UREA MANUFACTURING PLANT

CH 4200 – Comprehensive Design Project

Project Coordinator: Dr. Maneesha Gunasekara Group Members: G.A.M.C. Ariyathilaka A.N. Buddhika K.R.M.G. Kahatapitiya K.D.N. Karunarathna D.D.D.P.Sandasiri
Comprehensive design project

050029P 050050V 050192G 050206G 050404L

Urea Manufacturing Plant

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all we would like to grant our heartiest gratitude to our project coordinator, Dr. Maneesha Gunasekara (lecturer- Chemical & Process Engineering department, University of Moratuwa) for all the guidance and support that she has given us to complete this design project in a successful manner. Dear Madam, please expect our sincere thanks for your kind hearted support and genuine friendly attitude shown towards our work. Thank you very much for spending your precious time to share your knowledge & experience with us. Then again, we must not forget all the staff members of Chemical & Process Engineering department, including the head of the department Dr. Jagath Premachandra , for all the assistance and support given us for accomplish the project. Without your support we may have not come this far, so please accept our sincere thanks .Also we thank the level-4, semester-1 coordinator, Dr. Suren Wijekoon, lecturer- Chemical & Process Engineering Department, University of Moratuwa. And finally, a special thank should be given to the staff of Sri Lanka Custom Office who provide us data related to urea imports.

Thank you, G.A.M.C. Ariyathilaka A.N. Buddhika. K.R.M.G. Kahatapitiya K.D.N. Karunarathna D.D.D.P.Sandasiri

Comprehensive design project I

Urea Manufacturing Plant

PREFACE
The final year project is task, where we apply our knowledge & experience, gained throughout the four year degree course, in a practical scenario. Here we have done it in our best capacity. It is a step which finally determines the capability to perform as chemical engineers. The ultimate goal of the final year design project on urea manufacturing plant is to find out the feasibility of setting up such a plant in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka urea is being used as a fertilizer in the agriculture sector. Other than as a fertilizer, urea is hardly used in any industry or any other sector even though urea has number of industrial and commercial uses. Sri Lanka imports urea from other countries such as Saudi Arabia, India, and China. The total import volume of urea is around 330,000 MT per annum. Sri Lankan government gives urea fertilizer in subsidized price for farmers. From the budget 2008, Sri Lanka allocated 15 billion rupees for fertilizer subsidies. However in the past with the establishment of The Urea Plant at Sapugaskanda, Sri Lanka became self sufficient in fertilizer requirements of the country. In 1982, the annual production of urea at Sapugaskanda factory was 310,000 tons. Then the country's annual demand was only 290,000 tons. The excessive production of 20,000 tons of urea was exported earning foreign exchange around Rs. 200 million. In 1982 the annual savings of State Fertilizer Corporation stood at Rs.750 million. In addition it had provided direct employment opportunities to 1,250 workers. Sapugaskanda Urea plant was closed in January 1987. In the world point of view urea is produced on a scale of some 100,000,000 tons per year worldwide. Urea is produced from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urea can be produced as prills, granules, flakes, pellets, crystals, and solutions. More than 90% of world production is destined for use as a fertilizer. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of all solid nitrogenous fertilizers in common use (46.7%).Urea is highly soluble in water and is, therefore, also very suitable for use in fertilizer solutions. Solid urea is marketed as prills or granules. The advantage of prills is that, in general, they can be produced more cheaply than granules, which, because of their narrower particle size distribution, have an advantage over prills if applied mechanically to the soil. In Sri Lanka establishing urea manufacturing plant has many advantages. It will have greater effect on country‟s economy, development in agriculture sector, providing employment and other tangible and intangible benefits. But without having an ammonia Comprehensive design project II

Urea Manufacturing Plant production process from which in most cases raw materials for urea manufacturing (ammonia and carbon dioxide) is derived. Heat balance calculation. And rest of the year can be allocated for maintenance of the plant. the urea demand of the country with in next five years will be around 350. Under those circumstances we present the final year comprehensive design project which would be beneficial for country‟s development. On the other hand the global demand for urea is increasing rapidly. Material flow sheet. Site selection. Comprehensive design project III . Process description and Flow sheet. it is rather difficult and unfeasible to establish a urea plant along considering the availability of raw materials. Considering the project it is presumed that ammonia and some instance carbon dioxide is imported. Our plant is operated for 328 days per year. consist of 8 chapters. Mass balance calculation. The design project is combined in to this report. So we decided to design a Urea manufacturing plant to fulfill that requirement.000 MT per annum. According to the current demand of Sri Lanka. specially in Asian countries. Tabulated heat balance. Constructing of this kind of manufacturing plant will enhance the country‟s development since the ultimate product urea is directly related with country‟s economy and growth in agriculture sector and a utility for many other industries. Process selection and Economic aspects. Chapters include Literature survey.

6.0 Process Selection & Economic Aspects……………………………………….2 Global production and consumption of Urea………………………………….1.1 Ammonia ………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………….1.6.5.5. 1.1.1..6..5 Raw materials of urea manufacturing ……………………………… 1..6.……………………….1 Drug use ……………………………………..1..6.1.6.0 Literature Survey.2 Ammonia storage ……………………………. 2.1.1 Agricultural use …………………………………………… 1.Urea Manufacturing Plant CONTENTS Chapter 01 Page No 1.1.2 Soil Application and Placement of Urea……. 1.1 Urea ……………………………………………………………………………. 1..3 Further commercial uses………………………………….6.1. 1. 1..1 Ammonia Production ………………………… 1.1.5 Medical use………………………………………………. 1... 1.4 Laboratory use……………………………………………. Comprehensive design project IV 18 18 . 1.1 Advantages of Fertilizer Urea……………….3 Urea Prices……………………………………………………………………. 1.2 Diagnostic use ……………………………… 1.1 Feasibility Study……………………………………………………………….1...1.1.2..2 Carbon Dioxide ………………………………………. 1.. 1. 1.6 Applications of urea………………………. 1.1.1.5.1..6.1.4 Urea Production and Consumption in Sri Lanka……………………………… 02 02 02 02 03 04 04 04 05 06 06 06 06 07 07 08 08 08 10 10 10 10 10 11 14 15 15 Chapter 2 2..3 Spreading of Urea…………………………… 1.6. 1.1..1 Range of global uses of urea……………………………………….5.6.1.1. 1.6.1.1. 1.1.1 Synthetic urea ………………………………………………………..5. 1.1.6 Textile use………………………………………………… 1.1...1.4 Physical characteristics of urea …………………………………….5.3 Chemical characteristics of urea …………………………………… 1..2 Industrial use……………………………………………… 1.2 Commercial production of urea ……………………………………. 1.

2.2 Process Selection……………………………………………………………….7 Medium Pressure Absorber……………………………………….2.2.2.1 Reactor……………………………………………………………. 3.3 Snamprogetti Ammonia and self stripping processes……………… 2..10 Lower Separator…………………………………………………...5 ACES process……………………………………………………… 2.1. 3.0 Process Description and flow sheet…………………………………………… 3..1.2.6 Process comparison………………………………………………… 2.3 Carbamate Condenser……………………………………………… 3.2.8 Low Pressure Absorber…………………………….1 ACES Urea plants available in the world………………………….2.2. Comprehensive design project V 32 32 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 37 38 .2. 3.1. 3.2 Stamicarbon CO2 – stripping process……………………………… 2.Urea Manufacturing Plant 2.1...11 Upper Separator…………………………………………………. 3.1 Advantages of ACES Process……………………………. 2..1. 3.5 Medium Pressure Decomposer……………………………………. 2.2.2.2 Conventional Recycle Process …………………………… 2. 2.1..2..1. 3. 2.2.9 Flash Separator……………………………………………………. 3. 3. 2.2.2.2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………… 2.2 Stripper…………………………………………………………….1 Once through Process…………………………………….3 Typical product quality……………………………………………………….4 Plant Components………………………………………………….6 Low Pressure Decomposer………………………………………… 3.1 Plant Capacity……………………………………………. 3. 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 21 21 24 27 28 29 29 30 Chapter 3 3.1.2...2 Technical & Economic Feasibility………………………………… 2.2.1 Process Description – ACES Process………………………………………….1 Conventional Processes…………………………………………….2.12 Granulation Plant………………………………………………….6.2.2 Main component of the process……………………………………………….3 Social & Environmental Feasibility………………………………… 2.……………… 3.4 Isobaric double recycle process …………………………………… 2.2..2.4 Scrubber…………………………………………………………… 3.. 3.

2 Plant Layout …………………………………………………………………… 4.1.4.5 Labour Force availability…………………………………………… 4.5 Emissions to Land………………………………………………….… 4. 4..……… 5.3 Legal obligations enforced by relevant authority or the government 4.3 Environmental Impact Assessment…………………………………………….2 Stripper…………………………………………………………….2 Infrastructure facilities……………………………………………… 4.2 Safety Factors Relevant to Ammonia……………………………… 4..2..… 4..3.6 Elimination Methods……………………………………………….1.4 Safety Factors Relevant to Biurete (byproduct)…………………… 40 40 40 41 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 45 46 46 46 47 49 50 53 57 60 Chapter 5 5.4 Scrubber…………………………………………………………… 5.1. 4.1.1.3.3 Emissions to Air…………………………………………………… 4.3 Carbamate Condenser……………………………………………… 5.1.3.. 5.5 High Pressure Decomposer……………………………….1..4..6 Low Pressure Decomposer ………………………………………… Comprehensive design project VI 64 64 66 67 68 69 70 71 .… 4.. 4.4.1 Availability of raw materials…………………………………….1.4 Environment and Climate Conditions……………………………… 4. 4.1.1 Importance …………………………………………………...0 Mass Balance Calculation……………………………………………………. 4..1..6 Social considerations……………………………………………….4.4 Safety Of the Urea Plant……………………………………………………….1.1 Safety factors relevant to urea …………………………………….3 Safety Factors Relevant to Ammonium Carbamate ……………… 4.3. 4.3.……. 5.4 Emissions to Water………………………………………………… 4.1. 5.0 Site Selection & Plant Layout……………………………………………….1.2 Impact of the Urea Plant on the environment ……………………… 4.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 4 4.1 Reactor……………………………………………………………..1 Material Balance……………………………………………………………… 5.7 Waste Management…………………………………………….3. 4.1 Site Selection…………………………………………………………………… 4.1 Objectives of EIA Assessment……………………………………. 4..

. 5.7 Low pressure absorber…………………………………………….4 Carbamate Condenser……………………………………………… 7.1.7 Low Pressure Absorber…………………………………………….1..0 Tabulated Heat Balance………………………………………………………..1 Granulator…………………………………………………………..5 High pressure decomposer………………………………………… 7.6 Low pressure decomposer………………………………………… 7.…..1.……………… 7.2.. 7. 7.1 Reactor…………………………………………………………….11 Upper separator…………………………………………………... 5..8 Medium Pressure Absorber………………………………………… 5.10 Lower separator…………………………………………………..1.1.12 Waste Water Treatment Unit………………………………….9 Flash separator……………………………………………………. 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Chapter 6 Material Flow Sheet……………………………………………………………… 83 Chapter 7 7..0 Heat Balance Calculation……………………………………………………… 7.3 Scrubber…………………………………………….1.1. 7. Comprehensive design project VII 107 .1.10 Lower Separator…………………………………………………. 7.1. 7. 5. 5. 5.1.1. 7.1.11 Upper Separator…………………………………………………..2..1..1 Main Process Energy Balance………………………………………………… 7. 7.2 Product cooler…………………………………………………….15 Product Cooler…………………………………………………….1..1.13 Granulator………………………………………………………… 5.1.1. 7.9 Flash Separator……………………………………………………. 5.1.12 Process wastewater treatment unit……………………………….1. 85 85 88 90 91 93 95 96 98 99 101 102 103 104 105 105 105 Chapter 8 8..Urea Manufacturing Plant 5.16 Bag Filter………………………………………………………….1.1.2 Stripper……………………………………………………………....8 High pressure absorber…………………………………………….1. 7.14 Screen…………………………………………………………….2 Granulation Plant……………………………………………………………… 7. 5.

7 Various sizes of granules ……………………………………………… Figure 4. Table 4.1 Ammonia releases from urea plants…………………………………….1 chemical characteristics of urea…….3 Urea Prices……………………………………………………………… Table 3.3 Emissions from Urea manufacturing process………………………….2 (a) The change in world consumption………………………………….…….. Figure 3..1 Material Flow Sheet……………………………………………………. 109 List of Figures Figure 1.1 Plant layout……………………………………………………….2 Functional block diagram of the ACES………………………………… Figure 3. Figure 3.2 Physical Characteristics of Urea………………………………………… Table 1.6 Power Consumption of Spout-Fluid Bed Granulation………………….… Figure 2.4 Granulation plant ……………………………………………………… Figure 3. Table 4. Table 8.3: Global distribution of the consumption of urea fertilizer…………….1 ACES Urea plants available in the world Process……………………….1 Conventional process flow diagram…………………………………… Figure 2..5 Spout-Fluid Bed Granulator…………………………………………….…………………………………… Table 1..Urea Manufacturing Plant References ……………………………………………………….1 Chemical structures of urea molecules………………………………… Figure 1.. Figure 3.4 Urea import data…………………………………………………….. Figure 1..2 Typical consumption figures for a granulation plant…………………… Table 4. Table 5.1 Tabulated Heat Balance………………………………………………… Page No 04 04 15 34 45 45 45 65 107 Comprehensive design project VIII .3 Pipe and Instrumentation diagram……………………………………… Figure 3. Figure 1. Page No 03 11 13 16 23 26 32 32 33 37 37 38 38 43 83 List of Tables Table1.2 CO2 stripping process flow diagram…………………………………… Figure 3. Figure 6.1 Process Flow Sheet…………………………………………………….1 Compound in urea manufacturing……………………………………….

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 01 CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE SURVEY Comprehensive design project 1 .

1 Urea Urea is an oraganic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. who prepared it by the reaction of potassium cyanate with ammonium sulfate. synthesis in human liver in order to expel excess nitrogen from the body. and carbon dioxide. So in past urea was not considered as a chemical for agricultural and industrial use.More than 90% of world production is destined for use as a fertilizer. Large quantities of carbon dioxide are produced during the manufacture of ammonia from coal or from hydrocarbons such as natural gas and petroleum-derived raw materials. by forming urea. it has the lowest transportation costs per unit of nitrogen nutrient.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 01 1.1. and solutions.2 Commercial production of urea Urea is commercially produced from two raw materials. Therefore. granules.1.000 tons per year worldwide. isourea. 1. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (INN) carbamide. For use in industry. Within the 20th century it was found to be a by far the best nitrogenic fertilizer for the plants and became widely used as a fertilizer. This artificial urea synthesis was mainly relevant to human health because of urea cycle in human beings. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of all solid nitrogenous fertilizers in common use (46. and carbonyldiamine. pellets. therefore.Apart from that urea is being utilized in many other industries. urea is produced from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide.7%). carbonyl diamide. crystals. as established by the World Health Organization. Urea is highly soluble in water and is.0 Literature Survey 1. thus starting the discipline of organic chemistry.000.1 Synthetic urea It was the first organic compound to be artificially synthesized from inorganic starting materials. Urea is produced on a scale of some 100. with incomplete conversion of the Comprehensive design project 2 . This allows direct synthesis of urea from these raw materials. the theory that the chemicals of living organisms are fundamentally different from inanimate matter. he inadvertently discredited vitalism. 1. The production of urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide takes place in an equilibrium reaction. in 1828 by Friedrich Wöhler. ammonia. Other names include carbamide resin. flakes. Although Wöhler was attempting to prepare ammonium cyanate. Urea was discovered. also very suitable for use in fertilizer solutions (in combination with ammonium nitrate). Urea was the leading nitrogen fertilizer worldwide in the 1990s. Urea can be produced as prills.

or they can be recycled for complete conversion to urea in a totalrecycle process. The various urea processes are characterized by the conditions under which urea formation takes place and the way in which unconverted reactants are further processed. Unconverted reactants can be used for the manufacture of other products. the ribbons forming tunnels with square cross-section.1 Chemical structures of urea molecules The urea molecule is planar and retains its full molecular point symmetry. due to conjugation of one of each nitrogen's P orbital to the carbonyl double bond. Each carbonyl oxygen atom accepts four N-H-O hydrogen bonds.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 01 reactants. This dense (and energetically favorable) hydrogen bond network is probably established at the cost of efficient molecular packing: The structure is quite open. Comprehensive design project 3 . Two principal reactions take place in the formation of urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide. a very unusual feature for such a bond type. Urea is stable under normal conditions. 1. The first reaction is exothermic: 2 NH3 + CO2 ↔ H2N-COONH4 (ammonium carbamate) Whereas the second reaction is endothermic: H2N-COONH4 ↔ (NH2)2CO + H2O Both reactions combined are exothermic.3 Chemical characteristics of urea Figure 1. for example ammonium nitrate or sulfate.1.

33·10³ kg/m³. NH3. Due to extensive hydrogen bonding with water (up to six hydrogen bonds may form .5.5 Raw materials of urea manufacturing 1.8 kg. inhalation of Comprehensive design project 4 . with effects including irritation and corrosive damage to skin. the greatest risk is from inhalation of ammonia vapour.2 Physical Characteristics of Urea 1.1 hPa 0.two from the oxygen atom and one from each hydrogen) urea is very soluble. 20ºC) ~9 Chapter 01 Table1.6 times that of air at the same temperature. eyes and respiratory tracts.7 °C (406 K) decomposes NA 108 g/100 ml (20 °C) 167 g/100 ml (40 °C) Solubility in water 251 g/100 ml (60 °C) 400 g/100 ml (80 °C) 733 g/100 ml (100 °C) Vapour pressure Bulk density <0. is a comparatively stable.07 g/mol (approximate) 4.Urea Manufacturing Plant IUPAC name Chemical formula Molecular mass Dipole moment pH Diaminomethanal (NH2)2CO 60.1.1 chemical characteristics of urea 1.1.m-3 Table 1. At very high levels.1 Ammonia Ammonia.1. solid 132. In humans.4 Physical characteristics of urea Urea is a white odourless solid. with a density of approximately 0. Ammonia can be highly toxic to a wide range of organisms.56 p/D (100g. Ammonia gas is lighter than air. Density Melting point Boiling point 1. The characteristic pungent odors of ammonia can be detected as low as 1-5ppm.L-1 in water. colourless gas at ordinary temperatures. with a boiling point of –33 C.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 01 ammonia vapour can be fatal. The formation of ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen is a reversible reaction. as shown in equation [2].1. Unreacted hydrogen and nitrogen gases separated from the ammonia and are usually recycled. Ammonia reacts with water in a reversible reaction to produce ammonium (NH 4)+ and hydroxide (OH) . forming an alkaline solution. About 85% of the ammonia produced worldwide is used for nitrogen fertilizers. as shown in equation. Comprehensive design project 5 . the ammonia produced is recovered by condensation to give liquid ammonia. 1. more ammonia with react to reestablish the equilibrium. The fraction of ammonia in the final gas mixture is dependent on the conditions employed. and explosives. coal. animal feed. and most commonly natural gas. In almost all modern plants.1 Ammonia Production Essentially all the processes employed for ammonia synthesis are variations of the Haber-Bosch process. Ammonia is generally produced at a few large plants with stream capacities of 1000 tonnes/day or greater. This process also generates carbon dioxide. Ammonia is highly soluble in water. If the hydroxide or ammonium ions react further with other compounds in the water. Hydrogen rich reformer off-gases from oil refineries have also been used as a source of hydrogen. these mixtures are quite difficult to ignite. and at room temperature only about 1 in 200 molecules are present in the ammonium form (NH4)+. elevated levels of ammonia are also toxic to a wide range of aquatic organisms. hydrocarbons from crude oil refining. although solubility decreases rapidly with increased temperature. Ammonia is a weak base. This process involves the reaction of hydrogen and nitrogen under high temperatures and pressures with an iron based catalyst. When dissolved in water.1. developed in Germany from 1904-1913. Steam reforming is generally employed for the production of hydrogen from these raw materials. which can then be used as a raw material in the production of urea. The remainder is used in various industrial products including fibers. H2 + 3N2 2NH3 The source of nitrogen is always air. The formation of hydroxide ions in this reaction increases the pH of the water. This process also requires large energy consumption. Hydrogen can be derived from a number of raw materials including water.5.ions. NH3 + H2O (NH4) + OH + - While ammonia-air mixtures are flammable when the ammonia content is 16-25% by volume.

1. need to be purified prior to use.1. as it impairs plant growth. Urea is used as a nitrogen-release fertilizer. such as sulphur compounds and chlorides. Urea is highly soluble in water and is therefore also very suitable for use in fertilizer solutions. biuret. The feed gases. in “foliar feed‟ fertilizers. Relatively small quantities of anhydrous ammonia are sometimes stored under pressure in spherical vessel at ambient temperature. often in doubled-walled tanks with the capacity for hundreds or thousands of tonnes. The ammonium form is better retained in the soil by the clay materials than the nitrate form and is therefore less subject to leaching.2 Carbon Dioxide CO2 is a odourless and colourless gas which contain 0. The vented gas is reliquefied for recycling. must be present at less than 2%. piping and fittings. It is emitted as a pollutant from number of industries. 1. as it hydrolyses back to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of all solid nitrogeneous fertilizers in common use (46.6 Applications of urea 1.1 Agricultural use More than 90% of world production is destined for use as a fertilizer. it was usually produced by dropping liquid urea from a "prilling tower" while drying Comprehensive design project 6 .2 Ammonia storage Anhydrous ammonia is usually stored as a liquid in refrigerated tanks at –33. Iron and steel are usually the only metals used in ammonia storage tanks.1.g.4%N.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 01 Trace impurities in the feed gases. The low temperature is usually maintained by the venting of ammonia gas. 1. 1.3 C and atmospheric pressure.5. In the past. therefore.6. the ammonium form of nitrogen is just as effective as the nitrate form. For most floras. or absorbed in water to make aqueous ammonia.5.03% in the atmosphere.) It therefore has the lowest transportation costs per unit of nitrogen nutrient. but its most common impurity.1. fertilizer urea can be purchased as prills or as a granulated material.1. urea is converted into the ammonium ion form of nitrogen. In the past decade urea has surpassed and nearly replaced ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer In the soil. Commercially. Ammonia is corrosive to alloys of copper and zinc and these materials must never be used in ammonia service. can have a detrimental effect on the production of ammonia by poisoning the catalysts employed. CO2 can be obtained from ammonia production process as a by product. e.

If the soil is totally dry. urea must be incorporated during this time to avoid ammonia loss. storage and transportation costs over other dry N forms. The prills formed a smaller and softer substance than other materials commonly used in fertilizer blends.1. when properly applied.1.1 Advantages of Fertilizer Urea Urea can be applied to soil as a solid or solution or to certain crops as a foliar spray. After application to the soil. If properly applied. 46% N. harder. helps reduce handling. Urea. results in crop yield increases equal to other forms of nitrogen. granulated urea has become a more suitable material for fertilizer blends.25 inches is sufficient to blend urea into the soil to a depth at which ammonia losses will not occur. no reaction happens.6. Losses might be quite low if the soil temperature is cold. Urea's high analysis. As a result. and more resistant to moisture. plus any small amount of soil moisture. When a urea particle dissolves. It may also be blended into the soil with irrigation water. This zone can be quite toxic for a few hours. Soil moisture determines how rapidly this conversion takes place.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 01 the product. But with the enzyme urease. This can occur in 2 to 4 days and happens quicker on high pH soils.1.1. A rainfall of as little as 0. Nitrogen from urea can be lost to the atmosphere if fertilizer urea remains on the soil surface for extended periods of time during warm weather. urea undergoes chemical changes and ammonium (NH 4 +) ions form.2 Soil Application and Placement of Urea The volatility of urea depends to a great extent on soil temperature and soil pH.6. Urea breakdown begins as soon as it is applied to the soil. The key to the most efficient use of urea is to incorporate it into the soil during a tillage operation. though. Unless it rains. Urea usage involves little or no fire or explosion hazard. Granules are larger. urea normally hydrolizes and converts to ammonium and carbon dioxide. Urea manufacture releases few pollutants to the environment. Today. considerable urea is manufactured as granules. Seed and seedling roots Comprehensive design project 7 2NH3 +CO2 . the area around it becomes a zone of high pH and ammonia concentration. 1. urea and fertilizers containing urea are excellent sources of nitrogen for crop production. The chemical reaction is as follows: CO(NH2)2 + H2O + urease 1.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 01 within this zone can be killed by the free ammonia that has formed.1. As the helices are interconnected. releasing water molecules and resulting in a damp material which is difficult to store and apply. This property has been used to separate racemic mixtures.2 Industrial use Urea has the ability to form 'loose compounds'. Urea fertilizer can be coated with certain materials. parks.3 Further commercial uses  A stabilizer in nitrocellulose explosives Comprehensive design project 8 . Urea and fertilizers containing urea can be blended quite readily with monoammonium phosphate (11-52-0) or diammonium phosphate (18-46-0). with many organic compounds. In extreme cases this will result in uneven crop growth and "wavy" or "streaky" fields. called clathrates.6. Urea should not be blended with superphosphates unless applied shortly after mixing. the net effect is to produce an acid reaction. This behaviour can be used to separate mixtures.3 Spreading of Urea Urea can be bulk-spread. be broadcast and immediately incorporated into the soil. 1. and has been used in the production of aviation fuel and lubricating oils. Urea-based fertilizer applied in a band should be separated from the seed by at least two inches of soil. Urea often has a lower density than other fertilizers with which it is blended.6. to reduce the rate at which the nitrogen becomes available to plants. 1. in general. all helices in a crystal must have the same 'handedness'. Usually it's just a few days before plants can effectively use the nitrogen. and other special lawn situations.1. Urea in a slow-release form is popular for use on golf courses.1. Under certain conditions these slow-release materials result in more efficient use by growing plants. Urea or materials containing urea should. Although urea imparts an alkaline reaction when first applied to the soil. this toxic zone becomes neutralized in most soils as the ammonia converts to ammonium.6.1. either alone or blended with most other fertilizers. This lack of "weight" produces a shorter "distance-of-throw" when the fertilizer is applied with spinner-type equipment. 1. such as sulfur. This is determined when the crystal is nucleated and can thus be forced by seeding. Urea will react with superphosphates. Fortunately. The organic compounds are held in channels formed by interpenetrating helices comprising of hydrogen-bonded urea molecules.

along with salts. especially cracked skin on the bottom of one's feet  An ingredient in dish soap. due to the ability of urea to form clathrates (also called host-guest complexes. Western Europe. to be specific. from power plants and diesel engines  A component of fertilizer and animal feed. for example. In the USA this capability is exploited on a large scale. as protein substitutes. and adducts)  A flame-proofing agent (commonly used in dry chemical fire extinguishers as Ureapotassium bicarbonate)  An ingredient in many tooth whitening products  A cream to soften the skin. inclusion compounds. in contrast. it does not promote metal corrosion to the extent that salt does  An additive ingredient in cigarettes. urea-formaldehyde resin  A raw material for the manufacture of various glues (urea-formaldehyde or ureamelamine-formaldehyde). facial cleansers. Comprehensive design project 9 . designed to enhance flavour  A browning agent in factory-produced pretzels  An ingredient in some hair conditioners.  To make potassium cyanate  A melt agent used in re-surfacing snowboarding halfpipes and terrain park features  A raw material for melamine production More than 95% of all melamine production is based on urea. to expedite the condensation of water in clouds. Because of the activity of micro-organisms in their cud. bath oils.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 01  A reactant in the NOx-reducing SNCR and SCR reactions in exhaust gases from combustion. and lotions  A reactant in some ready-to-use cold compresses for first-aid use. uses little urea in cattle feed. Stamicarbon‟s parent company DSM is the largest melamine producer in the world. ruminants are able to metabolize certain nitrogen containing compounds. including urea. the latter is waterproof and is used for marine plywood  An alternative to rock salt in the de-icing of roadways and runways. providing a relatively cheap source of nitrogen to promote growth  A raw material for the manufacture of plastics. producing precipitation  An ingredient used in the past to separate paraffins.  A supplementary substitute protein source in feedstuffs for cattle and other ruminants. due to the endothermic reaction it creates when mixed with water  A cloud seeding agent.

Like saline. dogs.5 Medical use 1. pylori. It is also the main component of an alternative medicinal treatment referred to as urine therapy.1. pylori) in the stomach and duodenum of humans. Urea nitrate is also a high explosive very similar to ammonium nitrate. the fermenting and rewing industries and in the petroleum industry.6. and cats .1. If covered by an occlusive dressing. however it may even be more powerful because of its complexity. 1. 1.4 Laboratory use Urea is a powerful protein denaturant. A significant portion of urea production is used in the preparation of ureaComprehensive design project 10 . Similar bacteria species to H. urea is also used as a raw material or auxiliary material in the pharmaceutical industry. The test detects the characteristic enzyme urease.6.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 01  Feed for hydrolyzation into ammonia which in turn is used to reduce emissions from power plants and combustion engines. This increases the pH (reduces acidity) of the stomach environment around the bacteria. Although on a smaller scale than as a fertilizer or as raw material for synthetic resins. pylori can be identified by the same test in animals such as apes.  Other.1.stable isotope) is used in the urea breath test. it is used in concentrations up to 10 M.6.1 Drug use Urea is used in topical dermatological products to promote rehydration of the skin. Urea is used to effectively disrupt the noncovalent bonds in proteins. produced by H.6.1.5. This drug is also used as an earwax removal aid. by a reaction that produces ammonia from urea. or carbon-13 . This property can be exploited to increase the solubility of some proteins. which is used to detect the presence of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H.radioactive.2 Diagnostic use Isotopically-labeled urea (carbon-14 . Urea is an ingredient in the synthesis of urea nitrate.5.1.6. 1. 40% urea preparations may also be used for nonsurgical debridement of nails.6 Textile use Urea is a raw material for urea-formaldehyde resins production in the adhesives and textile industries. miscellaneous products such as de-icing material for airport runways. urea injection is used to perform abortions. 1. For this application.

it is produced using natural gas. including Iran and Iraq are (or were before the Gulf Wars) significant. In the US. but other Middle East producers. which provides solubility to the bath and retains some moisture required for the dyeing or printing process. Urea is processed into granules or other forms. textiles and leather. so the major producing regions are those where natural gas is abundant. urea production facilities are located mainly in the Gulf of Mexico states. and Saudi Arabia.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 01 formaldehyde resins.2 Global production and consumption of Urea Commercial urea production began in the 1920s with the development of the Haber-Bosch process. Data for 2005– 2020 (shown as the shaded region) are calculated assuming an annual increase of 3% in total consumption and 5% in the fraction that is urea. Most commonly. Canada. In textile laboratories they are frequently used both in dyeing and printing as an important auxiliary. Urea production is energy intensive. (b) Same data as in panel (a) with the fraction that is urea displayed as a percentage of the total nitrogen fertilizer. moulding powders. Several leading manufacturing countries for urea are Russia. varnishes and foams. 1. Comprehensive design project 11 . These synthetic resins are used in the manufacture of adhesives.2 (a) The change in world consumption (million metric tons of N) of total synthetic nitrogen fertilizers (solid line) and urea consumption (solid bars) since 1960. They are also used for impregnating paper. Figure 1.

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Production of urea has at least doubled every decade since 1980 in the Middle East, increasing from 2 million metric tons per year in 1980 to 10 million metric tons year per in 2000. Further expansion of production is anticipated in the coming years in Kuwait, Qatar, Egypt, Oman and Iran. From the mid-1970s to the early 1990s, Russia (USSR) erected at least 40 new ammonia and urea production facilities. Production of urea in China tripled from 1989 to 1999. Dramatic increases in global production have also occurred in many countries since 2000, with several Latin American countries increasing production by more than 25%. As late as the 1960s, urea represented only about 5% of world nitrogen fertilizer use. However, urea usage escalated in the 1980s, such that it represented about 40% of global nitrogen fertilizer by the early 1990s, and soon thereafter urea surpassed ammonium nitrate as the most common nitrogen fertilizer. It is now estimated that urea represents >50% of world nitrogen fertilizer (Figure 1b). Assuming urea consumption continues at 5% per year, as projected for many parts of the world, urea consumption may reach 70% of total nitrogen use by the end of the next decade (Figure 1b): this is a dramatic global change in the composition of nitrogen applied to land throughout the globe. Such projections depend on global commodity markets, construction of new plants, and other factors that are difficult to project, but most of this increase is expected to occur in developing countries, particularly in Asia and Latin America. China and India together account for about half of the global consumption, and have at least doubled their consumption of urea in the past decade. In India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, urea fertilizer has been heavily subsidized (as much as 50% of the cost of production) leading to its widespread use and overapplication. The US and Canada now represent about 20% of the global urea market, with urea constituting about 30% of US synthetic nitrogen fertilizer usage. Consumption is increasing even in regions where land applications of nitrogen have heretofore been low. The rural Canadian provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, for example, are now the regions where over 70% of Canada‟s urea is consumed. Urea is the only form of fertilizer used in British Columbia forests. In Latin America, consumption of urea has fluctuated more than in Asia during the past decade due to various economic crises and unstable political environments, leading to fluctuating incentives and subsidies. This global trend in increased urea consumption represents both a net increase in total nitrogen applied, as well as a shift from the use of nitrate or anhydrous ammonium to urea. These increases parallel the increases in the production of both cereal and meat (associated with increasing human population) that have occurred globally in the past several decades. Urea is used in the production of virtually all crops from corn to Christmas trees, sugar cane to sweet Comprehensive design project 12

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potatoes, and vegetables to vineyards. Urea is preferable to nitrate for growing rice in flooded soils, and thus the Far East and the Mid-East are major consumers of urea. In coated form, urea becomes a slow-release fertilizer and this is one of the most popular forms for applications to lawns, golf courses, and parks, as well as many crops. The global shift toward the use of urea fertilizer stems from several advantages it has over other fertilizer forms. It is less explosive than ammonium and nitrate when stored, it can be applied as a liquid or solid, and it is more stable and cost effective to transport than other forms of reactive nitrogen. The increasing production of „granular‟ urea has contributed to its widespread use, as this is safe and easy to transport. Urea also contains twice the nitrogen of ammonium sulfate, making application rates per unit of fertilizer less costly for individual farmers. With the growth of large, industrial farms, the economics and safety of urea transport and storage are thus major factors in the shift away from ammonium nitrate.

Figure 1.3: Global distribution of the consumption of urea fertilizer, in metric tons per year by country, in 1960 (upper panel) and in 1999 (lower panel), based on data from the Global Fertilizer Industry data base (FAO 2001),These estimates of urea consumption do not include uses other than fertilizer.

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1.2.1 Range of global uses of urea
While more than 75% of manufactured urea is consumed as nitrogen fertilizer, there are other significant uses of urea, which also are increasing globally. One such use is as a feed additive for ruminants, used to stimulate gut microbial flora. This application represents about 10% of non-fertilizer usage. Urea can be added directly to feed, such as in urea-treated wheat or rice straw, or mixed with molasses („urea–molasses licks‟ or „urea multi-nutrient blocks‟) for sheep, cattle, water buffalo, and horses. Urea may also be used as a fertilizer of the grasslands on which cattle or sheep may graze. Another direct application of urea to land is as urea-based herbicides or pesticides (sulfonyl urea pesticides). In this case, urea is chemically synthesized with a poison or inhibitor. Sulfonyl urea is one of the preferred herbicides for broadleaf and grassy weeds. It is also commonly used in non-agricultural situations, such as to control weeds in railroad and electric utility rights of way. Urea-based herbicides potentially have a large impact by both increasing urea inputs and reducing the potential for local uptake. Urea has long been used as a de-icer. Commercial airports and airfields are the largest consumers of these de-icing materials, although recommendations are now in place to reduce its usage in the US and elsewhere because of its recognized contribution to water pollution. Even with such reductions, it is still the de-icer of choice under some weather conditions. It is also used fairly extensively for domestic ice-melting applications (e.g. roads and sidewalks). Urea may also be spread on agricultural crops to prevent frost when temperatures drop to a level that may cause crop damage, and commercial formulations of urea are available for this purpose. Urea is also used in some direct applications to seawater. It is used in the growing world aquaculture industry. In intensive shrimp culture, for example, ponds may be fertilized with urea and superphosphate to initiate an algal bloom that eventually serves as food for the commercial resource. A significant proportion of such nutrients are subsequently discharged to local waters with pond effluent, as only a small fraction of added nutrients ultimately winds up in marketable product. Urea may also be spread on coastal oil spills, to stimulate the growth of natural bacteria populations which break down the oil; it was widely used, for example, during the Exxon Valdez spill, and has been used in numerous other spills since. For the Exxon Valdez spill, fertilizer applications continued for years following the initial crisis, and this approach was estimated to have enhanced the degradation of the oil by 2–5-fold.

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000 tons of urea was exported earning foreign Comprehensive design project 15 .4 Urea Production and Consumption in Sri Lanka In Sri Lanka urea is being used as a fertilizer in the agriculture sector. From 1991 to 2000. Sri Lankan government gives urea fertilizer in subsidized price for farmers.000 MT per annum. Then the country's annual demand was only 290. This use represents about 50% of the non-fertilizer urea. However in the past with the Urea Plant at Sapugaskanda. the price per ton was $438 in 1975. 1991 $151 1992 $123 1993 $ 94 1994 $131 1995 $194 1996 $187 1997 $128 1998 1999 2000 Mean $103 $ 78 $112 $130 Table 2. From the budget 2008. Sri Lanka was able to became self sufficient in fertilizer requirements of the country. One application currently being considered which would greatly expand the global use of urea is as a reductant in catalytic and non-catalytic reduction of combustion products in vehicles. These prices are on a bulk FOB basis. The total import volume of urea is around 330. Other than as a fertilizer. the annual production of urea at Sapugaskanda factory was 310. urea is hardly used in any industry or any other sector even though urea has number of industrial and commercial uses.3 Urea Prices 1. $309 in 1980. 1.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 01 In addition to the direct applications of urea to land and sea. although it can be volatile.000 tons. including manufacture of a wide range of common materials such as urea formaldehyde and plastics. In the cosmetics industry. Sri Lanka imports urea from other countries such as Saudi Arabia. and freight and bagging charges of about $20 to $25 per ton must be added to arrive at bagged import costs. In real terms (1990s). 2001 issues.3 Urea Prices The world price for urea has trended downwards in real terms since 1975. . Yearbook and July. There are numerous uses of urea in holistic medicine therapies. the prices of urea ($/ton) are shown in the table below: year Urea ($/ton) Source: IMF. International Financial Statistics. and $131 in 1990. tobacco products.000 tons. Sri Lanka allocated 15 billion rupees for fertilizer subsidies. and in some wines. and China. The excessive production of 20. Urea is also an additive in fire retardant paints. urea is used in many other applications. India. In 1982. $199 in 1985. urea is an ingredient in moisturizing creams.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 01 exchange around Rs. Urea plant was closed in January 1987.750 million. urea demand will further increase in spite there is a concern to use organic fertilizers such as compost instead of urea. TOTAL UREA IMPORTS 350000 300000 Quantity (MT) 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year UREA IMPORTS Total Cost in Rs Millions 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1997 1999 2000 2001 2002 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year Figure 1. following graphs shows total urea imports to the country within past 10 years and relative costs involved.4 Urea import data With the development in agriculture sector under present government policies and considering global food crisis. Excessive applying of urea without considering the requirement has damage water bodies in some part of Sri Lanka. In 1982 the annual savings of State Fertilizer Corporation stood at Rs. Urea is being used as the main fertilizer for paddy as well as for other crops. According to the Sri Lanka Custom data records. 200 million. Comprehensive design project 16 .

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 02 CHAPTER 2 PROCESS SELECTION AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS Comprehensive design project 17 .

So the previous plant is Sapugaskanda had been able to gain profits while making Sri Lanka self sufficient in urea. Then the country's annual demand was only 290. Large population countries like China. Sri Lanka imports urea from other countries such as Saudi Arabia. The Urea Plant at Sapugaskanda. The total import volume of urea is around 310. and China.0 Process Selection & Economic Aspects 2. The surplus amount is being exported to neighboring countries. The excessive production of 20. In the present urea fertilizer prices in global markets are increasing and most countries establishing urea manufacturing plants to support growing agriculture sector while saving cost of urea fertilizer imports. Apart from those benefits it can earn foreign exchange by exporting excess production and provide employment for local community.000 MT per annum. In 1982. and Bangladesh are largely manufacturing the Urea for Domestic consumption. It is necessary to establish urea manufacturing plant in Sri Lanka in order to meet growing demand for urea fertilizer and to save fertilizer subsidies given by the government. Sri Lanka allocated 15 billion rupees for fertilizer subsidies. In 1982 the annual savings of State Fertilizer Corporation stood at Rs. 200 million. Sri Lanka was established in 1980s to fulfil fertilizer requirement of the country. India.000 tons. In Middle East Saudi Arabia developed the large production facility of Urea production as an allied industry of the petroleum product.1 Introduction Urea white crystalline solid containing 46% nitrogen is widely used in the agriculture industry as an animal feed additive and fertilizer.000 tons. . India. As these countries try to expand the sector. Due to high cost of the production facility Government incentives are common in 3rd world countries. Sri Lankan government gives urea fertilizer in subsidized price for farmers.750 million.1. Agriculture forms the major sector in the national economy of the majority of the countries in the Southeast Asian region.250 workers. the demand for agriculture chemicals growing day by day.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 02 2. Comprehensive design project 18 .000 tons of urea was exported earning foreign exchange around Rs. From the budget 2008. Pakistan. In addition it had provided direct employment opportunities to 1.1 Feasibility Study 2. the annual production of urea at Sapugaskanda factory was 310. through diversification of agriculture and extensive multiple cropping programs.

China and North European countries are licensing the technology. Local fabrication can be carried out. In this project we are planning to establish 1070 Mt/day plant having overall annual production of 350.2 Technical & Economic Feasibility When considering economic feasibility. Plant technology is considered as high. Latest technology for confirming the quality and purity of the finished good is very important to complete the existing units.1. but under the circumstances Ammonia has to be imported from abroad. So Plant capacity is sufficient for meeting the current demand as well as growing demand in the future. Toyo Engineering corporation ( Japan ) 2. Current Sri Lankan annual demand for urea is around 310. Comprehensive design project 19 . In Nineties 2000 tons urea plants become standardized. Where as more critical equipments can be imported.2. Japan.000 MT. To establish a urea plant without ammonia plant.1 Plant Capacity Urea plant capacity is on the rise since its establishment in 1940. raw materials has to be imported. Considering the carbon dioxide. Now up to 3500 tons/day plants are under construction and planning. If it is not viable it is too has to be imported. 1. raw material cost could be higher than usual since all most all urea manufacturing plants is being operated along with ammonia plants in order to produce raw materials (Ammonia and carbon dioxide: The carbon is produced as a byeproduct from the ammonia plant) for urea manufacturing process.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 02 2. it is emitted by number of industries as a waste from which it has to be derived and purify. In 1969 1800 MT/day plant was the largest. Mitsubishi Heavy industries ( Japan ) 2. The plant can be ordered directly from the manufacturers which basically sell the license of technology. Government incentives can be obtained for construction and operation since high costs are involved. It is not a better option.1. Companies involve in urea manufacturing technology and have license for technology.000 and it is not expected to fluctuate very much according to the statistical data obtained for past ten years. Plant is expected to operate 328 days per annum. import taxes etc) so imported raw materials will be higher than when produced in ammonia plant. Transportation cost will quite high (shipping costs.

The size of the shell depends upon the size of plant. Static Equipment 2.000 N cubic meter/hour capacity HP Ammonia pumps and Carbomate pumps piping Stainless steel 316 L pipes are utilized HP Control Valves Various control valves are required.1. The most critical is the solution feed control valve from the reactor to stripper. The performance of the reactor influences the performance of the whole urea plant.4 Plant Components The components of a urea plant can be divided in to two categories 1.1. Very large compressors are used of approximate capacities of around 30.3 Social & Environmental Feasibility Environmental feasibility is discussed under environmental impact assessment (EIA) and in site selection. Social issues are considered under site selection. For a plant of 2000 tons capacity the height of the shell will be around 30 Meters and Dia around 3 meters. This is the place where Ammonia and Carbon di-oxide react together.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 02 2. 2. Stripper Stripper is also a key component where the excess ammonia is separated. Carbamate Condensers They are relatively smaller in size HP Rotating Machines CO2 Compressors This is the largest and most critical rotating equipment. The material is stainless steel Comprehensive design project 20 . Rotating equipment Static Equipment Reactor: Reactor is the largest and heaviest key equipment in the urea plant.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 02 2. Some of them are used conventional technologies and others use modern technologies to achieve high efficiency. the second at low pressure (2-5 bar). Isobaric double recycle process 5. and while excess NH3 evaporate simultaneously.2 Process Selection Several processes are used to urea manufacturing.1 Once through Process In this process non converted ammonia was neutralized with acid such as nitric acid to produce ammonium salt such as ammonium nitrate as co products of urea production. Snamprogetti Ammonia and self stripping processes 4. from which relatively pure ammonia at the top and a bottom product consisting of an aqueous ammonium carbamate solution were obtained. a relatively simple urea process scheme was realized. maintenance cost. all non converted CO 2 was recycled as associated water recycle. The main disadvantages of this process are the large quantity of ammonia salt formed as co product and the limited amount of overall carbon dioxide conversion that can be achieved. Conventional processes 2. Both products are recycled separately to the urea reactor. energy cost. Stamicarbon CO2 – stripping process 3.2.2 Conventional Recycle Process Here all of the non converted ammonia and carbon dioxide were recycled to the urea reactor. These processes have several comparable advantages and disadvantages based on capital cost. efficiency and product quality.1. The first recirculation was operated at medium pressure (18-25 bar). in which carbamate decompose into gaseous NH3 and CO2. The off gas from this first decomposition step was subjected to rectification.1 Conventional Processes 2. Some of the widely used urea production processes are 1.2. achieving a minimum CO2 recycle so achieve maximum CO2 conversion was more important than achieving a low NH3 recycle. 2. Because of the detrimental effect of water on reaction conversion.1. The first recirculation comprises at least a decomposition heater. In these processes. In first generation of this process the recirculation of non converted NH 3 and CO2 was performed in two stage. In this way.2. All conventional processes therefore typically operate at high NH 3:CO2 ratios (4-5 Comprehensive design project 21 . ACES process 2.

Although some of these conventional processes partly equipped with ingenious heat exchanging net works have survived until now.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 02 mol/mol) to maximize CO2 conversion per pass. Their importance decreased rapidly as the so-called stripping process was developed. Comprehensive design project 22 .

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Comprehensive design project Figure 2.1 Conventional process flow diagram 23

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2.2.2 Stamicarbon CO2 – stripping process
In this process to achieve maximum urea yield per pass through the reactor at the stipulated optimum pressure of 140 bar, an NH3:CO2 molar ratio of 3:1 is applied. The greater part of the unconverted carbamate is decomposed in the stripper, where ammonia and carbon dioxide are stripped off. This stripping action is effected by countercurrent contact between the urea solution and fresh carbon dioxide at synthesis pressure. Low ammonia and carbon dioxide concentration in the stripped urea solution are obtained. Such that the recycle from the low pressure recirculation stage is minimized. These low concentration of both ammonia and carbon dioxide in the stripper effluent can be obtained at relatively low temperatures of the urea solution because carbon dioxide is only sparingly soluble under such conditions. Condensation of ammonia and carbon dioxide gases, leaving the stripper, occurs in the high pressure carbamate condenser as synthesis pressure. As a result, the heat liberated from ammonium carbamate formation is at a high temperature. This heat is used for the production of 4.5bar steam for use in the urea plant itself. The condensation in the high pressure carbamate condenser is not effected completely. Remaining gases are condensed in the reactor and provide the heat required for the dehydration of carbamate, as well as for heating the mixture to its equilibrium temperature. In recent improvement to this process, the condensation of off gas from the stripper is carried out in a pre reactor, where sufficient residence time for the liquid phase is provided. As a result of urea and water formation in condensing zone, the condensation temperature is increased, thus enabling the production of steam at higher pressure level. The feed carbon dioxide, invariably originating from an associated ammonia plant, always contains hydrogen. To avoid the formation of explosive hydrogen-oxygen mixture in the tail gas of the plant, hydrogen is catalytically removed from the CO 2 feed. Apart from the air required for this purpose, additional air is supplied to the fresh CO 2 input stream. This extra potion of oxygen is needed to maintain a corrosion-resistance layer on the stainless steel in the synthesis section. Before the inert gases, mainly oxygen and nitrogen, are purged from the synthesis section, they are washed with carbamate solution from the low pressure recirculation stage in the high pressure scrubber to obtain a low ammonia concentration in the subsequently purged gas. Further washing of the off gas is performed in a low pressure absorber to obtain a purge gas that is practically ammonia free. Only one low pressure recirculation stage is required due to the low ammonia and carbon dioxide in the stripped urea solution. Because of the ideal ratio between ammonia and carbon dioxide in the recovered gases in this section, water dilution of the resultant ammonium carbamate is at a minimum despite the low pressure (about 4 bar). As a result of efficiency of the stripper, the quantities of ammonium carbamate for recycle to the Comprehensive design project 24

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synthesis section are also minimized, and no separate ammonia recycle is required. The urea solution coming from the recirculation stage contains about 75 wt% urea. This solution is concentrated in the evaporation section. If the process is combined with a prilling tower for final product shaping, the final moisture content of urea from the evaporation section is 0.25 wt%. If the process is combined with a granular unit, the final moisture content may wary from 1 to 5 wt%, depending on granulation requirements. Higher moisture content can be realized in a single stage evaporator; where as low moisture content are economically achieved in a two stage evaporation section. When urea with an extremely low biuret content is required ( at maximum of 0.3 wt%) pure urea crystals are produced in a crystallization section. These crystals are separated from the mother liquor by combination of sieve bends and centrifuges and are melted prior to final shaping in a prilling tower or granulation unit. The process condensate emanating from water evaporation from the evaporation or crystallization sections contains ammonia and urea. Before this process condensate is purged, urea is hydrolyzed into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which are stripped off with steam and return to urea synthesis via the recirculation section. This process condensate treatment section can produce water with high purity, thus transforming this “waste water” treatment into the production unit of a valuable process condensate, suitable for, e.g., cooling tower or boiler feed water makeup. Since the introduction of the Stamicarbon CO2 stripping process, some 125 units have been built according to this process all over the world.

Comprehensive design project 25

2 CO2 stripping process flow diagram 26 .Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 02 Comprehensive design project Figure 2.

NH3:CO2 molar feed ratio of 3. The liquid ammonium carbamate-water mixture obtained in this way is also recycled to the synthesis section. typically operated at 18 bar. Recycle within the synthesis section. causing ammonia overload in down stream section of the plant. In the reactor. the NH 3:CO2 ratio in the stripper effluent is relatively high. The stripper is of the falling film type. At the tube side of this condenser the off gas is absorbed in recycled liquid carbamate from the medium pressure recovery section. Since stripping is achieved thermally. stainless steel is not suitable as a construction material for the stripper from a corrosion point of view. through the carbamate separator back to the reactor. The purge gas of the ammonia condenser is treated in a scrubber prior to being purged to the atmosphere. which is operated at 150 bars. in this way a top product consisting of pure gaseous ammonia and a bottom product of liquid ammonium carbamate are obtained.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 02 2. relatively high temperatures (200-210 0C) are required to obtain a reasonable stripping efficiency. titanium and bimetallic zircornium – stainless steel tubes have been used Off gas from the stripper is condensed in a kettle type boiler.5 is applied. stripping was achieved only by supply of heat.3 Snamprogetti Ammonia and self stripping processes In the first generation of NH3 and self strip ping processes. The pure ammonia off gas is condensed and recycled to the synthesis section. the urea solution from the high pressure stripper is subjected to the decomposition of carbamate and evaporation of ammonia. To prevent solidification of ammonium carbamate in the rectifier. The off gas from this medium pressure decomposer is rectified. ammonia was used as stripping agent. from the stripper via the high pressure carbamate condenser. the stripper effluent contained rather large amount s of dissolved ammonia. Later versions of the process abandoned the idea of using ammonia as stripping agent. Comprehensive design project 27 . Because of the extreme solubility of ammonia in the urea containing synthesis fluid. The steam produced is used effectively in the back end of the process.2. some water is added to the bottom section of the column to dilute the ammonium carbamate below its crystallization point. Liquid ammonia reflux is applied to the top of this rectifier. which are cooled by the production of low pressure steam at the shell side. Even without using ammonia as a stripping agent. is maintained by using an ammonia-driven liquid-liquid ejector. Because of this high temperature. In the medium pressure decomposition and recirculation section . The heat of absorption is removed through the tubes. So the recirculation section of the plant requires an ammonia-carbomate separation section The process uses a vertical layout in the synthesis section.

as well as some ammonium carbamate. this large quantity of free ammonia is mainly removed from the urea solution. where heat exchange between the condensing off gas of the medium pressure decomposition stage and the aqueous urea solution to the final concentration section improves the overall energy consumption of the process. high pressure decomposer.2. Typically. Comprehensive design project 28 . is characterized by recycle of most of the un reacted ammonia and ammonium carbamate in two decomposer in series. steam heated. In some versions of the process. a two stage evaporator is required. The process condensate obtained from the evaporation section is subjected to a desorption hydrolysis operation to recover the urea and ammonia contained in the process condensate. Concentrating the urea water mixture obtained from the low pressure decomposer is preformed in a single or double evaporator depending on the requirement of the finishing section. both operating at the synthesis pressure.4 Isobaric double recycle process This process is developed by Montedison. whereas in the case of a fluidized bed granulator a single evaporation step is sufficient to achieve the required final moisture content of the urea melt. it has not achieved great popularity so far. Probably because of the complexity of this process. The high pressure synthesis section is followed by two low pressure decomposing stages of traditional design. heat exchange is applied between the off gas from the medium pressure decomposer and the aqueous urea solution to the evaporation section. the reactor effluent contains a relatively high amount of non converted ammonia.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 02 The urea solution from the medium pressure decomposer is subjected to a second low pressure decomposition step. Here further decomposition of ammonium carbamate is achieved. In the first. In this way. Most of the residual solution. the consumption of low pressure steam by the process is reduced. A high molar NH3:CO2 ratio (4:1 to 5:1) in the reactor is applied. 2. As a result of this choice ratio. This process or parts of the process are used in four revamps of older conventional plant. if prilling is chosen as the final shaping procedure. Off gas from this low pressure decomposer is condensed and recycled as an aqueous ammonium carbamate solution to the synthesis section via the medium pressure recovery section. so that a substantially carbamate –free aqueous urea solution is obtained. is removed in the second high pressure decomposer where steam heating and CO2 stripping are applied.

Liquid ammonia is fed directly to the reactor. stripper. two parallel carbamate condensers and a scrubber all operated at 175 bar. The synthesis mixture from the reactor. 2. is fed to the top of the stripper.2. whereas gaseous carbon dioxide after compression is introduced into the bottom of the stripper as a stripping aid. and water.6 Process comparison Process Conventional Processes Once through process . excess ammonia. High production cost High energy cost High environment pollution Advantages Simple process Conventional Processes – Conventional recycle process High CO2 conversion High production cost High energy cost High environment pollution Stamicarbon CO2 – stripping process Has high urea yield per pass High production cost High energy cost High purity Comprehensive design project 29 . Its synthesis section consist of the reactor.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 02 2.5 ACES process ACSE (Advanced Process for Cost and Energy Saving) process has been developed by Toyo Engineering Corporation. The reactor is operated at 1900C and an NH3:CO2 molar feed ratio of 4:1. consisting of urea.2. Disadvantages Large quantity of ammonia salt is formed as co product Overall carbon dioxide conversion is low. unconverted ammonium carbamate.

6.1 Advantages of ACES Process Less HP piping and construction materials owing to lower elevation layout. low elevation layout and fewer HP equipment Easier maintenance owing to low elevation layout and fewer HP equipment Less energy consumption owing to optimized synthesis conditions and proprietarily designed reactor and stripper Even though initial capital investment is higher than the other processes.2. ACES process is selected because of it has following advantages compared to other processes 2.Urea Manufacturing Plant Snamprogetti Ammonia and self stripping processes Isobaric double recycle process ACES process Low production cost High energy recovery Low environment pollution High efficiency Low consumption of low pressure steam Chapter 02 High production cost High energy cost Complex process High capital cost Among above urea manufacturing processes. it will overcome by lower production cost per metric ton of urea Comprehensive design project 30 . fewer HP vessels and simplified synthesis loop Easier erection using commonly available construction equipment and techniques owing to low elevation layout and fewer and smaller HP vessels Easier operation supported by forced circulation by HP ejector.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 03 CHAPTER 3 PROCESS DESCRIPTION AND FLOW SHEET Comprehensive design project 31 .

1 Functional block diagram of the ACES Process Comprehensive design project 32 . All above equipments are operated at 175 bar. stripper. Figure 3. two parallel carbamate condensers and a scrubber.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 03 3.1 Process Description – ACES Process Advanced Process for Cost and Energy process consists of the reactor.0 Process Description and flow sheet 3.

5 % for urea granule production. operating at 17. Liquid ammonia is fed directly to the reactor. Instead of concentration via evaporation. the ACES process can also be combined with a crystallization section to produce urea with low biuret content. Here the gaseous mixture is condensed and absorbed by the carbamate solution coming from the medium pressure recovery stage. is fed to the top of the stripper. with a typical NH3 content of 15 wt%. The overhead gaseous mixture from the top of the stripper is introduced into the carbamate condenser. respectively. In the lower part of the stripper (a falling film heater). Ammonia and carbon dioxide separated from the urea solution here are recovered through stepwise absorption in the low and medium pressure absorbers. where as remainder is purified in the process condensate treatment section by hydrolysis and steam stripping. The highly concentrated urea solution is finally processed either through the prilling tower or via the urea granulator. Part of this condensate is used as an absorbent in the recovery sections. The urea solution from the stripper. Its upper part is equipped with trays where excess ammonia is partly separated from the stripper feed by direct countercurrent contact of the feed solution with the gas coming from the lower part of the stripper. The synthesis mixture from the reactor.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 03 The reactor is operated at 1900C and an NH3:CO2 molar feed ratio of 4:1. ammonium carbamate is decomposed and the resulting CO2 and NH3 as well as the excess NH3 are evaporated by CO2 stripping and steam heating. Heat liberated in the high pressure carbamate condenser is used to generate low pressure steam.5 and 2.5 bars. before being discharge from the urea plant. Condensation heat in the medium pressure absorber is transferred directly to the aqueous urea solution feed in the final concentration section. is purified further in the subsequent medium and low pressure decomposers. The gas and liquid from the carbamate condensers are recycled to the reactor by gravity flow.7 % for urea prill production or by a single evaporation 98. The stripper has two functions. Comprehensive design project 33 . and water. unconverted ammonium carbamate. consisting of urea. whereas gaseous carbon dioxide after compression is introduced into the bottom of the stripper as a stripping aid. excess ammonia. This pre stripping in the top is said to be required to achieve effective CO 2 stripping in the lower part. Water vapour formed in the final concentrating section is condensed in surface condensers to form process condensate. the purified urea solution is concentrated further either by two stage evaporation up to 99.

ammonium carbamate is decomposed and the resulting CO 2 and NH3 as well as the excess NH3 are evaporated by CO2 stripping and steam heating.2 Main component of the process 3. is fed to the top of the stripper.1 ACES Urea plants available in the world Process 3. The stripper has two functions. NH3:CO2 molar feed ratio to the reactor is 4:1. This pre stripping in the top is said to be required to achieve effective CO2 stripping in the lower part.2.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 03 3. The overhead gaseous mixture from the top of the stripper is introduced into the carbamate condenser. One pass conversion rate of CO2 to urea is about 68%. Following reaction occurs inside the reactor. consisting of urea. In the lower part of the stripper (a falling film heater). The synthesis mixture from the reactor. and water. unconverted ammonium carbamate. Medium pressure steam is supplied to the stripper. NH2COONH4 + heat ↔ NH2CONH2 + H2O 2NH3 + CO2 ↔ NH2COONH4 + heat ∆H = +23 kJ/mol ∆H = -84 kJ/mol 3.1. Following reaction occurs inside the stripper. excess ammonia. NH3 is directly fed to the reactor.2 Stripper Carbon dioxide is introduced into the bottom of the stripper as a stripping aid.2. Comprehensive design project 34 . Its upper part is equipped with trays where excess ammonia is partly separated from the stripper feed by direct countercurrent contact of the feed solution with the gas coming from the lower part of the stripper.1 Reactor The reactor is operated at 190 °C and 175 bar.1ACES Urea plants available in the world Table 3.

5 bars.2.7 Medium Pressure Absorber In medium pressure absorber ammonia and carbon dioxide separated from the urea solution in medium pressure decomposer are recovered.2.5 bar. with a typical NH3 content of 15 wt%.6 Low Pressure Decomposer After the medium pressure decomposer. Condensation heat in the medium pressure absorber is transferred directly to the aqueous urea solution feed in the final concentration section. is purified further in the medium pressure decomposer operating at 17. In this unit the gaseous mixture is condensed and absorbed by the carbamate solution coming from the medium pressure recovery stage. The gas and liquid from the carbamate condensers are recycled to the reactor by gravity flow. all ammonia and ammonium carbamate are removed by the Low Pressure Decomposer. NH2COONH4 + heat ↔ 2NH3 + CO2 NH3(l) → NH3(g) ∆H = +84 kJ/mol 3.5 Medium Pressure Decomposer The urea solution from the stripper.2.4 Scrubber In the scrubber Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide coming from the reactor are absorbed to ammonia and ammonium carbamate solution which is going to Carbamate Condenser. Comprehensive design project 35 . No external heat supply.2.3 Carbamate Condenser Carbamate condenser is fed with overhead gaseous mixture from the top of the stripper. 3. 2NH3 + CO2 ↔ NH2COONH4 + heat NH3(g) → NH3(l) ∆H = -84 kJ/mol 3. NH2COONH4 + heat ↔ 2NH3 + CO2 NH3(l) → NH3(g) ∆H = +84 kJ/mol 3. further purification of urea solution occurs inside the low pressure decomposer which is operating at 2. Heat liberated in the high pressure carbamate condenser is used to generate low pressure steam.Urea Manufacturing Plant NH2COONH4 + heat ↔ 2NH3 + CO2 NH3(l) → NH3(g) ∆H = +84 kJ/mol Chapter 03 3. External heat supply is available.2.

H2O(l) → H2O(g) 3. This steam is used for evaporation process of lower and upper separator.2.9 Flash Separator This unit is operated at 1. let water to evaporate and concentrate the urea solution. After that urea solution is sent to granulation section. This is operated at 0.2.2. This is operated at 0. Heat release from that reaction is used to produce steam at 2 bar.Urea Manufacturing Plant 2NH3 + CO2 ↔ NH2COONH4 + heat Chapter 03 ∆H = -84 kJ/mol 3.8 Low Pressure Absorber In low pressure absorber ammonia and carbon dioxide separated from the urea solution in low pressure decomposer are recovered.55 bar vacuum pressure and at 112 °C Urea solution coming from the lower separator is further concentrated.2.55 bar vacuum pressure and at 110 °C Here the purified urea solution is further concentrated and required heat is taken from 2 bar pressure steam produced in low pressure absorber. Here by reducing the pressure. Output from that unit has 99.0 bar and 110 °C. 3.10 Lower Separator This is a calendria type evaporator. Comprehensive design project 36 . 2NH3 + CO2 ↔ NH2COONH4 + heat ∆H = -84 kJ/mol 3.2% pure urea.11 Upper Separator This is evaporative type separator.

Large size granules are crushed by the crusher. small and large size by the screen. is recycled to the urea granulator.Urea dust contained in the exhaust air from the granulator and the product cooler is scrubbed in the dust scrubber by contacting counter currently with aqueous urea solution.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 03 3. the granules are dried and cooled simultaneously.12 Granulation Plant The Urea Granulation process consists of following three sections. In the granulator.5 Spout-Fluid Bed Granulator Comprehensive design project 37 .4 Granulation plant The discharged granules are separated into three sizes. Product size granules are further cooled below 60ºC in the product cooler to be sent to the urea storage or bagging facility. Figure 3. The urea dust content in the exit air of the bag filter is 30 mg/m3 or less.5 % of production rate. The rushed particles and smaller size particles from the screen are recycled to the granulator as seed. Urea recovered in the bag filter. The granulator is operated at 110-115oC and at slightly negative pressure. Figure 3. product.5-3. Enlarged urea particles are cooled to about 90ºC in the after-cooler inside the granulator to be transported to the recycle section.2. • granulation section • recycle and product cooling section • dust removal and recovery section Aqueous urea solution from urea plant is fed to the granulator to enlarge recycle particles in the granulator. approximately 2.

45wt% 95wt% 3.7wt% 0.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 03 Figure 3.6 Power Consumption of Spout-Fluid Bed Granulation 3.7 Various sizes of granules Comprehensive design project 38 .25wt% 0.3wt% 0.5kg at 3mm Various sizes of granules Figure 3.3 Typical product quality Total Nitrogen Biuret Moisture Formaldehyde Size (2-4mm) Hardness 46.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 CHAPTER 4 SITE SELECTION Comprehensive design project 39 .

make easy access to infrastructure facilities. Comprehensive design project 40 .1 Availability of raw materials Main raw materials for urea manufacturing are ammonia and carbon dioxide. availability of labour force and many other benefits.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 4. where improper decision may cause considerable loss. Considering the carbon dioxide.1. Currently ammonia plant is not there in Sri Lanka. The previous urea plant was there in Sapugaskanda along with ammonia plant and petroleum refinery. it is emitted by number of industries as a waste from which it has to be derived and purify. It is not viable to consider that site since ammonia plant is not there and considering transportation cost. It is an important task to be done in a business case. Otherwise any alternative option such as importing should be concerned. So it may requied to select ideal or optimum location for the business. By selecting the suitable site for the manufacturing plant it would be able to reduce the transportation cost of raw materials and energy. Selection should be done by considering cost and benefits of available alternative sites. In case of ammonia it is cost effective to locate the site near a harbor or sea where it is directly taken in to the storage tanks.1 Site Selection Site selection is the making the ultimate choice of site where business or manufacturing plant is going to be established. Ammonia has to be imported from abroad.0 Site Selection & Plant Layout 4. Hambantota has many advantages regarding a large chemical plat like urea. It is a strategic decision to be made. Considering available sites in costal areas in Sri Lanka we select two sites Hambantota and Trincomalee for assessment. Following Facts should be concern regarding site selection Availability of raw material Infrastructure facilities Legal obligations enforced by relevant authority or the government Environment and climate conditions Labour force availability Social considerations Waste management 4.

But we can fulfill some amount of our water requirement like cooling water using sea water and other requirements using water distribution project which is being develop along with other development projects. health. The government is planning to establish a petroleum refinery in Hambanthota. So it would be better to have ammonia plant in future to aid urea production. hydrogen can be gained as a byproduct from petroleum refinery and it can be use as a raw material for ammonia production. Many developing projects are underway. Those raw materials can be produced at low cost in Sri Lanka. food. government authorities will also be developed. electricity and roads. In Trincomalee much of above mentioned benefits are there. An international sea port is going to be established in hambantota which can handle large ships which are unable to access in the Colombo port. Other private and public sector facilities including telecommunication. Also infrastructure facilities will be developed along with these projects. On the other hand in Hambanthota there is scarcity of sufficient water reservoirs for the various purpose of the urea plant due to dry zone. Government welcomes projects related to hambantota area and many benefits can be gain such as reduction in tax. accommodations etc. Highways are being constructed connecting hambantota port and other developing sites such as air port. It is not economical to import ammonia and carbon dioxide from abroad because of high transportation cost and additional amount of money have to be spend on buying those materials. Comprehensive design project 41 .Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 Hambanthota is developing area under “Mahinda Chinthana” concept. Direct Infrastructure facilities for urea plant such as transportation. Since it is a coastal area we have to consider climate as well as infrastructure facilities such as water. grace periods for loans etc. but considering the establishment of petroleum refinery and massive port compared to Trincomalee. So Transportation of other required materials would be more convenient. Hambantota becomes the more suitable option.1. Vast amount of land is available for low cost in order to establish the plant closed to Hambantota port. 4. electricity. due to rapid development along with good infrastructure facilities it would be easy to attract employees from outside areas. So it is better to have an ammonia plant. are being recently developed in Hambantota. Under the government‟s plan to establish a petroleum refinery in Hambanthota. telecommunication and indirect infrastructures for the employees such as education.2 Infrastructure facilities Hambanthota is a one of main cities in southern part of Sri Lanka which is situated 237 km away from Colombo. Even if there are no enough qualified employees in Hambantota area.

4 Environment and Climate Conditions Hambantota is located in semi-arid zone in Sri Lanka. Sea water should be utilized in order to fulfill water requirement for some extent. Proper mechanism to resettle residential people who may lose their homes should be established collaboration with government. Since site is in costal area air emissions may not have much impact. So establishing a plant in such area will produce around 1200 direct jobs and many other indirect job opportunities. Law rain fall is an advantage for urea production.1. Compensation and resettlement should be done in order to avoid such difficulties.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 4. Environmental concerns should be considered including air emissions. It will solve unemployment problem to considerable extent. Because of coastal wind emissions from the plant may dilute easily and air emission problems may not arise. 4. Some families may have to resettle to clear the construction area of urea manufacturing plant. but in the coastal side it is much humid so it can lead to corrosion in metallic component in the plant. So labour availability is not an issue. Also site should cause minimum environment damage during construction and operation. Accommodation for labours and other staff should be constructed considering dry weather. Only difficulty is the lack of water resources. So government obligation may arise for such a urea manufacturing plant construction. Climate is much dryer. But water is needed to be transported from available area nearby. 4. Legal obligations may arise from people.1.3 Legal obligations enforced by relevant authority or the government Yala Sanctuary Park is situated in Hambanthota area. People from villages may move in to cities nearby or even to Colombo to find employment. 4.6 Social considerations Obstacles may arise from residential people and from environmentalists.1. Sound regulations may not have to be considered extensively since area is remote. sound levels and necessary steps should be take to control or maintain under permissible levels. waste disposal. Since chemicals are used in the manufacturing it would be necessary to comply with government regulations regarding handling and storing of such chemicals. but difficulties may arise in finding qualified people. Peoples will resist construction work and may take legal actions.5 Labour Force availability Many people in rural areas like Hambantota are not permanently employed. Tax and other financial considerations may vary with related to selected site. Comprehensive design project 42 . Emissions from the urea plant should be under permissible conditions.1.

7 Waste Management Waste management restrictions are being enforced by the regulations. easy production flow. minimizes material handling. labour efficiency. Selected site should have facilities for both waste processing and for storage until waste is properly disposed.2 Plant Layout The efficiency of production depends on how well the various machines. Chemical wastes are there from the plants which are considered hazardous.1. promotes effective utilization of manpower. maximum exposure to natural light and ventilation. It facilitates the production process. 4. 4. Plant site should accommodate disposal of waste in to the sea or to the land. makes economic use of the building. safety. and allows flexibility of operations.1 Importance Plant layout is an important decision as it represents long-term commitment. An efficient plant layout is one that can be instrumental in achieving the Following objectives: a) Proper and efficient utilization of available floor space b) To ensure that work proceeds from one point to another point without any delay c) Provide enough production capacity. use of space and expansion possibilities etc. time and cost. Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machinery. storages. supervision and control. An ideal plant layout should provide the optimum relationship among output. Only the properly laid out plant can ensure the smooth and rapid movement of material. d) Reduce material handling costs e) Reduce hazards to personnel f) Utilize labour efficiently Comprehensive design project 43 . equipment. departments etc. production facilities and employee‟s amenities are located in a plant. Locating plant in a remote location is an advantage. comfort at work.2. It is also important because it affects the flow of material and processes. Social considerations are important in waste management. floor area and manufacturing process. with in the factory building in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least cost in processing the product from the raw material to the finished product. from the raw material stage to the end product stage.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 4. and provides for employee‟s convenience.

during the assessment of proposals To encourage proponents to implement continuous improvement in environmental performance and the application of best practice environmental management in implementing their proposal To ensure that independent.3.Urea Manufacturing Plant g) Increase employee morale h) Reduce accidents i) Provide for volume and product flexibility j) Provide ease of supervision and control k) Provide for employee safety and health l) Allow ease of maintenance m) Allow high machine or equipment utilization n) Improve productivity Chapter 04 4. evaluating and mitigating the biophysical.3 Environmental Impact Assessment An Environment Impact Assessment is an assessment of the possible positive impact or negative impact which the project may have on the natural environment. The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as "the process of identifying. 4. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider environmental impacts used to decide whether to proceed with the project. reliable advice is provided to the Government before decisions are made Comprehensive design project 44 .1 Objectives of EIA Assessment To ensure that proponents take primary responsibility for protection of the environment influenced by their proposals To ensure that best practicable measures are taken to minimize adverse impacts on the environment. and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made. social. as appropriate. predicting. and that proposals meet relevant environmental objectives and standards to protect the environment. and implement the principles of sustainability To provide opportunities for local community and public participation.

carbon dioxide and urea releases from process plants have a negative influence on the environment but also the unnecessary use of energy is negative from an environmental point of view and from the economic point of view as well. 330oC) Steam (4 bar saturated) (production) Electricity (including granulation section) 805 kg/mt urea -415 kg/mt urea 50 kWh/mt urea Cooling water (including granulation section) 58 mt/mt urea Table 4. Since this figure is very close to the theoretical consumption figure. which for a 2000 mtd plant would result in a loss of 16 mtpd ammonia either in the form of urea or straight ammonia. Emission Media Substance Ammonia Formaldehyde Methanol Total Nitrogen Particulate Matter (PM10) Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) To Atmosphere      To Water     Via Solid Waste    Table 4. the conclusion is that losses in steady operation are approaching the zero targets.3.3 Emissions from Urea manufacturing process Comprehensive design project 45 . Presently ammonia consumptions of some 567 kg per tonne are released in the large single stream plants.2 Typical consumption figures for a granulation plant Emissions from Urea manufacturing process are listed below.1 Ammonia releases from urea plants Not only ammonia.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 4.7 kg NH3/mt final product Table 4. Ammonia releases from urea plants Early nineteen eighties 8 kg NH3/mt final product Presently 0. Following table shows the present typical energy consumption for urea production Typical consumption figures for a granulation plant Steam (22 bar. This figure implies however a loss of some 8 kg per tonne of final product produced (Table 1).2 Impact of the Urea Plant on the environment In the early part of previous decade ammonia consumption per ton of final product of 575 kg or even higher used to be acceptable.

and estuaries). leaks. emissions to process water can be calculated based on a mass balance or using emission factors. Examples of fugitive emissions include dust from stockpiles. These emission sources can be broadly categorised as: surface impoundments of liquids and slurries. lakes. 4. Emissions emanating from ridgeline roof-vents.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 4. and storage and distribution of materials containing listed substances may also occur to land. volatilization of vapour from vats.3.3. most facilities emitting above listed substances to waterways are required by the relevant environment authority to closely monitor and measure these emissions. Coastal or marine waters Storm water Because of the significant environmental hazards posed by emitting toxic substances to water. and unintentional leaks and spills.3 Emissions to Air Air emissions may be categorised as either fugitive or point source emissions. If no wastewater monitoring data exists.4 Emissions to Water Emissions of substances to water can be categorised as discharges to: Surface waters (eg. Comprehensive design project 46 . and leaks from valves and flanges are also examples of fugitive emissions. louvres.3. Fugitive Emissions These are emissions that are not released through a vent or stack. or spills and materials handling. dams. slurries. Above table highlights common air emissions from urea manufacturing processes. 4. Emissions arising from spills.5 Emissions to Land Emissions of substances to land on-site include solid wastes. The existing sampling data can be used to calculate annual emissions. and open doors of a building as well as equipment leaks. open vessels. and sediments. Point Source Emissions These emissions are exhausted into a vent or stack and emitted through a single point source into the atmosphere. rivers.

% urea. there are four types of emission estimation techniques (EETs) that may be used to estimate emissions from the facility. Comprehensive design project 47 . Mass balance. The concentrations of these components vary within a range depending on the operating conditions. On average.3. being an instrument in which vibrations are measured in an extremely accurate way whereby the vibrations are a measure of the density of the reactor liquid. Fuel analysis or other engineering calculations. Nitrogen/Carbon (N/C) ratio meters are installed in the liquid phase (reactor liquid outlet) of the urea synthesis section The principle of this N/C meter is based on the linear relationship between liquid density and the N/C ratio. Special procedures are used to eliminate emissions during start-up.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 In general.% ammonia. The density is measured continuously with a solartron meter. This N/C ratio meter allows the process at all times to be operated at the optimum ratio to achieve highest reactor efficiency combined with higher energy efficiency. and Emission factors 4.6 Elimination Methods Presently plants are equipped with the following features to keep the effluent and emission at extremely low levels: N/C ratio meter Waste water treatment section Absorbers Special operational facilities N/C ratio meter in the Synthesis section Instead of using a gaschromatograph or a mass spectrometer in the gas phase of the synthesis section. carbon dioxide and urea. Urea plant waste water treatment section The process water in urea plants contains ammonia. The four types are: Sampling or direct measurement.% carbon dioxide and 1 wt. 4 wt. the concentrations in the process water are about 6 wt.

The recovered ammonia and carbon dioxide are returned to the process to be subsequently converted into urea. Liquid drains. ammonia and carbon dioxide.3 tonnes of water are formed. Comprehensive design project 48 . the Process Water Treatment System and the evaporation section are washed out in an atmospheric absorber where large amounts of cooled low concentrated process water are used to absorb all the ammonia present in said off gases. This water can then be used for a variety of purposes depending on the required quality such as cooling water or Boiling Feed Water make-up. Chapter 04 Off-gases from the recirculation section. (2) The vent from the low pressure section of the plant The ammonia and carbon dioxide present in the off gases of the recirculation section. which are absorbed in the process water. The purpose of the process water treatment is to remove ammonia. These gases can then be stripped from the wastewaters. This water is usually discharged from the urea concentration and evaporation section of the plant. Removal of ammonia and urea from wastewaters can be a problem as it is difficult to remove one in the presence of the other. which is decomposed to ammonia and carbon dioxide. carbon dioxide and urea from the process condensate. approximately 0. Absorbers Absorbers are used in urea plant to eliminate emissions to the atmosphere. Urea plants are in operation that produces wastewaters with ammonia and urea levels below 1ppm. To avoid ammonia emissions from this purge a low pressure absorber is installed in purge stream. Off-gases from the synthesis section. For every tonne of urea produced. Flush and purge water for pumps.Urea Manufacturing Plant Sources of the ammonia and urea are Condensate from the evaporators. which are absorbed in the process water. One method used to overcome this problem is the hydrolysis of urea to ammonium carbamate. can be classified as follows: (1) The vent from the synthesis section of the plant The purge from the urea synthesis section contains inerts. First the ammonia is washed out with a large flow of low concentrated and cooled process water and secondly the remaining ammonia is absorbed in cooled condensate or clean waste water.

When considering the safety. and drained in the ammonia water tank.Urea Manufacturing Plant Special start-up. A change in the start-up procedure of the urea synthesis section has reduced the impact on the environment considerably. Presently the ability to measure the feed flows (NH3 and CO2) very accurate in combination with the ability to measure the N/C ratio have enabled us to feed the synthesis section from the very beginning of the start-up with the correct NH3/CO2 ratio. The clean water used for the dilution may be an amount of clean waste water stored for such purpose. 4. it is mainly due to the risk of urea which is the main product of plant and ammonia. one of the main raw materials for production and risk caused by other intermediate product. to vent excess CO2 accompanied by some NH3 into the atmosphere. Special shut-down and draining facilities assure that non converted NH 3 and CO2 are recovered by the process after a shut-down. The dilution should be to the extent that no ammonia will escape from the liquid under atmospheric pressure. thus eliminating the need. during the initial stage of start-up. Comprehensive design project 49 . In case sufficient condensate is available in the complex no such additional storage of clean waste water is required and condensate may be used as well. To achieve this facility to feed clean water to dilute the carbamate formed from non converted NH3 and CO2 from the synthesis section has been introduced. After restart of the plant the NH3 and CO2 in this tank are recovered via the waste water treatment section. The water is in principle introduced in the low pressure carbamate condenser and subsequently cooled to increase absorption capacity. environment.4 Safety Of the Urea Plant It is must to consider occupational safety and health when designing a manufacturing plant. shut-down and draining facilities Chapter 04 Because of the present low releases during steady state operation in urea manufacturing the consideration regarding environmental issues has changed towards further reducing of effluents and emissions from non-continuous sources during non-steady state conditions such as start-up and shut-down situations. Safety is the major factor in any industrial process to safeguard employees. surrounding living peoples etc. Also there are legal obligations which are imposed by government for chemical processing factories to operate and maintain.

irritation. inorganic chlorides. itching and possible skin rash. vomiting. May cause lachrymation. Eyes: Irritant. Ingestion of large quantities may lead to nausea and vomiting. and reacts violently with strong oxidants. causing fire and explosion hazard Hazard identification Classified as hazardous chemical according to criteria in the HS (Minimum Degrees of Hazard) Regulations 2001 Route of entry and health hazards Harmful if swallowed. Prolonged contact may result in irritation. It has high stability and low reactivity with normal conditions Flammability Urea is non-flammable material Flash point: Not applicable Flammability limits: Not applicable Auto-ignition temperature: Not applicable The substance decomposes on heating above melting point. Harmful to terrestrial vertebrates.1 Safety factors relevant to urea Stability and Reactivity Produce biuret when expose to heat Urea has high solubility. Elevated exposure may result in mucous membrane irritation (nose & throat). producing toxic gases. Urea can be irritating to skin and eyes. Low concentrations of urea such as in urine are not dangerous. pain & redness Ingestion: Has diuretic effect.Too high concentrations in the blood can cause damage to organs of the body. . It has been found that urea can cause Comprehensive design project 50 . diarrhea and GI irritation. Inhalation: Slight irritant. Causes serious eye irritation. Skin: Irritant.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 4. So it should store under dry conditions. may cause nausea. chlorites and perchlorates. No adverse health effects expected under normal conditions.4.It may cause irritation Harmful if inhaled. nitrites.

Seek Medical Aid. Use with adequate ventilation. Comprehensive design project 51 . Fire extinguisher should available in any risky places in the plant. skin. Extinguishing media: CO2. dry powder. remove the victim from further exposure. Wash hands thoroughly after handling. lifting lids occasionally. Avoid breathing vapors. foam. give oxygen Ingestion If swallowed. and initiate the following emergency procedures: Skin Wash exposed area with soap and water. and clothes. or dusts. First aid (Emergency procedure) In the event of an emergency. send for medical assistance. Do not eat drink or smoke when using this product. Eyes Wash eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation persists. Fire Extinguisher Any means suitable for extinguishing surrounding fire. and urea in runoff from fertilizers may play a role in the increase of toxic blooms. Avoid unintended release to the environment. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Inhalation Remove to fresh air.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 algal blooms to produce toxins. If not breathing. give artificial respiration. get medical attention as soon as possible. induce vomiting immediately after giving two glasses of water. water Handling & Storage Precautionary Statements Keep out of reach of children. If breathing is difficult. Avoid contact with eyes.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Safe Handling Avoid generating dusts. Collect and place in clean sealable containers. Eyes/Face: Safety glasses. Collection into sealable containers and dispose of in an approved land fill. and dispose of as waste. Wash thoroughly after handling. dry. Avoid generating dusts. If practicable apply excess fertilizer at recommended rates to appropriate land. Eye wash facilities should be available. Storage Chapter 04 Store in sealed containers in cool. If dusts are generated use local extraction to control Disposal Considerations Observe local authority restrictions that may apply. Engineering Controls Ventilation: Use in well ventilated area. Otherwise render unusable. Exposure Controls & Personal Protection Exposure Standards Workplace Exposure Standards (WES): Particulates not otherwise classified Inspirable dust 10mg/m3 Respirable dust 3mg/m3 Personal Protective Equipment Respiratory: If dusts particles are present wear suitable dust mask. well ventilated place away from incompatible materials. Comprehensive design project 52 . Rinse containers thoroughly prior to re-use. Keep container closed. Skin: use Overalls and gloves. Transportation No special transport requirements necessary Environmental Exposure Limit (EEL): Not assigned Avoid washing excessive amounts into streams and waterways. Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. If dusts present wear goggles. Wash hands after working with substance.

HBr.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 4. But it has no reactivity under normal conditions. aldehydes. boron. chromyl chloride. Incompatible materials Ammonia reacts vigorously with fluorine. amides. Inhalation of vapors may result in pulmonary edema and chemical pneumonitis Route of entry and health hazards Harmful if contact with eye Harmful if inhaled. Contact with higher concentrations of product will cause swelling of the eyes and lesions with a possible loss of vision. and nitrogen trichloride . halogens. nitrosyl chloride. Flammability Ammonia is slightly flammable material. Irritant if contact with skin and eye Eye effects Mild concentrations of product will cause conjunctivitis. heavy metals and many other materials. boron halides. trioxygen difluoride. Comprehensive design project 53 . Hazardous decomposition products form with hydrogen at very high temperature. chlorine monoxide.4. Hazardous polymerization will not occur. Flash point: Not applicable Flammability limits: Not applicable Auto-ignition temperature: 1274oF Hazard identification Irritating or corrosive to exposed tissues. HCl. nitrogen dioxide.2 Safety Factors Relevant to Ammonia Stability and reactivity Ammonia has very low stability because it converts to ammonium hydroxide or other ammonium salt by combining with water or other salts. calcium. chlorine.

permanent eye injury. At 20000 ppm.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 Exposure to 50 ppm or less for 5 minutes was not considered irritating by volunteers. the effects are more pronounced and 30000 ppm may produce chemical burns with blistering. ingestion is unlikely. The skin may become waxy white or yellow. prickling and itching in the affected area. Direct contact with liquefied gas can cause frostbite and corrosive burns. while exposure to 72 ppm was irritating to a few individuals and 134 ppm was irritating and caused tearing. coughing. has been reported following direct contact with liquefied ammonia gas. Severe. High levels of airborne ammonia gas dissolve in moisture on the skin. At 700 ppm. senses. shortness of breath. it may cause burning sensations. with eventual collapse. Blistering. Corrosive burns of the skin have resulted from direct contact with a jet of liquefied ammonia. the gas is immediately and severely irritating. Permanent scarring of the skin may result. headache. wheezing. liver. nausea. At 10000 ppm. tissue death and gangrene may also develop in severe cases. kidneys and bladder observed in mammalian species from prolonged inhalation exposures at above 100 ppm Inhalation of excessive amounts affects the upper airway (larynx and bronchi) by causing caustic-like burning Comprehensive design project 54 . Symptoms of more severe frostbite include a burning sensation and stiffness of the affected area. Inhalation effects Corrosive and irritating to the upper respiratory system and all mucous type tissue. Toxic effects to the respiratory system. These same exposure levels would be almost certainly fatal due to inhalation health effects. including an almost complete loss of vision. Symptoms of mild frostbite include numbness. Contact with higher concentrations of product will cause caustic-like dermal burns and inflammation. Permanent eye damage or blindness could result. ammonia is mildly irritating to moist skin. Ingestion effects Since product is a gas at room temperature. forming corrosive ammonium hydroxide. Toxic level exposure may cause skin lesions resulting in early necrosis and scarring. Depending on the concentration inhaled. Skin effects Mild concentrations of product will cause dermatitis or conjunctivitis. Direct contact with the liquefied gas can cause frostbite and corrosive injury to eye.

Continue for a minimum of 15 minutes. Quick removal from the contaminated area is most important. Unconscious persons should be moved to an uncontaminated area. In cases of frostbite or cryogenic "burns" flush area with lukewarm water. Persons with potential exposure to ammonia should not wear contact lenses. First aid (Emergency procedure) Eyes Flush contaminated eye(s) with copious quantities of water. Ingestion Not specified. pulmonary edema will result.2 ppm ammonia for an average of 12. Pulmonary edema and chemical pneumonitis are potentially fatal conditions. Rescue personnel should be equipped with self-contained breating apparatus. given mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and supplemental oxygen. Keep victim warm and quiet. Do not use hot water.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 04 resulting in edema and chemical pneumonitis. Seek immediate medical attention. People with repeated exposure to ammonia may develop a tolerance (or acclimatization) to the irritating effects after a few weeks. If it enters the deep lung. No conclusions can be drawn from one case report which described lung injury following long-term exposure to ammonia because the person was a long-term smoker. Skin Remove contaminated clothing as rapidly as possible. Flush affected area with copious quantities of water. Part eyelids to assure complete flushing. Inhalation Prompt medical attention is mandatory in all cases of overexposure. A physician should see the patient promptly if the cryogenic "burn" has resulted in blistering of the dermal surface or deep tissue freezing. Long term health effects of exposure to Ammonia gas No significant differences in lung function were observed in workers exposed to 9. Assure that mucus or vomited material does not obstruct the airway by positional drainage. Conscious persons should be assisted to an uncontaminated area and inhale fresh air. Comprehensive design project 55 .2 years compared to controls with very low exposure (less than 1 ppm).

Use a check valve to trap in the discharge line to prevent hazardous back flow into the cylinder. asphyxiation or a toxic exposure. Use a pressure regulator when connecting cylinder to lower pressure (<500 psig) piping or systems. dry. Comprehensive design project 56 . Fire extinguished instruction Chapter 04 If possible. Never carry a compressed gas cylinder or a container of a gas in cryogenic liquid form in an enclosed space such as a car trunk. but also absorbing the escaped ammonia gas. Cylinders should be stored upright and firmly secured to prevent falling or being knocked over. explosion. The presence of oxygen enhances the corrosion of ordinary or semialloy steels. van or station wagon. Gaseous or liquid anhydrous ammonia corrodes certain metals at ambient temperatures. Do not drag. Use a "first in-first out" inventory system to prevent full cylinders from being stored for excessive periods of time. Full and empty cylinders should be segregated. it is the best extinguishing media not only in extinguishing the fire. slide or roll cylinders. Store in cool. Since ammonia is soluble in water. Use a suitable hand truck for cylinder movement. Handling & Storage Earth-ground and bond all lines and equipment associated with the ammonia system. Use media suitable for surrounding fire. foam. stop the flow of gas. Electrical equipment should be non-sparking or explosion proof. well-ventilated area away from heavily trafficked areas and emergency exits. Keep anhydrous ammonia systems scrupulously dry. The addition of water inhibits this enhancement. Use water spray to cool surrounding containers.Urea Manufacturing Plant Fire Extinguisher Extinguisher media Water fog. Do not allow the temperature where cylinders are stored to exceed 125oF (52oC). A leak can result in a fire. Use only in well-ventilated areas. Do not heat cylinder by any means to increase the discharge rate of product from the cylinder. Protect cylinders from physical damage. Valve protection caps must remain in place unless container is secured with valve outlet piped to use point.

safety shower. A laboratory type hood is suitable for handling small or limited quantities. eyewash "fountain".3 Safety Factors Relevant to Ammonium Carbamate Stability and reactivity Ammonium carbamate is stable compound. Consult manufacturer‟s instructions before use. mercury. Do not use air purifying respirators in oxygen deficient/immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) atmosphere. strong acids. bromine. Other general protections Safety shoes. Air purifying respirators must be equipped with suitable cartridges. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Respiration protection Respiratory protection with full face piece or self-contained breathing apparatus should be available for emergency use. silver and hypochlorite to form explosive compounds.4.Urea Manufacturing Plant Engineering controls Chapter 04 Use local exhaust ventilation to reduce concentrations to within current exposure limits. Comprehensive design project 57 . but may be moisture sensitive. strong bases Hazardous polymerization will not occur Decompose to ammonia and carbon dioxide when heated up to 140 oF Incompatible materials Strong acids. Personal protection Eye/face protection Gas tight chemical goggles or full-face piece respirator. 4. Ammonium carbamate reacts with chlorine. Disposal Considerations Do not attempt to dispose of residual waste or unused quantities. with any valve outlet plugs or caps secured and valve protection cap in place to BOC Gases or authorized distributor for proper disposal. Skin protection Protective gloves made of any suitable material. Return in the shipping container properly labeled. Do not exceed maximum use concentrations.

700 PPM. Serious coughing and bronchial spasms occur at ammonia concentrations of 1. second and third degree burns. The use of welding or flame cutting equipment on process lines is not recommended unless all ammonium carbamate has been removed. May result in first. second or third degree burns.700 PPM may be fatal. IDLH at 300 PPM. First aid (Emergency procedure) Eyes Immediately flood with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Comprehensive design project 58 . Wash all contaminated clothing before re-use. Skin Remove contaminated clothing immediately. Seek medical attention. Avoid welding in confined space. Flash point: Not applicable Flammability limits: Not applicable Auto-ignition temperature: not applicable Hazard identification Ammonium carbamate has a potential for acute health effects Eyes and Skins Eyes: Noticeable irritation to the eyes will occur at ammonia concentrations of 100 PPM. Ingestion Ingestion may be fatal. Flush the skin with large amounts of water until all material is removed (at least 15 minutes).Urea Manufacturing Plant Flammability Ammonium carbamate is not a flammable material Chapter 04 Ammonia vapors in the range of 16% to 25% by volume in air can explode on contact with an ignition source. Severe irritation to the eyes will occur at concentrations of 400 PPM. Skin: Contact with ammonium carbamate can result in first. Inhalation Severe irritation of nose and throat occurs at ammonia concentrations of 400 PPM. Less than a thirty minute exposure to ammonia concentrations of 1.

diluted vinegar. Otherwise in cool. and valves. dry well-ventilated non-combustible location away from all ignition sources and oxidizers. substituting as available. Inhalation Use respiratory protection as necessary and remove to fresh air at once. Wear full protective clothing with an approved self contained breathing apparatus. Minimize gas contact. Preferably stored outside. Exposure Controls/Personal Protection Engineering Controls Vessel and drum labels are required on all containers. administer artificial respiration Fire Extinguisher Extinguisher media: Water Avoid direct streams of water application which may result in chemical exposure due to splashing Fire extinguishing agents to avoid CO2 may react violently. Eye Protection Face shield and tight fitting gas tight splash goggles Protective Clothing Chemical resistant suit with rubber or vinyl gloves and rubber boots Comprehensive design project 59 . Use good process control measures to prevent releases. Employ good maintenance practices to prevent leaks. Storage and Handling Provide ventilation sufficient to maintain exposure to ammonia vapors below the permissible exposure limit. Use water spray to control ammonia vapors. Personnel training should include adequate inspection techniques on equipment such as pumps. Avoid all contact with the body. Encourage the victim to drink large amounts of water.Urea Manufacturing Plant Ingestion Chapter 04 Do not induce vomiting. hoses. If breathing stops. lemon juice or orange juice. Adding water to ammonium carbamate will generate heat and increase the ammonia vapors generated. Keep away from heat and open flames.

Auto-Ignition Temperature: Not available. Flash Points: Not available. 4.Urea Manufacturing Plant Respiratory Protection Chapter 04 Use a NIOSH/MSHA approved full-face negative pressure respirator fitted with ammonia cartridges for exposures at or below 300 PPM. Comprehensive design project 60 .). nitrogen oxides (NO. and then consult with appropriate regulatory agencies before discharging or disposing of any waste material. state and local regulations.4 Safety Factors Relevant to Biurete (byproduct) Stability and reactivity Product is very stable under normal conditions Stability is not change with temperature Stability is not change with varies conditions Not available incompatibility substances Non-corrosive in presence of glass. Flammable Limits: Not available After the combustion products are carbon oxides (CO.. Disposal Considerations Product Disposal Disposal of ammonium carbamate may be subject to federal. CO2).. For concentrations above 300 PPM. General Comments Handlers of this product should review their operations in terms of applicable laws and regulations. Polymerization will not occur.4. NO2. use a full-face positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus Other Protective Clothing or Equipment Provide an eyewash station and safety shower at sites handling or storing Ammonium Carbamate. Flammability Not flammable under normal conditions and may be combustible at high temperature.

If not breathing. tie. Ingestion Do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar. Cold water may be used. of eye contact (irritant). give oxygen. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact ( permeator ). Get medical attention. No carcinogenic effects No mutagenic effects No teratogenic effects First aid (Emergency procedure) Eye Check for and remove any contact lenses. of ingestion. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Wash clothing before reuse. of eye contact (irritant). of inhalation. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. In case of contact. immediately flush skin with plenty of water. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (permeator). Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. If breathing is difficult. If large quantities of this material are swallowed. Seek medical attention. Get medical attention if irritation occurs. call a physician immediately. Potential Chronic Health Effects: Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant). of inhalation. belt or waistband. of ingestion. Serious Skin Contact Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Inhalation If inhaled. give artificial respiration. Get medical attention. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Skin In case of contact. remove to fresh air. Cold water may be used.Urea Manufacturing Plant Hazard identification Potential Acute Health Effects: Chapter 04 Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant). If the contamination is series it should call a doctor immediately Comprehensive design project 61 .

A self contained breathing apparatus should be used to avoid inhalation of the product. If you feel unwell. Boots.Urea Manufacturing Plant Fire Extinguisher Small fire: Use dry chemical powder. fog or foam. Chapter 04 Handling and storage Keep away from heat. Wear suitable protective clothing. Exposure Controls & Personal Protection Engineering Controls Use process enclosures. evaporate the residue under a fume hood. wellventilated area. Comprehensive design project 62 . Keep container in a cool. Dust respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Personal Protection Ware safety glasses. or other engineering controls to keep airborne levels below recommended exposure limits. use ventilation to keep exposure to airborne contaminants below the exposure limit. In case of insufficient ventilation. In large Spill use Splash goggles. Suggested protective clothing might not be sufficient. Large fire: Use water spray. seek medical attention and show the label when possible. wear suitable respiratory equipment. Lab coat. Gloves. Keep away from sources of ignition. Keep container tightly closed. Do not use water jet. Avoid contact with skin. Full suit. Dust respirator. Empty containers pose a fire risk. fume or mist. consult a specialist before handling this product. local exhaust ventilation. Ground all equipment containing material. Gloves. If user operations generate dust. Do not breathe dust.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 CHAPTER 5 MASS BALANCE CALCULATION Comprehensive design project 63 .

4359 1 44 0.00% 777.7692 1 18 0.7 MT Molecular Weight (kg/kmol) 17 44 78 18 60 Reactions involved in the process 2NH3 + CO2 ↔ NH2COONH4 + heat Sch Mass Wt% 2 34 0.5641 1 78 1.1 Compound in urea manufacturing Input ratio to reactor Molar ratio Weight ratio NH3 : CO2 4 : 1 68 : 44 1060.3 MT 600.2308 Comprehensive design project 64 .0000 1 60 0.0 Mass Balance Calculation 5.0 MT 68.0000 NH2COONH4 + heat ↔ NH2CONH2 + H2O Sch: Mass Wt% 1 78 1.1 Material Balance Urea production per day CO2 conversion CO2 requirement per day NH3 requirement per day Compound Ammonia Carbon dioxide Ammonium Carbamate Water Urea = = = = Chemical Formula NH3 CO2 NH2COONH4 H2O NH2CONH2 Table 5.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 2NH3 + CO2 ↔ NH2CONH2 + H2O Sch: Mass Wt% 2 34 1 44 1 60 0.7692 1 18 0.2308 0.5641 Comprehensive design project 65 .4359 0.

21% MT °C bar Weight MT/day 263.0 36.1 4.0 20.0 11.76% 1559.8 12.3 263.79% Component CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Wt % 100. Carbamate Flow rate Temperature Pressure Wt % 23.3 170 175 Weight MT/day 486.00% MT/day °C bar Component NH3 A.1 Reactor Weight MT/day 32.7 76.7 600.6 31.90% 591.7 170 175 Wt % 100.57% 903.9 MT/day 170 °C 175 bar Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.1.2 190 175 Component NH3 CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Wt % 87.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.4 37.46% 318.00% MT/day °C bar NH3 H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Comprehensive design project 66 .07% 2872.6 MT/day 190 °C 175 bar Component Urea Carbamate Component NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day 600.24% 2045.

07% 2872.60% 331.46% 318.0 700.0 20.89% 751.1 22.0 110 175 Component Urea Carbamate Wt % 100.00% 499.6 MT/day 190 °C 175 bar NH3 CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 612.0 11.90% 591.57% 903.1.3 MT/day 190 °C 175 bar MP STEAM COND.0 14.2 Stripper Component Component Urea Carbamate NH3 H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.3 MT/day 178 °C 175 bar Comprehensive design project 67 . Component CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day 700.11% 1364.8 55.3 15.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.00% MT °C bar NH3 H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.00% 318.6 31.40% 2208.4 44.0 48.0 36.

3 14.4 Wt % 26.7 85.8 55.56% 1823.0 MT/day 170 °C 175 bar Comprehensive design project 68 .4 44.29% 209.1 MT/day 150 °C 175 bar Wt % 100.3 263.44% 1559.82% 130.00% MT °C bar Component CO2 Carbamate Flow rate Temperature Pressure Wt % 263.7 10.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.3 MT/day 190 °C 175 bar STM Component NH3 Carbamate Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Weight MT/day Wt % SC Component CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day 263.89% NH3 CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 22.89% 522.11% 735.7 71.11% 1364.3 Carbamate Condenser Component Component NH3 CO2 Carbamate Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day 56.3 170 175 212.3 28.89% 751.8 MT/day 153 °C 175 bar 612.1.7 62.

4 37.79% 9.11% MT/day °C bar Component Component NH3 CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day 32.89% 22.7 62.8 MT/day 153 °C 175 bar 4.29% 209.7 183.8 12.4 Scrubber Component NH3 CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1.1 130.4 26.21% MT °C bar CO2 Carbamate Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 56.82% 130.89% 71.7 87.79% Comprehensive design project 69 .21% 11.4 12.7 10.2 MT/day 189 °C 175 bar Component NH3 Carbamate Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day 53.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.2 190 175 NH3 Wt % 87.1.8 150 175 Wt % 28.

00% 499.85% 318.60% 331.0 17.0 48.00% 349.1.5 High Pressure Decomposer Component NH3 CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 327.3 15.00% 318.6 MT/day 157 °C 17.5 bar Comprehensive design project 70 .3 MT/day 178 °C 175 bar Component Urea Carbamate NH3 H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1060 59.40% 2208.70% 1796.3 79.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.5 bar Component Urea Carbamate NH3 H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.0 14.51% 411.4 19.49% 84.7 MT/day 157 °C 17.45% 69.1 22.3 3.5 20.

1.6 Low Pressure Decomposer Component Urea Carbamate NH3 H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1060 59.00% 349.3 77.70% 1796.84% 0.5 bar Component H2O Urea NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 20 0.79% 2.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.5 0.1 MT/day 129 °C 2.6 bar Component CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day 77.9 MT/day 129 °C 2.33% 495.0 24.5 2.16% 0.6 MT/day 157 °C 17.81% 338.04% 1399.4 55.3 3.5 bar Comprehensive design project 71 .37% 21.5 bar Component NH3 CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 221.00% MT °C bar H2O NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.6 94.3 80 20 Component Urea Wt % 100.85% 318.45% 69.67% 274.1 MT/day 129 °C 2.5 44.6 75.0 17.4 19.

91% 486.4 98.67% 274.9 MT/day 129 °C 1.4 55.9 MT/day 129 °C 2.33% 495.5 bar Comprehensive design project 72 .5 1.1.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.5 44.09% 495.7 Low Pressure Absorber Component NH3 CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 221.5 bar CW Component NH3 Carbamate Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 9.

Urea Manufacturing Plant

Chapter 05

5.1.8 Medium Pressure Absorber

Component NH3 CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure

Weight MT/day 328.7

Wt % 77.73%

94.2 22.27% 422.9 MT/day 151 °C 17.5 bar

Component NH3 Carbamate Flow rate Temperature Pressure

Weight MT/day Wt % 9.5 1.91% 486.4 98.09% 495.9 MT/day 129 °C 17.5 bar

Component NH3 CO2 Carbamate Flow rate Temperature Pressure

Weight MT/day Wt % 265.4 28.89% 0.0 0.00% 653.4 71.11% 918.8 MT/day 150 °C 12 bar

Comprehensive design project 73

Urea Manufacturing Plant

Chapter 05

5.1.9 Flash Separator

Component H2O Urea NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure

Weight MT/day Wt % 105.6 0.3 99.53% 0.28%

0.2 0.19% 106.1 MT/day 190 °C 0.55 bar

Component Urea H2O NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure

Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.6 75.81% 338.0 24.16% 0.5 0.04% 1399.1 MT/day 178 °C 2.5 bar

Component Urea H2O NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure

Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.3 82.00% 232.4 17.98% 0.3 0.02% 1293.0 MT/day 110 °C 0.7 bar

Comprehensive design project 74

Urea Manufacturing Plant

Chapter 05

5.1.10 Lower Separator

Component H2O Urea NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure

Weight MT/day Wt % 152.8 0.2 99.74% 0.13%

0.2 0.13% 153.2 MT/day 110 °C 0.55 bar

Component Urea H2O NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure

Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.3 82.00% 232.4 17.98% 0.3 0.02% 1293.0 MT/day 110 °C 2 bar

Component Urea H2O NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure

Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.1 93.00% 79.7 6.99% 0.1 0.01% 1139.9 MT/day 110 °C 0.7 bar

Comprehensive design project 75

14% 0.8 bar Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Comprehensive design project 76 .1 0.5 0.1 93.00% 79.3 MT/day 112 °C 0.01% 1139.5 MT/day 112 °C 0.1 0.1 0.99% 0.55 bar Component Urea H2O NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.80% 1068.11 Upper Separator Component H2O Urea NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 71.1 99.20% 8.1.7 6.72% 0.9 MT/day 110 °C 2 bar Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.0 99.14% 71.

28% H2O Urea NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 223.3 99.00% 0.79% 2.2 0.84% H2O Urea NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 309.5 2.6 0.73% 0.1.0 0.19% 106.53% 0.1 MT/day 129 °C 2.6 bar Comprehensive design project 77 .13% 224.12 Waste Water Treatment Unit Component Component H2O Urea NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 105.37% 21.6 94.9 0.00% 0.00% 309.13% 0.1 MT/day 110 °C 1 bar 0.5 MT/day 110 °C 1 bar Waste Water Treatment Unit Component Component H2O Urea NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 20.0 0.5 100.5 MT/day 40 °C 1 bar 0.0 0.3 99.3 0.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.

5 MT/day 90 °C 1 bar Component Air Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day 2356.0 99.0 99.5 bar Weight MT/day Wt % 720.5 0.1.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.6 0.13 Granulator Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 31.00% MT/day °C bar Comprehensive design project 78 .80% 32.80% 1816.6 MT/day 89 °C 1 bar Weight MT/day Wt % 10.1 MT/day 52 °C 1.89 35 6 Wt % 100.6 MT/day 55 °C 6 bar Component Urea H2O Air Flow rate Temperature Pressure GRANULATION SECTION Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.00% 2356.5 MT/day 112 °C 2 bar Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1802.55% 2367.8 0.20% 14.20% 8.80% 726.3 0.8 99.5 0.89 2356.1 0.8 99.20% 5.9 99.80% 1068.45% 0.20% 0.

5 °C 1 bar Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1081.5 °C 1 bar Weight MT/day Wt % 477.8 MT/day 89.8 99.80% 480.80% 1816.9 MT/day 89.5 0.20% 3.1.14 Screen Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1802.80% 245.2 99.20% 8.0 99.0 0.0 99.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.80% 1089.8 MT/day 89.5 MT/day 89.8 0.20% 2.5 °C 1 bar Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 243.7 0.20% 14.5 °C 1 bar Comprehensive design project 79 .

62 6213.2 99.62 35 6 Component Urea Wt % 100.00% 6213.2 0.80% 1089.5 0.0 MT/day 45 °C 6 bar Component Air Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day 6213.2 0.7 0.0 99.9 MT/day 89 °C 1 bar Component Urea H2O Air Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 21.00% MT/day °C bar H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.15 Product Cooler Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1081.20% 8.80% 1068.66% 6235.34% 0.20% 8.1.6 99.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.5 MT/day 60 °C 1 bar Comprehensive design project 80 .

3 0.5 52 1 100.16 Bag Filter Component Air Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 8570.8 0.37% 0.6 MT/day 52 °C 6 bar Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 31.8 99.1 MT/day 52 °C 1 bar Comprehensive design project 81 .07% 0.1.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 05 5.5 99.00% MT/day °C bar Component Urea H2O Air Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 31.5 8570.00% 8570.3 0.93% 32.63% 8602.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 06 CHAPTER 6 MATERIAL FLOW SHEET Comprehensive design project 82 .

1 Material Flow Sheet 83 .Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 06 Material Flow Sheet Comprehensive design project Figure 6.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 07 CHAPTER 7 HEAT BALANCE CALCULATION Comprehensive design project 84 .

0 Heat Balance Calculation 7.84 127 0.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 07 7.01 Urea Vapour T (0C) Cp (KJ/KgK) 80 1.87 112 8.2 127 2.6 Ammonia Vapour T (ºC) Cp (KJ/KgK) 87 2.44 CO2(g) T (ºC) Cp (KJ/KgK) 27 0.26 120 1.94 227 1.6 200 2.6 80 5.1 Comprehensive design project 85 .3 167 2.4 120 1.56 Urea Liquid T (0C) Cp (KJ/KgK) 80 1.36 200 1.1 Main Process Energy Balance 2 NH3 + CO2 NH2COONH4 + HEAT NH2COONH4 + HEAT NH2CONH2 + H2O -84 KJ/mol +23 KJ/mol 2NH3 + CO2 Ammonia Liquid T (ºC) Cp (KJ/KgK) NH2CONH2 + H2O -60 KJ/mol 60 5.37 207 2.

56 77 1.26 177 4.04 Water Liquid T (0C) Cp (KJ/KgK) 27 4.94 = a + 400b + 4002c 1.9338 c = 1.6 = a + 333b + 3332c 5.3 KJ/KgK For NH3 liquid Cp = a + bT + cT2 5.87 = a + 353b + 3532c 8.3 = a + 400b + 4002c 2.01 = a + 500b + 500 c From (7).44 b = .2 = a + 360b + 3602c 2.18 127 4.4 b = 7.0. (5) & (6) a = 0. (8) & (9) Comprehensive design project 86 2 (7) (8) (9) .6 = a + 385b + 385 c From (1).25*10-3 c = -6.39 Cp of the Carbamate = 2.44 = a + 480b + 4802c From (4).38*10-3 2 (1) (2) (3) For NH3 gas Cp = a + bT + cT2 2.8 127 2.25*10-6 (4) (5) (6) For CO2 gas Cp = a + bT + cT2 0. (2) & (3) a = 163.84 = a + 300b + 3002c 0.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 07 Urea Solid T (0C) Cp (KJ/KgK) 27 1.

1 = a + 473b + 4732c From (10).77*10-3 c = 1.4 = a + 353b + 3532c 1.6 = a + 393b + 3932c 2.36 b = 2.5*10-6 Chapter 07 For Urea Cp = a + bT + cT2 1.Urea Manufacturing Plant a = 0. (11) & (12) a = 1.04*10-5 (10) (11) (12) Comprehensive design project 87 .05*10-3 c = -1.08 b = -2.

198.3°C 170 ºC MPS LPS 130 ºC 170 ºC 170 ºC Q2 190 ºC Q1 34 ºC Low pressure steam load at 5 bar pressure and 151.8 ºC for ammonia heating /day Medium pressure steam load at 13 bar and 191.1.1 Reactor 190 ºC MPS 198.6 ºC for ammonia heating Comprehensive design project 88 .Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 07 7.3°C COND.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 07 Urea formation heat by decomposing Ammonium Carbamate Ammonium Carbamate production in the reactor Ammonium Carbamate formation heat Heat required for increasing raw materials to 190 ºC Energy required to reactor Medium pressure steam load at 15 bar and 198.3ºC for reactor heating Comprehensive design project 89 .

198.1.3 °C 178°C 110 °C Decomposition energy of Ammonium Carbamate Heat released from Urea Heat released from Ammonium Carbamate Heat released from Water Comprehensive design project 90 .3 °C 198.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 07 7.2 Stripper 190 °C 190°C MP STEAM COND.

1.6 ºC for heating 7.3 Scrubber 189 °C 150 °C 190 °C 153 °C Comprehensive design project 91 .Urea Manufacturing Plant Heat absorbed by Carbon Dioxide Chapter 07 Heat absorbed for Ammonia vaporization Energy required for stripper Medium pressure steam load at 13bar and 191.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Heat released from up flow Chapter 07 Heat released from down flow Heat absorbed by Ammonia and Ammonium Carbamate Energy loss Comprehensive design project 92 .

4 Carbamate Condenser 150 °C 153 °C STM 151.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 07 7.1.8 °C 190 °C 145 °C SC 170 °C 170 °C Formation energy of Ammonium Carbamate at 170 C Heat absorbed by Ammonium Carbamate Heat absorbed by Carbon Dioxide Comprehensive design project 93 .

27 kJ/kg Comprehensive design project 94 .Urea Manufacturing Plant Heat absorbed by Ammonia Chapter 07 Condensation heat and sensible heat released by Ammonia Heat released by Carbon Dioxide Heat released from Carbamate condenser Production of steam load at 5bar Assume Cp of water at 145 C-150 C = 4.

1.5 High pressure decomposer 157 °C 178 °C 157 °C Decomposition energy of Ammonium Carbamate Heat released from Urea Heat released from Ammonium Carbamate Heat released from Water Comprehensive design project 95 .Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 07 7.

6 Low pressure decomposer 129 °C 157 °C LPS 151.1. 151.8 °C 129 °C 80°C Comprehensive design project 96 .Urea Manufacturing Plant Heat released by Ammonia Chapter 07 Heat absorbed for Ammonia vaporization Energy loss 7.8 °C 129 °C COND.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Decomposition energy of Ammonium Carbamate Chapter 07 Heat absorbed for Ammonia vaporization Heat released from Urea Heat released from Water Condensation heat released by water vapour from WWTU Heat absorbed by Carbon Dioxide Heat released by Ammonia Comprehensive design project 97 .

Urea Manufacturing Plant Heat released by Carbon Dioxide Chapter 07 Energy required to reactor Medium pressure steam load at 13 bar and 191.8 ºC for heating Low pressure steam load at 5 bar and 151.1.7 Low pressure absorber 129 °C CW 129 °C Formation energy of Ammonium Carbamate at 129 C Comprehensive design project 98 .8 ºC for heating 7.

8 High pressure absorber 157 °C 129 °C 150 °C Operating temperature calculation Comprehensive design project 99 .Urea Manufacturing Plant Condensation heat released by Ammonia Chapter 07 Heat released from LP Absorber Cooling water requirement 7.1.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Formation energy of Ammonium Carbamate at 151 C Chapter 07 Condensation heat released by Ammonia Energy loss due to reduce temperature Energy released from HP Absorber Heat released to heat output from LPD Heat released to cooling water Cooling water requirement Comprehensive design project 100 .

191.8 °C MPS 110 °C Heat released from Urea Heat released from water Heat absorbed by water vaporization Heat loss Heat required for slurry heat to 178 C Comprehensive design project 101 .1.9 Flash separator 110 °C 150 °C Urea slurry 129°C 140°C 178 °C 150 °C COND.8 °C 191.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 07 7.

1. 110 °C Heat absorbed by water vaporization Energy loss Comprehensive design project 102 .10 Lower separator 110°C 110 °C LPS 151.Urea Manufacturing Plant Heat recovered from MP Absorber Chapter 07 Additional heat required by 13bar MP steam MP steam load 7.8 °C 151.8 °C COND.

11 Upper separator 112 °C 110 °C LPS 151. 112 °C Heat absorbed by water vaporization Heat absorbed by urea and water Comprehensive design project 103 .Urea Manufacturing Plant Total energy requirement Chapter 07 5bar LP steam load 7.8 °C 151.1.8 °C COND.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Energy loss Chapter 07 Total energy requirement 5bar LP steam load 7.12 Process wastewater treatment unit Heat requirement of WWTU Low pressure steam load at 5 bar and 151.8 ºC for heating Cooling heat of process wastewater from flash separator Cooling water load Cooling heat of process wastewater from lower and upper separator Cooling water load Comprehensive design project 104 .1.

2 Product cooler Heat removed from Product cooler 6 bar cooling Air load Comprehensive design project 105 .2.2 Granulation Plant 7.1 Granulator Heat removed from granulator 6 bar cooling Air load 7.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 07 7.2.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 08 CHAPTER 8 TABULATED HEAT BALANCE Comprehensive design project 106 .

00 512283.45 899260.75 62527.63 2962029.80 172190.1 Tabulated Heat Balance Input Energy Heating of Ammonia due to low pressure steam Heating of Ammonia due to high pressure steam Heat supplied to Reactor Heat supplied to Stripper Heat supplied to LPD by low pressure steam Heat supplied to LPD by high pressure steam Heat supplied to Flash Separator Heat supplied to Lower Separator Heat supplied to Upper separator Heat supplied to Wastewater Treatment Plant Total input energy MJ/day 471962.64 104259.9 416783.87 255948.1 Tabulated Heat Balance Comprehensive design project MJ/day 124.67 123475.Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 08 8.50 2848435.38 251197.25 570330.69 6596.49 63000.70 1255586.47 107 .08 300428.2 47434.0 Tabulated heat balance 8.64 97492.21 Output Energy Heat out from Scrubber Heat out from Carbamate condenser Heat out from HPD Heat out from LP Absorber Heat out from HP Absorber Heat out from Wastewater cooling 1 Heat out from Wastewater cooling 2 Heat out from Granulator Heat out from Product Cooler Total output energy Table 8.04 199581.

Urea Manufacturing Plant Chapter 08 Difference between input and output energy = 113594. But the amount of theoretical heat generated in the reaction is much higher than this value.26 MJ/day Total heat output greater than the total heat input. Comprehensive design project 108 . That difference between actual and theoretical value happens because of the heat losses occurred during the process. So this difference is due to heat generated in the reaction.

ac. TOKYO JAPAN Escalating worldwide use of urea – a global change contributing to coastal eutrophication by PATRICIA M.htm Urea . USA MSDS urea .pdf Urea Production and Manufacturing process www.nz/ChemProcesses/production/1A.umn.chem. urea.Chemical Engineering Design Project: A Case Study Approach World Wide Web references Ammonia and Urea Production http://www. R. JOHNSTON .com/msds/englishhtml/u4725. (Editors) MARTYN S.3rd1000.id/data/MSDS-urea.W.Urea Manufacturing Plant REFERENCES Book References Urea manufacturing processes in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. the free encyclopedia . and ammonium from http://msds.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch08/final/c08s02.H.htm Urea .Authors: Will Lemmen (Licensing Manager) and Hans van Baal (Licensing Manager) Latest Urea Technology for Improving Performance and Product Quality by EIJI SAKATA (Senior Process Engineer).htm MSDS safety data sheets for ammonium carbamate.edu/distribution/cropsystems/DC0636.Perry.pusri.com/urea/_en/index.com/urea/urea. RAY.nzic.en. 5th Edition..html .com/msds/C2950. GLIBERT.html UREA .http://www. TX.jtbaker.sciencestuff. D.icis.org. Volume A27 Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook .PDF E-book References The Environmental Impact of a Stamicarbon 2000 mtpd Urea Plant .co.extension. and Green.html Urea – Wikipedia.www.TAKAHIRO YANAGAWA (PROCESS ENGINEER) --TOYO ENGINEERING CORPORATION . CYNTHIA HEIL and SYBIL SEITZINGER Comprehensive design project 109 .org/wiki/Urea Fertilizer Urea .www.Science Stuff Inc.com/v2/chemicals/9076560/urea/process. DAVID W.stamicarbon. Austin.http://www.www.uk/ MSDS urea .1104 Newport Ave. JOHN HARRISON.www.epa.http://www.pdf Urea .wikipedia.ox.

c NH3 Steam a) CO2 compressor b) Hydrogen removal reactor c) Urea reactor d) High-pressure stripper e) High-pressure carbamate condenser f) High-pressure scrubber g) Low-pressure absorber h) Low-pressure decomposer and rectifier i) Pre-evaporator j) Low-pressure carbamate condenser k) Evaporator l) Vacuum condensation section m) Process condensate treatment CW . d Urea melt to granulation a .Stripping Urea Process l e Steam g h f f TCW i j CW m Water TCW Cond.Stamicarbon CO2 .Cooling water TCW .Tempered cooling water k Steam Cond. CO2 b Cond.

d) Medium-pressure decomposer. e) Ammonia carbamate separation column.Convectional Urea Plant j NH3 i e c d f Water g CO2 a b h Air Urea a) CO2 compressor. i) Desorber (waste water stripper). g) Evaporator. b) High pressure ammonia pump. j) Vacuum condensation section . f) Low-pressure decomposer. h) Prilling. c) Urea reactor.

Fuel tanks Ammonia storage tank Process area pond Garden Waste water treatment plant CO2 Storage tank Cooling tower Guard room Water tank Cooling tower Urea store house Administration section Granualization area Guard room .

CW CW UPC AIR LP steam COMPRESSOR NH3 CO2 .FLASH SEPARATOR SCRUBBER SC STM Clean gas out BAG FILTER CARBAMATE CONDENSER LOWER SEPARATOR LPD UPPER SEPARATOR STM HPD SC REACTOR HP ABSORBER STRIPPER LP ABSORBER GRANULATION SECTION CW PC STRIPPER SURFACE CONDENCER UREA GRANULES AIR HYDROLYSER CW MP STEAM MP steam COND.

HP ABSORBER T CW T AIR T LP steam FIRE TUBE BOILER COMPRESSOR CONDENSED WATER TANKS Feed Water NH3 CO2 COOLING TOWER POND WATER .Urea flow lines other process lines Steam line Condensed water line Cooling water line BAG FILTER T FLASH SEPARATOR Clean gas out T T LOWER SEPARATOR UPPER SEPARATOR T P T STM SC GRANULATION SECTION CO2 SURFACE CONDENCER LP ABSORBER T CW CW PC STRIPPER Waste water CW T HYDROLYSER UREA GRANULES T STRIPPER MP STEAM MP steam T COND.

02% Temperature Pressure g MT/day Wt % 31.76% 1559.7 100.5 2.20% 14.g ComponenMT/day NH3 CO2 Flow rate Temperatu Pressure 1.20% 8.6 MT/day 52 °C 6 bar 1399.2 0.80% 726.28% 0.00% 77.00% 2356.6 MT/day 190 °C 175 bar 224.2 MT/day 189 °C 175 bar Component NH3 CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day 327.21% Component Urea H2O Wt % 79.6 99.6 338 0.80% MT/day °C bar Component Weight Wt % NH3 600.5 MT/day 263.91% Component Urea H2O NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure MT/day Wt % 1060.8 0.57% 903.1 MT/day 129 °C 2.4 Wt % 12.84% 0.6 MT/day 157 °C 17.3 MT/day 170 °C 175 bar HPD LOWER  SEPARATOR Temperature Pressure 5.79% 0.7 0.00% Urea Carbamate NH3 H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Pressure Component Urea H2O NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure MT/day Wt % 1060.9 0.8 0.07% STRIPPER HP ABSORB ER LP  ABSORBER Component Component CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 263.5 MT/day 40 °C 1 bar 0.5 1068.3 MT/day 170 °C 175 bar 318 14.00% 2872.5 0.24% 2045.4 69.9 MT/day 129 °C 1.3 MT/day 178 °C 175 bar 1139.00% 17.00% 0 0 0.3 99.7 bar Component Urea H2O Flow rate Weight Wt % 1060 99.13% 0.5 bar 1293 MT/day 110 °C 0.00% 263.2 99.20% 0.99% 0.37% 21.79% 87.34% 0. Carbamate REACTOR MT/day Wt % 486.16% 0.89% Carbamate 130.00% 6213.8 32.2 0.4 0.73% 0.7 MT/day 157 °C 17.6 2.1 MT/day 110 °C 1 bar WWTP  UNIT CO2 COMPRESSOR .7 Component Urea Wt % 12.63% 11.6 75.9 MT/day 89 °C C 1 bar Weight MT/day Wt % 10.1 28.4 44.3 82.6 MT/day 89 °C 1 bar Component Weight ComponenMT/day Wt % NH3 212.3 8570.3 MT/day 190 °C 175 bar Component NH3 Carbamate Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight 9.5 60 1 Wt % 99.7 71.04% 1399.5 Wt % 1.00% Flow rate Temperature Pressure 600.00% ComponenWeight Wt % NH3 53.3 232.90% 591 20.80% Flow rate Temperature Pressure 1089.6 31.81% 24.9 MT/day 170 °C 175 bar Flow rate Temperature Pressure ComponenWeight Wt % NH3 612.5 MT/day 90 °C 1 bar Component Urea H2O Air Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 31.3 MT/day 170 °C 175 bar Component CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure ht MT/d Wt % 77.00% 19.1 6.80% BAG   FILTER 1816.1 MT/day 52 °C 1.4 9.46% 318 11.1 MT/day 129 °C 2.5 MT/day 110 °C 1 bar 309.5 20.8 0.00% 499.09% 495.3 32.19% 106.1 MT/day 150 °C 175 bar 318 17.3 100.20% PRODUC T  COOLER 1068.11% Flow rate Temperatu Pressure 1364.55% 2367.5 bar Component H2O Urea NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 20 94.85% LPD Component Weight NH3 CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure 4.21% Component Urea Carbamate NH3 H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure MT/day Wt % 1060 48.2 MT 190 °C 175 bar Component CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight Wt % 735.1 0.5 bar UPPER  SEPARATO R 486.8 55.79% 87.45% 0.00% 0.5 0.11% Flow rate Temperatu Pressure 183.81% 338 24.00% 263.5 0.3 0.00% 79.89% Carbamate 522.3 22.5 0.49% NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.3 100.3 MT 80 °C 20 bar Component H2O Urea NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 105.5 100.9 99.6 MT/day 55 °C 6 bar Component Urea H2O Air Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 21.7 0.7 MT/day 170 °C 175 bar Component Urea Carbamate NH3 H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1060 36.3 Wt % 100.1 93.6 0.00% 99.7 71.2 0.1 331.9 MT/day 110 °C 0.3 59.8 MT/day 150 °C 175 bar 84.01% SCREEN 37.3 100.5 75.45% 3.13% Component H2O Urea NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 309.6 bar Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day 1060 8.20% 0.60% 15.1 23.53% H2O Urea NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 223.04% FLASH SEPARATOR MT/day Wt % 1802 99.11% Flow rate Temperatu Pressure CARBAMATE CONDENSER Weight MT/day Wt % 1060 349.4 98.40% 2208.16% 0.66% 6235 MT/day 45 °C 6 bar 263.5 bar Component Urea H2O Air Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight Component MT/day Wt % 1081.3 99.37% 0.51% 411.20% Urea H2O 8.7 bar Component NH3 A.1 MT/day 129 °C 2.70% 1796.80% 112 °C 2 bar GRANULATOR SCRUBBE R Component CO2 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight 263.3 28.98% 0.6 99.5 bar 8602.7 76.89% CO2 751.8 Wt % 99.5 bar Component Weight Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature 720.80% Component Urea H2O Flow rate Temperature Pressure H2O Flow rate Component Urea H2O NH3 Flow rate Temperature Pressure Weight MT/day Wt % 1060.3 0.

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