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Terms Common In Mobile Development

Terms Common In Mobile Development

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As mobile devices become more mainstream and mobile applications become integral pieces of an increasing number of companies' IT infrastructures, it is vital that enterprise level decision-makers understand common terminology in the mobile development landscape. This whitepaper is a compilation of common terms in the world of mobile application development, created by the app development team at PointAbout.
As mobile devices become more mainstream and mobile applications become integral pieces of an increasing number of companies' IT infrastructures, it is vital that enterprise level decision-makers understand common terminology in the mobile development landscape. This whitepaper is a compilation of common terms in the world of mobile application development, created by the app development team at PointAbout.

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Published by: PointAbout on Aug 11, 2011
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Terms Common In Mobile Development

The evolution of mobile devices has taken the world by storm. Seemingly every day brings news of an eruption in the number of apps being downloaded or breathless updates on another upcoming revoultionary tablet or smartphone. According to Nielsen, 36% of U.S. mobile consumers now own smartphones. There are currently over 200 million mobile subscriptions in the U.S., while the total number of global subscriptions is expected to reach 6 billion in 2011. Mobile app downloads will follow the trend and increase to 33 billion by 2014. While the future of mobile is still unknown given the industry’s relative infancy, what is certain is that mobile device ownership will continue to grow and propel the demand for mobile apps. For that reason, PointAbout has compiled a list of commonly used terms in the mobile app development process. These terms remain consistent regardless of the targeted mobile platform. • Application Programming Interface (API) - is a set of standardized rules and specifications that define how software programs communication with each other. An API can be created for libraries, operating systems, and applications. • Application Distribution - is the process of submitting an app to an app store and distributing it to public consumers or internally within enterprises. Apple has strict guidelines for app distribution; one must have either a Developer’s license to distribute apps to public consumers or an Enterprise license to distribute apps internally within enterprises. Android, Blackberry, and Windows Phone platforms have a more lenient process. • Application Provisioning - refers to the process of creating a profile provision on the iOS platform for a specific app. The provision contains 2 major elements, the app ID and a list of devices (only if an adhoc provision or a development provision, otherwise a list is not required for app store submission).

This document contains Confidential & Private Information of PointAbout, Inc. Visit www.pointabout.com for more information.

• App Store - (termed “Market” for Android and “BlackBerry App World” for Blackberry apps) is an online store for mobile device users. Developers submit mobile applications to app stores, where consumers browse, purchase (varying prices), download, and install apps. • Augmented Reality - a term that relates to a real-time live direct or indirect view of a real, physical world that is simulated/augmented by computer-generated sensory input (sound, graphics, etc.) • Authentication - refers to the verification of a user’s identity with something the user provides, such as date of birth, password, secret question, a smart card (physical item), fingerprint (physical feature). This is also a method for verifying sensitive, private, and/or premium data. • Badge - refers to the iOS platform, a badge is the visual notification bubble that alerts the user to the number of unread emails. • Bluetooth - is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices. • Certificate Signing Request (CSR) - in preparing a device for development on the iOS platform, a CSR is a needed digital asset containing personal information, which is used to generate developer certificates. • Developer Certificate - is an additional needed digital asset, which identifies an iOS application developer; after the CSR approval, the developer certificate is downloaded from the iOS portal, then added to the developer’s keychain. • Device Orientation - Apple, Android, and Windows Phone 7 devices must be capable of rendering screens in landscape and portrait views. • Direct Manipulation - refers to or describes interactive systems where users physically interact with their operating system offering “user control.” Instead of typing text commands, the user has the ability to physically interact with directories and files while receiving visual representation of the progress and the end point. An example of direct manipulation is the resizing of a graphical shape such as a rectangle box. • Emulator - is a testing tool used in conjunction with device testing or in the case where devices are limited; emulators mimic the software environment and simulate all or part of the hardware peripherals.

This document contains Confidential & Private Information of PointAbout, Inc. Visit www.pointabout.com for more information.

• Encrypting - refers to the act of securing data from being read by unauthorized entities in such a way that its original state can be restored later. • End-User(s) - is a person or group of persons that a software program or hardware device is designed for. End-users are the ultimate operators of the software or device after it has been fully developed, marketed, and installed. An “end-user” is distinct from developers or programmers of the product. • Enterprise License - refers to Apple’s developer programs. An enterprise license is needed to distribute, update, and host in-house proprietary mobile apps to employees within your organization. The cost is $299/year and offers several amenities including: •access to the iOS SDK, Developer Center Resources, and Apple Developer Forums •the ability to submit 2 technical support incidents per membership year •the ability to create development teams •the ability to test apps on iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch •the ability to select pre-release software and tools •ad hoc distribution • eXtensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML) - is an upgraded version of the widely used Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) that mirrors and conforms to XML syntax. • eXtensible Markup Language (XML) - is a data format that is frequently used to transmit data via web service communications. XML uses tags to identify data fields and can define specific rules that all data must conform to ensure consistency and validity. • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) - is a standard network protocol commonly used to transfer (download/upload) files to a server over the internet. • Fragmentation (in mobile) - describes the current dilemma within the mobile landscape. It is the inability to create a single application that can operate across all devices. • Functionality - refers to the capabilities or usefulness of a software program or application. • GeoRSS - are location-encoded feed formats used to publish and deliver regularly updated web content such as blog posts, audio and video, and news headlines. • Global Positioning System (GPS) - most smartphones include GPS capabilities, which provide location (Latitude and Longitude) and time information, at all times (when enabled).

This document contains Confidential & Private Information of PointAbout, Inc. Visit www.pointabout.com for more information.

• Graphical User Interface (GUI) - is a type of user interface allowing easier interaction between a user and an electronic device (MP3 players, gaming devices), by the use of images instead of text commands. Common examples are menus, the pointer, and icons. • Hardware - can be used to refer to mobile devices of any kind or additional peripheral components. • Hit Target - refers to touch points on devices. It is recommended each toolbar item maintain a 44 x 44 pixel size for good usability. • Hybrid App - is a software bundle that is a combination of a native app (Objective C and Java) and a web app (HTML5, CSS, JavaScript). Hybrid apps have the ability to utilize native device functionalities (camera, GPS, bluetooth, accelerometer) and be distributed as native applications. Essentially, hybrid apps are web apps with a native outer shell or wrapper. •HyperText Markup Language 5 (HTML5) - is the next iteration of HTML, which is the core programming language of the world wide web, set to be finalized in 2014. New features will be added to handle today’s multimedia demands, decrease the need for additional plug-ins, allow end users to interact with applications and documents offline, and geo-location functionalities. • In-App Purchase - is a way for developers to earn extra income and a way for users to purchase new content, services, complementary features, subscriptions, and upgrades, all within a mobile application. • Jailbreak - is most commonly associated with iPhones; the process of removing the limitations imposed by Apple on iOS devices. Although illegal, the end result is more control over the behavior and environment of the device, modifications to the OS and the appearance of the homescreen. • JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) - is an alternative data format to XML. JSON is simpler and more efficient than XML but lacks some of the power in defining rules about data and describing complex data.

This document contains Confidential & Private Information of PointAbout, Inc. Visit www.pointabout.com for more information.

• Keychain - refers to the iOS platform. Keychain is a type of storage that contains encrypted information for multiple services and applications. • Location-Based Services (LBS) - information or entertainment service accessible via mobile devices and mobile networks that utilize the devices GPS feature. • Metaphors - refers to the iOS platform and are objects and actions that resemble the “real-world.” For instance, the use of a Folder, both in the real-world and virtual have the same usage, to store documents. When users see a folder on their computer screen, they automatically make the connection. Common metaphors include, tapping playback controls, dragging, flicking, or swiping objects, sliding on/off switches, flicking through pages or photos, and spinning picker wheels to make choices. • Mobile App/Application - is compiled software created for use on a mobile device, which is either pre-installed by the manufacturer or downloaded and installed by a consumer. • Mobile Browser - is a web browser designed to be accessed by mobile devices and optimized to display web content effectively for small screens. • Mobile Carrier - is also known or referred to as wireless carrier or wireless service provider. It is a telephone company that provides services for mobile phone subscribers (Verizon, AT&T, Sprint, etc.). • Mobile Enterprise Application Platform (MEAP) - is a comprehensive suite of products and services that enable the development of mobile applications by managing the diversity of networks, devices, and user groups throughout the development lifecycle and deployment. MEAPs capabilities/ features include: •supporting more than one type of mobile device or mobile OS without the need to generate separate code bases •centrally manage mobile devices, data, and applications •enhances existing business platforms by making them accessible to all users, at all times •leverages existing knowledge and familiar deployment tools

• Mobile Fragmentation - refers to the diversities in mobile devices and platforms, and the inability to create an application that is compatible and operable with all platforms and devices. • Mobile OS (Operating System) - is also referred to as mobile platform, is a mobile operating system for mobile devices, similar to Windows OS and Mac OS for desktops and laptops.

This document contains Confidential & Private Information of PointAbout, Inc. Visit www.pointabout.com for more information.

• Mobile Platform - is also referred to as mobile OS, is a mobile operating system for mobile devices, similar to Windows OS and Mac OS for desktops and laptops. • Mobile Subscriptions - refers to the purchase of a mobile phone contract via a mobile phone vendor (Verizon, AT&T, T-Mobile, etc.). • Mobile Web - refers to browser-based access to the internet via the use of a mobile device (smartphones, tablets, feature phones). • Monetization - is a term used in reference to advertisers/developers and how they leverage the mobile medium to display advertisements in order to gain a profit. • Multitasking - is the ability to execute multiple programs at one time; it involves the use of only one CPU or smartphone, which quickly switches from one program to another, giving the appearance of executing all the programs at once. • Native Application - is a software bundle that is developed and designed using the programming lanaguage (Objective C, Java) of a specific platform (iOS, Android) and runs only on specific devices. • Near-Field Communication (NFC) - is commonly associated with mobile payment. NFC is a shortranged wireless connectivity technology that builds upon the existing radio frequency identification technology. • Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) - is a cross-platform API software to graphics hardware; it is a standard specification used to write applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. The interface consists of over 250 distinct commands that are used to specify objects and operations needed to create interactive 2D and 3D graphics. OpenGL is commonly used in flight simulation, virtual reality, video games, and information visualization. • Over the Air Programming (OTA) - is a vital part of a mobile device’s functionality and security. It works in conjunction with SMS or text messaging to provide remote control of mobile devices, allowing for an efficient, cost-effective method to update a device’s OS, send software, troubleshoot, install mobile apps from app stores. • Provisioning Profile - refers to the iOS platform. The profile associates one or more developer certificates, devices, and an app ID.

This document contains Confidential & Private Information of PointAbout, Inc. Visit www.pointabout.com for more information.

• Push Notification - is a mobile service created by Apple that uses a constantly open-IP connection to forward notifications from servers to iPhones, iPads, and iPod Touch. The notifications are received and can be opened without the need to launch the application. • Quality Assurance Testing (QA) - refers to systematic monitoring and evaluation of various aspects of projects, essentially making sure a project is completed based on agreed upon specifications, standards, and functionality requirements. • Really Simple Syndication Feeds (RSS Feeds) - is also referred to as Rich Site Summary. RSS feeds are formatted and used to publish and deliver regularly updated web content such as blogs, audio and video, and news headlines. • Request for Proposal (RFP) - is an early stage of the procurement process. It is a document an entity uses to elicit bids for a project from potential vendors. • RACI Matrix - is also referred to as Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) - is used to describe and assign roles in order to complete tasks or projects. •Responsible - the task achiever •Accountable - the final approving authority of the completed project or task •Consulted - subject matter experts; those whose expertise is sought •Informed - those who are kept up-to-date or “in the loop” of progress • Rich media - is also referred to as interactive media or multimedia that responds to a user’s input. Rich media is characteristically known for dynamic motion; it is a broad range of digital media information consisting of text images, videos, audio, and animation. It can be downloadable and embeddable. • Root (device) - is most commonly associated with Android devices. “Rooting” is the process of removing the limitations imposed by Google on Android devices, although illegal, the end result is more control over the behavior and environment of the device, modifications to the OS and the appearance of the homescreen. • Screenshot - is also referred to as Screen Grab, Screen Capture, or print screen. A screenshot is an image taken by a computer or mobile device that is a visual representation of what is being displayed. • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) - is a messaging protocol frequently used in Web Services. SOAP consists of information about the message such as error details or data used for security or to ensure message reliability.

This document contains Confidential & Private Information of PointAbout, Inc. Visit www.pointabout.com for more information.

• Simulator - is a testing tool used in conjunction with device testing or in the case where devices are limited. Simulators are limited in that they only mimic the software environment, having no regard for the hardware. • Software Defects - are referred to as “bugs,” interruptions, glitches, or crashes that occur while an application is being installed, launched, used, or closed. • Software Development Kit (SDK) - is a set of development tools that enables developers to create applications for a particular software platform or framework. • Streaming - refers to a method of delivering a continuous, steady flow of data over telecommunications networks, which is presented to and received by an end-user. “Streaming” is commonly associated with online video and audio. • Systems Requirement Specification (SRS) - is also referred to as SRD (Systems Requirements Document), RD (Requirements Document) and other names. A SRS is a document that lays out the development process for a mobile project, based on the client’s expectations, targeted platforms, and preexisting data architecture; a collection of information mapping out the development process of the creation of a system. • Test Provisioning Profile - is also referred to as an ad-hoc provisioning profile. Test provisioning profiles are issued to non-developers or those not a part of an iOS developer team, allowing them to install and test applications that have not been published in the App Store. • Touchscreen - is very common in mobile devices. It is an electronic visual display that detects the presence and location of touch within the display area. Touchscreens allow one to interact directly with devices without the need for a touchpad or a mouse. • Touch User Interface Gestures (pinch, scrolling, zooming, swipe) - are gestures referring to one’s interaction with Apple, Android, Blackberry, and Windows Phone devices. Although similar, each platform has different gestures.

This document contains Confidential & Private Information of PointAbout, Inc. Visit www.pointabout.com for more information.

• Unique Device Identifier (UDID) - each iPhone, iPad, and iPod has a sequence of 40 characters (letters and numbers) that are specific to that device. UDIDs are used by developers who want to create an ad hoc build or deploy an application to a “real” iphone, and for beta testing iOS apps with up to 100 devices (users must provide developers with their UDIDs in order to install the beta apps). • Universal App - refers to Apple devices and iOS mobile apps. A universal app is a bundled/combo app that has the capability to run on both the iPhone and iPad, all while rendering properly on both devices. The app utilizes the full small screen of an iPhone and the full large screen of an iPad without images/content being disproportionate. • Use Case - is a modeling technique which developers use to describe the interaction between the user (or actor) and the software application. Use cases describe steps or actions that help developers determine which features to implement and to predict possible problems. • User Experience (UX) - refers to how an end-user perceived, reacted or felt after interacting with an application, system, or device. The user’s experience is indicative of the ease of use, practicality, and efficiency of the product. • User Interface (UI) - refers to the design of a program, a computer, a mobile device, an application, a website, or machine with the focus on the end-user’s experience and overall interaction in mind. User Interface (UI) Paradigms - in mobile development, each mobile platform has UI (user interface) criteria to follow in order to engage the user and offer a similar user experience as pre-installed apps. • Virtual Private Network (VPN) - is a way to connect to a private local area network by using encryption. Virtual private networks can be used to send any kind of network traffic including video, voice, or data. • Web Services - is a method of sending data between two computers over web protocols such as HTTP. Data is usually transmitted in one of two formats: XML or JSON. Web Services use either SOAP or REST messaging. Web Services are frequently used by mobile devices to send data to or retrieve data from servers. • Wireframes - are blueprints or visual guides that represent the skeletal framework of a mobile application. Wireframes typically focus on information architecture. • Wireless - in telecommunications, wireless technology may be used to transfer information or commands over short and long distances.

This document contains Confidential & Private Information of PointAbout, Inc. Visit www.pointabout.com for more information.

• Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) - is a specification allowing users to access relevant information instantly via handheld devices such as smartphones, tablets, PDAs, and pagers. WAP is supported by all operating systems and most wireless networks. • Wireless Network - is also referred to as WiFi. Wireless networks use radio frequency waves to communicate much like a two-way radio. A device’s wireless adapter translates and transmits data to a wireless router, which receives and decodes the data. • Wireless Services - currently refers to 3G and 4G wireless services, measured in Mbps with promises of high data speeds, always-on data access, and greater voice capacity. It also promises to enable full motion video, video conferencing, and high speed internet access. If your company has an interest in or is planning mobile solutions, please refer to PointAbout’s growing whitepaper/case study directory for an in-depth look at various topics relevant to the mobile landscape. The PointAbout team has applied their collective knowledge to mobilize a number of major brands in the media, entertainment, transportation, and retail verticals.

This document contains Confidential & Private Information of PointAbout, Inc. Visit www.pointabout.com for more information.

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