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Galerkin Method|Views: 13|Likes: 1

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03/16/2014

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Galerkin Method

Yijian Zhan

Ning Ma

Galerkin Method

Engineering problems: differential

equations with boundary conditions.

Generally denoted as: D(U)=0; B(U)=0

Our task: to find the function U which

satisfies the given differential equations

and boundary conditions.

Reality: difficult, even impossible to solve

the problem analytically

Galerkin Method

In practical cases we often apply

approximation.

One of the approximation methods:

Galerkin Method, invented by Russian

mathematician Boris Grigoryevich Galerkin.

Galerkin Method

Related knowledge

Inner product of functions

Basis of a vector space of functions

Galerkin Method

Inner product

Inner product of two functions in a certain

domain:

shows the inner

product of f(x) and g(x) on the interval [ a,

b ].

*One important property: orthogonality

If , f and g are orthogonal to each

other;

**If for arbitrary w(x), =0, f(x) 0

, ( ) ( )

b

a

f g f x g x dx < >=

í

, 0 f g < >=

, w f < >

÷

Galerkin Method

Basis of a space

V: a function space

Basis of V: a set of linear independent

functions

Any function could be uniquely

written as the linear combination of the

basis:

0

{ ( )}

i i

S x o

·

=

=

( ) f x V e

0

( ) ( )

j j

j

f x c x o

·

=

=

¯

Galerkin Method

Weighted residual methods

A weighted residual method uses a finite

number of functions .

The differential equation of the problem is

D(U)=0 on the boundary B(U), for example:

on B[U]=[a,b].

where “L” is a differential operator and “f”

is a given function. We have to solve the

D.E. to obtain U.

0

{ ( )}

n

i i

x o

=

( ) ( ( )) ( ) 0 D U L U x f x = + =

Galerkin method

Weighted residual

Step 1.

Introduce a “trial solution” of U:

to replace U(x)

: finite number of basis functions

: unknown coefficients

* Residual is defined as:

0

1

( ) ( ) ( )

n

j j

j

U u x x c x o o

=

~ = +

¯

j

c

( )

j

x o

( ) [ ( )] [ ( )] ( ) R x D u x L u x f x = = +

Galerkin Method

Weighted residual

Step 2.

Choose “arbitrary” “weight functions” w(x),

let:

With the concepts of “inner product” and

“orthogonality”, we have:

The inner product of the weight function

and the residual is zero, which means that

the trial function partially satisfies the

problem.

So, our goal: to construct such u(x)

, ( ) , ( ) ( ){ [ ( )]} 0

b

a

w R x w D u w x D u x dx < >=< > =

í

Galerkin Method

Weighted residual

Step 3.

Galerkin weighted residual method:

choose weight function w from the basis

functions , then

These are a set of n-order linear

equations. Solve it, obtain all of the

coefficients .

j

o

0

1

, [ ( )] ( ){ [ ( ) ( )]} 0

n

b

j j j j

a

j

w R D u dx x D x c x dx o o o o

=

< >= = + =

¯

í í

j

c

Galerkin Method

Weighted residual

Step 4.

The “trial solution”

is the approximation solution we want.

0

1

( ) ( ) ( )

n

j j

j

u x x c x o o

=

= +

¯

Galerkin Method Example

Solve the differential equation:

with the boundary condition:

( ( )) ''( ) ( ) 2 (1 ) 0 D y x y x y x x x = + + ÷ =

(0) 0, (1) 0 y y = =

Galerkin Method Example

Step 1.

Choose trial function:

We make n=3, and

0

1

( ) ( ) ( )

n

i i

i

y x x c x o o

=

= +

¯

0

1

2 2

2

3 3

3

0,

( 1),

( 1)

( 1)

x x

x x

x x

o

o

o

o

=

= ÷

= ÷

= ÷

Galerkin Method Example

Step 2.

The “weight functions” are the same as

the basis functions

Step 3.

Substitute the trial function y(x) into

i

o

0

1

, [ ( )] ( ){ [ ( ) ( )]} 0

n

b

j j j j

a

j

w R D u dx x D x c x dx o o o o

=

< >= = + =

¯

í í

Galerkin Method Example

Step 4.

i=1,2,3; we have three equations with

three unknown coefficients

1 2 3

, , c c c

3 1 2

3 1 2

3 1 2

4 3 5 1

0

15 10 84 315

61 5 11 1

0

70 84 630 13860

73 4 61 1

0

315 315 13860 60060

c c c

c c c

c c c

÷ ÷ + ÷ =

+ ÷ + =

÷ ÷ + ÷ =

Galerkin Method Example

Step 5.

Solve this linear equation set, get:

Obtain the approximation solution

1

2

3

1370

0.18521

7397

50688

0.185203

273689

132

0.00626989

21053

c

c

c

= ÷ ~ ÷

= ~

= ÷ ~ ÷

3

1

( ) ( )

i i

i

y x c x o

=

=

¯

Galerkin Method Example

Galerkin Galerkin solution solution Analytic solution Analytic solution

References

1. O. C. Zienkiewicz, R. L. Taylor, Finite

Element Method, Vol 1, The Basis, 2000

2. Galerkin method, Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galerkin_method#cite_note-BrennerScott-1

Reality: difficult.Galerkin Method Engineering problems: differential equations with boundary conditions. B(U)=0 Our task: to find the function U which satisfies the given differential equations and boundary conditions. even impossible to solve the problem analytically . Generally denoted as: D(U)=0.

Galerkin Method In practical cases we often apply approximation. One of the approximation methods: Galerkin Method. . invented by Russian mathematician Boris Grigoryevich Galerkin.

Galerkin Method Related knowledge Inner product of functions Basis of a vector space of functions .

b ]. w.Galerkin Method Inner product Inner product of two functions in a certain domain:b f . f(x) 0 . f **If for arbitrary w(x). f and g are orthogonal to each other. g f ( x) g ( x)dx shows the inner a product of f(x) and g(x) on the interval [ a. *Onegimportant property: orthogonality f . 0 If . =0.

Galerkin Method Basis of a space V: a function space Basis of V: a set of linear independent S {i ( x)}i 0 functions Any functionf ( x) V could be uniquely written as the linear combination of the basis: f ( x) c j j ( x) j 0 .

to obtain U. The differential equation of the problem is D(U)=0 on the boundary B(U).Galerkin Method Weighted residual methods A weighted residual method uses a finite number of functions{i ( x)}in0 . where “L” is a differential operator and “f” is a given function. for example: D(U ) L(U ( x)) f ( x) 0 on B[U]=[a.E. We have to solve the D. .b].

Galerkin method Weighted residual Step 1. Introduce a “trial solution” of U: j to replace U(x)1 j ( x) : finite number of basis functions c j : unknown coefficients * Residual is defined as: U u ( x) 0 ( x) c j j ( x) n R( x) D[u ( x)] L[u ( x)] f ( x) .

Choose “arbitrary” “weight functions” w(x). D(u) w( x){D[u( x)]}dx 0 a With the concepts of “inner product” and “orthogonality”. b let: w. we have: The inner product of the weight function and the residual is zero. So. our goal: to construct such u(x) . R( x) w.Galerkin Method Weighted residual Step 2. which means that the trial function partially satisfies the problem.

. then n These are a set of n-order linear equations. Solve it. R j [ D(u )]dx j ( x){D[0 ( x) c j j ( x)]}dx 0 b a j 1 Step 3. Galerkin weighted residual method: choose weight function w from the basis functions j . obtain all of thec j coefficients .Galerkin Method Weighted residual w.

n The “trial solution”u( x) 0 ( x) c j j ( x) j 1 is the approximation solution we want.Galerkin Method Weighted residual Step 4. .

y(1) 0 .Galerkin Method Example Solve the differential equation: D( y( x)) y ''( x) y( x) 2 x(1 x) 0 with the boundary condition: y (0) 0.

n y Choose trial function:( x) 0 ( x) cii ( x) i 1 We make n=3. 2 x 2 ( x 1) 2 3 x 3 ( x 1)3 . 1 x( x 1). and 0 0.Galerkin Method Example Step 1.

R j [ D(u )]dx j ( x){D[0 ( x) c j j ( x)]}dx 0 b a j 1 n . The “weight functions” are the same as i the basis functions Step 3. Substitute the trial function y(x) into w.Galerkin Method Example Step 2.

c2 . we have three equations with c1 . c3 three unknown coefficients 1 3c1 5c2 4c3 0 15 10 84 315 1 5c1 11c2 61c3 0 70 84 630 13860 73c3 4c 61c2 1 1 0 315 315 13860 60060 .Galerkin Method Example Step 4. i=1.3.2.

Galerkin Method Example Step 5.18521 7397 50688 c2 0.00626989 21053 c1 Obtain the approximation solution y( x) cii ( x) i 1 3 .185203 273689 132 c3 0. Solve this linear equation set. get: 1370 0.

Galerkin Method Example Galerkin solution Analytic solution .

Wikipedia: http://en. Galerkin method. C.org/wiki/Galerkin_method#cite_note-BrennerScott-1 . Finite Element Method. L. O. R.References 1.wikipedia. 2000 2. The Basis. Vol 1. Zienkiewicz. Taylor.

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