 7.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. vc. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.5. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 . vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. vc.5.Chapter 7 .04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.2. the following steps are involved (CP 6.8 fcu .2.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0. 7 MPa) (CP 6. for a particular load combination. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2.5): Determine the shear stress.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9.1.3) 7. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.

5(c).1.2.2.1.5(c).5(k)) 0.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.2. and vmax.1. the following limitations also apply: 0.16 Beam Design . CP 6.00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.2.5(c).25 However.1.5(k)) 7. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6.6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.67 1.1. Table 6.2.2.3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.2.3) (CP 6.5(c).3) ≥ 0.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0.1.1. as: 7 .15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3. vr. vc. Table 6.2.1.2. Table 6.5(g)) (CP 6.1. Table 6.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.2.5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.5.5(c). Table 6.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. bd 1 4 (CP 6.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.

2. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.1. vt. obtained from each load combination. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. (CP 6.5. a failure condition is declared.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0.5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values. Table 6. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.17 .4 40 ⎩ (CP 6. sv 0.2. Beam Design 7 .2.5(b).87 f yv If v > vmax.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr. 7. (CP 6. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.2.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.Chapter 7 .5(b)) (CP 6.1. Determine special section properties.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = .1.

7. vt.3(a)) For flanged sections. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.1).5. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.18 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6.3. The torsional shear stress.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.3. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.3. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3. vt. In typical framed construction. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6. with the corresponding load combination factors. Table 6.17 7 .8 f cu . a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.4. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.3.

3.3. However. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. 7.6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.19 .3. vt.5).5. Asv.3. vt is less than the threshold limit. vt.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.3.5. In that case.min. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 . the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.067 fcu .0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6. Table 6. c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt.min.min.Chapter 7 .3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.t /sv. vt.5).4.min.min = min 0.

t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.8 x1 y1 (0.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . a failure message is declared.3. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.20 Slab Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv . the concrete section should be increased in size.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6.t sv = T 0.3. and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. 7 .7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. To learn more about the design strips.87 f yv ) (CP 6.6) In the preceding expressions. In that case. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 7.8 fcu .3.

is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). These locations correspond to the element boundaries.6. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.6. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 .6.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.Chapter 7 . along with the corresponding controlling load combination. for each load combination. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. In that case. In some cases. 7. at a given design section in a design strip. is obtained and reported. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.21 .1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. 7. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. given the bending moment. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.1. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.

5d from the face of the support (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.1. interior.3). the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.5.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. The column location (i. 7 . an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1(a)) In addition.5.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.6.2. 7.2.6.3.22 Slab Design .1. Where openings occur.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9. 7.3. edge. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. 7.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9.7(d)).6.7).. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.e.1.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1.

3): 0.6.5(c).79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6. Table 6.5d 1.7(d)) (CP 6.1.1.1.5d Interior Column 1.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.5d 1.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.2.7(d).5.2. 6.5(g).Chapter 7 .7(d).2.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.1.23 . Table 6.5.5d 1.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. Table 6.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 .5.

is calculated as: v= Veff ud . 7 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1.3.1.24 Slab Design .67 1.2. x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending.5.5 + 1.1.5(c). bd 1 4 (CP 6.2. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.7(b)) (CP Table 6.1.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7. v.1. v ≤ min(0.2.3) ≥ 0.00 As = area of tension reinforcement. 6. Table 6.8 f cu .25 However.1.1. Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2. Table 6.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.6(b).3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5. Table 2. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.5(c).6.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section. where (CP 6.2) 0.5.5 x ⎬ .15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1. the nominal design shear stress. 7 MPa) (CP 6.5.2.4.

The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. 6.3.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.5. 7.7(e)).Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.5. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6. and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.Chapter 7 .6.6.6(b). The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.5. 7.1. 7.25 .1.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.25 ⎪1.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6.5. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.7(e)) Slab Design 7 . the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3.1.1.

6vc 0. 7 . The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.5.87 f yv 0. edge. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.6. and 8.1.e. the concrete section should be increased in size.1. and corner column. (CP 6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6. Therefore. i.87 f yv 0.7(e)) (CP 6.5..6vc ≤ v < 2.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = . ≥ s 0.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0. a failure condition is declared. vc. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.87 f yv If 1. If v ≤ 1. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6.1.26 Slab Design . 6. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and vmax.5.0vc (CP 6. and interior columns respectively.7(f)).1.1. edge.87 f yv s If v > vmax.5.4ud = ≥ .3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.3. for corner.7v − vc ) ud 0.7(e)). 0. 7.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.

and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.2. 12-.6. Height.7(f)) (CP 6. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7. The limits of so and the spacing.1.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. so. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.5.5.7(f)) (CP 6.27 .5d s ≤ 0. When specifying shear studs.5d.7(f)) Slab Design 7 .3. 16-.5. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. and 20-millimeter diameter.75d g ≤ 1. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. s. 14-.1.5d (CP 6. g. the distance.Chapter 7 . at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d.

.

Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. mm Notations 8-1 .1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. 8. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. For simplicity. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.

mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. assumed as 200. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. N-mm 8-2 Notations . MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Width or effective width of flange.

Chapter 8 . mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. N-mm Factored shear force at a section. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu. mm Factored torsional moment at a section. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis. N Depth of neutral axis.3 . and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section.0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section. N-mm Normalized design moment. N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects. mm Lever arm.max Notations 8.

5W 1.5D + 1.5D + 1. and earthquake (E) loads.9D ± 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc.0W 1. snow (S).4. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.5. Table 18): 1.4. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).5L ± 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.5D ± 1.4.2W 1.5L ± 1.0E (IS 36.2L ± 1.5D + 1.5D 1.5L 1. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section.5E 0. MPa 8.5D + 1.4.3) (IS 36.1) (IS 36.5D ± 1. For IS 456-2000. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete.9D ± 1.2D + 1.75 PL) 1.5D + 1. live load (L). wind (W).4.5E 1.5S 1.2E 1.2D + 1.1) (IS 36.2L ± 1.5W 0. pattern live load (PL).2.5(0.1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .1) (IS 31. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete.

15 Partial safety factor for concrete. caution is advised. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.2S ± 1. shear forces.4.2D + 1.Design for IS 456-2000 1. These values can be overwritten. and torsion based on the beam moments. 8.2. shear. torsion. beams must be designed for torsion.5D + 1.4. However.2. γs = 1.2W 1.2L + 1.2W 1.5S 1.5 .2D + 1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure.1) (IS 36.2E 1.2D + 1.Chapter 8 .2L + 1. 8.5 (IS 36. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.2S ± 1.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used.5L + 1.2S ± 1. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. γc = 1. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. 14. γm. and torsion only.2E (IS 36. however.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. 8.2S ± 1.4.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement. shear. other appropriate load combinations should be used. load combination factors.4.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456.2D + 1.

the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion. 8.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.4. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. Rather. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity.1.4.1. However. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. In such cases. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. 8-6 Beam Design . and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. If redistribution is desired. In such cases.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.

7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam. If Mt exceeds Mu.7 . Beam Design 8.2) (IS 41. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1) 8.2.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.4. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt. respectively.4. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41. In such cases.1. where (IS 41.1.Design for IS 456-2000 8. Effectively.4.4.Chapter 8 . Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.4.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. with the corresponding load factors. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.

1) 8-8 Beam Design .1) (IS 38. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station.1) 8. 8.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber. When a torsional moment is to be included. with the corresponding load combination factors. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38. c.2.1.4.4. a.1).5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. or the strength of the concrete.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the width. The area of the stress block.3. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. (IS 41. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38.4.

The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table.36 β = 0. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu.0035 b f′ s 0.1).1). Furthermore. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis.53 0.46 Beam Design 8.48 0. The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force.Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0.1) (IS 38.67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0.42 (IS 38. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.Chapter 8 .max /d 0.9 .36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values.

max d xu.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam. are obtained first. Msingle. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected. is given by 8 . xu . The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than. xu.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1. the limiting depth of the neutral axis. or equal to Msingle.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.53 ⎪ ⎪0.max.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.10 Beam Design . shear. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0. 8. less than.2. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc.max = 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.4.max d ⎧0. Msingle = α xu.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38. m.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment.48 − 0.53 − 0.1) The design procedure used by SAFE. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.0035 (IS 38. and torsion only.

d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0. As. where (IS G-1. − If Mu > Msingle.2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') .max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu . Beam Design 8.max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ .67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u. A's.1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.11 .2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. or at the top if Mu is negative. is obtained from As = Mu . the area of compression reinforcement. and vice versa if Mu is negative.1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1. and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c .Chapter 8 .

3. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. designing top reinforcement)..SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.2.e. See Figure 8-2. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. 8.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. On the basis of this assumption. no flanged beam data is used.4. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange.3.. i. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 .2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression..12 Beam Design .4. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.2. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.4. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. Mu (i.e.2.

the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0. Cw.Chapter 8 .2 d ⎩ (IS G-2.15 xu + 0. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0. However. If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. Cf. Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle.2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2.1).13 .Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. as shown in Figure 8-2. m. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.65D f if D f > 0.

single. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w.48 − 0.1) xu . the area of compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.53 ⎪ ⎪0.single = αfckbwd 2 x u. A's.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.max ⎡ x u.single ⎛ 0.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0. where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw.14 Beam Design .5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z .max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1.46 (IS 38. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.53 − 0. As = (f y γ s )(d − 0.max d ⎧0.single. and 8 .

04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1) (IS 26.1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.2) 8.1.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.Chapter 8 .4.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.5.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.1.1.15 .5.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c.1): As ≥ 0.5.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.85 bd fy (IS 26.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu. for a particular load combination.1.5.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.1) An upper limit of 0.4.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.04bw d ⎧0.1. at a particular station. the following steps are involved (IS 40.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.2.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5.5.

3.0 τc.16 Beam Design . (IS 40.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8. where bd (IS 40.1.max.1 M30 3.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress.5 M20 2.3. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress. τc. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases.8 M25 3.2) 8 . and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth. τc. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40. d.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section. as: τcd = kδτc.max (IS 40. τc.max (MPa) (IS 40.7 M40 4.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d . IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2. τv ≤ τc.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows.4.2.2.5 M35 3.3.

3.4 Asv 0.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40. Under Tension (IS 40.87 f y (IS 40.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.4 b ≥ sv 0.2.5.4. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0. 26.2.1. Table 19) (IS 40.Chapter 8 .0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .87 f y If τcd + 0.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0. and if Pu > 0 . It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36.17 .1). The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table. Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .4(a)) Beam Design 8.2. 0.Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.2.1) (IS 40.1. taken as 1.2.1.max (IS 40.1.4 < τv ≤ τc.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40.2.

4.87 f y ) 2.3.1) (IS 40.4 b ≥ sv 0. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. 26.3. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0. (IS 40. obtained from each load combination.4.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement.5.max.4. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0. τc.87 f y (IS 41.2.3) τve ≤ τc. provide 2-legged closed stirrups.18 Beam Design . a failure condition is declared.6) If τve ≥τcd.max The maximum nominal shear stress. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40.87 f y (IS 41.1.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values.max is determined as defined in the last section. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.2.4) 8.5d1 (0. 8 .3) (IS 41.

1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.5. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 8 . are repeated for every load combination. is obtained and reported. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. To learn more about the design strips. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.Design for IS 456-2000 8. 8. for each load combination. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. 8.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.1.19 . Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.5. described in the subsections that follow. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Slab Design 8. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. These two steps. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.

e. given the bending moment.5.5.5. edge.0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0.5. at a given design section in a design strip.2. 8 . the slab width is adjusted accordingly. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.1). an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. The column location (i.1).5.5.5.2. Where openings occur.1. In some cases.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31.1.1) In addition. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.2): ⎧0..04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. interior. 8.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1.20 Slab Design .1). 8. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).6.6. In that case.

21 . 8.3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.5. where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.Chapter 8 .2).Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.5.6.2.3.2.2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.

6.6.5.22 Slab Design .1) (IS 31.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.3.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2) 8 . 8. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.5.3.3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.3.5τ c (IS 31.6.6. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.5 + βc ≤ 1.5 τ c bod (IS 31.1) (IS 31. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.5.3.2) 8.3.2. 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.0 (IS 31. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.1) τc = 0. but limited to: vc ≤ 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0.6.5. 8.3.

The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31. and corner column. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax..4.2) If Vu > Vmax. i. and Vmax.3. edge.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu.3. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. Av = (Vu − 0.2).6. 41. 8. the concrete section should be increased in size.23 . a failure condition is declared.6. Vc.Chapter 8 . Slab Design 8.2. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3.3) (IS 31.6.e.5. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.5Vc ) 0.3.87 f y (IS 31.

When specifying shear studs. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and interior columns respectively. Height. and 8.5d. g. 5d s ≤ 0. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. edge. Therefore. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.5. 8. s. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. the distance. for corner. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. 6.24 Slab Design . The limits of so and the spacing. so.3.

sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. 9. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. sq-mm Notations 9-1 . Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For simplicity. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein.

mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Width of web (flanged section). sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement.000 MPa 9-2 Notations . mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. assumed as 200. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. mm Width of member. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block.

N Average design shear stress at a section. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. mm Thickness of slab or flange. N Factored shear force at a section. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. mm Factored design torsion at a section. MPa Overall depth of sections. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length. MPa Shear stress due to torsion.Chapter 9 . MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. mm Perimeter of area Ao. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 . mm Shear force resisted by concrete.

(0.0. 4. snow (S).0E 1.0. 4. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. and earthquake (E) loads.2.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations .0E (AS/NZS 1170. 4.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0.2.0W 0.0. 4.4L ± 1.0S 1.0D ± 1.0. 4.75 PL) 1. wind (W).0.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.5L 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.5(0. 4.2D ± 1. pattern live load (PL).0.4L ± 1.2): 1. 4.0W 1.0.2D + 1.0.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.0.2. For NZS 3101-06.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.2.0W 1.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9.2D + 0.0D + 0.35D 1.2D + 0. live load (L).2.2. 4.2. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170.9D ± 1.4L + 1. 4.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).

75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0.3.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.2. The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement. (NZS 2. caution is advised.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 . shear. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.3. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present.85 for flexure φs = 0. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0.3.3).3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.2. 9. The φ factors for flexure. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. other appropriate load combinations should be used. fy.2) (NZS 2.2.3). These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used. fyt.Chapter 9 . φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. however.1). provided special study is conducted (NZS 5. 9.3.2.

5. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. shear forces. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. In such cases. and torsion only.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. with the corresponding load factors. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. the 9-6 Beam Design . SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear. shear. load combination factors. for a particular station. torsion.5.

2. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1).7): α1 = 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 .1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive.Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.2) in the preceding and following equations. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth..Chapter 9 . for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4.5.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9. 9.7). In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. 9. the width. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7. where.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. shear.4.2. designing top or bottom reinforcement).2) where the default value of φb is 0.3. and torsion only. The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7. Furthermore.5.8.2.3. M (i.4. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1. The beams are designed for major direction flexure. The design procedure used by SAFE.1.2.1).e. or the strength of the concrete. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0.85 (NZS 2. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.

85 for f ′ ≤ 30. 0.2.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0.75β1cb (NZS 7.2.4.4.8.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.7.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.2. is given by: amax = 0.3. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design .4.8) β1 = 0. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0.3.8. 9. c (NZS 7.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0.1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9.1).2. amax.85 − 0.85 β1 = 0.7) (NZS 7.008( f ′ − 30).4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.7) (NZS 7.85 − 0.

9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.4.4.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7. or at the top * if M is negative. where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.2.2.2.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s . If a > amax (NZS 9.2. 7.2.1).4.3.4.Chapter 9 .8. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 .

2. i.2. 9.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9..75β1cb (NZS 7. As = As1 + As2. 9 . However.2.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. as shown in Figure 9-2.e.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. M (i. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7.4. 9. is given by: amax = 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2.5. designing top reinforcement). no flanged beam data is used.3.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore.e. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.1. and vice versa if M is negative.10 Beam Design .5. the total tension reinforcement.1. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. * 9.2. Cw. Cf. If a > hf.1) If a ≤ hf. amax.4.5.7.8.. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. calculation for As has two parts. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.1.

for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7.2 ) Beam Design 9 .003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore. M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore.11 .4.4. the balance of the moment.2.Chapter 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0. As1 = given by: (NZS 7.

max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 .8.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7.2.1).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.12 Beam Design .7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore. 7. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7.3.4.3.2. If a1 > amax (NZS 9. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s . and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.8.4.1).2.4.4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb
Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .
*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb
The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣
f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c
0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:
*

V ν = bw d
*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)
*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s
If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,
*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16
*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)
Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.
*

9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the
9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

the section dimensions b.75 Ao/po 0. h. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0.18 Beam Design . Similarly.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. and c are shown in Figure 9-3.1) where.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.6. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7.7). c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 . and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3. h. bw.1) (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0.1) where the section dimensions bf.1.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. hf.

6.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.6. is less than the threshold limit.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.6. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength.1.3) 9. T .6) Beam Design 9 . Tcr.3.Chapter 9 . is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7. Tcr. and meets the torsion stress limit. In that case. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.5.6. The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7.6.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.4. However.4.1). At /s.3.6.5. defined as: T* ≤ 0.6.1). if T exceeds the threshold limit. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met.1. the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.4.1.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion.19 .

2) * * For rectangular sections. To learn more about the design strips. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit.2 f 'c . 7. the concrete section should be increased in size. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.3). bw is replaced with b. provided it is fully developed. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.1.6.20 Slab Design . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7. 9.2. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7. In that case. At Al 1.5. a failure message is declared.6.6. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 9 .6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7.8.

The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. 9. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. for each load combination. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.1.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. given the bending moment.6.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. In that case.6.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. is obtained and reported. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 .Chapter 9 . The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. In some cases. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.6. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. at a given design section in a design strip.1. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.21 . 9. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. are repeated for every load combination. described in the subsections that follow. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These two steps.

4.5. 8.6.2.2. 9.5. Only the code-specific items are described in the following. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.1.1(b)).8.6.. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.6.22 Slab Design . Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 9.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12. interior.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.8. 2. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.1(b)).7.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12.2. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control. 9.6.1) In addition. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.e. 8. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. 9 . The column location (i. Where openings occur.4 ): ⎧ 0 .7.6. edge.

7.6.2.7.23 .7.7. 9.2.Chapter 9 .3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .6. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12.1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M .Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.

3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.2) where.2. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5.2(a)).6. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.3.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.3. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.7. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12. 9.3.1). provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.1. 12. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.7.6.7. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.24 Slab Design . The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.4. 9 .1) 70 9. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12.7.2.

25 .7. φ.6.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. Slab Design 9 .4) Given vn. and vmax. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12.3) (NZS 12. is the strength reduction factor. where.3.7.3.7.7. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. 9.7. vc. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.Chapter 9 .4. a failure condition is declared.5 f ′ c (NZS 12.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12.4.5) 9.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.3.4) If vn > φvmax. the concrete section should be increased in size.6. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax.

i.e. edge. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. Therefore.26 Slab Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. 6. edge.4.3. and 8. and corner column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.7.6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 9 . for corner. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. and interior columns respectively. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.4)..

5d s ≤ 0.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.4. s.7.Chapter 9 .4) Slab Design 9 . The spacing between adjacent shear studs. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. so. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.27 . between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.4.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. The limits of so and the spacing.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.4.4) (NZS 12. Height.3.7. the distance.6.7. When specifying shear studs. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4) (NZS 12. g. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.5d.

.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. is selected.1 . The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. For simplicity. Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99].Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. Notations 10 . The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter.

1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section. mm Flange thickness. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. assumed as 200. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm 10 . mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Torsional constant.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section.2 Notations . MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion.

3 . Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. MPa Torsional shear stress. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. mm Lever arm. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. MPa Neutral axis depth. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress.Chapter 10 . [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.2L ± 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.6L 1.4D + 1. live load (L). The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. 10 .2W (CP 2. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. 1. pattern live load (PL). It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. fcu.6(0.3). 10. should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3.4W 1.3) (CP 2. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2). The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.4.4.4D ± 1. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used. If a structures is subjected to dead load (D).3) (CP 2.2D + 1.4D 1.4. Note that the automatic combination. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.4 Design Load Combinations . and considering that wind forces are reversible. including pattern live load.1.0D ± 1.4.4D + 1.4.4W 1.7.75PL) 1. and wind (W) loads. γf (CP 2.1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.3).

10. but can be overwritten.50 1. which are taken from CP Table 2.5 . torsion. and torsion only.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. shear.Chapter 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10.15 1. and other criteria described below. shear. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 . The values of γm used in the program are listed below. load combination factors. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.2 (CP 2. shear forces. γm.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code.4. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. and torsion based on the beam moments.4.

BC 2.6 Beam Design .5. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. or the strength of the concrete. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the width. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1.5. for a particular station. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.4). Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.4. In such cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.3. In such cases.2) 10 . 10.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0.4.5.1. with the corresponding load factors.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.

5. Msingle = K'fcu bd .4. where 2 (CP 3.4.4.4).7 . the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. less than.and T-beams).2) The design procedure used by SAFE.Chapter 10 .1.4.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than. is summarized in the subsections that follow.e. shear.1fcuAg) (CP 3.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. ⎧0.4.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3.4.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.4.4. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. BC 2.4.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. βb ≥ 0. hence.4) Beam Design 10 .1). and torsion only. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. Msingle. 10.4. See Figure 10-1.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore.4.. BC 2.4).4.9) (CP 3.4. In addition. is first calculated for a section. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.2.4. or equal to Msingle.

If M ≤ Msingle.4.4.4.95d z = d ⎜ 0.25 − ⎜ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.4.4) 10 .8 Beam Design .094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution. As.4) (CP 3.5 + 0.67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0.4.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.87 f y z (CP 3.120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.4. is then given by: As = M . where 0. the area of tension reinforcement.

Beam Design 10 .87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.Chapter 10 .4.4..3. where (CP 3.2.4. no flanged beam data is used.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle .2 Design of Flanged Beams 10.25 − ⎜ 0. M (i.95d z = d ⎜ 0. i.4.5.1.1.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3. designing top reinforcement). compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.4.4.5. 2.2.. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.4.4.87 f y z + 0. 2.5 + 0. Fig 2.4.5. or at the top if M is negative.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3.4.e.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.5.3. Fig 2. If M > Msingle.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.9 .4.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.2.e.1. and f ′ =0.

the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.1.2. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.10 Beam Design .2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.4. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. εc 0. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. On the basis of this assumption. See Figure 10-2.5.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 .67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3.67 fcu γ m 0. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.

Fig 2.4.4.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.1 f cu bd (0. as shown in Figure 10-2.2.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4. BC 2.45d − h f ) 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.4. However.Chapter 10 .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. BC 2. Cf.11 .4. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 . where (BS 3.45d then.4.5h f ) . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.36 .45 .15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.3) If a ≤ hf.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.5) β f = 0.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.9 ⎭ (CP 3. If a > hf . Fig 2.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0.4. Cw.4. 2 As = M + 0.4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0. In that case. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.4.4. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.4. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.4. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.95d 0.2.5 + 0.87 f y (d − 0.

45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.2) ⎧0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.5h f ) ) .2) 10 .24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.87 f y ( d − 0.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.4.054 for ⎩ ⎧0.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.4.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.4.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.4.32 ⎪ ⎪0.12 Beam Design .4.30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2. where (CP 3.2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2. BC 2. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.5.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.4.

4. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.5.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.4.4.Chapter 10 .156 (CP 3.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 . The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3. where 0.4. Fig 2.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.4.4.3. and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.3.87 f y (d − 0.4.5.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.13 .5.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4).67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.4. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. 2. BC 2.4.4.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.4).95d ⎜ 0. Fig 2.4.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0.4. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3. 2. As = 0.4.5 + 0.2) If Kw ≤ 0.

3).27 (CP 3.12.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.48 0.18 100 0.13 100 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.5 + 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.24 0.36 0.5.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.27 (CP 3.95d ⎜ 0.12.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. which is taken from CP Table 3. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.32 0. 10 .5.26 100 0.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.14 Beam Design .24 fy = 460 MPa 0.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0.5.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength. if it is required.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.4 bf bw ≥ 0.

the following steps are involved (CP 3.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.40 0. the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 .1). 10. Determine the shear stress.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. BC 2.5): Determine the shear stress.6.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa.15 . for a particular load combination.4.5.3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.2). Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. vc. v.20 0.2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3.12.Chapter 10 . The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.12.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T. An upper limit of 0. that can be resisted by the concrete. 10.

1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.4.6 (CP 3.5.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.8 fcu .4.5.4. Table 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3.4.4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .63 fcu .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases. with the corresponding load combination factors.5.4) (CP 2. vc. Table 3. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.4.4.4.25 1 1 3 However.4.8) (CP 3. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3.2) For light-weight concrete.5.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete.5. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4) 10.9) 10 .16 Beam Design . is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .2. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.5.12) 0.4. 7 MPa).5.4.5. (CP 3. the following limitations also apply: 0.

Table 3.5.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.4.4. Table 3.5.5.4.4. vr. Table 3. CP 3. a failure condition is declared.5. sv 0. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0.8.5.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.4.3.5.Chapter 10 .67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr.3.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.4.9) (CP 3.5.3.17 . Table 3. and vmax.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.2) In the preceding expressions. (CP 3. (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 . Table 3.87 f yv If v > vmax. v’c.8) As vr b = .4.4. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.4.3.4.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3. Table 3.5.8) (CP 3.2.4.5.5.

The torsional shear stress. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2.5.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 . obtained from each load combination.3.18 Beam Design .1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3.15). Determine critical torsion stress.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3.5. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.5.4.4. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. In typical framed construction. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. 10. Determine special section properties. vt. 10. vt.

min.0.min = min 0.4.6 N / mm 2 x 0.7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.4.0. For lightweight concrete.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.4.5.2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. vt.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.min = min 0.8 (CP Part 2 5. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.Chapter 10 . but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0.19 .4. vt. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2.min is defined as: vt .8 f cu .067 f cu .1) For flanged sections. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .067 f cu .4. vt.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.5) Beam Design 10 .3.5) 10.4.

it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2.t /sv.4. In that case. If vt > vt.4. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. is calculated as: Asv .6). is less than the threshold limit. vt. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 10 .3. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.4. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. In that case.min.8 f cu .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. vt. Asv.8 x1 y1 (0. However.20 Beam Design . a failure message is declared. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2. vt.4. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.5. the concrete section should be increased in size.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.min.t sv = T 0.7) In the preceding expressions.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2.7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2.6). if vt exceeds the threshold limit.4.min.

1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. To learn more about the design strips. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. 10.21 . Slab Design 10 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 10 . The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10.

In some cases. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. CP Table 3. given the bending moment.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3.1.12.1. Where openings occur. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the slab width is adjusted accordingly. In that case.1. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 . is obtained and reported. 10.6.3. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.6. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6.5. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. for each load combination. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.22 Slab Design .1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. 10. at a given design section in a design strip. 10. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.

7.4.7. Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3. Slab Design 10 .2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. interior. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3.7. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites..6.12.7.6.6). 10.1).Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3. the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) .1).Chapter 10 . The column location (i. 3.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.7.5. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.7.23 .e. edge. In addition.12.2.6. 10.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .5d from the face of the support (CP 3.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.

2.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.9) (CP 3.4.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.5d 1.5.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.5d 1.7.4. Table 3.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.4.7.4.6.7.5. the following limitations also apply: 10 .6): 0.5d Interior Column 1.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.7.5.5d 1.4.5.2) However.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. 3.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.24 Slab Design .4. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3. Table 3.

63 v ≤ min (0. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.4.5.4.4.8 fcu .9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. v. the nominal design shear stress. where (CP 3. 10.6. Table 3.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3) 1 .4.5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section.7.2.5.7.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 .5.5 M y 1 .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3.4. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.25 .7. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3. Table 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0.7.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement. Table 3.6. 4 MPa) f cu .2.4.5.9) For light-weight concrete.4) (CP 3.6.4.Chapter 10 . 3.9) (CP 3. (CP 3. Table 3.2.

The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections.5). and for corner columns.6.25 ⎩ for interior columns.6.6. 10.7. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.5). The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3.3.6.3.7. and vmax.26 Slab Design .7. 10.7.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.7.7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.7. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3.25 ⎪1.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. 3. for edge columns. vc.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.2. 10. (CP 3. 10 .7.

6. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.6vc ≤ v < 2. ≥ s 0.5) (CP 3.7.7. the concrete section should be increased in size.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v − vc ) ud = .. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 . a failure condition is declared. (CP 3.7.7.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .7.0vc. (CP 3.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.7. ≥ s 0.87 f yv If 1.87 f yv 0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1. 0.e.87 f yv If v > vmax. and corner column.27 .87 f yv 0.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. 10. i. edge.5) 0.3.6vc.Chapter 10 .

Height.7. and 20-millimeter diameter.6). g.7.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5d s ≤ 0. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.7. 12-.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.28 Slab Design .7. s.7. and 8. so.6) 10 .7. the distance.7.75d g ≤ 1. 14-. 6.6.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.6) (CP 3. The limits of so and the spacing. Therefore. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3.5d (CP 3.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. 10. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. and interior columns respectively. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. for corner.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3.3.5d.6) (CP 3. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. When specifying shear studs. 16-. edge.

2R-07).1 and Amendment No. 1997. 2008. 2008. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. American Concrete Institute. London. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. British Standards Institution. February 2008. UK. ACI. BC. 2005.References ACI. American Concrete Institute.O. BSI. Farmington Hills. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. and 3. 38800 Country Club Drive. GPO Box 5420. 2007. 2001. Michigan. 2. TM R-1 . 2. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). Box 9094. Australia. Sydney. Building and Construction Authority. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. BC 2:2008. Part 1. Structural Use of Concrete. AS. Farmington Hills. Standards Australia International Ltd. P. 1. NSW 2001. Michigan. Singapore.

Standards New Zealand. Concrete Structures Standard. New Zealand. March 2000. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. R-2 . Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. CP. A23. Buildings Department. Hong Kong. incorporating Amendments Nos. London. Part 2. Twentieth Reprint. 750 Nathan Road. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. CSA. 2005. 2. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. Brussels. September 2000. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. and 3. Rexdale. British Standards Institution.3-04. Belgium. Third Edition. 2006. European Committee for Standardization. 1. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. Canadian Standards Association. CP 65:Part 1:1999. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. Part 1-1. 2004. 1985. Bureau of Indian Standards.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Design of Concrete Structures. Manak Bhavan. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. Brussels. 1. UK. NZS. New Delhi 110002. 2004. Private Bag 2439. HK CP. IS. Canada. 2004. Kowloon. 1999. Singapore. Mongkok. Ontario. Wellington. European Committee for Standardization. 2000. Belgium. Structural Use of Concrete. India. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. EN 1990:2002. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. EN 1992-1-1.

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