Why Study Particle Science?

by Dr. Ralph D. Nelson, Jr., P.E. Managing Editor of ERPT - 1999 Aug 20 Some 75% of chemical manufacturing processes involve small solid particles (fine particles) at some point. Proper design and handling of these fine particles often makes the difference between success and failure. Careful attention to particle characteristics during the design and operation of a facility can significantly improve environmental performance and increase profitability by improving product yield and reducing waste. In the early stages of product and process R&D, as the process is scaled up from from bench-top glassware to several-gallon, then hundred-gallon, and finally production scale, technologists should explicitly consider how the particulate material in the system will behave in the sequence of unit operations and in the equipment for processing, storage, and transport. For each particulate material -- raw material, intermediate, final product, or co-product consider the following: • SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS: To characterize the particles, you need a good sampling protocol, sound analytical procedures, and photographs that allow you to monitor the particles continuously on-line (best case) or through grab samples taken while trying to resolve a problem. SIZE DISTRIBUTION: The particle size distribution should be carefully-controlled and consistent from batch to batch, or over time (in continuous reactors). It should be optimized to give the least trouble during processing and the best product characteristics. SHAPE, STATE OF AGGREGATION, AREA: The particle shape, state of aggregation, and surface area per gram should be characterized after each key processing stage. Understanding and controlling the conditions which produce the particles can help you to optimize them for their intended use. FLOW, SEDIMENTATION, BED DENSITY: Flow characteristics (powder or slurry), sedimentation rates (in liquid or gas), and bed density (sifted, settled, or packed) significantly affect processing, so you should characterize them and understand how changes in these parameters will affect the process. ATTRITION: Attrition resistance (resistance to breakage) should be known, wellcontrolled and optimum for the task. Keep in mind that particle breakdown during processing can destroy carefully developed characteristics. STATE OF DISPERSION (IN LIQUIDS): Particles suspended in liquid may flocculate, agglomerate, float, fail to wet-in, foul the walls, or stabilize foam. STATE OF DISPERSION (IN GASES): Particles suspended in gas may pick up a charge, explode, form agglomerates, or coat the walls. SAFETY, HEALTH, AND ENVIRONMENT: It is prudent (and generally required) that you evaluate and minimize hazards related to explosion or fire (of a dust cloud or fluidized bed or pneumatic conveying line or dust buildup on equipment or walls) inhalation or contact with dusts or mists from the process discharge to the environment of dust particles or sprays

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The study of particle technology has many interesting technical facets and many rewarding economic aspects. Failure to consider the particle science involved in a process can result in very expensive or unpleasant consequences.

CPE 124 Particle Technology - Study Notes
Dr. Jie Zhang Chapter 1. Characterisation of solid particles What is particle technology?

Techniques for processing and handling particulate solids. It plays a major role in the production of materials in industry. Chapter 1. Characterisation of solid particles Individual solid particles are characterised by their size, shape, and density. 1.1 Particle shape The shape of an individual particle is expressed in terms of the sphericity Φ s, which is independent of particle size. The sphericity of a particle is the ratio of the surfacevolume ratio of a sphere with equal volume as the particle and the surface-volume ratio of the particle. For a spherical particle of diameter D p, Φ s =1; for a non-spherical particle, the sphericity is defined as

Dp: equivalent diameter of particle Sp: surface area of one particle vp: volume of one particle The equivalent diameter is sometimes defined as the diameter of a sphere of equal volume. For fine particles, Dp is usually taken to be the nominal size based on screen analysis or microscopic analysis. The surface area is found from adsorption measurements or from the pressure drop in a bed of particles. For many crushed materials, Φ s is between 0.6 and 0.8. For particles rounded by abrasion, Φ s may be as high as 0.95. 1.2 Particle size In general "diameter" may be specified for any equidimensional particles. Particles that

are not equidimensional, i.e. that are longer in one direction than in others, are often characterised by the second longest major dimension. For needle like particles, Dp would refer to the thickness of the particle, not their length. Units used for particle size depend on the size of particles. Coarse particles: inches or millimetres Fine particles: screen size Very fine particles: micrometers or nanometers Ultra fine particles: surface area per unit mass, m2/g 1.3 Mixed particle sizes and size analysis In a sample of uniform particles of diameter Dp, the total volume of the particles is m/ρ p, where m = mass of the sample, ρ p = density. Since the volume of one particle is vp, the total number of particle in the sample is

The total surface area of the particles is

To apply the above two equations to mixtures of particles having various size and densities, the mixture is sorted into fractions, each of constant density and approximately constant size. 1.4 Specific surface of mixture If the particle density ρ p and spericity Φ s are known, the surface area of particles in each fraction can be calculated and added to give the specific surface, Aw.

where xi = mass fraction in a given increment, = average diameter, taken as arithmetic average of the smallest and largest particle diameters in increment. 1.5 Average particle size (1). Volume-surface mean diameter, , defined by

If the number of particles in each fraction Ni is known, then

(2). Arithmetic mean diameter

NT = number of particles in the entire sample (3). Mass mean diameter

(4). Volume mean diameter

1.6 Number of particles in mixture The volume of any particle is proportional to its "diameter" cubed.

a = volume shape factor Assuming that a is independent of size

1.7 Screen analysis Standard screens are used to measure the size (and size distribution) of particles in the size range between about 3 and 0.0015in (76mm and 38µ m). Screen is identified by meshes per inch, e.g. 10mesh, Dp = 1/10 = 0.1in. The area of the openings in any one screen in the series is exactly twice that of the

openings in the next smaller screen. The ratio of the actual mesh dimension of any screen to that of the next smaller screen is =1.41.

Analysis using standard screen: Screens are arranged serially in a stack, with the smallest mesh at the bottom and the largest at the top. Materials are loaded at top and then shacked for a period of time (e.g. 20 minutes). 14/20: through 14 mesh and on 20 mesh Screen analysis gives: xi and .

CPE 124 Particle Technology - Study Notes
Dr. Jie Zhang Chapter 2. Motion of Particles through Fluids 2.1 Motion of particles through fluids

2.1.1 Mechanics of particle motion Three forces acting on a particle moving through a fluid: 1). The external force, gravitational or centrifugal; 2). The buoyant force, which acts parallel with the external force but in the opposite direction; 3). The drag force, which appears whenever there is relative motion between the particle and the fluid Drag: the force in the direction of flow exerted by the fluid on the solid is called drag. 2.1.2 Equations for one-dimensional motion of particle through fluid Consider a particle of mass m moving through a fluid under the action of an external force Fe. Let the velocity of the particle relative to the fluid be u, let the buoyant force on the particle be Fb and let the drag be FD, then

(1) The external force can be expressed as a product of the mass and the acceleration ae of the particle from this force,

(2) The buoyant force is, be Archimedes’ law, the product of the mass of the fluid displaced by the particle and the acceleration from the external force. The volume of the particle is m/ρ p, the mass of fluid displaced is (m/ρ p)ρ , where ρ is the density of the fluid. The buoyant force is then Fb = mρ ae/ρ


The drag force is FD = CDu2ρ Ap/2 (4) where CD is the drag coefficient, Ap is the projected area of the particle in the plane perpendicular to the flow direction. By substituting the forces into Eq(1), we have

(5) Motion from gravitational force: In this case, ae = g

(6) Motion in a centrifugal field: ae = rω

(7) In this equation, u is the velocity of the particle relative to the fluid and is directed outwardly along a radius. 2.2 Terminal velocity In gravitational settling, g is constant. Also, the drag always increases with velocity. The acceleration decreases with time and approaches zero. The particle quickly reaches a constant velocity which is the maximum attainable under the circumstances. This maximum settling velocity is called terminal velocity.


(9) In motion from a centrifugal force, the velocity depends on the radius and the acceleration is not constant if the particle is in motion with respect to the fluid. In many practical use of centrifugal force, du/dt is small. If du/dt is neglected, then

(10) Motion of spherical particles: If the particles are spheres of diameter Dp, then m = π Dp3ρ p/6 Ap = π Dp2/4 Substitution of m and Ap into the equation for ut gives the equation for gravity settling of spheres:

(11) 2.3 Drag coefficient Drag coefficient is a function of Reynolds number. The drag curve applies only under restricted conditions: i). The particle must be a solid sphere; ii). The particle must be far from other particles and the vessel wall so that the flow pattern around the particle is not distorted; iii). It must be moving at its terminal velocity with respect to the fluid. Particle Reynolds number:

(12) u: velocity of approaching stream Dp: diameter of the particle ρ : density of fluid µ : viscosity of fluid Stokes’ law applies for particle Reynolds number less than 1.0 CD = 24/NRe,p (13) From Eq(4)

FD = 3π µ ut Dp (14) From Eq(11)

ut = g Dp2(ρ


- ρ )/(18µ ) (15)

At NRe,p =1, CD =26.5 instead of 24 from the above equation. Centrifugal: rω CD = 0.44 (16) FD= 0.055π Dp2 ut2ρ (17) → g. For 1000 < NRe,p <200,000, use Newton’s law

(18) Newton’s law applies to fairly large particles falling in gases or low viscosity fluids. Terminal velocity can be found by trial and error after guessing NRe,p to get an initial estimate of CD. 2.4 Criterion for settling regime To identify the range in which the motion of the particle lies, the velocity term is eliminated from the Reynolds number by substituting ut from Stokes’ law

(19) If Stokes’ law is to apply, NRe,p <1.0. Let us introduce a convenient criterion K

(20) Then NRe,p = K3/18. Setting NRe,p = 1 and solving for K gives K=2.6. If K is less than 2.6 then Stokes’ law applies.

Substitution for ut using Newton’s law NRe,p = 1.75K1.5 Setting NRe,p = 1000 and solving for K gives K = 68.9. Setting NRe,p = 200,000 and solving for K gives K = 2,360. • Stokes’ law range: K < 2.6 • Newton’s law range: 68.9 < K < 2,360

• when K > 2,360 or 2.6 < K < 68.9, ut is found from using a value of CD found by trial from the curve. 2.5 Hindered settling In hindered settling, the velocity gradients around each particle are affected by the presence of nearby particles. So the normal drag correlations do not apply. Also, the particles in settling displace liquid, which flows upward and make the particle velocity relative to the fluid greater than the absolute settling velocity. For uniform suspension, the settling velocity us can be estimated from the terminal velocity for an isolated particle using the empirical equation of Maude and Whitmore us = ut(ε )n Exponent n changes from about 4.6 in the Stokes’ law range to about 2.5 in the Newton’s law region. For very small particles, the calculated ratio us/ut is 0.62 for ε =0.9 and 0.095 for ε =0.6. With large particles, the corresponding ratios are us/ut = 0.77 and 0.28; the hindered settling effect is not as profound because the boundary layer thickness is a smaller fraction of the particle size. If particles of a given size are falling through a suspension of much finer solids, the terminal velocity of the larger particles should be calculated using the density and viscosity of the fine suspension. The Maude-Whitmore equation may then be used to estimate the settling velocity with ε taken as the volume fraction of the fine suspension, not the total void fraction. Suspensions of very fine sand in water is used in separating coal from heavy minerals and the density of the suspension is adjusted to a value slightly greater than that of coal to make the coal particles rise to the surface, while the mineral particles sink to the bottom.

is the average particle is the average particle diameter after crushing. for a giving machine and material. Cutting. 4). Size Reduction Four commonly used methods for size reduction: 1). is the feed rate to crusher. diameter before crushing. 2). Rittinger’s coefficient. that is the ratio of the initial particle size to the finial particle size where Kk is Kick’s coefficient. sp/vp. so the factors that control this cost are important. (2) require a small power input per unit of product. 3. 3. Impact. Attrition.CPE 124 Particle Technology . is independent of the sizes of feed and product.2.1 Principle of size reduction Criteria for size reduction An ideal crusher would (1) have a large capacity.2 Crushing efficiency 3. Energy and power requirements in size reduction The cost of power is a major expense in crushing and grinding. Since Φ s = 6/Dp. This is equivalent to the statement that the crushing efficiency is constant and.2 Bond crushing law and work index The work required to form particles of size Dp from very large feed is proportional to the square root of the surface-to-volume ratio of the product.Study Notes Dr. 3). and Kr is Kick’s law: the work required for crushing a given mass of material is constant for the same reduction ratio. it follows that .2. 3. If the sphericities Φ a (before size reduction) and Φ b (after size reduction) are equal and the machine efficiency is constant.1 Empirical relationships: Rittinger’s and Kick’s law The work required in crushing is proportional to the new surface created. the Rittinger’s law can be written as where P is the power required. and (3) yield a product of the single size distribution desired. Jie Zhang Chapter 3. Compression.

ultrafine grinders. P in KW.8 mm. A primary crusher operates on run-of -mine material accepting anything that comes from mine face and breaking it into 150 to 250 mm lumps. then If 80% of the feed passes a mesh size of Dpa millimetres and 80% of the product a mesh of Dpb millimetres.4/8=3. Jaw crushers 2. Dpa =2× 25. Solution: =100 ton/h.74. and cutting machines. Crushers (coarse and fine) 1.74.where Kb is a constant that depends on the type of machine and on the material being crushed. wi. If Dp is in millimetres.3 Size reduction equipment Size reduction equipment is divided into crushers. Grinders reduce crushed feed to powder. is defined as the gross energy required in KWH per ton of feed to reduce a very large feed to such a size that 80% of the product passes a 100µ m screen. it follows that Example: What is the power required to crush 100 ton/h of limestone if 80% of the feed pass a 2-in screen and 80% of the product a 1/8 in screen? The work index for limestone is 12. grinders. Cutters give particles of definite size and shape. The product from an intermediate grinder might pass a 40-mesh screen. An ultrafine grinder accepts feed particles no larger than 6mm and the product size is typically 1 to 5µ m. most of the product from a fine grinder would pass a 200-mesh screen with a 74µ m opening.175 mm 3. 2 to 10mm in length. Gyratory crushers 3.4=50. Dpb =25. A secondary crusher reduces these lumps into particles perhaps 6mm in size. Crushing rolls . and in tons per hour. Crusher do the heavy work of breaking large pieces of solid material into small lumps. The principal types of size-reduction machines are as follows: A. wi =12. The work index.

Jie Zhang Chapter 4. Tumbling mills C. Material passed through a series of screens of different sizes is separated into sized fractions. Mechanical separations are applicable to heterogeneous mixtures. Hammer mills with internal classification 2. Undersize: fines.1 Screening equipment Stationary screens and grizzlies. Agitated mills D. Gyrating screens. Attrition mills 4. Rolling-compression mills 3. 4. 4. slitters CPE 124 Particle Technology . Vibrating screens. because although either the upper or lower limit of the particle sizes they contain is known.e. do not pass A single screen can make but a single separation into two fractions. or density. dicers. Hammer mills. Cutting diameter Dpc: marks the point of separation. Knife cutters. impactors 2. Fluid-energy mills 3.1.Study Notes Dr. pass through the screen openings Oversize: tails. i. usually Dpc is chosen to be the . shape. not to homogeneous solutions. Centrifugal sitter. Grinders (intermediate and fine) 1. Cutting machines 1.B. fractions in which both the maximum and minimum particle sizes are known. the other limit is unknown. Ultrafine grinders 1. Mechanical Separations Mechanical separations are performed based on the physical difference between particles such as size. These are called unsized fractions.1 Screening Screening is a method of separating particles according to size alone.

D. overflow and underfolw are given in the table. Actual screens do not give a perfect separation about the cutting diameter. and the oversize can contain certain amount of material that is smaller than Dpc.1. Example: A quartz mixture is screened through a 10-mesh screen. 1. xD. Calculate the mass ratios of the overflow and underflow to feed and the overall effectiveness of the screen. The mass fractions of material B in the feed.2 Material balances over a screen Let F. and xF. 4.3 Screen effectiveness A common measure of screen effectiveness is the ratio of oversize material A that is actually in the overflow to the amount of A entering with the feed.mesh opening of the screen. and 1. and B be the mass flow rates of feed. . overflow.xB. The undersize can contain certain amount of material coarser than Dpc. respectively. Similarly. F=D+B FxF = DxD + BxB Elimination of B from the above equations gives Elimination of D gives 4. and underflow.xF. These quantities are DxD and FxF respectively. overflow. and xB be the mass fractions of material A in the streams. The cumulative screen analysis of feed.1. Thus where EA is the screen effectiveness based on the oversize.xD. an effectiveness EB based on the undersize materials is given by A combined overall effectiveness can be defined as the product of the two individual ratios. and underflow are 1.

9 9 1.975 1. xD=0.0 Solution: From the table.589 0.98 1.195 14 1.168 0.833 0.699 3.47.417 0.8 5 0.96 0. xF=0.47 0.195 .208 0.88 5 0.02 5 0.0 0.94 0.327 0 0.83 28 35 65 Pan 0.91 0.73 0.4 3 0.15 0 0 8 2.9 7 0.362 0 10 1.85.58 20 0.Mesh Dp (mm) Feed Ove rflo w 0 0.651 0. xB=0.0 Underflow 4 6 4.0 71 0.94 0.

ε is the porosity of cake.2 Filtration Filtration is the removal of solid particles from a fluid by passing the fluid through a filtering medium. S is the specific surface of the particles. on which the solids are deposited. Filters are divided into three main groups: cake filters. From Kozeny equation. The filtrate velocity can also be written as . and large capacity is obtainable only at the expense of a reduction in effectiveness. µ is the viscosity of the filtrate. but soon others begin to collect on the septum surface. as when waste solid must be separated from waste liquid prior to disposal.1. not the septum. or septum. Capacity and effectiveness are opposing factors. and ∆ P is the applied pressure difference. or the solid. but the high liquid velocity keeps the layer from building up. To obtain maximum effectiveness. some solid particles enter the pores of the medium and are immobilised. Often they include provisions for washing the cake and for removing some of the liquid from the solids before discharge. After this brief period the cake of solids does the filtration. or polymer membrane with pores small enough to exclude most of suspended particles. Some of the liquid passes through the medium as clear filtrate. A thin layer of solids may form on the surface of the medium. metal. In a crossflow filter. (1) where u is the velocity of the filtrate. and crossflow filters. or both. The fluid may be liquid or gas. The solid particles are trapped inside the filter medium or on its external surfaces. leaving a more concentrated suspension behind. Cake filters separate relatively large amount of solids as a cake of crystals or sludge. the capacity must be small. 4. Clarifying filters differ from screens in that the pores of the filter medium are much larger in diameter than the particles to be removed. the valuable stream from the filter may be fluid. The filter medium is a ceramic. the particles forming the cake are small and the flow through the bed is slow. Sometimes it is neither. Streamline conditions are invariably obtained. L is the cake thickness. At the start of filtration in a cake filter.3 The theory of filtration In cake filters. a visible cake of appreciable thickness builds up on the surface and must be periodically removed. Clarifying filters remove small amount of solids to produce a clean gas or a sparkling clear liquid such as beverage. the feed suspension flows under pressure at a fairly high velocity across the filter medium.4 Capacity and effectiveness of screens The capacity of a screen is measured by the mass of material that can be fed per unit time to a unit area of the screen. clarifying filters. 4.4.

and the relation between them can be obtained by making a material balance between the solids in the slurry and in the cake. where ρ is the density of the filtrate. In Eq(3). Mass of liquid retained in the filter cake is ε ALρ .(2) where V is the volume of filtrate which has passed in time t and A is the total crosssectional area of the filter cake. It is seen to depend on ε and S. and on forces between the particles. For incompressible cakes it is taken as constant. For incompressible cakes ε can be taken as constant and the quantity ε 3/[5(1-ε ) 2 2 S ] is then a property of the particles forming the cake and should be constant for a given material. where ρ s is the density of the solids. If J is the mass fractions of solids in the original suspension (5) That is (6) Therefore (7) and (8) . nature of particles. but it will depend on the rate of deposition. the variables V and L are connected. Therefore (3) where (4) Eq(3) is the basic filtration equation and r is termed the specific resistance. Mass in the filter cake is (1-ε )ALρ s.

If v is the volume of cake deposited by unit volume of filtrate then: or and from Eq(8): (9) (10) Substituting for L in Eq(3) or (11) Eq(11) can be regarded as the basic relation between ∆ P. there is a linear relation between V2 and t. Constant pressure difference Eq(11) can be re-written as (12) Integrating Eq(12) gives or (13) Thus for a constant pressure filtration. and t. Two important types of operation will be considered: 1). Filtration at constant pressure is more frequently adopted in practical conditions. where the pressure difference is maintained constant and. Constant rate filtration constant (14) . 2). where the rate of filtration is maintained constant. V.

4 Separations based on the motion of particles through fluids Devices that separate particles of differing densities are known as sorting classifiers. usually greater than 10-mesh.e. 4. Flow of filtrate through the septum and cake combined Suppose that the filter septum to be equivalent to a thickness Ls of cake.1. A comment choice of medium is a pseudoliquid consisting of a suspension in water of fine particles . the separation depends only on the difference in the densities of the two substances and is independent of the particle size. the density of which is intermediate between that of the light material and that of the heavy material.Therefore or (15) In this case. ∆ P is directly proportional to V. Sink-and-float methods A sink-and-float method uses a liquid sorting medium. This method is also known as the heavy-fluid separation. in principle. They use one of the two principal separation methods: sink-and-float and differential settling. Heavy fluid processes are used to treat relatively coarse particles. and the lighter ones float. then if ∆ P is the pressure drop across the cake and septum combined Eq(3) can be written as: (16) i. (17) For constant rate filtration we have (18) For constant pressure filtration we have (19) 4.4. and a separation is thus obtained. Then the heavy particles settle through the medium. This method has the advantage that.

the terminal velocity can be calculated as For equal-settling particles. Let A be the heavier. therefore For settling in the Newton’s law range If the ratio of diameters of the smallest particle of A and the largest particle of B is larger than the equal-settling ratio. utA = utB. then perfect separation of A and B can be achieved. ] Education in particle technology .4.4. Differential settling methods Differential settling methods utilise the difference in terminal velocities that exist between substances of different density. then complete separation of A and B can be achieved. If the smallest particle of A settles faster than the largest particle of B. The density of the medium is less than that of either substance.2. Consider particles of two materials A and B settling through a medium of density ρ . For settling in the Stokes’ law region.

Gyratory Screen ELECTRO FLUX Gyratory screen motion is the most effective method for screening. de-lumping . which provide solution to variety of needs of screening. grading oversize or undersize removal de-dusting.fiber recovery. filtration. Vibro screen are driven by a special type of vertically mounted heavy duty Energy efficiency Motor eccentric at the upper & lower end of the shaft. classification. • • Move Close . pre-filtration. de-watering.. scalping etc. It is reliable and economical continuous process equipment. sifting.

EFI . .02 EFI .01 EFI . By changing their lead angle.cm 1884 2886 3768 4710 Motor Hp 0.0 2.0 2. Anti-Blinding Devices: Ball Tray Anti-Blinding Device: Ball tray utilizes the multi-plane inertial vibration of the screener and bouncing elastomeric balls to prevent screen blinding. various spiral screening patterns are obtained to suit different application.0 / 2.MODEL NO.03 Screen DIA mm 600 900 1200 1500 Screening Area Sq.5 1.5 Rotation of Unbalanced top weight causes vibration in Horizontal plane whereas the rotation of lower weight causes tilt & vibrations in vertical plane.

. stringy and sticky materials from blinding the screen. shearing fibers and scraping away gummy materials. . flow in temperature. dry materials lodged in the apertures of the upper screen. Because they are hollow. "Trommel") is a screened cylinder used to separate materials by size . Moisture contamination. type of feeding. maximizing screening efficiency.for example. Advantages : Applications : Low power consumption Food Industry Varied range of application Chemical industry High processing rate per unit area of screen Pharmaceuticals Accurate separation Ceramics Minimum screen building Plastics Screening up to 200 mesh Abrasives Ball tray for anti blinding Multi-deck arrangements upto Seven decks. etc. Ring Tray Screen. Bulk density of the material Nature of material. TROMMEL A trommel (from the German word for drum. Anti-Blinding Device Screen Rings are effective at preventing fibrous. Multi-plane inertial vibration of the screener causes plastic rings to move continuously across a perforated stainless steel plate. Factors Determine Screening Capacity : Material Size.The device consists of two screens spaced sufficiently apart to allow captive elastomeric balls to bounce between the upper "operating" screen and the lower coarse-mesh "ball screen" for the purpose of dislodging near-size. the rings promote product flow over the entire screen surface. separating the biodegradable fraction of mixed municipal waste or separating different sizes of crushed stone.

a saleable topsoil for farms. instead of incurring the cost of sending it for disposal. as well as cleaned rock for aggregates or landscaping work.Portable trommels (also called portable trommel screens) are often used in the production of organic products from various types of waste. lumber mill by-products and municipal waste. nurseries and site-work. For example. This allows the contractor to resell their waste. The same principle applies to the production of compost. sand/gravel. excavation contractors may screen their site debris into two fractions. .

• C50 Jaw Crusher McCloskey International is now breaking new ground with the introduction of the C50 crusher. With class leading capacity. • C44 Cone Crusher . all while maintaining the production levels required to get the job done. the new C50 crusher continues to push the boundaries of industry performance. Easy to move. economical to operate and easy to use. 50" wide jaw. and large stockpile heights as standard.• Crushers ○ ○ ○ ○ C40 Compact Jaw Crusher C50 Jaw Crusher C44 Cone Crusher I54 Impactor • • • • Vibrating Screeners Trommel Screeners Stacking Conveyors Used Equipment Crushers • C40 Compact Jaw Crusher The McCloskey C40 is a full featured compact jaw crusher for mobile operators.

Following from the recent introduction of the C50 Jaw Crusher. all while maintaining the production levels required to get the job done. the new C50 crusher continues to push the boundaries of industry performance. 50" wide jaw. Easy to move. economical to operate and easy to use. • Crushers ○ ○ ○ ○ C40 Compact Jaw Crusher C50 Jaw Crusher C44 Cone Crusher I54 Impactor • • • • Vibrating Screeners Trommel Screeners Stacking Conveyors Used Equipment Crushers • C40 Compact Jaw Crusher The McCloskey C40 is a full featured compact jaw crusher for mobile operators. McCloskey International are launching the C44 Cone Crusher to add to its new full range of portable crushing plants. With class leading capacity. • C50 Jaw Crusher McCloskey International is now breaking new ground with the introduction of the C50 crusher. . and large stockpile heights as standard.

built to bring high quality and high production McCloskey crushers to impactor applications.• C44 Cone Crusher Following from the recent introduction of the C50 Jaw Crusher. McCloskey International are launching the C44 Cone Crusher to add to its new full range of portable crushing plants. • Crushers ○ ○ ○ ○ • • • • C40 Compact Jaw Crusher C50 Jaw Crusher C44 Cone Crusher I54 Impactor Vibrating Screeners Trommel Screeners Stacking Conveyors Used Equipment Top of Form Enter email ad Request more information: Receive email newsletter Contact McCloskey International . Incorporating an independent pre-screen and a class leading feed opening size the McCloskey I-54 is designed to lead the way in mobile impact crushing. • I54 Impactor The I-54 Impactor is equipped with a 47" (1200mm) x 53" (1350mm) impactor chamber.

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Features and Benefits • Feeder Folding hardox hopper mounted over vibrating feeder with integral prescreen. Feeder rate can be regulated manually or automatically by the load sensing jaw. .

fluid levels. fuel consumption. • . • Conveyor Extended 42 " main conveyor as standard. giving large stockpile capacity. • Colour Control Panel User friendly waterproof and dustproof control panel.• Crusher True 50"x26" (1270mmx660mm) Telsmith jaw. Conveyor lowers and raises hydraulically and is easily removable for maintenance. Innovative hydraulic system provides significant improvments in fuel economy. Reversible hydrostatic drive. Allows monitoring of pressures. track and feeder functions. Reversible jaw plates. Fully hydraulic closed size setting adjust and relief. Provides push button control of jaw. • Power unit CAT C9 ACERT 350hp (261kW) engine with all round access for maintenance.

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clays. crushed rock. The 628 offers all the features of a 621 Trommel along with a 7ft longer drum. The size distribution is often of critical importance to the way the material performs in use. coal. soil.[1] Contents [hide] • • 1 Procedure ○ 1. it is probably the most common. offering extensive screening surface area that provides high production. grain and seeds. a wide range of manufactured powders. feldspars. search A sieve analysis (or gradation test) is a practice or procedure used (commonly used in civil engineering) to assess the particle size distribution (also called gradation) of a granular material.1 Preparation 2 Results . A sieve analysis can be performed on any type of non-organic or organic granular materials including sands. • 733 The 733 Trommel screen is a very tough and reliable machine. and impressive stockpiling abilities Sieve analysis From Wikipedia.• 621 / 628 The 621 Trommel Screener is suited for large heavy duty applications where production rates can reach 200+ tph in topsoil and sticky material or 300tph in sand and gravel. down to a minimum size depending on the exact method. granite. Being such a simple technique of particle sizing. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.

6 Air Jet Sieving • • • • • 4 Types of gradation relatively to the aggregate nature 5 Limitations of sieve analysis 6 Properties 7 Engineering applications 8 Forecast ○ 8.1 "Sieving" with Digital Image Processing Procedure Sieves used for gradation test.• 3 Methods ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 3.3 Tapping sieving 3.2 Horizontal sieving 3.4 Sonic sieving 3. .5 Wet sieving 3.1 Throw-action sieving 3.

A typical sieve analysis involves a nested column of sieves with wire mesh cloth (screen). Each lower sieve in the column has smaller openings than the one above. usually for some fixed amount of time. in a mechanical sieve shaker. . A representative weighed sample is poured into the top sieve which has the largest screen openings. The size of the average particles on each sieve then being analysis to get the cut-point or specific size range captured on screen. called the receiver. A pan should be placed underneath the nest of sieves to collect the aggregate that passes through the smallest. A gradation test is performed on a sample of aggregate in a laboratory. The column is typically placed in a mechanical shaker. from top to bottom. The complete procedure for this test is outlined in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C 136[2] and the American Association and State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) T 27[3] A suitable sieve size for the aggregate should be selected and placed in order of decreasing size. After the shaking is complete the material on each sieve is weighed. The results of this test are used to describe the properties of the aggregate and to see if it is appropriate for various civil engineering purposes such as selecting the appropriate aggregate for concrete mixes and asphalt mixes as well as sizing of water production well screens. The shaker shakes the column. At the base is a round pan. The results of this test are provided in graphical form to identify the type of gradation of the aggregate. The entire nest is then agitated.A mechanical shaker used for sieve analysis. See the separate Mesh (scale) page for details of sieve sizing. The weight of the sample of each sieve is then divided by the total weight to give a percentage retained on each sieve. The total time od shakeing is 10 minutes.

After the aggregate reaches the pan. The total weight of the sample is also required. The cumulative percent passing of the aggregate is found by subtracting the percent retained from 100%. The values are then plotted on a graph with cumulative percent passing on the y axis and logarithmic sieve size on the x axis. To find the percent of aggregate passing through each sieve. [edit] Throw-action sieving Throw-Action Sieving .[4] [edit] Methods There are different methods for carrying out sieve analyses. a sample of the aggregate must be obtained from the source.[4] [edit] Preparation In order to perform the test. %Cumulative Passing = 100% .[4] [edit] Results The results are presented in a graph of percent passing versus the sieve size. first find the percent retained in each sieve. On the graph the sieve size scale is logarithmic. To do so.%Cumulative Retained. the aggregate should be mixed thoroughly and be reduced to a suitable size for testing. To do so. the amount of material retained in each sieve is then weighed. add up the total amount of aggregate that is retained in each sieve and the amount in the previous sieves. The next step is to find the cumulative percent of aggregate retained in each sieve. To prepare the sample. the following equation is used.and the material whose diameter is smaller than the mesh opening pass through the sieves. %Retained = ×100% where WSieve is the weight of aggregate in the sieve and WTotal is the total weight of the aggregate. depending on the material to be measured.

as their horizontal orientation means that only a few disoriented particles enter the mesh and the sieve is not blocked so quickly. Therefore sieving results are reproducible and precise (an important precondition for a significant analysis).g. [edit] Horizontal sieving Horizontal Sieving In a horizontal sieve shaker the sieve stack moves in horizontal circles in a plane. The rotating motion while suspended increases the probability that the particles present a different orientation to the mesh when they fall back again. Modern sieve shakers work with an electro-magnetic drive which moves a spring-mass system and transfers the resulting oscillation to the sieve stack. Amplitude and sieving time are set digitally and are continuously observed by an integrated control-unit. The large sieving area enables the sieving of large amounts of sample. [edit] Tapping sieving Tapping Sieving A horizontal circular motion overlies a vertical motion which is created by a tapping impulse. and thus might eventually pass through the mesh. In the air they carry out free rotations and interact with the openings in the mesh of the sieve when they fall back. Horizontal sieve shakers are preferably used for needle-shaped. These motional processes are characteristic of hand sieving and produce a higher degree of sieving for denser particles (e. If the particles are smaller than the openings. . The vertical throwing motion is overlaid with a slight circular motion which results in distribution of the sample amount over the whole sieving surface. long or fibrous samples. abrasives) than throw-action sieve shakers. The particles are accelerated in the vertical direction (are thrown upwards). This method is the most common in the laboratory sector[citation needed]. flat. they pass through the sieve. If they are larger. Adjustment of parameters like amplitude and sieving time serves to optimize the sieving for different types of material.Here a throwing motion acts on the sample. for example as encountered in the particle-size analysis of construction materials and aggregates. they are thrown upwards again.

or when the sample is a very fine powder which tends to agglomerate (mostly < 45 µm) – in a dry sieving process this tendency would lead to a clogging of the sieve meshes and this would make a further sieving process impossible. Thus the finer particles are transported through the mesh openings into the vacuum cleaner. A wet sieving process is set up like a dry process: the sieve stack is clamped onto the sieve shaker and the sample is placed on the top sieve. When it comes to wet sieving it is very important not to change to sample in its volume (no swelling. Sonic sievers are able to handle much finer dry powders than woven mesh screens.g. [edit] Wet sieving Most sieve analyses are carried out dry. The reason for the effectiveness of this sieving method is based on two components: A rotating slotted nozzle inside the sieving chamber and a powerful industrial vacuum cleaner which is connected to the chamber. a suspension which must not be dried. dispersing the particles. But there are some applications which can only be carried out by wet sieving. dissolving or reaction with the liquid). the air jet is distributed over the complete sieve surface and is sucked in with low speed through the sieve mesh. This is the case when the sample which has to be analysed is e. When passing the narrow slit of the nozzle the air stream is accelerated and blown against the sieve mesh.[edit] Sonic sieving The particles are lifted and forcibly dropped in a column of oscillating air at a frequency of thousands of cycles per minute. The rinsing is carried out until the liquid which is discharged through the receiver is clear. [edit] Air Jet Sieving Air jet sieving machines are ideally suited for very fine powders which tend to agglomerate and cannot be separated by vibrational sieving. Above the mesh. The vacuum cleaner generates a vacuum inside the sieving chamber and sucks in fresh air through the slotted nozzle. Sample residues on the sieves have to be dried and weighed. Above the top sieve a water-spray nozzle is placed which supports the sieving process additionally to the sieving motion. .

[4] Gap gradation A gap gradation refers to a sample with very little aggregate in the medium size range. a narrow gradation is a sample that has aggregate of approximately the same size. and occupies a small range of the aggregate. A dense gradation will result in an even curve on the gradation graph. most of the air voids between the material are filled with particles. because there are no fine particles to fill them. However. sizes that range down to #100 mesh (150μm). By having a dense gradation. for material that is finer than 100 mesh.except to disperse it.[4] Rich gradation A rich gradation refers to a sample of aggregate with a high proportion of particles of small sizes. been used for decades to monitor material quality based on particle size. dry sieving can be significantly less accurate. Suspending the particles in a suitable liquid transports fine material through the sieve much more efficiently than shaking the dry material. This results in only coarse and fine aggregate. On the gradation graph.[4] Open gradation An open gradation refers an aggregate sample with very little fine aggregate particles. in general. it appears as a curve that is horizontal in the small size range.[5] [edit] Limitations of sieve analysis Sieve analysis has. . The curve on the gradation graph is very steep. For coarse material. This is because the mechanical energy required to make particles pass through an opening and the surface attraction effects between the particles themselves and between particles and the screen increase as the particle size decreases. Wet sieve analysis can be utilized where the material analyzed is not affected by the liquid . The curve is horizontal in the medium size range on the gradation graph.Air jet sieving machine [edit] Types of gradation relatively to the aggregate nature Dense gradation A dense gradation refers to a sample that is approximately of equal amounts of various sizes of aggregate.[5] Narrow gradation Also known as uniform gradation. This results in many air voids. a sieve analysis and particle size distribution is accurate and consistent.

It affects bulk density. highway. as the particle size reported will assume that the particles are spherical. stable mix with resistance to water is important. With a rich gradation. This is important because in pavement design. With careful selection of the gradation. suburban) that is being paved. where in fact an elongated particle might pass through the screen end-on. The gradation can be affected to achieve the desired properties for the particular engineering application. And there is no additional information concerning other relevant properties like opacity . and the permeability is also low. With an open gradation.[5] [edit] Engineering applications Gradation is usually specified for each engineering application it is used for. and therefore an open gradation is needed. and the permeability is quite high. the physical stability is low. the bulk density will also be low. Gradation. in this case. foundations might only call for coarse aggregates. [edit] "Sieving" with Digital Image Processing The scope of information conveyed by sieve analysis is relatively small. Gradation also applies to subgrades in paving. [edit] Forecast Within the last years[when?] some methods for particle size distribution measurement were developed which work by means of laser diffraction or digital image processing. depends on the type of road (i.e. [edit] Properties Gradation affects many properties of an aggregate. rural. a workable. Gradation is a primary concern in pavement mix design. For example. the bulk density is relatively low. the physical stability is moderate. Concrete could call for both coarse and fine particles and a dense graded aggregate would be needed. high physical stability. physical stability and permeability. which is the material that a road is paved on. but would be prevented from doing so if it presented itself side-on.Sieve analysis assumes that all particle will be round (spherical) or nearly so and will pass through the square openings when the particle diameter is less than the size of the square opening in the screen. Asphalt design also calls for a dense graded aggregate. It does not allow for a clear statement concerning the exact size of a single particle → it is just classified within a size range which is determined by two sieve sizes ("a particle is < than sieve size x and > than sieve size y"). due to the lack of fine particles. it is possible to achieve high bulk density. and low permeability. For elongated and flat particles a sieve analysis will not yield reliable mass-based results.

astm. Digital image processing is being used to sieve materials in mining.htm?E+mystore 3.org/item_details. (2006). CRC Press. 2. ^ p231 in "Characterisation of bulk solids" by Donald Mcglinchey. (2007).org/index.exe/DATABASE. etc. Mamlouk and J. ASTM C136-06. http://www. Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers.aspx?ID=659 4. ^ AASHTO The Voice of Transportation.).. ^ a b c M. 1999 [edit] See also • • • Soil gradation Automated Sieving using Photoanalysis Optical Granulometry [edit] External links • • • • • Equipment for tests. 2005. Devices which work with digital image processing enable to recall even this information and a lot more (surface analysis. (2006). [pdf] English (386 KB) [pdf] German (351 KB) . Addison-Wesley. Zaniewski.php?title=Gradation_Test 5.transportation.. Menlo Park CA. agriculture.or shape available. T0 27.Standards Worldwide. [edit] References 1.P. http://bookstore. and forestry industries on a regular basis. http://pavementinteractive. ^ a b c d e f Pavement Interactive.shakers The Basic Principles of Sieve Analysis Soil test Sieve Analysis Example for Digital Image Processing Automated Sieve Analysis Software and Systems Sieving & Fractioning The Basic Principles of Sieve Analysis PDF-Download: • • • Choose.CART/REDLINE_PAGES/C136. The results can be fitted to sieve analysis so that a comparison between measurement results obtained with different methods is possible. ^ ASTM International . Gradation Test.S.org/cgibin/SoftCart.

which means that they consist of differently shaped and sized particles. The examples clearly show how important it is to have a knowledge of the particle distribution. those that can be separated using sieve trays. [edit] Significance in the Collection of Particulate Matter Particle size distribution can greatly affect the efficacy of any collection device. Only a continuous monitoring of the particle size distribution can guarantee a constant product quality. i. the number of particles of different sizes. It affects the reactivity of solids participating in chemical reactions. It affects the strength and load-bearing properties of rocks and soils. is responsible for important physical and chemical properties. Settling Chambers will normally only collect very large particles. and needs to be tightly controlled in many industrial products such as the manufacture of printer toner and cosmetics. Significance The PSD of a material can be important in understanding its physical and chemical properties.e. particularly within the context of quality assurance in the production of bulk goods. If the particle distribution changes during the manufacturing process then the quality of the finished product will also change. The particle size distribution.Many natural and manufactured materials occur in a disperse form. . Such as: • mechanical bulk behavior • surface reaction • taste • miscibility • filtration properties • conductivity This list could be continued at great length. A log-normal distribution of coal-fired Fly Ash.

Fabric Filters are one of the most efficient and cost effective types of dust collectors available and can achieve a collection efficiency of more than 99% for very fine particules.g. The closer this value is to 1. The PSD is usually determined over a list of size ranges that covers nearly all the sizes present in the sample. They can be very efficient at the collection of very fine particles. the particulate sample can be considered to be monodisperse. the scrubbing liquid (usually water) comes into contact with a gas stream containing dust particles. where powder is separated on sieves of different sizes. the . α: Relative standard deviation or degree of polydispersity Polydispersity index. the PSD is defined in terms of discrete size ranges: e. particle Reynolds number for fine particles in gaseous mediums is typically less than 0. The greater the contact of the gas and liquid streams. Kn: Particle Knudsen Number Knudsen numbe Types The way PSD is expressed is usually defined by the method by which it is determined. In contrast to the large numerical values noted for flow Reynolds number. Nomenclature ρp: Actual particle density Density (g/cm3) ρg: Gas or sample matrix density Density (g/cm3) r2: Least-squares coefficient of determination Coefficient of determination. α = σg / D50 R e(P) : Particle Reynold's Number Sediment transport#Particle Reynolds Number. In these systems. Thus.13 / D50 = D50 / D15. However. the higher the dust removal efficiency.0. The MMD is considered to be the average particle diameter by mass. This value is also determined mathematically. "% of sample between 45 μm and 53 μm". λ: Gas mean free path Mean free path (cm) D50: Mass-median-diameter (MMD). The log-normal distribution mass median diameter. Wet Scrubbers that use liquid are commonly known as wet scrubbers. The most easily understood method of determination is sieve analysis. R ef : Flow Reynold's Number Reynolds number. For values less than 0. when sieves of these sizes are used. Electrostatic Precipitators use electrostatic forces to separate dust particles from exhaust gases. This value is determined mathematically by the equation: σg = D84.1. the better the data fit to a straight-line. Higher efficiency models can collect particles down to 10 μm.87 The value of σg determines the slope of the least-squares regression curve. σg: Geometric standard deviation Geometric standard deviation. Some methods of determination allow much narrower size ranges to be defined than can be obtained by use of sieves.1.Centrifugal Collectors will normally collect particles down to about 20 μm. and are applicable to particle sizes outside the range available in sieves.

In practice. is universally used in presenting PSD data of all kinds. A large amount of materials can be readily loaded into 8-inch-diameter (200 mm) sieve trays. Two common uses in the power industry are wet-sieving of milled limestone and dry-sieving of milled coal. A simple treatment assumes the particles are spheres that will just pass through a square hole in a "sieve". Range analysis is suitable when a particular ideal mid-range particle size is being sought. while cumulative analysis is used where the amount of "under-size" or "over-size" must be controlled. Technique Advantages: A bulk sample is analyzed using centrifugal classification and the technique is non-descructive. Technique Disadvantages: The most obvious disadvantage is that the smallest practical sieve size (400 Mesh[3]) is 37 µm. in which the amount in each size range is listed in order. the sample may be washed through with a non-reacting liquid (usually water) or blown through with an air current. and many PSDs are concerned with much smaller sizes than this. Methods may be simple shaking of the sample in sieves until the amount retained becomes more or less constant. Flow rates can be increased to separate higher size ranges. the smaller particles are carried over in the fluid stream while the large particles settle against the upward current. and ease of interpretation. [edit] Air elutriation analysis An air elutriator is a simple device which can separate particles into two or more groups.and the way in which such particles are characterized during analysis is very dependent on the method of measurement used. Material may be separated by means of an elutriator. and it is very difficult to get material to pass through it. Further size fractions may be collected if the overflow from the first tube is passed vertically upwards through a second tube of greater cross-section. Technique Advantages: This technique is well-adapted for bulk materials. If we start with low flow rates small less dense particle attain terminal velocites. When the particles are introduced. particles are irregular . the particle from the stream is collected in overflow and hence will be separated from the feed. Although manual sieving procedures can be ineffective. for example in the case of fibrous materials . and flow with the stream. that "retains" particles above a certain size. A 37 μm sieve is exceedingly fragile. cheapness. Each cut-point can be recovered for future size-respective chemical analyses. while insufficient energy fails to break down loose agglomerates. The way in which "size" is expressed is open to a wide range of interpretations. and any number of such tubes can be arranged in series. automated sieving technologies using image fragmentation analysis software are available. Over-energetic sieving causes attrition of the particles and thus changes the PSD. which consists of a vertical tube up which fluid is passed at a controlled velocity. It may also be presented in "cumulative" form. in which the total of all sizes "retained" or "passed" by a single notional "sieve" is given for a range of sizes. Another disadvantage is that the amount of energy used to sieve the sample is arbitrarily determined. often through a side tube. The PSD may be expressed as a "range" analysis. and "passes" particles below that size. Alternatively.idea of the notional "sieve". These technologies can sieve material by capturing and analyzing a photo of material.often extremely so. [edit] Sieve analysis This continues to be used for many measurements because of its simplicity. This technique has been used for decades in the Air Pollution Control industry (data .

some particles may (partially or fully) dissolve in the medium altering the size distribution. but sub-micrometer particles cannot be reliably measured due to the effects of Brownian motion. which measures the momentary changes in the conductivity of a liquid passing through an orifice that take place when individual nonconducting particles pass through. requiring careful . or some other liquid). then measures the density of the column at timed intervals. Technique Disadvantages: A bulk sample (about ten grams) must be obtained. Technique Advantages: This technique determines particle size as a function of settling velocity. The actual test method [4] has been withdrawn by ASME due to obsolescence. millions of particles must be measured. This is beneficial in the agricultural industry. This is impossibly arduous when done manually. It is a fairly timeconsuming analytical technique.. Unlike sieve analyses which can be time-consuming and inaccurate. taking a photo of a sample of the materials to be measured and using software to analyze the photo can result in rapid. Technique Disadvantages: Sample must be dispersed in a liquid medium. [edit] Sedimentation techniques These are based upon study of the terminal velocity acquired by particles suspended in a viscous liquid. Typical apparatus diperses the sample in liquid. Other techniques determine the optical density of successive layers using visible light or x-rays. Another advantage is that the material can be analyzed without being handled. Sedimentation time is longest for the finest particles. Instruments such as the Retsch Camsizer can perform this analysis on the run using standard camera technology.. The results are only related to the projected cross-sectional area that a particle displaces as it passes through an orifice. Photoanalysis equipment and software is currently being used in mining. This is a physical diameter. as handling of food products can lead to contamination.. [edit] Optical counting methods PSDs can be measured microscopically by sizing against a graticule and counting. accurate measurements. some particles may (partially or fully) dissolve in the medium altering the size distribution. [edit] Photoanalysis Main article: Optical granulometry Materials can now be analysed through photoanalysis procedures. but automated analysis of electron micrographs is now commercially available. This technique determines particle size as a function of settling velocity in an air stream (as opposed to water. Technique Advantages: Very small sample aliquots can be examined. but for a statistically valid analysis. Technique Disadvantages: Sample must be dispersed in a liquid medium. Instrument calibration materials are therefore no longer available. not really related to mathematical descriptions of particles (e. so this technique is useful for sizes below 10 μm.used for design of control devices).g. The particle count is obtained by counting pulses.. forestry and agricultural industries worldwide. [edit] Electroresistance counting methods An example of this is the Coulter counter. and the size is dependent on the size of each pulse. terminal settling velocity[5]).

A particular advantage is that the technique can generate a continuous measurement for analyzing process streams. The California Air Resources Board Method 501[8] is currently the most widely accepted test method for particle size distribution emissions measurements Size Reduction The reason that size reduction or comminution is usually carried out is to increase the surface area of the material. so that this method is particularly good for measuring sizes between 0. It should be noted however that very small particles are more difficult to handle. [edit] Acoustic spectroscopy or ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy Instead of light.1 and 3. Dispersed particles absorb and scatter ultrasound similarly to light. [edit] Laser diffraction methods These depend upon analysis of the "halo" of diffracted light produced when a laser beam passes through a dispersion of particles in air or in a liquid. etc. this method employs ultrasound for collecting information on the particles that are dispersed in fluid. This is a big advantage of this method.000 μm. in the case of ultrasound. [edit] Air pollution emissions measurements Cascade Impactors – Particulate matter is withdrawn isokinetically from a source and segregated by size in a cascade impactor at the sampling point exhaust conditions of temperature. Advances in sophisticated data processing and automation have allowed this to become the dominant method used in industrial PSD determination.g. There are four mechanisms by which size reduction may be achieved: impact particle concussion by a single rigid force . Many of these instruments can require a bulk sample (e. The mass of each size fraction is determined gravimetrically. more dangerous in terms of toxic effect and explosive hazard and have other problems such as increased resistance to flow through them. pressure.selection of the dispersion media. X-Rays will not count carbon (organic) particles. Cascade impactors use the principle of inertial separation to size segregate particle samples from a particle laden gas stream. The resulting ultrasound attenuation frequency spectra are the raw data for calculating particle size distribution. measuring the transmitted energy versus frequency is a better choice.[6] There have been hundreds of papers studying ultrasound propagation through fluid particulates in the 20th century. It can be measured for any fluid system with no dilution or other sample preparation. The angle of diffraction increases as particle size decreases. as with light. This has been known since Lord Rayleigh developed the first theory of ultrasound scattering and published a book "The Theory of Sound" in 1878. two to five grams). Density is highly dependent upon fluid temperature remaining constant. catalytic effect etc and is therefore desirable. dissolution. Calculation of particle size distribution is based on theoretical models that are well verified for up to 50% by volume of dispersed particles. This will maximise the area of solid in contact with the liquid or gas phase around it which enhances reaction.[7] It turns out that instead of measuring scattered energy versus angle.

Whereas it is impossible to predict from any theory the energy consumed in size reduction there are a number of empirical rules which allow data from one process to be extrapolated to another. by a factor of about 1000. All are based on the premise that the energy dE required to effect a small change in size. Compacting particles after fracture 3. There are also significant mechanical losses in the milling machinery. Overcoming friction between particles 4. dL for unit mass of solids is a simple power function of the size ie: .compression particle disintegration by two rigid forces shear produced by a fluid or by particle-particle interaction attrition arising from particles scraping against one another or against a rigid surface Size reduction obviously requires energy input but the energy is consumed in size reduction apparatus at a much higher rate than would be predicted from the new surface area created. Deforming the particle to its elastic limit 2. Deformation of fractured particles This energy is dissipated as heat. It is interesting that around 5% of the world's energy consumption goes to size reduction. Elastically deforming milling surfaces 5. This 'lost' energy is consumed in 1.

Rittinger's law to fine grinding. Note that KR and KK are not dimensionless. Kick's law is more appropriate to coarse crushing. KK is Kick's constant. Writing C = KRfc where fc is the crushing strength of the material in N/m2 and KR is Rittinger's constant for the material gives Rittinger's Law (1867): If P = -1 then putting C = KKfc gives: which is Kick's Law. This implies that the energy required depends on the 'reduction ratio' L1/L2 so that the energy required to reduce from 50 to 25mm is the same as that required to go from 12mm to 6mm. Bond suggested an intermediate relationship with P = -3/2 which gives: .putting P=-2 ie relating the energy to the surface area gives: where E is the energy required per unit mass of solid.

2mm Fine Milling <0.01 m 1500 .5mm .where q = L1/L2 Ei the work index is the amount of energy required to reduce unit mass of material from an infinite size to a size L2 of 100 m (ie q = ) is defined by: C = 5Ei thus In all these equations the particle sizes are defined as the size of square hole through which 80% of the material will pass.grinders 5 .0.5mm Fine Crushers. Factors Influencing Choice of Size Reduction Equipment 1.1mm down to 0.40mm 50 . Feed and Product Size Feed Size Coarse Crushers Intermediate Crushers 50 .2mm Product Size 5 .1mm <0.

2. Nature of Material 1. Hardness - very hard materials are better in low speed or low contact machines 2. Structure - fibrous materials need tearing or cutting action 3. Moisture content - materials with 5 - 50% moisture do not flow easily and can be difficult to process 4. Friability 5. Stickiness - sticky materials need easily cleaned machines 6. Soapiness - if coefficient of friction is low crushing may be difficult 7. Explosives - need inert atmosphere 8. Hazardous to health - need good confinement 9. Closeness of distribution

Types of Size Reduction Equipment
Jaw Crusher - Based on human jaw, one fixed plate, one moving. As the material moves down the crushing action increases. Liable to choking. Feed opening may be up to 2.5m x 2.0m, processing up to 1200te/h. Product size is adjusted by adjusting the gap size. Gyratory Crusher - The crushing cone rotates slowly on its eccentric shaft. Size is controlled by raising and lowering the cone. Crushing Rolls - The design criterion is that material is pulled down by friction. Figure 1: Crushing Rolls

The maximum size of particle crushable is found by resolving the upward and downward forces on the particle. If R is the force acting at the point of contact of the roller and the particle then the upwards force is

and the downwards force is



A typical value of the coefficient of friction would be



For rolls with R=1m and which are touching the maximum feed size is 8.2cm which increases as the gap increases. Roller mills can be used for very hard materials by using a relatively wide gap and crushing a bed of particles using high pressures of 50 - 500MPa. Disintegrators - Two contra-rotating discs with pins which interlock, material travels from axis to circumference. These can be used for fibrous materials which cannot be crushed. A degree of product size selectivity is introduced by sieves on the circumference. Hammer Mills - The material is broken between the hammer and the breaker plate. Again a sieve arrangement is used to allow product to leave but retain oversize. Ball, Tube and Rod Mills - Cylindrical vessels containing spherical grinding agents or rods. Ball mills have length around 1 to 1.5 times the diameter, tube mills have length 2 4 times the diameter. Rod mills use rods rather than balls, the rods being longer than the diameter of the mill. The rotational speed is selected so that the balls or rods tumble over one another. They are run at around 0.75 of critical speed. Size reduction occurs from a mixture of impact and shear between the balls. These mills are often run wet to reduce any hazards from the fine products. Finer product is produced by smaller balls, higher ball density or longer residence time (ie lower feed rate). Tube mills have a higher residence time and hence a finer product. Rod mills are useful for sticky materials which would glue balls together. Raymond (Pendulum) Mill The grinding wheels are thrown outwards against the grinding surface. The feed is fed below the wheels and is thrown into the grinding annulus by the ploughs. Ground material is drawn out by the airstream, oversize falls back into the ploughs. The product is usually in the 20 - 200 m range. Fluid Energy Mills Fluid energy mills use high velocity jets of air or (more rarely) superheated steam to induce collisions between particles and between particles and surfaces. The high stresses produced allow milling to below 25 m.

The Pancake Jet Mill has air or steam entering through slots in the periphery of the grinding chamber. Feed is injected into the mill with a stream of the grinding medium.

The ground material is transported out by the grinding fluid at the axis of the mill. there is a classifying effect due to the spiral motion of the fluid. Wear is severe in these mills because a high proportion of the attrition as achieved by impact with the wall of the mill. The Fluidised Jet Mill has the grinding taking place in a fluidised bed in the base of the mill where opposed jets of air create very energetic turbulent motion. At the top an air classifier allows undersize to leave and retains oversize. Size control is achieved through adjustment of the classifier wheel speed and/or of the air flow. Increasing the speed of the classifier wheel or using a lower flow of air at the jets will decrease the size of the particles. Because the particles do not impact on the walls there is effectively no wear on this type of mill. The classifier wheel is, however, subject to wear and will last only about 2 years

According to rittengers law,the energy required in crushing is proportional to the new surface created.i.e..,P/m=kk(1/db-1/da),where P/m is the amount of power required,db and da are the diameters id particles after and before crushing respectively. Comminution is the process in which solid materials are reduced in size, encompassing crushing, grinding and other techniques.[1][2] It is an important operation in mineral processing, the ceramic industry, the electronics industry and other fields. Within industrial uses, the purpose of comminution is to reduce the size and to increase the surface area of solids. It is also used to free useful materials from matrix materials in which they are embedded, and to concentrate minerals

Comminution energy
The comminution of solid materials consumes energy, which is being used to break up the solid into smaller pieces. The comminution energy can be estimated by:
• • • •

Rittinger's law, which assumes that the energy consumed is proportional to the newly generated surface area; Kick's law, which related the energy to the sizes of the feed particles and the product particles; Bond's law, which assumes that the total work useful in breakage is inversely proportional to the square root of the size of the product particles; Holmes's law, which modifies Bond's law by substituting the square root with an exponent that depends on the material


Comminution is particle size reduction of materials. Comminution may be carried out on either dry materials or slurries. Crushing and grinding are the two primary comminution processes. Crushing is normally carried out on "run-of-mine"[2] ore, while grinding (normally carried out after crushing) may be conducted on dry or slurried material

Sizing is the general term for separation of particles according to their size.

The simplest sizing process is screening, or passing the particles to be sized through a screen or number of screens. Screening equipment can include grizzlies,[3] bar screens, and wire mesh screens. Screens can be static (typically the case for very coarse material), or they can incorporate mechanisms to shake or vibrate the screen. Classification refers to sizing operations that exploit the differences in settling velocities exhibited by particles of different size. Classification equipment may include ore sorters, gas cyclones, hydrocyclones, rotating trommels, rake classifiers or fluidized classifiers. When the feed material contains particles of different densities as well as particles of different size, a degree of concentration takes place during classification because settling velocities are also dependent on particle density. An important factor in both comminution and sizing operations is the determination of the particle size distribution of the materials being processed, commonly referred to as particle size analysis. Many techniques for analyzing particle size are used, and the techniques include both off-line analyses which require that a sample of the material be taken for analysis and on-line techniques that allow for analysis of the material as it flows through the process.

Jaw Crusher.gif|thumb|right|Crushing, a form of comminution, one of the unit operations of mineral processing]] In the field of [[extractive metallurgy]], '''mineral processing''', also known as '''mineral dressing''' or '''ore dressing''', is the process of separating commercially valuable [[mineral]]s from their [[ore]]s. ==History== [[File:Geevor waterwheel stamps.jpg|thumb|right|A set of Cornish stamps]] {{Expand section|date=August 2010}} Before the advent of heavy machinery the raw ore was broken up using hammers wielded by hand, a process called "spalling". Before long, mechanical means were found to achieve this. For instance, [[stamp mill]]s were used in [[Samarkand]] as early as 973. They were also in use in medieval [[Persia]]. By the 11th century, stamp mills were in widespread use throughout the [[Islamic Golden Age|medieval Islamic world]], from [[Al-Andalus|Islamic Spain]] and North Africa in the west to [[Central Asia]] in the east.<ref>Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", ''Technology and Culture'' '''46''' (1): 1-30 [10-1 & 27]</ref> A later example was the [[Cornish stamps]], consisting of a series of iron hammers mounted in a vertical frame, raised by [[cam]]s on the shaft of a [[waterwheel]] and falling on to the ore under gravity. The simplest method of separating ore from gangue consists of the picking out the individual crystals of each. This is a very tedious process, particularly when the individual particles are small. Another comparatively simple method relies on the various minerals having different [[specific gravity|densities]], causing them to collect in different places: metallic minerals (being heavier) will drop out of suspension more quickly than lighter ones, which will be carried further

by a stream of water. Various devices known as 'buddles' were used to take advantage of this property.{{when}} Later, more advanced machines were used such as the [[vanning|Frue vanner]], invented in 1874. Other equipment used historically includes the hutch, a trough used with some ore-dressing machines and the keeve or kieve, a large tub used for differential settlement. ==Unit operations== Mineral processing can involve four general types of unit operation: ''comminution'' – particle size reduction; ''sizing'' – separation of particle sizes by screening or classification; ''concentration'' by taking advantage of physical and surface chemical properties; and ''dewatering'' – solid/liquid separation. ===Comminution=== [[Comminution]] is particle size reduction of materials. Comminution may be carried out on either dry materials or slurries. [[Crusher|Crushing]] and [[Mill (grinding)|grinding]] are the two primary comminution processes. Crushing is normally carried out on "run-of-mine"<ref>Runof-mine: The raw mined material as it is delivered prior to treatment of any sort. {{cite web |url=http://www.maden.hacettepe.edu.tr/dmmrt/dmmrt1017.html |title=Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms |publisher=Hacettepe University - Department of Mining Engineering |accessdate=2010-08-07}}</ref> ore, while grinding (normally carried out after crushing) may be conducted on dry or slurried material. ===Sizing=== Sizing is the general term for separation of particles according to their size. The simplest sizing process is screening, or passing the particles to be sized through a screen or number of screens. Screening equipment can include grizzlies,<ref>Grizzly: a grid of iron bars that allows ore of the correct size to travel down the ore pass to the bottom of the mine, ready for hoisting to the surface. {{cite web |url=http://www.geevor.com/index.php?object=255 |title=Geevor Tin Mine: Grizzly men |publisher=Geevor Tin Mine Museum |accessdate=2010-08-07}}</ref> bar screens, and wire mesh screens. Screens can be static (typically the case for very coarse material), or they can incorporate mechanisms to shake or vibrate the screen. Classification refers to sizing operations that exploit the differences in settling velocities exhibited by particles of different size. Classification equipment may include [[ore sorting|ore

sorters]], [[gas cyclone]]s, [[hydrocyclone]]s, rotating [[trommel]]s, rake classifiers or fluidized classifiers. When the feed material contains particles of different densities as well as particles of different size, a degree of concentration takes place during classification because settling velocities are also dependent on particle density. An important factor in both comminution and sizing operations is the determination of the particle size distribution of the materials being processed, commonly referred to as [[particle size analysis]]. Many techniques for analyzing particle size are used, and the techniques include both off-line analyses which require that a sample of the material be taken for analysis and on-line techniques that allow for analysis of the material as it flows through the process. ===Concentration=== There are a number of ways to increase the concentration of the wanted minerals: in any particular case the method chosen will depend on the relative physical and surface chemical properties of the mineral and the [[gangue]]. ====Gravity concentration==== Historically the earliest method used, particles can be classified based on their [[specific gravity]]. Gravity concentration processes include: * Heavy media or dense media separation * Shaking tables, such as the Wilfley table<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.coppercountryexplorer.com/2007/09/mill-machines-the-wilfley-table/ |title=Mill Machines: The Wilfley Table |publisher=Copper Country Explorer |accessdate=2010-08-07}}</ref> * [[Spiral separator]]s * Centrifugal bowl concentrators * Jig concentrators are continuous processing gravity concentration devices using a pulsating fluidized bed. * Multi gravity separators [[File:FlotationFalconbridgeOnt.jpg|thumb|right|Froth flotation cells used to concentrate copper and nickel sulfide minerals, Falconbridge, Ontario.]] ====Froth flotation==== Separation by [[froth flotation]] relies on the differing surface potentials of the particles. Hydrophobic particles are recovered to the froth, whereas hydrophilic particles are discharged with the tailings stream. Some mineral particles are naturally hydrophobic, whereas others require specific reagent additions to change their surface potentials. [[Oxide]] ores, such as [[spodumene]] and [[tantalite]] can be treated using [[oxalic acid]] based collectors. [[Sulfide]]

ores can be recovered using xanthate or [[Thiophosphate#Dithiophasphate|dithiophosphate]] type collectors. ====Electrostatic separation==== Non-conducting particles maintain an electrostatic charge induced electrically, and so remain pinned to a charged drum. Conducting particles do not maintain the electrostatic charge and so fall off the drum, thus minerals such as [[ilmenite]] and [[rutile]] can be separated. ====Magnetic separation==== Minerals such as [[magnetite]] and [[pyrrhotite]] are naturally [[magnetic]], and so can be separated from non-magnetic particles using strong magnets. ===Dewatering=== {{Expand section|date=August 2010}} Since many size reduction and separation processes involve the use of water, solid-liquid separation processes are also a subject of mineral processing. ==Other processes== Many [[physical plant|mechanical plants]] also incorporate [[Hydrometallurgy| hydrometallurgical]] or [[Pyrometallurgy|pyrometallurgical]] processes as part of an extractive metallurgical operation. [[Geometallurgy]] is a branch of [[extractive metallurgy]] that combines mineral processing with the geologic sciences. A number of auxiliary [[materials handling]] operations are also considered a branch of mineral processing such as storage (as in bin design), conveying, sampling, weighing, slurry transport, and pneumatic transport.

Grinding laws

In spite of a great number of studies in the field of fracture schemes there is no formula known which connects the technical grinding work with grinding results. To calculate the needed grinding work against the grain size changing three half-empirical models are used:
• KICK for d > 50 mm

BOND for 50 mm > d > 0.05 mm

RITTINGER for d < 0.05 mm

with W as grinding work in kJ/kg, c as grinding coefficient, dA as grain size of the source material and dE as grain size of the ground material. A reliable value for the grain sizes dA and dE is d80. This value signifies that 80% (mass) of the solid matter has a smaller grain size. The BOND's grinding coefficient for different materials can be found in various literature. To calculate the KICK's and RITTINGER's coefficients following formulas can be used

with the limits of BOND's range: upper dBU = 50 mm and lower dBL = 0.05 mm.

[edit] Grinding degree
To evaluate the grinding results the grain size disposition of the source material (1) and of the ground material (2) is needed. Grinding degree is the ratio of the sizes from the grain disposition. There are several definitions for this characteristic value:
• Grinding degree referring to grain size d80

Instead of the value of d80 also d50 or other grain diameter can be used. • Grinding degree referring to specific surface

[1] . Since the grinding process needs generally a lot of energy. See also crusher for mechanisms producing larger particles. [edit] Grinding machines In materials processing a grinder is a machine for producing fine particle size reduction through attrition and compressive forces at the grain size level. • Pretended grinding degree The discharge die gap a of the grinding machine is used for the ground solid matter in this formula. an original experimental way to measure the energy used locally during milling with different machines was proposed recently.The specific surface area referring to volume Sv and the specific surface area referring to mass Sm can be found out through experiments.

[citation needed] But note that the term 'rod mill' is also used as a synonym for a slitting mill. [edit] Rod mill A rotating drum causes friction and attrition between steel rods and ore particles. These industrial ball mills are mainly big machines. which grinds material to the necessary fineness by friction and impact with the tumbling balls. Ball mills are commonly used in the manufacture of Portland cement. The feed is at one end of the cylinder and the discharge is at the other. Ball mills are characterized by their smaller (comparatively) diameter and longer length. .Operation of a ball mill [edit] Ball mill A typical type of fine grinder is the ball mill. Small versions of ball mills can be found in laboratories where they are used for grinding sample material for quality assurance. A slightly inclined or horizontal rotating cylinder is partially filled with balls. usually stone or metal. which makes rods of iron or other metal.

SAG mills are characterized by their large diameter and short length. [edit] Pebble mill A rotating drum causes friction and attrition between rock pebbles and ore particles. It is similar in operation to a SAG mill as described above but does not use steel balls in the mill. The SAG mills use a minimal ball charge of 6 to 15%. where it then falls off the plates and falls back down. copper and platinum industries with applications also in the lead. The inside of the mill is lined with lifting plates to lift the material inside up and around the inside of the mill. SAG mills are primarily used in the gold. Also known as ROM or "Run Of Mine" grinding. Attrition in the charge causes grinding of finer particles. SAG mills can be as large as 42' in diameter. using as much as 28. alumina and nickel industries. A Sag mill is generally used as a primary or first stage grinding solution. Attrition in the charge causes grinding of finer particles.[edit] SAG mill Principle of SAG Mill operation SAG is an acronym for Semi-Autogenous Grinding. . May be used where product contamination by iron from steel balls must be avoided. [edit] Autogenous mill A rotating drum throws large rocks in a cataracting motion which causes impact breakage of larger rocks and compressive grinding of finer particles.000 kW in power. silver. zinc. and applies to mills that utilize steel balls in addition to large rocks for grinding. A rotating drum throws large rocks and steel balls in a cataracting motion which causes impact breakage of larger rocks and compressive grinding of finer particles.

ceramic raw materials and paints[1].[edit] High pressure grinding rolls The ore is fed between two rollers which are pushed firmly together while their rotating motion pushes the ore through a small gap between them. is a cylindrical device used in grinding (or mixing) materials like ores. "nipping" and crushing material between them. [edit] Buhrstone mill Another type of fine grinder commonly used is the buhrstone mill. material to be crushed is shoved underneath the wheels using attached plow blades. [edit] Vertical shaft impactor mill (VSI mill) Type of fine grinder which uses a free impact of rock or ore particles with a wear plate. An internal cascading effect reduces the material to a fine powder. High speed of the motion of particles is achieved with a rotating accelerator. A . Industrial ball mills can operate continuously. partially filled with the material to be ground plus the grinding medium. This type of mill uses the same principle as VSI Crusher [edit] Types of grinding mills A ball mill. Extreme pressure causes the rocks to fracture into finer particles and also causes microfracturing at the grain size level. Large to medium-sized ball mills are mechanically rotated on their axis. but small ones normally consist of a cylindrical capped container that sits on two drive shafts (pulleys and belts are used to transmit rotary motion). The two rollers rotate in opposite directions. including ceramic balls. Ball mills rotate around a horizontal axis. chemicals. which consists of a circular pan with two or more heavy wheels known as mullers rotating within it. It consists of a pair of horizontal cylindrical rollers through which material is passed. Different materials are used as media. A similar type of intermediate crusher is the edge runner. fed at one end and discharged at the other end. which is similar to oldfashioned flour mills. flint pebbles and stainless steel balls. a type of grinder.

Ball mills are used extensively in the Mechanical alloying process[2] in which they are not only used for grinding but for cold welding as well.rock tumbler functions on the same principle. thus causing no further grinding. with the purpose of producing alloys from powders. One of most commonly used mills is the SPEX Mill HIGH ENERGY BALL MILL . High-quality ball mills are potentially expensive and can grind mixture particles to as small as 5 nm. The grinding works on principle of critical speed. The critical speed can be understood as that speed after which the steel balls (which are responsible for the grinding of particles) start rotating along the direction of the cylindrical device. Ball mills are also used in pyrotechnics and the manufacture of black powder. but cannot be used in the preparation of some pyrotechnic mixtures such as flash powder because of their sensitivity to impact. enormously increasing surface area and reaction rates.

Ball mill A ball mill is a type of grinder used to grind materials into extremely fine powder for use in mineral dressing processes. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • 1 Description 2 Grinding media 3 Varieties 4 History 5 See also 6 References 7 External links [edit] Description Bench top ball mill . pyrotechnics. and ceramics. paints.

One of most commonly used mills is the SPEX Mill[3]. including ceramic balls. Industrial ball mills can operate continuously. Ball mills rotate around a horizontal axis. is a cylindrical device used in grinding (or mixing) materials like ores. An internal cascading effect reduces the material to a fine powder. Different materials are used as media. with the purpose of producing alloys from powders. The grinding works on principle of critical speed. . Large to medium-sized ball mills are mechanically rotated on their axis. partially filled with the material to be ground plus the grinding medium. enormously increasing surface area and reaction rates. High-quality ball mills are potentially expensive and can grind mixture particles to as small as 5 nm. but small ones normally consist of a cylindrical capped container that sits on two drive shafts (pulleys and belts are used to transmit rotary motion). but cannot be used in the preparation of some pyrotechnic mixtures such as flash powder because of their sensitivity to impact. flint pebbles and stainless steel balls. chemicals.Laboratory scale SPEX ball mill High-energy ball milling A ball mill. The critical speed can be understood as that speed after which the steel balls (which are responsible for the grinding of particles) start rotating along the direction of the cylindrical device. Ball mills are also used in pyrotechnics and the manufacture of black powder. a type of grinder. Ball mills are used extensively in the Mechanical alloying process[2] in which they are not only used for grinding but for cold welding as well. thus causing no further grinding. fed at one end and discharged at the other end. ceramic raw materials and paints[1]. A rock tumbler functions on the same principle.

the color of the grinding media must be considered. Key properties of grinding media are size. but where possible should not be so tough that it also wears down the tumbler at a fast pace. each material having its own specific properties and advantages. Colorado. It becomes a problem if the grinding media floats on top of the material to be ground. Some of these requirements are based on the fact that some of the grinding media will be in the finished product. hardness. Hardness: The grinding media needs to be durable enough to grind the material. Density: The media should be denser than the material being ground. ○ Where the color of the finished product is important. the smaller the particle size of the final product. density. There are many types of grinding media suitable for use in a ball mill. and composition. At the same time. . A ball mill inside the Mayflower Mill near Silverton. Others are based in how the media will react with the material being ground. the grinding media particles should be substantially larger than the largest pieces of material to be ground. Composition: Various grinding applications have special requirements.[edit] Grinding media Lead antimony grinding media with aluminum powder. • • • • Size: The smaller the media particles.

the grinding media may be selected for ease of separation from the finished product (ie: steel dust produced from stainless steel media can be magnetically separated from non-ferrous products). such as iron.○ Where low contamination is important. and flint grinding media may each be used when corrosive substances are present during grinding. or to reduce the droplet size of a liquid suspended in another liquid. which releases high dynamic energies. Either wet-grinding. The interplay between these forces produces the high and very effective degree of size reduction of the planetary ball mil A colloid mill is a machine that is used to reduce the particle size of a solid in suspension in a liquid. becoming an ignition source for these products. ○ Flammable products have a tendency to become explosive in powder form (see: dust explosion). It is frequently used to increase the stability of suspensions and emulsions. The difference in speeds between the balls and grinding jars produces an interaction between frictional and impact forces. It is more expensive than silica / silex media but is more efficient [edit] Varieties Aside from common ball mills there is a second type of ball mill called Planetary Ball Mill. frits. glazes and other ingredients. Some media. The direction of movement of the sun wheel is opposite to that of the grinding jars (ratio: 1:-2 or 1:-1 or else). An alternative to separation is to use media of the same material as the product being ground. For this reason. A planetary ball mill consists of at least one grinding jar which is arranged eccentrically on a so-called sun wheel. the so-called Coriolis forces. or non-sparking media such as ceramic must be selected. This is done by applying high levels of hydraulic shear to the process liquid. . Steel media may spark. The grinding balls in the grinding jars are subjected to superimposed rotational movements. ○ High density alumina media (90–95% alumina) is widely used in the ceramic industry to grind clay bodies. stainless steel. may react with corrosive materials. Planetary ball mills are smaller than common ball mills and mainly used in laboratories for grinding sample material down to very small sizes. ceramic.

which is by definition the force component in the direction of the flow velocity.[2][3] The drag coefficient of a complete structure such as an aircraft also includes the effects of interference drag.[7] . where a lower drag coefficient indicates the object will have less aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag. The drag coefficient of a lifting airfoil or hydrofoil also includes the effects of lift-induced drag.[6] is the mass density of the fluid. The drag coefficient is always associated with a particular surface area. the drag coefficient (commonly denoted as: or ) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment such as air or water.In fluid dynamics. It is used in the drag equation. Definition The drag coefficient is defined as: where: is the drag force.[1] The drag coefficient of any object comprises the effects of the two basic contributors to fluid dynamic drag: skin friction and form drag.

For example. and is the reference area. for streamlined objects much less. in which the reference area is the square of the cube root of the airship volume. This may not necessarily be the cross sectional area of the vehicle. Two objects having the same reference area moving at the same speed through a fluid will experience a drag force proportional to their respective drag coefficients. the resulting drag coefficients tend to be low: much lower than for a car with the same drag. frontal area and at the same speed. For automobiles and many other objects. Airships and some bodies of revolution use the volumetric drag coefficient. Background Flow around a plate. Since this tends to be a rather large area compared to the projected frontal area. Main article: Drag equation The drag equation: . the reference area is the projected frontal area of the vehicle. Submerged streamlined bodies use the wetted surface area. For airfoils. for a sphere (note this is not the surface area = ). depending on where the cross section is taken. Coefficients for unstreamlined objects can be 1 or more.v is the speed of the object relative to the fluid. the reference area is the planform area. The reference area depends on what type of drag coefficient is being measured. showing stagnation.

the flow around the object does not transition to turbulent but remains laminar. low velocities. but certainly is a function of Reynolds number. object shape. causing the wake to be narrow. So the drag coefficient be treated as a constant. Cd is not a constant but varies as a function of speed. Also the variation with Reynolds number within a practical range of interest is usually small. except that there will be suction on the back side: a negative pressure (relative to ambient). A high form drag results in a broad wake.[10][11][12] At a low Reynolds number. object size. Reynolds number will be low for small objects. At very low Reynolds numbers. The top figure shows a flat plate with the fluid coming from the right and stopping at the plate. even up to the point at which it separates from the surface of the object. For low Mach number is independent of Mach number. Larger velocities. The overall of a real square flat plate perpendicular to the flow is often given as .[8] can often For a streamlined body to achieve a low drag coefficient the boundary layer around the body must remain attached to the surface of the body for as long as possible. the speed of sound is relevant and is also a function of Mach number For a certain body shape the drag coefficient Mach number only depends on the Reynolds number the drag coefficient and the direction of the flow.[9] A equal to 1 would be obtained in a case where all of the fluid approaching the object is brought to rest. one can no longer consider that the drag coefficient is constant. while for cars at highway speed and aircraft at cruising speed the incoming flow direction is as well more-or-less the same. and high viscosity fluids. without flow separation. dropping off toward the edges as in the lower figure and graph. Speed. In a real flat plate the fluid must turn around the sides. the drag force is proportional to instead of for a sphere this is known as Stokes law.[9] For other objects. the of a real flat plate would be less than 1. building up stagnation pressure over the whole front surface. The boundary layer will transition from laminar to turbulent providing the Reynolds number of the flow around the body is high enough. The graph to the left of it shows equal pressure across the surface. larger objects. such as small particles. fluid density and fluid viscosity. kinematic viscosity and a characteristic length scale of the object are incorporated into a dimensionless quantity called the Reynolds number or is thus a function of In compressible flow. and lower viscosities contribute to larger Reynolds numbers. flow direction.is essentially a statement that the drag force on any object is proportional to the density of the fluid and proportional to the square of the relative speed between the object and the fluid. Only considering the front size. and full stagnation pressure is found only at the center.

005 ) 0.1. for some shapes can change with the Reynolds number and [edit] Drag coefficient cd examples [edit] General In general.3 man (upright position) 1.24 0.7 0.1 skier 1.3 ski jumper[14] 1.0–1. A smooth sphere.1 a typical bicycle plus cyclist[citation needed] rough sphere (Re = smooth sphere ( ) ) 0. at subsonic velocity) 1.001 laminar flat plate parallel to the flow ( ) turbulent flat plate parallel to the flow ( 0. It varies with the speed of that airflow (or more generally with Reynolds number).0–1.5 Empire State Building .48 0.295 lowest of production cars (Mercedes-Benz EClass Coupé)[13] bullet (not ogive.1-1. for example.3–1. Shapes cd Item 0.3 wires and cables 1.0–1.17. is not an absolute constant for a given body shape.47 for turbulent (faster) flow. has a varies from high values for laminar (slow) flow to 0. Flow patterns and therefore the roughness of the surfaces.28 flat plate perpendicular to flow (3D) 1.

it is guaranteed to hold only for proportions[dubious – discuss]. However.thus a pure number. It has the same value whether it was calculated using the SI system of units or the imperial system of units. engineering. but which cancel out when taken in combination. it is sometimes helpful to use the same units in both the numerator and denominator.8–2. and also in everyday life.1 flat plate perpendicular to flow (2D) a smooth brick[citation needed] In dimensional analysis. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • 1 Properties 2 Buckingham π theorem ○ 2. Such a number is typically defined as a product or ratio of quantities that might have units individually.98– 2.05 2. economics. to show the quantity being measured (for example to distinguish a mass ratio from a volume ratio). This doesn't hold for all dimensionless quantities.1. a dimensionless quantity is a quantity without a physical unit . • [edit] Buckingham π theorem . such as kg/kg. physics.0 Eiffel Tower 1.1 Example 3 Standards efforts 4 Examples 5 List of dimensionless quantities 6 Dimensionless physical constants 7 See also 8 References 9 External links [edit] Properties • A dimensionless quantity has no physical unit associated with it. A dimensionless proportion has the same value regardless of the measurement units used to calculate it. Dimensionless quantities are widely used in mathematics.

[edit] List of dimensionless quantities There are infinitely many dimensionless quantities and they are often called numbers. which is a dimensionless quantity. different systems which share the same description by dimensionless quantity are equivalent. For the purposes of the experimenter. the size of the stirrer given by its diameter. n) of variables can be reduced by the number (e. ppt (= 10−3). "Out of every 10 apples I gather. the length that is compared is the length of the radius of the circle.1 = 10%. compared to some other length.g. length divided by length. the n = 5 variables can be reduced by the k = 3 dimensions to form p = n − k = 5 − 3 = 2 independent dimensionless numbers which are in case of the stirrer • • Reynolds number (This is a very important dimensionless number. [edit] Standards efforts The CIPM Consultative Committee for Units contemplated defining the unit of 1 as the 'uno'. Another more typical example in physics and engineering is the measure of plane angles.01). 1 is rotten. Therefore.According to the Buckingham π theorem of dimensional analysis.. In case of dimensionless quantities the unit is a quotient of like dimensioned quantities that can be reduced to a number (kg/kg = 1. it describes the fluid flow regime) Power number (describes the stirrer and also involves the density of the fluid). the functional dependence between a certain number (e. The rotten-togathered ratio is (1 apple) / (10 apples) = 0.". According to the π-theorem. ppm (= 10−6).g. When using the unit degree. [edit] Example The power consumption of a stirrer with a particular geometry is a function of the density and the viscosity of the fluid to be stirred. Angles are typically measured as the ratio of the length of an arc lying on a circle (with its center being the vertex of the angle) swept out by the angle. is dimensionless. Those n = 5 variables are built up from k = 3 dimensions which are: • • • Length: L (m) Time: T (s) Mass: M (kg).[1][2][3][4] [edit] Examples Consider this example: Sarah says. μg/g = 10−6).. but the idea was dropped. the length that is compared is 1/360 of the circumference of the circle. Some of those that are used most often have been given names. k) of independent dimensions occurring in those variables to give a set of p = n − k independent. we have n = 5 variables representing our example. dimensionless quantities. as in the following list of examples (alphabetical order): Name Standar d Definition Field of application . When using the unit radians. and the speed of the stirrer. The ratio. Dimensionless quantities can also carry dimensionless units like % (= 0. ppb (= 10−9).

volume conductivity of solids residence-time distribution Bo Br capillary action driven by buoyancy [9] Bagnold number Ba Bejan number (thermodynamics) Be Bejan number (fluid mechanics) Be Bingham Number Bm Biot number Bodenstein number Bond number Brinkman number Brownell Katz number Bi heat transfer by conduction from the wall to a viscous fluid combination of capillary number and Bond number fluid flow influenced by surface tension Capillary number Ca .Symbol Abbe number Activity coefficient Albedo Archimedes number Arrhenius Number Atomic weight V γ α Ar α M optics (dispersion in optical materials) chemistry (Proportion of "active" molecules or atoms) climatology.[6] the ratio of heat transfer irreversibility to total irreversibility due to heat transfer and fluid friction[7] dimensionless pressure drop along a channel[8] Ratio of yield stress to viscous stress[5] surface vs. astronomy (reflectivity of surfaces or bodies) motion of fluids due to density differences Ratio of activation energy to thermal energy[5] chemistry flow of bulk solids such as grain and sand.

usually sound flow resistance ratio of electric surface conductivity to the electric bulk conductivity in heterogeneous systems mathematics convective heat transfer geophysics (frictional (viscous) forces) widely used to measure how demand or supply responds to price changes determination of bubble/drop shape liquid crystal flow behavior hydrodynamics (pressure forces vs. transport phenomena the level of damping in a system ζ Cf or f D fluid flow vortices in curved ducts rheology of viscoelastic fluids ratio of two intensities. Deborah number De Decibel dB Drag coefficient Cd Dukhin number Euler's number Eckert number Ekman number Elasticity (economics) Eötvös number Du e Ec Ek E Eo Ericksen number Er Euler number Eu .Coefficient of static friction Coefficient of kinetic friction Colburn j factor CourantFriedrich-Levy number Damkohler number Damping ratio Darcy friction factor Dean number μs μk friction of solid bodies at rest friction of solid bodies in translational motion dimensionless heat transfer coefficient ν numerical solutions of hyperbolic PDEs [10] Da reaction time scales vs.

photography thin-shell buckling heat transfer slit diffraction [13] wave and surface behaviour electronics (signal output to signal input) gravity-driven viscous flow mathematics and aesthetics heat flow free convection adsorption enhancement due to chemical reaction forced convection groundwater flow turbulent combustion turbulent combustion Grashof number Gr Hatta number Hagen number Hydraulic gradient Karlovitz number Keulegan– Carpenter number Ha Hg i KC ratio of drag force to inertia for a bluff object in oscillatory fluid flow .δ α f fluid flow in pipes [11] chaos theory (period doubling) [12] quantum electrodynamics (QED) optics.inertia forces) Fanning friction factor Feigenbaum constants Fine structure constant f-number Foppl–von Karman number Fourier number Fresnel number Froude number Gain Galilei number Golden ratio Graetz number Gz Ga Fo F Fr f α.

Marangoni flow advection–diffusion problems adhesion of microstructures with substrate [16] Magnetic Rm Reynolds number Manning roughness coefficient Marangoni number Morton number Nusselt number Ohnesorge number Péclet number Peel number n Mg Mo Nu Oh Pe .Knudsen number Kn Kt/V Kutateladze number K ratio of the molecular mean free path length to a representative physical length scale medicine counter-current two-phase flow free convection within immiscible fluids ratio of mass diffusivity and thermal diffusivity lift available from an airfoil at a given angle of attack flow of wet gases [14] Laplace number La Lewis number Lift coefficient LockhartMartinelli parameter Lundquist number Mach number Le CL χ S M ratio of a resistive time to an Alfvén wave crossing time in a plasma gas dynamics magnetohydrodynamics open channel flow (flow driven by gravity) [15] Marangoni flow due to thermal surface tension deviations determination of bubble/drop shape heat transfer with forced convection atomization of liquids.

Pi Poisson's ratio Porosity Power factor Power number Prandtl number Pressure coefficient Q factor Radian π ν φ mathematics (ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter) elasticity (load in transverse and longitudinal direction) geology electronics (real power to apparent power) Np Pr power consumption by agitators convection heat transfer (thickness of thermal and momentum boundary layers) pressure experienced at a point on an airfoil describes how under-damped an oscillator or resonator is measurement of angles buoyancy and viscous forces in free convection electromagnetism. material comparisons effect of buoyancy on flow stability mechanical hardness [17] CP Q rad Rayleigh number Ra Refractive index n Reynolds number Re Relative density RD Richardson number Rockwell scale Rolling resistance coefficient Rossby number Rouse number Crr Ro Z or P Ri Vehicle dynamics inertial forces in geophysics Sediment transport . optics Ratio of fluid inertial and viscous forces[5] hydrometers.

elasticity continuous and pulsating flow rotating fluid flows nonlinearity of surface gravity waves on a shallow fluid layer governs the effects of porosity φ.Schmidt number Sc fluid dynamics (mass transfer and diffusion) [18] ratio of displacement thickness to momentum thickness in boundary layer flow mass transfer with forced convection boundary lubrication [19] Shape factor Sherwood number Sommerfeld number H Sh Stanton number St Stefan number Stokes number Strain Ste Stk ε heat transfer in forced convection heat transfer during phase change particle dynamics materials science. the Prandtl number and the Darcy number on flow in a porous medium quantitative analysis (Kf and Kb) nondimensional superficial velocity in multiphase flows laminar burning velocity relative to hydrogen gas [21] [20] Strouhal number St Taylor number Ursell number Ta U Vadasz number Va van 't Hoff factor i Wallis parameter J* Weaver flame speed number Weber number Weissenberg number Womersley number We Wi α multiphase flow with strongly curved surfaces viscoelastic flows [22] continuous and pulsating flows [23] .

since airfoil chords are usually defined with a length of 1. μ or β. For sharp-cornered bluff bodies. mass.[edit] Dimensionless physical constants Certain fundamental physical constants. The resulting system of units is known as natural or Planck units. and temperature are chosen appropriately. Sometimes different reference areas are given for the same object in which case a drag coefficient corresponding to each of these different areas must be given. [2] u is the velocity of the object relative to the fluid. e.[3] For smooth bodies. charge. which makes for an easy comparison to lift. the proton-to-electron mass ratio. Airfoils use the square of the chord length as the reference area. 0. the universal gravitational constant. For non-hollow objects with simple shape. such as the speed of light in a vacuum.g. the drag coefficient may vary significantly until Reynolds numbers up to 107 (ten million). length. the rest mass of the proton divided by that of the electron. A is the reference area. this equation is applicable with the drag coefficient as a constant value when the Reynolds number is greater than 1000. αs. which is by definition the force component in the direction of the flow velocity. like square cylinders and plates held transverse to the flow direction. More generally. and CD is the drag coefficient — a dimensionless constant. The force on a moving object due to a fluid is: where FD is the force of drag. their values must be determined experimentally. the drag equation is a practical formula used to calculate the force of drag experienced by an object due to movement through a fully-enclosing fluid. and the constants of Planck and Boltzmann. the coupling constant for the electromagnetic interaction.[1] ρ is the mass density of the fluid. like a circular cylinder. The resulting constants include: • • α. such as a sphere.45 for a car. The equation is attributed to Lord Rayleigh. A may be significantly larger than the area of any cross section along any plane perpendicular to the direction of motion. this is exactly the same as a cross sectional area. the reference area is also 1. However. αG. • • In fluid dynamics. in which the reference area is the square of the cube root of the airship's volume.[4] . the fine structure constant. a rolling tube or the body of a cyclist). Aircraft use the wing area (or rotor-blade area) as the reference area. the rest masses of all elementary particles relative to that of the electron.25 to 0. who originally used L2 in place of A (with L being some linear dimension). Airships and bodies of revolution use the volumetric coefficient of drag. For other objects (for instance. The reference area A is typically defined as the area of the orthographic projection of the object on a plane perpendicular to the direction of motion. a handful of dimensionless physical constants cannot be eliminated in any system of units. the coupling constant for the strong force. are normalized to 1 if the units for time. the gravitational coupling constant.

viscosity ν of the fluid. Force is equivalent to the change of momentum divided by time. Alternatively. . We might suppose that the variables involved under some conditions to be the: • • • • • speed u. which generally has very little velocity dependence. Smoother objects can have much lower values of CD. CD is the ratio of drag for any real object to that of the ideal object. This is in contrast with solid-on-solid friction. meaning that fluid drag increases with the square of velocity. Using the algorithm of the Buckingham π theorem. but twice the mass of fluid strikes per second. building up stagnation pressure over the whole area. and drag force FD. one can derive the dimensionless parameters via direct manipulation of the underlying differential equations. In practice a rough unstreamlined body (a bluff body) will have a CD around 1. Therefore the change of momentum per second is multiplied by four. which varies with the Reynolds number and is found by experiment. according to a complicated (and not completely understood) law. Of particular importance is the u2 dependence on velocity. The equation is precise — it simply provides the definition of CD (drag coefficient). If a moving fluid meets an object. expressed in terms of its frontal area A. for example. No real object exactly corresponds to this behavior. it exerts a force on the object. one can reduce these five variables to two dimensionless parameters: • • drag coefficient CD and Reynolds number Re. size of the body. When velocity is doubled.Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Discussion 2 Derivation 3 See also 4 References 5 Notes [edit] Discussion The equation is based on an idealized situation where all of the fluid impinges on the reference area and comes to a complete stop. [edit] Derivation The drag equation may be derived to within a multiplicative constant by the method of dimensional analysis. fluid density ρ. more or less. not only does the fluid strike with twice the velocity.

2 . the Reynolds number. The original law is then reduced to a law involving only these two numbers. so it should be possible to express the relationship described by fa in terms of only dimensionless groups. Here. fa is some (as-yet-unknown) function that takes five arguments.That this is so becomes obvious when the drag force FD is expressed as part of a function of the other variables in the problem: This rather odd form of expression is used because it does not assume a one-to-one relationship. but the Buckingham π theorem states that there will be two such groups. We note that the righthand side is zero in any system of units. given by and the drag coefficient. given by Thus the function of five variables may be replaced by another function of only two variables: where fb is some function of two arguments. it is possible to express it as or and with Thus the force is simply ½ ρ A u times some (as-yet-unknown) function fc of the Reynolds number Re — a considerably simpler system than the original five-argument function given above. Dimensional analysis thus makes a very complex problem (trying to determine the behavior of a function of five variables) a much simpler one: the determination of the drag as a function of only one variable. The most appropriate are the Reynolds number. Because the only unknown in the above equation is the drag force FD. There are many ways of combining the five arguments of fa to form dimensionless groups.

the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. It is named after Josef Kozeny and Philip C. Tube convergence. The frictional forces are caused by a resistance to flow. because these two systems are similar. ε is the porosity of the bed. which is known as Darcy's law Pressure drop is a term used to describe the decrease in pressure from one point in a pipe or tube to another point downstream. is the superficial or "emptytower" velocity. surface roughness and other physical properties will affect the pressure drop. especially in the early stages of a research project.0. after which point frequent shifting of flow channels in the bed causes considerable kinetic energy losses. This kind of information often proves to be extremely valuable. and Dp is the diameter of the related spherical particle[3]. This equation holds for flow through packed beds with particle Reynolds numbers up to approximately 1. Φs is the sphericity of the particles in the packed bed. other things being equal. (Discuss) . turns. "Pressure drop" is the result of frictional forces on the fluid as it flows through the tube. he Kozeny–Carman equation is a relation used in the field of fluid dynamics to calculate the pressure drop of a fluid flowing through a packed bed of solids. To empirically determine the Reynolds number dependence. This equation can be expressed as "flow is proportional to the pressure drop and inversely proportional to the fluid viscosity". the drag force will be proportional to the density of the fluid. instead of experimenting on huge bodies with fast-flowing fluids (such as real-size airplanes in wind-tunnels). L is the total height of the bed. Ergun equation From Wikipedia. Carman. The main factors impacting resistance to fluid flow are fluid velocity through the pipe and fluid viscosity. one may just as well experiment on small models with more viscous and higher velocity fluids. search It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Packed bed. so to speak. We know that. Low velocity will result in lower or no pressure drop. High flow velocities and / or high fluid viscosities result in a larger pressure drop across a section of pipe or a valve or elbow. μ is the viscosity of the fluid. The equation is given as[1][2]: where Δp is the pressure drop.The analysis also gives other information for free. [1] Pressure Drop is calculated by performing a mechanical energy balance to the flow. divergence. The equation is only valid for laminar flow.

the velocity that the fluid would have through the empty tube at the same volumetric flow rate). L is the length of the bed (not the column). until the particles no longer form a bed and are “conveyed” upwards by the gas flow. When fluidized. and its fluidization becomes more violent. this allows for a uniform temperature of the kernels throughout the chamber. and thus the bed remains in a fixed state. Further increasing the velocity. At this critical value. At low gas velocities. like a liquid or gas. causing the particles to become suspended within the fluid. causing the bed to expand in volume as the particles move away from each other. When a gas flow is introduced through the bottom of a bed of solid particles. a bed of solid particles will behave as a fluid. minimizing the amount of burnt popcorn.g.The Ergun equation. . it will reach a critical value at which the upward drag forces will exactly equal the downward gravitational forces. not requiring mechanical transport (e. Like water in a bucket: the bed will conform to the volume of the chamber. The fluidic behavior allows the particles to be transported like a fluid. This process occurs when a fluid (liquid or gas) is passed up through the granular material. the aerodynamic drag forces will begin to counteract the gravitational forces. its surface remaining perpendicular to gravity. while objects with a higher density sink to the bottom of the bed. μ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. it will move upwards through the bed via the empty spaces between the particles. the bed is said to be fluidized and will exhibit fluidic behavior. the now larger popcorn particles encounter increased aerodynamic drag which pushes them out of the chamber and into a bowl. expresses the friction factor in a packed column as a function of the Reynolds number: where fp and Grp are defined as and where: Δp is the pressure drop across the bed. By further increasing gas velocity. channeled through pipes. and ε is the void fraction of the bed(Bed porosity at any time).e. akin to that of a boiling liquid. After popping. Vs is the superficial velocity (i. The popcorn kernels. Dp is the equivalent spherical diameter of the packing. all being fairly uniform in size and shape. aerodynamic drag on each particle is also low. Because of the intense mixing of the particles. A simplified every-day-life example of a gas-solid fluidized bed would be a hot-air popcorn popper. Increasing the velocity. conveyer belt). the bulk density of the bed will continue to decrease. derived by the Turkish chemical engineer Sabri Ergun in 1952. are suspended in the hotair rising from the bottom chamber. ρ is the density of fluid. Fluidization (or fluidisation) is a process similar to liquefaction whereby a granular material is converted from a static solid-like state to a dynamic fluid-like state. objects with a lower density than the bed density will float on its surface. bobbing up and down if pushed downwards.

in power stations) on global warming is carbon dioxide sequestration. In the 1960s. It was not commercially successful. producing heat and oxidizing the metal particles to metal oxide particles that are recirculated to the fluidized bed combustor. WikiProject Chemical and Bio Engineering may be able to help recruit an expert. A new potential application of fluidization technology is chemical looping combustion. One solution to reducing the potential effect of carbon dioxide generated by fuel combustion (e. a fluidized bed process for the synthesis of polyethylene dramatically reduced the cost of this important polymer. the major products of any combustion reaction. This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. Currently. Regular combustion with air produces a gas that is mostly nitrogen (as it is air's main component at about 80% by volume). making its use economical in many new applications. several fluidized bed processes dramatically reduced the cost of some important monomers. Examples are the Sohio process for acrylonitrile and the oxychlorination process for vinyl chloride. most of the processes that are being developed for the industrial production of carbon nanotubes use a fluidized bed [1]. These metal oxide particles replace air (specifically oxygen in the air) in a combustion reaction with a solid. generating heat for the endothermic cracking reaction. calcining.The process is also key in the formation of a sand volcano and fluid escape structures in sediments and sedimentary rocks. The polymerization reaction generates heat and the intense mixing associated with fluidization prevents hot spots where the polyethylene particles would melt. the Winkler process was developed to gasify coal in a fluidized bed. using oxygen. which has not yet been commercialized. See the talk page for details. The first large scale commercial implementation. [edit] Applications In 1920s. and sulfide roasting. The water vapor is condensed. leaving pure carbon dioxide which can be sequestered. specifically oxygen in the air). was the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. By the 1950s fluidized bed technology was being applied to mineral and metallurgical processes such as drying. In the late 1970s.g. The fluidized catalyst particles are shuttled between the fluidized bed reactor and a fluidized bed burner where the coke deposits are burned off. producing solid metal particles from the reduction of the metal oxides and a mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Chemical looping uses a metal oxide as a solid oxygen carrier. in the early 1940s. Carbon-rich "coke" deposits on the catalyst particles and deactivates the catalyst in less than 1 second. A similar process is used for the synthesis of polypropylene. which prevents economical sequestration. (September 2008) . The solid metal particles are circulated to another fluidized bed where they react with air (and again. liquid or gaseous fuel in a fluidized bed. which converted heavier petroleum cuts into gasoline.

heat or mass transfer or interface modification.2 Geldart Groupings 6. in Lünen. Contents [hide] • • • • • • 1 Properties of fluidized beds 2 Application 3 History 4 Fluidized bed types 5 Flow behavior 6 Bed design ○ ○ ○ • • • 6. fluid catalytic cracking. such as fluidized bed reactors (types of chemical reactors). Fluidized beds are used for several purposes. such as applying a coating onto solid items. This results in the medium then having many properties and characteristics of normal fluids.3 Distributor 7 See also 8 References 9 External links . The resulting phenomenon is called fluidization.Oldest power station utilizing circular fluidized bed technology. This is usually achieved by the introduction of pressurized fluid through the particulate medium. or to be pumped using fluid type technologies.1 Basic model 6. fluidized bed combustion. Germany A fluidized bed is formed when a quantity of a solid particulate substance (usually present in a holding vessel) is placed under appropriate conditions to cause the solid/fluid mixture to behave as a fluid. such as the ability to free-flow under gravity.

an object with a higher density than the bed will sink. These fluidized bed tunnels are typically used on small food products like peas. where the fluidization of the solids is relatively stationary. thus the bed can be considered to exhibit the fluid behavior expected of Archimedes' principle. and may use cryogenic or vapor-compression refrigeration. or freezing unpackaged separate pieces. Taking an example from the food processing industry: fluidized beds are used to accelerate freezing in some IQF tunnel freezers. be caused to sink or float. Frequent particle-particle and particle-wall collisions. these properties include: • • • • Extremely high surface area contact between fluid and solid per unit bed volume High relative velocities between the fluid and the dispersed solid phase. In a fluidized bed a characteristic set of basic properties can be utilised. High levels of intermixing of the particulate phase. IQF means Individually Quick Frozen. [edit] Fluidized bed types Bed types can be coarsely classified by their flow behavior. shrimp or sliced vegetables. which enables thermal uniformity analogous to that of a well mixed gas. [edit] History In 1922 von Winkler designed a reactor that for the first time utilized a coal gasification process. the upper surface of the bed is relatively horizontal.[edit] Properties of fluidized beds A fluidized bed consists of fluid-solid mixture that exhibits fluid-like properties. indispensable to modern process and chemical engineering. [edit] Application Fluidized beds are used as a technical process which has the ability to promote high levels of contact between gases and solids. Similarly to the good heat transfer. As such. The bed can be considered to be an inhomogeneous mixture of fluid and solid that can be represented by a single bulk density. the contact of the solid particles with the fluidization medium (a gas or a liquid) is greatly enhanced when compared to packed beds. (actually the solid volume fraction of the suspension). which is analogous to hydrostatic behavior. objects with different densities comparative to the bed can. In the 1960s VAW-Lippewerk in Lönen implemented the first industrial bed for the combustion of coal and later for the calcination of aluminium hydroxide. with some fine particles being entrained. by altering either the fluid or solid fraction. Furthermore. Further application of the fluidized bed included the catalytic cracking of mineral oils in the 1940s. including: • Stationary or bubbling beds. This behavior in fluidized combustion beds enables good thermal transport inside the system and good heat transfer between the bed and its container. whereas an object with a lower density than the bed will float. In fluidized beds. of the bed can be altered by changing the fluid fraction. During this time theoretical and experimental research improved the design of the fluidized bed. the bed can have a significant heat-capacity whilst maintaining a homogeneous temperature field. As the "density". .

but add a mechanical vibration to further excite the particles for increased entrainment. As such the surface of the bed is less smooth and larger particles can be entrained from the bed than for stationary beds. known as the minimum or incipient fluidisation point. spouting bed: A fluid bed in which the air forms a single opening through which some particles flow and fall to the outside. known as the "minimum fluidization velocity". agitation becomes more violent and the movement of solids becomes more vigorous. the gas velocity is continually raised. Vibratory Fluidized beds are similar to stationary beds. umf. [edit] Bed design A diagram of a fluidized bed [edit] Basic model When the packed bed has a fluid passed over it. based upon particle cut size. These particles can be classified by a cyclone separator and separated from or returned to the bed. boiling bed: A fluid bed in which the air or gas bubbles are approximately the same size as the solid particles. For a free-standing bed there will exist a point. where the fluidization suspends the particle bed. The corresponding fluid velocity. the pressure drop of the fluid is approximately proportional to the fluid's superficial velocity. whereby the bed's mass is suspended directly by the flow of the fluid stream. due to a larger kinetic energy of the fluid. these include: • • • • slugging bed: A bed in which air bubbles occupy entire cross sections of the vessel and divide the bed into layers. channeling bed: A bed in which the air (or gas) forms channels in the bed through which most of the air passes. .• Circulating beds. At higher airflow rates. • [edit] Flow behavior Several flow regimes are generally used to describe bed flow. In order to transition from a packed bed to a fluidized condition.

beds from these particles will expand by a factor of 2 to 3 at incipient fluidization. Δpw = Hw(1 − εw)(ρs − ρf)g [edit] Geldart Groupings In 1973. If the inlet fluid is disabled the bed may settle or pack onto the plate ggested that Cyclone dust collector be merged into this article or section.Beyond the minimum fluidization velocity ( ). Drying grains and peas. Most powder-catalyzed beds utilize this group. due to a decreased bulk density. and the particle density is typically 1400kg/m3. Design methods for fluidized beds can be tailored based upon the particle's Geldart grouping. these particles fluidize under very difficult to achieve conditions. and may require the application of an external force. The fluid flows upward through the bed. [edit] Distributor Typically. Group C This group contains extremely fine and subsequently the most cohesive particles. and some roasting metal ores are such solids. Professor D. With a size of 20 to 30 um. owing to sufficient percolation of the gas flow. Group D The particles in this region are above 600 um and typically have high particle densities. Group A For this group the particle size is between 20 and 100 um. Group B The particle size lies between 40 and 500 um and the particle density between 1400 and 4500 kg/m3. and they are usually processed in shallow beds or in the spouting mode. (Discuss) . the bed material will be suspended by the gas-stream and further increases in the velocity will have a reduced effect on the pressure. Thus the pressure drop from for u > umf is relatively constant. such as mechanical agitation. causing the solid particles to be suspended. Fluidization of this group requires very high fluid energies and is typically associated with high levels of abrasion. roasting coffee beans. At the base of the vessel the apparent pressure drop multiplied by the cross-section area of the bed can be equated to the force of the weight of the solid particles (less the buoyancy of the solid in the fluid). gasifying coals. pressurized gas or liquid enters the fluidized bed vessel through numerous holes via a plate known as a distributor plate. located at the bottom of the fluidized bed. Prior to the initiation of a bubbling bed phase. Geldart proposed the grouping of powders in to four so-called "Geldart Groups"[1]. Bubbling typically forms directly at incipient fluidization. The groups are defined by their locations on a diagram of solid-fluid density difference and particle size.

through vortex separation. together with flow rate. This is the size of particle that will be removed from the stream with a 50% efficiency. Rotational effects and gravity are used to separate mixtures of solids and fluids. defines the cut point of the cyclone.A cyclone separator Cyclonic separation is a method of removing particulates from an air. as the rotating flow moves towards the narrow end of the cyclone the rotational radius of the stream is reduced. Larger (denser) particles in the rotating stream have too much inertia to follow the tight curve of the stream and strike the outside wall. Air flows in a spiral pattern. A high speed rotating (air)flow is established within a cylindrical or conical container called a cyclone. separating smaller and smaller particles. and smaller particles with a lower efficiency. The cyclone geometry. falling then to the bottom of the cyclone where they can be removed. Particles larger than the cut point will be removed with a greater efficiency. gas or water stream. In a conical system. beginning at the top (wide end) of the cyclone and ending at the bottom (narrow) end before exiting the cyclone in a straight stream through the center of the cyclone and out the top. . without the use of filters.

The secondary air flow enters from the top of the cyclone and moves downward toward the bottom. an alternate design to minimize abrasion within the device Airflow diagram for Aerodyne cyclone in standard vertical position An alternative cyclone design uses a secondary air flow within the cyclone to keep the collected particles from striking the walls to protect them from abrasion. Cyclones are increasingly used in the household.Airflow diagram for Aerodyne cyclone in horizontal position. intercepting the particulate from the primary air. The primary air containing the particulate enters from the bottom of the cyclone and is forced into spiral rotation by a stationary spinner. as the core technology in . Large scale cyclones are used in sawmills to remove sawdust from extracted air. Cyclones are also used in oil refineries to separate oils and gases. The secondary air flow also allows the collector to be mounted horizontally because it pushes the particulate toward the collection area. and in the cement industry as components of kiln preheaters.

Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Cyclone theory ○ 1. Vt. a simple analysis to calculate critical separation particle sizes can be established. the drag force on any particle in this inlet stream is therefore given by the following equation: Fd = 6πrpμVr. and a radial velocity component Vr. Assuming that the particle is spherical. These may be used to separate solid waste from water in wastewater and sewage treatment. Assuming Stokes' law. the particle is therefore subjected to centrifugal. The centrifugal component is given by: . Some are small enough to be worn clipped to clothing and are used to separate respirable particles for later analysis.1 Steady state 2 Alternative Steady State Analysis 3 Alternate models 4 See also 5 References [edit] Cyclone theory [edit] Steady state As the cyclone is essentially a two phase particle-fluid system. The air in a cyclone is initially introduced tangentially into the cyclone with an inlet velocity Vin. fluid mechanics and particle transport equations can be used to describe the behaviour of a cyclone.bagless vacuum cleaners. Smaller cyclones are used to separate airborne particles for analysis. Given that the fluid velocity is moving in a spiral the gas velocity can be broken into two component velocities: a tangential component. Analogous devices for separating particles or solids from liquids are called hydrocyclones or hydroclones. drag and buoyant forces. If one considers an isolated particle circling in the upper cylindrical component of the cyclone at a rotational radius of r from the cyclone's central axis.

buoyant and centrifugal forces are balanced. Heavier. the forces are equated.The buoyant force component is obtained by the difference between the particle and fluid densities. fluid density and fluid tangential and rotational velocities can then be found to be: Experimentally it is found that the velocity component of rotational flow is proportional to r2[1]. or the central axis of the cyclone until the drag. A particle in the cyclonic flow will move towards either the wall of the cyclone. The particle radius as a function of cyclonic radius. hence: Fd + Fc + Fb = 0 Which expands to: This can be expressed by rearranging the above in terms of the particle radius. Assuming that the system has reached steady state. and the velocity at an arbitrary radius is therefore: . ρp and ρf respectively: The force balance can be created by summing the forces together This rate is controlled by the diameter of the particle's orbit around the central axis of the cyclone. The steady state balance assumes that for all particles. the particles will assume a characteristic radius dependent upon the force balance. therefore: This means that the established feed velocity controls the vortex rate inside the cyclone. denser particles will assume a solid flow at some larger radius than light particles.

a characteristic particle filtering radius can be estimated. After applying the appropriate signs and expanding mp and vp explicitly we have . [edit] Alternative Steady State Analysis Assume we have a particle of radius rp and density ρp moving with a parcel of fluid of viscosity μf and density ρf. given a value for Vt. The buoyancy force (Fb) exerted on the particle by the fluid is given by where vp is the volume of the particle If we assign upward (toward the center of rotation) as the positive radial direction (+) in our frame of reference. The particle and the fluid are moving along a curved trajectory with tangential velocity Vt with a radius of curvature of rc. The viscous drag (Fd ) between the particle and the fluid resulting from radial movement of the particle through the fluid is given by Fd = − 6πrpμfVr where Vr is the radial drift velocity of the particle through the fluid and the sign reflects the opposition of the force to the motion. If we view the particle in a frame of reference moving with the fluid. then Fc will be pointed in the negative direction. Fb will be pointed in the positive direction and the direction of Fd will depend on the direction of vp. inertial centrifugal force acting as a form of gravity directed outward. we can describe the behavior of the particle by invoking the imaginary. possibly based upon the injection angle. above which particles will be removed from the gas stream. If we assume the system has reached dynamic equilibrium then the sum of the forces is zero Fb + Fd + Fc = 0. and a cutoff radius.radial viscous drag and buoyancy. where mp is the mass of the particle. The magnitude of the centrifugal force will be give by . away from the axis of rotation.Subsequently. there are two other forces acting on the particle . If we ignore the universal downward force of gravity and viscous drag between the particle and the fluid parallel to the velocity.

the solution is ar = vr = 0 and cyclonic separation is not possible.the drag friction generated by the movement of the particle through the fluid balances the centrifugal force of the rotation and the particle has no radial acceleration. In this analysis. In a cyclone particle separator. but the actual performance must be evaluated and modified empirically. the equilibrium drift velocity is 0. the steady state solution is used as guidance in designing a separator. toward the center of rotation and if the particle is denser than the fluid. Vr is the drift velocity at which dynamic equilibrium is attained . the design objective is to control the system geometry and the operating parameters so that the drift velocity will move the particle out of the fluid before it exits. μf = ∞. In most cases. the motion is (+). traveling at a constant velocity. Expressing the motion in terms of angular velocity ω we have Substituting into the equation above yields . Notice that if the density of the fluid is greater than the density of the particle. [edit] Alternate models . Note that if the densities of the particle and fluid are equal. the motion is (-). the general case equation F=ma must be solved The presence of both ar and vr makes this a differential equation and complicates the solution.Solving this equation for Vr we have . away from the center. In the extreme case where μf = 0 (a fluid with no viscosity) the equilibrium drift velocity is undefined – the particle can accelerate without ever reaching equilibrium. In the opposite extreme. there is no outward radial movement and the particle is frozen in the fluid In non-equilibrium conditions.

the particles are assumed to achieve a steady state and the effect of the vortex inversion at the base of the cyclone is also ignored. For example. The length of the flow velocity vector is the flow speed. as many authors have studied the behaviour of cyclone separators [2].The above equations are relatively simple and provide a basic approximation to the behaviour of a cyclone separator. limited in many regards.4 Vorticity 3 The velocity potential 4 Notes and references [edit] Definition The flow velocity u of a fluid is a vector field which gives the velocity of an element of fluid at a position The flow speed q is the length of the flow velocity vector [1] and time .1 Steady flow 2.3 Irrotational flow 2. Numerical modelling using computational fluid dynamics has also been used extensively in the study of cyclonic behaviour. Some common examples follow: . Contents [hide] • • 1 Definition 2 Uses ○ ○ ○ ○ • • 2. however. the geometry of the separator is not considered.2 Incompressible flow 2. and is a scalar field. These equations are.[3][4] In fluid dynamics the flow velocity. all behaviours which are unlikely to be achieved in a cyclone at real operating conditions. More complex differential equation based models exist. Many physical properties of a fluid can be expressed mathematically in terms of the flow velocity. or velocity field. [edit] Uses The flow velocity of a fluid effectively describes everything about the motion of a fluid. of a fluid is a vector field which is used to mathematically describe the motion of a fluid.

if is a solenoidal vector field. [edit] Irrotational flow Main article: Irrotational flow A flow is irrotational if the curl of is zero: That is. of a flow can be defined in terms of its flow velocity by Thus in irrotational flow the vorticity is zero. That is if [edit] Incompressible flow Main article: Incompressible flow A fluid is incompressible if the divergence of is zero: That is. [edit] Vorticity Main article: Vorticity The vorticity. if is an irrotational vector field. (See Irrotational vector field.) . ω. [edit] The velocity potential Main article: Potential flow If an irrotational flow occupies a simply-connected fluid region then there exists a scalar field φ such that The scalar field φ is called the velocity potential for the flow.[edit] Steady flow Main article: Steady flow The flow of a fluid is said to be steady if does not vary with time.


Ash disposal is simple as the ash solidifies easily and the system does not produce the waste water or leachate problems which can often be associated with ash lagoons.SLURRY TRANSPORT Slurry Transport uses several methods: hydraulic conveying. is the more modern approach which uses significantly less water (around 15% or less by weight) and is used to transfer high throughputs of fine fly ash over very long distances (>10 km) using high pressure diaphragm pumps with velocities of around 2 m/s. HCSD. . conventional lean slurry conveying. The latter. and High Concentration Slurry Disposal (HCSD).

the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Mechanics of planar particle motion From Wikipedia.Typical HCSD systems include the Clyde Bergemann solution designed to reduce water usage (up to 90% by weight). increase disposal area working capacity and lower energy consumption. reduce ground and surface water pollution. search Classical mechanics Newton's Second Law History of classical mechanics · Timeline of classical mechanics [show]Branches Statics · Dynamics / Kinetics · Kinematics · Applied mechanics · Celestial mechanics · Continuum mechanics · Statistical mechanics [show]Formulations • Newtonian mechanics (Vectorial mechanics) • Analytical mechanics: ○ Lagrangian mechanics ○ Hamiltonian mechanics . reduce dust emission surrounding landfill site.

[show]Fundamental concepts Space · Time · Velocity · Speed · Mass · Acceleration · Gravity · Force · Impulse · Torque / Moment / Couple · Momentum · Angular momentum · Inertia · Moment of inertia · Reference frame · Energy · Kinetic energy · Potential energy · Mechanical work · Virtual work · D'Alembert's principle [hide]Core topics Rigid body · Rigid body dynamics · Euler's equations (rigid body dynamics) · Motion · Newton's laws of motion · Newton's law of universal gravitation · Equations of motion · Inertial frame of reference · Non-inertial reference frame · Rotating reference frame · Fictitious force · Linear motion · Mechanics of planar particle motion · Displacement (vector) · Relative velocity · Friction · Simple harmonic motion · Harmonic oscillator · .

orbit and Kepler's laws of planetary motion. and the generalization of this problem to planetary motion.Vibration · Damping · Damping ratio · Rotational motion · Circular motion · Uniform circular motion · Non-uniform circular motion · Centripetal force · Centrifugal force · Centrifugal force (rotating reference frame) · Reactive centrifugal force · Coriolis force · Pendulum · Rotational speed · Angular acceleration · Angular velocity · Angular frequency · Angular displacement [show]Scientists Isaac Newton · Jeremiah Horrocks · Leonhard Euler · Jean le Rond d'Alembert · Alexis Clairaut · Joseph Louis Lagrange · Pierre-Simon Laplace · William Rowan Hamilton · Siméon-Denis Poisson v • d • e For general derivations and discussion of fictitious forces. two-body problem. see Fictitious force. that is. Those problems fall in the general field of analytical dynamics. determination of the forces necessary to result in a certain . See also: Classical mechanics and Analytical mechanics This article describes a particle in planar motion[1] when observed from non-inertial reference frames.[6] This article is focused more on the kinematical issues surrounding planar motion.[2] [3][4] The most famous examples of planar motion are related to the motion of two spheres that are gravitationally attracted to one another. the determination of orbits from given laws of force.[5] See centrifugal force.

1 Frame of reference and coordinate system 2. and their absence with use of an inertial frame of reference. Unlike real forces such as electromagnetic forces.4. for example. a local frame (one tied to the moving particle so it appears stationary). Contents [hide] • • 1 Analysis using fictitious forces 2 Moving objects and observational frames of reference ○ ○ • • 2. The Lagrangian approach to fictitious forces is introduced.2.1 More on the co-rotating frame • 5 Fictitious forces in curvilinear coordinates ○ 5. for example. The connection between inertial frames and fictitious forces (also called inertial forces or pseudo-forces). General results presented in fictitious forces here are applied to observations of a moving particle as seen from several specific non-inertial frames. and a corotating frame (one with an arbitrarily located but fixed axis and a rate of rotation that makes the particle appear to have only radial motion and zero azimuthal motion).4 Polar coordinates in a rotating frame of reference  4.2 Polar coordinates in an inertial frame of reference 4.1 "State-of-motion" versus "coordinate" fictitious forces • • • • 6 Notes and references 7 Further reading 8 External links 9 See also [edit] Analysis using fictitious forces The appearance of fictitious forces normally is associated with use of a non-inertial frame of reference.2 Time varying coordinate systems 3 Fictitious forces in a local coordinate system 4 Fictitious forces in polar coordinates ○ ○ ○ ○ 4.trajectory given the particle trajectory.1. is expressed. fictitious forces do not originate from physical interactions between objects.1 Change of origin 4.3 Co-rotating frame 4.1 Two terminologies   4.1 Lagrangian approach 4. by Arnol'd:[7] .

p. – V. like real forces. itself related to the idea of observer: the reference frame is. the set of all points in the Euclidean space with the rigid body motion of the observer. [edit] Frame of reference and coordinate system The term frame of reference is used often in a very broad sense. but is only a change of the observer's choice of description. 180 Fictitious forces do not appear in the equations of motion in an inertial frame of reference: in an inertial frame. Let us give a more mathematical definition:… the reference frame is. The term coordinate system is used to differentiate between different possible choices for a set of variables to describe motion. but for the present discussion its meaning is restricted to refer to an observer's state of motion. it is observed that time varying coordinates are used in both inertial and non-inertial frames of reference. polar coordinates and (more generally) curvilinear coordinates. This allows us to detect experimentally the non-inertial nature of a system. – H Iro in A Modern Approach to Classical Mechanics p. that fictitious forces as seen in a particular non-inertial frame transform as vectors under coordinate transformations made within that frame. that is. the advice given in textbooks is to treat the fictitious forces like real forces and to pretend you are in an inertial frame. in some sense. in particular. so the use of time varying coordinates should not be confounded with a change of observer. The corresponding set of axes. Arnol'd: Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics Second Edition. Janet D.. that is. p. – Louis N. In a non-inertial frame such as a rotating frame. and pretend you are in an inertial frame.… The spatial positions of particles are labelled relative to a frame by establishing a coordinate system R with origin O.[9] [10] Treat the fictitious forces like real forces. denoted . Hand. the motion of an object is explained by the real impressed forces. 129 A slightly different tack on the subject is provided by Iro:[8] An additional force due to nonuniform relative motion of two reference frames is called a pseudo-force. 267 It should be mentioned that "treating the fictitious forces like real forces" means. Here are two quotes relating "state of motion" and "coordinate system":[11][12] We first introduce the notion of reference frame. Elaboration of this point and some citations on the subject follow. choices available to any observer.The equations of motion in an non-inertial system differ from the equations in an inertial system by additional terms called inertial forces. For solving problems of mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. the "Euclidean space carried by the observer". The frame. Examples are Cartesian coordinates. I. to either an inertial frame of reference or a non-inertial frame of reference. Newton's first and second laws still can be used to make accurate physical predictions provided fictitious forces are included along with the real forces. regardless of their state of motion. sharing the . [edit] Moving objects and observational frames of reference Next. Finch Analytical Mechanics.. is said to move with the observer. however.

pp. or they may vary with position at fixed times. The second. we can divorce this arrangement from metrical notions. 9 In traditional developments of special and general relativity it has been customary not to distinguish between two quite distinct ideas. This comfortable circumstance ceases immediately once we begin to consider frames of reference in nonuniform motion even within special relativity. In a frame . 835-7. or both. then little of importance depends on the difference between an inertial frame of reference and the inertial coordinate system it induces. at each instant of time. The first is the notion of a coordinate system.[14] A time-dependent description of observations does not change the frame of reference in which the observations are made and recorded.. for example the description of a trajectory in polar coordinates as seen from an inertial frame. [edit] Fictitious forces in a local coordinate system .…Within the context of special relativity and as long as we restrict ourselves to frames of reference in inertial motion. Handbook of Continuum Mechanics: General Concepts. can be considered to give a physical realization of .rigid body motion of the frame . Norton: General Covariance and the Foundations of General Relativity: eight decades of dispute. space or both. 56. – Jean Salençon. Stephen Lyle.[13] or as seen from a rotating frame. It may be noted that coordinate systems attached to both inertial frames and non-inertial frames can have basis vectors that vary in time. refers to an idealized system used to assign such numbers … To avoid unnecessary restrictions. Phys. [edit] Time varying coordinate systems In a general coordinate system. the basis vectors for the coordinates may vary in time at fixed positions. Thermoelasticity p. … Of special importance for our purposes is that each frame of reference has a definite state of motion at each event of spacetime. invertible assignment of four numbers to events in spacetime neighborhoods.…the notion of frame of reference has reappeared as a structure distinct from a coordinate system. Prog. – John D. coordinates are changed from R to R' by carrying out. understood simply as the smooth. (2001). Rep. the same coordinate transformation on the components of intrinsic objects (vectors and tensors) introduced to represent physical quantities in this frame. the frame of reference.

the so-called local coordinate system. Generalized coordinates. and the tangential force parallel to the trajectory (in direction ut). By using a coordinate system commonly used in planar motion. it becomes easy to identify formulas for the centripetal inward force normal to the trajectory (in direction opposite to un in Figure 1). Generalized force. The radius of curvature of the path is ρ as found from the rate of rotation of the tangent to the curve with respect to arc length.[16] as shown in Figure 1. where centripetal and tangential forces make sense. one approach is to begin in Cartesian coordinates in an inertial framework and describe the local coordinates in terms of these Cartesian coordinates. See also: Generalized forces. and is the radius of the osculating circle at position s. To introduce the unit vectors of the local coordinate system shown in Figure 1. but real. Suppose we sit on a particle in general planar motion (not just a circular orbit). At each position s. change perspective. The unit circle on the left shows the rotation of the unit vectors with s. It then seems to be no problem to switch hats. to a rotating frame of reference where the particle appears motionless and fictitious centrifugal and Euler forces have to be brought into play. unit vector un points along the outward normal to the curve and unit vector ut is tangential to the path.[15] in an inertial frame of reference one can identify the centripetal and tangential forces. That switch is unconscious. In Figure 1. But what underlies this switch in vocabulary is a change of observational frame of reference from the inertial frame where we started. Curvilinear coordinates.Figure 1: Local coordinate system for planar motion on a curve. What analysis underlies a switch of hats to introduce fictitious centrifugal and Euler forces? To explore that question. the arc length s is the distance the particle has traveled along its path in time t. and Frenet-Serret formulas In discussion of a particle moving in a circular orbit. begin in an inertial frame of reference. as shown next. and talk about the fictitious forces commonly called the centrifugal and Euler force. y(t) in Cartesian coordinates is described using arc length s(t) as:[17] . Two different positions are shown for distances s and s + ds along the curve. The path r (t) with components x(t).

is given by:   and   The radius of curvature is introduced completely formally (without need for geometric interpretation) as: . As an aside. Any position on this path is described by stating its distance s from some starting point on the path.The arc length s(t) measures distance along the skywriter's trail. showing that:[18]     (Eq. Using the tangent vector. notice that the use of unit vectors that are not aligned along the Cartesian xy-axes does not mean we are no longer in an inertial frame. like the trail left by a skywriter. All it means is that we are using unit vectors that vary with s to describe the path. but still observe the motion from the inertial frame. say θ. The magnitude of this displacement is ds. independent of time. the angle of the tangent to the curve. 1) This displacement is necessarily tangent to the curve at s. Image from NASA ASRS One way to look at the use of s is to think of the path of the particle as sitting in space. Then an incremental displacement along the path ds is described by: where primes are introduced to denote derivatives with respect to s. The unit magnitude of these vectors is a consequence of Eq. 1. showing that the unit vector tangent to the curve is: while the outward unit vector normal to the curve is Orthogonality can be verified by showing the vector dot product is zero.

1. and having found the properties of the path in terms of this description. Using the above results for the path properties in terms of s. the radius of curvature becomes:   where the equivalence of the forms stems from differentiation of Eq. 1: Having set up the description of any position on the path in terms of its associated value for s. primes indicate differentiation with respect to s):    . motion of the particle is introduced by stating the particle position at any time t as the corresponding value s (t). the acceleration in the inertial reference frame as described in terms of the components normal and tangential to the path of the particle can be found in terms of the function s(t) and its various time derivatives (as before. With this formula for the derivative of the sine.The derivative of θ can be found from that for sin θ: Now:    in which the denominator is unity according to Eq.

as can be verified by taking the dot product with the unit vectors ut(s) and un(s). Using this coordinate system in the inertial frame. This result for acceleration is the same as that for circular motion based on the radius ρ. we change observational frames. polar coordinates. the force causing any acceleration of speed along the path seen in the inertial frame becomes the force necessary to overcome the Euler force in the non-inertial frame where the particle is at rest. This frame has a continuously changing origin. but rather are simply added terms in the acceleration in polar coordinates. [edit] Fictitious forces in polar coordinates Main article: polar coordinates Description of particle motion often is simpler in non-Cartesian coordinate systems. That said. it is easy to identify the force normal to the trajectory as the centripetal force and that parallel to the trajectory as the tangential force. For a pilot in an airplane. like a circle. reference frames rotating about a fixed axis are discussed in more detail. the path of an airplane can be approximated by an arc of a circle for a limited time. in polar coordinates the acceleration is given by (see below for details): which contains not just double time derivatives of the coordinates but added terms.[20] [edit] Two terminologies In a purely mathematical treatment. Next. This non-inertial frame also employs unit vectors normal to the trajectory and parallel to it. from a qualitative standpoint. The angular velocity of this frame is the angular velocity of the particle about the center of curvature at time t. which at time t is the center of curvature (the center of the osculating circle in Figure 1) of the path at time t. for example. because the particle has zero velocity in this frame. This example employs polar coordinates. unless it is in a particularly simple path. Sitting on the particle. we adopt a non-inertial frame where the particle is at rest (zero velocity). extra terms appear that represent how the basis vectors change as the coordinates change. regardless of the frame that the coordinate system is associated with (inertial or non-inertial). There is zero Coriolis force in the frame. When equations of motion are expressed in terms of any curvilinear coordinate system. Likewise. but more generally the added terms depend upon which coordinate . See article discussing turning an airplane. The centripetal force of the inertial frame is interpreted in the non-inertial frame where the body is at rest as a force necessary to overcome the centrifugal force. For example. extra terms appear in the acceleration of an observed particle when using curvilinear coordinates. the centrifugal and Euler forces can be analyzed on the basis of circular motion with that radius. These terms arise automatically on transformation to polar (or cylindrical) coordinates and are thus not fictitious forces. Next. these fictitious forces are a matter of direct experience. and whose rate of rotation is the angular rate of motion of the particle about that origin at time t. for example.[19] However. and for the limited time a particular radius of curvature applies. these fictitious forces cannot be related to a simple observational frame of reference other than the particle itself.

. Lagrangian mechanics. introducing a second meaning for "fictitious forces". The present article emphasizes one of these two ideas ("state-ofmotion"). or whatever).[23] Assuming it is clear that "state of motion" and "coordinate system" are different. that is. regardless of whether the coordinate system is attached to an inertial or a non-inertial frame of reference. then the equations of motion of the system may be obtained by a direct substitution of the expression for the Lagrangian into the Euler–Lagrange equation. a particular family of partial differential equations. polar coordinates are introduced for use in (first) an inertial frame of reference and then (second) in a rotating frame of reference. elliptic. To distinguish these two terminologies. and EulerLagrange equations To motivate the introduction of "coordinate" inertial forces by more than a reference to "mathematical convenience". In contrast. The two different uses of the term "fictitious force" are pointed out. If a mechanical system consists of N particles and there are m independent kinematical conditions imposed. what follows is a digression to show these forces correspond to what are called by some authors "generalized" fictitious forces or "generalized inertia forces". [edit] Lagrangian approach See also: Lagrangian. for instance. the Lagrangian is defined as the kinetic energy. the fictitious forces that vanish in an inertial frame of reference. however. it is possible to characterize the system uniquely by n = 3N . T.[22] According to this terminology. it follows that the dependence of centrifugal force (as in this article) upon "state of motion" and its independence from "coordinate system". see Shankar[21] and Hildebrand. The only requirement on these coordinates is that they are necessary and sufficient to uniquely characterize the state of the system: they need not be (although they could be) the coordinates of the particles in the system. Generalized coordinates.[28] In classical mechanics. First. follows a brief digression to explain further how the "coordinate" terminology for fictitious force has arisen. which contrasts with the "coordinate" version with exactly the opposite dependencies.[29] In symbols. Under conditions that are given in Lagrangian mechanics.system is chosen (that is. Below. they could be the angles and extensions of links in a robot arm. indicates that two different ideas are referred to by the terminology "fictitious force". although the other also is described. polar. despite the fact that these terms do not have the vector transformation properties expected of forces.[24] [25][26][27] These forces are introduced via the Lagrangian mechanics approach to mechanics based upon describing a system by generalized coordinates usually denoted as {qk}. the inertial forces of Newtonian mechanics. of the system minus its potential energy. are called in this article the "state-of-motion" fictitious forces and those that originate in the interpretation of time derivatives in particular coordinate systems are called "coordinate" fictitious forces. For example. fictitious forces are determined in part by the coordinate system itself. Instead. if the Lagrangian of a system is known.m independent generalized coordinates {qk}. the fictitious forces defined in terms of the state of motion of the observer vanish in inertial frames of reference. regardless of the frame it is attached to. Sometimes these coordinate-system dependent terms also are referred to as "fictitious forces". U.

the Lagrangian approach can be arranged to capture exactly the "coordinate" fictitious forces just introduced. For the moment. the goal is simply to show that the Lagrangian approach can lead to "generalized fictitious forces" that do not vanish in inertial frames. consider a single particle. not upon the particular problem at hand but upon the coordinate system chosen. qi are the generalized coordinates. for example. Later he says "If accelerations associated with generalized coordinates are to be of prime interest (as is usually the case). To proceed. The connection between "generalized forces" and Newtonian forces varies with the choice of coordinates. It is not the purpose here to outline how Lagrangian mechanics works. are  generalized forces. are  Lagrange's equations. the [nonaccelerational] terms may be conveniently transferred to the right … . This Lagrangian formulation introduces exactly the "coordinate" form of fictitious forces mentioned above that allows "fictitious" (generalized) forces in inertial frames. says "[The] presence or absence [of inertia forces] depends." By coordinate system presumably is meant the choice of {qk}. the term Careful reading of Hildebrand shows he doesn't discuss the role of "inertial frames of reference".Here are some definitions:[30] Definition: is the Lagrange function or Lagrangian. and in fact. The interested reader can look at other articles explaining this approach. Then Hildebrand [22] shows in polar coordinates with the qk = (r. θ). are generalized velocities. and introduce the generalized coordinates as {qk} = (r. for example. What is pertinent here is that in the case of a single particle. θ) the "generalized momenta" are: leading. are  generalized momenta. to the generalized force: with Qr the impressed radial force.

see McQuarrie[31] Hildebrand. there are three types of terms. Following that presentation. and Υi are the generalized forces on joint i. There are no "state-of-motion" fictitious forces in an inertial frame. the equations may be written in a form using Christoffel symbols Γijk (discussed further below) as:[36][37] where M is the "manipulator inertia matrix" and V is the potential energy due to gravity (for example)." In short. The second is quadratic in coefficients may depend on product of the type where the .[32] Below is an example of this usage as employed in the design of robotic manipulators:[33][34][35] In the above [Lagrange-Euler] equations. The terms involving Christoffel symbols therefore determine the "generalized centrifugal" and "generalized Coriolis" terms. Such inertia forces are often said to be of the Coriolis type. Tong Heng Lee & Christopher John Harris: Adaptive Neural Network Control of Robotic Manipulators. unlike the standard "state-of-motion" fictitious forces. y) are: . – Shuzhi S. In an inertial frame. Its Cartesian components (x. 47-48 For a robot manipulator. Terms involving a are called centrifugal forces while those involving a product of the type only and are called for i ≠ j are called Coriolis forces. by definition. the emphasis of some authors upon coordinates and their derivatives and their introduction of (generalized) fictitious forces that do not vanish in inertial frames of reference is an outgrowth of the use of generalized coordinates in Lagrangian mechanics. This sloppy use of terminology leads to endless confusion because these generalized fictitious forces. Ge. [edit] Polar coordinates in an inertial frame of reference Below. let be the position vector of a moving particle. pp. For example. The first involves the second derivative of the generalized co-ordinates.and considered as additional (generalized) inertia forces. These are further classified into two types. do not vanish in inertial frames of reference.[22] and von Schwerin. The third type is functions of gravitational forces. The introduction of generalized fictitious forces often is done without notification and without specifying the word "generalized". the contrasting terminology of "coordinate" fictitious forces is presented and critiqued on the basis of the non-vectorial transformation behavior of these "forces". the acceleration of a particle is derived as seen in an inertial frame using polar coordinates.

with polar coordinates r and θ depending on time t. Unit vectors are defined in the radially outward direction :

and in the direction at right angles to :

These unit vectors vary in direction with time:


Using these derivatives, the first and second derivatives of position are:

where dot-overmarkings indicate time differentiation. With this form for the acceleration an inertial frame of reference Newton's second law expressed in polar coordinates is:

, in

where F is the net real force on the particle. No fictitious forces appear because all fictitious forces are zero by definition in an inertial frame. From a mathematical standpoint, however, it sometimes is handy to put only the second-order derivatives on the right side of this equation; that is we write the above equation by rearrangement of terms as:

where a "coordinate" version of the "acceleration" is introduced:

consisting of only second-order time derivatives of the coordinates r and θ. The terms moved to the force-side of the equation are now treated as extra "fictitious forces" and, confusingly, the resulting forces also are called the "centrifugal" and "Coriolis" force. These newly defined "forces" are non-zero in an inertial frame, and so certainly are not the same as the previously identified fictitious forces that are zero in an inertial frame and non-zero only in a non-inertial frame.[38] In this article, these newly defined forces are called the "coordinate" centrifugal force and the "coordinate" Coriolis force to separate them from the "state-of-motion" forces.

Figure 2: Two coordinate systems differing by a displacement of origin. Radial motion with constant velocity v in one frame is not radial in the other frame. Angular rate , but  

[edit] Change of origin

Here is an illustration showing the so called "centrifugal term" does not transform as a true force, putting any reference to this term not just as a "term", but as a centrifugal force, in a dubious light. Suppose in frame S a particle moves radially away from the origin at a constant velocity. See Figure 2. The force on the particle is zero by Newton's first law. Now we look at the same thing from frame S' , which is the same, but displaced in origin. In S' the particle still is in straight line motion at constant speed, so again the force is zero. What if we use polar coordinates in the two frames? In frame S the radial motion is constant and there is no angular motion. Hence, the acceleration is:

and each term individually is zero because including no


. There is no force,

"force" in frame S. In frame S' , however, we have:

In this case the azimuthal term is zero, being the rate of change of angular momentum. To obtain zero acceleration in the radial direction, however, we require:

The right-hand side is non-zero, inasmuch as neither zero force (zero ) if we retain only


is zero. That is, we cannot obtain

as the acceleration; we need both terms. is

Despite the above facts, suppose we adopt polar coordinates, and wish to say that

"centrifugal force", and reinterpret as "acceleration" (without dwelling upon any possible justification). How does this decision fare when we consider that a proper formulation of physics is geometry and coordinate-independent? See the article on general covariance.[39] To attempt to form a covariant expression, this so-called centrifugal "force" can be put into vector notation as:


and a unit vector normal to the plane of motion. Unfortunately, although this expression formally looks like a vector, when an observer changes origin the value of changes (see Figure 2), so observers in the same frame of reference standing on different street corners see different "forces" even though the actual events they witness are identical. How can a physical force (be it fictitious or real) be zero in one frame S, but non-zero in another frame S' identical, but a few feet away? Even for exactly the same particle behavior the expression is different in every as

frame of reference, even for very trivial distinctions between frames. In short, if we take "centrifugal force", it does not have a universal significance: it is unphysical.

Beyond this problem, the real impressed net force is zero. (There is no real impressed force in straight-line motion at constant speed). If we adopt polar coordinates, and wish to say that is

"centrifugal force", and reinterpret as "acceleration", the oddity results in frame S' that straightline motion at constant speed requires a net force in polar coordinates, but not in Cartesian coordinates. Moreover, this perplexity applies in frame S', but not in frame S. The absurdity of the behavior of indicates that one must say that is not centrifugal force, but simply one of two terms in the acceleration. This view, that the acceleration is composed of two terms, is frame-independent: there is zero centrifugal force in any and every inertial frame. It also is coordinate-system independent: we can use Cartesian, polar, or any other curvilinear system: they all produce zero. Apart from the above physical arguments, of course, the derivation above, based upon application of the mathematical rules of differentiation, shows the radial acceleration does indeed consist of the two terms .

That said, the next subsection shows there is a connection between these centrifugal and Coriolis terms and the fictitious forces that pertain to a particular rotating frame of reference (as distinct from an inertial frame).

Figure 3: Inertial frame of reference S and instantaneous non-inertial co-rotating frame of reference S' . The co-rotating frame rotates at angular rate Ω equal to the rate of rotation of the particle about the origin of S' at the particular moment t. Particle is located at vector position r(t) and unit vectors are shown in the radial direction to the particle from the origin, and also in the direction of increasing angle θ normal to the radial direction. These unit vectors need not be related to the tangent and normal to the path. Also, the radial distance r need not be related to the radius of curvature of the path. [edit] Co-rotating frame

In the case of planar motion of a particle, the "coordinate" centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration terms found above to be non-zero in an inertial frame can be shown to be the negatives of the "state-of-motion" centrifugal and Coriolis terms that appear in a very particular non-inertial co-

rotating frame (see next subsection).[40] See Figure 3. To define a co-rotating frame, first an origin is selected from which the distance r(t) to the particle is defined. An axis of rotation is set up that is perpendicular to the plane of motion of the particle, and passing through this origin. Then, at the selected moment t, the rate of rotation of the co-rotating frame Ω is made to match the rate of rotation of the particle about this axis, dθ/dt. The co-rotating frame applies only for a moment, and must be continuously re-selected as the particle moves. For more detail, see Polar coordinates, centrifugal and Coriolis terms.
[edit] Polar coordinates in a rotating frame of reference

Next, the same approach is used to find the fictitious forces of a (non-inertial) rotating frame. For example, if a rotating polar coordinate system is adopted for use in a rotating frame of observation, both rotating at the same constant counterclockwise rate Ω, we find the equations of motion in this frame as follows: the radial coordinate in the rotating frame is taken as r, but the angle θ' in the rotating frame changes with time:


Plugging this result into the acceleration using the unit vectors of the previous section:

The leading two terms are the same form as those in the inertial frame, and they are the only terms if the frame is not rotating, that is, if Ω=0. However, in this rotating frame we have the extra terms:[41]

The radial term Ω2 r is the centrifugal force per unit mass due to the system's rotation at rate Ω and the radial term is the radial component of the Coriolis force per unit mass, where is the tangential component of the particle velocity as seen in the rotating frame. The term is the so-called azimuthal component of the Coriolis force per unit mass. In fact, these extra terms can be used to measure Ω and provide a test to see whether or not the frame is rotating, just as explained in the example of rotating identical spheres. If the particle's motion can be described by the observer using Newton's laws of motion without these Ω-dependent terms, the observer is in an inertial frame of reference where Ω=0.

These "extra terms" in the acceleration of the particle are the "state of motion" fictitious forces for this rotating frame, the forces introduced by rotation of the frame at angular rate Ω.[42] In this rotating frame, what are the "coordinate" fictitious forces? As before, suppose we choose to put only the second-order time derivatives on the right side of Newton's law:


If we choose for convenience to treat as some so-called "acceleration", then the terms are added to the so-called "fictitious force", which are not "state-ofmotion" fictitious forces, but are actually components of force that persist even when Ω=0, that is, they persist even in an inertial frame of reference. Because these extra terms are added, the "coordinate" fictitious force is not the same as the "state-of-motion" fictitious force. Because of these extra terms, the "coordinate" fictitious force is not zero even in an inertial frame of reference.
[edit] More on the co-rotating frame

Notice however, the case of a rotating frame that happens to have the same angular rate as the particle, so that Ω = dθ/dt at some particular moment (that is, the polar coordinates are set up in the instantaneous, non-inertial co-rotating frame of Figure 3). In this case, at this moment, dθ'/dt = 0. In this co-rotating non-inertial frame at this moment the "coordinate" fictitious forces are only those due to the motion of the frame, that is, they are the same as the "state-of-motion" fictitious forces, as discussed in the remarks about the co-rotating frame of Figure 3 in the previous section.

[edit] Fictitious forces in curvilinear coordinates
See also: Curvilinear coordinate system and Covariant derivative

Figure 4: Coordinate surfaces, coordinate lines, and coordinate axes of general curvilinear coordinates.

To quote Bullo and Lewis: "Only in exceptional circumstances can the configuration of Lagrangian system be described by a vector in a vector space. In the natural mathematical setting, the system's configuration space is described loosely as a curved space, or more accurately as a differentiable manifold."[43] Instead of Cartesian coordinates, when equations of motion are expressed in a curvilinear coordinate system, Christoffel symbols appear in the acceleration of a particle expressed in this coordinate system, as described below in more detail. Consider description of a particle motion from the viewpoint of an inertial frame of reference in curvilinear coordinates. Suppose the position of a point P in Cartesian coordinates is (x, y, z) and in curvilinear coordinates is (q1, q2. q3). Then functions exist that relate these descriptions:

and so forth. (The number of dimensions may be larger than three.) An important aspect of such coordinate systems is the element of arc length that allows distances to be determined. If the curvilinear coordinates form an orthogonal coordinate system, the element of arc length ds is expressed as:

where the quantities hk are called scale factors.[44] A change dqk in qk causes a displacement hk dqk along the coordinate line for qk. At a point P, we place unit vectors ek each tangent to a coordinate line of a variable qk. Then any vector can be expressed in terms of these basis vectors, for example, from an inertial frame of reference, the position vector of a moving particle r located at time t at position P becomes:

where qk is the vector dot product of r and ek. The velocity v of a particle at P, can be expressed at P as:

where vk is the vector dot product of v and ek, and over dots indicate time differentiation. The time derivatives of the basis vectors can be expressed in terms of the scale factors introduced above. for example:

 or, in general,  

in which the coefficients of the unit vectors are the Christoffel symbols for the coordinate system. The general notation and formulas for the Christoffel symbols are:[45][46]

and the symbol is zero when all the indices are different. Despite appearances to the contrary, the Christoffel symbols do not form the components of a tensor. For example, they are zero in Cartesian coordinates, but not in polar coordinates.[47] Using relations like this one,[48]

which allows all the time derivatives to be evaluated. For example, for the velocity:

with the Γ-notation for the Christoffel symbols replacing the curly bracket notation. Using the same approach, the acceleration is then

Looking at the relation for acceleration, the first summation contains the time derivatives of velocity, which would be associated with acceleration if these were Cartesian coordinates, and the second summation (the one with Christoffel symbols) contains terms related to the way the unit vectors change with time.[49]

[50] If the frame is not inertial.[edit] "State-of-motion" versus "coordinate" fictitious forces Earlier in this article a distinction was introduced between two terminologies. despite their inclusion of terms that are not the "state-of-motion" centrifugal and Coriolis terms. taking the second summation to the force-side of the equation as: with the convention that the "acceleration" is now: In the expression above. the "state-of-motion" fictitious forces are included in the above "coordinate" fictitious force expression. and from the "state-of-motion" fictitious forces. What adds to this confusion is that these "coordinate" fictitious forces are divided into two groups and given the same names as the "state-of-motion" fictitious forces. Using the expression for the acceleration above. that is. the designation of the terms of the summation as "fictitious forces" uses this terminology for contributions that are completely different from any real force. although in this inertial frame of reference all "state-ofmotion" fictitious forces are identically zero. these "coordinate" centrifugal and Coriolis terms can be nonzero even in an inertial frame of reference where the "state-of-motion" centrifugal force (the subject of this article) and Coriolis force always are zero. for example. they are divided into "centrifugal" and "Coriolis" terms. if the "acceleration" expressed in terms of first-order time derivatives of the velocity happens to result . To that end. the force law can be rewritten.[51] Also. The "coordinate" approach to Newton's law above is to retain the second-order time derivatives of the coordinates {qk} as the only terms on the right side of this equation. by definition. Thus. No "state-of-motion" fictitious forces are present because the frame is inertial. the fictitious forces that vanish in an inertial frame of reference are called in this article the "state-of-motion" fictitious forces and those that originate from differentiation in a particular coordinate system are called "coordinate" fictitious forces. and "state-of-motion" fictitious forces are zero in an inertial frame. For example. Newton's law of motion in the inertial frame of reference becomes: where F is the net real force on the particle. Moreover. the summation added to the force-side of the equation now is treated as if added "forces" were present. these "forces" do not transform under coordinate transformations as vectors. These summation terms are customarily called fictitious forces within this "coordinate" approach. motivated more by mathematical convenience than by physics. in a rotating frame of reference.

for example. See Hildebrand [22].in terms that are not simply second-order derivatives of the coordinates {qk} in time. Formulation of dynamics in terms of Christoffel symbols and the "coordinate" version of fictitious forces is used often in the design of robots in connection with a Lagrangian formulation of the equations of motion. From the standpoint of a Lagrangian formulation. search This article is about velocity in physics. Velocity From Wikipedia. they can be called generalized fictitious forces. For other uses. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Classical mechanics Newton's Second Law History of classical mechanics · Timeline of classical mechanics [show]Branches Statics · Dynamics / Kinetics · Kinematics · Applied mechanics · Celestial mechanics · Continuum mechanics · Statistical mechanics [show]Formulations • Newtonian mechanics (Vectorial mechanics) • Analytical mechanics: . then these terms that are not second-order also are brought to the force-side of the equation and included with the fictitious forces. see Velocity (disambiguation).

○ Lagrangian mechanics ○ Hamiltonian mechanics [hide]Fundamental concepts Space · Time · Velocity · Speed · Mass · Acceleration · Gravity · Force · Impulse · Torque / Moment / Couple · Momentum · Angular momentum · Inertia · Moment of inertia · Reference frame · Energy · Kinetic energy · Potential energy · Mechanical work · Virtual work · D'Alembert's principle [show]Core topics Rigid body · Rigid body dynamics · Euler's equations (rigid body dynamics) · Motion · Newton's laws of motion · Newton's law of universal gravitation · Equations of motion · Inertial frame of reference · Noninertial reference frame · Rotating reference frame · Fictitious force · Linear .

motion · Mechanics of planar particle motion · Displacement (vector) · Relative velocity · Friction · Simple harmonic motion · Harmonic oscillator · Vibration · Damping · Damping ratio · Rotational motion · Circular motion · Uniform circular motion · Nonuniform circular motion · Centripetal force · Centrifugal force · Centrifugal force (rotating reference frame) · Reactive centrifugal force · Coriolis force · Pendulum · Rotational speed · Angular acceleration · Angular velocity · Angular frequency · Angular displacement [show]Scientists Isaac Newton · Jeremiah Horrocks · Leonhard Euler · Jean le Rond d'Alembert · Alexis Clairaut · Joseph Louis Lagrange · Pierre-Simon Laplace · William Rowan Hamilton · Siméon-Denis .

whereas "5 meters per second east" is a vector. and how it is changing at a particular point in time. .1 Scalar velocities 3 Polar coordinates 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit] Equation of motion Main article: Equation of motion The instantaneous velocity vector v of an object that has positions x(t) at time t and x(t + Δt) at time t + Δt. The average velocity v of an object moving through a displacement during a time interval (Δt) is described by the formula: The rate of change of velocity is acceleration – how an object's speed or direction changes over time. "5 meters per second" is a scalar and not a vector. Contents [hide] • • • • • • 1 Equation of motion 2 Relative velocity ○ 2. both magnitude and direction are required to define it. can be computed as the derivative of position: Average velocity magnitude is always smaller than or equal to average speed of a given particle. a quantity that is measured in meters per second (m/s or ms−1) when using the SI (metric) system. The scalar absolute value (magnitude) of velocity is speed. It is a vector physical quantity. Instantaneous velocity is always tangential to trajectory. For example. velocity is the rate of change of displacement (position). Slope of tangent of position or displacement time graph is instantaneous velocity and its slope of chord is average velocity.Poisson v • d • e In physics.

In other words only relative velocity can be calculated. can be used. Where Newtonian mechanics and special relativity differ is in how different observers would describe the same situation. .The equation for an object's velocity can be obtained mathematically by evaluating the integral of the equation for its acceleration beginning from some initial period time t0 to some point in time later tn. In particular. where u is the initial velocity and v is the final velocity. the kinetic energy (energy of motion). x. Neither is true for special relativity. also known as Torricelli's equation: The above equations are valid for both Newtonian mechanics and special relativity. The final velocity v of an object which starts with velocity u and then accelerates at constant acceleration a for a period of time Δt is: The average velocity of an object undergoing constant acceleration is . all observers agree on the value of t and the transformation rules for position create a situation in which all non-accelerating observers would describe the acceleration of an object with the same values. then: When only the object's initial velocity is known. of a moving object is linear with both its mass and the square of its velocity: The kinetic energy is a scalar quantity. EK. In Newtonian mechanics. To find the position. the expression. This can be expanded to give the position at any time t in the following way: These basic equations for final velocity and position can be combined to form an equation that is independent of time. Δt. in Newtonian mechanics. of such an accelerating object during a time interval.

in a right-handed coordinate system). [edit] Scalar velocities In the one dimensional case. . if the two objects are moving in opposite directions. This is not the case anymore with special relativity in which velocities depend on the choice of reference frame. and an angular velocity. then the velocity of object A relative to object B is defined as the difference of the two velocity vectors: Similarly the relative velocity of object B moving with velocity w.Escape velocity is the minimum velocity a body must have in order to escape from the gravitational field of the earth. relative to object A moving with velocity v is: Usually the inertial frame is chosen in which the latter of the two mentioned objects is in rest. [edit] Polar coordinates In polar coordinates. or: . which is the rate of rotation about the origin (with positive quantities representing counter-clockwise rotation and negative quantities representing clockwise rotation. Relative velocity is fundamental in both classical and modern physics. if the two objects are moving in the same direction. The radial and angular velocities can be derived from the Cartesian velocity and displacement vectors by decomposing the velocity vector into radial and transverse components. defined as the component of velocity away from or toward the origin (also known as velocity made good).[1] the velocities are scalars and the equation is either: . [edit] Relative velocity Main article: Relative velocity Relative velocity is a measurement of velocity between two objects as determined in a single coordinate system. The value of the escape velocity from the Earth's surface is approximately 11100 m/s. The transverse velocity is the component of velocity along a circle centered at the origin. a two-dimensional velocity is described by a radial velocity. To escape from the Earth's gravitational field an object must have greater kinetic energy than its gravitational potential energy. In Newtonian mechanics. If an object A is moving with velocity vector v and an object B with velocity vector w. the relative velocity is independent of the chosen inertial reference frame. since many systems in physics deal with the relative motion of two or more particles.

These relations are known as Kepler's laws of planetary motion. and the rate at which area is swept out is constant. such that Angular momentum in scalar form is the mass times the distance to the origin times the transverse velocity. It is also the product of the angular speed ω and the magnitude of the displacement.where is the transverse velocity is the radial velocity. The sign convention for angular momentum is the same as that for angular velocity. The magnitude of the radial velocity is the dot product of the velocity vector and the unit vector in the direction of the displacement. where is mass The expression mr2 is known as moment of inertia. where is displacement. The magnitude of the transverse velocity is that of the cross product of the unit vector in the direction of the displacement and the velocity vector. as in the case of a gravitational orbit. the mass times the distance squared times the angular speed. angular momentum is constant. . or equivalently. and transverse speed is inversely proportional to the distance. angular speed is inversely proportional to the distance squared. If forces are in the radial direction only with an inverse square dependence.

Newton's second law or Euler–Lagrange equations). to obtain a linear relationship for velocity.1 Examples 2. the motion of a particle under the influence of a force) as a function of time. a dt. where.2 Extension 3 Equations of circular motion 4 Derivation ○ ○ ○ 4.g. The body is considered between two instants in time: one initial point and one current (or final) point.[edit] Equations of motion are equations that describe the behavior of a system (e.. v = final velocity.g. If a is constant.[1] Sometimes the term refers to the differential equations that the system satisfies (e.2 Equation 3 4. and sometimes to the solutions to those equations.1 Equation 2 4. and several applications of the equations are then required. t = time).. Problems in kinematics may deal with more than two instants. a = acceleration. Contents [hide] • • 1 Equations of uniformly accelerated linear motion 2 Classic version ○ ○ • • 2..3 Equation 4 • • • 5 See also 6 External links 7 References [edit] Equations of uniformly accelerated linear motion The equations that apply to bodies moving linearly (in one dimension) with constant acceleration are often referred to as "SUVAT" equations where the five variables are represented by those letters (s = displacement. is the body's initial velocity is the body's initial position and its current state is described by: . may be integrated over an interval from 0 to Δt (Δt = t − ti). Integration of the velocity yields a quadratic relationship for position at the end of the interval.. u = initial velocity. a differential. the five letters may be shown in a different order.

in this situation it is sufficient to know three out of the five variables to calculate the remaining two. where s = the distance between initial and final positions (displacement) (sometimes denoted R or x) u = the initial velocity (speed in a given direction) v = the final velocity a = the constant acceleration t = the time taken to move from the initial state to the final state . we can get (3). [edit] Classic version The equations below (often informally known as the "suvat"[2] equations) are often written in the following form:[3] By substituting (1) into (2). the time interval between the initial and current states . (4) and (5).. Note that each of the equations contains four of the five variables. or in the case of bodies moving under the influence of gravity. the constant acceleration. g. the position at the end of the interval (displacement) . Thus. (6) can be constructed by rearranging (1). The velocity at the end of the interval .

we have: Substituting and cancelling minus signs gives: [edit] Extension More complex versions of these equations can include a quantity Δs for the variation on displacement (s − s0). and v0 for u for consistency. [edit] Equations of circular motion The analogues of the above equations can be written for rotation: . the acceleration a must be in fact −g. s0 for the initial position of the body. They could in fact be considered as uni-directional vectors. Using the fifth equation. speed and acceleration is important. At this point one must remember that while these quantities appear to be scalars. since the force of gravity acts downwards and therefore also the acceleration on the ball due to it. the direction of displacement.[edit] Examples Many examples in kinematics involve projectiles. Choosing s to measure up from the ground. Given initial speed u. for example a ball thrown upwards into the air. one can calculate how high the ball will travel before it begins to fall. At the highest point. the ball will be at rest: therefore v = 0. The acceleration is local acceleration of gravity g.

where: α is the angular acceleration ω is the angular velocity φ is the angular displacement ω0 is the initial angular velocity. substitute t with above: . [edit] Equation 2 By definition: Hence: [edit] Equation 3 Using equation 2. [edit] Derivation These equations assume constant acceleration and non-relativistic velocities.

At a particular speed. Contents [hide] • • 1 Examples ○ 1. At this point the object ceases to accelerate altogether and continues falling at a constant speed called terminal velocity (also called settling velocity).[1] As the object accelerates (usually downwards due to gravity). the drag force produced will equal the object's weight (mg). Terminal velocity varies directly with the ratio of weight to drag. water or other fluid through which it is moving. More drag means a lower terminal velocity.1 Derivation for terminal velocity 2 Terminal velocity in the presence of buoyancy force ○ ○ • • • 2. causing the acceleration to decrease. An object moving downward with greater than terminal velocity (for example because it was affected by a downward force or it fell from a thinner part of the atmosphere or it changed shape) will slow until it reaches terminal velocity. while increased weight means a higher terminal velocity. the drag force acting on the object increases.2 Applications 3 See also 4 References 5 External links [edit] Examples . This causes the net force on the object to be zero.1 Terminal velocity in creeping flow 2. A free-falling object achieves its terminal velocity when the downward force of gravity (Fg) equals the upward force of drag (Fd). resulting in an acceleration of zero.[edit] Equation 4 Using equation 1 to substitute u in equation 2 gives: In fluid dynamics an object is moving at its terminal velocity if its speed is constant due to the restraining force exerted by the air.

[2] which is also the terminal velocity of the peregrine falcon diving down on its prey.Based on wind resistance. can be taken into account using Archimedes' principle: the mass m has to be reduced by the displaced fluid . The current world record is 614 mph (988 km/h) by Joseph Kittinger. due to the upward force on the object by the surrounding fluid.S. 15 seconds to reach 99% and so on.[3] And the same terminal velocity is reached for a typical . for example.[4] Competition speed skydivers fly in the head down position and reach even higher speeds. set at high altitude where the lesser density of the atmosphere decreased drag. Mathematically. the terminal velocity of a skydiver in a belly to earth free-fall position is about 195 km/h (122 mph or 55 m/s). In this example. the drag increases.30-06 bullet travelling in the downward vertical direction — when it is returning to earth having been fired upwards. terminal velocity — without considering the buoyancy effects — is given by where Vt = terminal velocity. have a lower terminal velocity than small objects such as bullets. and A = projected area of the object.18 ft/s²). Mathematically. the terminal velocity increases to about 320 km/h (200 mph or 90 m/s). ρ = density of the fluid through which the object is falling. Cd = drag coefficient. Drag also depends on the projected area. because the effective forces on the body balance each other more and more closely as the terminal velocity is approached. the drag is much less than the gravitational force and so the object accelerates. or perhaps just dropped from a tower — according to a 1920 U. g = acceleration due to gravity.18 feet) per second faster every second (an acceleration of 9.[2] An object falling toward the surface of the Earth will fall 9. m = mass of the falling object. The reason an object reaches a terminal velocity is that the drag force resisting motion is approximately proportional to the square of its speed. an object approaches its terminal velocity asymptotically. As it accelerates. until it equals the weight.[2] This velocity is the asymptotic limiting value of the acceleration process. This is why things with a large projected area. Army Ordnance study. Buoyancy effects. a speed of 50% of terminal velocity is reached after only about 3 seconds. Higher speeds can be attained if the skydiver pulls in his or her limbs (see also freeflying). At low speeds. while it takes 8 seconds to reach 90%. such as parachutes.81 m/s² or 32.81 meters (or 32. In this case.

ca. [edit] Derivation for terminal velocity Mathematically. defining down to be positive. Solving for v yields [show]Derivation of the solution for the velocity v as a function of time t The drag equation is A more practical form of this equation can be obtained by making the substitution k = 1 ⁄2ρACd. the terminal velocity of an object changes due to the properties of the fluid. 1% per 80 metres (262 ft) (see barometric formula). for every 160 metres (525 ft) of falling. the mass of the object and its projected cross-sectional surface area. Dividing both sides by m gives . the terminal velocity decreases 1%. speed decreases to change with the local terminal velocity. the net force is zero (F = 0). the net force acting on an object falling near the surface of Earth is (according to the drag equation): At equilibrium. while continuing the fall. So instead of m use the reduced mass in this and subsequent formulas. After reaching the local terminal velocity. Air density increases with decreasing altitude. On Earth. with the volume of the object.mass . For objects falling through the atmosphere.

After integration. with tanh the hyperbolic tangent function. the velocity v becomes . and substituting α back in. Assuming that g is positive (which it was defined to be). So the solution of the integral is or alternatively.The equation can be re-arranged into Taking the integral of both sides yields where α = ( k⁄mg )1⁄2. this becomes or in simpler a form The inverse hyperbolic tangent is defined as: .

resulting in the terminal velocity [edit] Terminal velocity in the presence of buoyancy force When the buoyancy effects are taken into account. after k = 1⁄2ρACd has been substituted.Next. the expression for the three forces are given below: where . the velocity v is in the desired form: As time tends to infinity ( t → ∞ ). the hyperbolic tangent tends to 1. When the terminal velocity is reached the weight of the object is exactly balanced by the upward buoyancy force and drag force. That is where W = weight of the object. and D = drag force acting on the object. If the falling object is spherical in shape. Fb = buoyancy force acting on the object. an object falling through a fluid under its own weight can reach a terminal velocity (settling velocity) if the net force acting on the object becomes zero.

ρs = density of the object. drag force Fd and force by gravity Fg. Substitution of equations (2–4) in equation (1) and solving for terminal velocity. Vt). the inertia forces of the fluid are negligible (assumption of massless fluid) in comparison to other forces. Vt to yield the following expression . For very slow motion of the fluid. and V = characteristic velocity (taken as terminal velocity.d = diameter of the spherical object g = gravitational acceleration. The equation of motion for creeping flow (simplified Navier-Stokes equation) is given by . Cd = drag coefficient. Such flows are called creeping flows and the condition to be satisfied for the flow to be creeping flows is the Reynolds number. A = πd2 / 4 = projected area of the sphere. [edit] Terminal velocity in creeping flow Creeping flow past a sphere: streamlines. . ρ = density of the fluid.

now known as Stokes' law. very small particles) in a continuous viscous fluid.g. From Stokes' solution. η is the fluid's viscosity (in [kg m-1 s-1]). Stokes' law is derived by solving the Stokes flow limit for small Reynolds numbers of the generally unsolvable Navier–Stokes equations:[1] where: • • • Fd is the frictional force acting on the interface between the fluid and the particle (in N). (6) is called Stokes law. R is the radius of the spherical object (in m). The expression for the drag force given by equation When the value of Cd is substituted in the equation (5). George Gabriel Stokes derived an expression. the drag force acting on the sphere can be obtained as where the Reynold's number. and . we obtain the expression for terminal velocity of a spherical object moving under creeping flow conditions: [edit] Applications The creeping flow results can be applied in order to study the settling of sediment particles near the ocean bottom and the fall of moisture drops in the atmosphere. . for the frictional force — also called drag force — exerted on spherical objects with very small Reynolds numbers (e.where = velocity vector field p = pressure field μ = fluid viscosity The analytical solution for the creeping flow around a sphere was first given by Stokes in 1851.. an experimental device used to measure the viscosity of high viscous fluids In 1851. The principle is also applied in the falling sphere viscometer.

If the particles are falling in the viscous fluid by their own weight due to gravity. is reached when this frictional force combined with the buoyant force exactly balance the gravitational force. A sphere of known size and density is allowed to descend through the liquid. it reaches terminal velocity. and ρf is the mass density of the fluid (kg/m3). upwards if ρp < ρf ). If correctly selected. A series of steel ball bearings of different diameter is normally used in the classic experiment to improve the accuracy of the calculation.3 Terminal velocity 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References [edit] Applications Stokes's law is the basis of the falling-sphere viscometer. which can be measured by the time it takes to pass two marks on the tube. the size and density of the sphere. in which the fluid is stationary in a vertical glass tube.2 Flow around a sphere 2. It includes many different oils. The CGS unit of kinematic viscosity was named "stokes" after his work. g is the gravitational acceleration (m/s2). also known as the settling velocity. and polymer liquids such as solutions. and the density of the liquid. The school experiment uses glycerine or golden syrup as the fluid. The resulting settling velocity (or terminal velocity) is given by:[2] where: • • • • Vs is the particles' settling velocity (m/s) (vertically downwards if ρp > ρf. and the technique is used industrially to check the viscosity of fluids used in processes. Contents [hide] • • 1 Applications 2 Stokes flow around a sphere ○ ○ ○ • • • 2. Knowing the terminal velocity.• V is the particle's velocity (in m/s). Note that for molecules Stokes' law is used to define their Stokes radius. Stokes' law can be used to calculate the viscosity of the fluid. ρp is the mass density of the particles (kg/m3). . then a terminal velocity.1 Steady Stokes flow 2. Electronic sensing can be used for opaque fluids.

it is independent of the azimuth φ. but can easily be added since the above equations are linear. at very low Reynolds number. Similar use of the equation can be made in the settlement of fine particles in water or other fluids. and ω is the vorticity (in s-1). of small particles and organisms. defined as By using some vector calculus identities. [edit] Flow around a sphere For the case of a sphere in a uniform far field flow. so linear superposition of solutions and associated forces can be applied. under the force of gravity. in water. the incompressible flow can be described with a Stokes stream function ψ. the sedimentation.[3] Stokes' law is important to understanding the swimming of microorganisms and sperm. the same theory can be used to explain why small water droplets (or ice crystals) can remain suspended in air (as clouds) until they grow to a critical size and start falling as rain (or snow and hail). while r is the radius as measured perpendicular to the z–axis. it is advantageous to use a cylindrical coordinate system ( r . the convective acceleration terms in the Navier– Stokes equations are neglected. u is the flow velocity (in m/s). The z–axis is through the centre of the sphere and aligned with the mean flow direction. Because the flow is axisymmetric around the z–axis. depending on r and z:[6][7] . for an incompressible steady flow:[5] where: • • • p is the fluid pressure (in Pa). z ). [edit] Stokes flow around a sphere [edit] Steady Stokes flow In Stokes flow.The importance of Stokes' law is illustrated by the fact that it played a critical role in the research leading to at least 3 Nobel Prizes. also. φ . In this cylindrical coordinate system. these equations can be shown to result in Laplace's equations for the pressure and each of the components of the vorticity vector:[5] and Additional forces like those by gravity and buoyancy have not been taken into account. Then the flow equations become. The origin is at the sphere centre.[4] In air.

respectively. in this axisymmetric case. [edit] Terminal velocity At terminal velocity — or settling velocity — the frictional force Fd on the sphere is balanced by the excess force Fg due to the difference of the weight of the sphere and its buoyancy. both caused by gravity:[2] with ρp and ρf the mass density of the sphere and the fluid. is equal to 2π ψ and is constant. for a far-field uniform-flow velocity V in the z–direction and a sphere of radius R. The azimuthal velocity component in the φ–direction is equal to zero. Demanding force balance: Fd = Fg and solving for the velocity V gives the terminal velocity Vs. The volume flux. and g the gravitational acceleration. through a tube bounded by a surface of some constant value ψ. is in the z– direction everywhere. exerted by the flow on the surface on the sphere. respectively. For other shapes than spherical. it has also the same value everywhere on the sphere:[1] with ez the unit vector in the z–direction. . becomes in this cylindrical coordinate system with axisymmetry:[9] From the previous two equations.[6] For this case of an axisymmetric flow. Integration of the viscous force per unit area σ over the sphere surface gives the frictional force Fd according to Stokes' law.with v and w the flow velocity components in the r and z direction. and with the appropriate boundary conditions. More strikingly. the only non-zero of the vorticity vector ω is the azimuthal φ–component ωφ[8][9] The Laplace operator. the solution is found to be[10] The viscous force per unit area σ. σ is not constant along the body surface. applied to the vorticity ωφ.

[2][3] The drag coefficient of a complete structure such as an aircraft also includes the effects of interference drag. It is used in the drag equation.2 Aircraft 3. the drag coefficient (commonly denoted as: or ) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment such as air or water.3 Automobile 4 See also 5 References 6 External links 7 Notes [edit] Definition The drag coefficient is defined as: where: is the drag force.[4][5] Contents [hide] • • • 1 Definition 2 Background 3 Drag coefficient cd examples ○ ○ ○ • • • • 3.[1] The drag coefficient of any object comprises the effects of the two basic contributors to fluid dynamic drag: skin friction and form drag. which is by definition the force component in the direction of the flow velocity.1 General 3.[6] is the mass density of the fluid. The drag coefficient is always associated with a particular surface area. The drag coefficient of a lifting airfoil or hydrofoil also includes the effects of lift-induced drag. and .In fluid dynamics. where a lower drag coefficient indicates the object will have less aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag.[7] v is the speed of the object relative to the fluid.

showing stagnation. the reference area is the planform area. Coefficients for unstreamlined objects can be 1 or more. For example. in which the reference area is the square of the cube root of the airship volume. frontal area and at the same speed. for a sphere (note this is not the surface area = ). This may not necessarily be the cross sectional area of the vehicle. [edit] Background Flow around a plate. the reference area is the projected frontal area of the vehicle. for streamlined objects much less. Since this tends to be a rather large area compared to the projected frontal area. For airfoils. The reference area depends on what type of drag coefficient is being measured. Two objects having the same reference area moving at the same speed through a fluid will experience a drag force proportional to their respective drag coefficients.is the reference area. Main article: Drag equation The drag equation: . For automobiles and many other objects. depending on where the cross section is taken. the resulting drag coefficients tend to be low: much lower than for a car with the same drag. Airships and some bodies of revolution use the volumetric drag coefficient. Submerged streamlined bodies use the wetted surface area.

is essentially a statement that the drag force on any object is proportional to the density of the fluid and proportional to the square of the relative speed between the object and the fluid. Only considering the front size. The boundary layer will transition from laminar to turbulent providing the Reynolds number of the flow around the body is high enough. the speed of sound is relevant and is also a function of Mach number For a certain body shape the drag coefficient Mach number only depends on the Reynolds number the drag coefficient and the direction of the flow. causing the wake to be narrow. The graph to the left of it shows equal pressure across the surface. Cd is not a constant but varies as a function of speed.[8] can often For a streamlined body to achieve a low drag coefficient the boundary layer around the body must remain attached to the surface of the body for as long as possible. Flow patterns and therefore the roughness of the surfaces. and full stagnation pressure is found only at the center. flow direction. In a real flat plate the fluid must turn around the sides. object size.17. even up to the point at which it separates from the surface of the object.[9] For other objects. A high form drag results in a broad wake. The top figure shows a flat plate with the fluid coming from the right and stopping at the plate. but certainly is a function of Reynolds number. without flow separation. the drag force is proportional to instead of for a sphere this is known as Stokes law. one can no longer consider that the drag coefficient is constant. building up stagnation pressure over the whole front surface. and lower viscosities contribute to larger Reynolds numbers. such as small particles. Larger velocities. kinematic viscosity and a characteristic length scale of the object are incorporated into a dimensionless quantity called the Reynolds number or is thus a function of In compressible flow. Also the variation with Reynolds number within a practical range of interest is usually small. object shape.[9] A equal to 1 would be obtained in a case where all of the fluid approaching the object is brought to rest. the flow around the object does not transition to turbulent but remains laminar. the of a real flat plate would be less than 1. low velocities. and high viscosity fluids. So the drag coefficient be treated as a constant. For low Mach number is independent of Mach number. larger objects. fluid density and fluid viscosity. The overall of a real square flat plate perpendicular to the flow is often given as for some shapes can change with the Reynolds number and 1. dropping off toward the edges as in the lower figure and graph. . At very low Reynolds numbers. except that there will be suction on the back side: a negative pressure (relative to ambient). Speed.[10][11][12] At a low Reynolds number. Reynolds number will be low for small objects. while for cars at highway speed and aircraft at cruising speed the incoming flow direction is as well more-or-less the same.

has a varies from high values for laminar (slow) flow to 0.3 wires and cables 1.7 0. for example. Shapes cd 0.47 for turbulent (faster) flow. at subsonic velocity) 1.1-1.[edit] Drag coefficient cd examples [edit] General In general.28 flat plate perpendicular to flow (3D) 1.3–1.48 0.001 laminar flat plate parallel to the flow ( ) turbulent flat plate parallel to the flow ( 0.0–1.0–1.005 ) 0.3 ski jumper[14] 1.1 Item a typical bicycle plus cyclist[citation needed] rough sphere (Re = smooth sphere ( ) ) 0.8–2.24 0.295 lowest of production cars (Mercedes-Benz EClass Coupé)[13] bullet (not ogive. A smooth sphere. It varies with the speed of that airflow (or more generally with Reynolds number).1 skier 1. is not an absolute constant for a given body shape.0–1.5 Empire State Building 1.3 man (upright position) 1.0 Eiffel Tower .

aircraft use wing area as the reference area when computing while automobiles (and many other objects) use frontal cross sectional area.02 Cessna 310 7 0.05 2.02 Learjet 24 2 0.02 Cessna 172/182 7 0.03 Boeing 747 1 0.1.02 F-4 Phantom II 1 (subsonic) 0. Aircraft[15] cd Aircraft model 0. thus.09 X-15 (Not confirmed) 5 [edit] Automobile Main article: Automobile drag coefficient Centrifugal Oil Mist Control Systems Guide .04 F-104 Starfighter 8 0.98– 2.1 flat plate perpendicular to flow (2D) a smooth brick[citation needed] [edit] Aircraft As noted above.04 F-4 Phantom II 4 (supersonic) 0. coefficients are not directly comparable between these classes of vehicles.02 Boeing 787[16] 4 0.

240 Learn more on this mist eliminator at Royal's web site. Centrifugal mist eliminators are designed to filter oil. • Vibration from spinning drum may reduce machine tool precision. • Requires periodic replacement of disposable drum pads. • Motor starter not included. Considerations • Requires frequent maintenance to avoid downtime. the apparatus consists of a spinning chamber or drum that flings heavy droplets of oil into an outer collection chamber. • No need to clean disposable filter liners.Centrifugal Oil Mist Control Systems. remove mist and provide fluid metalworking recycling. • Versatile mounting options. Commonly known as centrifugal separators. Features • 100-900 CFM • Centrifugal separator • Optional HEPA • Coated perforated rotating drum • Collection chamber Application • direct machine mount source capture w/ducting • smoke • clean synthetic mist • clean oil mist • not for mist with heavy particulate MSRP Not Published Read more about this oil mist eliminator at Aercology's web site. • Requires electrician to install. • Stainless steel parts resist corrosion. • direct mount to machine or ducted capture • coolant mist • dry smoke • aqueous parts washers with caustic soap $2. synthetic and water based metal working fluids. • Several parts require frequent maintenance. • Fluid savings: drains coolant back into machine. • 275-1200 CFM • centrifugal separator • Various pre & post filters • Optional noise attenuator • 275-1200 CFM • centrifugal separator • Various pre & post filters • Optional noise attenuator • Various mounting options • Optional maintenance kit • direct mount to machine or ducted capture • coolant mist • dry smoke $1.380-$3. The centrifugal process effectiveness is limited to fluids only. • Vibration from spinning drum may reduce machine tool precision. • Versatile mounting options. Royal FilterMist Mist Eliminator • Very small takes almost no space • Fluid savings: drains coolant back into machine. Read more Product Aercology E-Type Mist Eliminator Pros • Small size. • Motor starter not included. • Requires electrician to install. Royal Stainless Steel FilterMist Mist Eliminator • Very small takes almost no space. • Requires periodic filter • Drain system liner replacement and disposal.750-$3. • Several parts require frequent maintenance. Smoke and solid particulate contaminants will either pass through or impede the operation of the centrifugal mist eliminator.850 Research more on this mist eliminator at Royal's web site. • Requires periodic replacement of disposable drum pads. which in turn drains oil back to the machine via hoses. • Various mounting options • food processing oil spray • Optional maintenance kit . • Vibration from spinning drum may reduce machine tool precision.

Anyone with shop knowledge can cut a hole and bolt on a Mistbuster. use a standard electrical plug. including over 30 wear items . Other machine mount mist eliminators. If you are planning to use a centrifugal mist eliminator. liquid droplets are thrown to the outer wall and collected in another chamber. the MistBuster. Unlike other machine mount technologies. They require periodic drum cleaning. for example. Once oil mist and smoke is drawn inside its spinning drum. Both media filters cost at least several hundred dollars and typically need to be replaced 2-3 times per year.Centrifugal Separator Mist Eliminators Product Review by Mark Schreiber Centrifugal oil mist eliminators spin a drum at high speeds around 3400 RPMs in order to pull in contaminated air. A media type HEPA after filter is needed to collect smoke and fine mist. Internal contamination build up is a big problem for centrifugal oil mist separators. Fine mist and oil smoke passes through the unit. To prevent vibration or shaking from affecting the quality of parts being machined. These large spinning parts cause noise and vibration. the centrifugal mist separator should be isolated from the machine via ducting. like the MistBuster. On the other hand. you will need to gear up for a rigorous maintenance schedule. centrifugal coolant mist eliminators require an electrician to hard wire power and controls. The centrifugal mist eliminators in the comparison chart above always require some sort of mounting hardware. has an inlet opening that is 16” x 9” which can be set over any hole in the top of the machine tool that is 6” in diameter. that you simply plug into a standard outlet. annual or monthly inspections (depending on use) and usually a complete rebuild every 3 to 5 years. There is also a disposable media filter inside the collection chamber.

The CINC Liquid-Liquid Centrifugal Separator utilizes the force generated by rotating an object about a central axis. As additional fluid is introduced to the rotor the fluid within the rotor is forced upward to the rotor underflows and weirs. As can be seen the input fluids enter already mixed (separation process) or independently (extraction process) through one or both inlets. then exits over the heavy phase weir. the total flow rate. Theory of Separation The separation performance of the CINC separator is measured by the effluent quality of one or both of the output fluid phases. These parameters include viscosity and density of the two liquid phases (at the process temperature). A diverter plate or disk is used to direct the fluid to the inside of the rotor sleeve (shown in gray). The light phase fluid having a lower density flows toward the center of the rotor (shown in yellow) where it exits the rotor over the lighter phase weir through the lighter phase outlets. By spinning two fluids of different densities within a rotating container or rotor the heavier fluid is forced to the wall at the inside of the rotor while the lighter fluid is forced toward the center of the rotor. How efficiently two fluids will separate in a centrifuge is best described by Stokes Law: where: Vc d rH = the centrifugal settling velocity = liquid droplet diameter = density of heavy phase . The heavy phase fluid continues up the rotor (shown in blue) through the underflows. The fluids mix in the annulus between the rotor and the inside of the housing in the mixing zone. Each fluid is collected in its own collector ring and then leaves the separator through the heavy and light phase outlets. the input ratios. the lighter phase fluid in yellow and the heavier phase fluid in blue. and the rotor speed (RPM). There are several parameters that need to be considered in optimizing the performance of the CINC unit for a specific process. In the figure the mixed fluid is shown in green. The fluids are then fed through an inlet or hole at the bottom of the rotor.

Although higher RPM�s (w) result in more g-forces inside the rotor. Therefore. This must be determined for each set of application conditions and the fluids processed. The low mixing sleeve is recommended for applications where separation is the most important (e. referred to as the low-mixing sleeve.rL r w havg = density of light phase = radial distance of liquid from rotor axis = angular velocity (RPM of rotor) = average viscosity of processed fluids The settling velocity. As a result of this. if better phase separation is needed. which is directly controlled by feed rate. is an important parameter in phase separation.less efficient phase separation is observed in systems with: smaller droplet size. the parameters that will result in the most efficient phase separation (largest Vc) can be evaluated. Introduction Description . increasing the rotor speed will sometimes be of benefit (greater g-forces generated). and low viscosity. Another is fluid residence time while in the rotor.g. CINC has developed a low-mixing option that minimizes mixing in the annulus. low RPM. an increase in RPM�s will sometimes result in no improvement to separation efficiency (Vc does not increase). shear sensitive fluids). From this equation. phases already premixed. small density differences. increasing the density difference between two phases. Parameters that would increase Vc include: larger droplet size. This option. as the increased angular momentum (w) is being offset by a decreasing droplet size (d). but sometimes not (smaller droplet size). allows operation at higher RPM�s with minimal increase in mixing. fluids are premixed in the annulus between the housing and the spinning rotor. The converse is also true . oil/water separation. One parameter that the operator can readily control when optimizing the CINC equipment is the RPM. high RPM. Because the CINC separator was originally designed to operate as a contactor. and viscous fluids. or in applications where pre-mixing is of no benefit. they also result in more mixing in the annulus. as it is a measure of how rapidly two immiscible phases will separate. Lowering the feed rate can improve the quality of both separated phases by allowing more time to achieve efficient separation. To improve separation for shear sensitive fluids. Vc . and therefore smaller droplet size (d).

During separations.Centrifuges accelerate liquid. which has directional vanes (4) that direct the liquids to the entry point (5) at the base of the spinning rotor. There are 4 basic operational functions of the centrifuge. gravity fed. before separating by the designated discharge outlets. Mixed liquids of any ratio and with differing Specific Gravities are continually pumped (low pressure) or gravity fed into one of the inlets (1) provided on the housing (the spare (12) is blocked off). As the liquids are entering the spinning . Multi stage. continuous counter current Extractions 4. The set up differs slightly for each of the process’s which are.liquid separations by enhancing the specific gravity difference between the two liquid concerned Two immiscible liquids with slight gravity differences can be separated rapidly and cleanly and on a continuous basis by a centrifuge. Extractions and water washes (Mixing and separation) 3. Inside the rotor at the base of the vane package (6) a mild pumping action takes place to continually fill the rotor at the pre determined feed rate. Liquid/ liquid dispersions that require hours to separate at 1”G” can be greatly enhanced both in speed and efficiency at 200 “G”. after entering the housing drop to the base plate of the centrifuge. a sleeve (2) (low mix sleeve option) is installed to protect the liquids entering the housing from contacting the spinning rotor (3) (and therefore preventing further mixing before separating). 1. Separations 2. The liquids. Re-actions In order to conduct a separation using equipment from CINC SOLUTIONS you should familiarise yourself with the function of the low mix sleeve and how the unit optimizes the separation at the top of the rotor on fixed light phase weir.

rotor they contact with a deflector plate (7). The heavy Phase exits the rotor at point (10). Evidence of carryover exiting a phase discharge can be corrected by adjusting the motor RPM. This will effect the position of the optimum separate phase on the fixed light phase weir (9). As both phases reach the fixed light phase weir (9) the optimum separation point. At this point the now separated phases are able to exit the top of the rotor for discharge. the longer the liquids remain in the rotor. Light & Heavy Phase Discharge During the period of retention the mixed phases inside the spinning rotor are subjected to the “ G “ forces and two distinct phases will appear inside the rotor. . now separate phases reach the top of the rotor they optimize at the centre of the “Fixed” light phase weir (9). Slight increase or decrease of the motor speed will increase or decrease the amount of “G” force inside the unit. This is significant if liquids have specific gravities that are close together or are emulsified and are subsequently difficult to separate. There are 4 heavy phase exit points at the top of the rotor (10) which allow the heavy phase liquid to enter the top heavy phase chamber (16) past the pre determined changeable heavy phase weir (11) and out through the heavy phase discharge outlet (12). along with the liquid flow rate fed to the unit will determine the length of time (the retention time) the liquids are subjected to “G” force and are therefore en hanced to be an efficient separation. As the rotor continues to fill from the bottom the light phase volume at the optimum point will exit from the light phase exit (13) into the light phase collector ring (14) and out via the light phase discharge outlet (15). as this. When the two. the longer they are subjected to “G” force. The internal height of the rotor is significant. Whilst it is recognised the optimum separation position is the centre of the fixed light phase weir allowing both phases to exit the required discharge there may be occasions when ratios of phases dictate slight adjustment of this position are required. As the unit is continually fed the liquid gradually and continually moves up the inside of the rotor sleeve and is subjected to centrifugal force between 100 “G” to 600 “G” inside the separation zone (8). is its centre. This is the optimum separation point at which physical separation takes place sending the two separated phases into different discharge outlets in the housing. At this point the mixed liquids are first subjected to the “G” force created by the spinning rotor. The light phase will gradually separate from the heavy phase and sit “on top” as both liquids spin in the rotor. The slower the unit feeds. the better the separation efficiency. moving this phase to or from its exit point by increasing or decreasing the motor speed and can be used to adjust the unit in order to prevent carryover. which forces the mixed liquids to the outside of the rotor wall at the bottom of the rotor. The heavy phase will move toward the rotor wall and the light phase will settle on top of the heavy phase. up into the heavy phase chamber (16) out into the heavy phase collector ring (17) and discharged out of the heavy phase discharge outlet (12).

Introduction Separations Extractions & Water washes Multi stage. gravity fed. continuous counter current Extractions FABs Tuesday 05 October 2010 Home .

Solids are ejected either continuously (nozzles). solids 10 Hood flushing 11 Hydrohermetic feed 12 Hydrohermetic seal 13 Discharge Register 3 Double-walled hood 4 Short-spindle drive Bottom of Form 5 Dampening 6 Vibration monitoring 7 Operating water feed To view the animation. product 2 "Self-thinker" system 8 Hydrostop® system 9 Discharge. Top of Form Liquid phases are separated continuously.2 to 10 µm) with very small differences in density (30 to 300 kg/m3) as well as liquid mixtures produced by washing or extraction processes with very small density differences (20 to 400 kg/m3). The acceptable concentration of solids for these types of centrifuges varies from 0. Westfalia Separator centrifuges can be explosionproofed and made to run in an inert-gas atmosphere. click on the image above. Your computer will require a free RealOne player. sequentially (self-cleaning) or collected in a receptacle provided for the purpose (solid wall bowl). click on the following link : Download your free Player : RealOne Player .1 to 25 % vol/vol. How a centrifugal separator works 1 Feed. Your email : Depending on the application. If you don't have one.Top of Form Keyword search oK Bottom of Form Centrifugal separators are typically used for separating solids of the order of a micron (0.


cartridges. cones or filter elements to clean or replace. Hydrocyclones are similar devices to cyclones where the operating fluid is a liquid rather then a gas. The liquid passes down into the conical . The feed. Reduce downtime and maintenance. • • • Centrifugal Separators Features and Benefits Include: • • • • • • • • • • No moving parts to wear out. No standby equipment needs. A typical cyclone is a cylindrical vessel with a tangential inlet and top and bottom outlets. No screens.Centrifugal Separators from LAKOS Centrifugal Separators from LAKOS employ centrifugal action to remove troublesome solids from liquids which will: • • Extend the effective life of process liquids. Hydrocyclones operate under pressure. No backwashing. a mixture of possibly gases. No routine maintrnance or downtime requirements. This spinning motion generates centrifugal forces which cause the gas to disengage quickly and exit through the vortex finder. Compact. Protect process equipment from abrasive wear and fouling. Cyclones and Hydrocyclones A cyclone is a commonly-used apparatus that makes use of gravity and centrifugal force to separate solid particles from a gas stream. inspect and maintain. Low and steady pressure loss. liquids and solids enters the hydrocyclone tangentially through the inlet which forces the mixture to spin inside the cyclone. Easily automated. Effective solids concentration for easy disposal/recovery. Cyclones are widely used in various industries because they are easy to build. space-saving profiles. Control or eliminate waste/solids. Keep your fluids systems operating at optimum efficiency. Little or no liquid loss.

Contents . because of density difference. the Second Moment Closure turbulence models available in the ANSYS CFX software are very valuable for the correct prediction of the fluid flow. The solids are forced towards the wall. the terminal end of sediment transport. Settling is the falling of suspended particles through the liquid. The term is typically used in geology. to describe the deposition of sediment which results in the formation of sedimentary rock. Even small molecules such as aspirin can be sedimented. although it can be difficult to apply a sufficiently strong force to produce significant sedimentation. ranging from large rocks in flowing water to suspensions of dust and pollen particles to cellular suspensions to solutions of single molecules such as proteins and peptides. and then travel down the length of the conical section of the hydrocyclone in a spiral pattern towards the solids outlet. In geology sedimentation is often used as the polar opposite of erosion. through the vortex finder. and in various chemical and environmental fields to describe the motions of often-smaller particles and molecules. termed the underflow. Process is also used in biotech industry to separate out cells from the culture media.. Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained. The behavior of the particulates can then be simulated using either the Eulerian multiphase model or the particle transport model. Picture courtesy of ESSS and Petrobras. i. For this application. In that sense it includes the termination of transport by saltation or true bedload transport. and come to rest against a barrier.section where the reduction in diameter accelerates the fluid thus generating centrifugal forces strong enough to cause the solids to separate from the liquid. Sedimentation may pertain to objects of various sizes. The gas and liquids migrate towards the center of the hydrocyclone where the flow reverses and moves upwards towards the over-flow. Because of the highly complex flows induced by the swirl. whereas sedimentation is the termination of the settling process. This is due to their motion through the fluid in response to the forces acting on them: these forces can be due to gravity. even the fluid flow is difficult to simulate accurately.e. Separated solids fall down under gravity into the accumulator vessel situated beneath the hydrocyclone. centrifugal acceleration or electromagnetism. and the details of the cyclone geometry. ANSYS CFX simulation of a hydrocyclone.

the sedimentation coefficient equals the particle's electric dipole moment divided by its drag. whereas the Mason–Weaver equation pertains to box-shaped cells (i. Hence. Similarly. the motion of the particles is blocked by a hard boundary. For small enough particles (low Reynolds number). Similarly. for dielectrophoresis.e. measuring s can reveal underlying properties of the particle.e. Fapp = qEapp. The Lamm equation also has extra terms. the resulting accumulation of particles at the boundary is called a sediment. The sedimentation of particles under the centrifugal force is described by the Lamm equation. The sedimentation of particles under gravity is described by the Mason–Weaver equation.. Thus.. the Lamm equation differs from the Mason–Weaver equation because the centrifugal force depends on radius from the origin of rotation. i. Fdrag = fvterm (Stokes flow) where f depends only on the properties of the particle and the surrounding fluid. [edit] Geology . Particles with a charge or dipole moment can be sedimented by an electric field or electric field gradient. For electrophoresis. which likewise has an exact solution. These processes are called electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis. In many cases. However. respectively. cells whose walls are aligned with the three Cartesian axes). it is generally possible to define a sedimentation coefficient that depends only on the properties of the particle and the surrounding fluid. respectively.[hide] • • • • • • 1 Experiments 2 Geology 3 Chemistry 4 Biology 5 See also 6 Notes [edit] Experiments In a sedimentation experiment. The concentration of particles at the boundary is opposed by the diffusion of the particles. whereas gravity is presumed constant. which has a simple exact solution. the applied force generally varies linearly with some coupling constant (denoted here as q) that depends only on the properties of the particle. The sedimentation coefficient s in this case equals mb / f. the applied force accelerates the particles to a terminal velocity vterm at which the applied force is exactly canceled by an opposing drag force. since it pertains to sector-shaped cells. The sedimentation coefficient s also equals mb / f. where mb is the buoyant mass. the sedimentation coefficient corresponds to the particle charge divided by its drag (the electrophoretic mobility). where mb is the buoyant mass. the drag force varies linearly with the terminal velocity.

this can be expressed mathematically by the Exner equation. An undesired increased transport and sedimentation of suspended material is called [[siltation. where the force of gravity is augmented with centrifugal force in a centrifuge. sedimentation is the deposition of particles carried by a fluid flow. and results in the formation of depositional landforms and the rocks that constitute sedimentary record.Siltation In geology. Home Settling Lecture Purpose of Settling Principle of Settling Quiz Types of Settling Design Type I Settling Exampl Types of Settling Tanks e Inlet and Outlet Arrangement Weir Overflow Rates Settling Operations Design Details Settling Solid liquid separation process in which a suspension is . and it is a major source of pollution in waterways in some parts of the world. sedimentation has been used to measure the size of large molecules (macromolecule).[3] [edit] Chemistry In chemistry. For suspended load.[1][2] Climate change also affect siltation rates.

To settle the sludge (biomass) after activated sludge process / tricking filters. Theoretical average time for which the water is detained in the settling tank is called the detention period. shape and specific gravity of the particles do not change with time.Particles settle individually without interaction with neighboring particles. Type II: Flocculent Particles – Flocculation causes the particles to increase in mass and settle at a faster rate. To remove coagulated and flocculated impurities. To remove coarse dispersed phase. Concentrated sludge leaving the bottom of the sedimentation tank (underflow). Suspended solids present in water having specific gravity greater than that of water tend to settle down by gravity as soon as the turbulence is retarded by offering storage. Type III: Hindered or Zone settling –The mass of particles tends to settle as a unit with individual particles remaining in fixed positions with respect to each other. Basin in which the flow is retarded is called settling tank. Type IV: Compression – The concentration of particles is so high that sedimentation can only occur through compaction of the structure. a net force is exerted and the particle is accelaratd in the direction of the .separated into two phases – • • Clarified supernatant leaving the top of the sedimentation tank (overflow). it initially has two forces acting upon it: (1) force of gravity: Fg=ρ pgVp (2) the buoyant force quantified by Archimedes as: Fb=ρ gVp If the density of the particle differs from that of the water. Purpose of Settling • • • • Principle of Settling • • • Types of Settling Type I: Discrete particle settling . Type I Settling • • Size. Settling velocity remains constant. To remove precipitated impurities after chemical treatment. If a particle is suspended in water.

Ap = projected area of the particle. and turbulent flow. a third force is created due to viscous friction. while values greater than 10 indicate turbulent flow. the values of CD are: CD = 24 (laminar) Re CD= 24 + 3 +0.force: Fnet=(ρ p-ρ )gVp This net force becomes the driving force.34 (transition) 1/2 Re Re CD= 0. Vp=π d3/6 and Ap=π d2/4 Thus. Transition Flow Need to solve non-linear equations: v2= 4g(ρ p-ρ )d . For laminar. Because the drag force acts in the opposite direction to the driving force and increases as the square of the velocity. is quantified by: Fd=CDApρ v2/2 CD= drag coefficient. Intermediate values indicate transitional flow. called the drag force. Stokes Flow For laminar flow. Once the motion has been initiated.4 (turbulent) where Re is the Reynolds number: Re=ρ vd µ Reynolds number less than 1. This force. terminal settling velocity equation becomes: v= (ρ p-ρ )gd2 18µ which is known as the stokes equation. v2= 4g(ρ p-ρ )d 3 CDρ Expressions for CD change with characteristics of different flow regimes. transition. accelaration occurs at a decreasing rate until a steady velocity is reached at a point where the drag force equals the driving force: (ρ p-ρ )gVp = CDApρ v2/2 For spherical particles.0 indicate laminar flow.

and flow control for large volumes is easier with this configuration. Use general formula. Long narrow rectangular tanks with horizontal flow are generally preferred to the circular tanks with radial or spiral flow. A typical long rectangular tank have length ranging from 2 to 4 times their width. Calculate and check Reynolds number. The bottom is slightly sloped to facilitate sludge scraping. Calculate CD. A slow moving mechanical sludge scraper continuously pulls the settled material into a sludge hopper from where it is pumped out periodically. Settling basins may be either long rectangular or circular in plan. Types of Settling Tanks • Long Rectangular Settling Basin • • . In a continuous flow type tank. the flow velocity is only reduced and the water is not brought to complete rest as is done in an intermittent type. Long rectangular basins are hydraulically more stable.34 1/2 Re Re Re=ρ vd µ • • • • • • Calculate velocity using Stokes law or turbulent expression.The intermittent tanks also called quiescent type tanks are those which store water for a certain period and keep it in complete rest.3 C Dρ CD= 24 + 3 +0. Repeat from step 2 until convergence. Sedimentation tanks may function either intermittently or continuously.

Settling zone: Settling occurs under quiescent conditions. Outlet zone: Clarified effluent is collected and discharge through outlet weir. A baffle should be constructed across the basin close to the inlet and should project several feet below the water surface to dissipate inlet velocities and provide uniform flow. and at least equivalent in length to the perimeter . Outlet Devices: Outlet weirs or submerged orifices shall be designed to maintain velocities suitable for settling in the basin and to minimize short-circuiting. Weirs shall be adjustable. Sludge zone: For collection of sludge below settling zone. Inlet and Outlet Arrangement Inlet devices: Inlets shall be designed to distribute the water equally and at uniform velocities.A long rectangular settling tank can be divided into four different functional zones: Inlet zone: Region in which the flow is uniformly distributed over the cross section such that the flow through settling zone follows horizontal path.

• . Inboard Weir Arrangement to Increase Weir Length Circular Basins • Circular settling basins have the same functional zones as the long rectangular basin. Weir loadings are generally used upto 300 m3/d/m. It may be necessary to provide special inboard weir designs as shown to lower the weir overflow rates.of the tank. the particle path in a circular basin is a parabola as opposed to the straight line path in the long rectangular tank. Weir Overflow Rates Large weir overflow rates result in excessive velocities at the outlet. causing particles and flocs to be drawn into the outlet. the horizontal velocity of the water is continuously decreasing as the distance from the center increases. peripheral weirs are not acceptable as they tend to cause excessive short-circuiting. but the flow regime is different. When the flow enters at the center and is baffled to flow radially towards the perimeter. These velocities extend backward into the settling zone. Thus. However. Sludge removal mechanisms in circular tanks are simpler and require less maintenance.

If the initial depth of this particle was such that Zp/vt=t0. Now consider the particle with settling velocity < v0. this particle will also be removed.Settling Operations • Particles falling through the settling basin have two components of velocity: 1) Vertical component: vt=(ρ p-ρ )gd2 18µ 2) Horizontal component: vh=Q/A The path of the particle is given by the vector sum of horizontal velocity vh and vertical settling velocity vt. then the particle will fall into the sludge zone and be removed from the suspension at the point at which the column reaches the end of the settling zone. All particles with vt>v0 will be removed from suspension at some point along the settling zone. in the time t0. the removal of suspended particles passing through the settling zone will be in proportion to the ratio of the individual settling velocities • . Therefore. If t0 also corresponds to the time required for the column to be carried horizontally across the settling zone. Consider the particle in the batch analysis for type-1 settling which was initially at the surface and settled through the depth of the column Z0. • Assume that a settling column is suspended in the flow of the settling zone and that the column travels with the flow across the settling zone.

The determining factor is the quantity Q/As. Design Details 1. Z0 = LZ0W and v0= Q v0 Q LW or v0= Q AS Thus. 3. Breadth= 6 m to 10 m. Circular: Diameter not greater than 60 m. generally 20 to 40 m. Detention period: for plain sedimentation: 3 to 4 h. The time t0 corresponds to the retention time in the settling zone. This overflow rate is the design factor for settling basins and corresponds to the terminal setting velocity of the particle that is 100% removed. for thoroughly flocculated water 24000 to 30000 L/d/m2 tank area. Surface Overflow Rate: For plain sedimentation 12000 to 18000 L/d/m2 tank area. . and for coagulated sedimentation: 2 to 2. t= V = LZ0W Q Q Also. which has the units of velocity and is referred to as the overflow rate q0. Generally L= 30 m (common) maximum 100 m.5 h. Depth 2. 5.5 to 5. 6. Tank dimensions: L:B = 3 to 5:1. Velocity of flow: Not greater than 30 cm/min (horizontal flow). 4. the depth of the basin is not a factor in determining the size particle that can be removed completely in the settling zone. t0= Z0 v0 Therefore. Slopes: Rectangular 1% towards inlet and circular 8%. 2.0 m (3 m).to the settling velocity v0.


Du for discharge Consistency Pulp dilution (kg liquid / kg dry material). that yields an improved prediction for thickener area demand. Design and calculation must be done to the settlement experiment. A method is developed. measured D1 the interface velocity v values into the on-calculate the maximum value of the design. nature : the calculation of continuous concentrator area of the settlement equation. 1916 CoeClevenger make such a concentrator for a settlement area (m2) of the formula : G for solid handling capacity (kg dry material / s). v for the dilution D1 the interface velocity (m / s). D1 to feed dilution and Pai Pulp dilution Du between a critical dilution rate (kg liquid / kg dry material).Abstract All classical models for thickening assume one-dimensional continuity. the freesettling domain in continuous thickeners is not one-dimensional. According Kynch theory can be converted to on-Talmage-Fitch equation . When there Suspensions interference settlement. The interface velocity is a function of particle concentration. Free-settling Kynch characteristics can arise in the continuous operation that do not arise in batch tests. are not completely valid. The two-dimensional model gives the same values for thickener area demands as the one-dimensional model. The continuous concentrator. based on extrapolating the Kynch or free-settling segment of a batch settling. a two-dimensional model is investigated. Therefore. but the relationships between batch and steady-state thickening are not the same. Therefore velocity layers is changing. Therefore. design procedures that rely on Kynch theory. Gamma liquid density (kg/m3). from an unexpected row of dense plasma concentration levels of change. such as that of Talmage and Fitch. the formation of a clear settlement interface. However. curve.



















































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The filter must meet the following design criteria: • • Provide Recharge Treat the Water Quality Volume .SANDFILTER DESIGN EXAMPLE This example describes in detail the design of a sand filter to treat stormwater runoff from the Brown Civic Center (Figure 1).

Soil boring observations reveal that the seasonally high water table is at 13. Compute Water Quality Volume: WQv previously determined to be 6. mean sea level.0 feet.Site Specific Data: Existing ground elevation at BMP location is 22. Hydrology analyses results are in Table 1. .0 feet. Determine available head (See Figure 2). Adjacent creek invert is at 12.0'.752 cubic feet (Table 2). Step 2. Step1.

0+10*0. and 18" for the sand bed (16.0).0'.62" CN = 1000/[10+5P+10Q-10(Q2+1.0 .17'. Low point at stream invert is 12.67).5). and hf = 2. Compute Recharge Volume: This surface sand filter design will have an "open bottom" sedimentation basin to allow ground water recharge.) P = 1.5'. the allowable depth (2) (hf) = 4.5) and a half foot for channel to facility (21.688 cubic feet.5' to this value for drain (14.33'. Step 3. The total available head is 21.62-10(0. Subtract 2' to pass Q10 discharge (21.Low point at parking lot is 23.67 or 4.62*1. Step 4.6 . Add to this value 8" for the gravel blanket over the underdrains.25*0. Set outfall underdrain pipe 2' above stream invert and add 0. Therefore.16.0" Q = 0. Compute WQv peak discharge (qp): Compute modified CN for 1" rainfall (Note: In this example the WQv corresponds to the runoff from a 1" storm. The exact dimensions will be sized later.622+1.33 feet.25*Q*P)½] = 1000/[10+5*1. but the volume stored within the sediment chamber must at least be 1.0)½] = 95.

a 1. With the CN = 96.0".17' (Average head above the filter) . Size filtration bed chamber (see Figure 4): From the City of Austin's 1988 Environmental Criteria Manual (Darcy's Law): + Af = WQv (df) / [k (hf + df) (tf)] where df = 18" (Depth of the filter) k = 3.II (page 4-6 of TR-55). use L = 2'-0" which sets flow diversion chamber dimension.083/1. 2. q u = 900 csm/in. Q = CA(2gh)1/2 .1 (L) (2')1.5 ft/day (Permeability of the sand) hf = 2.0" storm will produce 0.0 ac/640ac/sq mi.6 cfs.5 L = 1.5' + (0. Chapter 4. Use a concrete weir to pass the tenyear flow (14.6 cfs with 1.0. Step 6.6'.5' of head using the Orifice equation. Weir wall elev. use 8 inches Size the 10-year overflow as follows: the 10-year WSE is set at 21.17. compute the qp for a 1" storm.083. Q = CLH3/2 * = 3.6) (A) [(2) (32. and therefore qp = (900 csm/in) (0. Ia = 0. therefore I a/P = 0.62") (3.5*8"*1ft/12")] = 17.083.6 cfs = (0.) = 2.0 cfs) into a grassed overflow channel using the Weir equation. From TR-55.0. Size flow diversion structure (see Figure 3): Size a low flow orifice to pass 2.Use CN = 96 For CN = 96 and the Tc = 0.[1. = 19.75' or 8.16 hours. Assume 2' of head to pass this event. The curve number is calculated based on the runoff volume calculated in the "Sizing Options Design Example". From Exhibit 4 .2 ft/s2) (1. Set low flow invert at 19. The modified curve number approach adjusts for the fact that TR-55 typically underpredicts the runoff from small storm events. Step 5.5')]1/2 A = 0.44 sq ft = d2/4: d = 0.0 = 0.0 .62" of runoff.

75 feet ( use 15.1 sq ft.5') (40hr/24hr/day)] Af = 473.75') = 6. the bottom will infiltrate water into the substrate. Compute Vmin Vmin = ¾(WQv) or 0.33' = 630 sq ft.33' as the design height. using a 2:1 ratio.33 (2.4 for sand (Porosity) Vf = (473 sq ft) (1. a depth of at least 2' is required between the practice bottom and the water table.727 cubic feet which is greater than the recharge requirement of 1.066 (6.752 cubic ft) or 445.Filters Step 10. (2727 cubic ft)/4.064 cubic feet See Design Criteria . Note that runoff will enter the groundwater directly without treatment. Also note that there is 2.4) = 284 cubic feet temporary storage above filter bed (Vf-temp): Vf-temp = 2hfAf Vf-temp = 2 (2. Compute overflow weir sizes From sediment chamber (size to pass 2/3 of WQv peak discharge) 0.727 cubic feet compute height in sedimentation chamber (hs): hs = Vs/As (2.727 cubic ft)/(15. Compute volume within practice: Volume within filter bed (Vf): Vf = Af (df) (n).17' of freeboard between bottom of recharge filter and water table. say filter is 15. 630/15.5' x 28.5' yields a length of 40.12' which is larger than the head available (4. Typically.17' + 1. Often.6 cfs) = 1. the volume within the practice can be less than the total water quality volume for filter designs.5' by 30.5') / [3.[284 + 2053] = 2. Size sedimentation chamber From Design Criteria . place gravel. the length will be 445. n = 0.752 cubic feet) = 5.064 . for I < 75%: As = 0.5' or 28.6 cfs) = 0. Step 9. increase the size of the settling chamber.5' (= 473 sq ft) Step 7.Filters. Note that Vs = 2.5') (0.688 cubic feet. (Camp-Hazen).5 feet.5'x28'-9") Step 8.[ Vf + Vf-temp] or 5.17') (473 sq ft) = 2053 cubic feet Compute remaining volume for sedimentation chamber (Vs): Vs = Vmin .5' by 40' check recharge requirements: with adequate preparation of the bottom of the settling chamber (rototill earth.066 (WQv) As = 0.9 cfs See Figure 5 for Site Plan View. using 4.tf = 40 hours (Drawdown time) Af = (6.Filters.6 feet (say 40') new sedimentation chamber dimensions are 15. This stone will eventually clog without protection from settling solids so use a removable geotextile to facilitate maintenance.33').5 (2.75 (6.7 cfs From filtration chamber (size to pass 1/3 of WQv peak discharge) 0.6'/15. .67 (2.6 sq ft given a width of 15. See Design Criteria .752 cubic feet) (1. then surge stone).


1.3 Rapid pressure sand bed filter design . rapid (gravity) sand filters 2.1 Particulate solids capture mechanisms 1.2 Operating regimes 1. Contents [hide] • 1 Sand bed filtration in context ○ ○ ○ 1.Sand filters are used for water purification. slow sand filters All three methods are used extensively in the water industry throughout the world. There are three main types. taste and odour without the need for chemical aids. The first two require the use of flocculant chemicals to work effectively whilst slow sand filters can produce very high quality water free from pathogens. upflow sand filters 3.

○ ○ • • 1.4 Operating parameters for rapid pressure sand bed filters 1. Therefore they find most of their uses in liquid effluent (wastewater) treatment.[1] In addition. where particulates are captured within a porous body of material. Broadly. there are two types of filter for separating particulate solids from fluids: • • Surface filters. where particulates are captured on a permeable surface Depth filters. In some applications it is necessary to pre-treat the effluent flowing into a sand bed to ensure that the particulate solids can be captured. they are usually used to purify the fluid rather than capture the solids as a valuable material. a sand grain that is already contaminated with particulate solids may become more attractive or repel addition particulate solids. [edit] Particulate solids capture mechanisms Sand bed filters work by providing the particulate solids with many opportunities to be captured on the surface of a sand grain.[1] In addition. Furthermore. it is possible to dislodge captured particulates although they may be re-captured at a greater depth within the bed. They can be captured by one of several mechanisms: • • • • Direct collision Van der Waals or London force attraction Surface charge attraction Diffusion.[1] There are several kinds of depth filter. This can be achieved by one of several methods: • Adjusting the surface charge on the particles and the sand by changing the pH .[2]:302-303 In addition. Finally. particulate solids can be prevented from being captured by surface charge repulsion if the surface charge of the sand is of the same sign (positive or negative) as that of the particulate solid. the particulates come close to sand grains. Sand bed filters are an example of a granular loose media depth filter. As fluid flows through the porous sand along a tortuous route. This can occur if by adhering to the sand grain the particulate loses surface charge and becomes attractive to additional particulates or the opposite and surface charge is retained repelling further particulates from the sand grain. They are usually used to separate small amounts (<10 parts per million or <10 g per cubic metre) of fine solids (<100 micrometres) from aqueous solutions. hydrocyclones and centrifuges. some employing fibrous material and others employing granular materials.5 Uses in water treatment 2 References 3 See also [edit] Sand bed filtration in context A sand bed filter is a kind of depth filter. there are passive and active devices for causing solid-liquid separation such as settling tanks.

8 m (2-6 ft) regardless of the application. upflow sand filters 4. Larger sand grains can be used to overcome this problem. more are captured higher up with bed with the concentration gradient decaying exponentially. highly charged cations (aluminium 3+ or calcium 2+ are usually used) Flocculation – adding small amounts of charge polymer chains which either form a bridge between the particulate solids (making them bigger) or between the particulate solids and the sand. rapid (gravity) sand filters 2. the required area of the bed can be calculated. [edit] Rapid pressure sand bed filter design Smaller sand grains provide more surface area and therefore a higher decontamination of the inlet water. slow sand filters. The shape of the filter particle size-efficiency curve . Gravity fed units are used in water purification especially drinking water and these filters have found wide use in developing countries (slow sand filters).6-1. The pressure drop across a clean sand bed is usually very low. [edit] Operating parameters for rapid pressure sand bed filters Rapid pressure sand bed filters are typically operated with a feed pressure of 2 to 5 bar(a) (28 to 70 psi(a)). but it also requires more pumping energy to drive the fluid through the bed. Larger feed particles (>100 micrometres) will tend to block the pores of the bed and turn it into a surface filter that blinds rapidly. The final key design point is to be sure that the fluid is properly distributed across the bed and that there are no preferred fluid paths where the sand may be washed away and the filter be compromised. For downward flowing devices the fluid can flow under pressure or by gravity alone. and does not have a true cut off size below which particles will always pass. rapid (pressure) sand bed filters 3.[2]:302-303 This filter type will capture particles down to very small sizes. Overall. there are several categories of sand bed filter: 1. [edit] Operating regimes They can be operated either with upward flowing fluids or downward flowing fluids the latter being much more usual.2 mm although for specialist applications other sizes may be specified.[2]:302-303 Guidance on the design of rapid sand bed filters suggests that they should be operated with a maximum flow rate of 9 m3/m2/hr (220 US gal/ft2/hr). A compromise is that most rapid pressure sand bed filters use grains in the range 0.[3] Using the required throughput and the maximum flowrate. It builds as particulate solids are captured on the bed. but if significant amounts of large solids are in the feed they need to be removed upstream of the sand bed filter by a process such as settling.[2]:302-303 The depth of the sand bed is recommended to be around 0.6 to 1. This is linked to the maximum throughput discussed below. Pressure sand bed filters tend to be used in industrial applications and often referred to as rapid sand bed filters. Particulate solids are not captured uniformly with depth.• • Coagulation – adding small.

The supernatant water is then run back into the treatment process or disposed off as a waste-water stream. Passing flocculated water through a rapid gravity sand filter strains out the floc and the particles trapped within it reducing numbers of bacteria and removing most of the solids.[3] The build-up of particulate solids causes an increase in the pressure lost across the bed for a given flow rate.is a U-shape with high rates of particle capture for the smallest and largest particles with a dip in between for mid-sized particles. In these filters the sand traps residual suspended material and bacteria and provides a physical matrix for bacterial decomposition of nitrogenous material. into nitrogen gas. Sand filters are occasionally used in the treatment of sewage as a final polishing stage (see Sewage treatment). When the pressure loss or flow is unacceptable the bed is back washed to remove the accumulated particles. Sand filters become clogged with floc after a period in use and they are then backwashed or pressure washed to remove the floc. The fluid flow required to fluidise the bed is typically 3 to 10 m3/m2/hr but not run for long (a few minutes). Where taste and odour may be a problem (organoleptic impacts).[2]:224-235 Small amounts of sand can be lost in the back washing process and the bed may need to be topped up periodically. The rapid sand filter or rapid gravity filter is a type of filter used in water purification and is commonly used in municipal drinking water facilities as part of a multiple-stage treatment system. The back wash fluid is pumped backwards through the bed until it is fluidised and has expanded by up to about 30% (the sand grains start to mix and as they rub together they drive off the particulate solids).5 bar. the flow rate will fall. For a pressurised rapid sand bed filter this occurs when the pressure drop is around 0. The first two and third in the list above require the use of flocculant chemicals to work effectively whilst slow sand filters can produce very high quality water free from pathogens. Inadequate filter maintenance has been the cause of occasional drinking water contamination. The smaller particulate solids are washed away with the back wash fluid and captured usually in a settling tank. For a gravity fed bed when the pressure available is constant. This backwash water is run into settling tanks so that the floc can settle out and it is then disposed of as waste material. including ammonia and nitrates. taste and odour without the need for chemical aids. In some countries the sludge may be used as a soil conditioner. [edit] Uses in water treatment All three methods are used extensively in the water industry throughout the world. the sand filter may include a layer of activated carbon to remove such taste and odour.[1] Rapid sand filters were first used in the United States in 1896 and were widely used in . The medium of the filter is sand of varying grades.

[edit] Advantages and Disadvantages Rapid sand filters are typically designed as part of multi-stage treatment systems used by large municipalities. by backwashing. which involves reversing the direction of the water and adding compressed air. about 150 to 200 million gallons of water per acre per day Requires relatively small land area Less sensitive to changes in raw water quality.g. [1]:9-11 Rapid sand filtration has very little effect on taste and smell and dissolved impurities of drinking water.g. Mixing. the bed is fluidized and care must be taken not to wash away the media.2 Maintenance 2 Advantages and Disadvantages 3 References [edit] Filter description [edit] Design and operation Rapid sand filters use relatively coarse sand and other granular media to remove particles and impurities that have been trapped in a floc through the use of flocculation chemicals--typically salts of aluminium or iron. These systems are complex and expensive to operate and maintain. [edit] Maintenance Rapid sand filters must be cleaned frequently. A disinfection system (typically using chlorine or ozone) is commonly used following filtration. Contents [hide] • 1 Filter description ○ ○ • • 1. During backwashing. Paterson's filter and Pressure type e. and therefore less suitable for small communities and developing nations.g. e. Advantages • • • Much higher flow rate than a slow sand filter. turbidity Disadvantages .[1]:7-9 Types:Gravity type e. Chemical additives. such as coagulants. flocculation and sedimentation processes are typical treatment stages that precede filtration.large municipal water systems by the 1920s.Candy's filter.1 Design and operation 1. are often used in conjunction with the filtration system. Water and flocs flows through the filter medium under gravity or under pumped pressure and the flocculated material is trapped in the sand matrix. because they require smaller land areas compared to slow sand filters. often several times a day. unless activated carbon is included in the filter medium.

" as the term is applied in lessdeveloped countries. it is not usually classed as an "appropriate technology. Produces large volumes of sludge for disposal.• Requires greater maintenance than a slow sand filter. Requires on-going investment in costly flocculation reagents. Generally ineffective against taste and odour problems. For this reason. • • • A Co Se H b nt nd o o | |ac |En m ut t qu e U Us iry s Français Español Italian Deutsch Our Product Range .

with the internal Leaves being mounted on manifolds. Mixers Hydro Cyclone Custom Built Fabrication Vertical Leaf Filter An innovative vertical pressure leaf filter has many advantages and reduces the operational costs heavily. For opening and closing the vertical pressure leaf filter it is provided with eye bolts and devit and . Standard Material The Vertical industrial filters are available in CS/SS 304/SS 316 with flange lock closures and standard seals in Neoprene/Viton/Nitrile having special lock closure. Vertical leaf filter is an easy to operate apparatus that adds incredibly to the production capacity. Drum Flaker Pressure Vessels. Description The Vertical pressure leaf filters are highly useful in filtration of slurry. Vertical pressure leaf filter is mounted on four legs. Reactors.Vertical Leaf Filter • • • • • • • • • • • Pharmaceutical Filters Micro Bag Filter Rotary Leaf Filter Vertical Leaf Filter Horizontal Leaf Filter Self Cleaning Filter High Speed Centrifuge Rotary Vacuum Drum » Request a quote Filter (RVDF) Drum Dryer.• Home .

The target has always been to provide an automated system. Our Product Range . Product Range Available in 5 sq. Some of its eminent advantages are: » Increased daily production due to high rate of filtration. m to 70 sq. m. Process Requirements The main purpose of this vertical leaf filter is to recover the filtrate and the filtered cake. as the pneumatic vibrator system is provided on the top of leaf filters to dislodge the cake. » Very economical operational costs. with least manual inputs and minimum spillage. » A user friendly approach. Advantages There are many benefits of Vertical industrial filter and vertical leaf filter as it takes care of both increasing productivity and reducing costs. » Drastically reduced recurring expenses due to no filter cloth requirement. There is no need to open the lid during the discharge of the cake. » No spillage due to closed and compact operation. in which the filtered cake is as dry as possible.devit arm for the rotatable arrangement.

A filter press uses increased pressure to maximize the rate of filtration and produce a final filter cake with a low water content. Filter presses separate the solids from the liquids so that the useful part can be processed. but are carried along in it. "Membrane filter press". the growing cake enhances removal of fine particles in the slurry. called the filtrate. Filter presses generally work in a "batch" manner. the press re-loaded with slurry and the filtering cycle repeated. used for solid/liquid separation processes. This is more efficient than filtration using a funnel and paper. The solid is removed.Filter press (sometimes called Plate-and-Frame Filter press) which describes the style of filters developed from the 1800s onwards. rectangular or round filter plates supported in a frame. In addition to the filter plate filtration medium. The solution coming through the filter press water bibs. mining and water treatment. called the filter "cake". These mixtures are a little like a runny mud or milk shake. The solids in them do not dissolve in the liquid. or "Membrane Plate Filter". the filter plates are forced together with hydraulic rams that generate pressures typically in the region of 100 pounds per square inch (70. The majority of today's filters are more correctly called "chamber filter press". particularly the dewatering of sludges in the chemical industry. Once the filter chambers are loaded with slurry. chemical or pharmaceutical industries make products from liquid-solid suspensions or slurries. The filtrate can be drained away for safe disposal. packaged or delivered to the next step. Many processes in the food. will be very pure. The process of filtration is primarily obtained by passing a pair of filtering cloths and belts through a system of rollers. the solid filter cake can be removed. They are loaded with slurry before completing a filtering cycle and producing a batch of solid filtered material.000 kg per m2). A filter press consists of a series of filter chambers containing square. The belt filter (sometimes called a belt filter press) is an industrial machine. or it can be kept in a water tank for recycled use. At the end of filtration. The whole filtration process is often controlled by electronics to make it automatic or semi-automatic. which utilizes the low pressure caused by the weight of liquid above the filter paper. Contents .

Belt filter are under vacuum system to minimise offgas and effluent during operations. The filter cloth is directed though a zone where either pressure or vacuum pushes water from the filter cloths and ultimately to drain. When the belts pass through the final pair of rollers in the process. As the belts are fed through the rollers. How Does It Work? Most Belt Filter Press operations can be divided into three general Illustration stages . water is squeezed out of the sludge. which makes the sludge pulp.[hide] • • • • • 1 Operation 2 Improvements 3 References 4 Pictures 5 Further reading [edit] Operation The feed sludge to be dewatered is introduced from a hopper between two filter cloths (supported by perforated belts) which pass through a convoluted arrangement of rollers. [edit] Improvements The effectiveness of the operation can be increased by creating a pressure difference across the filter cloth. [2] The sludge can be combined with a filter aid or flocculant the help the filtration process and reduce blinding of the filter cloth.initial de-watering. the filter cloths are separated and the filter cake is scraped off into a suitable container. It comprises washing to different zone to minimise the product losses. [1] Filter cloths can be cleaned throughout the operation of the process by means of water sprays positioned on the return section of the belt. [3] Belt Filter Press. pressing or Of A Working Belt Filter .[1] Belt filter is generally used in phosphatic fertiliser plant to separate the solid from slurry.

The belting on a belt filter press must be continuously washed with clear water to keep it from blinding. The photo at right shows a Roediger Belt Filter Press. Pressure is first applied in a low pressure wedge zone (#4). (#8) indicates the locations of the belt cleaning spray stations. From this flocculation or preparation zone the sludge enters the gravity drainage zone (#2 and #3 on below illustration). The process begins as the sludge enters the press. or in a conditioning tank prior to the press. industrial and some chemical operations. where two large perforated drums of decreasing size apply the pressure. where it is mixed with a chemical . and this is accomplished by water spray bars placed above returning belt. Belt Filter Presses are used in mining. which raises the dry solids content in the sludge cake to the optimum. and high pressure filtration.medium pressure filtration. The resulting capture rate can be as high as 99%. municipal waste treatment. Press . which begins squeezing remaining water out of the sludge. either in the press. The sludge cake (filtered solids) then exits the machine at (#7). which conditions the sludge for high pressure filtration quality. where a large rotating drum agitates the floc and drains approximately 70% of the free water. mineral processing. Further dewatering occurs in the medium pressure zone (#5). Rollers perform the final de-watering in the high pressure zone (#6).

by illustrating the various stages of de-watering.The illustration at left shows how a belt filter press operates. The Horizontal Belt Filter .

The development of the Horizontal Belt Filters for the chemical process industries was closely associated with the progress in rubber technology since they incorporate an endless and thick rubber belt of a complex design to support the cake retained by the filter cloth. The constraining factor on belt speed is purely mechanical and depends largely on the supporting method of the heavy belt with its cake on it.Click on the thumbnail to maximize the image Description Horizontal Belt Filters are. Belts 4 meter wide for 120 m2 filters weigh more than 10 ton and are manufactured in one piece from sophisticated rubber compounds. The first known filters were the Landskrona and Lurgi built in the 20's and the Giorgini which was a belt filter but with attached trays. For this reason the main rivals over the years to belt filters were the Tilting Pan and Table Filters so when rubber belts were the constraint to filtration area growth these filters were in demand and vice versa. and were primarily applied to the washing of phosphate rock. The belts were very narrow and short. Later. they were applied in phosphoric acid plants to replace the chains of 3 or 4 internal feed rubber covered Drum Filters used for gypsum washing. Belt filters are the fastest filters available today and the speed of modern filters can reach over 50 m/min and yield very short cycle times. Belt speed is another parameter that sets forth a race among the designers of filters since for many applications a short cycle time is essential. with a 30 cm wide by 4-5 meters length. the most commonly used vacuum filters in the industry due to their flexibility of operation. Typical flowschemes and their operating sequence is shown below: . in broad terms. adaptation to corrosive slurries and suitability to handle large throughputs. Nowadays it is high time for belt filters since rubber technology has made a big step forwards in the past 10 years. As the demand for area has gone up filters were manufactured with three and four 30 cm wide belts running in parallel since the rubber manufacturers were unable to catch-up with the growth of the chemical plants. being top feed filters that facilitated multi-washing stages.

In these applicati ons the objective is to produce a cake with the lowest moisture and there is no importan ce that remainin g liquid in the cake retains its original quality.Belt Filter without Washing This shows a basic flowsheet existing in all applicati ons that require straight forwards dewateri ng. Belt Filter with Washing .

. In this applicati on water. or any other wash liquid. is used to displace the mother liquid whenever the process requires a cake that is free of substance s that contamin ate the discharge d cake.This flowsheet shows the addition of a cake washing stage at some point downstre am cake formatio n.

Belt Filter with Counter Current Washin g This flowshee t shows a counter current wash system that better utilizes the wash water than a cocurrent system. In this arrange ment solids move in the direction of belt travel and the wash liquid in the opposite direction . For efficient washing and sharp separatio n

between the wash filtrates the wash boxes are positione d close to the partition s that are inside the vacuum box. The wash efficienc y is defined as a percent of remainin g contamin ants in the final cake to the contamin ants prior to wash.
Belt Filter with Counte rCurren t Washi ng and Cloudy Recycl e

When a slurry is applied onto the permeabl e filter cloth a small amount of solids passes through the pores and finds its way to the mother filtrate. This can be avoided by inserting a partition in the vacuum box just at the point where the slurry feed meets the filter cloth. It requires incorpor ating a small vacuum receiver with a seal tank the removes this

fraction of "cloudy" filtrate that contains the solid particles. The top of this receiver has a valve set to low vacuum so that a thin heel of cake forms on the filter cloth that serves as a filter medium over the porous cloth and produces a solid free mother filtrate. This flowshee t is applied to the producti on of phosphor ic acid and the cloudy filtrate is recycled to the upstream

reactor or back onto the filter cake as shown in the diagram. The following animation shows the operation of a belt filter and its components:

Main Belt Filter Cloth Feed Box Wash Box Vacuum Box Cloth Wash Box Discharge Roll Aligning Roll Take-Up Roll Cloth Form Roll

Move mouse pointer over the menu to view the components

The filter consists of the following components and subassemblies:
The Drainage Belt

An endless rubber belt with traversing grooves drains the filtrate towards holes positioned along the belt. The sides of the belt have elastic rubber curbs that contain the incoming slurry and then the cake as it moves towards the discharge end. Synthetic heavy duty polyester plies are encapsulated in the rubber part below the grooves serve to withstand the longitudinal stresses to which the belt is subjected during its travel. Drainage belts are available in 2, 3 and 4.2 meter widths and thicknesses of 28, 32 and 39 mm. The belts may be supplied in SBR or EPDM rubbers and both are elastomers characterized by a wide range of applications.

The weight of a 3 m wide belt is 125 Kg/m and this is the heaviest single component to be considered for the design of the hoisting facilities. The Filter Cloth The filter cloth retains the cake and moves together with the belt. Nowadays, with some exceptions, they are made from synthetic materials such as polypropyle ne or polyester with monofilame nt or multifilame nt yarns and with sophisticate d weaves and layers. The images on the right show an ultrasonicall y welded joint and a clipper joint of the cloth ends. With clipper joints, as may be seen on the right, it is necessary to thread

multifilame nt strings across the entire cloth width to retain the fines from passing through to the filtrate. The entire subject of filter cloth and its selection will be discussed in a separate section that was not yet constructed. The Vacuum Box and Wear Belts A vacuum box below the belt that is mounted along the filter and collects the filtrate through a manifold to the receivers. The box at its topside has two lips covered with low friction synthetic strip liners that seal through intermediate wear belts between the bottom side of the belt and the surface of the strips. Since the belt is the most expensive part of the filter these endless narrow belts serve as a sacrificial component that takes the wear between the surfaces, protects the rubber belt and secures against vacuum leaks. The Vacuum Box Lowering Mechanism

A special mechanism allows parallel lowering or swinging of the vacuum box for cleaning from fines that may have settled inside. The mechanism is designed to accurately seal between the underside of the main belt and the two narrow wear belts that move together along the slide strips attached to the top shoulders of the vacuum box.

The Feed, Wash Boxes and Spray Manifolds A feed box and one or more wash boxes are mounted over the filter and designed to distribute evenly the slurry and wash water across the belt.

Spray washing as shown in the clip is also used quite often.

The Cake Discharge End To watch the discharging cake please play the clip below: Once the belt reaches the end of the vacuum box the cake drying portion of the cycle terminates and the

cloth leaves the rubber belt. The cloth continues moving, changes direction over the discharge roll and the cake drops through a chute for further handling.

The Belt Supporting Deck A deck attached to the frame and mounted underneath the belt is designed to support the heavy rubber belt and the cake load. The friction between the surfaces is reduced by injecting water for lubrication and blowing air that floats the belt or by a moving floor constructed of narrow endless belts that move together with the main rubber belt. The Filtrate Manifold
To view the components move mouse pointer over the menu Mother Filtrate Wash Filtrate 1 Wash Filtrate 2 Filtrate Manifold Filtrate Receiver Filtrate Pump Vacuum Pump

A filtrate manifold collects the mother and wash liquids to one or more vacuum receivers. It should be kept in mind that a short path of filtrate between the vacuum box and the receivers reduces to a minimum the losses of vacuum for both the single phase flow of the mother filtrate and the two phase flow of air and wash filtrates. In the picture all filtrate outlets are connected to a common manifold with a single receiver so both mother and wash filtrates are mixed. However, as may be seen in the flowscheme, mother and wash filtrates may be delivered separately.

The Cloth Tracking Mechanism

A pneumatic or electrical tracking mechanism controls the filter cloth from slipping sideways by guiding it to the left or to the right. There are several types of mechanisms but the following are very common: • • Two pairs of rolls that pinch the cloth alternatively and are positioned on both sides. A roll is that spans across the cloth, is hinged at one end and swings forwards or backwards on the other end.

Selection Criteria

Horizontal Belt Filters are selected in the following cases: • • • • For solids that are fast settling and cannot be kept as a homogenous slurry in bottom or side feed filters such as Drum or Disc Filters. When long drying time is required to reach asymptotic moisture in the cake. On , for example, the ratio of dry to form cannot normally exceed 1.5 since it is determined by its geometry and the number of circumferential compartments. When very short cycle times are required for fast dewatering cakes such as phosphate slurry. If a clear filtrate is required right from the start it is good practice to form a thin heel that serves as filter medium over the exposed cloth. This is done by either a "cloudy port outlet" that is recirculated or, if solids are settling fast, by allocating the first 20-30 cm to act as a "sedimentation pool" prior to entering the vacuum zone. When intensive cake washing is required since belt filters make it possible to apply counter-current washing. On Drum Filters, for example, the time available for washing is rather limited due to its geometry. When cakes tend to crack under vacuum measures such as a flapper, compression blanket or pressure roll may assist in sealing the cracks thus avoiding loss of vacuum. When such measures are used it is necessary to make sure that the belt supporting system can take these extra vertical loads. When scale formation due to flash evaporation is a problem or filtrate temperature must be maintained a vacuum box steam jacketing may be provided. When the cake tends to clog the cloth its continuous removal after cake discharge enables dislodging of particles by thorough washing of the cloth on both sides with high impact nozzles.

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Horizontal Belt Filters are designed nowadays to meet a wide range of process requirements many of which are subjecting its components to severe and demanding conditions. Modern filters run at high speeds, handle thick and heavy cakes, operate at high temperatures and often in an unfriendly environment hence, they are of a sturdy design and made from sophisticated materials of construction. The main points to observe are:

• • •

Evidence of cracks in the rubber belt may cause separation of the plies which are encapsulated between the rubber layers. This weakens the belt and should be repaired on site without delay. The shrouds on both sides of the belt are subjected to high tension while going over the head and tail pulleys. Their duty is to contain the incoming feed and if the edges tear slurry may pour all over so inspection and their repair is essential. The vacuum box is hinged and swings to one side so as to enable the periodical cleaning of its internals from settled fines. The repositioning of the box is one of the main reasons for loss of vacuum and special care must be taken to seal the box's anti-friction liners against the sacrificial wear belts and the bottom side of the main belt. The endless wear belts must be inspected to ensure that they are in good condition otherwise the main belt may be damaged. Likewise, the wear belts should be checked if they seal properly between the stationary vacuum box and the moving belt. The life of the belt and the main drive depend largely on the water lubrication between the surfaces of the moving and stationary parts hence, the tubes leading to those parts must be kept clean. It is recommended that the alignment of the filter is inspected from time to time. This applies mainly to large filters since misalignment due to differential settling of the building foundations during the first years after start-up or any other reason may cause the following: ○ Along the filter, difficulties may arise in sealing the long and segmented vacuum box. ○ Across the filter, the thickness of the cake may taper in one direction causing uneven cake washing. The alignment across the filter is particularly important for thin cakes since a 0.5% slope on a 2 meter wide belt and a 20 mm cake reduces cake thickness on one side from 20 to 10 mm

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Horizontal Vacuum Belt Filter •

Filtres Philippe™

Top of Form


Bottom of Form

Filtres Philippe introduced one of the earliest horizontal vacuum belt filters to the marketplace in 1948. Since that time, we've continued to innovate to offer our clients systems designed for longevity and reliability, while always keeping cost-effectiveness in mind. With over 500 systems installed worldwide, we've supplied solutions for a wide range of processes and challenges. A Filtres Philippe belt filter is an integral part of the environment in which it operates. That's why we pay careful attention to the details from our endless factory-vulcanised rubber belts, to our turnkey support.

Designed for the separation of liquids and solids, while allowing for a continuous filtration process. Can be used for up to a very high concentration of solids, while also offering the ability of efficiently washing the filtrate cake if required. Unique innovative solutions allow an increase in washing efficiencies and filtration parameters. This coupled with a 98% operating factor provides optimum productivity and material recover rate. The ultimate result is increased profits for you. Filter frame: bolted, not welded, which allows for quick change out of the drainage belt with minimal disassembly. Factory-spliced main belt: machined and grooved in our factory to avoid field-splicing problems which could delay equipment start-up. Specifically designed for Filtres Philippe and grooved according to specific air and liquid flow requirements for FGD applications, providing optimal liquid drainage and solids dewatering.

Patented accordian-style belt curbs: provides optimum flexibility around the pulleys while maintaining an extended service life. Efficient belt support system: comprised of a set of slide rails which eliminates the requirement for inefficient and costly air box and blower equipment while providing flat filtration surface for even slurry distribution. Filtres Philippe was the original developer of the air box design but later replaced this design with our current flat table support system for uniform cake and improved washing performance. Vacuum pan lowering system: pneumatic system provides fast lowering of vacuum pan for visual inspection and quick change out of wear belts. Also provides for easy adjustment of the vacuum pan mobile partitions. Belt and cloth tracking systems: pneumatically operated to automatically maintain accurate alignment of belt and cloth.

Oliver-type rotary vacuum-drum filter. Rotary vacuum filter drum consists of a drum rotating in a tub of liquid to be filtered. The technique is well suited to high solids liquids that would blind or block other forms of filter. The drum is pre-coated with a filter aid, typically of diatomaceous earth (DE) or Perlite. After pre-coat has been applied, the liquid to be filtered is sent to the tub below the drum. The drum rotates through the liquid and the vacuum sucks liquid and solids onto the drum pre-coat surface, the liquid portion is "sucked" by the vacuum through the filter media to the internal portion of the drum, and the filtrate pumped away. The solids adhere to the outside of the drum, which then passes a knife, cutting off the solids and a small portion of the filter media to reveal a fresh media surface that will enter the liquid as the drum rotates. The knife advances automatically as the surface is removed.

The Rotary Drum Filter
Click on the thumbnail to maximize the image

The Rotary Vacuum Drum Filter belongs to the bottom feed group and is one of the oldest filters applied to the chemical process industry. The filter consists of the following subassemblies:

To view the components move mouse pointer over the menu

The Drum

Drum Valve Piping Drive Scraper Agitator Tank

The drum is supported by a large diameter trunion on the valve end and a bearing on the drive end. The drum face is divided into circumferential sectors each forming a separate vacuum cell. The internal piping that is connected to each sector passes through the trunion and ends up with a wear plate having ports that correspond to the number of sectors.

1. The Valve

A valve with a bridge setting controls the sequence of the cycle so that each sector is subjected to vacuum, blow and a dead zone. When a sector enters submergence vacuum commences and continues through washing, if required, to a point that it is cut-off and

To view the components move mouse pointer over the menu Cake Formation Cake Washing and Drying Cake Blow Discharge

blow takes place to assist in discharging the cake. The valve has on certain filters adjustable blocks and on others a fixed bridge ring. Adjustable bridge blocks enable the optimization of form to dry ratio within the filtration cycle as well as the "effective submergence" of the drum when the slurry level in the tank is at the maximum.

The majority of drum filters have a valve with three bridge blocks and a single row pipe plate as shown below and on the right. The duty of the bridges is: (please also refer to Operational Sequence) 1. Vacuum and blow zones separating bridge. This bridge cuts off the vacuum so it is slightly wider than the internal pipe port. 2. Dead zone bridge. This bridge opens to vacuum once a compartment submerges.

3. Start-up assist bridge. At start-up the upper
vacuum zone is open to atmosphere and a cake may be formed only when closing the valve that controls this zone. Once the cake starts to emerge from the tank the valve is gradually opened and fully opened when the entire drum face is wrapped with the cake. Since in continuous operation both lower and upper

zones are under vacuum this bridge is slightly narrower than the internal pipe port so that the vacuum is continuous and the cake is held onto the drum.

However, there are also more complex drum filters such as lube oil dewaxers. These
filters have a sophisticated valve that allows very quick evacuation of residual wash liquid from the descending compartments by purging inert gas through the internal piping manifold prior to cake discharge. The images below show the two different valves with their single and double row pipe plates:

The exploded view below shows the assembly components of a typical "one row" set-up:

To view the components move mouse pointer over the menu

Pipe Plate Wear Plate Main Valve Bridge Block Cake Form Conn. Cake Dry Conn.

The Internal Piping

The internal piping manifold and the various leads and trail options discussed above are shown here:

. The trail pipes shown in red are normally handling the mother filtrate on the ascending side of the drum up to the 12 o’clock position and then the lead pipes shown in blue handle the wash filtrate on the descending side. The reason for this arrangement is that the trail pipes handle more liquid than the lead pipes so require a bigger cross section to avoid vacuum losses. Note the point when the vacuum is cut-off and the trailing pipe opens to purge. The animation on the left shows a partial section of the cycle of a single compartment as it passes from cake washing down to cake formation on the descending side of the drum. The trail pipes are always connected to the outer row and have a bigger diameter than the lead pipes that are connected to the inner row. At this point the leading pipe evacuates the filtrate that remains in the piping and compartment prior to blowing off the dry cake.The clip below shows the internal drum piping of the "two row" manifold.

These division strips are holding synthetic grids shown on the right that cover the entire drum and serve to support the filter cloth. belt. The timing of vacuum or blow depends on the bridge setting of the main valve. they are made from synthetic materials such as polypropylene or polyester with monofilament or multifilament yarns and with sophisticated weaves and layers.• The Drum Deck The drum deck is divided into separately isolated compartments each subjected to vacuum or blow while the drum is in rotation. Blow is Cli ck on the thumbnails to maximize images . The compartments are divided with grooved division strips along the drum face and around the circumference of the drum heads. The entire subject of filter cloth and its selection will be discussed in a separate section that was not yet constructed. with some exceptions. • The Cake Discharge Mechanism The cake discharge mechanism that can be either a scraper. The filter cloth itself is fastened to the drum face by inserting special caulking ropes into the grooves. • The Filter Cloth The filter cloth retains the cake and is fastened to the drum face by inserting special caulking ropes into the grooved division strips. roll and in very rare cases a string discharge. Nowadays. The image on the right shows the method of joining the cloth ends with clippers and to retain the fines from passing through to the filtrate multifilament strings are threaded across the entire cloth width. Another option quite often used on belt discharge filters is to join the ends with a special sewing machine.

an adjustable overflow box to set a desired drum submergence and a drain connection. The selection of a suitable type of mechanism depends largely on the release characteristics of the cake from the filter media and will vary from process to process. Scraper discharge mechanisms will suit cakes that release readily and roller discharge mechanism are better for thixotropic cakes. The images on the left illustrate the various mechanisms. The tanks are normally designed for an "apparent submergence" of 33-35% however on certain applications 50% and more is possible. • The Cake Washing Manifold .applied only to filters with scraper and roll discharge mechanisms but not to filters with a belt or string discharge. The clip below shows a typical agitator: • The Tank The tank that houses the drum and agitator has baffled slurry feed connections. • The Drum Speed Variation The drum filter has a drive with a variable speed that rotates the drum at cycle times that normally range from 1 to 10 MPR. With these special designs the tank ends are higher in order to accommodate stuffing boxes on both the drive shaft and valve end trunnion. • The Agitator An agitator keeps gently the slurry in suspension and reciprocates between the drum face and tank bottom at 16 or so CPM.

Once a sector enters submergence . applied wash liquid and drum submergence for a desired cake thickness or throughput. The position of the manifolds and the quantity of wash liquid are adjustable depending on the wash characteristics of the cake. The flow scheme of a Rotary Drum Filter Station will generally look like this: Operational Sequence The entire filtration cycle on a rotary drum filter must be completed within a geometry of 360 degrees. • Control Instrumentation Optional controls may be used to automate settings such as drum speed. 2 or 3 manifolds with overlapping nozzles are mounted to a pair of splash guards bolted to the tank ends.On applications where cake washing is required. The monitoring of drum submergence controls the slurry feed valves so an adjustable overflow weir is not necessary except for a fixed connection in case of emergency. Let us follow the cycle sequence of a single sector assuming that the drum rotates in a clockwise direction while viewing the valve end: To view the zones move the mouse pointer over the menu Cake Formation Zone Cake Predrying Zone Cake Washing Zone Cake Final Drying Zone Cake Discharge Zone • Cake Formation With the overflow weir set to a maximum the "apparent submergence" is normally 3335% so the slurry levels between 0400 and 0800 hrs.

If cake washing is required the wash manifolds will be located from about 1030 to 1130 hrs and the remaining time to vacuum cut-off at 0130 is the portion allocated to final cake drying. Cakes when a single washing stage is sufficient to remove residual contaminants from the cake or yield maximum recovery of filtrate. The portion of the cycle available for formation is the "effective submergence" and its duration depends on the number of sectors.vacuum is applied and a cake starts to form up to a point where the sector emerges from the slurry. the slurry level in the tank and the bridge setting which controls the form to dry ratio. Cakes which do not require long drying times to reach asymptotic moisture values. • Cake Washing and Drying After emerging from submergence the drying portion of the cycle commences and for non-wash applications continues to about 0130 hrs where the vacuum is cut-off. • Dead Zone Once the blow is cut-off the sector passes through a zone blocked with bridges so that no air is drawn through the exposed filter media which might cause the loss of vacuum on the entire drum surface. Blow is used on scraper and roll discharge mechanisms but on belt discharge filters vacuum cuts-off when the filter media leaves the drum. depending on the position of the tip of the scraper blade. Drum filters are normally operated with a low pressure blow but on certain applications a snap blow is applied and to avoid the snapping out of the caulking bars or ropes wire winding of the cloth is recommended . Filtrates that are acceptable with a low quantity of fines that pass trough the filter cloth in the first few seconds of cake • • • • . however. The blow. Filtrates that generally do not require a sharp separation between the mother and wash filtrates. Selection Criteria In broad terms drum filters are suitable to the following process requirements: • Slurries with solids that do not tend to settle rapidly and will remain in a uniform suspension under gentle agitation. Some complex valves. enable atmospheric purging of the sectors and internal piping to facilitate a sharp separation of filtrates. will cut-off at approximately 0300 hrs. • Cake Discharge After vacuum for the entire sector is cut-off air blow commences at about 0200 hrs in order to facilitate cake discharge.

Maintenance The slow rotation of the drum and reciprocation of the agitator reduce maintenance requirements to a minimum but the following should be inspected periodically: • The strip liner of the trunnion bearing at the valve end will normally wear at the lower half. the drum may become buoyant causing a wear to the upper half. • • • Introduction Types of Products . • For very corrosive applications plastic drum filters are available with up to 10-15 m2 filtration area. when hoisting facilities are not available or operational. The drum has a bailer tube that protrudes from the drive end shaft and must be kept open at all times since its blockage may cause the collapse of the drum. the nozzles on the wash headers should be kept clean in order to ensure overlapping for full coverage of the washed cake. in cases when the slurry has a high specific gravity. The stuffing boxes on high submergence filters should be inspected for leakage and. However. It should be noted that excess tightening can increase substantially the load on the drum drive so the use of a torque wrench is recommended. is to float the drum by filling the tank with a sufficiently concentrated solution. At this point it should be mentioned that one way to remove the lower half of the liner. Broadly. if necessary. the filtrate may contain 1000 to 5000 ppm insolubles. Likewise. ○ If liquid leakage is observed from the bailer tube it indicates that a hole exists in the drum head causing penetration of slurry from the tank into the drum. the stud nuts should be tightened. A whistling noise during operation is an indication the wear plate is worn out or the valve spring requires tensioning. • The on-line filter on the wash headers manifold should be checked periodically for pressure build-up due to progressive blockage. and depending on particle size and cloth permeability. In such cases the use of aerosol type smokes or a light tissue paper should be used instead of an open flame to identify a vacuum leak. The bailer tube is a tell-tale indication to the following: ○ If a lighter flame is drawn through the bailer tube to the inside of the drum it indicates that a vacuum leak exists in the drum shell or the internal piping.formation. It should be noted that in certain instances there is a possibility that explosive gases build-up inside the drum and may pose a safety hazard. The face of the wear plate should be checked periodically and remachined if necessary.

The RVDF is supplied complete with filtrate receiver.5 Centrifugal Filter Device . These units can be supplied in various sizes upto 1000 sq. these units are still preferred in given situations in view of their low cost maintenance. Even though these units consume higher power due to deployment of Vacuum Pump. Belt Discharge. Knife Discharge. These units can also be provided in carbon steel. moisture trap and other accessories like Pumps. the dewatered solid discharge mechanism can be in different configurations e. Vacuum Pumps.ft. Depending upon the type of sludge. Blowers etc. filtration area each unit.g. ULTRAFREE -0. rubber lined and stainless steel construction to meet specific application requirement. String Discharge etc.Anaerobic Digester | Digester Mixer | Belt Filter Press | Rotary Vacuum Drum Filter | Gravity Thickener | Dissolved Air Flotation Thickener Rotary Vacuum Drum Filter (RVDF) is one of the most prevalent practices in the industry to dewater all kinds of sludge at low capital cost.

Because of its innovative design and excellent membrane performance.5 milliliter (mL) range. It is used in any centrifuge that accommodates 2. the Ultrafree-0. even in solutions with high levels of particles.5 devices are available with a range of high-flux Biomax® ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. single-use filter device used to process aqueous biological solutions in the 0. This allows for the highest possible flow rates.5 centrifugal filter device is a disposable. parallel to the direction of the centrifugal force.5 mL solutions down to 20 microliters (ìL) in about 10 minutes.05 to 0.5 device can concentrate most 0.2 mL centrifuge tubes.: P35951 The Ultrafree-0. Ultrafree-0. . Concentrated protein is retrieved by pipette from a concentrate “pocket” located below the membrane surface.For Concentration of Biological Samples Lit No. reduce concentration polarization. although some solutions may take longer. The device’s novel design and vertical membrane configuration.

Introduction to Cake Filtration .

Analyses.P. Grace.F. Experiments and Applications Chi Tien Department of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering Syracuse University New York. USA AMSTERDAM• BOSTON• HEIDELBERG• LONDON• NEW YORK• OXFORD PARIS•SAN DIEGO •SAN FRANCISCO •SINGAPORE •SYDNEY •TOKY v To B. M. Ruth. H.M. Shirato . Tiller. F.

chemical and mineral industries. there are only a few books and monographs devoted exclusively to the subject and most of them are aimed at applications. By all account. The purpose of the present book is to give an introductory and yet fairly comprehensive account of cake filtration as a physical process in a more fundamental way. Hopefully. it will provide people who contemplate to do research and development work in cake filtration with a source of information and get them quickly on track.and All other earlier workers of Cake Filtration Studie Preface The idea of writing this volume came to me almost two decades ago shortly after I became seriously involved with cake filtration studies. However. . cake filtration is an important solid/fluid separation process and has been widely applied in the process. It was (still is) one of the topics discussed in almost all undergraduate. unit operations texts since the publication of the first edition ofPrinciples of Chemical Engineeringin 1927.

three fluid/particle separation processes which feature cake formation and growth together with other phenomena are discussed. degree program in chemical. As stated earlier.tion as a diffusion problem. Part I deals with cake filtration analyses using different approaches including the conventional theory of cake filtration. analysis based on the solution of the volume-averaged continuity equations and treatment of cake filtra.This book is divided into three parts. the procedures used and the various methods used for the determination of cake properties constitute Part II. The level is consistent with what is taught at an accredited B. Descrip. civil . I have prepared this book for the purpose of initiating those who are interested in cake filtration research and development work including students who plan to do their theses in this area. Dynamic simulation of cake filtration which examines both filtration performance and cake structure and its evolution is also included.Sc. In order to gain a wider audience.tions and discussions of cake filtration experiments. the background information necessary to comprehend the materials presented is kept to a minimum. In Part III.

strictly speaking. During the past two decades. even though. but not on an elementary viii .and mechanical engineering. a search of library and publication catalogues reveals that most of texts and monographs dealing with this topic. In this regard. There is another reason for writing this book. while the topic of unit operations is recognized as a core subject of the chemical engineering discipline. it is not written as a text. Somewhat overlooked in these efforts is the fact that the viability of any profession as a field of study depends. upon its appeal to talented young people on account of the intellectual challenges and practical relevancy it poses. It should therefore be possible to adopt the book as a text or part of text for graduate courses dealing with separation or solid/fluid separation. to a large degree. Numerous suggestions and plans on chemical engineering education and research have been advanced for the purpose of restoring the profession to its past glory. we have seen considerable discussions and debates about the future of chemical engineering as a profession and as a discipline.

A major part of this book is based on the studies of fluid/particle separation I conducted during the past 20 years at Syracuse University and the National University of Singapore. Professor R. Ramarao. Bai. Tan. Jung. and Professor C. Bai for his tireless efforts in obtaining some of the numerical results of cake formation and growth included in this book. Teoh. chemical engineering nowadays is not able to attract a sufficiently large number of talented students as it once did. Chiu. Wang.H.B. were published more than three or four decades ago. Professor Y. in a very small measure. Dr K. B.-W.S.-K.V. It is therefore not surprising that as a subject of study. It is hoped that writing a book such as this one may. Dr S.-H. I would like to acknowledge the significant roles played by my former students and colleagues in these studies: Professor R.PREFACE level. Professor M. I should also add that the countless hours of stimulating discussions on cake . I am particularly indebted to R. contribute to rectify the prevailing erroneous impression. thus giving the impression and creating the perception that the discipline has reached its maturity a long time ago. Stamatakis.

. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . Anouschka Zwart and Louise Morris of Elsevier. . Cross-Flow Filtration. . . . ... . . . my wife. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Julia. . . . . . . . . . . Ramarao during the past decade were certainly one of the major rewards of writing this book. . . . . . . . .. . . I would like to thank my former and present publishing editors. . . . . 2 1. .V. . . . . . for their efforts and assistance which made prompt publication of this book possible.3 Cake Filtration vs. . . . .1 1. for all the help and support she has given me for the past four and a half decades. . . . . . . . . . . . . Kathy Datthyn-Madigan for her keyboard skill in typing and assembling the manuscript and last but not the least. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . 6 1. . . . . vii 1 Introduction. . . ..1 Cake Filtration as a Separation Process. . . . . . . . .filtration and related problems I had with B.4 . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Contents Preface. . . . . . . . Finally. . .2 Cake Filtration vs. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. . . . Deep Bed Filtration. . .. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . Solidosity Profiles. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Expressions of Cake Filtration Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2. . . .4 An Improved Procedure for Calculating Filtration Performance. . 31 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . .1 BasicEquations. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 27 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Extensions of the Conventional Theory. . . . . .5. . . . . . . Compressive Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 11 2 The Conventional Theory of Cake Filtration. . . . . . . . . 10 Part I Analyses. .3 Pressure. . . . .1 Centrifugation. . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Expression of solid/liquid mixtures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 20 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .. . . . and Other Expressions. . . . . . . .FiltrationCycle. . . . . . . . 36 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ClosingRelationships. . . . . . . . . . . .3 A Procedure for Predicting Centrifugal Filtration Performance.3 Comparisons with Previous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid/Suspension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3 Analysis of Cake Filtration: Solutions of the VolumeAveraged Continuity Equations. . . Suspension/Cake Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Appendix 2A. . . . . . . . .2 Pressure and Compressive Stress Profiles in Centrifugal Filtration. . . . . . . 39 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3. . .Optimum operating pressure and the skin layer effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Appendix 2A. .1 Locations of Air/Liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Appendix 2A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Formulation of the Governing Equations. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3. . . . 63 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Examples of Numerical Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Effect of Fine Particle Retention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Studies. . 69 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 BatchFiltration/Consolidation. 82 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . .4 Numerical Analysis of Cake Filtration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 SedimentationEffect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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ANSI. water and general processing industries.. DIN..Chemineer Agitators Chemineer .More.. durability and economy to supply unbeatable value in mixing equipment for the chemical. The MR agitators are designed to be mounted vertically over open or closed top tanks..Agitators Model 20 HT/GT Agitators The Model 20 HT/GT agitators feature a high-efficiency gearbox designed specifically for agitator service. Models are available in right angle and parallel shaft configurations to meet specific application requirements from critical chemical reactor systems to routine storage. OSHA. More. IEC. The Model 20 HT/GT agitators are designed to meet AGMA. EU and ATEX standards and requirements. These agitators feature a modular design package with a wide range of speeds for improved process control and greater application versatility. Model 20 HT/GT Product Literature (PDF) MR Mixers Chemineer’s MID RANGE Mixers combine quality. Product Literature (PDF) .

As a result. pharmaceutical and general industrial applications.. More.. HT Product Literature (PDF) HT & HTM Product Literature (PDF) QED Agitators The Chemineer QED Plus Mixer combines Q uality... The Chemineer HTM mixer is an available option for high torque applications and provides many of the same design benefits as the HT gearbox. E conomy and D urability for unbeatable mixing value.. simple and designed for ease of maintenance. demanding environments where peak performance is integral. off-theshelf .Europe 72-hour delivery 30-day “No Risk Trial” Total support for your mixing need 50+ years experience in mixer technology Industry standard IEC. HT Turbine Agitators are robust. More. flexibility and ruggedness. QED Plus Mixers are well-suited for agitator service in chemical processing.HT Agitators HT Turbine Agitators have earned a worldwide reputation for long life. they are the preferred agitators of many industries for harsh. Product Literature GT Agitators The line of Chemineer GT Turbine Agitators provides enhanced costefficiency and performance embodied in an advanced parallel shaft design.. petrochemical. Product Literature (PDF) XPress Mixers USA . More.

5kw Features and Benefits Motors: Direct drive.18 to 1.. materials and options needed to meet critical sanitary mixing applications and ensure the highest level of sanitary mixing.. high- .(PDF) motors from 0.Europe Direct-drive and gearreduced designs for both open and closed tank applications are available.. Product Literature USA (PDF) Product Literature Europe (PDF) Biopharm Mixers Chemineer's sanitary mixers offer a variety of design configurations. Each unit features Chemineer's renowned reputation for quality that has grown over the past 50 years.. We supply a range of models suitable for a variety of applications DT Top-Entering &Portable Mixers USA .. Chemineer also offers a wide variety of precisionengineered. Product Literature (PDF) IBC Mixers Chemineer’s unique new range of industrial agitators are designed for use with plastic transportable (IBC) containers. Product Literature (PDF) Clean Sweep Mixers The NEW Clean Sweep™ mixer from Chemineer revolutionizes mixing technology by utilizing a swing motion instead of the customary rotating motion providing a hermetically sealed environment! More. More.. More.

More.. Product Literature (PDF) HS Agitators The HS Agitator is a right-angle drive exclusively engineered for side-entering agitator service. or where headroom is severely limited..performance impeller options. Product Literature (PDF) Impellers If there were only one mixing job to do. and the best impeller for one application may not be the best impeller for another. Product Literature (PDF) including blending light viscous liquid as well as resuspension of settled solids and dissolution of powders.. Includes descriptions and discussions that are intended as a guide for impeller selection. Product Literature (PDF) .. only one impeller would be required. However. More... More. there is a very wide range of problems in agitation.. More. Chemineer ® HS SideEntering Turbine Agitators work efficiently when a tank is too large for convenient installation of a top-entering agitator..

OSHA. DIN. manufactures and supplies a unique range of low shear. high-efficiency gearbox designed specifically for agitator service. high solids-loading NIMIX mixing systems. EU and ATEX standards and requirements. water and wastewater. NIMIX container/mixer systems are used for both the manufacture and transportation of a range of fluids with applications in chemicals. The Model 20 HT/GT agitators are designed to meet AGMA. pharmaceutical. Models are available in right angle and parallel shaft configurations to meet specific application requirements from critical chemical reactor systems to routine storage. IEC. food and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Product Literature (PDF) Model 20 HT/GT Agitators The Model 20 HT/GT agitators are designed for a wide range of service in the chemical.NIMIX Mixing Systems Chemineer designs. The new agitators combine the proven benefits of the Chemineer HT and GT agitators into a modular design package that reduces the number of replacement parts that need to be carried in inventory by the customer. ANSI.. FGD. The wide range of speeds available with the new agitators provides improved process control and greater application versatility. power and other general process industries. The Chemineer Model 20 HT/GT agitators also offer: • • Quick and easy seal change capability that saves time and reduces maintenance costs Variety of seal options for application versatility . More.. ethanol and biofuels. The agitators feature a new.

longer life.Tapered Roller Output Bearings.Double and Triple Reduction Options .No Synthetic Lubrication is required saving installation and maintenance costs Bearing Design Features . eliminating internal/external lubrication pumps .Oil lubrication provides cooler operation.Grease and Bath Lubrication .Oversized Low Speed Shaft Diameter and short bearing span .Cast Gearbox .Standard R&O Oils Benefits .Ensures vital lubrication to gears and bearings at all operating speeds.High capacity to handle shaft/impeller loads while providing long life .Double/Triple reduction decreases gear loads. and lower maintenance over grease or permanently lubricated bearings .Highest efficient gearing available reduces energy costs .• • • • High energy efficiency due to an optimized gear design and lighter weight shaft diameter requirements Standard cast dry well seal eliminates lubrication oil leakage from gearbox – this design is superior to maintenance intensive. unreliable lip seals Reversible rotation to meet a variety of process requirements Reliable performance and long life resulting from the cast gearbox with heavy duty output shaft and bearings Internal Shafting Features . thereby extending bearing and gear life . Grease Lubricated . Oil Lubricated Benefits .Dry Well Seal .Modular designs between right angle (HT) and parallel shaft (GT) .Eliminates lubrication leaks which are common in commercial gearboxes with no dry well .Reduces wear rate for 20+ year service life Housing and Lubrication Features . and allows for non-synthetic lubrication over competitive single reduction designs .Case Carburized Gearing Benefits .Tapered Roller/Roller Bearings. reducing deflection and gear misalignment.Recessed low speed coupling half Benefits . lowers noise levels.Helical/Spiral Bevel (HT) and All Helical (GT) .Simplifies installation with no requirement to install shaft up through the gearbox Gearing Features .Time proven design to handle shaft/impeller bending loads.

eliminating the need for shafts to be installed through the gearbox.. shafts and steady bearings are available upon request.. while NC machining of the housing and the subassemblies ensures trouble-free interchangeability and precision parts mating. and engages by tightening the coupling bolts . Shafts are sized to resist torsional loads and bending moments induced by hydraulic forces acting on the impeller. Types of Shafts Shafting is supplied in a single piece design or in rigidly coupled sections for easy installation.Much more. Custom couplings.Drop collar shaft support during seal change . HT Turbine Agitators have earned a worldwide reputation for long life. as well as to avoid excessive vibration due to the coincidence of critical frequencies and operating speed.Swing out or spacer spool seal change designs .Variety of seal options from major mechanical seal vendors such as John Crane. flexibility and ruggedness. impellers. they are the preferred agitators of many industries for harsh.Shaft only drops 1/2" eliminating steady bearing disengagement .003 inches total run out per foot of shaft length (0. Product Literature All Product Literature is in Adobe's PDF Format. Extended Keyways Extended keyways for adjusting impeller location offer process and design flexibility.. Steady Bearings Steady bearings are available to help support extremely long shafts. demanding environments where peak performance is integral. Cup tripod.25 mm per meter). HT Turbine Agitators are robust. Optional intank couplings can either be removable tapered bore or welded simplifying installation of long shafts. pipe shafting is a viable option with couplings and impeller hubs welded to the shafting.Shaft drops easily by loosening coupling bolts. Shafting is straightened to tight tolerances for long seal life and smooth operation – less than 0. For large diameter shafts.. simple and designed for ease of maintenance.Much more. Couplings To facilitate assembly in the field. Chesterton and AES . The drive has a minimum of moving parts.Seal Features and Benefits Features . bracket and padtype steady bearings are standard design options. extension shafts are attached to the drive shaft with flanged rigid couplings.No need to pull shaft up through gearbox or in-tank shaft supports . including sanitary designs. Benefits . You may download the Acrobat Reader by clicking on the Get Acrobat Reader Icon Below. Flowserve. . Shaft Design Both process and mechanical considerations determine shaft design. Acrobat Reader is required to view all documents. As a result. A wide range of materials and coating options are available.

shaft seals. All HT gearing is inspected for compliance with AGMA Quality 10 standards. precision-hobbed. Motors & Flexible Couplings Foot-Mounted Motors Chemineer engineers have supplied nearly every imaginable power source for HT Turbine . A wide selection of mounting methods. then shaved to exacting tolerances for proper contact and longer life. Easily accessible grease fittings lubricate low-speed shaft bearings.flanged nozzle. independent beam support and top or bottom entering. support pedestals and mounting feet are fabricated from steel plate. shafts. Robust Housings Drive housings. Positive Lubrication High -speed bearings are continuously protected through splashlubrication. Timken Tapered Roller Bearings For superior handling of both radial and thrust loads Timken ® tapered roller bearings are used throughout the HT drive. materials of construction. the HT Turbine Agitator is available in 13 standard drive sizes from 1 to 1. A specialized drywell shaft seal prevents oil leakage. The HTM agitator drive is available in both right angle and parallel shaft configurations and offers many of the same benefits as the HT drive.000 hours L-10 life. Each housing features lifting lugs and eyebolts for simplified. The right-angle design also simplifies the mounting. safe handling of the agitator during installation and removal. impellers and accessories can provide the best turbine agitator for virtually any process. Internal Shafts Both short-span and low-speed shafts feature maximum rigidity and are precision-turned on NC lathes for dimensional consistency and straightness.even more for specialized applications. Chemineer HTM Agitators The Chemineeer HTM is an optional gearbox for high torque applications and is manufactured specifically for agitator service. Catalyzed.000 hp . Drive bearings can be service rated to over 100. Each component must then pass a quality inspection on a computerized precision coordinate measuring inspection machine. Drive Components Right-Angle Design The right-angle drive of the HT agitator is readily adaptable to nearly any mounting configuration . alignment and service of standard foot-mounted motors. polyurethane exterior finishes protect against corrosion in both indoor and outdoor operating environments. Helical and Spiral Bevel Gearing Helical gears are hardened.Engineered for the ultimate in process compatibility.

1200 and 900 rpm. Tachometers. A variety of surface finishes provide protection in harsh service environments.0 service factor. Oversized Shafting All Chemineer shafting is sized and tested to resist torsional loads and bending moments resulting from hydraulic forces acting on the impeller during mixing. align and service. Couplings Easier extension-shaft-to-drive-shaft field assembly is achieved with flanged rigid couplings with removable coupling halves or welded coupling halves. All Chemineer steady bearings have a replaceable wear sleeve that can be fabricated from a variety of materials. HT agitator shafts are available in diameters of 1-1/2 to 10 inches and afford maximum resistance to shock loads. You may download the Acrobat Reader by clicking on the Get Acrobat Reader Icon Below. fluid drives. Steady Bearings Support of extremely long shafts requires the use of steady bearings. electronic controls are available for applications requiring responsive speed changes. All shafts are straightened to 0. Motor enclosures are either TEFC or explosion-proof. Options Variable frequency. with a 1. Flexible Couplings HT agitators up to 50 hp are shipped standard with flexible couplings for improved shock and vibration absorption. Product Literature All Product Literature is in Adobe's PDF Format. However.Agitators. including steam turbines. Easy to mount. Variable-speed belt drives offer process flexibility with three-to-one speed range. Pipe shafting. Chemineer will work with you to determine optimum sizing for your application. Optional in-tank couplings simplify installation of long shafts. industrial foot-mounted motor. Our experience with special applications enables you to specify practically any machinable alloy or protective coating suited to your process. Acrobat Reader is required to view all documents. flexible element. For severe chemical service. motors with Class F insulation and a 1. ideal for large diameter shafts. these standard motors are NEMA Class B in design. feature couplings and impellers welded to the shafting. signal interfaces and transformers are available. Options Extended keyways for adjusting impeller position offer flexibility in case your processes change. Both bracket.15 service factor can be specified. disc-type and fluid couplings.003 inches of total runout per foot of shaft length to minimize vibration and maximize seal life. the most common drive option is the standard.and tripod-mount designs are available. internal combustion engines and others. and are available from 1 to 350 hp. Types Shafts are available in single piece or rigidly coupled designs. . Speeds are 1800. Other coupling configurations include gear couplings.

Protected by a cast iron housing. All QED Plus Mixers also have a shaft sleeve that facilitates easy removal of the gear drive from the impeller shaft. Heavy-Duty Shafts All Chemineer shafts are straight to less than 0. Motors QED Plus Mixers rely on NEMA or IEC C-face motors for reliable performance. Depending on gear ratios the QED Plus is capable of producing shaft speeds of 44. tapered shafts are included as standard on all QED Plus Mixers. It fits either a 150 lb. while compensating for minor motor misalignments. rugged worm-drive and helical gearing and high-speed internal bearings ensure a smooth. vibrations or deflection of the mounting pedestal. resulting in longer seal life and quiet operation. 70. ANSI 6" connection or a 150 mm 16 bar ISO connection. Economy and Durability for unbeatable mixing value.We have proven that it is possible to develop an economical mixer that provides quality workmanship. The QED Plus Mixer mounts easily to closed tanks with an integral pedestal/stuffing box/mounting flange that is ANSI or DIN compatible. Flexible couplings reduce mechanical shock and vibration. The Chemineer QED Plus Mixer combines Quality. steel plate mounting feet for easy attachment to a steel beam or any other support structure. efficient transfer of power from motor to shaft. Couplings All QED Plus Mixers are supplied with flexible motor-to-gear reducer couplings made of a durable elastomeric material.5 and come in sizes of 1 to 5 horsepower. three impeller types and three sealing options. . the 1750 rpm motor bolts directly to the drive mechanism reducing the risk of possible misalignment due to fluctuating temperatures. Easy to install.003 inches total runout per foot of shaft length. QED Plus Mixers are well-suited for agitator service in chemical processing. operate and service. petrochemical. Its compact right-angle drive is compatible with various mounting arrangements. the QED Plus Mixer is compatible with 140 and 180 TC frame motors. Chemineer tapered shafts are manufactured to resist torsional loads and bending moments caused by hydraulic forces imparted upon the impeller. design excellence. performance and reliability of high performance at an economical cost. Machined from carbon steel or 316 stainless steel. QED Plus motors have a service factor of 1. For open tank applications. Coupling guards are included for safety and are easily removed for routine maintenance and repair. 88 or 117 rpm. Application Versatility Engineered for versatility. pharmaceutical and general industrial applications. the QED Plus Mixer is equipped with removable.

With mixing volumes from 10 . Greerco Sanitary Pipeline Mixers and Colloid Mills Greerco sanitary pipeline mixers and colloid mills are expertly designed for precision highefficiency and cost-effective performance. materials and options needed to meet critical sanitary mixing applications and ensure the highest level of sanitary mixing. It offers a number of sealing and mounting options to meet the needs of any pharmaceutical. The unique axial-in. high quality mixers. Kenics Static Mixers & Heat Exchangers . The colloid mill is a high-speed. Acrobat Reader is required to view all documents. Chemineer has a mixing solution for all of your sanitary needs. cosmetic or food processing application. Chemineer has combined their thorough understanding of fluid mixing dynamics with current ASME-BPE guidelines to build robust. high-performance impeller options. Chemineer Sanitary Mixers With Chemineer sanitary mixers.Product Literature All Product Literature is in Adobe's PDF Format. cleanability counts as all mixing surfaces promote the free draining of liquids.000 liters and the ability to custom size mixers to suit your requirement. biotechnology. You may download the Acrobat Reader by clicking on the Get Acrobat Reader Icon Below Biotechnology/ Pharmaceutical Mixing and Heat Transfer Solutions Chemineer's sanitary mixers offer a variety of design configurations. high-shear mixer capable of batch or in-line processing. Both products come standard with 316 SS wetted parts and sanitary ferrule connections. Chemineer also offers a wide variety of precision-engineered.40. axial-out flow configuration of the pipeline mixers provides intense hydraulic and shear forces.

Long shafts on extremely tall tanks can be eliminated for cost savings and design simplicity. and 3A certified design/construction. dependability and simplicity of design found in our other highquality turbine agitators and mixers. For large tank installations. tapered roller bearings throughout the HS drive provide long service life and exceptional wear resistance. combined with two standard output speeds and accurately sized impellers. All gears are load-rated per AGMA standards and inspected to AGMA Quality 10 levels. Spiral Bevel Gearing HS drives utilize hardened spiral bevel gearing sized to provide heavy-duty performance and strength. Special designs. velocity. The wide range of power selections and seal options. sanitary ferrule connections. mass transfer or solids suspension. heat transfer. or concentration. up to 250 hp. eliminating thermal degradation and reducing fouling. difficult-to-process materials while allowing uniform heat history. Chemineer ® HS Side-Entering Turbine Agitators work efficiently when a tank is too large for convenient installation of a top-entering agitator. . or where headroom is severely limited. several smaller side-entering agitators may be more efficient and economical than a single. The HS Agitator is available in four standard sizes from 1 to 75 hp. the Timken ® high-capacity. The process fluid is completely mixed. A structural steel support leg is standard on HS Agitators with optional adjustable tie-rods available. Consider HS Side-Entering Agitators for process applications involving continuous blending. Kenics heat exchangers offer maximum heat transfer for highly viscous. Drive Elements Right-Angle Design The right-angle gear design of the HS Agitator reduces overhung load and minimizes nozzle reinforcement requirements. Kenics static mixers are available with 316 LSS construction. larger unit.Kenics static mixers provide the highest level of purity and have a self-cleaning element design. are available. Acrobat Reader is required to view all documents. eliminating gradients in temperature. At the heart of the HS Agitator is a right-angle drive exclusively engineered for sideentering agitator service. You may download the Acrobat Reader by clicking on the Get Acrobat Reader Icon Below HS Side-Entering Agitators offer the same ruggedness. High-Capacity Tapered Roller Bearings Rated at a minimum of 30. These sanitary heat exchangers are completely customized to fit your needs and are built in accordance with TEMA and ASME codes of construction.000 -hour L10 bearing life. means that there is an HS agitator available for nearly every standard application. Product Literature All Product Literature is in Adobe's PDF Format. Supporting a top-entering agitator on a large tank is often far more expensive than the installation of a side-entering agitator.

Tank Shut-Off System A retracting mechanism and seal shut-off are standard on all HS Agitators. Each component must then pass a quality inspection on a computerized precision coordinate measuring inspection machine. Vertical adjusting screws permit precise alignment of the motor even when the agitator is mounted on the tank. The extension shaft is also designed to minimize deflection for superior seal life. Shafts are stocked in carbon steel as well as types 304 and 316 stainless steel. standard couplings reduce costs and replacement difficulties. The stuffing box shut-off is accomplished by simply tightening the retraction bolt which pulls the shut-off collar back and holds it securely. Motor Types and Mounting For installation flexibility and easy mounting. the low-speed shaft inside the drive minimizes gear misalignment and deflection. Double lip seals on the drive shaft prevents oil loss or the infiltration of contaminants. Extra Capacity Reducer Shaft Due to a large cross-section. Catalyzed. This permits the replacement of cartridge mechanical seals or the repacking of stuffing boxes without emptying the tank. support pedestals and mounting feet are fabricated from steel plate using hightech NC machining equipment. The mechanical seal shut-off is engaged when the easily accessible retraction bolt pulls the shaft shut-off collar back into the flange housing. Product Literature . The shut-off seal is provided by a fluoroelastomer O-ring. The shaft is then rotated to lock the extension shaft into the housing. polyurethane exterior finishes protect against corrosion in both indoor and outdoor operating environments. Machinable alloys are also available to address an even wider array of applications. Readily available. This locking feature assures positive shut-off and shaft stability during a mechanical seal change. Rugged Steel Construction Drive housings. the HS Agitator is compatible with standard footmounted electric motors ranging from 1 to 75 hp.Positive Lubrication All gears and bearings in the HS drive are splash-lubricated by an exclusive system developed by Chemineer. The seal is provided by a corrosion-resistant gasket sandwiched between the shut-off collar and the mounting flange. safe handling of the agitator during installation and removal. Each housing features lifting lugs and eyebolts for simplified.

fluid flows mainly upwards through the central hole. Most of the mixing takes place in the cavity between the diode plate and the diaphragm. Its bottom-to-top mixing flow generates excellent solids suspension with rapid homogenization. The combination of a reciprocating piston head/diaphragm and a fixed 'diode' plate creates a powerful bottom to top circulation and mixing action. high solids-loading NIMIX mixing systems.All Product Literature is in Adobe's PDF Format. enabling its performance to be optimized. which quickly suspends solids and easily handles non-Newtonian fluids. NIMIX provides low shear mixing/blending with high recirculation in a sealed environment. patented mixing system. bell mouthed upwards. food and pharmaceutical manufacturing.. low shear . The piston head is driven by a variable speed electric motor affording close control of the low-shear mixing action. On the upstroke of the diaphragm/piston head. Acrobat Reader is required to view all documents. and on the downstroke fluid flows mainly downwards through the outer ring of holes. The 'diode' plate has a central hole. A large effective turndown ratio adapts to variable batch sizes with ease. with a ring of holes. . bell mouthed downwards. i. NIMIX technology blends as a result of oscillation rather than stirring. with complete absence of rotating shafts or seals. NIMIX container/mixer systems are used for both the manufacture and transportation of a range of fluids with applications in chemicals. NIMIX is the solution to mixing in a sealed container and is applicable to a wide range of duties. Custon Designed Process Plant | Mobile Process Plant | UN Certified Bulk Containers | Case Studies The completely sealed. The combination of an oscillating piston plate and fixed diode plate gives unique mixing characteristics. impeller-less way to mix Chemineer designs.20-30s-1 with rapid recirculation at 7-10 ft/s (2-3m/s). NIMIX mixes by circulating from bottom to top. efficient and unique. NIMIX Mixing Technology Effective. You may download the Acrobat Reader by clicking on the Get Acrobat Reader Icon Below. Performance through Understanding Research into NIMIX technology provides a thorough understanding of NIMIX's fluid dynamics.e. manufactures and supplies a unique range of low shear. Reliability from Research Research into the lifetime prediction of elastomeric components backs the reliability of the diaphragm in this unique.

no product degradation Homogeneous suspension of heavy slurries Rapid recirculation . Commercial gearboxes typically use smaller diameter output shafts. Shaft speed selections are available from 7 to 380 rpm without the use of auxiliary reducers or electronic drives. These smaller output shafts and less robust bearing designs of commercial gearboxes also contribute to higher gear deflections.no contamination or emission Low shear process .Features and Benefits • • • • • • • • • Sealed system .central jet 7 ft/s (2 m/sec) No aeration Low energy consumption Hygienic construction Ease of cleaning Flexible batch sizes Reliability. dispersion. and other mixing needs. The MR agitator’s gearbox is a proprietary. resulting in the need to select larger and more expensive units to handle the torsional loads and bending moments produced by the hydraulic loads on agitator systems. higher . parallel-shaft. When the MR gearbox is expertly matched with a wide variety of Chemineer impellers and other system components.000 hour L10 bearing life and an oversized output shaft for optimal performance and extended service life. excessive vibration. Performance & Value The MR model is the latest addition to Chemineer’s line of high performance and reliable agitators. Gearbox Designed for Agitator Duty Commercially available gearboxes for agitators in this size range normally have low-speed output shafts and bearing designs that are poorly suited to agitator duty. MR agitators are capable of economically meeting your blending. helical gear design that features minimum 30.

standard NEMA and IEC motors or explosion-proof motors. MR agitators are designed to meet AGMA. ANSI. shafts. The MR gearbox addresses these concerns by incorporating a larger output shaft straightened to exact tolerances and high capacity tapered roller bearings into its design. The rugged cast iron housing of the MR gearbox features a double lip seal to effectively contain the gearbox lubricant as well as a swing out seal change design that saves maintenance labor and reduces downtime. MR agitator gearboxes. OSHA. DIN. . the industry leading agitator design and analysis software program. Global Availability To support the global manufacturing footprint of our customers.maintenance costs. A variety of stuffing boxes or mechanical seals and many Chemineer custom pedestals. impellers. IEC. mountings and system components are also interchangeable with the Chemineer Model 20 HT and GT agitators enabling customers to readily adapt or upgrade their agitator drives and system components to changes in application requirements or operating environments. The MR agitator and all of its system components are included in the Chemineer Expert Design System (CEDS®). EU and ATEX standards and requirements. These design features reduce the overall initial cost of the gearbox and other agitation system components and reduce the maintenance costs of the agitator. Versatile Modular Design The modular design of MR agitators makes them well-suited for a variety of mixing applications. performance and value. plates or flanges for closed tank operation. and steady bearings can be incorporated into the MR design as well. MR agitators are available in all major global markets with the same Chemineer assurance of reliability. and a reduced life of many critical agitator system components. They may be supplied with integral gearmotors. CEDS® helps insure that MR components are selected and configured for optimal system performance and value. This product can be mounted to support beams or similar structures for open tank operation or to pedestals. couplings.

repeatable results from lab scale to full scale operations.155 rpm. Acrobat Reader is required to view all documents. MR agitators can become your global process system standard helping drive efficiencies in procurement and reduce maintenance costs and replacement part investment. Couple that with an abrasion-resistant. products and services to solve your mixing challenges. The GT is available with either NEMA or IEC C-flange motors from 1 . Product Literature All Product Literature is in Adobe's PDF Format. B710. gas dispersion. catalyzed polyurethane finish and you have a turbine agitator well-suited for use in both indoor and outdoor operating environments. Unlike the competition that uses flimsy plastic and fiberglass components. An impeller brochure.With all of its versatility. high shear blending and viscous mixing. the GT features a small mounting footprint making it ideal for applications where clearances may be tight. is available with additional information. the Chemineer GT Turbine Agitator features a housing completely manufactured from cast iron. Chemineer’s 50+ years of mixing expertise includes low shear liquid-liquid/solids blending. You may download the Acrobat Reader by clicking on the Get Acrobat Reader Icon Below Supplier of Fluid Mixing Equipment | Chemineer GT Agitators Chemineer GT Turbine Agitators Premium Performance The line of Chemineer GT Turbine Agitators provides enhanced cost-efficiency and performance embodied in an advanced parallel shaft design. Chemineer has the experience. Whether it is R&D or production phase. .30 HP and shaft speeds of 11 . Impeller Technology Chemineer’s impeller process technology is effectively applied across your spectrum of applications ensuring successful. easy handling of the entire unit. Lifting lugs cast directly into the housing make for safe. Thanks to a low profile design and compact internal components. The motor is shipped to your facility and can be attached to the integral motor coupling during the installation process.

precision-ground. The GT agitator's tapered roller bearings feature an L10 bearing life of 50. eliminating the risk of process fluid contamination. line-of-site view and ample room for easy removal of the coupling half and seal cartridge.000 hours for long life and trouble-free operation. Chemineer will work with you to determine optimum sizing for your application. GT shafts are available in diameters of 1-1/2 to 3-1/2 inches and afford maximum resistance to . When compared to competitive designs. single reduction units which require expensive synthetic lubricants due to extreme pressure loads at the high speed pinion. simply rotate the gearbox 90 degrees around the pivot pin. the GT agitator's double reduction configuration allows for a wider variety of speeds at low overall operating costs. The competition's mixer. The GT also easily accommodates a triple reduction drive for size 3 and 4 gearboxes. Power + Efficiency Chemineer GT agitators feature a highly efficient drive specifically engineered for turbine agitator service. Oversized Shafting All Chemineer shafting is sized and tested to resist torsional loads and bending moments resulting from hydraulic forces acting on the impeller during mixing. Geared for Life Case-carburized. helical gear sets are manufactured to AGMA Quality 10 standards for long service and proper contact. CNC machining ensures exact. Its main support bearing is mounted in the rigid support base of the gearbox for reliable performance in severe bending applications. The top of the seal pedestal opens for a clear.Key Features of the GT Turbine Agitator • • • • • • • Wide variety of seal types Small footprint Standard lubricants Double and triple reduction gear drive designs Completely cast iron housing Broad application versatility Worldwide compatibility Simply Accessible For replacement of the mechanical seal. however. low speed shaft seal prevents lubricant leakage. uses a drywell-mounted output bearing which has a tendency to crack thus limiting its application to less stressful service. The standard drywell. Additionally. repeatable fits and finishes for improved parts interchangeability and gear alignment. The GT agitator's helical gearing provides minimal wear for optimum mechanical energy transmission resulting in more power for your mixing needs. Standard Lubricants for a Lifetime of Smooth Operation The GT agitator drive utilizes typical gear oil lubricants as opposed to competitive. positive gear and bearing lubrication is provided even under variable speed applications and reverse rotation.

Acrobat Reader is required to view all documents. We supply a range of models suitable for a variety of applications including . A variety of materials of construction ensure process compatibility. chrome and mollybium cobalt. Technical Specification Mixer Support Lightweight stainless steel bridge which mounts directly onto the IBC frame and is secured in place with quick action toggle clamps.003 inches of total runout per foot of shaft length to minimize vibration and maximize seal life. suitable for most container types. carbon steel.high nickel alloy. Applications • • • • • • • Chemical Industries Dye stuffs & Pigments Slurries Paint & Varnish Food & Beverage Water treatment chemicals and flocculants Cosmetics Industry Container Designed for use on 1000 / 800 litre IBC containers with 150mm screw caps by Schutz. . Product Literature All Product Literature is in Adobe's PDF Format. Chemineer’s unique new range of industrial agitators are designed for use with plastic transportable (IBC) containers. All shafts are straightened to 0. nbsp. Options include the following: 316 SS.blending light viscous liquid as well as re-suspension of settled solids and dissolution of powders. bolt on modules are also available for lifting the mixer using a fork lift truck. You may download the Acrobat Reader by clicking on the Get Acrobat Reader Icon Below.shock loads. C276 . Sotralentz and Van Leer. Lifting Options As standard the mixer is supplied with an eye bolt for lifting the mixer using a hoist. high alloys.

High speed mixers are fitted with single or dual fixed impellers and low speed mixers with E-400 Folding Impellers. Folding Impeller . Connection to the unit is with a 4 pin. 16 amp plug / socket. • • Gear Drives Factory filled with a synthetic food quality lubricant and sealed for life. Air Are fitted with a flow control valve and muffler. Shaft and Impellers The mixer shaft and impellers are manufactured in 316 stainless steel. fited with Start / Stop push buttons and overload relays. A safety interlock is integrated into the mixer support bridge and wired to the motor control. a 10 metre steel wire armoured flex extension cable is available as an optional extra.Motors Electric • 400 Volts 3ph 50Hz protection IP55.

37 .0 100 350 500 1000 2500 5000 15000 HBC-37 Gear LBC-75 Gear LBC-150 Gear Vigorous Agitation . Mild to Medium Agitation .high speed direct drive LBC .low speed gear drive Motors 0. Our application engineers will be pleased to advise on mixers / agitators suitable for your specific application.1.0 100 250 500 LBC-75 Gear .5 kw electric or air Special designs are also available for introducing powders or liquids into the IBC Mixer Sizing and Selection The following tables provide a general selection guide.Models • • • • HBC .100 Litre IBC Viscosity Cp Mixer Model HBC-37 Drive Type Direct 1.1000 Litre IBC Viscosity Cp Mixer Model HBC-37 Drive Type Gear 1.

magnetic drive or in-tank bearings .1000 2500 5000 LBC-150 Gear Enquiries / Ordering Please mention container type and size: volume and mixing duty together with viscosity and SG when requesting a quotation or placing an order to enable our application engineers to confirm or propose a suitable IBC mixer selection Supplier of Fluid Mixing Equipment | Clean Sweep Mixers – Revolutionary Mixing Technology Clean Sweep Mixer The NEW Clean Sweep™ mixer from Chemineer revolutionizes mixing technology by utilizing a swing motion instead of the customary rotating motion providing a hermetically sealed environment! • Eliminates particle shedding from mechanical seals or in-tank bearings • Fewer crevices… Fewer cleanability issues • Ease of maintenance – No mechanical seals.

call: 1:800:643:0641 Impelle rs Impellers If there were only one mixing job to do. For a more thorough application evaluation. only one impeller would be required. or the resulting loss in pumping efficiency.2 The Chemineer® SC-3 Impeller features an advanced design engineered for deep tanks. contact your nearest Chemineer sales office . The use of an SC-3 impeller can produce an overall agitator cost savings as much as 33%. SC-3 Impeller Size relative to P-4 Favorable Applications: 1. The descriptions and discussions below are intended as a guide for impeller selection. there is a very wide range of problems in agitation. low-level mixing capability all you need is … Clean Sweep™! For the nearest Chemineer sales office. The highly efficient SC-3 Impeller's reduced weight allows for the use of longer shaft extensions for deeper tanks. without the added weight.• Center-mounted and no baffles required! • Sweeping motion eliminates process swirl and need for angle-mounting • No lock-out speed ranges For low-shear. It produces flow characteristics of much larger impellers. and resolves associated critical speed limitations. and the best impeller for one application may not be the best impeller for another. Relative impeller sizes are compared to the P4 at equal horsepower and equal speed. However. HE-3 Impeller .

0 A reasonably cost effective impeller in both turbulent and laminar flow. Good impeller for applications where the viscosity changes over a wide range causing the flow regime to vary between turbulent and laminar flow. A reasonably cost effective impeller for solids suspension. Most effective for Reynolds numbers over 50.3 An extremely efficient turbulent flow impeller for blending.Size relative to P-4 Favorable Applications: 1. Developed to minimize the creation of trailing vortices and incorporating the otherwise wasted energy into macro-flow. heat transfer and solids suspension. S-4 or Straight Blade Impeller . P-4 or Pitched Blade Impeller Size relative to P-4 Favorable Applications: 1.

The mass transfer capability is on the order of 10% better than the CD-6.84 A cost effective impeller for operation very near the floor of a tank for agitating the heel in solids suspension applications. In fact. Unloads less than the CD-6.Size relative to P-4 Favorable Applications: 0. Unlike many other gas dispersing impellers.83 . Also an effective impeller in laminar flow applications.88 Highest gas dispersing capability available. especially when impeller Reynolds numbers drop below 50. the BT6 is relatively insensitive to viscosity. the unloading is nearly all due to the change in effective density of the gassed liquid. CD-6 Impeller Size relative to P-4 0. Can disperse nearly six times the gas handling capability of the D-6 or Rushton impeller. BT-6 Impeller Size relative to P-4 Favorable Applications: 0.

1 The Maxflo W impeller.4 times the maximum gas capacity of the D-6 impeller. D-6 or Rushton Impeller Size relative to P-4 Favorable Applications: 0.1. is an improved version and full replacement impeller for the Maxflo T. with about 10% more effectiveness in pumping efficiency. Maxflo WSE .74 Good cost effective impeller for low concentrations of immiscible liquid or gas. but there are substantial power and dispersion capability differences. This impeller has been used at aeration numbers as high as 2.Favorable Applications: The CD-6 impeller is a second generation gas and immiscible liquid dispersion impeller. Maxflo W Impeller Size relative to P-4 Favorable Applications: 1. Two very strong trailing vortices are shed from each blade. solids suspension in the presence of small amounts of gas introduced or generated in situ. These areas of high shear are responsible for breaking the larger droplets to smaller droplets.1. The CD-6 can handle about 2. Excellent in abrasive solids suspension. Maximum aeration numbers should be limited to 0. The CD-6 is similar to the Smith impeller. and in boiling or near boiling applications.

3 . It has more cavitation resistance than other designs through effective hydrodynamic design. advanced side-entering hydrofoil impeller that produces maximum pumping action. high solidity impellers for use in turbulent side entering applications. The high solidity permits operation nearer the boiling point without cavitation.Favorable Applications: A high efficiency.4 High efficiency. such as paper stock. They are especially effective for fluids possessing a yield value. Maxflo Mark II & III Impellers Size relative to P-4 Favorable Applications: 1. JP-3 Impeller Size relative to P-4 Favorable Applications: 1.

1-1. Smoothline-style impellers disassemble to pass through manways on process vessels. P-4. Various processes require different ratios of shear and pumping. BTNS and RBTNS agitator lines. The high solidity permits operation nearer the boiling point without cavitation. Many high shear devices are very low in pumping capability and require an auxiliary impeller to provide turnover. efficient energy transmission and superior mixing performance. Their FDA-approved Teflon gaskets between every joint prevent entrapment of process material. ChemShear impellers often overcome the need for an auxiliary pumping impeller. As an added benefit. ChemShear impellers have been used in microencapsulation processes producing particles in the 2 micron range. ChemShear Impeller Size relative to P-4 Favorable Applications: 1. .3 ChemShear Impellers are made in 4 different styles. It is available for the HE-3. Style 1 has the widest blades and style 4 the narrowest blades. They work well in applications which require moderately high shear but also some level of pumping. Smoothline Impeller Chemineer simplifies double impeller configurations for sanitary mixing processes with its patent-pending Smoothline impeller design. they are easily compatible with single piece shafts thus ensuring optimum straightness.A high efficiency turbulent flow impeller used on our smallest turbine agitators at direct drive motor speeds on our DT. The wider blades pump more. S-4 and Maxflo W impellers. and the narrower blades have the higher level of shear.

The central screw can effectively pull down solids and liquids from the surface when the helical ribbon is pumping up.000 MPa. The double flight helical ribbon impeller is also good for heat transfer and blending of liquids and solids from the surface. Anchor Impeller . It is the most efficient blender of all existing close clearance agitators. Generally used for applications where viscosities are ordinarily greater than 30.000 MPa. laminar flow impeller. laminar flow impeller. Single Flight Helical Ribbon with Screw Relative Impeller Size: On the order of 95% of the Tank Diameter Favorable Applications: A reasonably efficient high viscosity.Double Helical Ribbon Impeller Relative Impeller Size: On the order of 95% of the Tank Diameter Favorable Applications: Generally recognized as the best all around high viscosity. Blend times are about the same to somewhat longer than the double flight helical ribbon impeller. Generally used for applications where viscosities are ordinarily greater than 30. Heat transfer coefficients are only slightly less than the double helical ribbon impeller.

Industrial agitators are machines used in industries that process products in the chemical. pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This impeller provides good top-to-bottom turnover. Although blending is generally good. It is the easiest high viscosity impeller onto which scrapers can be mounted for very difficult heat transfer applications.Relative Impeller Size: On the order of 95% of the Tank Diameter Favorable Applications: The anchor impeller is the most economical laminar flow impeller.5. heat transfer is not as good as the close clearance high viscosity impellers. It is most effective in squatty batches where vertical pumping is not as important as in tall batches. food. Screw (Auger) Impeller Relative Impeller Size: Typically about Half the Tank Diameter Favorable Applications: A screw impeller produces effective high viscosity blending of shear sensitive polymers. Blend times are somewhat longer than helical ribbon type impellers. The screw impeller is suitable for fluids which are not too pseudoplastic with power law indexes less than 0. in a view of : .

the impeller can generate: • the moving of the liquid which is characterized by its velocity and direction. dough mixer. liquid and gas or liquid with solids and gas. thank to the impeller. agitator is located on the bottom of the tank. Or the bulk is already blended and the aim of agitation is to increase a heat transfer or to maintain particles in suspension to avoid any deposit.• • • • mixing liquids together promote the reactions of chemical substances keeping homogeneous liquid bulk during storage increase heat transfer (heating or cooling) Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Types 2 Principle of agitation 3 Data of an agitator 4 Impellers 5 Mechanical features [edit] Types Several different kind of industrial agitators exist: • • • • • mechanical agitators (rotating) static agitators ( pipe fitted with baffles) Rotating tank agitators (like concrete mixer) Agitators working with a pump blasting liquid Agitator turning thanks to gas The choice of the agitator depends on the phase that needs to be mixed (one or several phases): Liquids only. amongst others. . liquid and solid. or horizontally (on the side of the tank) or less common. to the rotation of an impeller. on mechanical agitators. [edit] Data of an agitator The agitation of liquid is made by one or several agitation impellers. This is due. the agitator can be named mixer. Depending on its shape. [edit] Principle of agitation The agitation is achieved by generating movement of the liquid phase. kneader. Depending on the type of phase and viscosity of the bulk. The agitators use in liquids can be placed on the top of the tank on vertical position. The bulk can be composed of different substances and the aim of the operation is to blend it or to improve the efficiency of a reaction by a better contact between reactive product.

[edit] Impellers Propellers (marine or hydrofoil ) give a inlet and outlet which are on axial direction. Shearing given by a velocity gradient between two filets of fluids. Turbines (flat blades or pitched blades) which inlet flow is axial and outlet flow is radial will provide shearing. These two phenomena provide energy consumption. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. it can be guided by a bearing located in the bottom of the tank (bottom bearing). for the same diameter and same rotation speed. only few energy consumed and low shear magnitude as low turbulence. If the operating conditions are under high pressure or high temperature.• • Turbulence which is an erratic variation in space and time of local fluid velocity. turbulence and need approximately 20 time more energy than propellers. a shaft and impellers . a guiding system of the shaft (lantern fitted with bearings). the agitator must be equipped with a sealing system to keep tightened the inside of the tank when the shaft is crossing it. search . Retrieved from "http://en. they are characterized by a nice pumping flow. gear reducer.wikipedia. [edit] Mechanical features An agitator is composed of a drive device ( motor. If the shaft is long (> 10m). preferably downward.org/wiki/Industrial_agitator" Categories: Industrial machinery Batch reactor From Wikipedia. belts…).

A typical batch reactor consists of a tank with an agitator and integral heating/cooling system. Its name is something of a misnomer since vessels of this type are used for a variety of process operations such as solids dissolution.1 Single external jacket 2. or bio reactor). stainless steel. Impeller blades are mounted on the shaft. Vapors and gases also discharge through connections in the top. Contents [hide] • • 1 Agitation 2 Heating and cooling systems ○ ○ ○ • • 2.2 Half coil jacket 2. toxic or highly potent compounds. The advantages of the batch reactor lie with its versatility. A single vessel can carry out a sequence of different operations without the need to break containment. batch distillation. product mixing.000 litres. chemical reactions. Liquids and solids are usually charged via connections in the top cover of the reactor. These vessels may vary in size from less than 1 litre to more than 15.Batch reactor symbol The Batch reactor is the generic term for a type of vessel widely used in the process industries. glass or exotic alloy. This is particularly useful when processing. liquid/liquid extraction and polymerization. glass lined steel. They are usually fabricated in steel. crystallization. Where viscous products are . Liquids are usually discharged out of the bottom. In some cases.3 Constant flux cooling jacket 3 See also 4 External links [edit] Agitation The usual agitator arrangement is a centrally mounted driveshaft with an overhead drive unit. A wide variety of blade designs are used and typically the blades cover about two thirds of the diameter of the reactor. they are not referred to as reactors but have a name which reflects the role they perform (such as crystallizer.

mixing in large batch reactors is ultimately constrained by the amount of energy that can be applied. external cooling jackets are generally preferred as they make the vessel easier to clean. In order to hold the reactor contents at the desired temperature. there are better solutions than batch reactors. Despite significant improvements in agitator blade and baffle design. heat has to be added or removed by a cooling jacket or cooling pipe. Fast temperature control response and uniform jacket heating and cooling is particularly important for crystallization processes or operations where the product or process is very temperature sensitive. High agitator loads can also create shaft stability problems. Within the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Heat transfer fluid passes through the jacket or coils to add or remove heat. It is difficult to achieve better than 100 Watts/litre even with ideal heat transfer conditions. There are several types of batch reactor cooling jackets: [edit] Single external jacket . mixing energies of more than 5 Watts per litre can put an unacceptable burden on the cooling system. anchor shaped paddles are often used which have a close clearance between the blade and the vessel walls. the batch reactor is not the ideal solution. It has to be recognized however that large batch reactors with external cooling jackets have severe heat transfer constraints by virtue of design.handled. The performance of these jackets can be defined by 3 parameters: • • • Response time to modify the jacket temperature Uniformity of jacket temperature Stability of jacket temperature It can be argued that heat transfer coefficient is also an important parameter. Even the action of stirring stored liquids generates heat. Much higher mixing rates can be achieved by using smaller flowing systems with high speed agitators. These are stationary blades which break up flow caused by the rotating agitator. [edit] Heating and cooling systems Products within batch reactors usually liberate or absorb heat during processing. continuous reactors can deliver cooling capacities in excess of 10. Most batch reactors also use baffles. On large vessels. For processes with very high heat loads.000 W/litre. By contrast. Heating/cooling coils or external jackets are used for heating and cooling batch reactors. ultrasonic mixing or static mixers. Where mixing is a critical parameter. These may be fixed to the vessel cover or mounted on the side walls.

it can take many minutes to adjust the temperature of the fluid in the cooling jacket. The heat transfer fluid passes through the channel in a plug flow fashion. A large reactor may use several coils to deliver the heat transfer fluid.Batch reactor with single external cooling jacket The single jacket design consists of an outer jacket which surrounds the vessel. Another issue to consider is the inlet temperature of the heat transfer fluid which can oscillate (in response to the temperature control valve) over a wide temperature range to cause hot or cold spots at the jacket inlet points. Heat transfer fluid flows around the jacket and is injected at high velocity via nozzles. On large vessels. The temperature in the jacket is regulated to control heating or cooling. The single jacket is probably the oldest design of external cooling jacket. Despite being a tried and tested solution. This results in sluggish temperature control. Like the single jacket design however the inlet heat transfer fluid is also vulnerable to large oscillations (in response to the temperature control valve) in temperature. Like the single jacket. it has some limitations. [edit] Half coil jacket Batch reactor with half coil jacket The half coil jacket is made by welding a half pipe around the outside of the vessel to create a semi circular flow channel. [edit] Constant flux cooling jacket . The plug flow characteristics of a half coil jacket permits faster displacement of the heat transfer fluid in the jacket (typically less than 60 seconds). the temperature in the jacket is regulated to control heating or cooling. It also provides good distribution of heat transfer fluid which avoids the problems of non uniform heating or cooling between the side walls and bottom dish. The distribution of heat transfer fluid is also far from ideal and the heating or cooling tends to vary between the side walls and bottom dish. This is desirable for good temperature control.

the latest tank cleaning machine is even authorized to carry the 3-A symbol. Like the half coil jacket the heating/cooling flux is uniform. . personal care and biopharm industries. Because the jacket operates at substantially constant temperature however the inlet temperature oscillations seen in other jackets are absent. It offers a combination of physical impact and cascading flow of cleaning fluid that covers all internal surfaces. It is not a single jacket but has a series of 20 or more small jacket elements. The temperature control valve operates by opening and closing these channels as required. brewery. An unusual feature of this type jacket is that process heat can be measured very sensitively. and water and chemical usage by as much as 90%? Toftejorg rotary spray head This dynamic spray head is suitable for applications where the products are relatively easy to clean. controlling addition rates. the process temperature can be regulated without altering the jacket temperature.Batch reactor with constant flux (Coflux) jacket The constant flux cooling jacket is a relatively recent development. dairy. Designed for the needs of the food. Alfa Laval Toftejorg dynamic tank cleaning machines Alfa Laval Toftejorg dynamic tank cleaning machines are known for cleaning faster and deeper than static spray balls. By varying the heat transfer area in this way. This allows the user to monitor the rate of reaction for detecting end points. The constant flux jacket has very fast temperature control response (typically less than 5 seconds) due to the short length of the flow channels and high velocity of the heat transfer fluid. controlling crystallization etc. Did you know that a dynamic tank cleaning machine can cut energy consumption by half.

Contents [hide] • • • 1 Design specification ○ 1.2 Blade count .1 Low temperature 2 Aerodynamics 3 Power control ○ ○ • ○ ○ ○ • • • 3. convert mechanical rotation into electrical power. point the turbine into the wind.1 Stall 3. and control the turbine. and other systems to start. This article covers the design of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) since the majority of commercial turbines use this design.3 Mechanical braking 4 Other controls 5 Turbine size 6 Generator 7 Blades ○ ○ 7. This is mainly due to the disproportionate amount that is spent on the foundations as a percentage of the total project cost.2 Pitch control 4.1 Blade design 7.Toftejorg rotary jet head The high-impact jet stream from a rotary jet head is widely used in tough and difficult to clean applications. designed for each application. considerable attention should be given to the structural and foundation design of HAWTs.[1] A wind turbine installation consists of the necessary systems needed to capture the wind's energy. stop. Contrary to popular belief. Wind turbine designs are utilized to create wind turbines that exploit wind energy.2 Electrical braking 4. With its pre-programmed cleaning pattern.1 Yawing 4. this dynamic device ensures a reliable result even under challenging conditions.

different lubricants. [edit] Low temperature Utility-scale wind turbine generators have minimum temperature operating limits which apply in areas that experience temperatures below –20 °C. the fundamental laws of conservation of mass and energy allowed no more than 16/27 (59. In 1919 the physicist Albert Betz showed that for a hypothetical ideal wind-energy extraction machine. the St.1 Tower height 8 Tower 9 Foundations 10 See also 11 References 12 External links [edit] Design specification The design specification for a wind-turbine will contain a power curve and guaranteed availability. For example.○ • • • • • ○ 7. In areas with extreme climate (like Inner Mongolia or Rajasthan) specific cold and hot weather versions are required. This factor affects the economics of wind turbine operation in cold climates. This Betz' law limit can be approached by modern turbine designs which may reach 70 to 80% of this theoretical limit.3 Blade materials 8. Wind turbines must be protected from ice accumulation. for internal heating. [edit] Aerodynamics Main article: Wind turbine aerodynamics The aerodynamics of a horizontal-axis wind turbine are not straightforward.[1] The typical operating temperature range is -20 to 40 °C (-4 to 104 °F). If the low-temperature interval is combined with a low-wind condition. the wind turbine will require an external supply of power. [edit] Power control A wind turbine is designed to produce a maximum of power at wide spectrum of wind speeds. Some turbine manufacturers offer low-temperature packages at a few percent extra cost. The air flow at the blades is not the same as the airflow far away from the turbine. and different alloys for structural elements. Leon. equivalent to a few percent of its rated power.3%) of the kinetic energy of the wind to be captured. which can make anemometer readings inaccurate and which can cause high structure loads and damage. The wind turbines have three modes of operation: . With the data from the wind resource assessment it is possible to calculate commercial viability. In addition the aerodynamics of a wind turbine at the rotor surface exhibit phenomena that are rarely seen in other aerodynamic fields. which include internal heaters. The very nature of the way in which energy is extracted from the air also causes air to be deflected by the turbine. Manitoba project has a total rating of 99 MW and is estimated to need up to 3 MW (around 3% of capacity) of station service power a few days a year for temperatures down to –30 °C.

. but it increases the cross-section of the blade face-on to the wind. A fixed-speed HAWT inherently increases its angle of attack at higher wind speed as the blades speed up. and thus the ordinary drag. A fully stalled turbine blade. on some of these blade sets.in this example protecting the blade from rapid fluctuations in wind speed. This technique was successfully used on many early HAWTs. However. Stalling is simple because it can be made to happen passively (it increases automatically when the winds speed up).• • • Below rated wind speed operation Around rated wind speed operation Above rated wind speed operation If the rated wind speed is exceeded the power has to be limited.e. A natural strategy. [edit] Stall Plastic vortex generator stripes used to control stall characteristics of the blade . when stopped. and it reduces the induced drag (drag associated with lift). has the flat side of the blade facing directly into the wind. . is to allow the blade to stall when the wind speed increases.the larger ones are closest to the root of the blade where the boundary layer is thicker(i. Closeup look at the vortex generators (VGs) . There are various ways to achieve this. closest to the hub) Stalling works by increasing the angle at which the relative wind strikes the blades (angle of attack). then. it was observed that the degree of blade pitch tended to increase audible noise levels.

as well as the cross-section. which reduces the induced drag from the lift of the rotor. They have a small battery-reserve in case of an electric-grid breakdown. either by flyweights or geometric design. Standard modern turbines all pitch the blades in high winds. [edit] Electrical braking . The power output losses can simply be approximated to fall with cos3(yaw angle). since the wind direction varies quickly the turbine will not strictly follow the direction and will have a small yaw angle on average. A fully furled turbine blade.[2] [edit] Pitch control Furling works by decreasing the angle of attack. the blades automatically furl. when stopped. has the edge of the blade facing into the wind. and employ no electric or hydraulic controls. so that if hydraulic power fails.Vortex generators may be used to control the lift characteristics of the blade. These systems are usually spring loaded. the power output is maximized and non-symmetrical loads minimized. Many turbines use hydraulic systems. Other turbines use an electric servomotor for every rotor blade. The VGs are placed on the airfoil to enhance the lift if they are placed on the lower (flatter) surface or limit the maximum lift if placed on the upper (higher camber) surface. By minimizing the yaw angle (the misalignment between wind and turbine pointing direction). However. it requires some form of pitch angle control. [edit] Other controls [edit] Yawing Modern large wind turbines are typically actively controlled to face the wind direction measured by a wind vane situated on the back of the nacelle. One major problem in designing wind turbines is getting the blades to stall or furl quickly enough should a gust of wind cause sudden acceleration. Since pitching requires acting against the torque on the blade. Small wind turbines (under 50 kW) with variable-pitching generally use systems operated by centrifugal force.

so to minimize costs. This method is usually not applied on large grid-connected wind turbines. Typical modern wind turbines have diameters of 40 to 90 metres (130 to 300 ft) and are rated between 500 kW and 2 MW. [edit] Turbine size A person standing beside medium size modern turbine blades. This way.Dynamic braking resistor for wind turbine. For a given survivable wind speed. Labor and maintenance costs increase only gradually with increasing turbine size. the turbine's rotation can be kept at a safe speed in faster winds while maintaining (nominal) power output. converting the kinetic energy of the turbine rotation into heat. which increases the stalling effect. The maximum blade-length of a turbine is limited by both the strength and stiffness of its material. Braking of a small wind turbine can also be done by dumping energy from the generator into a resistor bank. This method is useful if the kinetic load on the generator is suddenly reduced or is too small to keep the turbine speed within its allowed limit. As of 2010 the most powerful turbine is rated at 7 MW. and siting requirements. Such brakes are usually applied only after blade furling and electromagnetic braking have reduced the turbine speed. Cyclically braking causes the blades to slow down. [edit] Mechanical braking A mechanical drum brake or disk brake is used to hold the turbine at rest for maintenance. as the mechanical brakes would wear quickly if used to stop the turbine from full speed. [edit] Generator . reducing the efficiency of the blades. There can also be a stick brake. wind farm turbines are basically limited by the strength of materials. the mass of a turbine is approximately proportional to the cube of its blade-length. Wind power intercepted by the turbine is proportional to the square of its blade-length.

and Siemens produces a gearless "inverted generator" 3MW model[3][4] while developing a 6MW model. While the rotating field winding consumes a fraction of a percent of the generator output. adjustment of the field current allows good control over the generator output voltage.10 Israeli wind turbines in the Golan Heights 600 kW each For large. behind the hub of the turbine rotor. Typically wind turbines generate electricity through asynchronous machines that are directly connected with the electricity grid.[citation needed] Gearless turbines . the generator is mounted in a nacelle at the top of a tower. a gearbox is inserted between the rotor hub and the generator. Therefore. Usually the rotational speed of the wind turbine is slower than the equivalent rotation speed of the electrical network . This also reduces the generator cost and weight. Commercial size generators have a rotor carrying a field winding so that a rotating magnetic field is produced inside a set of windings called the stator.typical rotation speeds for a wind generators are 5-20 rpm while a directly connected machine will have an electrical speed between 750-3600 rpm. Enercon has produced gearless wind turbines with permanent magnet generators for many years.[5] This gives better reliability and performance than gear based systems. commercial size horizontal-axis wind turbines.

the turbine can capture a significantly larger fraction of the wind energy. This can be solved using multiple technologies such as doubly fed induction generators or full-effect converters where the variable frequency current produced is converted to DC and then back to AC. matching the line frequency and voltage. Although such alternatives require costly equipment and cause power loss. In some cases. which allowed the use of less costly induction generators. especially when turbines are sited offshore.Parts of DIY Wind turbine Older style wind generators rotate at a constant speed. to match power line frequency. the DC energy will be transmitted from the turbine to a central (onshore) inverter for connection to the grid. [edit] Blades [edit] Blade design . Newer wind turbines often turn at whatever speed generates electricity most efficiently.

the noise from a wind turbine increases with the fifth power of the relative wind speed (as seen from the moving tip of the blades). To keep the rotor and hub within their centripetal force limits. see above). Use of aluminum and composite materials in their blades has contributed to low rotational inertia. turbines have to be built to survive much higher wind loads (such as gusts of wind) than those from which they can practically generate power. High efficiency 3-blade-turbines have tip speed/wind speed ratios of 6 to 7. To keep the rotor and tower within their strength limits. In noise-sensitive environments. it is sometimes necessary to bring a turbine to a full stop. which means that newer wind turbines can accelerate quickly if the winds pick up. most wind turbines have ways of reducing torque in high winds. older style wind turbines were designed with heavier steel blades. The speed and torque at which a wind turbine rotates must be controlled for several reasons: • • • To optimize the aerodynamic efficiency of the rotor in light winds. because it is dangerous to have people working on a wind turbine while it is active. and rotated at speeds governed by the AC frequency of the power lines. keeping the tip speed ratio more nearly constant. The centripetal force from the spinning rotors increases as the square of the rotation speed. In contrast. which makes this structure sensitive to overspeed. To enable maintenance. To keep the generator within its speed and torque limits. the tip speed can be limited to approximately 60 m/s (200 ft/s). The high inertia buffered the changes in rotation speed and thus made power output more stable. Modern wind turbines are designed to spin at varying speeds (a consequence of their generator design. As a rule of thumb. Operating closer to their optimal tip speed ratio during energetic gusts of wind allows wind turbines to improve energy capture from sudden gusts that are typical in urban settings. which have higher inertia. • • • .Blades can be made from simple objects as barrels The ratio between the speed of the wind and the speed of the blade tips is called tip speed ratio. Because the power of the wind increases as the cube of the wind speed. Since the blades generate more downwind force (and thus put far greater stress on the tower) when they are producing torque. To reduce noise.

Aerodynamic efficiency increases with number of blades but with diminishing return. In addition. and aesthetics. whereas increasing the blade count from two to three yields only an additional three percent in efficiency.[edit] Blade count The NASA Mod-0 research wind turbine at Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook station in Ohio tested a one-bladed rotor configuration The determination of the number of blades involves design considerations of aerodynamic efficiency. Further increasing the blade count yields minimal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency and sacrifices too much in blade stiffness as the blades become thinner. the fewer the number of blades. deflection of blades in a downwind machine results in increased tower clearance. . Given that the noise emissions from the blades' trailing edges and tips vary by the 5th power of blade speed. system reliability. This is because blade stiffness requirements to avoid interference with the tower limit how thin the blades can be manufactured. Generally. a small increase in tip speed can make a large difference. Fewer blades with higher rotational speeds reduce peak torques in the drive train. resulting in lower gearbox and generator costs. the fewer the number of blades. the lower the material and manufacturing costs will be. Noise emissions are affected by the location of the blades upwind or downwind of the tower and the speed of the rotor. Wind turbines developed over the last 50 years have almost universally used either two or three blades. but only for upwind machines. Increasing the number of blades from one to two yields a six percent increase in aerodynamic efficiency. the higher the rotational speed can be. Component costs that are affected by blade count are primarily for materials and manufacturing of the turbine rotor and drive train. component costs.

The common trend of these larger capacity designs are larger and larger wind turbine blades. an estimated 50 million kilograms of fiberglass laminate were used in wind turbine blades. yielding smoother operation during turbine yaw. Turbines with one or two blades can use a pivoting teetered hub to also nearly eliminate the cyclic loads into the drive shaft and system during yawing. While aligning the wind turbine to changes in wind direction (yawing). each blade experiences a cyclic load at its root end depending on blade position.[7] New materials and manufacturing methods provide the opportunity to improve wind turbine efficiency by allowing for larger. aesthetics can be considered a factor in that some people find that the three-bladed rotor is more pleasing to look at than a one. loading due to gravity becomes a constraining design factor for systems with larger blades.[8] Current manufacturing methods for blades in the 40 to 50 meter range involve various proven fiberglass composite fabrication techniques. Since blade mass scales as the cube of the turbine radius.[6] Current production wind turbine blades are manufactured as large as 100 meters in diameter with prototypes in the range of 110 to 120 meters. In 2001. two.The 98 meter diameter. two-bladed NASA/DOE Mod-5B wind turbine was the largest operating wind turbine in the world in the early 1990s System reliability is affected by blade count primarily through the dynamic loading of the rotor into the drive train and tower systems. Finally. thus increasing the energy extraction capability of a turbine system. three blades or more. stronger blades. One of the most important goals when designing larger blade systems is to keep blade weight under control. Manufactures such as Nordex and GE Wind use an . these cyclic loads when combined together at the drive train shaft are symmetrically balanced for three blades. However.or two-bladed rotor. This is true of one. Covering a larger area effectively increases the tip-speed ratio of a turbine at a given wind speed. [edit] Blade materials New generation wind turbine designs are pushing power generation from the single megawatt range to upwards of 10 megawatts.

some including carbon and wood with fiberglass in an epoxy matrix. Injection forces resin through a thicker ply stack. and improved surface finish. however. Epoxies also improve wind turbine blade composite manufacture by allowing for shorter cure cycles. Specialized epoxy resins have been developed to customize lifetimes and viscosity to tune resin performance in injection applications. [edit] Tower height Wind velocities increase at higher altitudes due to surface aerodynamic drag (by land or water surfaces) and the viscosity of the air.[7] Smaller blades can be made from light metals such as aluminum. However.[7] A unique solution to resin distribution is the use of a partially preimpregnated fiberglass. availability. production. further addressing the problems associated with resin wetting of thick lay-up sections. . During evacuation. The variation in velocity with altitude. bleeding is required to eliminate voids and insure proper resin distribution. Also. As turbine blades are approaching 60 meters and greater. these contained processes have their own challenges. open-mold. The use of carbon fibers in 60 meter turbine blades is estimated to result in a 38% reduction in total blade mass and a 14% decrease in cost as compared to a 100% fiberglass design. The use of carbon fibers has the added benefit of reducing the thickness of fiberglass laminate sections. These materials. is most dramatic near the surface. thus depositing the resin where in the laminate structure before gelatin occurs. increased durability.infusion process for blade manufacture. over wet lay-up systems. For these reasons they have been mostly replaced by solid airfoils. Essentially each of these options are variations on the same theme: a glass-fiber reinforced polymer composite constructed through various means with differing complexity. [edit] Tower Typically. once heat and pressure are applied. and ease of manufacture.[9] Carbon fiber-reinforced load-bearing spars have recently been identified as a cost-effective means for reducing weight and increasing stiffness. require frequent maintenance during their lifetime. thus limiting laminate thickness.[7] Epoxy-based composites are of greatest interest to wind turbine manufacturers because they deliver a key combination of environmental. infusion techniques are becoming more prevalent as the traditional resin transfer moulding injection time is too long as compared to the resin set-up time. wet systems are the emissions associated with the volatile organics released into the atmosphere. and therefore manufacturing time. Wood and canvas sails were originally used on early windmills due to their low price. wood and canvas have a relatively high drag (low aerodynamic efficiency) as compared to the force they capture. and cost advantages over other resin systems. the dry fabric provides a path for airflow and. Options also include prepreg fiberglass and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. Preimpregnated materials and resin infusion techniques avoid the release of volatiles by containing all reaction gases. Other manufacturers use variations on this technique. namely the production of thick laminates necessary for structural components becomes more difficult. As the preform resin permeability dictates the maximum laminate thickness. Perhaps the largest issue with more simplistic. 2 types of towers exist: floating towers and land-based towers. Prepreg operations further improve cost-effective operations by reducing processing cycles. resin may flow into the dry region resulting in a thoroughly impregnated laminate structure. called wind shear. Wind turbine applications of carbon fiber may also benefit from the general trend of increasing use and decreasing cost of carbon fiber materials.

but by raising the expected turbine height from 50 m to 70 m. .Wind turbines generating electricity at the San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm. wind speed close to the ground usually subsides whereas at turbine hub altitude it does not decrease that much or may even increase. this generally allows for a comparatively unsophisticated arrangement to be used. are very tall slender structures[11].000 MW. which predicts that wind speed rises proportionally to the seventh root of altitude. Here again the 1/7th power law applies or is at least a good approximation of the wind profile. At night time. and could be double that at 100 m. As a result the wind speed is higher and a turbine will produce more power than expected from the 1/7th power law: doubling the altitude may increase wind speed by 20% to 60%. due to the high wind and environmental loads experienced there is a significant horizontal load that needs to be accounted for. increasing the amount of material by a factor of at least four. then. tower heights approximately two to three times the blade length have been found to balance material costs of the tower against better utilisation of the more expensive active components. Typically. However in the case of wind turbines.[10] For HAWTs. by their nature. A daytime atmosphere is either neutral (no net radiation. Indiana had been rated as having a wind capacity of 30. A stable atmosphere is caused by radiative cooling of the surface and is common in a temperate climate: it usually occurs when there is a (partly) clear sky at night. To avoid buckling. Doubling the altitude of a turbine. in daytime the variation follows the wind profile power law. this can cause a number of issues when the structural design of the foundations are considered. When the (high altitude) wind is strong (a 10-meter (33 ft) wind speed higher than approximately 6 to 7 m/s (20–23 ft/s)) the stable atmosphere is disrupted because of friction turbulence and the atmosphere will turn neutral. the wind capacity estimate was raised to 40.000 MW. doubling the tower height generally requires doubling the diameter of the tower as well. or when the atmosphere becomes stable. usually with strong winds and/or heavy clouding) or unstable (rising air because of ground heating — by the sun). The foundations for a conventional engineering structure are designed mainly to transfer the vertical load (dead weight) to the ground. [edit] Foundations Wind turbines. increases the expected wind speeds by 10% and the expected power by 34%.

considerable attention needs to be given when designing the footings to ensure that the turbines are sufficiently restrained to operate efficiently[12].[13] DIFFERENT TYPES OF MIXERS .5°. In the current Det Norske Veritas (DNV) guidelines for the design of wind turbines the angular deflection of the foundations are limited to 0. As a result.This loading regime causes large moment loads to be applied to the foundations of a wind turbine.

Many different machines have been designed in order to be able to handle materials with various bulk solids properties. Familiar examples include pumping of the water in a swimming pool to homogenize the water temperature. This wide range of applications of mixing equipment requires a high level of knowledge. mixing is a unit operation that involves manipulating a heterogeneous physical system. to fuse materials. to agglomerate. long time experience and extended test facilities in order to come to the optimal selection of equipment and processes. to wet. [edit] Mixing mechanisms In powder mixing two different dimensions in the mixing process can be determined: convective mixing and intensive mixing. Contents [hide] • • • • • • 1 Solids mixing 2 Mixing mechanisms 3 Mixing Calculations 4 Laboratory mixing 5 Industrial mixing 6 See also [edit] Solids mixing Blending powders is one of the oldest unit-operations in the solids handling industries. In the case of convective mixing material in the mixer is transported from one location to another.In industrial process engineering. For many decades powder blending has been used just to homogenise bulk materials. Nowadays the same mixing technologies are used for many more applications: to improve product quality. with the intent to make it more homogeneous. to alter functional material properties. etc. and the stirring of pancake batter to eliminate lumps. the components which have to be mixed will be distributed over the other . engineering knowledge has been developed to construct reliable equipment and to predict scaleup and mixing behaviour. to dispers in liquid. This type of mixing process will lead to a less ordered state inside the mixer. On the basis of the practical experience gained with these different machines. to coat particles.

com/html/KnowledgeMixingCalculator. Post Mixing. An online mixing calculator is available http://www. which are not broken up by the mild transportation forces in the convective mixer. [edit] Mixing Calculations The level of mixing is determined by the pumping effect or dynamic response that the mixer imparts into the fluid. When materials are cohesive.g. The relative strong inter-particle forces will form lumps. These additional forces can either be impact forces or shear forces. convective mixing is no longer sufficient to obtain a randomly ordered mixture.components. i. With progressing time the mixture will become more and more randomly ordered. The impeller generated flow can be calculated by using the following equation: Flow = (Flow_Number * RPM * Impeller_Diameter^3) / 231 Output is in Gallons / Minute Flow numbers for impellers have been published by the North American Mixing Forum. since differences in size. Hosokawa has several processes available from silo mixers to horizontal mixers and conical mixers. When a mixing impeller rotates in the fluid. In the convective mixing range. due to it’s ability to mix materials without segregation. shape or density of the different particles can lead to segregation.fusionfluid. which is the case with e. more energy intensive mixing is required. Usually this type of mixing is applied for free-flowing and coarse materials. and Fusion Fluid Equipment. After a certain mixing time the ultimate random state is reached. it generates a combination of flow and shear. In order to decrease the lump size additional forces are necessary.e. Possible threat during macro mixing is the demixing of the components. fine particles and also with wet material.html [edit] Laboratory mixing . The most well-known type is the Vrieco-Nauta® mixer.

small stones or gravel and water are commingled to a homogeneous self-hardening mass. mixing is achieved by magnetic stirrers or by simple hand-shaking. [edit] See also . Typical example of a mixing process in the industry is concrete mixing. Another classical mixing process is mulling foundry molding sand.A magnetic stirrer At a laboratory scale. where cement. fine coal dust and water are mixed to a plastic. machine building. sand. moldable and reusable mass. A classical example of segregation is the brazil nut effect. bentonite clay. A great deal of engineering effort goes into designing and improving mixing processes. Mixing at industrial scale is done in batches (dynamic mixing) or with help of static mixers. applied for molding and pouring molten metal to obtain sand castings that are metallic parts for automobile. [edit] Industrial mixing Schematics of an agitated vessel At an industrial scale. construction or other industries. used in the construction industry. The opposite of mixing is segregation. efficient mixing can be difficult to achieve. where sand.

CIP. PLC and pneumatic or electric systems can be used. Screw blender. paste mixing designs for high viscosity products and high shear models for emulsification. • • . Included are dry blending devices. Double Planetary High Viscosity Mixer. They can operate at different temperatures and pressures for mixing different solutions and can also have internal or external heating systems added to them. The Banbury mixer is effective at mixing or kneading viscous materials. plastic and mineral industries. Counter-rotating. particle size reduction and homogenization. chemical.Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mixing • • • • • • • • • • • • • Industrial mixer High Shear mixer Planetary mixer Green sand Gravel Molding sand Concrete Cement Foundry Casting Foundry sand testing DISAMATIC Impeller • Industrial Mixers and Blenders are used to mix or blend a wide range of materials used in different industries including the food. Paddle. Options also exist where spray nozzles. Cone Screw Blender. V Blender. pharmaceutical. Double & Triple Shaft. Planetary Disperser. including Ribbon Blender. They are mainly used to mix different materials using different types of blades to make a good quality homogeneous mixture. High Shear Rotor Stator and Dispersion Mixers. Industrial mixers range from laboratory to production line scale. Vacuum Mixer. Systems can come equipped with hydraulic or electronic soft start mechanisms so that they start and stop smoothly. Double Cone Blender. Jet Mixer and Mobile Mixers.

Post Mixing. "N" is usually measured in revolutions per minute(RPM) or revolutions per second(RPS). Rotational Speed. Most mixing vessels receiving industrial mixers will be cylindrical. Tank Diameter. pharmaceuticals. use the following equation: Power (HP) = (Power_Number * RPM^3 * Impeller_Diameter^5 * Fluid_Specific_Gravity) / (1. When a mixing impeller rotates in the fluid. An online mixing calculator is available http://www.525 * 10^13) Flow Numbers and Power Numbers for impellers have been published by the North American Mixing Forum. "Q" The resulting fluid motion from impeller rotation. This mixer is ideal for mixing and kneading viscous pastes (up to 6 million centipoise) under atmospheric or vacuum conditions. chemicals. plastics and pigments.com/html/Knowledge-MixingCalculator. foods. "D" is measured for industrial mixers as the maximum diameter swept around the axis of rotation. This variable refers to the rotational speed of the impeller as this number can differ along several points of the drive train. the nomenclature is rather standardized: Impeller Diameter. Capacities range from 1/2-pint through 750 gallons.Basic Nomenclature For liquid mixing. Power. it generates a combination of flow and shear.html A planetary mixer is a device used to mix products including adhesives. and Fusion Fluid Equipment. "T" The inside diameter of a cylindrical vessel. Many . The impeller generated flow can be calculated by using the following equation: Flow (GPM) = (Flow_Number * RPM * Impeller_Diameter^3) / 231 To calculate power draw.fusionfluid. "P" Is the energy input into a system usually by an electric motor or a pneumatic motor Impeller Pumping Capacity. electronics. [edit] Mixing Calculations The level of mixing is determined by the pumping effect or dynamic response that the mixer imparts into the fluid.

typically helical. These can vary from 6 mm to 6 meters diameter. Similarly. A static mixer is a device for mixing two fluid materials. The device consists of mixer elements contained in a cylindrical (tube) or squared housing. however. Teflon. tube inner diameter. the non-moving elements continuously blend the materials. The fixed geometric design of the unit can simultaneously produce patterns of flow division and radial mixing. Static mixer elements consist of a series of baffles that are made from metal or a variety of plastics. Most commonly. polypropylene. the mixer housing can be made from metal or plastic. Kynar and polyacetal. the fluids are liquid. and at the same time on a common axis. etc. elements enclosed within a tubular housing. Typical materials of construction for the static mixer components included stainless steel. As the streams move through the mixer. static mixers are used to mix gas streams. Principles of Operation Depiction of how Flow Division and Radial Mixing occur in a static mixer A static mixer is a series of fixed. the number of elements.options including jacketing for heating or cooling. . thereby providng complete mixing in a very short timeframe. Complete mixing is dependent on many variables including the fluid properties. and their design. disperse gas into liquid or disperse immiscible liquids. vacuum or pressure. vari speed drives. are available. The overall system design incorporates a method for delivering two streams of liquids into the static mixer. The blades each rotate on their own axes.

Processed material is intermixed to reduce or eliminate radial gradients in temperature. Radial Mixing: In either turbulent or laminar flow.png From Wikipedia. velocity and material compositi File:Static mixer flow diagram. resulting in an exponential increase in stratification. a processed material divides at the leading edge of each element of the mixer and follows the channels created by the element shape. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.Flow Division in a static mixer is a function of the number of elements in the mixer Flow Division: In laminar flow. The number of striations produced is 2n where 'n' is the number of elements in the mixer. the two channels are further divided. At each succeeding element. rotational circulation of a processed material around its own hydraulic center in each channel of the mixer causes radial mixing of the material. search • • • File File history File links .

with a number of applications. Specifically. Globally.000 km (250. .0787 in) in size.0025 to 0.5 in).800 kilograms).5 to 10.0625 to 2 mm (0. Gravel can be sub-categorized into granule (>2 to 4 mm/0.079 to 0.5 in).079 in) in its smallest dimension (about 1/12 of an inch) and no more than 64 mm (2. which is >64 to 256 mm (2. far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with concrete or tarmac. Both sand and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of concrete. which is >0.Gravel is rock that is of a specific particle size range. The next larger size is cobble. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel. One cubic yard of gravel typically weighs about 3000 pounds (or a cubic meter is about 1. it is any loose rock that is larger than 2 mm (0. Gravel is an important commercial product.1 in).16 to 2.16 in) and pebble (>4 to 64 mm/0. Russia alone has over 400.000 mi) of gravel-surfaced roads. The next smaller size class in geology is sand. especially in rural areas where there is little traffic.

Contents [hide] MULLER MIXERS Method of sampling solid materials and sampling system to execute the method United States Patent 5056962 Ads by Google .

Apparatus for conveying material United States Patent 4941777 Ads by Google Rambus: 1990 .com/validation A method and the related system for sampling solid materials.com Apparatus for conveying material between two terminals using a reversible blower system that conveys a carrier member through a tube by suction from one terminal to an intermediate location and by pneumatic pressure from the intermediate location to the other terminal. Visit here! www. and vice versa. Materials as continuously manufactured from a compression molding machine are sampled at fixed intervals and the materials thus sampled are fed into a transport pipe so as to be transferred by being accompanied by a transport plug into an inspecting station at low speed from its stand-by position in the pipe when a gas control means is set in a feed mode.Pharmaceutical Validation Computerized System Validation by METTLER TOLEDO. The carrier member is gradually retarded and stopped at each terminal by a yieldable plate inclined into the path of the carrier member with a yieldable latching element urging the plate inwardly and also serving to latch the carrier member in its ultimate terminal position. After transferring sampled materials the transport plug left at its terminal position in the transport pipe is automatically returned to the stand-by position through the transport pipe when the gas control means is set in a suction mode. Covers on the carrier member are automatically removed and replaced at each terminal by radially movable latching elements on the cover that are manipulated by an axially movable central unlatching element. The tube has separately manipulatable.rambus. end portions in which the carrier member is retained for manipulation into position for receiving or discharging its contents. sampled materials are successively transferred into the inspecting station by being accompanied by the transport plug under unmanned operation.mt. open-ended.2010 Video: A Company of Inventors Award-winning technology www. By executing the above steps repeatedly. Each projection has an outwardly facing groove in which a compressible sealing strip is retained with a foamed elastomeric base strip behind the sealing strip to deflect the sealing strip outwardly into sealing disposition . The carrier member has annular projections for sealing engagement of the tube.

The base plate has a provision for bench mounting. Safety sheets-2 Nos. Oil Bottles -2 Nos. A pressure gauge for indication of pressure release valve is provided. KBr Press Model MP-15. Simply press a button & it will start building pressure & will stop automatically at set pressure by means of a pressure switch.. It is compact in construction & occupies very little bench space. Rubber antislide sheet. Acrylic screens are provided for the safety of the operator. The pumping is done by gear motor drive.KBr PRESS MODEL MP-15 The press is capable of producing pressure upto 15 tons. A telescopic handle is used for extra leverage.fixing bolts for table mounting. . There are 3 methods by which a solid material is brought to the form acceptable to the instrument KBr PRESS (AUTOMATIC) MODEL AP-15 This is electrically operated version of the manual press.

The sample is contained in stainless Steel capsule and reduced to fine mixture of sample and KBr by the pulverising action of grinding balls. The mixing & blending of KBr with sample can be easily done using the Vibration Mill... 100 W Vibration Mill suitable for mixing of sample & KBr. Most commonly used die is of 13 mm pellet size. including two optically polished pellets & extractor ring for sample disc removal. Evacuated 13 mm KBr die. Safety Sheets-2 Nos. Temperature : 10° to 15° C above ambient. Dimensions : 215 mm x 285 mm x 180mm . Allen Key for pressure Adjustment.Oil Bottles-2 Nos. Usable Volume: 450 X 250 X 150 mm.KBr Press Model AP-15. It is fitted with a 30 min adjustable timer for Auto Stop. Power : 230 V. Transparent lid gives a clear view of the contents. using S S Ball. It should have highly polished surfaces & should withstand atleast 10 tons pressure. Dies for other pellet sizes are available for specific applications Dry Box The dry box is specifically designed for the storage of accessories & windows which are affected by moisture. 50 Hz.

This mixture when used in the Vibration mill gets homogeneously mixed.c): In the latter case in the vertical (cylindrical) section of the silo the vertical stress increases in a degressive way. acting in the silos. A method for the calculation of the stress course in the vertical section was derived by Janssen already in 1895 [1]. . The following essay considers the basic rules for the design of silos. A small portion of this is taken for analysis with DST Storage of Powders and Bulk Solids in Silos Dietmar Schulze Problems with the storage of bulk solids in bins and silos can be avoided if they are designed with respect to the flow properties of the bulk solid which has to be stored. Request Quote This vibration mill is particularly suitable for DST user where in the sample quantity is too small and sample homogeneity therefore is very crucial. While the pressure (for fluids we will use the word „pressure") would increase linearly downwards if the silo would have been filled with a fluid (a). respectively. the course of the vertical stress (for bulk solids we will use the word „stress") in a silo filled with a bulk solid is rather different (b. For this application KBr is taken in good quantity ( say 1 gm) and sample also proportionally on the higher side ( say 10 to 20 mg) . This method is the basis for most present standards for the calculation of the load on silo walls for structural silo design [2-4].Power Timer : : 230 v 50 Hz Digital upto 30 minutes adjustable in steps of minute. the silo walls carry a part of the weight of the bulk solid. 1 Stresses in silos Figure 1 shows silos and the pressures and stresses. The reason for this course are the shear stresses acting between the bulk solid and the silo walls even if the bulk solid is at rest. a constant vertical stress is attained. Due to the shear stresses. This means that the vertical stress will not increase further even if the filling height is much larger. If the height to diameter ratio of the silo is sufficiently large (usually: > 3).

figure 1c. c. vertical stress after filling the silo with a bulk solid. b. the so called filling stress state (also: active stress state. the vertical stress in the lower part of the hopper is clearly smaller than after filling. As soon as some bulk solid is discharged for the first time after filling. where the vertical stress in the hopper decreases less in the upper part of the hopper and then more near the imaginary hopper apex. vertical stress after the discharge of some bulk solid The stresses acting in a hopper are different from those in the vertical section. the bulk solid is compressed in the horizontal direction so that the walls of the hopper carry a larger part of the weight of the bulk solid and. the stresses in the hopper change and the so-called emptying stress state (also : passive stress state) prevails. In the emptying stress state the vertical stresses in the lower part of the hopper are .Figure 1: a. hence. When flowing downwards in the hopper. figure 1b) prevails. pressure in a silo filled with a fluid (imaginary). Just after filling an empty silo.

In case of mass flow. It is possible as well that the dead zones are located only in the lower part of the silo so that funnel flow cannot be recognised by observing the surface of the silo filling. the whole contents of the silo are in motion at discharge. only that bulk solid is in motion first. This bulk solid can be discharged only when the silo is emptied completely. and the bulk solid is discharged across the whole outlet opening. the stresses are proportional to the local hopper diameter. Mass flow is only possible. Figure 2a: Mass flow Figure 2b: Funnel flow 3 Flow Problems Typical problems which occur at the storage of bulk solids are: . The dead zones can reach the surface of the bulk solid filling so that funnel flow becomes obviously when observing the surface. which is placed in the area more or less above the outlet. in the vertical section of the silo the stresses remain unchanged at discharge. funnel flow will appear. in other words. 2 Flow Profiles: Mass Flow and Funnel Flow Two different modes of flow can be observed if a bulk solid is discharged from a silo: mass flow and funnel flow (figure 2a). In case of funnel flow (figure 2b). In principle. if the hopper walls are sufficiently steep and/or smooth.nearly proportional to the distance to the imaginary hopper tip or. This linear course of stress is called the radial stress field [7]. The bulk solid adjacent to the hopper walls remains at rest and is called „dead" or „stagnant" zone. If a hopper wall is too flat or too rough.

Figure 3a: Arching ○ Ratholing occurs in case of funnel flow if only the bulk solid above the outlet is flowing out.the dead zones . the reason of arching is the strength (unconfined yield strength) of the bulk solid which is caused by the adhesion forces acting between the particles. arching is caused by blocking of single particles. Arching can be prevented by sufficiently large outlets. The reason for this is the strength (unconfined yield strength) of the bulk solid.keeps on its place and forms the rathole.○ Arching: If a stable arch is formed above the outlet so that the flow of the bulk solid is stopped. Thereby fine grained bulk solids can become fluidized when falling downwards to the outlet opening. so that they flow out of the silo like a . then this situation is called arching (figure 3a). Figure 3b: Ratholing ○ Irregular flow occurs if arches and ratholes are formed and collapse alternately. If the bulk solid consolidates increasingly with increasing period of storage at rest. the period of storage at rest can become very large thus causing a strong time consolidation. cohesive bulk solid. and the remaining bulk solid . the risk of ratholing increases. In case of fine grained. In case of coarse grained bulk solid. If a funnel flow silo is not emptied completely in sufficiently small regular time intervals.

○ Figure 3c: Segregation In a funnel flow silo. for example. in case of storage of food or other products changing their properties with time). while in case of mass flow only arching has to be considered: segregation. a wide distribution of residence time appears which is disadvantageous in some cases (e. are discharged first while the coarser particles are discharged at the end. In case of funnel flow. which is filled in later. In case of a mass flow. (A short movie showing segregation due to particle size you will find here). this behaviour will yield to different particle size distributions in each packing. while the smaller particles collect in the centre.fluid. Because of that. segregation is possible according to particle size or particle density (figure 3c). at mass flow the segregation effect described above is reduced significantly. but it will become "remixed" when flowing downwards in the hopper. Two steps are necessary for the design of mass flow silos: The calculation of the required hopper slope which ensures mass flow. the finer particles. 4 Silo design The flow behaviour of a bulk solid is defined by several well-defined parameters [2. but located closer to the axis of the silo. as a buffer for a packing machine. and the determination of the minimum outlet size to prevent arching. these are the bulk density ρ b. is discharged earlier. the effective angle of internal friction ϕ e (a measure for . In general. all problems mentioned above can occur generally. irregular flow and flooding of the bulk solid do not appear in a well designed mass flow silo.g.first out" system (see figure 2a).5-8. which are placed close to the centre. In case of centric filling as shown in figure 3c. whereas bulk solid. Flooding can cause a lot of dust. The residence time distribution of a mass flow silo is narrow. a continuous discharge becomes impossible. because it acts as a „first in . If such a silo is used. ○ Wide residence time distribution: If dead zones are formed (funnel flow). the bulk solid in this zones is discharged only at the complete emptying of the silo. the larger particles accumulate close to the silo walls. This behaviour is called flooding. the bulk solid will segregate at filling in the same manner. ratholing. Therewith.21]. Segregation: If a heap is formed on the bulk solids' surface at filling of the silo.

and the wall friction angle ϕ x.5-8. is the parameter of the mass flow/funnel flow borderlines. For mass flow design. It has to be taken into account that all these parameters are dependent on the stress level. This method showed its validity in many cases in more than 35 years. which result from the calculations of Jenike [7]. which is a measure of the internal friction of the bulk solid. the unconfined yield strength σ c.the internal friction of the bulk solid at stationary flow). represented by the consolidation stress σ 1 [2. The borderlines separate all pairs of values leading to mass flow from those leading to funnel flow. Figure 4a: Design diagram for mass flow (wedge-shaped hopper) .21]. In the diagrams the wall friction angle ϕ x is drawn over the hopper slope angle Θ measured against the vertical. the wall friction angle ϕ x is the most important parameter.g. The borders between funnel and mass flow. with the Jenike shear tester or a ring shear tester.21]. The wall friction angle ϕ x is defined as the friction angle between the surface of the silo wall and the corresponding bulk solid. are shown in figure 4a for the wedge shaped hopper and in figure 4b for the conical hopper. The unconfined yield strength σ c is the compressive strength of a bulk solid. The effective angle of internal friction ϕ e. whereby the unconfined yield strength σ c is the most important parameter regarding arching. The hopper slope required for mass flow and the minimum outlet size to prevent arching can be calculated with the measured values using Jenikes' theory [7]. e. The parameters mentioned are measured in dependency on the consolidation stress with shear testers [2.5-8.

That means that the walls of a wedge shaped mass flow hopper can be flatter than the walls of a conical mass flow hopper [7. If the flow function has been measured. that the larger the wall friction angle ϕ x is. with the ring shear tester). e.Figure 4b: Design diagram for mass flow (conical hopper) Conditions which lie within the borderline yield mass flow whereas funnel flow is present in case of conditions outside of the borderline.g. It decreases to zero towards the imaginary hopper apex.g. When bulk solid is discharged from a mass flow silo.12]. the bulk density ρ b and the unconfined yield strength σ c. Usually. The stress σ 1 acts as a consolidation stress thus determining the properties of the bulk solid. If the wall friction angle ϕ x and the effective angle of internal friction ϕ e are known (measured with a shear tester. the unconfined yield strength increases with the consolidation stress. . In the hopper (at least beneath a sufficiently large distance from the vertical section) the major principal stress σ 1 is proportional to the local hopper diameter (figure 5). the maximum slope angle Θ of the hopper wall against the vertical which ensures mass flow can be determined with this diagram. The unconfined yield strength σ c of a bulk solid can be measured for each major principal stress (consolidation stress) σ 1 (see [21]). the steeper (smaller Θ ) the hopper has to be for mass flow. e. The wedge shaped hopper allows a somewhat (often 8° to 10°) larger slope angle Θ against the vertical with the same material properties. The courses of the borderlines indicate. the unconfined yield strength σ c can be drawn in figure 5 at each position of the hopper. The function σ c =f(σ 1) (figure 6) is called the flow function. the radial stress field prevails in the hopper as already described in section 1 (see figure 1c).

The diameter of this minimum outlet opening is called dcrit. In this case.Figure 5: Stress conditions in the hopper (emptying) σ 1' is the bearing stress acting where an imaginary stable arch of bulk solid is carried by the hopper walls. figure 5) for an outlet opening large enough to avoid arching. an arch would not be stable at this position. the unconfined yield strength is not large enough to support an arch. Above that intersection the unconfined yield strength is smaller than the bearing stress of the arch. i. The point of intersection indicates the lowest possible position in the hopper (height h*. h* indicates up to where flow promoting devices have to be installed beginning at the outlet. An arch can only be stable in that are of the hopper where the unconfined yield strength σ c is larger than the bearing stress σ 1' . .e. This is the case beneath the point of intersection of the σ c curve with the σ 1' curve. If a smaller outlet opening would be chosen. σ 1' is proportional to the local hopper diameter such as σ 1.

9. Furthermore.21]). With this means the minimum outlet sizes of conical as well as wedge-shaped hoppers can be calculated. figure 4) refer to conical hoppers (a) and wedge shaped hoppers (b).12] shows some opportunities to design mass flow silos. which would be above the already determined point of intersection of the σ 1c. the minimum outlet sizes for avoidung ratholing at funnel flow can be determined [7].Figure 6: Flow function and time flow function Some bulk solids tend to consolidate increasingly with the period of storage at rest (time consolidation [8. b) to prevent arching can be determined. For practical silo design. In case of the wedge shaped hopper it is assumed. 5 Choice of the hopper geometry Figure 7 [7. . In case of these basic hopper forms.and σ 1'-curves. It can be found a time flow function σ ct = f(σ 1) (figure 6) for each storage time analogously to the flow function. that the influence of the vertical end walls can be neglected if the length of the outlet L is at least three times the width b. equations or diagrams derived by Jenike [7] are used to determine the stresses σ 1 and σ 1' in dependence on the flow properties measured (ϕ e. the maximum slope angles of the walls to achieve mass flow (Θ ax in case of a conical. Θ eb in case of a wedge-shaped hopper) and the outlet dimensions (d. ϕ x. ρ b) and the silo geometry (Θ ). This means that larger outlets are required to prevent arching with increasing storage time at rest. If the time flow function would be drawn in figure 5 then this would yield to a point of intersection of the σ 1'-curve and the σ ct-curve. The calculations of Jenike (see design diagrams.

there is no reason to build such silos. variants e and f must have the steepest walls. In order to achieve mass flow. The pyramidal hopper geometry (e) is disadvantageous because the bulk solid has to flow from the top in the edges of the hopper and in the edges to the outlet. Variant f is just a transition from a cylindrical section to a square outlet.g. a pyramidal mass flow hopper is steeper than a conical hopper for a specific bulk solid. Thus. the edges have to be rounded on the inside. and the maximum slope angle against the vertical of the edges must not exceed Θ ax. In some industries non-symmetrical silos are preferred (e.c or d (wedge-shaped hoppers). The conical hopper (a) can be designed more shallow. pyramidal hoppers with differently sloped walls). and the largest slope angles measured against the vertical can be achieved with geometry b. From the view of mass flow design. the bulk solid has to overcome wall friction at two sides what supports the formation of dead zones. the slope of the hopper walls against the vertical must not exceed Θ ax at any position. Because the walls of a pyramidal hopper are always steeper than the adjacent edges. In this case.Figure 7: Hopper forms [9] The variants c and d are advantageous as well to ensure mass flow if the maximum slope angles as indicated in the figure are not exceeded. If mass flow has to be achieved with such a hopper geometry. If mass .

discharge tubes) [14.g. shear tests are also applied for quality control and flowability tests [13]. In case of varying material properties (e. If the mass flow design yields an extremely steep mass flow hopper. Further details and information can be given besides the determination of the hopper slope for mass flow and the size of the outlet to prevent arching. specially-suited installations can be designed (e.23]): ○ Details about hopper slope and size of outlet for different hopper forms (see figure 7) and wall materials.16]. it is possible to find out with shear tests which conditions would yield the worst flow properties. To avoid vibrations emerging during discharge of a bulk solid. specially suited installations can be dimensioned on the basis of the measured flow properties and Jenikes' theory [15. for example. Some examples are listed shortly in the following (further examples of silo design: [17.g. Because of that. whether lining of the hopper walls (e.18]. In case of bulk solids which tend to time consolidation. if possible) of a small amount of bulk solid.g.18]. hence.20]). with cold rolled stainless steel sheets) is useful regarding the costs. flow agents) can be determined in order to find the optimal mixture [13. In case of the storage of bulk solids sensitive to attrition or stresses as present in a silo.19]. In this way. the time consolidation and. the size of the outlet [18] can be limited. the limit stress can be examined above which that danger exists [22.18.23]. symmetrical hoppers usually require the lowest height for the transition from the silo cross-section to the outlet cross-section to achieve mass flow [10].flow has to be achieved. With flow property tests (shear tests). the influence of additives (e. Because of those results. it can be stated quantitatively which size of outlet is necessary to avoid arching in dependence on the storage time at rest. a comparison of manufacturing costs of different hopper forms and hopper materials is possible [18. the silo can be designed in that manner that no stresses will occur which would have a negative influence on the quality of the product.g. A mass flow silo provides the opportunity to keep the bulk solid in motion by regular discharge (and recirculation.22. proper operation is ensured in any case. or if in the case of a retrofit of an existing silo mass flow should be achieved without modifying the (too shallow) hopper walls. moisture [10. It can be find out. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ . If the silo is designed for these conditions. In general. 6 Application of the results on the design of silos In section 4 the silo design procedure due to the theory of Jenike [7] was described in a shortened way.

continuous surface of a conveyor belt is ideal for many product handling applications.Belt Conveyor Systems The Benefits of Belt Conveyors: The smooth. The key attributes for cleated conveyors are the accuracy of the cleat spacing and durability of the cleat in the application. Some of the benefits of belt conveyors include: • • • • • • • Small or delicate part handling Accumulation Inclining and elevating with high friction or cleated belts Clean room environments Small parts transfer Back lighted inspection Quiet operation Belt Conveyors: The Dorner Advantage Largest Selection of Belted Conveyors Dorner offers the largest selection of belted conveyors in the industry with over 30 preengineered models for every application that are built to the customer’s specifications. This ensures each customers finds the perfect configuration for their product. The customer is ensured accurate spacing and durability of the cleat to belt interface. . Dorner uses proprietary in-house processes to attach cleats to the belting material. Cleated Belt Conveyor Systems About Cleated Belt Conveyors: Cleated conveyors are commonly used to control product on a horizontal or inclined conveyor.

form a product pocket on the belt that prevents product spillage. Controlling the quality prevents cleat breakage and tear off for the customer. including different heights and cleat angles. This endures more consistent and efficient movement for the product.Cleated Belt Conveyors: The Dorner Advantage Engineered Process Dorner has engineered a unique process that uses high frequency to welds the cleats onto the belt to guarantee the quality of the bond. when combined with cleats. longer lasting cleated belt. Also available are unique sidewall belts that. . resulting in a stronger. Largest Selection of Cleated Belt Conveyor Offerings Dorner offers the largest selection of cleats for cleated belt systems.

This paper is provided as an introduction to the scope of factors considered by the FloStor professional sales engineers in specifying conveyors. or as long as 100 ft. basically. We hope that this publication will help to guide you to the best possible solution to the many material handling problems. which you may encounter. no two solutions are identical. Material handling engineering. it will be up to you to sift through to determine the best conveyor for your particular application. which closed in 1985. . though many of the basics remain constant. wheel conveyor may be substituted where a portable type gravity conveyor is required. handling various packaged materials efficiently for distances as short as 2 ft. in an over-simplified. BASIC INTRODUCTION TO CONVEYORS by Harry Harlick (1905-1987) INDEX Forward Section One: Gravity Conveyors Section Two: Powered Belt Conveyors Section Three: Live Roller Conveyors Section Four: Chain Conveyors Section Five: Supports Section Six: Couplings Section Seven: Accessories Section Eight: Useful Formulas Section Nine: Essential Information Required Section Ten: A Brief History of Conveyor FORWARD The package conveyor business has been in existence for almost one hundred years. consists of determining "how a product should be moved from one place to another. SECTION ONE GRAVITY APPLICATION Probably no other type of conveyor is applied to so many gravity materials handling uses as roller and wheel conveyor. and. This publication will merely give you an idea of the uses of the many different types of conveyors available. Harry prepared the following information as a training manual for engineers at Conveyors & Casters (Hamerslag Equipment). per ft. Any item from light bulbs to bagged cement to heavy castings can be moved on gravity. within the shortest allowable period of time.Harry Harlick was an institution in the conveyor industry. Most items are best handled on roller conveyor. for the least cost and with the least amount of manual effort". Significant advances have been achieved in conveyor technology since this manual first appeared. however. where light weight containers (38 lbs. and an inspiration in the founding of FloStor. or more. It is extremely difficult to put in to writing the many years of problem solving experienced by "old-timers" in this industry.

©2001 FloStor Engineering Site Map Courtesy of Rapistan Conveyor systems have been a mainstay of material handling for over 100 years. Also see Hytrol's ABC Conveyor Book. . The extensive range of applications for conveyers allows their use in small "mom and pop" type operations as well as in tier 1 manufacturing and distribution operations. Conveyor is very cost effective and the ease of expandability and reconfiguration makes it ideal for growing operations. Overhead trolleys and belt conveyors were moving materials in manufacturing plants before the forklift was even invented. New configurations and sophistication of controls have kept conveyor systems in the state-of-the-art category with other automated material handling systems. an online guide to conveyor information and specs. A little imagination and a small investment can do wonders for reducing manual material handling through the use of conveyor systems.

trays.Gravity Skate Wheel Conveyor Gravity flow skate wheel conveyor is a low cost option for conveying lightweight cartons. I've used gravity skate wheel conveyor in elaborate configurations as well as in small 1 or 2 section stand-alone units. . or totes. Courtesy of Hytrol Conveyor Company.. Used extensively in shipping/receiving and assembly areas. skate wheel conveyors reduce manual material handling of lightweight items over short distances.

Gravity Roller Conveyor Application for gravity roller conveyor is similar to that of gravity skate wheel. Its cost is a little higher and it is more effective where heavier items are being handled. automated roller conveyor is used extensively in large conveyor systems. A version of automated roller conveyor called Zero-Pressure Accumulating Conveyor is especially useful in avoiding the pressure buildup which normally occurs when product accumulates at a stationary operation. . Courtesy of Hytrol Conveyor Company. Automated roller conveyor The automated version of gravity roller conveyor. Single units can be incorporated into gravity conveyor systems to create a simple low cost semi-automated system. Courtesy of Hytrol Conveyor Company. Automated Belt Conveyor Automated belt conveyer has similar applications to gravity roller and skate wheel. Courtesy of Hytrol Conveyor Company.

Courtesy of Rapistan High Volume Trailer Loading This shows an application of conveyor in high volume trailer loading/unloading.Flexible Conveyor Used extensively in shipping/receiving operations for package handling. Unit load conveyer can be gravity flow or automated and may be installed elevated or recessed into the floor.. Courtesy of Hytrol Conveyor Company. Courtesy of Rapistan . Unit Load Conveyor Unit Load Conveyor is a heavy duty version of roller conveyor used for handling pallet loads or larger totes or trays. flexible conveyor is usually anchored at one end to fixed gravity or automated conveyor allowing the other end to be expanded and flexed into trailers for loading and unloading. The section in the track in the floor automatically extends into the trailer during loading.

Gravity conveyors are available in roller or skatewheel configuration. If you have any questions about the best conveyor solution for your operation. and parcel processing operations.Sortation Systems Sortation systems are the key to large elaborate conveyor systems. Both types can be used with a variety of powered conveyors to form a complete conveyor system. shipping. The variety of sortation systems is extensive as are their applications. Gravity Conveyors Gravity Conveyors are non-powered. please visit www. free flowing conveyors used in a push or level application to facilitate product movement.sjf. They can also be set up with declining stand heights to allow product to flow from a high to a lower elevation. Most frequently used in high volume case quantity and piece quantity picking. there are also sortation systems for unit load system. Courtesy of Rapistan Several types of conveyor are available for many different applications. Below are some sample images and cutaways of the many different types of conveyor. Roller Conveyor .com contact one of our conveyor experts that can assist you in choosing the right kind of conveyor for your application.

Each has a different. Power Conveyor Many Different Power Conveyor types can be used in a conveyor system. Several different roller sizes & types are also available. Gravity skatewheel conveyor is a lighter-weight and more economical alternative to gravity roller conveyor. but important function. etc. trays and plywood or masonite skids. Skatewheel Conveyor While gravity is a good all-purpose gravity conveyor. cans. packages or pallets as well as most other items with an uneven bottom surface such as drums.Gravity Roller Conveyors can be used when conveying flat. & 30 inches are considered industry standard. 18. gravity roller conveyor is typically sold in 10 foot sections while overall widths of 12. Both aluminum and steel frame models for lighter or heavier duty applications are typically available. smooth bottomed surfaces like cartons. Skatewheel conveyor is typically used in situations where its lighter weight makes it easily moved or reconfigured to make space for storage of larger products. skatewheel is best when conveying flat. While available in many custom lengths. tote boxes. Here are several of the more common varieties. molds. . smooth bottomed surfaces such as cartons. It can be found everywhere from shipping areas to pick and pack stations. 24.

Accumulation conveyor can be the most vital link in any large conveyor system. packaging machine. The rollers move using a belt that is located underneath the load rollers which provides friction directly on the rollers . This can include moving products one at a time onto a weigh station. or any other work station. Without it. or other machines will quickly become overloaded and will not function properly. sort system. There are several types of common accumulation conveyor.Accumulation Conveyor Accumulation conveyor is typically used in conjunction with other conveyor types in a complete conveyor system. however two are more common than the others. palletizer. Accumulation conveyor consists of pop-up sensor rollers located in ‘zones’ which use a pressurized air system to hold your product in a queue until it receives a signal to release it to the next stage of operations. Zero pressure accumulation conveyor will eliminate package collisions on the conveyor line by leaving gaps between each individual box. return rollers and an external motor. case sealer. while minimum pressure accumulation conveyor will place the individual boxes next to each other with little back pressure. The load rollers make up the surface on which product is transported. a drive belt. your sortation system. Belt Driven Live Roller Conveyor Belt driven live roller conveyor consists of load rollers.

belt over roller is also a desired solution for inclines or declines. Belt driven live roller conveyor can be used in accumulation. which can be good for bulky. Belt on roller conveyor is very useful for transporting light and medium weight loads between locations. In addition to being a good general purpose powered conveyor. Belt Over Roller Conveyor (aka: Belt On Roller) With belt over roller conveyor. irregularly shaped products. Belt on roller conveyor is a fairly common type of powered conveyor and is what many people think of when they envision powered conveyor. It provides limited capabilities for inclined movement or packages of differing shapes. . and merge systems where product sizes and weights tend to vary. Because product orientation is easily controlled with belt over roller. induction. it also makes a good conveyor to use in induction and sortation conveyor systems. Powered belt over roller conveyor provides much control over the orientation and placement of loads. The return rollers are used to kep the belt in place under the conveyor as well as to maintain tension on the belt at all times.and creates forward movement. the belt can be either sliderbed supported or supported by return rollers located underneath the load rollers.

Because there are fewer moving parts. even ride. lineshaft conveyor can easily be used for accumulation operations where there is a minimum amount of backpressure on the product being transported. Lineshaft makes use of a drive shaft which runs the length of the underside of the conveyor. These systems transmit the same amount of power to each roller thus insuring a smooth. etc. The belts also assist in reducing noise by holding the rollers firmly in place inside the frames which results in less rattling. For . and drives the load rollers individually using belts. today’s lineshaft conveyor is typically quieter than traditional live roller conveyors. Chain Driven Conveyor Chain driven live roller conveyor (sometimes referred to as pallet conveyor) is typically used to transport heavier loads at controlled speeds. Since the rollers are individually powered. Some configurations of lineshaft conveyor allow the conveyor to run both forwards or backwards depending on the situation desired.Lineshaft Conveyor Lineshaft conveyors can be used used for both transporting and accumulating products. Chain Driven conveyor offers several advantages that other types typically do not or cannot. The driveshaft is powered by a motor. Chains drive sprockets on the load rollers which in turn drives a chain and the sprocket on the next roller.

It can help to create a better organized work area that will allow your employees to perform their work efficiently and without hinderance. Return rollers keep tension on the conveyor belt keeping it taut. Chain driven conveyor can also resist contamination by grease and other particulate matter better than other conveyor types. Sliderbed Conveyor . compactor or incinerator while keeping it out of the way of production areas. Trash conveyor has guard rails attached to the sides of its frame to prevent materials from falling off the conveyor belt into the work area. paper trash and other light-weight refuse to a disposal area.instance. Since trash conveyor utilizes a sliderbed design. Trash conveyor is used mainly to transport empty boxes. there are few moving parts to create noise. Chain driven live roller conveyor is also better able to tolerate uneven pallet bottoms or drums. Trash Conveyor Trash conveyor and regular sliderbed conveyor are two very similar products with one important difference. because there is no belt(s) chain driven conveyor can transport both hot and cold loads that could damage other conveyor types. The sliderbed design of trash conveyor also makes it great for transporting materials on inclines and declines.

Sortation Conveyor Sortation systems complete with scanners. We have successfully put several systems just like the ones below into operation for customers just like you. Many capacities of sliderbed are available.but you're in luck .Sliderbed conveyor and trash conveyor are very similar products. Typical sliderbed applications include inspection. controls etc. but regular sliderbed conveyor does not usually have guard rails. Take a look at the different types of sortation conveyor systems we can provide. sorting to the right or left. Since sliderbed conveyor has few moving parts. Cross Belt Sortation Advantages of cross-belt sorters include quietness. Sliderbed can easily carry loose components and other materials that roller conveyors have a harder time transporting. layout. SJF believes that you don't need to invest a small fortune to incorporate one of these systems into your operation. SJF specializes in previously owned sortation systems that will do everything the new systems will do. but lighter weights are more common. often cost more than the average company can afford to spend . ability to have sort points close together.my company. They are all currently sorting product at a fraction of the cost that a new system would have set them back. and versatile layouts such as straight. transportation and assembly line operations. thus allowing for the smooth transportation of many different load types. The sliderbed conveyor design also makes it useful for transporting loads on inclines and declines. You'll have piece of mind knowing that we can provide everything from design. Sliderbed conveyor uses return rollers to run a conveyor belt along a smooth bed.. it does not create much noise. . “L” or oval paths with inclines and declines. programming and installation from one single source.

Pop-Up Belt/Chain Sortation These sort boxes or containers to either side of a main conveyor line. flat or delicate items are advantages. Packages travel in close proximity and only the slats under them will be activated to tilt. . dumping into chutes or sides.Tilt Tray Sortation Trays. The belt or chain used is matched to the package being handled. tip to both sides. Tilt Slat Sortation The conveying surface is made up of slats that can be tilted to the right or left. Low noise levels and ability to sort small. connected in a chain. They work by pulling heavy packages onto angled spurs at high speeds.

Sliding Shoe Sortation One of the fastest continuous sorters. easing containers onto takeaway spurs. . Pusher/Diverter Pusher diverters have spur or sort points located very close together and handle heavy products. this is used in conjunction with photo eyes that either puch the package onto an alternate lane or allow the package to continue down the main conveyor line to the correct lane. P/Ds are slow to medium speed because the diverter mechanism must return across the belt before intercepting the next package. Typically. a row of sliding shoes travels across the sorter path smoothly.

magnetic separator . such as South Crofty and East Pool mine in Cornwall. Swivel Wheel/Roller Sortation This diverter can work with belt or roller conveyors to drive packages off to the right or left using a roller that will swivel in place to either allow the package to pass or be diverted. brass). magnetic separation was used to separate the ores. . wood. Main-line belt conveyors are typically less noisy than most roller types. fertilizers. plastic. etc. The Magnetic Separator Overbelt Overband is widely used by various waste recyclers for valuable material extraction and in such industries as plastics. Magnetic separation is a process in which magnetically susceptible material is extracted from a mixture using a magnetic force. The second pair were strongly magnetised and attracted the wolframite.overbelt overband MAGNETIC SEPARATOR . paper. The first pair of electromagnets was weakly magnetised and served to draw off any iron ore present. At these mines a device called a Wetherill's Magnetic Separator (invented by John Price Wetherill. which is weakly magnetic. foundry. glass. etc.) and non-ferrous metals (aluminium. copper. after calcination was fed onto a moving belt which passed underneath two pairs of electromagnets under which further belts ran at right angles to the feed belt. In this machine the raw ore.PURPOSE Magnetic Separator Overbelt Overband delivers precise and efficient sorting of ferrous metals from inert materials (glass. garbage. In sorting. wood. 1844–1906)[1] was used. Due to our extensive experience we will determine with you an optimal solution to your specific need. In mines where wolframite was mixed with cassiterite. Divert points can be as close as three-foot center. stainless steel. We realize that we all win when we work together. food. paper. to improve product purity and protect processing equipment from damage. This separation technique can be useful in mining iron as it is attracted to a magnet. These machines were capable of treating 10 tons of ore a day. the roller grabs the leading edge of the container and leads it off onto a spur. coal.Pop-Up Roller Sortation The pop-up roller is driven by its own motor at a higher speed than the main-line conveyor.

Cogelme engineering achievements assure perfect sorting characteristics in different customers situations. far-reaching magnetic fields and machines development for your specific needs. The special engineering principles of a Cogelme permanent overbelt magnetic separator make it possible to adapt the magnetic field to the specific customers situations and precisely extract ferrous metals. your material dimensions and the materials layer thickness. visit the gallery OVERBELT MAGNETIC SEPARATOR MODELS Magnetic Separator with Permanent Magnets: with Neodymium magnets . Cogelme uses strong permanent magnets to generate their magnetic fields. An advantage of a permanent overbelt magnetic separator is free magnet maintenance and no need of electrical current for generation of the magnetic field. visit the gallery CUSTOMER'S ADVANTAGES USING A MAGNETIC SEPARATOR COGELME . iron powder and etc.mod. gives a high degree of operational security and ideally suites for application on mobile installations. Due to its high magnetic strength is extremely effective in big metal scraps extraction. From flowing material iron objects are „captured“ by the magnetic power and with the overbelt magnets carried away. • • with Ferrite magnets . Overbelt Electro Magnetic Separator mod. The most suitable type to your situation depends on installation height. dimension of material and material thickness on the conveyor belt.mod. This unprecedented level of sorting purity and efficiency is made possible thanks to high powerful. Our engineering solutions offer you remarkable efficiency in iron extraction. SMF . Cogelme produces different permanent Magnetic Separator and Electro Magnetic Separator types. The magnetic separator suggestion for the best processing separation in your situation mainly depends from: kind of material. Our Electro Magnetic Separator demonstrates especially big magnetic power. SMN .are the most used for optimal extraction of middle size ferrous metals.for optimal extraction of little ferrous metals parts: iron dusts. When the iron objects leave the area of the magnetic field they automatically drop into appropriate canals or containers. SEM For perfect extraction of heavy ferrous metal pieces or ferrous metal extraction from high thickness materials (till 500/600 mm.).visit the gallery HOW THE MAGNETIC SEPARATOR WORKS Magnetic Separator Overbelt Overband is placed crosswise or lengthwise above the conveyor tape at a fixed working distance. These machines are built using 1st quality and stroger components that guarantee to all clients to work also in very difficult situations. little pieces of wired glass. The magnetic separator saves your costs.

CUSTOMER'S RESULTS Extracted pure iron scrap. and pyrrhotite can be removed from gangue minerals by low-intensity magnetic separators.kvqsegs=D. as big importance to this is paid engineering the machines (for example it is possible to change the tape without disassembling the machine). and tungsten ores and iron-bearing silicates. titanium.1/1371312/0/170/ADTECH. that ensure an especially good and clean iron ejection.0/5308.• • • • • • • A big power on all the width of the separator created by extra long magnet body .targe t=_blank.com/addyn/3. Fundamentals of Centrifugal Separation Technology Centrifugal force Centrifugal separating technology utilizes fundamental physical laws and centrifugal force.grp=585. increased profitability and excellent integrated machine for a comfortable long-term use.kvtopicid=383742. Machines are reliable and serves very long because of their resistant and strong structures. Success requires that the feed particles fall within a special size spectrum (0. • • Magnetic separation <script src="http://adserver.misc=12867 89689879"></script> Magnetic separation is based on the differing degrees of attraction exerted on various minerals by magnetic fields. Clients find machines maintenance simple and quick. high quality components. With good results. Can be used independently or as part of a total system. franklinite.1 to 1 millimetre). Also a possibility to change the shafts of the rolls extends the live of the machine and minimizes the costs. Very cost effective and high quality machines. . Special internal security system for keeping the magnets ensure safety for customers and machines. We understand each customer’s unique needs and design a separator accordingly.kvchannel=SCIENCE.adtechus. Minimal running costs. strongly magnetic minerals such as magnetite. High-intensity devices can separate oxide iron ores such as limonite and siderite as well as iron-bearing manganese.

The more inerts there are. faster when the vessel has an insert. They then deposit on the edge of the vessel. Centrifugal force Centrifugal force Centrifugal force 3 Centrifugal forces in a vessel The centrifugal forces act on all particles. The settling path is shortened by the insert. Mechanical separation technology makes use of this property when light. heavy or substances of different density have to be separated from each other. Thanks to the insert. The particles with the specifically higher weight are spun outwards fastest and most effectively. Separation by means of centrifugal force is. Depending on the speed of the rotating body. a higher throughput capacity is attained.Centrifugal force is produced through rotation around an axis. however. The force generated through the rotation acts in an outward direction. the specifically heavier particles deposit faster. the shorter the settling paths and the higher the throughput capacities. This means: larger volumes of liquid mixtures can be clarified or separated in the same period of time. . it increases or drops on the circular path. By this means.


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Separations made using a corona discharge device. Sepa are called Electrostatic Separation.Slide 20 of 23 Home | Filtration | Sedimentation | Equipment Selection | Settling Calculations Modelling | Data Analysis | Links | Enquiry Form Midlandit Electrostatic Separation ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION is defined as "the selective sorting of solid species by means of u on charged or polarized bodies in an electric field. and the different trajectories at some predetermined time. Separation is effected by adjusting the electric an such as gravity or centrifugal force. and if motion is . Separations made in liquids are termed separation by Dielectrophesis. are called Separations.

also in the reclamation of other v well as the cleaning of some food products. and food products.effects in nonuniform electric fields. The skins are easily removed from the peanuts. 2. This can be contro by potential." 1 Electrostatic separation is important in the production of minerals. Hulls m ground coffee in the same manner. When every effort is being made by Process Engineers concentrating equipment available for the recovery of critical minerals and reclaimed materials.E. and conditioning of the surface of the particles. salts. then taking a comb. Electrostatic and Magnetic Separation 2. Under the influence of an electrostatic charge there is a differen susceptibility and behavior of most materials. Oftentimes. for a diagram of how standard electrostatic sep Fig. Electrophoresis is when separations are made if motion is due the species in an electric field. There are no industrial applications of mineral concentrations by elec dielectrophesis. Typical Electrostatic Separator Diagram A very simple demonstration of electrostatic separation can be made by taking a handful of salted p skins off. Johnson. Lawyer. the desired separation is closely controlled. References: J. the electrostatic separation is of interest. minerals. rubbing it on fur or the coat sleeve until a static charge has been colle and passing it over the peanuts and skins. Applied Electrostatic Separation To More on Electrostatic Processing Return To Process Plant Menu . by a these factors. H. Refer to Fig. 1. temperature. polarity.2.

whereas others require specific reagent additions to change their surface potentials. Hydrophobic particles are recovered to the froth. Some mineral particles are naturally hydrophobic. whereas hydrophilic particles are discharged with the tailings stream. Chemicals of flotation . Oxide ores. Sulfide ores can be recovered using xanthate or dithiophosphate type collectors. such as spodumene and tantalite can be treated using oxalic acid based collectors.Separation by froth flotation relies on the differing surface potentials of the particles.

for example. glue.[edit] Collectors Collectors either chemically bond (chemisorption) on a hydrophobic mineral surface. increasing the separability of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles. Xanthates • • • • • • • • • • Potassium Amyl Xanthate (PAX) Potassium Isobutyl Xanthate (PIBX) Potassium Ethyl Xanthate (KEX) Sodium Isobutyl Xanthate (SIBX) Sodium Isopropyl Xanthate (SIPX) Sodium Ethyl Xanthate (SEX) Thiocarbamates Xanthogen Formates Thionocarbamates Thiocarbanilide Dithiophosphates [edit] Frothers • • • • • Pine oil Alcohols (MIBC) Polyglycols Polyoxyparafins| Cresylic Acid (Xylenol) [edit] Modifiers pH modifiers such as: • • • • • • • Lime CaO Soda ash Na2CO3 Caustic soda NaOH Acid H2SO4. PO43-. CMC Cationic modifiers: Anionic modifiers: Organic modifers: . Ag+ SiO32-. S2Dextrin. or adsorb onto the surface in the case of. CO32-. Ca2+. Pb2+. starch. Zn2+. CN-. Cu+. Collectors increase the natural hydrophobicity of the surface. HCl Ba2+. coal flotation through physisorption.

following grinding to liberate the mineral particles: 1. but in some cases may be sent to special cleaner cells. The scavenger cell froth [3] is usually returned to the rougher cells for additional treatment. Formation of a stable froth on the surface of the flotation cell 4. while the pulp [4] flows to another ce Mechanics of flotation The following steps are followed. The scavenger pulp is usually barren enough to be discarded as tails. Numbered triangles show direction of stream flow. A mixture of ore and water called pulp [1] enters the cell from a conditioner.Diagram of froth flotation cell. and flows to the bottom of the cell. Separation of the mineral laden froth from the bath (flotation cell) Simple flotation circuit for mineral concentration. The flow rate and tank size are designed to give the minerals enough time to be activated. The conditioner pulp [1] is fed to a bank of rougher cells which remove most of the desired minerals as a concentrate. Various flotation reagents are added to a mixture of ore and water (called pulp) in a conditioning tank. Collection and upward transport by bubbles in an intimate contact with air or nitrogen 3. Reagent conditioning to achieve hydrophobic surface charges on the desired particles 2. More complex flotation circuits . The mineral concentrate froth is collected from the top of the cell [3]. Air [2] or nitrogen is passed down a vertical impeller where shearing forces break the air stream into small bubbles. The rougher pulp [2] passes to a bank of scavenger cells where additional reagents may be added. Numbered triangles show direction of stream flow.

flotation columns. while the pulp [4] flows to another cell. The mineral concentrate froth is collected from the top of the cell [3]. Flotation can be performed in rectangular or cylindrical mechanically agitated cells or tanks. and intermediate re-grinding of pulp or concentrate. the surfactants are chosen based upon their selective wetting of the types of particles to be separated. Air [2] or nitrogen is passed down a vertical impeller where shearing forces break the air stream into small bubbles. while flotation columns generally have a low throughput rate but produce higher quality material. Flotation columns use air spargers to introduce air at the bottom of a tall column while introducing slurry above. which allows bubbles to attach to them and lift them into a froth. For complete wetting the contact angle is zero. Science of flotation To be effective on a given ore slurry. . The countercurrent motion of the slurry flowing down and the air flowing up provides mixing action. A good surfactant candidate will completely wet one of the types of particles. especially important for heavy particles. Another consideration. Jameson cells or deinking flotation machines. Mechanical cells use a large mixer and diffuser mechanism at the bottom of the mixing tank to introduce air and provide mixing action. and flows to the bottom of the cell. is to balance the weight of the particle with the surfactant adhesion and buoyant forces of the bubbles that would lift it. instead combining the slurry with air in a downcomer where high shear creates the turbulent conditions required for bubble particle contacting. A mixture of ore and water called pulp [1] enters the cell from a conditioner. Mechanical cells generally have a higher throughput rate.have several sets of cleaner and re-cleaner cells. The wetting activity of a surfactant on a particle can be quantified by measuring the contact angles that the liquid/bubble interface makes with it. Flotation equipment Diagram of froth flotation cell. while partially wetting the other type. but produce material that is of lower quality. Numbered triangles show direction of stream flow. The Jameson cell uses neither impellers nor spargers.

each buoyed by a swarm of bubbles. The particular chemical depends on which mineral is being refined. is the mass density of the particles. Argonne National Laboratory . As an example. is the average surface tension between the three pairs of phases (particle. under similar conditions as those expressed in the inequality. then particles will rise into the froth layer if:[5] where is the radius of the particles.81 m/s2). Principle of operation Froth flotation commences by comminution (that is. The hydrophobic grains of mineral-bearing ore escape the water by attaching to the air bubbles. forming a foam or a scum (more properly called a froth). which rise to the surface. if the bubbles are larger than the ore particles. The ore is ground into a fine powder and mixed with water to form a slurry. which then has to be separated from the desired mineral. air). For particles larger than the bubbles. This slurry (more properly called the pulp) of hydrophobic mineral-bearing ore and hydrophilic gangue is then introduced to a water bath which is aerated. crushing and grinding). flotation solution. which is used to increase the surface area of the ore for subsequent processing and break the rocks into the desired mineral and gangue in a process known as liberation. and the particles are equal to or less than 1 mm radius. The desired mineral is rendered hydrophobic by the addition of a surfactant or collector chemical. pine oil is used to extract copper (see copper extraction).For typical values of metal densities and surface tensions. The froth is removed and the concentrated mineral is further refined. and is the acceleration of gravity (9. creating bubbles. they too can rise into the froth. Mining Froth flotation to separate plastics.

Falconbridge. Phosphates and coal are also processed upgraded by flotation technology. Historically this was first used in the mining industry. This is used in several processing industries. These units are called Dissolved air flotation (DAF) units. Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic. natural gas processing plants and similar industrial facilities. grease and suspended solids from waste water. where it removes fats.[3] In particular. carbonates and oxides prior to further refinement. The selective separation of the minerals makes processing complex (that is. mixed) ores economically feasible. Froth flotation is a process for separating minerals from gangue by taking advantage of differences in their hydrophobicity. The flotation process is used for the separation of a large range of sulfides. Ontario. .Froth flotation cells to concentrate copper and nickel sulfide minerals. Hydrophobicity differences between valuable minerals and waste gangue are increased through the use of surfactants and wetting agents. petrochemical and chemical plants. [edit] Waste water treatment The flotation process is also widely used in industrial waste water treatment plants. dissolved air flotation units are used in removing oil from the wastewater effluents of oil refineries. oil.

The floc may then float to the top of the liquid. Flocculation is. The action differs from precipitation in that. whereby the individual droplets do not lose their identity. in the field of chemistry.Diagram of a cylindrical froth flotation cell with camera and light used in image analysis of the froth surface. . a process where colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flakes. prior to flocculation." Flocculation is synonymous with agglomeration. or can be readily filtered from the liquid Physical chemistry For emulsions. colloids are merely suspended in a liquid and not actually dissolved in a solution.[3] Flocculation is thus the initial step leading to further aging of the emulsion (droplet coalescence and the ultimate separation of the phases). settle to the bottom of the liquid. According to the IUPAC definition. and coagulation / coalescence Surface chemistry In colloid chemistry. flocculation describes clustering of individual dispersed droplets together. aggregation. flocculation is "a process of contact and adhesion whereby the particles of a dispersion form larger-size clusters. flocculation refers to the process by which fine particulates are caused to clump together into floc. In the flocculated system there is no formation of a cake since all the flocs are in the suspension.

or flocculating agents (also known as flocking agents). Biology In biology. The following chemicals are used as flocculants:[citation needed] • • • • • • • • alum aluminium chlorohydrate aluminium sulfate calcium oxide calcium hydroxide iron(II) sulfate iron(III) chloride polyacrylamide . These can be supplied in dry or liquid form for use in the flocculation process.1 µm (10-7m) in water remain continuously in motion due to electrostatic charge (often negative) which causes them to repel each other. Flocculants. the finer particles start to collide and agglomerate (combine together) under the influence of Van der Waals's forces.Civil engineering/earth sciences In civil engineering. Flocculants Particles finer than 0. These larger and heavier particles are called flocs. Flocculants are used in water treatment processes to improve the sedimentation or filterability of small particles. flocculation occurs after mechanical agitation ceases and the dispersed clay platelets spontaneously form flocs because of attractions between negative face charges and positive edge charges. calcium or magnesium. iron. upon precipitating. In dispersed clay slurries. react with water to form insoluble hydroxides which. forming a floc. and in the earth sciences.[6] These positively charged molecules interact with negatively charged particles and molecules to reduce the barriers to aggregation. link together to form long chains or meshes. surfactants and latex. physically trapping small particles into the larger floc. In addition. such as modified polyacrylamides. The most common liquid polyacrylamide is supplied as an emulsion with 10-40% actives and the rest is a carrier fluid. Many flocculants are multivalent cations such as aluminium. flocculation is a condition in which clays. a flocculant may be used in swimming pool or drinking water filtration to aid removal of microscopic particles which would otherwise cause the water to be turbid (cloudy) and which would be difficult or impossible to remove by filtration alone. are manufactured and sold by the flocculant producing business. polymers or other small charged particles become attached and form a fragile structure. a floc. For example. Emulsion polymers require activation to invert the emulsion and allow the electrolyte groups to be exposed. many of these chemicals. Long-chain polymer flocculants. Once their electrostatic charge is neutralized by the use of coagulant chemical. the process is used to refer to the asexual aggregation of microorganisms. are chemicals that promote flocculation by causing colloids and other suspended particles in liquids to aggregate. under appropriate pH and other conditions such as temperature and salinity.

ionic concentration). which encourages the creation of floc. Generally.g. stormwater treatment and treatment of other industrial wastewater streams.g. shapes. What is Flocculation? Flocculation is the process whereby smaller particles (inorganic and organic).. The floc is allows for these larger particles to be filtered more easily. deflocculation can be prevented or reduced by applying gentle mixing(e. (In this case deflocculation is a desired effect). and biological (bacterial populations and extracellular polymeric material). The flocculation process is significant for sediment and contaminant transport. water content. physical (e. The floc stays closer to the surface of . Flocculation also alters the chemical and biological behavior of sediment in terms of how it interacts with contaminants and the biological community and how it alters or degrades the contaminants or nutrients assimilated within or around the floc. The formation of flocs is a complicated process that is driven by a combination of mechanisms.. and compositional matrices of flocs differ significantly from those of the traditionally assumed primary particles. chemical (e. water-stable soil aggregates. Water treatment Flocculation and sedimentation are widely employed in the purification of drinking water as well as sewage treatment. Deflocculation is also used to describe the undesired effect in an activated sludge basin if the sludge is subjected to high-speed mixing. because it alters the hydrodynamic characteristics of suspended sediment: the effective particle sizes.g. and filter backwashing is accomplished in a significantly reduced amount of time. density. or flocs aggregate to form larger particles (flocs) in a flowing medium. porosity. AquaKLEAR with Hydropath internationally patented technology creates a continuous flocculation effect by charging suspended particles.. by using submersible propeller mixers that utilize large/wide propeller blades and operate at low rotational speed). turbulence).• • • • • • • • • • polyDADMAC sodium aluminate sodium silicate Chitosan Isinglass Moringa oleifera seeds (Horseradish Tree) Gelatin Strychnos potatorum seeds (Nirmali nut tree) Guar gum Alginates (brown seaweed extracts) The following natural products are used as flocculants:[7] Deflocculation • • A deflocculant is a chemical that is added to prevent a colloid from coming out of suspension.

thus reducing the amount of time to conduct a backwash. sort them. 1. However using Biomass Charcoal Briquetting technologies. Most of these residues are burnt in the open field. 2. groundnut shells. Biomass Charcoal Briquetting The agricultural residues are produced abundantly after harvest of each crop in our villages. etc) 2.the filter medium. rice husk. It can also add income to the family. The indirect method results in production of high quality charcoal with less smoke and pollutants MCRC’s method of charcoal briquetting Requirements 1. instead of deeply imbedding within it. sugarcane trash. coir pith. chop the large-size raw materials into smaller pieces and dry at sunlight. Binder (starch or cassava flour) 4.Collection of biomass Collect the locally available biomass. and the frequency intervals are extended significantly. Carbonization i. Mini Briquetting machine (10kg/hr) Stepwise process of charcoal making 1. Locally available biomass (eg casuarina leaf litter. Direct method The direct method is to heat and form an incomplete combustion of the organic matter that results in the formation of charcoal. Indirect method In the indirect method an external heat source is used to "burn" organic matter kept in a closed but vented airless chamber. Designing the Furnace . 2. Carbonizing chamber (furnace ) 3. can be used for generating an alternative fuel which is cost effective and environmentally friendly. What is briquetting Briquetting is the process of converting low bulk density biomass into high density and energy concentrated fuel briquettes Methodology There are two different methods of charcoal making. these residues.

• Inner drum : A 100lits stainless steel drum with proper lids and six (3/8") holes at the bottom. The charcoal mixture is made into briquettes either manually or using machines. Preparation of binder The binder material is used for strengthening the briquettes For every 100 kg of total weight of carbonized charcoal powder. 3.• Outer drum : A 200lits. Carbonizing the biomass • The biomass is tightly packed into the inner drum and fired for 45minutes to 1hr (Depending upon the biomass) using biomass. Higher Fixed Carbon & calorific value: Normally the concentration of fixed carbon . ii.7%-7. • After firing.1%-7. prepare a binder mixture by adding 5 to 6 kg of starch or cassava flour to 60 .300 kcal/kg Density : 970kg/m3 Advantages of the technology 1. the carbonized biomass in the inner drum has to collected and weighed.8% Volatile Matter : 13. It will enhance charcoal adhesion and produce identical briquettes. dry them under the sunlight. 3.0% Ash : 3. Smokeless: The charcoal briquettes burn without any smoke during ignition and burning.0%-83.7% Sulfur : 0. Briquetting. metal oil drum with the top cut out and a 12" width x 10" height hole cut in the lower side • Two iron rids (8”) has to be fixed at the bottom of the metal drum running parallel from one side to the other side. Low Ash content: Minimum residual ash is formed (less than 5% of the original weight of the charcoal).0%-13. Mixing Mix such that every particle of carbonised charcoal material is coated with binder.100-7. This iron rods act as base to support the stainless steel inner drum. Pour the mixture directly into the briquetting mould / machine to form uniform-sized briquettes.0% Heating Value : 7. 5. In this method 30 % of carbonized char can be obtained. • The inner drum is placed into the larger drum. pack them in plastic bags and seal General Characteristics of briquettes Moisture : 7.100 litres of water (based on the weight of the raw materials) 4.5% Fixed Carbon : 81. 2. Drying and Packaging Collect the briquettes in a tray. 6.

Odourless: The biomass charcoal briquette contains minimum evaporative substances. Accepted: November 28. thus eliminating the possibility of odour.1 Dimitrios M. 2000.1 Paraskevas P. University of Athens.will be about 82%.gr Submitted: July 28. 6. Sparkless: These charcoal briquettes will not produce sparks as compared to hardwood charcoal. Optimization. Zografou. Dallas. Choulis1 1 Division of Pharmaceutical Technology. Less crack & better strength: Less crack & better strength make the charcoal burn for a long time.1 and Nikolaos H. Rekkas Tel: (301) 727-4023 Fax: (301) 727-4027 Email: rekkas@pharm. The calorific value of charcoal briquettes is 7500 Kcal/KG. Korakianiti. 2000. Published: Keywords: Pellets. Panepistimiopolis. School of Pharmacy. Greece Correspondence to: Dimitrios M. Longer burning hours: Two times longer burning hours compared to hardwood charcoal. Rekkas.uoa. Optimization of the Pelletization Process in a Fluid-Bed Rotor Granulator Using Experimental Design Evdokia S. 7. 4. Factorial design Abstract . Athens 157 71. Fluid-bed rotor granulator. 5.

and wet granulation.1 Pellets can be produced in many different ways2. and coated in the same equipment. the optimization technique 32 was used. . The derived equation described the relationship between the selected factors and the size of the pellets. but also therapeutic advantages. spray drying of a solution or a suspension. such as better flow properties. The reduction of the variation in gastric emptying rates and the overall transit times is also a major advantage. ease of coating. Using one machine for the whole process ensure batch.05). a 3-step process that has been studied extensively.to-batch reproducibility and reduction of production time and cost. Equal amounts of microcrystalline cellulose. the experimental design techniques applied were found to be suitable in optimizing the pelletization process carried out in a fluid-bed rotor granulator. a lowered risk of side effects associated with dose dumping. As a result. narrow particle size distribution. Both factors were found to be statistically significant (P < . They are 1-step processes that take place in one machine. Therefore. extrusion-spheronization. the application of experimental design techniques. Pellets were prepared by wet granulation. while an increase in rotor speed decreased their size. less friable dosage form. Pelletization by means of wet granulation in a fluid-bed rotary processor is a multivariable process in which several factors affect the final characteristics of the pellets produced. The rotor speed and the amount of water sprayed were further selected in order to construct a mathematical model that correlates these factors with the geometric mean diameter of the pellets.3 In this study. amount of water sprayed. such as factorial design and optimization. They provide valid information while using only a limited number of structured experiments. dried.4 The following techniques can be applied using this equipment: solution/suspension layering. and enables automation of the process. pellets were produced using a fluid-bed rotor granulator. The effect of atomizing air pressure on pellet size was not statistically significant. spray congealing. The size of the pellets was found to be dependent on the amount of water added. The size and the size distribution of the pellets were determined by sieve analysis. is used most often. could be useful tools for the identification and correlation of significant factors that affect the process. where pellets are produced. Alternative techniques for producing pellets are the single pot methods. α-lactose monohydrate. such as a high-sheer mixer or a rotary processor. and distilled water were used as the granulation liquid. The wet granulation method was employed in this study. None of the 3 factors significantly affected the geometric standard deviation of the pellets. Therapeutic advantages include less irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. For this purpose. and a uniform distribution in the gastrointestinal tract resulting in a reduction of peak plasma fluctuations. Introduction Pellets as drug delivery systems offer not only technological advantages. where the binder liquid is sprayed onto the powder mass so that the particles are granulated and spheronized at the same time.This study examined the effect of rotor speed. and uniform packing. and atomizing air pressure on the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation of pellets produced in a fluid-bed rotor granulator using a 23 factorial design and an optimization technique.

Binzen. NJ. Equal amounts of microcrystalline cellulose and lactose were adequately mixed. The Netherlands. water. Germany) using the wet granulation technique. the pellets were dried for 15 minutes at 40°C. model 501R. UK). Belgium).2 mm diameter) into the powder at a rate of 30 mL per minute with the aid of a peristaltic pump (Siemens. methylparaben. RexV/110. propylparaben.5 bar. and zinc pyrithione. Eur. DMV. between the . Propylene glycol. Germany). NJ. grade.. Evaluation of pellets The size of the pellets was determined by sieve analysis (Endecotts. a preweighed amount of water (Table 1) was sprayed through an atomizing nozzle (1.3-0. After a fluidization time of 3 minutes. Other ingredients in the formulation included aloe. FMC. and atomizing air pressure on the size (geometric mean diameter) and size distribution (geometric standard deviation) of the pellets prepared by the above-mentioned wet granulation method. if any. using a 23 factorial design and an optimization technique. All materials were of Ph. Veghel. It is thus a means of separating those factors that are important from those that are not and identifying the interactions. lot 6814C. cetyl alcohol. As dg was regarded the particle size equivalent to 50% of the probability scale. propylparaben. and as σg the quotient of the ratio 16% oversize/50% size. One kg of the powder mixture was loaded into the product chamber of the machine.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rotor speed. sorbitol. and glyceryl monostearate were all purchased from Spectrum Quality Products.5 Experimental design and analysis Factorial design6. Preparation of pellets The pellets were prepared in a fluid-bed rotor granulator (Glatt GPCG3. lot 23813) and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel® PH 101. Brussels. London. All solvents used in High Pressure Liquid Chromatography [HPLC] analysis were HPLC grade unless otherwise noted and were used as received. St. Hydrocortisone acetate was purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. ceteareth-20. Octagon Digital CE. amount of water sprayed. The commercial (oil/water) cream used in this study was Lanocort 10 containing 1% hydrocortisone acetate. methylparaben. Based on these results. cetearyl alcohol. Glatt GmbH. Materials and Methods Materials Avicel CL-611 was supplied by FMC Corporation. Once all the water was sprayed. Princeton. The inlet air temperature was kept constant at 27 ± 1°C and the process airflow at 0. cetyl alcohol. the geometric mean diameter on a weight basis (dg) and the geometric SD (σg) were computed using a log-probability plot. Methods Starting materials were a-lactose monohydrate (Pharmatose® 150 M. Deionized water was used as the granulation liquid. New Brunswick.7 is an experimental technique by which factors involved in a process can be identified and their relative importance assessed. Louis. MI.

Vertommen et al9 observed that wet massing of cohesive powders like microcrystalline cellulose. According to Heng et al. when wetted. if too much moistening liquid is added. -. Rockville.15. form nuclei that are held together by liquid bonds. atomizing air pressure (bar). amount of water (mL). 05). Hasznos et al16 and Vertommen et al9 found that pellet size increased with an increase in spheronizer speed. and the atomizing air pressure on the geometric mean diameter and geometric SD of the pellets. the amount of water sprayed. The effect of atomizing air pressure on pellet size was not statistically significant (P < . *Factor A indicates rotor speed (rpm).factors chosen. the pellets produced will show a skewed size distribution. high level. In fluidized bed granulation. the main effects of the factors under study and their interactions were calculated and statistically evaluated by ANOVA (Table 3). C. Strong centrifugal forces may cause size reduction of the already formed pellets due to attrition or breakage. Inc.05). Powder particles. Based on these data. Although this finding is in agreement with previous reports. Thus the construction of a factorial design involves the selection of parameters and the choice of responses. The different formulations consisted of all possible combinations of all factors at all levels and were conducted in a fully randomized order. A possible explanation for the contradictory results regarding the effect of the rotor speed on pellet size could be that each study used a different method and/or equipment for the production of the pellets.05) Table 3 shows that an increase in the amount of water sprayed results in an increase in pellet diameter. The matrix of the factorial design is shown in Table 2. +. while Helen et al15 reported the opposite. MD). On the other hand.16 not all the reports agree on whether the relationship between the 2 factors is proportional.9-14 An increase in the amount of moistening liquid increases the wet surface available for agglomeration between the particles. The results for the geometric mean diameter and the geometric SD were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a commercial software package (Statgraphics Plus 4®. **Statistically significant (P < . is highly sensitive to the added amount of binding solution. *A indicates rotor speed (rpm). which consolidate during the process.8 the size of the pellets is highly dependent on the amount of water added. atomizing air pressure (bar). low level. As expected. Table 3 also shows that pellet size is significantly affected (P < . amount of water (mL). More specifically. Results The results for the geometric mean diameter and the geometric SD of the pellets produced are listed in Table 2. The formation . Factor B. The factors and the levels studied are shown in Table 1. A 23 factorial design was used to determine the effect of the rotor speed. In the present study an increase in rotor speed was found to decrease the size of the pellets produced.05) by the speed of the rotor plate.8. Manugistics. B.10 the amount of moistening liquid should reach a minimum level so that pellets of a suitable size can be obtained. particle growth follows a nucleative process. Factor C. Many studies have shown the importance of the amount of the moistening liquid in controlling the size of the pellets produced. The ANOVA results (Table 3) confirm that the effect is statistically significant (P < . as seen in Table 3.

However.0027 X1 X2 R2 = 0. Neither effect was found to be statistically significant (P < .4.12 an increase of the atomizing air pressure decreases the size of the droplets and consequently the size of the granules produced. a change in rotor speed influences the mean geometric diameter of the pellets to a greater extent when the amount of water sprayed is set at high level compared with its effect at a low level. the size distribution of the pellets is also increased. As can be seen in Figure 1. It can be seen that an increase of the rotor speed results in pellets of a narrower size distribution. Y= 2. the rotor speed and the amount of water sprayed) were further selected in order to construct a mathematical model that correlates these factors with the geometric mean diameter of the pellets. Larger droplets form larger nuclei because they are able to bind more particles.5616 X1 +2. The polynomial equation obtained correlates the rotor speed (X1) and the amount of water (X2) with the geometric mean diameter (Y).05 (1) The surface plot for Equation 1 is shown in Figure 1.8375 + 0. the results are depicted in Table 3. The atomizing pressure was kept constant at 3 bar. Wan et al17 investigated the effect of atomizing air pressure on spheroid size and found that the size of the droplets sprayed does not seem to have a significant effect on spheroid size. X1. Y). for example. the factors that were found to significantly affect pellet size (ie. but this effect was not found to be statistically significant.998. The size of the droplets sprayed can be changed by varying the atomizing air pressure. This could be because the centrifugal forces that act in a rotary processor are stronger than those in a fluid-bed granulator.0.6 The factors and their levels are shown in Table 4. P < .05). Helen et al15 and Holm et al8 reported that an increase of the spheronization speed decreases the size distribution of the pellets. Because the geometric SD of the pellets was not statistically significantly affected by the selected factors. According to Merkku and Yliruusi. Inc). all the interactions between the selected factors were found to be statistically significant (P < . It can be concluded that there is a good agreement between the estimated and the observed values.6347 X2 + 0. The levels of the factors and the estimated and experimental values are shown in Table 5.11®. the study further focused only on pellet size. Therefore. The geometric SD was used to evaluate the size distribution of the pellets. SE=22.0016 X22 . and amount of water.681.of these nuclei is influenced by the size of the droplets sprayed. 2 additional experiments were conducted by varying the 2 independent variables (rotor speed. these findings do not seem to apply in fluid bed pelletization. while an increase of the atomizing air pressure decreases the size distribution. The results were further analyzed with multiple regression analysis using a commercially available package (Statgraphics Plus 2. and thus their effect on pellet size is predominant and masks the effect of the size of the droplet. . Table 3 also shows that when the amount of water sprayed is increased. To assess the reliability of Equation 1. that the magnitude of the effect of the rotor speed on geometric mean diameter of the pellets is strongly affected by the amount of water sprayed (AB interaction) or the atomizing air pressure (AC interaction). This means. Manugistics. X2) and estimating the dependent variable (geometric mean diameter. The optimization technique 32 was used for this purpose.0006 X12 . As shown in Table 3.05).

the factors did not significantly affect the geometric SD of the pellets Furthermore.0 mm depending on their subsequent use. However.V/Association de Pharmacie Galenique Industrielle (APV/APGI) World Meeting (Berlin. These findings suggest that those factors should be considered during pelletization. as far as their geometric mean diameter is concerned. Finally. Granulation is the act or process of forming or crystallizing into grains. amount of water sprayed. flowability. Synonym "Agglomeration": Agglomeration processes or in a more general term particle size enlargement technologies are great tools to modify product properties. Interactions between these factors were also found to be statistically significant.Conclusion Rotor speed and amount of water were found to significantly affect the geometric mean diameter of the pellets. Agglomeration of powders is widely used to improve physical properties like: wettability. [1] Granules typically have a size range between 0. Acknowledgements This work was supported by grant YPER97 from the Greek Secretariat of Research and Technology and has been presented at the 4th Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e. bulk density and product appearance. Why Granulation . the correlation of rotor speed. experimental design techniques such as factorial design and optimization proved to be useful for the identification and correlation of the significant factors that affect pellet size. and geometric mean diameter can be adequately described by Equation 1.2 to 4. 2000). granulation refers to the act or process in which large objects are cut or shredded and remelted into granules or pellets. Chemical industry Granulation In the chemical industry.

In the traditional wet granulation method the wet mass is forced trough a sieve to produce wet granules which is subsequently dried. if one were to make tablets from granulated sugar versus powdered sugar. . because of their small size. irregular shape or surface characteristics. water may not be strong enough to create and hold a bond. namely. and the solvent/water evaporates (dries). [edit] Wet Granulation Wet granulation. the final objective of tablet making. a liquid solution that includes a binder (pharmaceutical glue) is required. Wet Granulation and Dry Granulation.Granulation is carried out for various reasons. and be non-toxic. once the water dries. Segregation is due to differences in the size or density of the component of the mix. Powdered sugar’s small particles have poor flow and compression characteristics. then the granulation is milled. the smaller and/or denser particles tend to concentrate at the base of the container with the larger and/or less dense ones on the top. two types of granulation technologies are employed. Granules produced from such a cohesive system will be larger and more isodiametric. Normally. are cohesive and do not flow well. The liquid solution can be either aqueous based or solvent based. This process results in the formation of granules. Once the solvent/water has been dried and the powders have formed a more densely held mass. An ideal granulation will contain all the constituents of the mix in the correct proportion in each granule and segregation of granules will not occur. but granules of the same powders are often more easily compacted. ethanol and isopropanol either alone or in combination. The fluid contains a solvent which must be volatile so that it can be removed by drying. powdered sugar would be difficult to compress into a tablet and granulated sugar would be easy to compress. and the equipment that is available. Typical liquids include water. Some powders are difficult to compact even if a readily compactable adhesive is included in the mix. it could not efficiently be made into a tablet that has good tablet characteristics such as uniform content or consistent hardness. These small particles would have to be compressed very slowly for a long period of time to make a worthwhile tablet. which is a polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). The process can be very simple or very complex depending on the characteristics of the powders. Unless the powdered sugar is granulated. PVP is dissolved in water or solvent and added to the process. Many powders. It involves the massing of a mix of dry primary powder particles using a granulating fluid. For example. Povidone. Aqueous solutions have the advantage of being safer to deal with than solvents. Water mixed into the powders can form bonds between powder particles that are strong enough to lock them together. both factors contributing to improved flow properties. the powders may fall apart. the process of adding a liquid solution to powders. However. Therefore. PVP forms a bond with the powders during the process. is one of the most commonly used pharmaceutical binders. When PVP and a solvent/water are mixed with powders. one of those is to prevent the segregation of the constituents of powder mix. is one of the most common ways to granulate. In such instances. This is associated with the distribution of the adhesive within the granule and is a function of the method employed to produce the granule. Granulation techniques In pharmaceutical industry.

Dry granulation can be conducted under two processes. The powders are compacted into a ribbon or small pellets between these rollers and milled through a low-shear mill. either a large tablet (slug) is produced in a heavy duty tabletting press or the powder is squeezed between two rollers to produce a sheet of materials (roller compactor. When a tablet press is used for dry granulation. commonly referred to as a chilsonator). When the product is compacted properly. the powders may not possess enough natural flow to feed the product uniformly into the die cavity. resulting in varying degrees of densification. then it can be passed through a mill and final blend before tablet compression.[edit] Dry Granulation The dry granulation process is used to form granules without using a liquid solution because the product to be granulated may be sensitive to moisture and heat. . Forming granules without moisture requires compacting and densifying the powders. In this process the primary powder particles are aggregated under high pressure. The roller compactor uses an auger-feed system that will consistently deliver powder uniformly between two pressure rollers.

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