Basics to Automobile Engineering

By Waqas Ali Tunio
Vice President

Posto Motors Corporation

.::No Sin ² I Win::.

www.aliwaqas.tk

Automotive Guide ² A basic reference guide to automotives, a compilation of various articles taken from Internet Sources (esp. Wikipedia and How Stuff Works) for fresh Mechanical/Automotive Engineers

Basics to Automobile Engineering

By Waqas Ali Tunio

Engine
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical motion Motors converting heat energy into motion are usually referred to as engines, which come in many types. A common type is an engine such as an internal combustion engine which typically burns a fuel with air and uses the hot gases for generating power. External combustion engines such as steam engines use heat to generate motion via a separate working fluid. Another common type of motor is the electric motor. This takes electrical energy and generates mechanical motion via varying electromagnetic fields. Other motors including pneumatic motors that are driven by compressed air and motors can be driven by elastic energy, such as springs. Some motors are driven by non combustive chemical reactions. Terminology Originally an engine was a mechanical device that converted force into motion. Military devices such as catapults, trebuchets and battering rams are referred to as siege engines. The term "gin" as in cotton gin is recognized as a short form of the Old French word engin, in turn from the Latin ingenium, related to ingenious. Most devices used in the industrial revolution were referred to as engines, and this is where the steam gained its name. In modern usage, the term is used to describe devices capable of performing mechanical work, as in the original steam engine. In most cases the work is produced by exerting a torque or linear force, which is used to operate other machinery which can generate electricity, pump water, or compress gas. In the context of propulsion systems, an air-breathing engine is one that uses atmospheric air to oxidize the fuel carried rather than supplying an independent oxidizer, as in a rocket. In common usage, an engine burns or otherwise consumes fuel, and is differentiated from an electric machine (i.e., electric motor) that derives power without changing the composition of matter. A heat engine may also serve as a prime mover, a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered 2 www.aliwaqas.tk | .::No Sin - I Win::.

by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but ultimately all such devices derive their power from the engine. The term motor was originally used to distinguish the new internal combustion engine-powered vehicles from earlier vehicles powered by steam, such as the steam roller and motor roller, but may be used to refer to any engine.

Heat engine
Combustion engine Combustion engines are heat engines driven by the heat of a combustion process. Internal combustion engine Animation showing the four stages of the4stroke combustion engine cycle: 1. Induction (Fuel enters) 2. Compression 3. Ignition (Fuel is burnt) 4. Emission (Exhaust out) The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (generally, fossil) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high temperature and pressure gases, which are produced by the combustion, directly applies force to components of the engine, such as the pistons or turbine blades or a nozzle, and by moving it over a distance, generates useful mechanical energy. External combustion engine An external combustion engine (EC engine) is a heat engine where an (internal) working fluids heated by combustion of an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. The fluid then, by expanding and acting on the mechanism of the engine produces motion and usable work. The fluid is then cooled, compressed and reused (closed cycle), or (less commonly) dumped, and cool fluid pulled in (open cycle air engine). "Combustion" refers to burning fuel with an oxidizer, to supply the heat. Engines of similar (or even identical) configuration and operation may use a supply of heat from other sources such as nuclear, solar, geothermal or exothermic reactions not involving combustion; but are

Basics to Automobile Engineering

By Waqas Ali Tunio

not then strictly classed as external combustion engines, Environmental effects but as external thermal engines. Operation of engines typically has a negative impact The working fluid can be a gas as in a Stirling engine, upon air quality and ambient sound levels. There has or steam as in a steam engine or an organic liquid such been a growing emphasis on the pollution producing as n-pentane in an Organic Rankine Cycle. The fluid can features of automotive power systems. This has created be of any composition; gas is by far the most common, new interest in alternate power sources and internalalthough even single-phase liquid is sometimes used. In combustion engine refinements. Although a few limitedthe case of the steam engine, the fluid production battery-powered electric vehicles have changes phases between liquid and gas... appeared, they have not proved to be competitive owing to costs and operating characteristics. In the Gas turbine twenty-first century the diesel engine has been increasing in popularity with automobile owners. A gas turbine is internal combustion is the sense that the However, the gasoline engine, with its new emissioncombustion takes place in the working fluid, but external control devices to improve emission performance, has combustion in the sense that the combustion is not fully not yet been significantly challenged. closed in and is outside the actual moving turbine section. Traditionally, "internal combustion" usually Air quality excludes gas turbines, jets and rockets. Exhaust from a spark ignition engine consists of the Air-breathing combustion engines following: nitrogen 70 to 75% (by volume), water vapor 10 to 12%, carbon dioxide 10 to Air-breathing engines are combustion engines that use 13.5%, hydrogen 0.5 to 2%, oxygen 0.2 to 2%, carbon the oxygen in atmospheric air to oxidize ('burn') the fuel monoxide: 0.1 to 6%, unburnt hydrocarbons and carried, rather than carrying an oxidizer, as in a rocket. partial oxidation products (e.g.aldehydes) 0.5 to Theoretically, this should result in a better specific 1%, nitrogen monoxide 0.01 to 0.4%, nitrous oxide <100 impulse than for rocket engines. ppm, sulfur dioxide 15 to 60 ppm, traces of other compounds such as fuel additives and lubricants, also A continuous stream of air flows through the Airhalogen and metallic compounds, and other particles. breathing engine. This air is compressed, mixed with Carbon monoxide is highly toxic, and can cause carbon fuel, ignited and expelled as the exhaust gas. Thrust produced by a typical air-breathing engine is about eight monoxide poisoning, so it is important to avoid any build-up of the gas in a confined space. Catalytic times greater than its weight. The maximum velocity converters can reduce toxic emissions, but not of Air-breathing engines is limited to 1 3 km/s due to completely eliminate them. Also, resulting greenhouse extreme temperature and dissociation of the exhaust gas emissions, chiefly carbon dioxide, from the gas; however, the maximum velocity of a hydrogenwidespread use of engines in the modern industrialized breathing engine of the same design is about 4 times world is contributing to the global greenhouse effect a higher. primary concern regarding global warming. Examples Non combustive heat engines Typical air-breathing engines include: Some engines convert heat from non combustive processes into mechanical work, for example a nuclear y Reciprocating engine power plant uses the heat from the nuclear reaction to y Steam engine produce steam and drive a steam engine, or a gas y Gas turbine turbine in a rocket engine may be driven by y duct jet engine decomposing hydrogen peroxide. Apart from the y Turbo-propeller engine different energy source, the engine is often engineered y IRIS engine much the same as an internal or external combustion y Pulse detonation engine engine. y Pulse jet y y y Ramjet Scramjet Liquid air cycle engine/Reaction Engines SABRE 3 www.aliwaqas.tk | .::No Sin - I Win::.

Electric motors of fitted with mufflers (silencers) to reduce noise.Basics to Automobile Engineering Non thermal chemically powered motor Non thermal motors usually are powered by a chemical reaction. Physically powered engine Some engines are powered by potential energy. Pneumatic motors generally convert the compressed air to mechanical work though either linear or rotary motion. rather than an electric motor. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power. or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid. and (to some Molecular motor . . In the case of sound levels. Hydraulic engine A hydraulic engine one that derives its power from a pressurized fluid. with ratings in the thousands of kilowatts. trebuchets. different generators and electrical distribution networks. increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century. engine operation is of greatest impact with respect to mobile sources such as automobiles and trucks. usually through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors. by their internal construction. but commercial exploitation of electric Engine efficiency motors on a large scale required efficient electrical Depending on the type of engine employed.::No Sin . but are not heat engines. Petrol and diesel engines are field was known as early as 1821. although this is not always practical. Pneumatic motors have found widespread success in the hand-held tool industry and continual attempts are being made to expand their use to the transportation industry. This type of engine can be used to move heavy loads or produce motion.tk | . while rotary motion is supplied by either a vane type air motor or piston air motor. for example some clocks have a weight that falls under gravity. being found in applications as diverse as industrial fans. producing electrical energy from mechanical energy. electric engine refers to a railroad electric locomotive. Historic military siege engines included large catapults. Traction motors used on vehicles often perform both tasks. household appliances. is accomplished by a generator or dynamo. They may be powered by direct current (for example a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle). Pneumatic motor A pneumatic motor is a machine which converts potential energy in the form of compressed air into mechanical work. blowers and pumps. However. Engine noise is a particularly large component of mobile source noise for vehicles The physical principle of production of mechanical force operating at lower speeds. The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. springs and elastic bands. By convention. Electric motors are ubiquitous.motors found in living things extent) battering rams were powered by potential Synthetic molecular motor energy. rates of efficiency are attained.aliwaqas. machine tools. Linear motion can come from either a diaphragm or piston actuator. power tools. and disk drives. Other forms of potential energy include Internal combustion engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. Sound levels Electric motor An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy. and for such purposes as pipeline compressors. 4 www. Electric motors can be run as generators and vice versa. and by their application. pneumatic motors must overcome efficiency deficiencies before being seen as a viable option in the transportation industry. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses.I Win::. The reverse process. Examples include: y y By Waqas Ali Tunio compressed gases (such as pneumatic motors). where aerodynamic and tyre by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic noise is less significant.

Diesel engine A large number of different designs for ICEs have been developed and built. or a nozzle. Intake 2. with a variety of different strengths y Atkinson cycle and weaknesses. in which the energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of. ramjet. such as the "Engines". The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an Traditionally. such as pistons. generating useful mechanical energy. from the smallest to the largest. Where very high power-to-weight ratios are required. Working y Four-stroke cycle fluids can be air. large ships and electric generators. While there have been and still are many stationary applications. each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously energy. electric motors are not referred to as engine in which combustion is intermittent.) second class of internal combustion engines use Engines can be classified in many different ways: By the continuous combustion: gas turbines. Four stroke configuration Operation Four-stroke cycle (or Otto cycle) 1. Classification By Waqas Ali Tunio At one time. via Old French. source of most rocket engines. ingenium. heated in some kind of boiler. the real Continuous combustion: strength of internal combustion engines is in mobile Brayton cycle: applications and they dominate as a power supply for cars. such Reciprocating: as steam or Stirling engines. the ICE delivers an excellent power-toy Wankel engine weight ratio with few disadvantages. In mobile equipment. described. motorcycles. or contaminated by combustion products. mixed y Two-stroke cycle with. turbine blades. Power 4. or by the cooling system employed. the use of the engine. referred to as "motors. hot water. Generally using fossil fuel(mainly petroleum). Roc ket etc Applications Internal combustion engines are most commonly used for mobile propulsion in vehicles and portable machinery. jet engines and engine cycle used. Powered by an energy-dense fuel Rotary: (which is very frequently petrol. y Gas turbine Only for hand-held power tools do they share part of the y Jet market with battery powered devices. A a locomotive operated by electricity.tk | . aircraft. turbofan. This force moves the component over a distance. however. internal combustion engines appear in the form of gas turbines. A "motor" (from Latin motor. Compression 3. "Engine" (from Latin." (An electric engine refers to along with variants. 5 www. the word. The internal combustion engine (or ICE) is quite different Principles of operation from external combustion engines. a liquid derived from fossil fuels). such as the Wankel rotary engine.::No Sin . and boats.aliwaqas. "ability") meant any piece of machinery a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. the layout of the engine. and in a wide variety of aircraft and locomotives). Exhaust . boats. Engine configurations Internal combustion engines can be classified by their configuration. combustion engines are often more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines.Basics to Automobile Engineering In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and -pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. These applications include jet aircraft. helicopters. pressurized or even liquid y Six-stroke engine sodium. engine (including turbojet.I Win::. these engines have appeared in transport in almost all vehicles (automobiles. "mover") is any machine that produces mechanical power. internal combustion is advantageous since it can provide high power-to-weight ratios together with excellent fuel energy density. trucks.

Light duty diesel engines with indirect injection in automobiles and The most common modern fuels are made up light trucks employ glow plugs that pre-heat of hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from fossil the combustion chamber just before starting to reduce fuels (petroleum). due to higher pressures and heat. most internal combustion engines that are designed for system is secondary and is added by manufacturers as a luxury for the ease of starting. determined by the chemical makeup of the fuel and This is also why diesel and HCCI engines are more oxidizers (see stoichiometry). atmosphere then use a spark plug to ignite the mixture when it is compressed by the piston head in each cylinder. rely solely on heat and All internal combustion engines depend on pressure created by the engine in its compression the exothermic chemical process of combustion: the process for ignition. Diesel Ignition Process Combustion Diesel engines and HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) engines. and the rarer use have a battery and charging system. hot tube and flame methods were used. wood gas. turning fuel on and off gasoline use can run on natural gas or liquefied (which can also be done via a switch or mechanical petroleum gases without major modifications. or charcoal gas. pressing on and moving parts of recharged during operation using an electricitythe engine and performing useful work. Most new engines rely on diesel fuel ignition injection. HCCI type engines will take in both air steam and carbon dioxide and other chemicals at very and fuel but continue to rely on an unaided autohigh temperature. Before the invention of reliable electrical methods. Engines with appropriate modifications can also run on hydrogen gas. as well as by the susceptible to cold-starting issues. typically with oxygen from the air usually twice or more than a gasoline engine. gasoline and petroleum gas. and for running auxiliary electrical diesels can run with air mixed with gases and a pilot components and accessories. as well as from so-called producer gas made from other convenient biomass. 6 www. Internal combustion engines require ignition of the mixture. Liquid and gaseous biofuels. nevertheless. Most diesels also fuel.28 MPa). Large apparatus). Many engines overlap these steps in time. Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline The cooled combustion products are exhausted into the and compress it to not more than 12.I Win::. either by spark ignition (SI) or compression ignition (CI). This battery is mixture is expanded.::No Sin . Diesel (though it is possible to inject oxide in order to do more engines will take in air only. the temperature reached is combustion process. a small quantity of diesel fuel is sprayed combustion process typically results in the production of into the cylinder via a fuel injector that allows the fuel to a great quantity of heat. operation of four stroke internal combustion engines have four basic steps that repeat with every two revolutions of the engine: Intake Combustible mixtures are emplaced in the combustion chamber Compression The mixtures are placed under pressure Combustion (Power) By Waqas Ali Tunio yield triglycerides such as soybean oil).Basics to Automobile Engineering As their name implies. and shortly before peak of the same thing and gain a power boost). generating device such as Exhaust an alternator or generator driven by the engine. The compression. just as well in cold weather once started.8 bar (1. jet engines do all steps simultaneously at different parts of the engines. coil to provide a high-voltage electrical spark to ignite although a few systems involve detonation. such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form electrical and electronic control system that also control the combustion process to increase efficiency and of diesel fuel that is produced from crops that reduce emissions. almost invariably a deflagration. Except for the fuel delivery components. as well as the production of instantly ignite. can also be used. Fossil fuels include diesel no-start conditions in cold weather. .tk | .aliwaqas. The hot the air-fuel mix in the engine's cylinders. this of propane. Gasoline Ignition Process Gasoline engine ignition systems generally rely on a combination of a lead-acid battery and an induction The mixture is burnt. although they will run compression and other factors. The compression level that occurs is reaction of a fuel.

The Wankel engine (rotary engine) does not have piston strokes. one can achieve uniflow scavenging. typically around 1. the most are no dedicated intake or exhaust strokes. It is the most efficient and powerful Engines based on the two-stroke cycle use two strokes internal combustion engine in the world with over (one up.Basics to Automobile Engineering Two stroke configuration By Waqas Ali Tunio Sulzerturbocharged two-stroke diesel as used in large container ships.aliwaqas. More than their four-stroke counterparts. emission standards. The initial results have produced motors that are much cleaner burning than their traditional counterparts. Fuel injection is essential for a modern twoengines. U. The thermal efficiency (SAE 900648). and W have per cm³.tk | . and are an equilateral triangle with the crankshafts at the more efficient than comparably sized four-stroke corners. at the expense of four stroke engine. alternative efficient small four-stroke motors are around 43% methods must be used to scavenge the cylinders. efficient over a wide range of less power at other speeds. size is an advantage for most common method in spark-ignition two-strokes is to efficiency due to the increase in the ratio of volume to use the downward motion of the piston to pressurize surface area. power to volume ratio). Wankel Research continues into improving many aspects of twostroke motors including direct fuel injection. The Wankel cycle. configuration. rotation of the rotor around the lobe and once for each orbital revolution around the eccentric shaft. X. one down) for every power stroke. string trimmers.::No Sin . lawnmowers. which is. Common cylinder configurations include the straight or inline configuration. outboard motors. Because here gas in. Modern designs (Sarich and Paggio) use serve three banks of double-ended cylinders arranged in air-assisted fuel injection which avoids this loss. and many motorcycles. The advantage of having one power stroke for every 360° Multiple crankshaft configurations do not necessarily of crankshaft rotation (compared to 720° in a 4 stroke need a cylinder head at all because they can instead motor) is balanced by the less complete intake and have a piston at each end of the cylinder called exhaust and the shorter effective compression and an opposed piston design. the more compact V configuration. produce more power than an equivalent four stroke. and most remarkably in the Napier scavenging allowing some of it to escape out of the Deltic diesel engines. Two-stroke engines have the advantage of an increased specific power ratio (i. These used three crankshafts to exhaust port. and continues to be used for marine engines. revolution numbers. It may be possible for a two stroke to outlets are positioned at opposed ends of the cylinder. an example of this type of motor is the Wartsila7 www. It operates with the same separation of phases . The shaft turns three times for each The largest internal combustion engines in the world are two-stroke diesels. however. chain saws. It was also used in single-bank locomotive engines.5 times that of a typical four-stroke engine. Two-stroke engines are widely used in snowmobiles. Since there 50% thermal efficiency. Spark-ignition two-strokes are small and light for their and the wider but smoother flat or boxer power output and mechanically very simple. Also the thermal efficiency is improved because of lack of cylinder heads.and power strokes. which is then blown through the cylinder through ports in the cylinder walls. jet skis. engines have been less fuel-efficient than other types of using at either end of a single bank of cylinders with two engines when the fuel is mixed with the air prior to crankshafts. In terms of power unusual configurations such as the H. crankcase-scavenged two-stroke was used in the Junkers Jumo 205 diesel aircraft engine. a two-stroke engine produces comparable also been used. like in the over a narrow range of engine speeds. used in some locomotives and large ships. This design Small displacement.I Win::. fresh charge in the crankcase.e. For comparison. amongst other things. power to an equivalent four-stroke engine. stroke engine in order to meet ever more stringent both for propulsion and for auxiliary generators. or turbocharging) to scavenge the cylinders. mopeds. They use forced induction (similar to supercharging. Aircraft engines can also adopt a radial they are also generally less efficient and more polluting configuration which allows more effective cooling.

When the piston moves This system manages to pack one power stroke into downwards the valve closes and the fuel-air mixture every two strokes of the piston (up-down).aliwaqas. but rocket discharges the products of combustion. the piston moves downward.tk | . Piston: It is a cylindrical component making an up and down movement in the cylinder. Connecting rod: connects the and feed it through a nozzle which accelerates the jet to piston with the crankshaft. Due to the explosion of the gases. By Waqas Ali Tunio Intake and exhaust occur at bottom dead center. . Combustion Chamber: It is the portion above the cylinder in which the combustion of the fuel-air mixture takes place. and ramjet forms also lack the gas turbine) into the rotary motion. this engine provides three power 'strokes' per revolution per rotor giving it a greater power-to-weight ratio than piston engines. and a turbine. Spark plug: located at the cylinder head. Cam shaft: The cam shaft controls the opening and closing of inlet and Exhaust high speed. Two Stroke Spark Ignition (SI) engine: In a two strokes SI engine a cycle is completed in two stroke of a piston or one complete revolution (360º) of a crankshaft. the earlier RX-7. At the same time the fuel-air mixture above the piston is compressed. Some form of pressure is needed. Gas turbines A gas turbine is a rotary machine similar in principle to a steam turbine and it consists of three main components: a compressor. The major components of a two stroke spark Ignition engine are: Cylinder: It is a cylindrical vessel in which a piston makes an up and down motion. the fresh air and fuel mixture enters the crank chamber through the valve. Idealised P/V diagram for two stroke Otto cycle Ignition with the help of spark plug takes place at the Two-stroke end of stroke. In thermodynamic terms it follows the Otto engine cycle. Inlet and exhaust Jet engine ports: The inlet port allows the fresh fuel-air mixture to enter the combustion chamber and the exhaust port Jet engines take a large volume of hot gas from a combustion process (typically a gas turbine.I Win::. As the jet accelerates through the nozzle. About of the heated air combined with the products of combustion is expanded in a turbine resulting in work output which is used to drive the compressor. and other models. a combustion chamber.::No Sin . While it is true that three power strokes typically occur per rotor revolution due to the 3:1 revolution ratio of the rotor to the eccentric shaft. either crankcase compression or super-charging. The mixture enters due to the pressure difference between the crank chamber and outer atmosphere. Compression stroke: Fuel-air mix compressed and ignited. Petrol is used in this type of engine. It is this creates thrust and in turn does useful work. This is inside the crank chamber is compressed. This type of engine is most notably used in the current Mazda RX-8. used to initiate the combustion process. In this engine the suction stroke and exhaust strokes are eliminated and ports are used instead of valves. valves. Engine cycle Working: When the piston moves from bottom dead centre to top dead centre. only one power stroke per shaft revolution actually occurs. The rest (about ) is available as useful work output. so may be thought of as a "four-phase" engine.Basics to Automobile Engineering as the four-stroke engine with the phases taking place in separate locations in the engine. In case of Diesel: Air compressed. the burnt gases simultaneously. The air after being compressed in the compressor is heated by burning fuel in it. The steps involved here are: At the same time the transfer port is uncovered and the compressed charge from the crank chamber enters into 8 www. escape from the exhaust port. fuel injected and self ignited Power stroke: piston is pushed downwards by the hot exhaust gases. When the achieved by exhausting and re-charging the cylinder piston is at the bottom dead centre. Crank shaft: a shaft which converts the reciprocating motion of piston forms of jet propulsion often use solid or liquid propellants.

plus a central one. The British company ILMOR presented a prototype of 5Stroke double expansion engine. by Francisco Jimeno-Cataneo. more efficient. The diesel cycle is somewhat different. and was developed apparently also by Honda Combustion stroke: Fuel combusts and piston is pushed of Japan for a Quad engine. and 4th stroke the piston is relying on power and The concept of double expansion was developed early in the momentum generated by the other pistons. This variation is called the diesel cycle. exhaust gas from the other cylinders. 2nd. During the 1st.I Win::.Basics to Automobile Engineering the combustion chamber through transfer port. precedent in a Spanish 1942 patent (# P0156621 ). and many light aircraft. diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder so that combustion occurs at constant pressure. Schmitz. Four-stroke By Waqas Ali Tunio Idealised Pressure/volume diagram of the Otto cycle showing combustion heat input Qp and waste exhaust output Qo. The cycle is repeated.aliwaqas. This fresh charge removes the exhaust gases from the combustion chamber. In the diesel cycle. This fresh charge is deflected upwards by a hump provided on the top of the piston. that performs the double expansion of Intake stroke: Air and vaporized fuel are drawn in. that didn't There are a number of variations of these cycles. working as usual. having two outer The steps involved here are: cylinders. They are generally quieter. and a 1975 patent (# Exhaust stroke: Exhaust is driven out. rather than needing a separate ignition system. EHV. This engine corresponds to a 2003 US patent by Gerhard and ignited. built in 1906 a six or eight cylinder engine. larger boats. most give the expected results.::No Sin .tk | . This engine has a similar downwards. 9 www. . Again the piston moves from bottom dead centre to top dead centre and the fuel-air mixture gets compressed when Diesel cycle the both the Exhaust port and Transfer ports are covered.oepm. some motorcycles. and during combustion the volume varies little ("constant volume"). some engines and cars with this principle. The cycle follows the numbers 1-4 in clockwise direction. with an increased Compression stroke: Fuel vapor and air are compressed efficiency in the gas energy use. but with a compression heating ignition system. They are used in cars. and an improved SFC. P0433850 ) by Carlos Ubierna-Laciana ( www. the bottom is the compression stroke Engines based on the four-stroke ("Otto cycle") have one power stroke for every four strokes (up-down-updown) and employ spark plug ignition. the power stroke is the top curved line. In that the history of ICE by Otto himself.es ). and larger than their two-stroke counterparts. and a case. Most truck and automotive diesel engines use a cycle reminiscent of a four-stroke cycle. Combustion occurs rapidly. larger in diameter. P-v Diagram for the Ideal Diesel cycle. notably the Atkinson and Miller cycles. as the piston moves. a four-cylinder engine would be less powerful than Connecticut (USA) based company. in 1879.

the fuel-air mixture fired. and this extra energy is tapped by the other biofuels (see Flexible-fuel vehicle). regular four-stroke.I Win::.::No Sin . a combustion chamber. constant engines" in the UK). y Petroleum spirit (North American term: gasoline. A gas turbine is a rotary machine somewhat similar in principle to a steam turbine and it consists of three main Biofuels: components: a compressor. The exhaust valve opened for the engine. "gas engines" ("petrol than with the Otto cycle. the called oil engines. . in the remainder of the down-stroke. noisier. and that the fuel releases sufficient energy in the form stroke drew in a fuel-air mixture. Bajulaz six-stroke.aliwaqas. this heats and y Bioethanol and Biomethanol (wood alcohol) and expands the air. and more principle of a steam engine were very inefficient.Basics to Automobile Engineering Six-stroke First invented in 1883. The systems capture the wasted Petroleum: heat of the four-stroke Otto cycle with an injection of air or water. These attempts at imitating the Diesel engines are generally heavier. and y Biobutanol (replaces gasoline). British term: petrol) The Beare Head and "piston charger" engines operate y Petroleum diesel.tk | . Four kinds of six-stroke use a regular piston in a regular Fuels cylinder (Griffin six-stroke. piston upstroke. the six-stroke engine has seen renewed interest over the last 20 or so years. Notably. The first part of the piston down the combustion chamber. combustion. y Jet fuel (aviation fuel) Brayton cycle y Residual fuel Coal: y y y Brayton cycle y y Most methanol is made from coal. The air after being compressed in the y Biodiesel (replaces petrodiesel). as opposed-piston engines. fuels used include: six-stroke and Crower six-stroke). Fuels and oxidizers By Waqas Ali Tunio Engines are often classified by the fuel (or propellant) used. powerful at lower speeds than gasoline engines. Velozeta Nowadays. y Hydrogen (mainly spacecraft rocket engines) Gas turbine cycle engines employ a continuous Even fluidized metal powders and explosives have seen combustion system where compression. then the inlet valve of heat upon combustion to make practical use of the closed and. Gasoline can be made from carbon (coal) using the Fischer-Tropsch process Diesel fuel can be made from carbon using the Fischer-Tropsch process Biofuels and vegoils: Peanut oil and other vegoils. compressor is heated by burning fuel in it. a turbine. two pistons in a single y Autogas (liquified petroleum gas). cylinder. however gasoline engines are also combustion takes place at constant pressure. Engines that use gases for fuel are called gas engines and those that use liquid hydrocarbons are in the engine giving continuous power. firing every two revolutions rather more like a y Compressed natural gas. firing every three crankshaft revolutions. They are also more fuel-efficient in most circumstances and 10 www. turbine which in turn powers the compressor closing the y Biogas cycle and powering the shaft. and expansion occur simultaneously at different places some use. rather often colloquially referred to as. Obsolete The main limitations on fuels are that it must be easily transportable through the fuel system to The very first internal combustion engines did not compress the mixture.

wood gas. methanol. Engines with greater capacities are more powerful and provide greater torque at lower rpm and consumption of fuel increases accordingly. was used in the Japanese Type 93 torpedo. increasing the power-to-weight and power to volume ratios.::No Sin . Compressed air has been commonly used in torpedoes.aliwaqas. often to increase power output or to allow operation under water or in space. Gasoline engines are used in most other road vehicles including most cars. Measures of engine performance Engine types vary greatly in a number of different ways: y y energy efficiency fuel/propellant consumption (brake specific fuel consumption for shaft engines. Alternatively fuel cell technology may come to deliver its some rocket engines (notably Black Arrow and Mepromise and the use of the internal combustion engines 163 rocket plane) could even be phased out. those methods require converting combustible molecules into hydrogen or consuming electric energy. Engine starting An internal combustion engine is not usually self-starting so an auxiliary machine is required to start it. an engine's capacity is the engine displacement. some automobiles (increasingly so for their increased fuel efficiency over gasoline engines). Unless that electricity is produced from a renewable source and is not required for other purposes hydrogen does not solve any energy crisis. liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Engine capacity For piston engines. hydrogen. Note that in Europe. It is also used in the Burt Rutan rocket spacecraft. & charcoal gas. as well as some compressed air. Nitrous oxide has been used with extra gasoline in tactical aircraft and in specially equipped cars to allow short bursts of added power from engines that otherwise run on gasoline and air. ships. However the energy density of hydrogen is considerably higher than that of electric batteries. railway locomotives. Other chemicals such as chlorine or fluorine have been used experimentally. in other words the volume swept by all the pistons of an engine in a single movement. and light aircraft. hydrogen has a higher specific energy but the volumetric energetic storage is still roughly five times lower than petrol. motorcycles. Some submarines are designed to carry pure oxygen.d. Liquid hydrogen has extremely low density (14 times lower than water) and requires extensive insulation whilst gaseous hydrogen requires heavy tankage. or cu in or in³) for larger engines. Hydrogen peroxide power was under development for German World War II submarines and may have been Hydrogen could eventually replace conventional fossil used in some non-nuclear submarines and was used on fuels in traditional internal combustion engines. Rockets very often use liquid oxygen. There are also engines that run on hydrogen. thrust specific fuel consumption for jet engines) power to weight ratio thrust to weight ratio . making it a serious contender as an energy carrier to replace fossil fuels. Paraffinand tractor vaporizing oil (TVO) engines are no longer seen. The 'Hydrogen on Demand' process (see direct borohydride fuel cell) creates hydrogen as it is needed. and mopeds. ethanol. but has other issues such as the high price of the sodium borohydride which is the raw material. sophisticated dieselengined cars have taken over about 40% of the market since the 1990s. the oxidizer is typically atmospheric oxygen which has the advantage of not being stored within the vehicle. Many different systems have been used in the past but modern engines are usually started by an electric motor in the small and medium sizes or by compressed air in the large sizes.Basics to Automobile Engineering are used in heavy road vehicles. Oxidizers Since air is plentiful at the surface of the earth.tk | . In many situations the disadvantage of hydrogen. Nitromethane is added to some racing and model fuels to increase power and control combustion. biodiesel. is its storage. It is generally measured in litres (L) or cubic inches (c. relative to carbon fuels. Even when liquefied.i.I Win::. y 11 www. and cubic centimeters(abbreviated cc) for smaller engines. but have not been found to be Although there are multiple ways of producing free practical. Hydrogen By Waqas Ali Tunio Compressed oxygen. There are other materials that are used for special purposes.

such as wind be translated into work by the engine. In a reciprocating resistance designs for vehicles. Rocket engine engine either by an air or liquid cooling system. fuel consumption is measured by calculating the brake specific fuel consumption which measures the mass flow rate of fuel consumption divided by the power produced. and the useful energy extracted from the fuels in the form of kinetic energy. There are many inventions concerned with increasing the efficiency of IC engines. or noise. and operation at infinite time. which varies between engines.aliwaqas. In metric units. y The real world is substantially more complex and all the complexities reduce the efficiency. Higher thermal stability allows for greater temperature difference between the lower and upper operating temperatures thus greater thermodynamic efficiency.Basics to Automobile Engineering y Torque curves (for shaft engines) thrust lapse (jet engines) Compression ratio for piston engines. The miles in miles per gallon represents a remaining hot gases are vented (often by opening meaningful amount of work and the volume of a valve or exposing the exhaust outlet) and this allows hydrocarbon implies standard energy content. up to 70%. efficiencies are better still. real Energy efficiency engines run best at specific loads and rates as described by their power band. the number of grams of propellant needed . heat. The piston can then proceed to the next Most steel engines have a thermodynamic limit of 37%. For internal combustion engines in the form of jet engines. energy in the fuels. the power output varies drastically with airspeed and a less variable measure is used: thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC). power. weight. the high-pressure gases inside the cylinders losses result in an engine's real-world fuel economy that drive the engine's pistons. because they Engine efficiency can be discussed in a number of ways combust at very high temperatures and pressures and but it usually involves a comparison of the total chemical are able to have very high expansion ratios. is usually measured in the units of miles per gallon (or fuel consumption in liters per 100 kilometers) for Once the available energy has been removed. A terrestrial engine is usually and fundamentally limited by the upper thermal stability derived from the material used to make up the engine. The available energy is engines are used as contributed drag on the total system manifested as high temperature and pressure that can reducing overall efficiency. exhaust emissions. All metals and alloys eventually melt or decompose and there is significant researching into ceramic materials that can be made with higher thermal stabilities and desirable structural properties. Even when aided with turbochargers and stock Any heat that isn't translated into work is normally efficiency aids. In addition. practical engines are always compromised by trade-offs between different properties such as efficiency. Sometimes economy also plays a role in not only the cost of manufacturing the engine itself. response. for example.::No Sin . perfect insulators. ideal gases. For example. the automobiles. These and many other engine. the miles per gallon accumulated. Increasing the engine's efficiency brings better fuel economy but only if the fuel cost per energy content is the same. which is the number of pounds of propellant that is needed to generate impulses that measure a pound force-hour.I Win::. Internal combustion engines are primarily heat engines and as such the phenomenon that limits their efficiency is described by thermodynamic cycles. Measures of fuel/propellant efficiency For stationary and shaft engines including propeller engines. The most fundamental and abstract discussion of engine efficiency is the thermodynamic limit for extracting energy from the fuel defined by a thermodynamic cycle. a car cruising on a Once ignited and burnt. Overall pressure ratio for jet engines and gas turbines By Waqas Ali Tunio The thermodynamic limits assume that the engine is operating in ideal conditions: a frictionless world. The applications of higher chemical energy).tk | . 12 www. The most comprehensive is the empirical fuel efficiency of the total engine system for accomplishing a desired task. In general. or TDC). phase of its cycle. the combustion products hot highway is usually operating significantly below its ideal gases have more available thermal energy than the load. the piston to return to its previous position (top dead center. because the engine is designed for the higher loads original compressed fuel-air mixture (which had desired for rapid acceleration. None of these cycles exceed the limit defined by the Carnot cycle which states that the overall efficiency is dictated by the difference between the lower and upper operating temperatures of the engine. most engines retain considered a waste product and is removed from the an average efficiency of about 18%-20%. but also manufacturing and distributing the fuel.

lung cancer. Automobile and truck traffic operating on highways and street systems produce noise. How Manual Transmissions Work If you drive a stick-shift car. The effects of inhaling particulate matter have been studied in humans and animals and include asthma. Idling Internal combustion engines continue to consume fuel and emit pollutants when idling so it is desirable to keep periods of idling to a minimum. water and some soot also called particulate matter (PM). and particulates. Many bus companies now instruct drivers to switch off the engine when the bus is waiting at a terminus. unlike the "ozone layer" in the high atmosphere. When running at lower speeds. For rockets. How does the funny "H" pattern that I am moving this shift knob through have any relation to the gears inside the transmission? What is moving inside the .3butadiene. Increasing the amount of air in the engine reduces the amount of the first two pollutants. there are accepted levels that are set by legislation to which no harmful effects are observed even in sensitive population groups. or hydrocarbons not initially present in the fuel mixture. otherwise the fuel would burn more completely in excess air. sometimes causing the engine to stall. Further chemicals released are benzene and 1. and premature death.aliwaqas. sulphur dioxide. but typically other equivalent measures are traditionally used. Noise pollution Significant contributions to noise pollution are made by internal combustion engines.tk | . Ozone is broken down by nitrogen oxides. the Road Traffic (Vehicle Emissions) (Fixed Penalty) (England) Regulations 2002 (Statutory Instrument 2002 No. as do aircraft flights due to jet noise. So far. depending on the operating conditions and the fuel-air ratio. so carbon monoxide (CO) is also produced. "exceedingly small". For the other three: benzene. Air and noise pollution Air pollution Internal combustion engines such as reciprocating internal combustion engines produce air pollution emissions. The primary causes of this is the need to operate near the stoichiometric ratio for gasoline engines in order to achieve combustion and the resulting "quench" of the flame by the relatively cool cylinder walls. one of them being Oxford City Council. 1. In England. but tends to encourage the oxygen and nitrogen in the air to combine to produce nitrogen oxides (NOx) that has been demonstrated to be hazardous to both plant and animal health.::No Sin . Not all of the fuel will be completely consumed by the combustion process. is regarded as a bad thing if the levels are too high. and ozone). particularly supersonic-capable aircraft. there is no way of proving they are safe at any level so the experts set standards where the risk to health is. It reduces the efficiency and increases knocking. which. Carbon fuels contain sulfur and impurities that eventually lead to producing sulfur monoxides (SO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the exhaust which promotes acid rain. some of which can react to form oxygenates. carbon monoxide. only a few local authorities have implemented the regulations. a small amount of fuel will be present after combustion. such as formaldehyde or acetaldehyde. so one tends to be lower where the other is higher. 1808) has introduced the concept of a "stationary idling offence". By Waqas Ali Tunio pollution is ozone (O3). For the pollutants described above (nitrogen oxides. due to incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuel.Basics to Automobile Engineering to generate an impulse that measures one kilonewtonsecond. cardiovascular issues.3butadiene that are also particularly harmful. One final element in exhaust 13 www. TSFC can be used.I Win::. This means that a driver can be subject to a fixedpenalty fine if he/she leaves a vehicle engine idling while stationary. This is not emitted directly but made in the air by the action of sunlight on other pollutants to form "ground level ozone". such as specific impulse and effective exhaust velocity. There are however some additional products of the combustion process that include nitrogen oxides and sulfur and some uncombusted hydrocarbons. then you may have several questions floating in your head. and not all of the fuel burns up completely. The main derivatives of the process are carbon dioxide CO2. quenching is commonly observed in diesel (compression ignition) engines that run on natural gas. Rocket engines create the most intense noise.

Most automatic since the 1990s. You shift gears so the engine can stay below the redline and near the rpm band of its best A conventional manual transmission is frequently the performance. base equipment in a car. Conversely. bestability to shift gears manually. An automatic uses Manumatic Cars need transmissions because of the physics of a torque converter instead Semi-automatic the gasoline engine. if you have read How the engine.tk | . then you know that engines have belt instead of a fixed number Zeroshift narrow rpm ranges where horsepower and torque are at of gears. . That is the idea behind can also be found on certain automated transmissions the continuously variable transmission(CVT). manumatic. First. freeing up space on the central console. Some machines with limited speed ranges or fixed engine speeds. we'll answer all of these questions and significantly in internal Sequential manual more as we explore the interior of a manual operation and driver's "feel" Non-synchronous transmission.a of clutch to manage the link Electrohydraulic maximum rpm value above which the engine cannot go between the transmission and Dual clutch without exploding. there are also other types of instead. the driver must push a button in (called the shift lock button) or pull the handle (only on column mounted shifters) out. The but activates the clutch Derailleur gears transmission allows the gear ratio between the engine through electrohydraulic Hub gears and the drive wheels to change as the car speeds up and means. only use a torque converter to provide a variable gearing of the engine to the wheels.500 rpm. and continuous variable transmissions (CVTs) (such as Lineartronic).::No Sin . Conventionally. transmissions have a defined set of gear ranges. from semi-automatics and Automatic CVTs.Basics to Automobile Engineering transmission when I move the shifter? When I mess up and hear that horrible grinding sound. ratios as the vehicle moves. For example. or to manually select specific gear ratios. what is actually grinding? What would happen if I were to accidentally shift into reverse while I am speeding down the freeway? Would the entire transmission explode? By Waqas Ali Tunio that free up the driver from having to shift gears manually by using the transmission's computer to change gear. often with a parking pawl feature that locks the output shaft Automatic transmission modes of the transmission. often via paddle shifters. Vehicles conforming to US Government standards must Similar but larger devices are also used for heavy-duty commercial and industrial vehicles and equipment. automatic Transmission types Transmissions differ Manual In this article. or CVT. (manumatics such as Tiptronic). automatic transmission is less popular An automatic gearbox is one type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear in Europe. with 80% of drivers opting for manual transmission. an engine might produce retains the clutch like a manual Continuously variable Bicycle gearing its maximum horsepower at 5. 14 www. automated transmissions such as continuous variable transmissions (CVTs) and semi-automatic transmissions. with the option being an automated transmission such as a conventional Ideally. if for example the driver were redlining the engine. while a CVT uses a Saxomat Horsepower Works.I Win::. such as some forklifts and lawn mowers. the driver moves a selection lever located either on the steering column or on the floor (as with a manual). the transmission would be so flexible in its ratios automatic. slows down. performance rpm value. any engine has a redline -. semi-automatics (BMW SMG). Despite superficial similarity to other automated transmissions. Automatic transmission Comparison with manual transmission Most cars sold in North America since the 1950s have been available with an automatic transmission. semi-automatic. in order to select the transmission operating 'mode'. Second. The that the engine could always run at its single. In most Asian markets and in Australia. Some vehicles position selector buttons for each mode on the cockpit Besides automatics. and a semi-automatic their maximum.aliwaqas. In order to select modes. freeing the driver from automatic transmissions have become very popular having to shift gears manually.

as well as the danger of having a selector (when worn) jump into Reverse from Low gear during engine braking maneuvers. it is recommended to use the hand brake (or parking brake) because this actually locks (in most cases) the rear wheels and prevents them from moving. In many modern cars and trucks. they must come to a complete stop. greatly reducing the security provided by the parking brake as compared to either rear-wheel-drive vehicles with parking brake on the rear wheels (which generally have near half of the total vehicle weight on the rear wheels. This is typically achieved via a normally open 'inhibitor' switch. Unfortunately. This also increases the life of the transmission and the park pin mechanism. the rear of most front-wheel-drive vehicles has only about half the weight on the rear wheel as is on the front wheels. For this reason. A car should be allowed to come to a complete stop before setting the transmission into park to prevent damage. which generally have about two-thirds of the vehicle's weight (unloaded) on the front wheels. The Park position is omitted on buses/coaches with automatic transmission (on which a parking pawl is not practical). It should be noted that locking the transmission output shaft does not positively lock the driving wheels. and therefore the vehicle from moving.tk | . although the vehicle's non-driven road wheels may still rotate freely.I Win::. except for empty pickup and open-bed trucks) or to front-wheel15 www." the other will roll freely as the slipping wheel rotates in the opposite direction. Only a (properly adjusted) parking brake can be relied upon to positively lock both of the parkingbraked wheels. Usually. because parking on an incline with the transmission in park without the parking brake engaged will cause undue stress on the parking pin. it may not be possible to release the park lock (move the selector lever out of "P"). Therefore. which is electronically engaged by a switch on the brake pedal. Most automobiles require P or N to be set on the selector lever before the internal combustion engine can be started. By Waqas Ali Tunio drive vehicles with the parking brake on the front wheels.Basics to Automobile Engineering have the modes ordered P-R-N-D-L (left to right. Such a pattern led to a number of deaths and injuries owing to unintentional gear selection. a defect compounded by the provision of a bumper jack). Park (P) is one of only two selections in which the car's engine can be started. Some shifters with a shift button allow the driver to freely move the shifter from R to N or D. Some electronic transmissions prevent or delay engagement of reverse gear altogether while the car is moving. the driver must have the foot brake applied before the transmission can be taken out of park. thus completing the circuit (when the key is turned to the start position) Reverse (R) This engages reverse gear within the transmission. top to bottom. the other being Neutral (N). or clockwise). which is wired in series with the starter motor engagement circuit. This mechanism usually consists of a solenoid-controlled physical barrier on either side of the Reverse position. so use of both the parking brake and the transmission park lock provides the greatest security against unintended movement on slopes. Some of the common modes include Park (P) This selection mechanically locks the output shaft of transmission. or similar. An efficiently-adjusted hand brake should also prevent the car from moving if a worn selector accidentally drops into reverse gear during early morning fast-idle engine warm-ups. which must be placed in neutral with the parking brakes set. In order for the driver to select reverse in modern transmissions. If one driving wheel slips while the transmission is in "park. which does to some extent prevent (but does not completely avoid) inadvertently putting the car in reverse when the vehicle is moving forwards. giving the ability for the vehicle to drive backwards. Another vehicle may be required to push the stuck vehicle uphill slightly to remove the loading on the park lock pawl. and is only closed when P or N is selected. (This is not the case with certain 1950's Chrysler products that carried their parking brake on the transmission tail shaft. Many modern automatic transmissions have a safety mechanism in place. It is typical of front-wheeldrive vehicles for the parking brake to be on the rear (non-driving) wheels. push the shift lock button in (or pull the shift lever forward in the case of a column shifter) and select reverse. Not coming to a complete stop can cause severe damage to the transmission. Prior to this.::No Sin . Automatic transmissions have various modes depending on the model and make of the transmission. quadrant-selected automatic transmissions often utilized a P-N-D-L-R layout. A parking pawlprevents the transmission from rotating. restricting the vehicle from moving in any direction.aliwaqas. the brake pedal needs to be depressed in order to allow the selection of reverse. or simply . Advice is given in some owner's manuals [example: 1997 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme owner's manual] that if the vehicle is parked on a steep slope using the park lock only.

As well as the above modes there are also other modes. or a boxed [D]) This mode is used in some transmissions to allow early computer-controlled transmissions to engage the Automatic Overdrive. Chrysler models with a three-speed automatic since the late 1980s have called this gear 3 while using the traditional names for Drive and Low. Some examples include D5 In Hondas and Acuras equipped with five-speed automatic transmissions. seven-speed autos are becoming available (found in Mercedes 7G gearbox). the transmission will automatically downshift. According to the manual. Acura. Six-speed automatic transmissions are now probably the most common offering Toyota CamryV6 models. This is the only other selection in which the vehicle's engine can be started. In these transmissions. However. and therefore allows the vehicle to move forward and accelerate through its range of gears. Second (2 or S) This mode limits the transmission to the first two gear ratios. so the vehicle is able to move freely under its own weight and gain momentum without the motive force from the engine (engine braking). This. Some vehicles will automatically shift up out of second gear in this mode if a certain RPM range is reached in order to prevent engine damage. and only uses the first four gear ratios. the driver cannot put back the shifter to R without depressing the shift button to prevent accidental shifting. Kia. and most newer model Ford/Lincoln/Mercury vehicles). especially at high speeds. it is used for "stop and go traffic". This can be used to drive in adverse conditions such as snow and ice. This gear is also recommended while towing a caravan. According to the manual.or five-speed automatics. OverDrive (D. such as city driving.Basics to Automobile Engineering moving the shifter to N or D without actually depressing the button. It will not change to any other gear range. the Chevrolet Malibu LTZ. Under hard acceleration or below 35 45 mph (56 72 km/h). Drive (D) This position allows the transmission to engage the full range of available forward gear trains. Corvette. this mode is used commonly for highway use (as stated in the manual). effectively disconnecting the transmission from the driven road wheels. . and Honda models. D3 or 3 This mode is found in Honda. Some vehicles will automatically shift up out of third gear in this mode if a certain RPM range is reached in order to prevent engine damage. and uses all five forward gears. Pontiac G8. or for towing. but is identical otherwise. Although traditionally considered second gear. OD. D4 This mode is also found in Honda and Acura four.aliwaqas. 16 www. First (1 or L [Low]) This mode locks the transmission in first gear only. Ford Falcon BF 2005-2007 and Falcon FG 2008 . but they initially ranged from three (predominant before the 1990s). dependent on the manufacturer and model.current in Australia with 6 speed ZF.]. as well as climbing or going down hills in the winter time. it is used for "stop & go traffic". can be used during the winter season. as are eight-speed autos in the newer models of Lexus and BMW cars. OD (Overdrive) in these cars is engaged under steady speeds or low acceleration at approximately 35 45 mph (56 72 km/h). Volkswagen and Pontiac four-speed automatics and only uses the first three gear ratios. Vehicles with this option should be driven in this mode unless circumstances require a lower gear. Third(3) By Waqas Ali Tunio This mode limits the transmission to the first three gear ratios. to four and five speeds (losing popularity to sixspeed autos. there are other names used. or locks the transmission in second gear on Ford. though still favored by Chrysler and Honda/Acura). However. which could damage the transmission. or sometimes locks the transmission in third gear. Drive (D) locks the Automatic Overdrive off.::No Sin . The number of gear 'ratios' a transmission has depends on the model. Neutral/No gear (N) This disengages all gear trains within the transmission. like second. This can be used to climb or going downhill. GM trucks.I Win::. such as city driving.tk | .

and Honda automatics. Hyundai has a Norm/Power switch next to the lower gear and slows down the spinning tires. to reduce the likelihood of loss of multiplication. in second gear is selected instead of first when pulling effect using the leftover force of it to enhance torque away from stationary. locking the transmission into first gear. this mode converts the electric Some early GM's equipped with Tourqueflite motor into a generator for the battery. it down. this mode lets the engine do compression braking. It takes the place of a mechanical clutch. It is not the same transmissions used (S) to indicate Second gear. allowing the transmission to stay 'in gear' and the engine to remain running while the vehicle is stationary. a 'Winter mode' can be engaged so that captures the kinetic energy of the transmission fluid. Kia. Fortuner. and M This is for the 'manual mode' selection of gears in certain automatics. The predominant form of automatic transmission is hydraulically operated. using a fluid coupling or torque converter. Parts and operation A hydraulic automatic transmission consists of the following parts: Torque converter: A type of fluid coupling. traction due to wheel spin on snow or ice. this feature torque converter. or ice. Mitsubishi and some Audi models (TT). particularly during acceleration. being the as downshifting in a non-hybrid car. in that it provides a variable amount of torque multiplication at low engine speeds. This would have been recommended for use on steep grades. increasing "breakaway" acceleration. and therefore enhances the performance of the A mode selectable on some Toyota models. the same is true for some Peugeot products like Peugeot 206. Meanwhile. also known as engine braking. the driver can shift up and down at will by toggling the (console mounted) shift lever like a semi-automatic transmission. On GM cars. or slippery roads like dirt. shifting between effect in slowing the car without using the brakes.I Win::.tk | . in an identical manner as 'D' mode. the engine in a non-hybrid car switches to a economy. and limited to speeds under 15 mph. Brake (B) This has the effect on maximising all the available engine output.aliwaqas. hydraulically connecting the engine to the transmission. this was D2 in the 1950s.::No Sin . and limited to speeds under 40 mph. . This would have been called this HR (hill retarder) and GR (grade retarder) in recommended for use on steep grades. For hybrid cars. or ice. It operates selecting D once the car is moving. (L) was used in some early GM's to indicate (L)ow gear. The engine holds the car back. tipping the gear-down paddles mounted near the driver's fingers on the steering wheel). On Ford. as well as Toyota's Camry. In nonvehicle. GM only first and second gears. not to be confused with the impeller inside the 1990. This is accomplished with a third member in the "coupling assembly" known as the stator. except that the upshifts change much higher up the engine's rev range. Corolla. is typically a gear pump mounted 17 www.. typically when also downchange much higher up the rev range compared to 'D' mode. and a set of planetary gear sets to provide a range of gear ratios. A torque converter differs from a fluid coupling. without stalling. Instead of engaging the braking. The M feature can also be found in Chrysler and General Motors products such as the Dodge Magnum and Pontiac G6. meanwhile do not have the M. being the same as the 2 position on a Chrysler. and is Second Gear Start after Pump. but it has the same same as the 2 position on a Chrysler. BMW and General Motors to curve the fluid's path into the stator. maximising the effects of engine encountering a steep downhill. and instead have the + and -. like dirt. This mode will have a detrimental effect on fuel brakes. then taking your foot off the accelerator while This is commonly described as 'Sport mode'.g. and by altering the Winter (W) shapes of the vanes inside the coupling in such a way as In some Mercedes-Benz. Hydraulic automatic transmissions + . instead of the brakes slowing gearshift for this purpose on the Tiburon.Basics to Automobile Engineering S or Sport By Waqas Ali Tunio can be accessed by moving the gear selector to 2 to start. which is separated from the rest of the shift modes. The stator Europe models. This mode will hybrid cars. such as Porsche's Tiptronic. or slippery roads the 1950s. Previa and Innova. This mode may be engaged either through a selector/position or by actually changing the gears (e.

tk | . Thus the manual transmission requires very little engine power to function. along with the complex design of the valve body. by relying on the human muscle power of the vehicle operator to disengage the clutch and actuate the gear levers. and processed to provide properties that promote smooth power transmission and increase service life. freewheeling or "overrunning" in the other. in many modern automatic transmissions. and minivan models) they have usually been extra-cost options for this reason. Mass manufacturing and decades of improvement have reduced this cost gap. simply "taking up" the drivetrain load when actuated. Primarily made from refined petroleum. . which is needed for transmission components to operate. Bands are used for braking. Valve body: hydraulic control center that receives pressurized fluid from the main pump operated by the fluid coupling/torque converter. sport-utility vehicle. the valves are controlled by electro-mechanical servos which are controlled by the electronic engine control unit (ECU) or a separate transmission control unit (TCU). However. Principally. corrosion prevention. and a hydraulic medium to convey mechanical power (for the operation of the transmission). it transmits torque only in one direction. whose bands and clutches are actuated by hydraulic servos controlled by the valve body. the GM Turbo-Hydramatics incorporated this. the ATF is one of the few parts of the automatic transmission that needs routine service as the vehicle ages. Energy efficiency Hydraulic automatic transmissions are almost always less energy efficient than manual transmissions due mainly to viscous and pumping losses. Clutches and bands: to effect gear changes. a type of device known as a sprag or roller clutch is used for routine upshifts/downshifts. The hydraulic pressure controlled by these valves drives the various clutch and brake band actuators. check balls and servo pistons. causing different sets of valves to open and close. as the vehicle and engine change speed. and releasing automatically when the next gear's sprag clutch assumes the torque transfer. which uses fluid pressure to determine the correct shifting patterns and operate the various automatic clutch mechanisms. and operate on the planetary drum's circumference. It draws transmission fluid from a sump and pressurizes it. such as low range or reverse. thus avoiding the primary source of loss in an automatic transmission. Manual transmissions also avoid the power requirement of the hydraulic control system. (See History and improvements below. providing two or more gear ratios.) Hydraulic & lubricating oil: called automatic transmission fluid (ATF). 18 www. one of two types of clutches or bands are used to hold a particular member of the planetary gear set motionless. so the pump provides pressure whenever the engine is running and there is enough transmission fluid. These clutches are actuated by the valve body (see below). the difference between the pressures changes. which in turn is bolted to the engine's flywheel.::No Sin . In most cars (except US family. The pressure coming from this pump is regulated and used to run a network of spring-loaded valves. both in the torque converter and the hydraulic actuators. Bands are not applied when drive/overdrive range is selected. luxury. The bands come into play for manually selected gears. rather than a torque converter. thereby transmitting torque and producing gear reductions or overdrive ratios. By Waqas Ali Tunio thereby controlling the operation of the planetary gear set to select the optimum gear ratio for the current operating conditions. Operating much as a ratchet. with the main power consumption due to drag from the gear train being immersed in the lubricating oil of the gearbox.Basics to Automobile Engineering between the torque converter and the planetary gear set. originally made hydraulic automatic transmissions much more complicated (and expensive) to build and repair than manual transmissions. the torque being transmitted by the sprag clutches instead.. The input for the pump is connected to the torque converter housing. The valves use the pump pressure and the pressure from a centrifugal governor on the output side (as well as hydraulic signals from the range selector valves and the throttle valve or modulator) to control which ratio is selected on the gear set. while allowing another member to rotate. The multitude of parts. The advantage of this type of clutch is that it eliminates the sensitivity of timing a simultaneous clutch release/apply on two planetaries. Planetary gear set: A compound epicyclic planetary gear set. their sequence controlled by the transmission's internal programming.aliwaqas. and the mental power of the operator to make appropriate gear ratio selections. A relatively small amount of energy is required to pressurize the hydraulic control system. this component of the transmission provides lubrication. Manual transmissions use a mechanical clutch to transmit torque.I Win::.

The on road acceleration of an automatic transmission can occasionally exceed that of an otherwise identical vehicle equipped with a manual transmission in turbocharged diesel applications. Some continuously variable transmissions use a hydrostatic drive consisting of a variable displacement pump and a hydraulic motor to transmit power without gears. Continuously variable transmissions A fundamentally different type of automatic transmission is the continuously variable transmission or CVT. In many older designs. 19 www. a transmission could shift from first to second to third. Modern automatic transmission also minimize energy usage and complexity. automatic transmissions have selector positions that allow the driver to limit the maximum ratio that the transmission may engage.I Win::. or neutral). 'Economy mode' saves fuel by upshifting at lower engine speeds. Those controls take several forms: Throttle kickdown Most automatic transmissions include some means of forcing a downshift into the lowest possible gear ratio if the throttle pedal is fully depressed. notably those of Toyota. the transmission has fixed gears. have an "electronically-controlled CVT" (E-CVT). On older transmissions. this was accomplished by a mechanical lockout in the transmission valve body preventing an upshift until the lockout was disengaged. Manual controls Some transmissions have a mode in which the driver has full control of ratio changes (either by moving the selector. For example. These concepts provide zero and reverse gear ratios.aliwaqas. but early designs lose efficiency as engine speed increases. and whether or not the elimination of spooldown/accelerator lift off represent a significant enough gain to counter the slightly higher power consumption of the automatic transmission itself. Some current hybrid vehicles. by minimizing the amount of shifting logic that is done hydraulically. which practically eliminates fluid losses when engaged.Basics to Automobile Engineering The energy efficiency of automatic transmission has increased with the introduction of the torque converter lock-up clutch. on computercontrolled transmissions. The transmission can still upshift and downshift automatically between the remaining ratios: for example.tk | . Some transmissions will still upshift automatically into the higher ratio if the engine reaches its maximum permissible speed in the selected range. in the 3 range. Turbo-boost is normally lost between gear changes in a manual whereas in an automatic the accelerator pedal can remain fully depressed. or through the use of buttons or paddles). Most modern designs use a solenoid-operated valve that is triggered by a switch on the throttle linkage or by the engine control unit (ECM) in response to an abrupt increase in engine power.::No Sin . but the ratio of wheelspeed to engine-speed can be continuously varied by controlling the speed of the third input to a differential using an electric motor-generator. wheels or cones. Lexus and Ford Motor Company. By Waqas Ali Tunio Manually controlled automatic transmissions Most automatic transmissions offer the driver a certain amount of manual control over the transmission's shifts (beyond the obvious selection of forward. but not into fourth or higher ratios. In this system. control of the transmission has been transferred to computerized control systems which do not use fluid pressure for shift logic or actuation of clutching mechanisms. Low gear ranges Conventionally. A slightly different approach to CVT is the concept of toroidal CVT or infinitely variable transmission (IVT). reverse. completely overriding the automated function of the hydraulic controller. Mode selection Allows the driver to choose between preset shifting programs. CVT designs are usually as fuel efficient as manual transmissions in city driving. the same effect is accomplished by firmware. . while 'Sport mode' (aka Power or Performance) delays shifting for maximum acceleration. Typically. This however is still largely dependent upon the number and optimal spacing of gear ratios for each unit. to avoid unwanted upshifts or downshifts that could compromise the vehicle's balance or traction. kickdown is accomplished by mechanically actuating a valve inside the transmission. which can smoothly and steplessly alter its gear ratio by varying the diameter of a pair of belt or chain-linked pulleys. The modes also change how the computer responds to throttle input. Such control is particularly useful in cornering.

motorcycle fork. they are comparatively simple and inexpensive. because all the forces Second gear takeoff acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose contributing to the car's roadholding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure. rather. it is impossible to fully exploit the engine power at low to medium engine speed. etc. will different. it will simply (motorcycle). Engines are inefficient. . requiring only software changes. capacity or high torque engines. and explicit shaft from turning. much as a water wheel works only if there is some exit velocity (energy) in the waste water to carry it Internal combustion engine cooling 20 www. This allows the driver of the car to engine cooling. Also note This article is primarily about four-wheeled (or more) that as with most American automatic transmissions. and keeping vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably well isolated from road noise. locking the transmission and preventing the input Internal combustion engines remove waste heat through cool intake air. limit the transmission to 2nd gear after prolonging the and bicycle fork articles. bumps. duration of 1st gear through higher speeds than normal operation. raise the engine RPM against the resistance of the torque converter. then launch the car by simply Engines with higher efficiency have more energy leave releasing the trans-brake switch.I Win::." as part of a manual distance. much as a water wheel extracts Some automatic transmissions modified or designed mechanical power from a flow of mass falling through a specifically for drag racing may also incorporate a transmission brake. a trans-brake simultaneously engages the first and reverse the difference is waste heat which must be removed. and the provision of the actual manual controls for the driver. so the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. start off in second gear instead of first. The amount of true manual control provided is highly variable: some systems will override the driver's selections under certain conditions. bicycle suspension. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible. For information on two-wheeled selecting "2" using the selection lever will not tell the vehicles' suspensions see the suspension transmission to be in only 2nd gear. Activated by electrical solenoid control.Basics to Automobile Engineering "Manumatic" shifters. and then not shift into a higher gear until returned to D. valve body. By Waqas Ali Tunio Suspension (vehicle) Suspension is the term given to the system of springs. generally in the interest of preventing engine damage. whereas "D4" Internal combustion engine cooling refers to the cooling would always start in 1st gear.::No Sin . either when '2' is The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be manually selected. so more heat energy enters the engine than comes out as mechanical power. The suspension also protects the vehicle Some automatics. The 2000-2002 Lincoln LS V8 (the five-speed automatic without manumatic capabilities (as opposed to the optional sport package w/ manu-matic 5sp) started in 2nd gear during most starts both in winter and summer by selecting the "D5" transmission selection notch in the shiftgate (For fuel savings). and vibrations. This is done to reduce torque multiplication when proceeding forward from a of an internal combustion engine. These goals are generally at odds. gears. as mechanical motion and less as waste heat.aliwaqas. typically using either standstill in conditions where traction was limited on air or a liquid. particularly those fitted to larger itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. vehicle suspension. Some waste heat is essential: it guides heat through the engine. have become a popular option on sports cars and other performance vehicles. or by engaging a "winter mode". Heat engines generate mechanical power by extracting energy from heat flows. hot exhaust gases. for example. Since these gearboxes also have a throttle kickdown switch. With the near-universal prevalence of electronically controlled transmissions. shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels.tk | . snow. or "trans-brake. first popularized by Porsche in the 1990s under the trade name Tiptronic.or ice-covered roads.

As example. the block and thence the main coolant.I Win::. all heat engines need cooling to operate. heating the liquid to 135°C (Water's standard and ethylene glycol. properties of the coolant (water.::No Sin . or air) also affect cooling. Engine cooling removes energy fast cooling. and to a lesser extent gases to mechanical motion. By Waqas Ali Tunio keep all parts at suitably low temperatures. durability. Thus. where some parts of the cooling area. and to reduce reheat losses the crank and rods. are cooled directly by the main coolant system. such as the block and "cars" for the Shell economy challenge are insulated. damage engine materials and lubricants. must rely on the lubrication oil as a when restarting. which enough to keep temperatures low so the engine can are more difficult to avoid with air cooling.aliwaqas. that can chemically powered by convection alone. and through a heat exchanger that is cooled by the body of durability of the cooling system itself. through a heat exchanger (radiator) cooled by air. and hot enough to set flow (around exhaust ports) may require generous fire to lubricants. water. 10. and emissions. a liquidusing a liquid with different properties. performance engines frequently have additional oil. where hot coolant left the top of the engine block and access to a large volume of water at a suitable temperature. High engine weight. Liquidcooled engines are able to vary the size of their passageways through the engine block so that coolant Cooling is also needed because high temperatures flow may be tailored to the needs of each area. InternalLocations with either high peak temperatures (narrow combustion engines burn fuel hotter than the melting islands around the combustion chamber) or high heat temperature of engine materials.tk | . combustion chamber are never cooled by intake. Most antifreeze) which is then cooled with 20°C air. damage the engine. Air-cooled motorcycles often rely heavily on oilMost internal combustion engines are fluid cooled using cooling in addition to air-cooling of the cylinder barrels. However. either air (a gaseous fluid) or a liquid coolant run Liquid-cooled engines usually have a circulation pump. but often has sediment. Therefore. a design called adiabatic. then there is a industry term for the antifreeze mixture is engine 230°C temperature difference for cooling. reliability. This reduces the occurrence of hot spots. In each "liquid-cooled" engines use some air cooling. The metal is at 250 °C and the air is at 20°C. engine coolant may be run Other demands include cost. Circulation was passages. Such engines can achieve high coolant. oil. weight. with the step. beyond the amount needed for lubrication. requiring extra effort for successful operation. One key as coolants. An difference and so at first appears to need twice the exception is Wankel engines. where it was cooled before engine. head. to maintain acceptable temperatures system is both pressurized. Air cooled survive. Conductive heat transfer is proportional to the Most liquid-cooled engines use a mixture of water and temperature difference between materials. If engine chemicals such as antifreeze and rust inhibitors.Basics to Automobile Engineering away and make room for more water. engines may also vary their cooling capacity by using more closely-spaced cooling fins in that area. For example. the liquid-cooled engine has half the temperature intake stroke of air cooling the combustion chamber. . In contrast. cooling and with only accidental heat loss. Most "air-cooled" engines use some boiling point of 100°C can be exceeded as the cooling liquid oil cooling. both to transfer as much energy as possible from hot Moving parts such as the pistons. The water may be used directly to cool the passed to the radiator. such cooled engine might dump heat from the engine to a as propylene glycol or a combination of propylene glycol liquid. comparing water and oil There are many demands on a cooling system.000 mile-per-gallon Only the fixed parts of the engine. Thus. An air-cooled coolant. or chemicals. Oil has about 90% the density of water. which can clog coolant returning to the bottom of the engine. or to a very limited amount of conduction into efficiency but compromise power output. and uses a mixture with for both critical engine parts and the oil itself. duty cycle. Marine engines and some stationary engines have ready The first engines relied on thermo-syphon cooling alone. instead engine uses all of this difference. but this Some high-efficiency engines run without explicit can make their manufacture difficult and expensive. it is vital that the cooling system heat capacity). one gram of oil can absorb about 55% of the requirement is that an engine fails if just one part heat for the same rise in temperature (called the specific overheats. such as salt. Basic principles 21 www. Some antifreezes use no water at all. sprayed upwards onto the bottom of the piston just for extra cooling.

shapes needed for good heat transfer and the space needed for free flow of a large volume of air. By Waqas Ali Tunio The temperature of the cooling air may range from well below freezing to 50°C. The cylinder-walls should not It is difficult to make generalizations about air-cooled heat up the air before compression. over several hot objects and achieving uniform as in aircraft. . Where reliability is of utmost importance. air is a relatively poor coolant.4 × 10 6 Pa·s thermostatic valve or just 'thermostat' that can block for air vs 8. Thus.aliwaqas. so the first and quietness in order to achieve slightly higher may be over-cooled and the last under-cooled. but also much electric fan. Each principle has advantages and engine temperature gauge can indicate an acceptable disadvantages. increasing the energy required to pump oil for cooling. especially for passing one stream of coolant coolant leaks. and limit engine power present problems such as difficulties manufacturing the output to compensate for finite cooling. use liquid-cooled engines. even a slight increase in reliability sudden loss of cooling where steam bubbles form (for is worth giving up other good properties to achieve it. so an commonly. the cooling system is designed to vary cooling so the engine is neither too hot nor too cold. power available to the turbine. For example. The viscosity of the oil is optimized normal use and sometimes sudden failure when driven for just this temperature. Some engine controls shut down an engine or recirculating air fan needs ten times the power of a limit it to half throttle if it overheats. Alternately. most cars and trucks enough that damage is being done. (called heat of vaporization). while engines in longhaul boat or rail service may operate at a steady load. which is good for keeping cooling capacity is reduced only slightly by small air things cool. road vehicles often see widely-varying and quicklyvarying load.I Win::. objects in series warms the air at each step. once water boils. so the exhaust system is and are often used in situations where the engine runs often insulated between engine and turbocharger to unattended for months at a time. air has vastly lower heat commonly run by a pneumatic 'shutterstat). Further. A compromise is a wall cooled Volkswagen kombis are known for rapid wear in temperature of 90°C. The thermal conductivity of water is about 4 times that of oil. see heat transfer). steam may Air cooled and liquid-cooled engines are both used return to water as it mixes with other coolant. and failure rates typically deal of energy with very little rise in temperature rise as the square of the number of failure points. a fan which capacity per gram and per volume (4000) and less than a operates either independently of the engine. Any cooling of the exhaust and in hot weather. while many small airplane and An engine needs different temperatures. reliability the consequences of a broken airplane However. Generalization difficulties 22 www. including the compressor of a turbo and in the inlet trumpets and the inlet valves need to be as cold as possible. it may be a good trade-off to give up temperature. durability (interval between engine rebuilds). and reducing the net power output of the engine. other concerns may dominate cooling system boils at about the same temperature desired for engine design. calculation from two paragraphs above.Basics to Automobile Engineering so a given volume of oil can absorb only about 50% of the energy of the same volume of water. In contrast. and heat exchanger have some heat capacity needs ten times of the surface area. Moving heat from the engine controls adjust cooling based on throttle to cylinder to a large surface area for air cooling can anticipate a temperature rise. keep the exhaust gases as hot as possible. the motor. but also not cool and liquid-cooled engines. more. it is an insulator. air-cooled Deutz diesel the turbine of the turbocharger reduces the amount of engines are known for reliability even in extreme heat.tk | . a lower viscosity (about 200 times lower: 17. Cooling system regulation includes adjustable baffles in the air flow (sometimes called 'shutters' and Comparing air and water. Modern electronic recirculating water pump. As example. Also. which smoothes out temperature increase in short and air needs 2000 times the flow velocity and thus a sprints. but cooling. The viscosity of oil can be ten times greater than water. passing air over several hot efficiency. therefore the fins. such as an tenth the conductivity. This has the advantage that it absorbs a great air cooling systems are simple. In addition.::No Sin . Water Finally. air cooling coolant. The inlet low-cost engines are air-cooled. Airdown the gas at the combustion.94 × 10 4 Pa·s for water). A countercurrent heat exchange with forced cooling air does the job. Unfortunately. which can aid heat transfer. Continuing the the coolant flow when too cool. and particular applications may favor temperature even though local temperatures are high one over the other. or which has an adjustable clutch. leading to a engine are so severe.

it is usually desirable to minimize the number of heat transfer stages in order to maximize the temperature difference at each stage. as the picture shows. The subject of boiling engines was addressed.::No Sin . and can freeze at ordinary cooled engines and continue working when water temperatures thus causing permanent engine damage. The seal was inherited from more reasons most road vehicles use liquid-cooled steam engines. Previous radiators and engine blocks were properly essentially the lifetime of many engines.The change of air cooling to liquid cooling occurred at the start of World War II when the US military needed 55 °C. Franklin built awareness rose in the 1960s. In the USA. engine boiled. . so nearly all air-cooled engines are under Because the pump seal leaked mainly when the pump 500 kW (670 hp). cars and trucks built for the war effort (no civilian cars were built during that stations remain (See a picture here). so water circulation ceased and water in the water. These have time) were equipped with carbon-seal water pumps that instructions on a cast metal plaque and a spherical bottom watering can hanging next to a water spigot. Water circulation is aided by a rotary intermediate liquid) were built over a long period beginning with the advent of mass produced passenger pump that has only a slight effect. Air-cooled engines do not require coolant service. colder than is encountered by many engines. cooled ones start producing steam jets. where water loss is accepted. original water loss was hidden.Basics to Automobile Engineering Similarly. but used water It is usually more difficult to achieve either low pumps with a leaky graphite-lubricated "rope" seal emissions or low noise from an air-cooled engine. throughout Europe.. Porsche built aircars sold well. This was considered normal.aliwaqas. and at the time. But as air quality cooled farm tractors and Volkswagen became famous with air-cooled passenger cars. but these Deutz built air-cooled diesel trucks.000 hours. European firms such as Magirusnew water-cooled cars no longer boiled over. However. Air-cooled engines became popular spite of which it was stolen.I Win::. spherical bottom was intended to keep it from being set air cooling advanced in memory of boiling engines. Tatra engineer Julius Mackerle published a book on it. two Transition Away From Air Cooling commonly-cited advantages for air-cooled engines. ACS (Auto Club Suisse) maintains historical monuments to that era on the Susten Pass where two radiator refill After isolating the pump problem. and do not suffer engine damage from freezing. Air cooled engines are better adapted to extremely cold and hot environmental weather temperatures. the leaking pump seal drained cooling water to a level where the and trucks routinely overheated while climbing pump could no longer return water to the top of the mountain roads. and has a service life over 10.tk | . Before World War II. coolant based on propylene glycol is liquid to . thus avoiding engine reliable vehicles. be useless around the house. even though During that period. Detroit Diesel 2-stroke cycle engines commonly use oil cooled by water. However. The Czechoslovakia based company Tatra is known for their big size air cooled V8 car engines. After the war. However. having to work over cars and ending with a small and generally unrecognized such a wide range of speeds that its impeller has only a technical change. whereas large liquid-cooled engines was running and the engine was hot. Automobile radiators (or heat exchangers) have an outlet that feeds cooled water to the engine and the engine has an outlet that feeds heated water to the top Cars and trucks using direct air cooling (without an of the radiator. Volkswagen advertised in the USA as not boiling over. since water loss lead to most noted mountain roads had auto repair shops to overheat and further water loss from boil-over. you can see air cooled engines starting The coolant used in many liquid-cooled engines must be and running in freezing conditions that stuck water renewed periodically. By Waqas Ali Tunio air-cooled engines. with the water in turn cooled by air. researched. and a solution found. The did not leak and caused no more geysers. and without question. engines. Meanwhile. designed and survived durability tests.. and laws governing Air-cooling 23 www. the minister to overheating engines. While running. even though boil-over was no longer a common down and. therefore. since engines. in problem. water cooled cars minimal effect as a pump. damage. trace when the engine stopped and cooled. It is also often difficult to build large air-cooled steam engines already expend large volumes of water. creating geysers of boiling cooling radiator. two (gland) on the pump shaft. shrinks slightly when it crystallizes. the water loss exceed 80 MW (107000 hp) (Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96evaporated inconspicuously. leaving at best a small rusty C 14-cylinder diesel). thereby not revealing significant water loss.

RECEIVERthe past. Basic knowledge of your air conditioning system is important. Also. Should a major problem arise from your air conditioner. today larger motorcycles are water cooled with many relying on convection circulation with no pump. This. but not R12 commonly referred to as Freon® (Freon is the trade both. your auto mechanic is at the mercy of this new environmental legislation. While each of the automatic temperature control (which allow you to set three types differ. "environmentally Today. Today practically no air-cooled automotive engines are built. Since the advent of the automotive air conditioning system in the 1940's. you may encounter new terminology. as this will allow you to make a more informed decision on your repair options. Commonly referred to as the heart of the system.S. Words like "retrofit" and "alternative refrigerant" are now in your mechanics glossary. Retrofitting involves making the Automotive Air Conditioning Systems necessary changes to your system. their engines having small cooling water volume. in some cases. his shop must also incur the cost of purchasing expensive dedicated equipment that insures the capture of these ozone depleting chemicals. And if not performed unless something goes awry. name for the refrigerant R-12. It is responsible for compressing and the Montreal Protocol. while Subaru took a different course and chose liquid-cooling for their (flat) engines. as opposed to merely repairing and recharging with Freon. EVAPORATOR. friendly" refrigerant. properly. as we drive our automobiles. to the final cost of the repair. R-134a. the concept and design are very the desired temperature and have the system adjust similar to one another. This new refrigerant has a can enjoy the same comfort levels that we are higher operating pressure. defined as discharge and 24 www. Note: if your car has an Orifice To add to the complications. such as recharging the system with refrigerant either have a Receiver-Dryer or an Accumulator. By Waqas Ali Tunio Now more than ever.I Win::. may require larger or more robust button or the slide of a lever. a landmark agreement that was transferring refrigerant gas. should the system be opened up for repair. we make the seamless parts to counter its inherent high pressure transition from heating to cooling and back again characteristics. Volkswagen responded by abandoning their (flat) horizontally opposed air-cooled engines. Motorcycles had an additional problem in that a water leak presented a greater threat to reliability. the and its manufacture has been banned by the U. is almost a thing of TUBE. Valve failures and other engine damage was the result. The A/C system is split into two sides.tk | . so they were loath to change.aliwaqas. Improvements. a great many of us. unleaded gas replaced leaded gas and leaner fuel mixtures became the norm. introduced in the 1980's to limit the production and use of chemicals known to deplete the ozone layer. CONDENSER. may reduce cooling efficiency which equates to higher operating costs and reduced comfort. many things have undergone Vehicles are found to have primarily three different extensive change. will add significantly without ever wondering how this change occurs. Not only is he required to be certified to purchase refrigerant and repair your air conditioner. You may be given an option of "retrofitting". With the push of a dependant on age.he will have to charge you more. accustomed to at home and at work. The most common components automatically) and improvements to overall durability.ACCUMULATOR. that was manufactured by DuPont). THERMAL EXPANSION VALVE . which will allow it to use the new industry accepted. air cooling being fraught with manufacturing expense and maintenance problems. therefore. which make up these automotive systems are the have added complexity to today's modern air following: conditioning system. you will of tasks. such as computerized types of air conditioning systems. if your mechanic has to spend more to repair your vehicle . led to overheating in the air-cooled engines. Simply put. your system. ORIFICE yourself" repair to these systems. Unfortunately. . That is.Basics to Automobile Engineering exhaust emissions were passed. it will not have a Thermal Expansion Valve as these environmental regulations that govern the very simplest two devices serve the same purpose. These reductions in the cooling effects of both the lead and the formerly rich fuel mixture. a high pressure side and a low pressure side. DRIER. we now have tough tube. and compressor is a belt driven pump that is fastened to the many other countries that have joined together to sign engine. Extensive scientific studies have proven the COMPRESSOR damaging effects of this refrigerant to our ozone layer.::No Sin . the days of "do-itCOMPRESSOR.

its location may differ. Its location is usually in front of the radiator. As mentioned above. keeping pressure in the evaporator low and keeping the evaporator from freezing. or in the liquid line.I Win::. On front wheel drive vehicles. Many variations of pressure regulators have been introduced since the 1940's.Basics to Automobile Engineering suction. it might make sense aluminum fins of the cooler evaporator coil. As the refrigerant begins to boil. While there are many variations of devices used. The warm air passing through the evaporator fins causes the refrigerant to boil (refrigerants have very low boiling points). By Waqas Ali Tunio other components work in conjunction with the evaporator. These can be cut out and replaced with a have seen this as water dripping from the bottom of combination filter/orifice assembly. it can absorb large amounts of heat. In some cases it does this via the accumulator. PRESSURE REGULATING DEVICES Controlling the evaporator temperature can be accomplished by controlling refrigerant pressure and flow into the evaporator. While inexpensive. Refrigerant enters the bottom of the evaporator as a low pressure liquid.tk | . the evaporator serves as the become clogged with small debris. THERMAL EXPANSION VALVE Another common refrigerant regulator is the thermal expansion valve. The intake. their main functions are the same. probably the most commonly used. Another example of a thermal expansion valve is Chrysler's "H . the to install a larger pre filter in front of the orifice tube to moisture contained in the air condenses on its surface. are the most commonly found. due to aerodynamic improvements to the body of a vehicle. Once the refrigerant is drawn into the suction side. This type of valve can sense both temperature and pressure. Rest assured this is perfectly normal. replacing the orifice tube. The condenser is designed to radiate heat. This point can be found in a properly functioning system by locating the area between the outlet of the condenser and the inlet of the As hot compressed gasses are introduced into the top of evaporator that suddenly makes the change from hot to the condenser.aliwaqas. A secondary benefit is the system up. Several variations of this valve are commonly found. The condenser. Temperature and pressure regulating devices must be used to control its temperature. or suction side. and covered with a filter screen at each end. CONDENSER This is the area in which heat dissipation occurs. the ideal temperature for an evaporator coil is 32° F. in many cases. orifice tubes in use today measure approximately three inches in length and consist of a small brass tube. it is compressed and sent to the condenser. It is not uncommon for these tubes to Located inside the vehicle. The evaporator provides usually between three to five dollars. can be found in most GM and Ford models. will have much the same appearance as the radiator in your car as the two have very similar functions. minimize the risk of this problem reoccurring. where it can then transfer the heat that is absorbed from the inside of the vehicle. your vehicle. Condensers must have good air flow anytime the system is in operation. Since the compressor is basically a pump. Some Dust and pollen passing through stick to its wet surfaces Ford models have a permanently affixed orifice tube in and drain off to the outside. The ideal temperature of the evaporator is 32° Fahrenheit or 0° Celsius. With this in mind. opening from the inside of your vehicle. or TXV. this is usually accomplished by taking advantage of your existing engine's cooling fan. It is located in the inlet tube of the evaporator. draws in refrigerant gas from the outlet of the evaporator. ORIFICE TUBE The orifice tube. Several 25 www. it must have an intake side and a discharge side. Most of the high pressure liquid. condenser air flow is supplemented with one or more electric cooling fan(s). On humid days you may the liquid line. Listed below. Commonly used on import and aftermarket systems. As the gas cools. the labor to several functions. evacuating and dehumidification. they are cooled off. and is very efficient at regulating refrigerant flow to the evaporator. This heat is then carried off with the refrigerant to the outside of the vehicle. EVAPORATOR surrounded by plastic. You should then see small dimples placed in the condenses and exits the bottom of the condenser as a line that keep the orifice tube from moving. but in some cases. On rear wheel drive vehicles. Its primary duty is to remove heat replace one involves recovering the refrigerant. a frozen evaporator coil will not absorb as much heat. As warmer air travels through the then recharging. it cold.::No Sin . heat absorption component. somewhere between the outlet of the condenser and the inlet of the evaporator.

The use of the sight glass to charge the system is not recommended in R-134a systems as cloudiness and oil that has separated from the refrigerant can be mistaken for bubbles. Introduction of liquid refrigerant into a compressor can do serious damage. Compressors are designed to compress gas not liquid. The chief role of the accumulator is to isolate the compressor from any damaging liquid refrigerant. and the tires transmit that force to the road using friction also. Accumulators. it is of long term benefit to your air firewall. However. We all know that pushing down on the brake pedal slows a car to a stop. vapor bubbles should not be visible in the sight glass. The secondary purpose is to remove than you could apply with your leg. we'll cover these three principles: Leverage Hydraulics Friction Disc brake The disc brake or disk brake is a device for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel while it is in motion. To stop the wheel. It is a good idea to replace the accumulator each time the system is opened up for major repair and anytime moisture and/or debris is of concern. These types of valves. When in doubt. although efficient. It does this in two ways: How Brakes Work to charge the system. 26 www. Moisture is enemy number one for your A/C system.::No Sin . Brakes convert motion to heat. and if the brakes get too hot. like receiver-driers. hydraulically. When you depress your brake pedal. It is connected directly to the evaporator outlet and stores excess liquid refrigerant. . This type of valve is usually located at the for your wallet.tk | . Moisture in a system mixes with refrigerant and forms a corrosive acid.aliwaqas. ACCUMULATOR Accumulators are used on systems that accommodate an orifice tube to meter refrigerants into the evaporator. a receiver is used. your car must also moisture and filter out dirt. Like orifice tubes these valves can become clogged with debris. also remove debris and moisture from a system. it may be to your advantage to change the Accumulator or receiver in your system. Newer receiver-driers use desiccant type XH-7 and are compatible with both R-12 and R-134a refrigerants. Before we begin our discussion on the components of the brake system. between the evaporator inlet and outlet tubes conditioning system. A brake disc (or rotor in U. This is connected to the wheel and/or the axle. The receiver-drier usually has a sight glass in the top. friction material in the form of brake (mounted on a device called a brake caliper) is forced mechanically. and the liquid and suction lines. This type of mistake can lead to a dangerous overcharged condition. English) is usually made of cast iron. The desiccant type is usually identified on a sticker that is affixed to the receiverdrier.Basics to Automobile Engineering By Waqas Ali Tunio block" type. but also have small moving parts that may stick and malfunction due to corrosion. Some of the moisture removing desiccants found within are not compatible with R-134a. it is rare to heat a disc brake system enough to result in brake fade.I Win::. This sight glass is often used multiply the force of your foot. Since the actual brakes require a much greater force gas and liquid. Friction causes the disc and attached wheel to slow or stop. To ensure that the valve gets liquid refrigerant. they become less effective.S. but may in some cases be made of composites such as reinforced carboncarbon or ceramic-matrix composites. There are variations of receiver-driers and several different desiccant materials are in use.pneumatically or electromag netically against both sides of the disc. a phenomenon known as brake fade. Under normal operating conditions. While this may be a temporary discomfort Mechanical advantage(leverage) Hydraulic force multiplication The brakes transmit the force to the tires using friction. But how does this happen? How RECEIVER-DRIER does your car transmit the force from your leg to its The receiver-drier is used on the high side of systems wheels? How does it multiply the force so that it is that use a thermal expansion valve. your car transmits The primary function of the receiver-drier is to separate the force from your foot to its brakes through a fluid. This type of enough to stop something as big as a car? metering valve requires liquid refrigerant. have some disadvantages over orifice tube systems.

000N). pre-dampers may be used to reduce gear rattle at idle by changing the natural frequency of the disc. motorcycles. It is also used in some electronically controlled all-wheel drive systems. This type of clutch has several driving members interleaved or "stacked" with several driven members. clutch. typically used in heavy applications such as trucks carrying large loads or racing. In a drill for instance. the release bearing can be known as a thrust bearing (as per the image above). With regards to the manufacture of diaphragm typically use an compound organic resin with copper wire facing or a ceramic material. They are usually around $120 pounds but different car Clutches are used whenever the ability to limit the transmission of power or motion needs to be controlled manufactures vary. depending on how vigorously the car is limit how much torque is transmitted through use of a driven.25 for ceramic. World rally and even most club racing. one shaft is driven by a motor and the other drives a drill chuck. heat treatment is crucial.aliwaqas. pulling on the diaphragm spring and disengaging the 27 www. The 400 Twin application offers a clamp load of a mere 23KN (23.I Win::. or unlocked and spinning at different speeds (disengaged). In a pull type clutch. In addition to the damped disc centers which reduce driveline vibration.tk | . The opposite is true with a push type. Ceramic materials are between 2-3KW and a feed rate 1m/minute. The opposite component of the clutch is the brake. clutches control whether automobiles transmit Dampers engine power to the wheels). the release bearing is pushed into the clutch disengaging the vehicle drive. Clutch pads usually last about either in amount or over time (e. A typical coefficient of springs. though the harder ceramic Multiple plate clutch materials increase flywheel and pressure plate wear. Push/Pull Friction disk clutches generally are classified as "Push Type" or "Pull Type" depending on the location of the pressure plate fulcrum points. In this instance. They are fully compressed and no longer in use once drive is taken up by the main damper springs.000 miles. Load Mercedes truck examples: A clamp load of 33KN (33. It is used in race cars including F1. the action of pressing the pedal pulls the release bearing.::No Sin . part of the clutch. including asbestos in the past. and automatic transmissions and in some diesel locomotives with mechanical transmissions. In these devices one shaft is typically attached to a motor or other power unit (the driving member) while the other shaft (the driven member) provides output power for work to be done. Pads Clutch pads are attached to the frictional pads. Clutches are usually employed in devices which have two rotating shafts so we will use this as in the most basic example. Modern clutch development focuses its attention on the simplification of the overall assembly and/or Materials manufacturing method.35 for drive plate to the disc ring with the laser typically being organic and 0. The clutch connects the two shafts so that they may be locked together and spin at the same speed (engaged). They are most commonly made of rubber but have been known to be made of asbestos. Laser welding is becoming more common as a method of attaching the friction used on a friction disc surface is 0. locked together but spinning at different speeds (slipping).g. vehicle drive.000N) is normal for a single plate 430. Indy car. Modern clutches lift the pressure plate upon disengagement of vehicle drive. . electric screwdrivers 100. Bursts speeds are typically around 5.000rpm with the weakest point being the facing rivet. For example drive straps are now commonly employed to transfer torque as well as Various materials have been used for the disc friction facings.Basics to Automobile Engineering By Waqas Ali Tunio Clutches A clutch is a mechanical device which provides for the transmission of power (and therefore usually motion) from one component (the driving member) to another (the driven member). These weaker springs are compressed solely by the radial vibrations from an idling engine. Friction Clutches Friction clutches are by far the most well-known type of Manufacturing clutches.

smooth engagement would be near-impossible because engine movement 28 www. dry. A number of such devices Torque limiter fit various makes and models of drivetrains AKA slip clutch. The friction material varies in composition depending on many considerations such as whether the clutch is "dry" or "wet". is not bathed in fluid and should be. dry A "wet clutch" is immersed in a cooling lubricating fluid which also keeps the surfaces clean and gives smoother performance and longer life. A "dry clutch". between the drive motor and gear train. rather than on friction. However. The system involves a clutch shoe or shoes attached to the driven shaft. This clutch system employs centrifugal force to automatically engage the clutch when the engine rpm rises above a threshold and to automatically disengage the clutch when the engine rpm falls low enough. where speed is more important than comfort.) With a rigid mechanical linkage. tend to lose some energy to the liquid. stump. stacking multiple clutch disks can compensate for the lower coefficient of friction and so eliminate slippage under power when fully engaged. driving the output. (Motors movement. Many safety clutches are NOT friction clutches. This kind of start is necessary and desirable in drag racing and other competitions. a given amount of actuating force created more pressure on the This plastic pilot shaft guide tool is used to align the clutch disk as the spring-loaded pressure plate is mating surfaces. Engaging the clutch abruptly when the engine is turning at high speed causes a harsh. raising the engine speed too high while engaging the clutch will cause excessive clutch plate wear. The clutch will operated by a mechanical linkage. Major Types of Clutches by Application Vehicular (General) There are different designs of vehicle clutch but most are based on one or more friction discs pressed tightly together or against a flywheel using springs. An hydraulic or cable connection from the pedal to the example of a safety clutch is the one mounted on the clutch mechanism. installed. as the name implies. or Safety clutch: In a modern car with a manual transmission the clutch is This device allows a rotating shaft to "slip" when higher operated by the left-most pedal using a than normal resistance is encountered on a machine. However. or other clutch may physically be located very close to the pedal. Clutches found in heavy duty applications such as trucks and competition cars use ceramic clutches that have a greatly increased friction coefficient. The spring pressure is released when the clutch pedal is depressed thus either pushing or pulling the diaphragm of the pressure plate. however. depending on type. As well. engine mountings being flexible by design. had high stall torque. to eliminate the effect of vibrations and slight engine limit damage when the mechanism jammed. Distinguished by conical friction surfaces. rotating inside a clutch bell attached to the output shaft.I Win::.Basics to Automobile Engineering Wet vs. Since the surfaces of a wet clutch can be slippery (as with a motorcycle clutch bathed in engine oil). Even though the "slip" or "give" if the blades hit a rock. The Hele-Shaw clutch was a wet clutch that relied entirely on viscous effects.tk | . . these have a "grabby" action generally considered unsuitable for passenger cars. Wet clutches. immobile object. On older cars the clutch might be driving shaft of a large grass mower. Centrifugal Some vehicles such as mopeds use a centrifugal clutch.::No Sin . but belong to the "interference clutch" family of which the dog clutch (discussed briefly later) is the most wellknown.aliwaqas. The shoe(s) are held inwards by springs until centrifugal force overcomes the spring tension and the shoe(s) make contact with the bell. jerky start. Motor-driven mechanical calculators such remote means of actuation are necessary to had these. Cone clutch By Waqas Ali Tunio Carefully-designed types disengage (but continue to transmit torque) in such tools as controlled-torque screwdrivers. The transmission's drive splines and pilot shaft have a complimentary shape. The cone's taper means that a given amount of movement of the actuator makes the surfaces approach (or recede) much Automobile Powertrain more slowly than in a disc clutch. Friction discs once contained asbestos but this has been largely eliminated. literally.

When the temperature is low. magnetic particle clutch riding in the same oil as the transmission. motion of the complimentary member. These clutches have magnetically influenced particles clutches are usually made up of a stack of alternating contained in a chamber between driving and driven plain steel and friction plates. transmission input shaft. On most motorcycles the clutch is operated by the clutch lever located on the left handlebar. which allows the fan to spin at about 20% to 30% of the shaft speed. Some of the plates have members which upon application of direct lugs on its inner diameter locking it to the engine current causes the particles to clump together and crankshaft. a wrap-spring type as a clutch in winding and as a belt-driven engine cooling fan may have a clutch that is brake in preventing it from being turned heat-activated. y The winding knob of a camera employs a (silent) There are other clutches found in a car. the clutch effectively disengages. (driving). makes the driven member rotate faster than the driver. separated by a silicone-based fluid and a valve controlled by a bimetallic spring. not in physical contact. The driving and driven members are backwards. while pressing the pedal disengages the clutch Hydraulic clutch: The driving and driven members are plates. Motorcycles Electromagnetic clutch: Typically a clutch that is engaged by an electromagnet that is an integral part of Motorcycles typically employ a wet clutch with the the clutch assembly.Basics to Automobile Engineering By Waqas Ali Tunio inevitably occurs as the drive is "taken up.tk | . while the other plates have lugs on the outer adhere to the operating surfaces. locks up solidly (typically in milliseconds or tens of ms) non-slip. it unwinds and opens the valve. Typically used where slipping is not acceptable. When "tripped". If the trip mechanism is operated when the clutch would 29 www. Wrap-spring clutches: These have a helical spring wound with square-cross-section wire. y Another application includes an oscillating Racing motorcycles often use slipper clutches to member where this clutch can then convert the eliminate the effects of engine braking which.I Win::. being oscillations into intermittent linear or rotational applied only to the rear wheel. If the driving member rotates in the direction that would unwind the spring the spring expands minutely and slips although with some drag. allowing the driver to shift gears or coast. The spring fits closely around a cylindrical driving member. coupling is hydrodynamic. allowing fluid past the valve which allows the fan to spin at about 60% to 90% of shaft speed. and rotates the driven member just one full turn. Specialty Clutches/Applications Other General Clutches and Example Applications Single-revolution clutch: When inactive it is disengaged and the driven member is stationary." No pressure Partial engagement under any significant load tends to on the pedal means that the clutch plates are engaged be destructive. its other end is unattached. while pulling the lever back towards the rider Warner Overdrive transmissions in cars. . Engagement and diameter that lock it to a basket which turns the slippage are notably smooth. The plates are forced together by a set of coil springs or a diaphragm spring plate when Overrunning clutch or freewheel: If some external force the clutch is engaged. it Dog clutches: Utilization in automobile manual transmissions mentioned above. will disengage the clutch plates through cable or y Typical bicycles have these so that the rider can hydraulic actuation. coast. Positive engagement. However. the spring winds and closes the valve. For example. y Still others use ratchets with the pawl mounted Automobile Non-powertrain on a moving member. No pressure Examples include: on the lever means that the clutch plates are engaged y This was essential for the operation of Borg(driving).::No Sin .aliwaqas. As the temperature of the spring rises. In simple form the spring is fastened at one end to the driven member. allowing the rider to shift gears or stop pedaling and coast. can lead to instability. Rotating the driving member the other way Other clutches such as for an air conditioning compressor electronically engaged clutches makes the spring wrap itself tightly around the driving surface and the clutch using magnetic force to couple the driving member to the driven member.

this kept the spring the clutch and "wound" the spring. The other end of the spring was attached to the driven member inside whom the drive shaft could rotate freely. As well. notably the IBM Selectric. it was simply a compliant mechanism. Some types of self-starting synchronous motors Considering that the drive motors in some of these (such always started when power was applied. Many different types of synchronous clock motors were used. Variants include half-revolution (and other fractionalrevolution) types. re-started the motor in the correct direction. This sequence happened quite fast. lever were out of the way.tk | . The inertia of the rotor going backwards engaged trip pawl and sleeve tooth. Single-revolution clutches in teleprinters were of this type. maybe hundreds of millions of cycles without need of maintenance other than occasional lubrication with recommended oil. The clutch-brake locked up pawl that kept it from reversing. As it "unwound". A spring-loaded pawl pressed against the sleeve and kept it from rotating. an electromagnet attracted the When the trip lever moved out of the way the first pawl pawl away from the sleeve. These mechanisms were found in some types of synchronous-motor-driven electric clocks. their behavior was chaotic and they were equally likely as teleprinters for news wire services) ran 24 hours a day for years the spring could not be allowed to stay in to start rotating in the wrong direction. "Kickback" clutch-brakes: When the clutch was to disengage power was disconnected from the electromagnet and the pawl moved close to the sleeve. it expanded to minimize contact with the driving cylinder. They are also used in farm machinery and industry. These were typically disc-shaped assemblies mounted on the drive shaft. the IBM Selectric typewriter had several of them. "Cascaded-Pawl" single-revolution clutches: These superseded wrap-spring single-revolution clutches in page printers (such as teleprinters) including the Model 28 Teletype (and its successors using the same design principles). defeat the grip. inertia rotated the disc until a tooth on it engaged a part of the clock's gear train. but in detail. They were also found in motor-driven mechanical calculators. the Marchant had several of them. wear would be Coupled to the rotor by one (or possibly two) stages of excessive. close contact with the driving cylinder. One end was fixed. The sleeve had a projecting tooth. The clutch did not slip once locked up. It rode freely but closely on the rotating member. on the order of milliseconds. As rotated the sleeve which permitted the spring to the clutch rotated it would stay locked up if the trip contract and wrap tightly around the driving sleeve. the other was clutch locked up the driven mechanism coasted and its free. but if the trip lever engaged Load torque tightened the wrap so it did not slip once engaged. The first pawl had a projection that engaged a trip lever. If the lever engaged the pawl the clutch was disengaged. The other end of the spring was fastened to a reduction gearing was a wrap-spring clutch-brake. These were an essential part of printing telegraphs such as the Teletype page printers. By Waqas Ali Tunio These clutches had long operating lives cycling for tens.aliwaqas. as well as electric typewriters. but also had some spring restraint at the other end of the spring created by the action. The mechanism was lubricated.::No Sin . 30 www. including the pre-World War II Hammond manual-start clocks. the load torque on the first pawl to engage created force to keep the second pawl engaged. which in turn kept the third one engaged. the wrap was so effective that the lubricant did not wear did not seem to be a problem.I Win::. these were a variety of dog clutch. When the sleeve's tooth contacted the pawl the sleeve and the load's inertia unwrapped the spring to disengage the clutch. . clutch would continue to drive the load without slipping. like a ratchet tooth.Basics to Automobile Engineering otherwise disengage the clutch remains engaged. creating the cascaded lockup just described. The thick disc attached to the driven member. but nevertheless close to it. Together with the when rotated backwards. Typically. Inside the hollow disc-shaped housing were two or three freely-floating pawls arranged so that when the clutch was tripped. One end of the spring was attached to a sleeve surrounding the spring. Basically the spring was kept expanded (details below) and mostly out of contact with the driving sleeve. The wrap spring's torque engaged. When the spring did not rotate. If the pawl were held away from the sleeve the the clutch would quickly unlock. The wrap spring's torque kept the sleeve's tooth pressing against the pawl. To engage the clutch. Some These clutches were lubricated with conventional oil but designs had no explicit spring as such.

ambulances. Design criteria Powertrain In a motor vehicle. differentials. Sometimes "powertrain" is used to refer to simply the engine and transmission. the term chassis means the frame plus the "running gear" like engine. Vehicles In the case of vehicles.I Win::. An exhaust system is usually tubing used to guide reaction exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. the power-train includes all of its components used to transform stored (chemical. the pipe must be heat-resistant. cowl and chassis . An exhaust pipe must be carefully designed to carry toxic and/or noxious gases away from the users of the machine. and it must not pass through or near anything which can burn or can be damaged by heat. as well as "chassis cab" versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies. armored personnel carriers.) energy into kinetic energy for propulsion purposes. that changes depending on whether a vehicle is front-wheel drive. the exhaust gas may flow through one or more of: y y y y y Cylinder head and exhaust manifold A turbocharger to increase engine power. solar. Indoor generators and furnaces can quickly fill an enclosed space with carbon monoxide or other poisonous exhaust gases if they are not properly vented to the outdoors. These include motor homes. driver's seat.[ An armoured fighting vehicle's chassis comprises the bottom part of the AFV that includes the tracks. In particular applications. and crew compartment. or air. is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. and suspension. In a carriage or wagon. The entire system conveys burnt gases from the engine and includes one or more exhaust pipes. to reduce noise. including the other components only if they are integral to the transmission. A muffler (North America) / silencer (Europe).S. and the final drive (drive wheels. driveshaft. This describes the lower hull. combat engineering vehicles. / t æsi/) consists of an internal framework that supports a man-made object. Depending on the overall system design. potential. differential. etc. or four-wheel drive. fire engines. An example of a chassis is the under part of a motor vehicle. A chimney serves as an exhaust pipe in a stationary structure. Caterpillar tractors. consisting of the frame (on which the body is mounted) with the wheels and machinery. water. It is the portion of a vehicle. such as school busses. . continuous track like with tanks or 31 www. which is usually not necessary for integrity of the structure. It is analogous to an animal's skeleton. after the transmission. propeller. In a wider sense. transmission. although common usage of might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only .Basics to Automobile Engineering By Waqas Ali Tunio Chassis A chassis (plural: "chassis") (pronounced / æsi/. a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in the U. driveshafts. nuclear.tk | . etc. rear-wheel drive. Motorcycles In most motorcycles all or most of the exhaust system is visible and may be chrome plated as a display feature. A body (sometimes referred to as "coachwork"). etc. transmission.). the gases from most types of machine are very hot.aliwaqas. A motor vehicle's driveline consists of the parts of the drivetrain excluding the engine and transmission. A chassis serves as basis for platforms on tanks.::No Sin . engine. the term powertrain or powerplant refers to the group of components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface. etc. A catalytic converter to reduce air pollution. defines the design standards of chassis and body conversions. running gear designates the wheels and axles in distinction from the body. The design of a pleasure car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads and constant work use. box trucks. This includes the engine. kinetic. For the internal combustion engine it is important to have the Exhaust System "Tuned" (refer to tuned pipe) for optimal efficiency. For commercial vehicles chassis consists of an assembly of all the essential parts of a truck (without the body) to be ready for operation on the road. This includes the utilization of multiple power sources and non wheelbased vehicles. Also.

to occupy the least space necessary. in such cases the end of the exhaust pipe often different times. This pipes have a flex connector attached with it. During In a two-stroke engine. such as Japanese supersport or superbikes (such the Kawasaki ZX series. and Suzuki's GSX-R series) often come with a twin exhaust system. or the GPX 250). EU noise and pollution regulations have generally stopped this practice. because of increased weight of the exhaust system and manufacturers forcing more fuel into the engine to gain extra power. engineers create a manifold without regard to weight or cost but instead for optimal flow of the bulge in the exhaust pipe known as an expansion exhaust gases. Headers are generally circular steel tubing during the intake stroke. a design. the manifold is an assembly designed to collect the exhaust gas from two or more Trucks cylinders into one pipe. they may flow into a single exhaust section known as a two-into-one (2-1). sometimes through the middle of the propeller. carbon fiber or. each cylinder's exhaust port to the common outlet all equal length.I Win::. A header (sometimes called extractor in Australia) is a manifold specifically designed for performance. exhaust leaves them at vertical. these bikes would come standard with a single exhaust. Marine engines By Waqas Ali Tunio With an onboard diesel engine below-decks on marine Motorcycle exhausts come in many varieties depending vessels:on the type of engine and its intended use. This design results in a header that is chamber uses the pressure of the exhaust to create a pump that squeezes more air and fuel into the cylinder more efficient at scavenging the exhaust from the cylinders. aluminium. such as seen in the Kawasaki EX250 (also engine. Honda's CBR series. titanium. A twin Lagging the exhaust pipe stops it from overheating the cylinder may flow its exhaust into separate exhaust engine room where people must work to service the sections. This helps creates a back pressure and restriction in the engine's exhaust system that can restrict the engine's true in minimizing the vibration from the engine to be performance possibilities. . Larger engines that come with 4 cylinders. also known as R6 and R1. to blow the hot noxious gas well away from people. Inefficiencies generally occur due to the nature metal industrial ducting. known as the Ninja 250 in the US. Manifolds are often made In many trucks / lorries all or most of the exhaust system of cast iron in stock production cars. also called a 4-2-1 or 4-1. depending on its layout. See Kadenacy effect. transferred into the exhaust system. Since cylinders fire at different times. as seen on the Kawasaki ZX-6R 2000 and 2001 models.tk | . and pressure waves from gas emerging from one cylinder might not be completely vacated has a hinged metal flap to stop debris and birds and rainwater from falling inside. This has often led to a decrease in fuel economy. Outboard motors In outboard motors the exhaust system is usually a vertical passage through the engine structure and to reduce out-of-water noise blows out underwater. Sometimes these exhaust through the exhaust system when another comes. This provides greater power with bends and folds calculated to make the paths from and fuel efficiency.::No Sin . or have the by a perforated metal sheath to avoid people getting lowest production cost. as in the image in the section "Terminology". and may have is visible. such as that used on dirt bikes. These design restrictions often burnt touching the hot silencer. Often in such trucks the silencer is surrounded material-saving design features such as to use the least metal. However.Yamaha's YZF series. forcing companies to use other methods to increase performance of the motorcycle. A "full system" may be bought as an aftermarket accessory. Feeding water into the exhaust pipe cools the exhaust gas and thus lessens the back-pressure at the engine's cylinders' exhaust ports and thus helps the cylinders to empty quicker. This sheath may be chrome plated as a display feature. Terminology Manifold or header In most production engines. Or. and joined at narrow angles to encourage Two-stroke engines 32 www. Sometimes a large diesel exhaust pipe is of the combustion engine and its cylinders.aliwaqas. Part of the pipe result in a design that is cost effective but that does not do the most efficient job of venting the gases from the between the engine and the silencer is often flexible engine.Basics to Automobile Engineering Aftermarket exhausts may be made from steel. In the past.

companies. Due to the muffler. it may be tuned to enhance the Header-back lower sounds that are lacking from high-RPM lowdisplacement engines. Two outlets symbolized V-8 power.aliwaqas. Good systems will needing to properly connect solidly to the engine. Imperial. In a set of tuned headers the pipe lengths are carefully calculated to enhance exhaust Some systems (including in former time all systems) flow in a particular engine revolutions per minute range. This can cause turbulent airflow around the the appearance of the car. Luckily. If the system is engineered more for show than functionality. This headers specifically for their car. Packard) were fitted with this design. systems replace stock catalytic converters with others The end of the final length of exhaust pipe where it having less flow restriction. this can be expensive. and the final length of pipe to open advanced materials that some aftermarket headers are air. an exhaust system can be custom built for any car. and not back With or without catalytic converter towards other cylinders.::No Sin .I Win::. Header-back (or header back) is to the part of the exhaust system from the outlet of the header to the final vent to open air everything from the header back. cost-effective well-designed the catalytic converter to the final vent to open air. while European with turbochargers. sometimes the silencer is crossways under the front of the cab and its tailpipe blows sideways to the offside (right side if driving on the left. This is have mandrel-bent turns that allow the exhaust gas to usually accomplished by correct sizing in the design exit with as little back pressure as possible. The reason for a fashion in car styling to form the rear bumper with a the term screamer pipe is the loud noise they produce. The side of a passenger car on Turbo-back which the exhaust exits beneath the rear bumper Turbo-back (or turbo back) is to the part of the exhaust usually indicates the market for which the vehicle was designed. a tip is sometimes chromed. . most car performance enthusiasts buy Cat-back (also cat back and catback) refers to the aftermarket headers made by companies solely focused portion of the exhaust system from the outlet of on producing reliable. Some turbo-back (and header-back) vehicles have exhausts on the left. Turbo-back systems are generally produced as aftermarket performance systems for cars curb in countries which drive on the left. and generally is Cat-back exhaust systems generally use larger diameter not specific to the car's motor or design except for pipe than the stock system. generally the only visible part of the exhaust system part on a vehicle. It is often of larger pipe than custom waste gate is fitted to allow exhaust gases to the rest of the exhaust system. (sometimes nowadays called catless) eliminate the catalytic converter.Basics to Automobile Engineering By Waqas Ali Tunio pressure waves to flow through the outlet. One justification for this was that 33 www. and selecting a proper gasket type and size for the included in these kits are often glasspacks. i. Header-back systems are generally produced as aftermarket performance systems for cars without turbochargers. but may include a fancy tip. Tailpipe and tip With trucks. Japanese (and some older British) vehicles system from the outlet of a turbocharger to the final have exhausts on the right so they are furthest from the vent to open air. often ends with just a Screamer pipe straight or angled cut. and sometimes used to enhance down pipe. The To regulate the boost pressure on turbo charged cars. Headers can also be generally includes the pipe from the converter to the custom designed by a custom shop. the muffler. back pressure. Generally. Lincoln. left side if driving on the right). hole at each end through which the exhaust would pass. expensive cars (Cadillac. The mufflers stage. but sometimes can be bought from the highCat-back performance parts department at car dealerships.e.tk | . and only the most These are not for street use. vents to open air. turbine so to overcome this problem gases can be reIn the late 1950s in the United States manufacturers had routed down a separate pipe about thirty centimeters long and vented straight to atmosphere. This produces a final bypass the turbine and pass straight down the exhaust reduction in pressure. to reduce engine. made of. This is illegal in some places if the Headers are generally made by aftermarket automotive vehicle is driven on public roads.

which is extremely hot. or has a hinged cover flap which the gas flow blows out of the way. lost into the underbonnet area. therefore reducing back pressure as well. and it funnels the burned car exhaust out into the outside air. Exhaust System Tuning Aftermarket exhaust system including headers and a white plasma-sprayed ceramic coating Many automotive companies offer aftermarket exhaust system upgrades as a subcategory of engine. These upgrades however can significantly improve engine performance and do this through means of two main principles: By Waqas Ali Tunio of a ceramic coating applied via thermal spraying. In some trucks. are responsible for transporting the burned exhaust gases from the engine and the exhaust manifold and funneling them towards the car's tailpipe. further burns any fuel that was inadequately burned by the engine and funnels it down into the main exhaust system. Exhaust Pipes The exhaust pipes make up the brunt of a car's exhaust system. This also has positive side effect of preventing heat-sensitive gases not burned by the engine and exhaust manifold. The exhaust pipes. the end of the tailpipe turns 90° and blows downwards. truck or tractor or excavator has a vertical exhaust pipe (called stacks or pipes behind the cab). but provides an effective way to protect the exhaust system from wear and tear.aliwaqas. Exhaust Heat Management is the term that describes reducing the amount of exhaust heat loss. increasing power. This is often fairly expensive as it usually includes replacing the entire exhaust manifold or other large components. or combustion gases. The exhaust system is basically just a long tube attached to the engine and extending to the rear of the vehicle. Exhaust Manifold A vehicle's exhaust manifold is the upper end of the exhaust system. By reducing the amount of heat from the exhaust being which is an enclosed metal container responsible for "muffling" the sounds of the traveling exhaust gases. The Tail Pipe The final destination for a car's exhaust gases is the tailpipe. thermal degradation and corrosion. to try to prevent foreign objects (including droppings from a bird perching on the exhaust pipe when the vehicle is not being used) getting inside the exhaust pipe.::No Sin . Back pressure is most commonly reduced by replacing exhaust manifolds with headers. This reduces the underbonnet temperature and consequently lowers the and the catalytic converter. engine power is As a car's exhaust gases are transported along the increased in four-stroke engines exhaust pipes. Muffler/Catalytic Converter By reducing the exhaust back pressure. The exhaust manifold is attached directly to the side of the engine and is the first part of the exhaust system to receive the burned exhaust gases from the car's engine. The tailpipe is the end of the entire exhaust system. This not only reduces heat loss and lessens back pressure. which is an "after burner" responsible for igniting and burning any leftover exhaust intake manifold temperature. The exhaust manifold. When a bus. Furthermore. keeping the heat in the exhaust gases speeds these up. One dominant solution to aftermarket upgraders is the use 34 www.tk | . from its engine and out the tail pipe. sometimes the end is curved. The fashion disappeared after customers noted that the rear end of the car. or atmosphere. which have smoother bends and normally wider pipe diameters. which can be metal or aluminum. .I Win::.Basics to Automobile Engineering luxury cars in those days had such a long rear overhang that the exhaust pipe scraped the ground when the car traversed ramps. components from being damaged. collected soot from the exhaust and its acidic content ate into the chrome-plated rear bumper. there are certain components that enable the exhaust system to function properly. How Does a Car Exhaust System Work? A car's exhaust system is responsible for transporting the burned exhaust. when the silencer is front-to-back under the chassis. they must pass through the muffler. but often raises dust when the truck is driving on a dry dusty unmade surface such as on a building site. being a low-pressure area. That protects anyone near a stationary truck from getting a direct blast of the exhaust gas. However.

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