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Published by Siti Bayani

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Published by: Siti Bayani on Aug 11, 2011
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  • Heat flow and its effect
  • explanation
  • Principle of heat transfer
  • Conduction of heat
  • Explanation
  • Heat transfer by convection
  • Effect of heat on the state of matter
  • Melting
  • Boiling
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Sublimation


The sun as a source of heat
1. The sun is a very hot object 2. Its get its heat energy from nuclear reactions taking place in its center. 3. The temperature at its center is about 15 000 000rC and its surface temperature is between 10 000rC and 500 000rC. 4. Only a small portion of the sun¶s energy reaches the earth. 5. Without heat energy from the sun, the earth will be a very cold place, forever in darkness and no living things on the earth.

Heat as a form of energy
1. Heat is a form of energy 2. Heat can travel through a vacuum 3. Heat causes things to become hot 4. Heat moves from a hot place to a cooler place 5. Heat is measure in unit called joules (J) 6. Heat has different effects on different substances

. Heat can cause a change of state e. Heat can cause a substance to decompose.1.g. Heat can cause things to burn and give out light 4. Heat causes air to expand and rise 3. ice to melt and water to boil 5. Heat cause metals to expand 2.

From kinetic energy.Ways to produce heat heat can be produced in many ways from different form of energy. . ‡This is due to friction between the hands ‡Friction changes kinetic energy into heat. ‡Rubbing our hands together produces heat.

electric toaster and electric kettle.From electrical energy. ‡A thin high resistance wire produces a lot of heat when a electric current passes through it. ‡Heat is produced whenever electrical energy passes through a wire. ‡This principle is used in an electric iron. . ‡The filament in a bulb becomes a white hot and gives out light when an electric current passes through it.

From chemical energy. Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide+ water + energy ( heat) . ‡Heat can be produced from chemical energy during a chemical reaction Heat is produced when a fuel is burns. Carbon + oxygen carbon dioxide + energy (heat) + light Heat is produced during respiration in the cells of the body.

‡Heat is produced when sound energy such as a loud noise is absorbed by the wall of a room. ‡The heat produced is so little that it is difficult to detect.From sound energy. .

From nuclear energy. ‡The heat produced during a nuclear explosion is so strong that it melt metals ‡The heat produced in a nuclear reactor is used to produced steam to drive turbines and generators for producing electricity. . ‡A tremendous amount of heat is produced when a nuclear explosion takes place.

From solar energy. ‡Solar cells are used to produce electrical energy . ‡Solar energy is converted to heat for used in some hot water system in Malaysia.

Uses of heat in daily life. For cooking---. 3. 1.in cold industries. For keeping warm---. . For producing light -----the filament in an electric bulb becomes so hot that it gives out light. electric radiator and coal fires are used to warm houses. 2. toaster and kettles are used to generate heat for cooking.electric cookers.

4. For heating----.Uses of heat in daily life. 5.gas burner in school laboratories are used to supply heat for heating substances and things. For producing steam . For washing and cleaning 6. For melting 7.

g. For treatment of injured muscle. 8. . For making substances 10.Uses of heat in daily life. E. infra red heat. For sterilizing 9.

The temperature of an object rises when heat is added to it. Temperature measure how hot a substance is. Heat is measured in joule (J) 4. 3. Temperature is usually measured in degree Celsius. and cooler when heat is removed from it ( temperature falls). but falls when heat is removed from it. Heat is a form of energy. 3.Differences between heat and temperature Temperature 1. Heat 1. (rC) 4. A hot object has higher temperature than a cooler object. 2. An object become hotter when heat is added to it ( temperature rises). The amount of heat in an object depends on ‡ Its temperature ‡ Its mass ( sizes) ‡ Its capacity to hold heat . 2.

Heat flow and its effect  EXPANSION OF METAL CAUSED BY HEAT 1. Metals expand when they are heated 2. . This can be shown by the following experiments. Metals contact when they are cooled 3.

the metal ball passes through the ring when it is cooled. However . The metal ball can not pass through the ring after it is heated 3. 4. the metal ball can pass through the ring before it is heated. In the ball and ring experiment. .1. 2. This shown that the metal ball expands when it is heated and contracts when it is cooled.

its particles (atoms) receive more energy and vibrate faster.  The particles occupy more space and more further apart from one another. keeping the same relative positions.  On cooling. the vibrations slow down and the particle return to their original position. So the metal expands. . So the metal contracts.Explanation  When a metal is heated.

. EXPANSION OF LIQUID CAUSED BY HEAT. 2. A liquid expand when it is heated. 1. This can be shown by the following experiment. 3. A liquid contract when it is cooled.

The water level drops back to its original position when the flask is taken out of the basin and cooled. 5. Hot water is poured into the basin 4. It is observed that the water level in the glass tube falls a little and then rises.1. 3. . The result show that water expands on heating and contract on cooling. The flask containing coloured water and carrying a glass tube is set up and placed in a basin. The water level in the glass tube is marked. 2. 6.

 The water takes up more space and so expands. .  The water level in the glass tube falls a little at first because the flask expands before the water.Explanation  When the water is heated. its particles receive more energy and move further apart form one another in all direction.

Gases expand on heating and contact on cooling. This can be shown by experiment below. . 2. EXPANSION OF GASES CAUSED BY HEAT 1.

The flask of air is warmed by placing both hands on it. 3. 5. 4. 6. It is observed that the drop of coloured water rises very fast when the air is warmed.1. the drop of coloured water falls very fast. The result show that air expands very fast on heating and contacts very fast on cooling. . When the flask of air is allowed to cool. The position of the drop of coloured water is marked. The flask containing air is set up and clamped upright. 2.

So the air expands very fast. the gas particles receive more kinetic energy and move outwards very quickly in all directions.  All gases expand at about the same rate when heated. Hardly any force of attraction between the particles.  . 2.  Gases can expand very fast because there is: 1. Plenty of space between the particles.explanation When the air is warmed.

Principle of heat transfer  Heat flow from a place of high temperature to a place of lower temperature. the faster is the heat flow. . High temperature Heat flow Low temperature  The bigger the difference in temperature.

Heat is transferred in three ways:  By conduction  By convection  By radiation .

Comparing the method of heat transfer .

the other end will become hot. .  Heat has been transferred from the hot end to the cooler end through the metal rod (conductor).Conduction of heat  If one end of a metal rod is heated.

Explanation  When the hot end of a metal rod is heated. .  The more active vibrating particles knock their neighbours. the particles (atoms) receive more energy and vibrate faster. In this way the stronger vibration ( heat ) are passes along the metal rod. So heat is transferred along the metal rod.

 Non metals are bad conductors of heat. They are also called insulator of heat. Conductors Silver Copper Gold Aluminium Zinc iron Tin Lead mercury Very good insulators Vacuum Air Cork Plastic Wood Glass Asbestos Water Good . Metals are good conductors of heat. They are allow heat to flow through them quickly.

.Heat transfer by convection  Convection is defined as the transfer of heat through a fluid by the movement of the fluid particle.  Liquid and gases are referred to as fluid.

 Heat is carried upwards by the fluid particles when they move upwards. it expand and becomes less dense. As a result. . a convection current is set up in the fluid.  This is called convection.  Convection cannot take place in a solid because the particles in a solid cannot move freely.  Then heated fluid rises and cooler fluid flows in to take its place.explanation  When a fluid is heated.

 Application of convection .

Land breeze .

Sea breeze .

 Radiated heat: -Can be absorbed by surface -Can be reflected from a surface -Travels at the speed of light -Can travel through a vacuum .Heat transfer by radiation  Radiation is defined as the transfer of heat without using medium.  Heat from the sun travels through a vacuum in outer space to the earth by radiation.

electric radiators are used to radiate heat to warm room. Heat form the sun travels through a vacuum in outer space to the earth by radiation  Scouts sitting around a camp fire receive a lot of heat by radiation. .  In cold countries.

Effect of heat on the state of matter  Physical processes that change the state of matter. Absorption of heat Melting Boiling Evaporation Sublimation Release of heat Freezing Condensation Sublimation .

its particles receive more energy and vibrate faster. The energetic particles move away from their originally arranged positions. Heat is absorbed during melting. When this happens the ice melts.Melting  Melting takes place when a solid is heated and    - changes into liquid. A solid melts at a definite temperature called its melting point. When ice is heated. Ice melts at 0rC Iron melts at 1540rC .

Boiling takes place when a liquid is heated until it

change to a gas at its boiling point.  Heat is absorbed during boiling  When water is heated, its particle (molecules) receive more energy and move very actively. When they get suffient energy, they escape into the air as gas particle and boiling takes place.  A liquid boils at a fixed temperature called its boiling point. - Water boils at 100rC -Ethanol (alcohol) boils at 78rC

Heat is required for evaporation occur. . its particles receive more energy from the heat in the air. This happen below the boiling point of the liquid. How fast a liquid evaporates depends on Wind movement Amount of water vapour in the air Temperature of the air Surface area of liquid exposed to the air. The particles escape into the air when they gain sufficient kinetic energy. When a little alcohol is exposed to the air.Evaporation  Evaporation as the process of changing a liquid into a    - gas at a temperature below the boiling point of liquid.



Eventually the particles group together to form water.  Oxygen gas can be cooled and condensed to form liquid oxygen.Condensation  Condensation is the process of cooling a gas into a liquid  Heat is removed from the gas during condensation.  When steam (gas) is cooled. its particles (water molecules) lose kinetic energy and come closer to one another. .


When the particles arrange themselves in an orderly manner. its particles lose energy to the surroundings. When a liquid is cooled.Freezing  Freezing is the process of cooling a liquid to form a   - solid Heat is removed from the liquid during freezing. 0rC Freezing point of nitrogen. Freezing point of naphthalene . 80rC Freezing point of water. -210rC . move more slowly and come very close to one another. the liquids turns into solid.


Heat absorbed when the solid change to vapour. Eventually the particles have sufficient energy to escape directly into the air without forming a liquid When the vapour particles are cooled.Sublimation  Sublimation is the process of changing a solid to a vapour and      - then from vapour into a solid without going through the liquid state. When heated the particles of ammonium chloride gain energy and overcome the attracting forces between them. they loose energy and regroup themselves into a solid. Ammonium chloride sublimes when it is heated. Example of other substance which sublimes are Iodine Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) . heat is lost when the vapor changes to a solid.








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