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O’Leary NAUI Technical Diving Operations Los Alamos National Laboratory and American Diving And Marine Salvage Los Alamos, N.M. 87545 and South Padre Island, Tx. 78587
FORWARD As land dwelling, air breathing creatures, we have evolved perceptions, behaviors, practices, and procedures for living in an air atmosphere. Venturing into the underwater world, many things change. A number of important physical changes affect this underwater world and are important to us as technical and commercial divers. This monograph discusses these changes and suggests application problems that will help to quantify underlying physical principles affecting underwater activities. Technical diving used to be the pervue of just commercial and military divers. Today, highly motivated and well trained recreational divers are pushing diving to new depths, on mixed gases, with sophisticated electronic sensors and dive computers, using modern rebreathers, wearing special exposure suits, in the oceans, lakes, and at high altitude. This new breed of diver receives training from any one of a number of new technical agencies, like the National Association of Underwater Instructors (NAUI), Technical Diving International (TDI), International Association Of Nitrox And Technical Divers (IANTD), and Association Of Nitrox Diving Instructors (ANDI), as well as the older recreational agencies, such as PADI, YMCA, SSI, and NASDS. For the technical diver and working commercial diver, this monograph is hopefully both a training tool and extended reference. Technical diving encompasses a wide spectrum of related disciplines, from geophysics to biophysics, atmospherics physics to hydrodynamics, medical physics to engineering physics, and mathematical physics to statistical analysis. The scope is immense, and so any monograph has to be selective, and probably not in depth as possible. And diving physics can be a tedious exercise for readers. Obviously, physiology is an even more complicated mix of physics, chemistry, and biology. Like comments apply to decompression theory, a combination of biophysics, physiology, and biochemistry in a much cloudier picture within perfused and metabolic tissue and blood. Biological systems are so complex, beyond even the fastest and biggest supercomputers for modeling analysis. Often, the tedium relates to a proliferation of equations and deduced results. So, selectivity without mathematical complexity is the direction we take here in narrative. Mathematical equations are kept at deﬁnitional level to facilitate description. The hope is to better encapsulate a large body of underlying physical principle in very readible form. Sample problems, with solutions, are included to enhance quantitative description and understanding. Topics are fundamental and chosen in their relevance to technical diving. Bibliographies do offer full blown treatments of all principles detailed for diving. For highlight, Figures include mathematical deﬁnitions for completeness, with the intended purpose of extending discourse. Problems (101) employ quantitative relationships detailed in the text, using data and information from Tables and Figures. Many thanks to our mutual and separate friends and colleagues, collaborators in the industrial, medical, and diving sectors, and to technical and commercial divers who posed many nitty questions about diving. Their queries prompted this monograph on diving physics, physiology, geophysics, marine phenomenon, biophysics, decompression models, algorithms, tables, and related topics. Special thanks to Luzanne and Diane for being spectacular women in all ways, and to Hillary and Seana for reminding us that adults have much to learn from children. Good reading, and good diving always.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES OVERVIEW AND UNITS / Units And Equivalences DIVING HISTORY / Modern Diving MATTER / Atomistics And Elementals / Density MECHANICAL INTERACTIONS / Force And Momentum / Energy And Work / Power / Light / Optics / Sound / Heat / Equation Of State / Wave Motion RHEOLOGY / Deformation / Friction / Viscosity / Shocks THERMAL INTERACTIONS / Temperature / First Law / Second Law / High Pressure Cylinders / Phase Transformations PRESSURE AND DENSITY EFFECTS / Pressure / Barometer Equation / Air Consumption GAUGES / Capillary Gauges / Bourdon And Oil Filled Gauges / Submersible Tank Gauges HYDROSTATICS / Archimedes Principle / Wetsuit Expansion And Compression / Fresh And Salt Water Buoyancy GAS AND FLUID KINETICS / Ideal And Real Gases / Water Waves / Fluidization PHASE DYNAMICS / Dissolved Phases / Perfusion And Diffusion Transport / Free Phases / Nucleation / Cavitation BUBBLE MECHANICS / Surfactants / Doppler Bubbles / Micronuclei And Gel Experiments / Bends MIXED BREATHING GASES / Biological Reactivity / Comparative Properties / Nitrox / Heliox / Trimix / Hydrox / Equivalent Air Depth / Oxygen Rebreathing ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTIONS / Coulomb And Ampere Laws / Plasmas / Fusion Energy / Stellar Evolution / Elementary Particle Interactions DIVE TABLES AND METERS / Haldane Model / Critical Tensions / Table And Meter Algorithms / Altitude Procedures COMPUTING /Serial And Parallel Processors / Networks And Storage / Grand Challenge Problems / Monte Carlo Methods MALADIES AND DRUGS / Bends / High Pressure Nervous Syndrome / Inert Gas Narcosos / Hyperoxia And Hypoxia / Hypercapnia And Hypocapnia / Barotrauma / Altitude Sickness / Pulmonary Edema / Hypothermia And Hyperthermia / Dysbaric Osteonecrosis / Drugs TECHNICAL DIVING PROBLEMS SUMMARY ADDITIONAL READING
Pages - 100, Figures - 15, References - 115, Problems - 101
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Hopefully by the end of this monograph, you will be able to: understand concepts presented in headings and subsections; discuss English and metric systems of units, and be able to easily convert back and forth between the systems; describe the basic mechanical laws of nature; describe how light, heat, and sound transmission are affected by water; describe the simple gas laws in diving, and associated phase dynamics; discuss breathing gas mixtures and impact on diving activity; describe the basic thermodynamic laws of nature; discuss temperature scales and their relationships; describe how pressure and density changes affect the diver underwater; describe how pressure and density changes affect diver equipment underwater; describe how dive tables amd meter algorithms limit diving activities; describe common diving maladies in a cursory fashion; work sample technical diving problems. OVERVIEW AND UNITS The physics, biology, engineering, physiology, medicine, and chemistry of diving center on pressure, and pressure changes. The average individual is subjected to atmospheric pressure swings of 3% at sea level, as much as 20% a mile in elevation, more at higher altitudes, and all usually over time spans of hours to days. Divers and their equipment can experience compressions and decompressions orders of magnitude greater, and within considerably shorter time scales. While the effects of pressure change are readily quantiﬁed in physics, chemistry, and engineering applications, the physiology, medicine, and biology of pressure changes in living systems are much more complicated. Caution is needed in transposing biological principles from one pressure range to another. Incomplete knowledge and mathematical complexities often prevent extensions of even simple causal relationships in biological science. Causal relationships between observables are, of course, the pervue of physics, and that difﬁcult process in living systems is biophysics. In the underwater realm, diving physics is collectively the quantiﬁcation of pressure related natural phenomena, and that certainly includes elements of geophysics, oceanography, astrophysics, and geology, as well. With such understanding, this primer focuses on diving physics and associated mathematical relationships. Basic principles are presented, and practical applications and results are detailed. Topics discussed are related to diver, diving protocols, and operational procedures. Topics include the usual energy and matter interactions, particle and wave mechanics, heat, light, sound, gas kinetics, thermodynamics, phase dynamics, temperature, nucleation and and cavitation, gas mixtures, hydrostatics, and their coupling in diving. Standard (SI) and English units are employed. However, by convention, because of usage, or for ease, some non standard units are also used. For instance, pressure and depth are both measured in feet of sea water ( f sw) and meters of sea water (msw), with 1 atm = 33 f sw = 10 msw to very good approximation. Units And Equivalences Notation for units are also abbreviated according to standard convention, otherwise spelled out. The abbreviated units include second (sec), minute (min), hour (hr), meter (m), millimeter (mm), centimeter (cm), micrometer (micron), nanometer (nm), kilometer (km), gram (g), kilogram (kg), pound (lb), inch (in), foot ( f t ), yard (yd ), miles per hour (mph), liter (l ), milliliter (ml ), quart (qt ), calorie (cal ), pounds per square 3
inch ( psi), newton (nt ), dyne (dyn), atmosphere (atm), British thermal unit (btu), horsepower (hp), gram molecular weight (gmole), atomic mass unit (amu), electrostatic unit (esu), coulomb (coul ), ampere (amp), feet of sea water ( f sw), and meters of sea water (msw). Units are easily converted using the chain rule or equivalence ratio, that is, simple multiplication of a measurement, or unit count, by the conversion ratio. For instance, to convert 3 nautical mile to kilometers, one merely multiplies 3 nautical mile by the ratio, 1:85 km=nautical mile, and cancels units to get the answer in kilometers, 3 nautical mile 1:85 km=nautical mile = 5:55 km : Multiple equivalence ratios can also be chained to give conversions. To convert 230 cal to ergs, one might use, 230 cal 4:19 j=cal 10 7 ergs= j = 963:7 107 ergs or any one of a number of other equivalence chains. Table 1 equivalences SI, English, and other units. Each equivalence can be cast as conversion ratio. Table 1. Equivalences And Unit Conversions. Time 60 sec 1 megahertz Length 1 cm 1m 1 micron 1 km 1 f athom 1 nautical mile
= = = = = = = = =
1 min 106 sec;1
1 light year
3:28 f t 1:09 yd 10;6 m :62 mile 6 ft 6 080 f t 1:15 mile 1:85 km 9:46 1012 km 5:88 1012 mile
Speed 1 km=hr 1 mph 1 knot
= = = =
27:77 cm=sec 5280 f t =sec 1:15 mph 51:48 cm=sec
Volume 1 cm3 1 m3 1l
= = = = = =
06 in3 35:32 f t 3 1:31 yd 3 103 cm3 3 :04 f t :91 qt
24g 1 j=sec 3:41 btu=hr 1:34 10.3 btu 3:09 f t lb 107 ergs :74 f t lb 103 eV 1:60 10.3 hp Electricity and Magnetism 1 coul 1 amp 1 volt = = = = = 2:99 10 9 esu 1 coul =sec 1 volt =ohm 1 nt coul m 1 j=coul 5 .16 j 1:66 10 .Mass and Density 1g 1 kg 1 g=cm 1 kg=m3 Force and Pressure 1 nt 1 g=cm 2 2 3 = = = = = 04 oz 32:27 oz 2:20 lb 3 :57 oz=in 3 :06 lb= f t : = = = = = = = = 1 kg=m 1 atm 105 dyne :22 lb 2 :23 oz=in 2 :20 lb= f t 33 f sw 10 msw 10:1 nt =cm2 14:69 lb=in2 Energy and Power 1 cal = = = 1j 1 keV 1 amu 1 watt = = = = = = = = 4:19 j 3:96 10.
During the 1950s. in 1958. National Association of Underwater Instructors (NAUI). SCUBA offered the means to explore the underwater world for fun and proﬁt. Following introduction of a twelve compartment Haldanian device. rebreathers are witnessing a rebirth among technical divers. aptly termed 6 . by Barshinger and Huggins in 1983. In the mid to late 1950s. At that time. linked to Doppler technolgy. the open and closed circuit units provided an element of stealth to tactical underwater operations to be sure. In the mid 1950s. The ﬁrst case of nitrogen narcosis was reported by Junod in 1835. the US Navy (USN) compiled their modiﬁed Haldane tables with six perfusion limited compartments. As early as 1880. designed by DCIEM in Canada. Surface supplied air and demand regulators were employed in hard hat diving by the 1800s. were invented in 1840. Commercial availability of the demand regulator in 1947 initiated sport diving and a ﬂedgling equipment industry. Saturation diving and underwater habitats followed soon after. by the late 1950s. while a little later. The world record dives of Keller to 1. in 1960. The ﬁrst digital computers. some Korean and Japanese breathold divers still gather pearls and sponges in the same old way. Flexible. decompression computers reached a point of maturation and acceptance. particularly after the oil embargo. recreational divers switched to the popular open circuit device developed by Cousteau and Gagnan. and primitive diving bells also date BC.000 feet of sea water. and a few are still around. Oil concerns still drive the commercial diving industry today. In ensuing years. organized in the late 1950s and 1960s. the Royal Navy (RN) released their bulk diffusion decompression tables. and was used by underwater combatants in World War II. oxygen rebreathing system. Employed by the Canadian Navy (CN). some 500 years before Christ. and was chronicled by the Greek historian. recreational divers used oxygen rebreathers. gathered in the 1990s. they were based on a four compartment analog model of Kidd and Stubbs. the apparatus was reﬁned considerably. Their timely functionality and widespread use heralded the present era of hi-tech diving. more reliable to use. point to an enviable track record of diver safety. And. gained renown in the 1600s. Both multiple gas mixtures and saturation diving became a way of life for some commercial divers by the 1970s. Freed from surface umbilical. with an underlying decompression sickness (DCS) incidence below 0. Today. spurred by a world thirst for oil. Full diving suits. Coupled to high pressure compressed air in tanks. Fleuss developed and tested the ﬁrst closed circuit. the revolutionary aqua lung of Cousteau. Quietly. Diving would never be the same afterward. and the quest to go deeper led to exotic gas breathing mixtures. Shortly afterward. and Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI). or so. with the ﬁrst demand regulator. Persians also carried air in goatskins underwater. US Navy Underwater Demolition (UDT) and Sea Air Land (SEAL) Teams have continuously employed rebreathers for tactical operations. Fredrickson in the USA and Alinari in Italy designed and released the ﬁrst analog decompression meters. However. digital computers rapidly replaced pneumatic devices in the 1980s. The inverted receptacles. porous plugs. the ﬁrst use of a caisson in 1841 in France by Triger also witnessed the ﬁrst case of decompression sickness. a reﬁnement of the Rouquayrol surface supplied demand regulator. appeared in the mid 1950s.05% roughly. emulating tissue gas uptake and elimination with pressure gauges. of course. Serious diver training and certifying agencies. Reed breathing tubes were employed by ambushing Roman Legions. and able to emulate almost any mathematical model. patented by Rouquayrol in 1866. Cochrane in England invented the high pressure caisson in 1830. but also witnessed the ﬁrst use of computers to generate decompression schedules. ushered the modern era of SCUBA in wartime Europe in 1943. Diver mobility concerns ultimately fostered development of the modern SCUBA unit. Herodotus.DIVING HISTORY Breathold diving dates as far back as Xerxes (519 BC) and Alexander the Great (356 BC). and distensible gas bags. in which air escapes through a one way exhaust valve. oxygen toxicity was not completely understood. Today. but the impact on non military diving was orders of magnitude greater. High pressure cylinders and compressors similarly expedited deeper diving and prolonged exposure time. utilizing Boyle’s law compressed air as breathing mixture. strong and still vital today. with requirments for comprehensive decompression models across a full spectrum of activity. supplied by hand bellows. or computers. thereby trading oxygen toxicity and caustic carbon dioxide concerns for decompression sickness and nitrogen narcosis. Both would acquire biblical status over the next 25 years. such as the YMCA. Computer usage statistics. not only popularized multiple gas mixtures. though the effects of breathing pure oxygen were coupled to excitability and fever.
and many of the problems. or 1 atm. lockout and free ﬂooded submersibles. effective combinations of mixed breathing gases. the need for continued deep diving remains. Indeed. unknown or only partially understood. and range of applicability of models. diver systems. and scientiﬁc sectors. and driven by a need to both optimize diver safety and time underwater. and Diogene. By the 1800s. Man In Sea. bell diving systems. Similarly. military priorities. commercial. reducing descent and ascent time. Today. and for a variety of reasons. gauges and meters. and trimix the choice for deeper exposures in the ﬁeld. reliability. and lessing physical activity. mask and ﬁn design. in 1889. the ﬁrst medical lock was employed by Moir to treat bends during construction of the Hudson River Tunnel. applying equally well to the design of equipment used in this environment. Yet. Support platforms extended both diver usefulness and bottom time. commercial diving requirements. lights. the operational requirements of diving over the years have provided the incentives to study hyperbaric physiology and its relationship to decompression sickness. Conshelf.the bends because of the position assumed by victims to alleviate the pain. absolute pressure limits. In the conquest and exploration of the oceans. expanding mobility. Equipment advances in open and closed circuit breathing devices. themselves operating from underwater platforms. nitrogen. Diving bells. Increases in pressure with increasing depth underwater impose many of the limitations in diving. computers. These efforts followed proof of principle validation. such as Sealab. Heliox and trimix have become standards for deep excursion breathing gases. hot water heating. high pressure compressors. communications links. surface supplied air. and impetus for describing fundamental biophysics. In the 1900s. at least from an operational point of view. laboratory programs. The development and use of underwater support platforms. Saturation exposure programs and tests have been conducted from 35 f sw to 2. while later divers used diving bells. Within that postulate. limitations of nitrogen mixtures at depth. welding. expanded wet testing. and international business spurred diving activity and scope of operation. took deﬁnition with growing concern for underwater safety and well being. strategies for diving in excess of 1. and photographic systems paced technological advances. therapy. and efﬁcient decompression algorithms signaled the modern diving era. Modern Diving A concensus of opinions. Surface supplied air and SCUBA are rather recent innovations. demonstrated the feasibility of living and working underwater for long periods of time.000 f sw received serious scrutiny. most of the ocean ﬂoor is outside human 7 . with decompression sickness perhaps the most restrictive. Spurred by both industrial and military interests in the ability of men to work underwater for long periods of time. and the needs of the commercial diving industry to service that quest. for reasons of science and economics. could be solved. with heliox the choice for shallower exposures. explosives).000 f sw. with demands that cannot be answered with remote. saturation. and oxygen breathing mixtures at depth. divers encountered a number of physiological and medical problems constraining activity. gear weight. Gulf Task. Questions concerning pharmacological additives. prompted recent study and application of helium. Some ﬁfty years later.000 f sw to 2. and diver propulsion units also accelerated in the 1960s and 1970s. such as habitats. despite tremendous advances in deep diving technology. wet and dry suits. because of narcotic reactivity. Technological achievements. deep diving. it became clear that open sea water work in the 1. especially in the commercial sector. of saturation diving. Tektite. decompression modeling has consolidated early rudimentary schedules into present more sophisticated tables and meters. As knowledge and understanding of decompression sickness increase. compression-decompression procedures. and equipment functionality addressed many fundamental issues. drilling. With increasing depth and exposure time. underwater tools (cutting. suggests that modern diving began in the early 1960s. they were postulated as the cause of decompression sickness in caisson workers and divers. saturation diving gained prominence in the 1960s. Since that time many divers and caisson workers have been treated in hyperbaric chambers. in military. by Bond and coworkers (USN) in 1958. ﬂotation and buoyancy control vests. sport.000 f sw for minerals and oil. safety concerns. By the early 1980s. bubbles were noted in animals subject to pressure reduction. by permitting him to live underwater. Today. hydrogen. thermal exchange. Around 1972. Training and certiﬁcation requirements for divers. remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) scan the ocean depths at 6. Early divers relied on their breathholding ability. so should the validity. permitting exploitation of the continental shelf impossible with the short exposure times allowed by conventional diving. mixed gases. notable habitat experiments.000 f sw range was entirely practical. driven by a commercial quest for oil and petroleum products.
This view prevailed for about 2000 yr. matter and energy are equivalent. A century later. can change form and phase. and was based on some careful studies of decomposition and recombination. Boyle also deduced the ideal gas law from experiments in the laboratory. Although all matter was formulated from these elements. that is. Molecules in a solid are relatively ﬁxed. A gram molecular weight (gmole) of substance. volatility. the elements themselves represented qualities and were nonmaterial. in 1808.4 l. the ether. For instance. The list included some stable compounds. Two centuries later. which states that in any given compound. Continued work by Lavoisier led to the law of deﬁnite proportions. BC. Molecules of a gas are in constant motion. mercury. In 1661. and also heat and light. such as silica and alumina. and ﬁre were elements. 8 . oxygenated ﬂuids have been used as breathing mixtures. Robert Boyle developed a chemical atomic theory. The list was some 30 elements long. which deﬁed decomposition with existent technology. originated with the philosopher Leucippus and follower Democritus in the Fifth Century. Lavoisier composed a list of elements based on experimentally veriﬁable deﬁnition. as alchemists found new transformations. that is. The atomic hypotheses. a chemical substance is one that cannot be decomposed into simpler structures by chemical means. possesses Avogadro’s number. Breathing mixtures that are not compressible offer interesting alternatives. Breathing mixtures that are compressible are limiting. Dalton postulated: 1. These two interacting concepts of elements and atoms are unsurpassed in their importance to the development of science and technology. Matter cannot be created nor destroyed. the elements always occur in the same proportions by weight no matter how the compound is synthesized. All of observable science is based on this premise.reach. Centuries later. but can oscillate about their lattice points. Acting as inert respiratory gas diluents. giving deﬁnition to chemical elements as certain primitive and simply unmingling bodies. and consists of tiny atoms and molecules. and salt. but it can be transformed by chemical and nuclear reactions. Stated simply. The Greek notion was still lingering. of atoms or molecules. Aristotle accepted from earlier philosophers that air. thereby eliminating decompression requirements. such as ﬂuorocarbon (FX 80 ). that is. representing the heavenly bodies. At standard temperature and pressure (STP). This was generalized to the law of equivalent weights. serious attention was given to liquid breathing mixtures. all atoms of a given element are identical but different from the atoms of another element 2. Elements are collections of all the same atoms. Liquid molecules are free to move and slide over each other. or gaseous state Matter has deﬁnite mass and volume. namely. exhibit enormous oxygen dissolution properties. A. such as hydrogen. The postulate of the conservation of mass-energy is fundamental. or that weight which will combine with or replace a unit of standard weight from a standard element. some 6:025 10 23 constituents. liquid. These were thought to represent the quantities of combustibility. indispensable to our understanding of chemical elements. water. Some synthetic ﬂuids. a gram mole of ideal gas occupies 22. N0 . three more were added to the list. earth. mass-energy can neither be created nor destroyed. In the most general sense. MATTER Matter is anything that occupies space. the nuclear and chemical binding energies of molecules and atoms result from very small mass reductions in constituent particles (mass defect) when in bound states. and he added a ﬁfth. while loosely bound. compounds are formed from these elemental atoms. at 0 C o and 1 atm pressure. They are the building blocks of nature. and incombustibility. and cannot be derived from any other principle. sulfur. usually in solid. John Dalton postulated an atomic theory that incorporated atomic weight as distinguished from equivalent weight (but including equivalent weight as a supercase) and was capable of explaining empirically derived and observed laws of chemical combination. and number somewhere over 100 in natural occuring abundance. BC. on the heels of Democritus. In the 1960s. an amount of substance in grams equal to its atomic weight. physiological saline solutions. Atomistics And Elementals The concept that one or a few elementary substances could interact to form matter was originated by Greek philosophers in the Sixth Century.
with a number of short lived elements already added to the Table (californium. such that the table contains columns and rows of elements with similar properties. and seemingly undiscovered elements with predictable properties could be sought to ﬁll holes in the table. Both pressure and density are intuitive. by row and/or column (Periodic Table). if only one compound can be formed from X and Y. As seen. per unit area. and move in collisional paths is a microscopic statement that matter has density. Egyptians. That atoms attract or repel one another is the basis of chemical. Molecules. Soon the process results in matter on perceivable state and scale (liquid. And the process continues along the same path to larger fundamental blocks. P= F A (1) and is equal in all directions (scalar quantity. elucidated and measured at early times in our scientiﬁc history by the Greeks. and links temperature to measure collisional speeds. pressure in gases results from molecular collisions with surroundings. F. einsteinium. that is. Pressure. neutrons. fundamental concepts. The fourth assumption (incorrect as we know) suggested that nature is more simple than real. occupy space. particle accelerators and cosmic probes continue the search for superheavies. Atoms may certainly stick together (attract into bound states). ρ= m V (2) 9 . and can repel or attract each other. and move in collisional paths. or solid). in unit volume. merely by interjecting nX and mY atoms in the chemical reaction stream. exerts pressure. and protons comprising atoms. gas. But. is simply the force. partons. with 65 elements in the list. 4. For the ﬁrst time in history.3. The atomistics view is totally compatible with our level of perception and we can measure down to the atomistic level. nobelium. Atoms have mass. and elementary particle reaction kinetics. liquid. occupy space. is the most succint statement we can make about scientiﬁc knowledge. if we lived in a smaller world (subatomic). Density The concepts of mass and corresponding occupied volume are fundamental perceptions. This periodic law allows the arrangement of elements in the table in order of increasing weight. Avogadro. collide with each other. rutherfordium. The equation of state relates pressure. Today. while force itself is formally a vector quantity). so to speak. and so on. atomic. berkelium. we might point to the substructure of electrons. Clearly pressure and density are fundamental concepts at the lowest level of description. it was shown that the chemical elements form an entity in their interrelationships. m. P. A. However. using these assumptions constructed the ﬁrst Periodic Chart. and Cannizzaro later corrected Dalton’s fourth assumption. such a fundamental conception exhibits itself in the equation of state of a solid. density. occupy space. is the mass density. may synthesize into macromolecules. And then the structure of these components might be further divided. forming larger molecules that also have mass. thought to be the building blocks of subatomic particles are the objects of the succint statement applied to atoms. Macroscopically. Molecules may also attract or repel other atoms and molecules. hahnium. chemical reactions result from the atoms being arranged in new ways. in 1865. Romans. Or they may directly interact producing new species after binding or colliding. Babylonians. and gluons. and probably others. ρ. namely all things are made of atoms moving in perpetual motion. V . then that compound contains one X and one Y atom. and others). Pressure from extended matter results from the collective forces applied across boundaries of ﬂuids and solids. The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic weights. That atoms have mass. Lussac. or gas. fermium. Both stem from Feynman’s conjecture that the atomic hypothesis. and temperature in one relationship. Mendeleev. curium. well before atomic hypotheses. Mendeleev made an important discovery while looking for relationships among these elements. for Z 94 in the natural world. And then we would suggest that quarks. the Periodic Table has been ﬁlled. The mass.
A diver. Weight density is often used. V . w. generates a pressure. nuclear. Forces. Mechanical properties describe the change in shape of matter when external forces are applied. for every applied force. propelling himself through the water also pushes the water away from hi. given by. perpendicular to the surface element.self with the same momentum. The speciﬁc density. in unit volume. is the time rate of change of momentum. m. or cause chemical and nuclear reactions (potential energy). p = mv that is. and then solids. p. t. Newton’s third law states that for every action. produce accelerations. of a liquid is its density divided by the density of seawater. there is an equal and opposite reaction. such as elongations and shear distortions. induce material deformation. the propagation of sound waves. a convenient quantity in diving circles. and is not a speciﬁcally directed (vector) quantity. and the ﬂow of liquids and gases around obstacles. η. however. change position. and dt instantaneous changes in the same quantities. The interactions of the macroscopic states of matter are generically termed mechanics. and with t the time. Newton’s ﬁrst law states that a body in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. 10 . For matter in the liquid and gaseous state. simply the weight. the permanent deformation of metals into useful shapes. Examples include the simple bending of a beam. a. acting upon bodies of mass. velocity. there is an equal and opposite reaction force. and displacement. Force And Momentum Force is a push or a pull. a. F = ma with acceleration. P= F A (8) with F and A the elements of force and surface area. Forces may be gravitational. both tensile and shearing forces come into play to produce deformations. v= ds dt dv dt (4) (3) a= (5) with dv. F. F = (6) dp dt (7) with d p and dt instantaneous changes in momentum and time. P. The three states of the same matter usually have much different densities.and gases are usually the least dense. Stated another way. The most general representation of force. the usual force is the hydrostatic pressure. linked by Newton’s second law. and deformation is a change in volume. followed by ﬂuids. all measured over time. Table 2 lists densities of the naturally occuring elements. MECHANICAL INTERACTIONS Mechanics itself is concerned with the effects of forces to produce or retard motion (kinetic energy). v. For matter in the solid state. A force applied across an element of surface area. or electromagnetic in origin. s. ds. Pressure at a point is equal in all directions. a stipulation requiring the conservation of momentum in all directions.
32 26.91 137.51 164.78 6.54 65.76 127.28 6.91 95.96 47.94 167.61 204.971 1.85 58.42 107.0017 .61 126.96 7.87 5.88 ρ (g=cm3 ) .36 138.63 88.91 8.13 232.23 7.16 9.0017 .52 239.99 178.07 237.12 222.91 106.22 7.55 11.12 102.27 168.45 1.70 2.56 8.52 element Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Ti Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Z 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 A 112.95 7.53 22.0009 .96 79.74 2.35 9.37 19.10 40.06 211.0059 1.24 192.75 9.0010 5.0014 .86 8.94 173.35 7.74 13.94 55.52 4.98 28.98 32.013 10.53 12.0037 1.08 16.41 114.12 ρ (g=cm3 ) 8.0013 .82 2.08 44.62 .91 78.86 186.01 9.21 12.26 158.09 30.53 180.54 5.003 6.08 157.30 132.79 3.93 162.00 19. element H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 A 1.03 210.48 22.71 63.07 .19 6.95 52.92 140.52 6.70 5.01 14.48 87.0032 .21 209.02 101.36 5.Table 2.82 85.95 8.008 4.09 231.04 11.45 10.43 18.0009 .73 11 .12 .91 5.62 19.32 16.76 9.85 2.05 227.01 150.92 91.0018 .35 152.39 207.86 8.14 5.94 58.46 39.24 4.55 2.42 1.22 7.00 20.58 5.02 200.85 11.78 6.10 7.95 98.53 1.82 12.93 .24 .33 8.52 6.53 2.13 140.32 15.82 118.22 92.06 35.87 1.95 183.73 4.92 144.22 10.39 13.09 197.43 6.52 6.22 190.92 83. Densities Of Elements.38 69.99 24.12 238.24 10.60 74.940 9.28 20.69 6.04 174.65 7.42 21.23 12.13 223.94 39.91 131.94 7.18 195.18 22.01 54.90 50.70 121.72 72.09 226.27 145.91 19.
K = (γ . Power obviously measures how fast energy is being consumed. and vice versa. and rotations. associated with a moving particle of rest mass. and position.Energy And Work Energy in simplest terms is the ability to do work. which follows as a consequence of the constancy of the speed of light in any inertial frame. p = γ mv Power Power. Accordingly. 1) mc2 while the momentum. takes the form. Heat energy can be kinetic energy associated with random molecular translations. is given by. H. h. p. mass and energy are equivalent. 1 K = mv2 2 U = mgh (9) (10) with g the acceleration of gravity (32 f t =sec2 ). W = (12) (13) (14) (15) dH dt (16) with dH the energy change in time dt. suitably splitting mechanics into major observable categories. Electromagnetic and acoustical energies are kinetic and potential energies associated with light and pressure waves. H = K +U (11) and. is the sum of the kinetic and potential energy. which is to say that mass can be converted to energy. Macroscopically. this is a classical division. In the general (relativistic) sense. the energy. Potential energy is the energy associated with position in a force ﬁeld. K. or molecular interactions. nuclear. is written. The interactions of matter and energy are sometimes broken down into light. Or equivalently. and potential. E = γ mc2 for c the speed of light. energy of particle depend on its mass. Kinetic and potential are easily exchanged in physical processes. Einstein postulated that the laws of physics are identical for two observers moving with constant velocity with respect to each other. v2 = c2 ). in the ideal case. with potential and kinetic energy freely exchanging. or dissipated in physical interactions.1=2 with v the particle speed. m. W is simply the rate of energy change. γ = (1 . In all processes known to man. is a constant independent of relative motion between reference frames. Kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion. exchanged. the ﬁrst law of relativity. The corresponding kinetic energy of motion. vibrations. but with the understanding that each is a detailed science by itself. but always summing to the same H. generated. Energy takes two main forms. v. in a gravitational ﬁeld (or any other force ﬁeld for that matter). The kinetic. K. Binding energy is the energy associated with changes in both kinetic and potential energies in bound composite systems. and speed. or potential energy of frictional surface distortions and stress fatigue. and that the speed of light. c. The total energy. that is. and. U. as mentioned. nuclear and chemical reactions. heat. An inertial frame is a frame of reference moving with constant velocity (no acceleration). and phase transformations. mass-energy is conserved. kinetic and potential. and sound. m. E. the ability to do work requires an interchange of energy between a system and its surroundings. is a constant of motion. 12 . undergoing chemical. the second law of relativity.
The combination of all colors together is white light. Light forms a small part of the continuous spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.27 x 10 8 2. Across the visible spectrum. and cosmic ray radiation at progressively shorter wavelenghts. 2:5 10 . c. n.0000 1. orange. we have because of phase equality of incident. differences in refractive indices are small.24 x 10 8 0 When light passes from one medium to another. n. This retardation is represented by an index of refraction. 0 00 (19) n sin φ = n sin φ 0 0 : (20) 13 . f . assuming n > n. n and n . Figure 1 depicts the the relationships between angles of incidence. and refracted waves.1 with red the least energetic and violet the most energetic component. reﬂected. Solar radiation reaching the Earth’s surface is peaked in this same spectral range. Table 3. it is refracted and reﬂected according to the refractive indices of the media.3178 1.02 x 10 8 2. and violet. photons are absorbed and re-emitted by molecules. blue. what our eyes see as sunlight on the Earth. and ultraviolet. Treated as photons. associated with wave frequency. Refractive Indices. The colors of light. a range where humans and animals possess sensitive receptors.4564 1. In terms of refractive indices. 3 10 14 sec. causes sensation of vision. the angle of incidence equals the angle of reﬂection. ε.Light Light is energy in the form of radiation. reﬂection. φ=φ and the refracted angle. refraction. φ . slowing down the speed of propagation in the medium.34 j sec).0003 1. 00 0 0 n sin φ = n sin φ 0 0 =n sin φ 00 : (18) Therefore. ε = hf (17) for h Planck’s constant (6:625 10 . regarded as photons in the energy range. but in a material medium. light possess particle energy. 0. Refractive index. and the indices of refraction.3340 1. span a frequency range. indigo. yellow. gamma ray.98 x 10 8 2. In glass.4832 1. however.19 j up to 5:2 10. namely red. x-ray. 380 up to 800 nm.99 x 10 8 2. Table 3 lists refractive indices of a few materials. so that two light beams of different color (wavelength) propagate through materials at different speeds. φ . Light. φ. light (waves or photons) travels at constant speed.3321 media speed of light c=n (m=sec) 2. is really a function of wavelength. φ .009 is the difference between blue and red light indices of refraction. that is.19 j. In a vacuum. satisﬁes Snell’s law.1 up to 8 1014 sec.05 x 10 8 2. which encompasses radio waves and infrared radiation at wavelengths longer than light.24 x 10 8 2. or electromagnetic waves in the wavelength range. equivalently regarded as photons (particles) or electromagnetic packets (waves). media vacuum air glass quartz steam salt water pure water refractive index n 1.
0 φ=φ 0 00 n sin φ = n sin φ with the case drawn for n 0 0 > n. striking the surface between two transmitting media. 14 . And Refraction Of Light Plane electromagnetic waves. with refractive indices. such as light. n and n . experience reﬂection and refraction according to Snell’s law.Figure 1. Reﬂection. Incidence.
At any point along a fan of rays emitted by an object point source of light. At a depth of 33 f sw. called the wave front. The wave front is the locus of points reached by light after a given time along all possible ray paths. light transmission through opaque liquid interfaces is only slightly attenuated. Because of refraction. and image forming planes. Water clarity and lack of turbidity are also primary factors in determining light penetration in different regions. such as red. and apertures. Each ray from an object point. σ. starting with the red part of the spectrum. light travels along straight lines. however. 15 . focal lengths. Refraction of paraxial rays (very nearly normally incident). while the ratio of image to object height. visibility is limited to a few feet. If the wave front emerging from a lens or other optical interface is a true sphere. in homogeneous media. white sunlight is selectively absorbed. There are no shadows. but lacking ﬁne structure caused by light wave interference and diffraction. In geometrical optics. are actually traced in an image assembly called a spot diagram. only a few rays. acoustical. φ c . beyond which no refracted light is possible. because marine plants. strikes a speciﬁed image plane at a single point.The most general form for waves propagating across interfaces supporting different propagation speeds is written. image distortions. the study of which is called optics. thermal. more simply. While the number of rays are inﬁnite. At 330 f sw. prisms. strategically chosen with regard to the optical system. and light seems to be coming from all around. distances. lenses. like land plants. In spite of microstructural limitations. plasma. Colors. with energy passing easily from one media to the other. For paraxial bundles of rays. down to as much as 500 f sw in the clear tropical zones. or curved in media with variable refractive indices. Some indication of light penetration is the depth at which microscopic plants exist underwater. The human eye is an optical system consisting of lenses. the dispersion is small and the bundle is clustered at near normal incidence. The ratio of image to object distance. Such refractive phenomena change image size and relative position. which are bent at the interfaces separating media. as shown in Figure 2 is a good example of the power of ray tracing techniques in optical applications. perceived in ﬁsh and other creatures underwater. or layers. perceived images of source objects differ across the interface separating the two media. As one descends. a perfect image will be formed. Unlike sound waves encountering density interfaces. it is difﬁcult to determine at what depth water becomes dark. is termed shortening. the simple ray tracing technique can quantify gross relationships between souce and image sizes. An optical system consists of an assembly of mirrors. the amount of light energy absorbed becomes important. The spot diagram represents an outline picture of the image produced by the optical system. Thus. or. In the ocean. As a limiting case in the less dense optical media (smallest refractive indices). there is a surface everywhere perpendicular to the rays. Any departure from a true sphere represents the presence of optical aberrations. existing from the surface down to where only 1% of the light remains. Although a glass of water seems to allow all the light to pass through. At 950 f sw. and then continuing to the green and blue parts. it is obvious that as one goes deeper underwater. is the lateral magni f ication. do not come from surface light. Pigments in these creatures absorb the remaining blue-green light. with all such points for all possible rays passing through the system constituting the geometrical image of the source as formed by the optical system. The vertical region in the ocean where light exists is called the euphotic zone. all is quite dark. Under these conditions. Such bending (refraction) occurs with electromagnetic. with so much water available. or rays. it gets darker. 0 0 0 Optics Optics deals with ray phenomena that are not dependent in any way on the wave or quantum behavior of light. and refractive indices of optical media. apertures. require light for photosynthesis. usually with spherical surfaces to facilitate precise image formation. µ. sin φ v 0 = sin φ v 0 0 (21) with v and v the propagation velocities. with incident rays approaching and angle of incidence of 90 o (grazing incidence). n sin φc = 1 : (22) n Water is transparent to light. and then remit the light as red. after passing through an optical system (such as the eye). little or no color distinction is possible. the refracted ray approaches a critical value. and shock wave propagation. The lower limit varies from 45 f sw along the coasts.
n. smaller or larger. Virtual Images And Refraction At Plane Surfaces Objects viewed through a plane surface separating media of refractive indices. As virtual images. n and n . 4/3. but not necessarily in their true position nor size. are seen clearly. an object underwater is foreshortened by a factor of 3/4. the ratio of air to water refractive indices. in media. s. they appear closer or farther away. in media. n . 16 . s . are related through the paraxial relationship (near normal incidence). 0 0 0 s 0 = n s n 0 When looking into water from air.Figure 2. and magniﬁed by the reciprocal. and the apparent distance. The actual distance. depending on the indices of refraction.
The end result is that we hear sound. or displacement from equilibrium. while the lateral magniﬁcation is 4/3. clear water. Wave crests act like converging lenses. Table 4 lists sound speeds in various media. and dark peripheral background The refraction and focusing of overhead sunlight by wave motion produces the pattern of light ripples often seen on sandy bottoms below shallow. causes tunnel vision. Sound propagation is but one aspect of acoustics. whereas secondary measurements characterize the propagation speed and the rate of dissipation of acoustical energy. taking n = 4=3 for water. multiplied by the speed of sound in water. Active sonar. serving as differential signal sensors. defocusing light rays into spatial regions of lesser intensity. in an elastic medium can generate an acoustical wave. Reaching the ear of an observer. and n = 1 for air. Passive sonar is equipment that listens to noises underwater. receive signals too closely spaced in time to separate. Acoustics is concerned with ﬂuctuations in mechanical properties characterizing the state of matter. about 4. or echo sounding.950 f t =sec. sending out an acoustical signal which is reﬂected back to a receiver. The opposite occurs underwater. Sonar may be active or passive. focusing light rays into spatial regions of higher intensity. when viewing an object above the surface. 0 Sound Any change in stress or pressure leading to a local change in density. Primary acoustical measurements determine the magnitude and wave structure of one of these mechanical properties. the greater is the corresponding peripheral vision.σ= n n n n 0 (23) µ= 0 : (24) Objects underwater. no surface images can be transmitted through the water to the eyes. Underwater viewing of surface objects is also limited by the critical angle. for instance. with the ultimate biophysical interpretation of the hearing of the sound by the brain. The ability to accommodate angular spread in the paraxial bundle is called peripheral vision. In studying the production and reception of sound. The near and far ears. If sounding from the bottom. a compression resulting in a change in air pressure near 1 dyne=cm2. Outside the viewing cone. density. temperature. acts like radar. uses sound navigation and ranging. Ships tracing out prescribed paths can continuously map the bottom with sonar. communicating motion to the hair cells in the cochlea. stress. with a mask underwater. the disturbance moves the eardrum. and can determine presence and relative direction of sound sources. such as pressure. resulting in a pressure ﬂuctuation that moves through the air column in the form of a sound (acoustical) wave. a slight disturbance is produced in the air in front of the mouth. of course. acoustics is a discipline of physics. limited by φc underwater. Someone nearby hears the sound. but can’t localize sound underwater. we utter sound. A great bulk of data gathered about the ocean bottom. When we speak. which in turn displaces the little bones in the middle ear. and displacement. it does not stay compressed and expands again passing on the disturbance to its neighbor. That neighbor in turn passes the disturbance on to its next neighbor. and other underwater objects. and the signals received confuse our brain. or the perception of a brightly illuminated foreground. Since air is an elastic medium. When speaking. while the troughs act like diverging lenses. Underwater. viewed at the surface. but speech and hearing obviously invoke biological elements and processes. φc . or sonar. sound travels faster than in air. The shortening is 3/4. The greater the ability to accommodate angular dispersion in rays striking the eye. 17 . the depth is equal to 1/2 the time for the signal to leave and return. and so on. Cutting off the most widely dispersed rays in the bundle reaching the eyes. appear larger and closer than their actual size and position. The eyes focus using paraxial rays. and transmission through media.
coupled to the heat ﬂow equations in the system. Heat. For a point (idealized) source at temperature. we have transmission and reﬂection factors. near standard temperatures and pressures. conductivities. Thermodynamics focuses on the controlled and slow evolution of heat. T and R. with the spectrum of wavelengths a complex function of surface temperature. the energy content of the plate increases. Table 5 summarizes speciﬁc heats. Heat In thermodynamics. For example. given by. conduction and convection.Table 4. and we say that heat has passed from the ﬂame to the plate. we often deal with systems at different temperatures. Radiative transfer is a different mechanism completely from conduction and convection. Heat conduction is governed by Fourier’s law. K. and radiation. While heat is a tenuous concept. In more complex processes. conductivity. Transfer of molecular kinetic energy occurs directly by molecular impacts or collisions. is given by the Stefan-Boltzmann relationship. the heat transferred is more difﬁcult to identify. φ. Radiative transfer underscores fairly high temperatures. and dT the temperature drop across the region dx. is the energy exchanged between parts of mechanical systems at different temperatures. The mechanism is electromagnetic wave emission from a heated surface. and acoustical speeds. if a ﬂame is applied to a cool metal plate. φ = σ0 T 4 18 (28) . If energy losses to the surrounding air can be ignored. Sound Speeds At Standard Temperature And Pressure. These results parallel electromagnetic wave propagation across a metallicdielectric (conducting-nonconducting) interface. the heat transferred from the ﬂame is equal to the energy gain of the plate. and entropy. For an air-water interface. exchanging heat in the absence of mechanical interactions. or external forces. and very little is transmitted.K dT dx (27) with heat ﬂux. involving mechanical as well as thermal interactions. and the distinctions between them in mechanical systems. then. In practical situations. conduction. Heat convection is a special case of conduction that occurs when a ﬂuid or gas ﬂows past the outer boundary of a system. Heat conduction is the exchange of heat from one body at a given temperature to another body at a lower temperature with which it is in contact. φ. Then the determination of K involves solving the ﬂuid equations of a viscous. energy. heat conducting ﬂuid or gas. linked to observables such as internal energy change and external work. media vacuum air steel copper paraﬁn wood salt water pure water sound speed u (m=sec) 0 333 5302 3292 1305 2984 1452 1461 Acoustical waves are readily reﬂected at air-water interfaces. heat exchange usually involves the ﬁrst two. using nominal values of water and air densities. Three fundamental and well known mechanisms include convection. or water-air propagation). heat denotes the quantity of energy exchanged by thermal interaction of any system with its environment. the radial (isotropic) heat ﬂux. φ = . T . as evidenced by its temperature increase. T = :0081 (25) (26) R = :9919 in approximately both cases (air-water. and corresponding densities for a cross section of materials.
to good order of the day. is the molal volume. The most complex heat transfer phenomena are those in which extended physical systems interact by combinations of the above. volume.121 . A body with absorptivity equal to one is called a black body. Long before kinetic theory and statistical mechanics provided the molecular basis for gas laws. α.5375 . and temperature. but it is still interesting to note that all gas laws reduce to the simple form in the limit of low pressure. the three quantities are related by. however.925 . and depends on the wavelength.025 1.949 1. for any temperature. compared to solids and liquids. Table 5. V . Perfect black bodies do not exist in nature.0010 density ρ (g=cm3 ) . P. measured on an absolute (K o ) scale.207 . τ.0014 .189 2. Gases.381 . In the case of solids and liquids. and the corresponding equation of state reﬂects the point nature of interactions. part is reﬂected and part is transmitted. The ratio of absorbed to incident radiation at a certain wavelength is called the absorptivity. Obviously.312 1.912 . The ratio of reﬂected to incident radiation is called the reﬂectivity. equations of state are typically quite complicated. Obviously. condensation. v. especially in the infrared. Conductivities. and temperature. region. Speciﬁc volume. ρ. Speciﬁc Heats.000 . Of the incident radiation that is not absorbed. T . and the ratio of transmitted to incident radiation is called the transmissivity.242 . their range of investigation was limited in phase space. in addition to phase transformations such as boiling.623 2. v= so that we write.653 conductivity K (cal =sec cm Co ) .0001 . changes. ρ = τ = 0. Interactions of gas molecules are localized (short range). A molecule which absorbs radiation at a particular wavelength is also able to emit radiation at the same wavelength. under pressure. and the fraction absorbed is characteristic of the material.0013 . chemists (and probably alchemists) deduced that. and σ0 = 5:67 10.0004 . mainly because molecular interactions in solids and liquids are extended (long range). PV nT =R (30) for n the number of moles of the gas.135 . α+ρ+τ = 1 : (29) For a black body.791 material air iron aluminum polyethylene neoprene glass salt water pure water alcohol Radiation is absorbed in passing through matter. volume.00024 16.0858 . And Densities.00 .721 . T .with T the temperature. present a simpler situation.0025 . with R a constant. Equation Of State The relationship between pressure.8 watt =m2 K o4 . Pv T =R : V n (31) (32) 19 . or long wavelength. and α = 1. but there are many approximate black bodies. speciﬁc heat cP (cal =g Co ) . and temperature for any substance is called the equation of state (EOS). or solidiﬁcation.6939 .
after the eighteenth century investigating chemists. Media supporting wave propagation are dispersive or nondispersive. linear 20 . the pressure increases linearily with inverse speciﬁc volume. arising from the presence of intermolecular forces and the actual volume occupied by the gas molecule itself. we also have. Wave Motion All waves transport energy. in which case they oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of energy transport. and b becomes negligible compared to v. the quantiﬁcations are often called the laws of Boyle. or they can be longitudinal. 50 0:020 a b 3000 nt m=kgmole 2 0:032 m 3 =kgmole (35) (36) : In the limit of large speciﬁc volumes. while others derive from fundamental molecular assumptions. use of the ideal gas law is usually correct to a few percent in detailing gas behavior. When two waves waves interact. Many equations have been proposed quantifying gas behavior more accurately than the ideal gas law. Waves can be transverse. u. in fact. are common to all wave motion. Amplitudes of oscillation of nonlinear waves are often vector quantities. while light waves in a vacuum and acoustical waves in air exhibit nondispersion. Waves are linear or nonlinear. rather a process of adding time vary sinusoids together. Acoustical waves are linear. The van der Waals equation then goes over to the ideal gas law. tranverse or longitudinal. so that waves cannot be added. If the pressure is kept constant. or superposed. If the temperature is kept constant. All waves. if the volume is kept constant. temperature. Wave motion pervades all mechanical interaction. or wavelength. in which case they oscillate in direction of energy transport. Electromagnetic waves in a vacuum are transverse. Some are empirical. n= N N0 : (33) With this subset of deﬁnitions. dispersive or nondispersive. Water waves are combination of both. or. and R is the universal gas constant (8:317 j=gmole K o ). In compressed gas diving applications. volume. whether linear or nonlinear. a=v2 is small compared with P. however. the relationship between pressure. no matter how complex the interaction with matter.In terms of the number of molecules of the gas. while acoustical waves in a frictionless media are longitudinal. N. Wave speeds. linearily. linearily. van der Waals proposed the following equation of state. possessing tranverse and longitudinal components. and number of moles of gas is called the ideal gas law. P+ a v2 (v . Charles and Gay-Lussac. so that the waves can be added. f . with. u = fλ : (37) Wave speeds in dispersive media depend on wavelength in complicated fashion. Interference phenomena. The resultant wave exhibits classical interference patterns of reinforcement and cancellation in time and space. while water and electromagnetic waves are nonlinear. as do other equations of state at large speciﬁc volumes. λ. The fact that real gases approximate this behavior has been known for centuries. A range of values for light gases like hydrogen and helium is. dispersive or nondispersive. the speciﬁc volume varies linearily with temperature. b ) = RT (34) with a and b constants. or the interaction of different waves. In the latter 1800s. Amplitudes of oscillation of linear waves are usually scalar quantities. or superposed. a third forms wave by superposition (addition). The addition process is not simple arithmetic. the pressure increases linearily with temperature. and Avogadro’s number. in nondispersive media are independent of frequency. Water and plasma waves exhibit dispersion. with deviations occuring only at very high pressures. N 0 .
By deﬁnition. If two sinusoids of the same amplitude and frequency. or plastic deformation. and X-rays off crystalline lattices is diffractive. A solid is inelastic if the displacement depends on the rate. the interference pattern is more complicated. or direction. exhibit similar interference patterns of reinforcement and cancellation (constructive or destructive interference). blobs. Nevertheless. The categorization.or nonlinear. Holographic photography differs from regular photography in that holographic cameras record light reﬂected from every point on the object. of the applied force. and perfect multi-directionality of physical phenomena are precluded because of dissipative mechanisms. Applications of holography span information storage. the response of organic polymers. Friction is mainly a surface phenomenon. and the process is termed di f f raction. and stressing can be collectively quantized through constitutive equations. light through a ruled lens. and whorls. Deformation A solid is elastic if the amount of deformation is directly proportional to the applied force. The mechanical relationships. are also called the material properties. interfere. heat generated by internal friction. Holography. we could not walk on the Earth. and decipherable only upon application of diffraction theory. and glass at high temperature. plastic solid. The passage of water waves past a narrow breakwater. under a normal force pressing the surfaces together. and broader domain scales. drive cars. Yet. Friction Friction is the tangential force necessary to overcome resistance in sliding contacting surfaces against each other. If waves breakup. tending to convert kinetic energy into mostly heat and potential energy that is not recoverable. shearing. Irreversible processes. and these types of materials are termed viscoelastic. In plastics and rubbers. without frictional and viscous forces. or by a knife edge falls into this category. or wave front reconstruction. the resultant wave is called a standing wave. and biomedical analysis. and propagate anew. bearing no resemblance to the object. metrology. the hologram contains in special code. but travelling in opposite directions. mechanical aging. nor swim underwater with ﬁns. molecular. friction is the ratio of the magnitudes of 21 . reform. position. and the subsequent recombination of the wavelets into a new wave train. blurs. Deformations are part of a class of destructive forces called dissipative. wavenumber. intermolecular. RHEOLOGY Rheology is the interdisciplinary study of the deformation and ﬂow of material under internal and external forces. The hologram consists of a hodgepodge of specks. because the interference pattern has ﬁxed nodes (zero points of oscillation) Waves propagating continuously (without breakup and reformation) in a media generate interference patterns described above. solid deformation. Rheology tries to correlate macroscopic response and ﬂow of solids. irreversible function of the applied force. and frequency. depending primarily on conditions at the interfacial surfaces. is appropriate for materials in which deformation is a nonlinear. transverse or longitudinal. describing the change in shape or ﬂow of matter under internal and external forces. For most metals and ceramics. plus other information that cannot be recorded in a photograph. Passage of a wave train through a small aperture. such as macroscopic ﬂow. image processing. is one of the more important applications of optical diffraction. and gases with constitutive equations spanning atomic. indeﬁnite oscillations. causing damping of vibrations in machines and oscillating mechanical systems. fatigue. inelastic contributions to deformations are large. Interest in the elastic and inelastic properties of matter date back to Galileo. liquids. Friction and viscosity are also dissipative forces. but with more complicated dependence on time. Propagation of waves into regions of geometrical shadow is another example. but play an important role in the dissipation of oscillational energy. all the information about an object that would be contained in a regular photograph. contributing to overall increase in entropy. Frictional and viscous forces impart irreversibility to physical processes. Diffraction refers collectively to the scattering of a wave train into many small wavelets. Examples include the permanent deformation of metals by large forces. through a scored grating. implying that the deformation process is reversible and independent of the way the force is applied. Perpetual motion machines. the rate dependent effects are small. not just the light forming an image on the photographic plane.
Velocity differences can arise through applied forces. for dry surfaces. distance moved or slid. abrasion.001 to 0. tending to resist motion. varies between 0. to the normal (load) force.4 against steel 0. Like friction. is proportional to the applied normal load.5 0.2 1. In liquids. w=k Nx β (39) with k the proportionality constant. In gases. combinations of all. results from many interactive frictional forces.4 0. and ordinarily rough. thus. and is then converted into heat. with ﬁlms solid (graphite). or local turbulence and mixing.1 and 2. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication occurs in highly loaded assemblies with changes in ﬂuid viscosities under high pressure and temperature. Viscosity arises in ﬂuids and gases as a result of momentum transfer between adjacent layers of molecules. Additionally.the required moving force. temperature differences. µ. viscosity is indeed constant over a wide range of pressures. The volume of wear (material lost).4 Contact between surfaces that are dry. intermolecular force component. obviously a function of many variables. µ becomes very large. Static friction is always slightly greater than kinetic friction. concerned with the loss or transfer of material in contact. A. and worse. Wear (tribology). Table 6. shear forces resulting from velocity differences between molecules in interacting layers. are placed in a ﬂuid. Total force requisite to shear these junctions is roughly the product of the shear strength of the materials times the area of all junctions at the onset of sliding. F. Viscosity Fluid ﬂow is invariably accompanied by drag. For actual gases. Some static coefﬁcients of friction for metals are listed in Table 6 below. for instance. x. Coefﬁcients Of Static Friction metal aluminum brass bronze copper iron against itself 1. viscosity in liquids has a short range. required to induce a small velocity change. β. Kinetic coefﬁcients are no more than 5% to 10% less. and takes the form. N. µ= F N (38) with the coefﬁcient of friction. The effect is linked to viscosity.3 0. ﬂuid (oil).3 1. seen. on the other hand.0. so that. somewhere in the range of 0. Measurement of viscosity is simple. including adhesion. mechanical work is expended to keep the ﬂuid in motion. ranging from small to large values. and must be sheared if motion is to occur. or chemically active substances. The maximum value of frictional force required to start sliding is known as static friction. viscosity is dissipative. in multiple viscosity oil for car engines and compressors. dv. total contact area is only a small fraction of the entire interfacial area. and inversely proportional to the material hardness. or internal ﬂuid friction as it is termed in analogy to material properties. simply. µ is large because of large cohesive forces. Two plates of cross sectional area. and is essentially independent of pressure. fatique.01 atm up to 10 atm. µ ranges from 0. boundary effects. dx. µ is large because of high asperity interlocking. F. viscosity is proportional to the square root of absolute temperature. The force.4 1. while the amount of frictional force necessary to maintain sliding is known as kinetic friction.2. that is. or changes in motion. For lubricated surfaces. conceptually. viscosity falls off rapidly with increasing temperature. For ultrasmooth surfaces. with respect 22 . corrosion. Lubrication attempts to mitigate wear by imposing ﬁlms of foreign substances between contacting bodies.6 0. separated by a distance. N. while for ultraclean surfaces. w. while for very rough surfaces. usually involves the tips of tall asperities. µ. Tips adhere to opposing surfaces.8 0.
Shocks Shocks are wave disturbances propagating at supersonic speeds in materials. and have provided valuable data for geophysical analysis. X. The ﬁrst temperature measuring devices. Pressures and densities attained in shock compressed geologic material are comparable to those found in the Earth. this may not always be true. deals with macroscopic properties of extended matter. lose energy through viscous dissipation. and up to pressures of 10 Mbar.000 K o . and ionization rates have been effected with shock tubes. Thermodynamics provides a complete description of these properties under conditions of equilibrium. in which exothermal reactions move with supersonic speed into the undetonated material. THERMAL INTERACTIONS Thermodynamics. vibrational relaxation. temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecular ensemble comprising the object. The shock equation of state. deﬁnes the viscosity. within polymers. For instance. Volcanism. simply the relationship between pressure and volume for given shock speed. such as density and pressure. F = XA dv dx : (40) The statement above assumes that the shear process does not alter the gas or ﬂuid structure. in parallel direction. has been established for many materials.to the other. Certainly for gases this poses no problems. density. and T the absolute temperature. But more particularly. Temperature Temperature is a measure of hotness or coldness. ε. Shock waves are generated by the sudden release of large amounts of energy in a small region. and igniting chemical reactions that sustain shock propagation. assigns directionality to physical processes. ¯ ε= 3 kT 2 (41) with k Boltzmann’s constant (1:38 10. The detonation process usually requires a shock wave to initiate reactions. through the relationship. plate faulting. or discharges of lightning bolts in a narrow air channel. so to speak. differ from shocks and detonation waves because deﬂagrations propagate at subsonic speeds. and an accurate assessment of their propagation characteristics in the Earth is an important component of seismology and geophysics. and marine disturbances generate geological shocks of enormous potential destructive force. Such high temperatures are very useful for the study and application of shock tubes to measurements of reaction rate processes in science and aeronautics. Deﬂagrations. high temperature (T = 6 000 K o ) environments replicating the gas dynamics encountered by missiles and reentry vehicles (RVs). satisﬁes the Boltzmann relationship. and serves as the basis for descriptions of macroscopic interactions. but for ﬂuids. Conventional wind tunnels are constrained by Mach numbers approximately half shock tube Mach numbers. heating. not sustained in propagation. For ¯ an ideal gas. reducing to ordinary sound (acoustical) waves. and offers a starting point for investigation of nonequilibrium phenomena such as hydrodynamics. employing displaced air volumes to deﬁne hotness of coldness according to the 23 . dissociation.23 j=gmole K o ). the shearing and ﬂow result in partial alignment of elongated molecules. for instance. characterized by rapid rise in local pressure. over large temperature ranges. thermodynamics relates mechanics to heat and temperature changes. Collectively. Shock waves. Thermodynamics grew naturally out of early studies of temperature. producing high Mach number ( µ = 16). Measurements of chemical reaction. Modiﬁed shock tubes can be used as short duration wind tunnels. passage of supersonic aircraft in the atmosphere. also called the internal energy. Detonation waves are special types of self-sustaining shock waves. the mean molecular kinetic energy. detonations in high explosives. A unique feature of shock wave propagation in gases is the high shock temperatures attainable. and chemical reactions. and temperature in frontal regions. near 15. like rheology. or ﬂames. transport. compressing. where temperature is a signiﬁcant variable.
In the 1.000 K o region. Celsius. Ta and Tb . Molecular species that are unstable at room temperatures are sometimes found in conditions of equilibrium in high temperature vapors. namely. although not extensively studied. is about 6. mostly electrons and bare nuclei persist. The scale was based on two ﬁxed points. length of a mercury in a tube. in the case of deuterium and tritium. on which the degree was 1=100 of the interval between the freezing and boiling points of water. in the early 1700s.200 K o . some indicated in Table 7 below. Use of temperature as a measurement of hotness or coldness is based on two requirements. 24 . while above 10. and Xb values of measured properties. Xa ln X =Xa ln Xb =Xa (42) = (43) with X. Co . In the 100. all condensed phases (solid and liquid) are unstable against the gaseous phase. Ta Tb . most often using two (sometimes three) calibration points. Ta T .000 K o temperature range.pronunciations of the instrument maker. a temperature at which random molecular motion ceases. in the 1800s. a universal agreement on calibration and scale. like charged ions in a plasma possess sufﬁciently high collisional energy to overcome mutual Coulomb repulsion.000. fusion. no stable molecules can exist in the gas phase. that is. K o . appeared in the latter half of the 1600s. ultimately linked by statistical mechanics to an absolute zero.000 K o to 5. Later. At temperatures near 10. Xa .000 K o appreciable numbers of free electrons are present. was promoted by the trusty mercury (in glass) thermometers constructed in Danzig. the approximate melting point of a mixture of tantalum carbide and hafnium carbide.000 K o . thermometers employ linear or logarithmic scales.000 K o . around the mid 1700s. Typically. Xa Xb . There are no known stable solids above 4.000 K o range. Ta = X . by Fahrenheit. what thermometers measure is the average kinetic energy. and technology sufﬁcient to produce reliable instruments giving identical readings under the same conditions. were called thermometers in the 1600s. While thermometry is concerned with heat measurements and ﬁxed calibration points for instruments. At 50. introduced the Celsius (Centigrade) scale. electrical potential. chemical valence binding is still of considerable importance in the gas phase. Wide adoption of the Fahrenheit scale. atoms and ions can exist together.000 K o . The liquid sealed in glass thermometers. Although intermolecular forces responsible for the stability of solids and liquids begin to weaken as temperature is increased from 1. such as electrical resistance. εbar. for example.000 to 10. based on the second law of thermodynamics and entropy. Stable liquids do exist over the entire range. and radiant power. By 1887. Combinations of the above are also employed for different temperature ranges of the same measuring device. at Uppsala. at 1 atm pressure. In the 5. F o . based on thermal expansion and contraction.000 to 5. T . the essence of temperature. that is. of the molecular ensemble. Kelvin introduced the absolute scale. Ta Tb .200 K o . supporting. General forms include. the melting point of ice and the temperature of a healthy human body (later replaced by the boiling point of water). the international community adopted the constant volume hydrogen gas thermometer as deﬁning measurements on the Kelvin scale. The normal boiling point of tungsten.
dV . performed on. the system is associated with volume change. Heat ﬂow. into or out of the system occurs through conduction. and that is a good approximation in most other real gases near standard temperature and pressure. First Law The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics is really a statement of conservation of energy in any system. that is to say. and the number of moles. a piece of rock resting on the ﬂoor will never cool itself down and jump up to the ceiling. Temperature Calibration Points. For instance. under pressure. Collectively. Denoting the internal energy of the system. Q. the directionality ascribed to physical processes is termed entropy. Mechanical work. n. dU. Second Law From experience. processes usually proceed in only one direction. calibration point absolute zero hydrogen triple neon boiling oxygen boiling water triple water boiling sulfur boiling gold freezing Kelvin (K o ) 0 14 27 90 273 373 717 1336 Fahrenheit (F o ) -460 -434 -410 -297 32 212 831 1945 Centigrade (Co ) -273 -259 -246 -183 0 100 444 1063 Kelvin (K o ). W . the ﬁrst law requires that inﬁnitesimal changes dQ. Denoting the number of molecules of the gas. U. or by. and Fahrenheit (F o ) temperatures are deﬁned on linear scales. we know that some processes satisfying the ﬁrst law (conservation of energy) never occur. P. and 1 atm).Table 7. dW : (47) The internal energy of an ideal gas is only dependent on temperature. and can be easily related. dU = dQ . Rankine (Ro ). Fo = 9 o C + 32 5 (44) K o = Co + 273 Ro = F o + 460 : (45) (46) Kelvin and Rankine temperatures are employed in the gas laws. done on the system. for temperature change. N. dU. dW . dQ. and dW satisfy. dT . (32 F o . PdV = PdV (49) (50) in a mechanical system. convection. We do not live in a reversible world. with R the gas constant and k Boltzmann’s constant. dU = dQ . or radiation. we have dU ¯ = N εdT = 3 NkdT 2 = 3 nRdT 2 (48) as a measure of the internal energy change. dW so that. the net heat ﬂow into the system. Centigrade (Co ). and the work. 25 .
and considering only mechanical work. such as magnesium and titanium. such as regulators. and often. and compressors elevate gases at low pressure to high pressure. In both cases. such as a steam engine. and in the absence of shaft work and elevation changes. a ﬁxed reservoir with connecting ﬂow. Carbon steel. there exist no thermodynamic processes. and the corresponding volume occupied by the breathing gas at 1 26 = 1 γR v 1. represent an idealization of physical reality. The essence of regulator and compressor ﬂow dynamics can be extracted from a simple high pressure ﬂow model. Regulators and compressors move gases from one reservoir to another at different pressure. associated with the process must be greater than or equal to zero imparts directionality to the process. hoses. compressors. requiring numerical solution on high speed computers. Put another way by Kelvin. that is. such as friction and viscosity. yet powerful.γ (57) . and are rated according to maximum working pressure. or isentropic. Cylinders carry compressed gases for underwater breathing. the ﬂow temperature change. High Pressure Cylinders High pressure cylinders are mostly made from steel and aluminum. Aluminum is alloyed with other metals. the heat transferred. turbine. Regulators simply reduce gases at high pressure to low pressure. dT . is given by. S. Dissipative mechanisms.thereby converting heat energy into potential energy. and velocity change. and aluminum tanks became popular in the 1970s. that extract heat from a reservoir and convert it entirely into work. R. temperatures. The second law deﬁnes a state directional variable. dv. for which steady state dynamics are a low order approximation. dv dT with universal gas constant. kinetic and potential energy. so that for any process. treating the air as an ideal gas. dQ = 0 : (54) Combining the ﬁrst and second laws. used in early tanks. especially high pressure ﬂows. compressor. heat. and gauges to yield rough estimates of pressures. are related. dW we see that. dQ. though the ﬁrst were imported from France in 1950. dQ = T dS dS 0 : (51) (52) The requirement that the entropy change. relationships detailed above can be applied to air and ﬂuid ﬂows in diving systems. namely. temperature. called the entropy. Actual ﬂow patterns can be extremely complicated. particularly as time scales decrease. In zero order. provide a simple means to relate temperature. internal energy. refrigerator. prevent a reduction in system entropy for any process. although prototypes of stainless steel and ﬁber wound composites have appeared. and γ = 5=3. gas ﬂows involve high pressures and turbulent ﬂows. and work. and scuba regulator. nor transformations. dU = T dS . PdV (56) = PdV (55) Simple energy considerations applied to the steady ﬂow of a ﬂuid (gas or liquid) in system able to exchange heat and do external work. and pressure changes to external work and heat. tanks. dS = 0 (53) are termed reversible. for abiabatic ﬂow. has been replaced with chrome molybdenum steel. Processes in which no heat is exchanged by the system are called adiabatic. Steel tanks were introduced in the late 1940s. dS. The simple. or the process is forbidden. Processes for which the entropy change is zero.
atm.25 2. all three phases coexist. P0 T0 or. P= T P0 T0 (59) = P T (58) Phase Transformations Every substance obeys an equation of state. regions labeled solid. labelled solid-vapor.80 16.80 6.90 6. liquid. the vapor pressure is known as the saturation pressure. but not their displacement.5 28.00 4. Cylinder Speciﬁcations. by releasing molecules into the space above their free surfaces. some fundamental relationship between pressure. and the ﬁnal pressure and temperature.40 27. and volume. Along a line called the triple line.8 29.40 6. At 70 F o .50 25.25 7. Inspection of the ﬁgure shows that there exist regions in which the substance can exist only in a single phase. At this equilibrium point. vapor pressures of mercury and gasoline are seen to differ by a factor of 10 5 approximately. or vaporize. P0 and T0 .5 20.00 26. and gas. Denoting the initial pressure and temperature. and decrease as temperatures decrease. vapor. material steel aluminum aluminum steel steel aluminum aluminum aluminum steel volume ( f t3) 15 14 50 50 72 72 80 80 95 pressure (lb=in2 ) 3300 2015 3000 1980 2475 3000 3000 3000 3300 length (in) 13. Table 8 summarizes tank characteristics for a number of rated steel and aluminum cylinders.12 -6. 27 .00 weight (lbs) 7.5 33.1 buoyancy (lbs) -1. solid-liquid.00 diameter (in) 4. Real substances can exist in the gas phase only at sufﬁciently high temperatures. aluminum tanks of the same size must have thicker walls.30 3. Table 8. Table 9 lists saturation vapor pressures for a number of liquids.60 19. At low temperature and high pressures.22 2.00 26. Steel tanks are generally heavier and exhibit negative buoyancy when ﬁlled with air. temperature.3 34. the pressure on the liquid surface may be higher than this value. In other regions. A vapor is just the gas phase in equilibrium with its liquid phase. hence the saturation pressure increases with temperature.4 21.25 7. At any one temperature. Aluminum tanks are lighter and tend to exhibit positive buoyancy before all tank air is depleted. but it cannot be lower. we have.48 3.11 Pressures in a cylinder increase as temperatures increase.00 25. That of ideal gases is a simple example. Molecular evaporation increases with increasing temperature.43 3. both phases exist simultaneously. Saturation vapor pressures of known liquids vary widely. To recover the buoyancy characteristics of steel tanks. thus increasing their weight. P and T .90 7. If this is a conﬁned space. transitions occur to the liquid and solid phases. assuming an ideal gas.80 6. and liquid-vapor. Liquids tend to evaporate.5 5. Any slight reduction below saturation pressure induces the very rapid rate of evaporation called boiling.60 4.5 39.00 22.00 4. the partial pressure exerted by released molecules increases until the rate at which molecules return to the liquid equals the rate at which they leave the liquid surface. Figure 3 depicts the phase diagram for a substance like carbon dioxide that contracts on freezing.
solid vapor. ice.0098 C o .Figure 3. two phases can exist. as portrayed below for carbon dioxide. 28 . A vapor is a gas in equilibrium with its liquid phase. and water coexist at 0. Phase Surfaces For Carbon Dioxide An equation of state (EOS) is a relationship between temperature. water vapor. or liquid vapor. typical during the winter. and volume (or density) for any substance. For instance. In other regions. only the gas. or liquid phases are possible. solid. pressure. In certain regimes. solid-liquid. All possible states lie on a surface. all three phases can coexist. Along the triple point.
P. the pressure is almost 1.965 4. V . the vertical position (depth) in the column.089 0. ρ= for material mass. hence the scalar representation and deﬁnition.081 7.000 times greater than atmospheric pressure. and. the same pressure exerted by the air column. like water. The pressure. at any point depends on the density. If air were incompressible. P=ρgd with the density. pressure. a simple linear dependence on altitude could be employed to estimate altitude ambient pressure.238 PRESSURE AND DENSITY EFFECTS Probably little need be said about pressure. But. Near elevation of 18.000 f sw. but submarines today operate at 3 times that depth.510 0. Pressure is the biggest reason man has not explored the deep ocean in submarines. Saturated Vapor Pressures. such a representation is unequivocal. P.000025 0. some 80 miles high. d. In terms of incremental elements. of the material.778 89. or 14:7 lb=in 2 .000 f t.492 1. In ﬂuids. g.439 794. A pressure of roughly 1 350 lb=in 2 would compress a block of wood to half its size. atmospheric pressure is half (16. else the material would move by itself under pressure imbalance. the Trieste (USN) descended to the bottom of the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench. m. given by. Of all underwater diving variables. In a gas or water column. about 7 miles.190 1. simple linear pressure relationships. as such. it would sink.363 0. pressure is the only predictable one. Barometer Equation Atmospheric pressure falls off exponentially with altitude. Scuba divers can descend to 550 f sw. in volume. Pressure on the ﬂuid or gas at any point is equal in all directions. In 1960. with h denoting the elevation. Pressure Pressure is simply force per unit area. ρ. ships like the Trieste are not capable of sustained activity under such pressures. such as those to compute water 29 m V (62) (61) . Pressure is assumed to act equally in all directions at the point of application of the force. some 36.Table 9. Early submarines were restricted to 300 f sw operationally. on the surface of the Earth. and the acceleration of gravity. the weight of the gas or water above any point in the column exerts a force on the rest of the column below it. the pressure increases 1 atm. liquid mercury mercury water water water kerosene alcohol gasoline ammonia ammonia ammonia temperature (F o ) 70 320 200 70 32 70 70 70 200 50 -100 vapor pressure (lb=in2 ) 0. For each 33 f sw of depth. ρ. but their working depth is closer to 200 f sw as a maximum. Since air is compressible. Such pressure is tremendous. At the deepest part of the ocean.5 f sw) of sea level pressure. near 7 ton=in 2. The trip took nearly 5 hrs. P= dF dA (60) with dF and dA the differential force and area. Ph . is given by.
α in operational protocols. χ0 . for 0:0381h << 1. by the relationship. χ. behavior of Ph with elevation. are not generally applicable.pressure. At sea level. χh = χ0 α χ0 (1 . while variation in rate with activity is a metabolic effect (oxygen requirement). To good order. because the air is compressed. Relative to χ0 . and horsepower levels. However. Direct altitude measurements of pressure correlate with the barometer equation. that is. the consumption rate. though a linear approximation to Ph is good approximation over low altitude range. scales directly with the pressure. metabolism. drag. Certainly these activities rates vary with individual. The exponential term. we have. at depth. simply the ratio of sea level pressure over ambient pressure. Assuming a uniform atmosphere. Ph = P0 exp (. the lungs can function underwater in the same manner as on the surface. χ h . Ph P0 (1 . χ = χh 1+ dηα P0 : (66) with η the speciﬁc density of the water. d. atmospheric pressure falls off exponentially. the underwater rate is greater.000 f t. Variation in consumption rate with ambient pressure is a gas density effect (regulator function). we consume air at a rate. the surface consumption is less than χ0 . and so on.0:0381 h) with h measured in multiples of 1. P. The same comments apply to compressor pumping rates. mental state. is related to the surface rate at sea level. 0:0381 h) (64) (63) exhibiting the linear behavior for low altitude. The surface rate at altitude. underwater. α = exp (0:038h) = P0 Ph : (65) Air Consumption Regulator function exploits air compressibility to deliver air to the lungs at any ambient pressure. χ0 . denoting the altitude surface consumption rate. physical condition. For small values of the argument. P0 . Ph . At elevation. satisﬁes a similar relationship in terms of surface pressure. lung capacity.000 f t elevation. χh . is seen for the temperature case of 300 K o (80 F o ) in Figure 4. and implied elevation. Seasonal and geographical variations near 7% are not uncommon. h. linear to about 7. Roughly. the diver uses more air to ﬁll the lungs than on the surface. The total pressure. α. 30 . temperature. output. for surface ambient pressure. offsetting reduced surface rates. in water and on land. Table 10 codiﬁes nominal consumption rates at sea level for various activities. inﬂating and deﬂating normally.000 f t. 0:038 h ) (68) for h the usual elevation in multiples of 1. consumption rates increase rapidly with depth. that is. assuming the same metabolic consumption rate for given activity. More speciﬁcally. Filled with compressed air at ambient pressure. is an altitude scaling factor. P = Ph + ηd = P0 α + ηd : (67) At any altitude. Rates at altitude are less than sea level rates because of reduction in ambient pressure relative to sea level. Figure 5 graphs surface consumption rates at altitude for corresponding sea level consumption rates. body morphology.
a bourdon or oil ﬁlled gauge in ﬂuid of speciﬁc density. Y . the volume of the tube. the total pressure. Land/Water Activity Reclining/Floating Horizontally Standing/Floating Vertically Walking/Light Treading Jogging/Slow Swimming Running/Moderate Swimming Sprinting/Cold Arduous Diving Sea Level Consumption Rate χ0 ( f t 3 =min) . as noted. subtracts off a constant. P. δ. α. η = :975. η. d. h. d. at atmospheric pressure. d. seen as follows. using a sea level ratio calibration point. δ. d. is simply. reductions in surface pressures at altitude have increasingly lesser effect on consumption rates. at elevation. Ph . P. capillary gauge readings are dependent on the volume of compressed air in the tube. can be obtained by substituting the calibration relationship into the above.6 2. at some depth. GAUGES Underwater gauges sense pressure. Capillary gauges employ pressure ratios to register depths. Capillary gauges are calibrated for sea level atmospheric pressure. the altitude surface consumption rate is reduced by the ratio of ambient pressure to sea level pressure.0 Compared to the sea level surface consumption rate.Table 10. while bourdon and oil ﬁlled gauges measure direct pressure and subtract off sea level atmospheric pressure to register depths. so that the volume ratio reduces. vmax v = P0 + δ P0 : (71) In any other ﬂuid. Quite obviously the surface rate at altitude decreases inversely with elevation. of course. to give depth readings. and simplifying. senses ambient pressure. and in salt water. P0 . η = 1. is maximum. Bourdon And Oil Filled Gauges Other gauges measure absolute ambient pressure and mechanically subtract off surface pressure to give a reading. Out of the ﬂuid. at depth. the volume of the tube occupied by air. Ph . or pressure ratios. occupied by air is less (because of compression). at actual depth. X. Thus.8 1. Ph .0 1.6 . At depth. with the result. continue to increase with pressure. v. and registers a mechanical response. Activities Air Consumption Rates At Sea Level. η. an effect also seen in wetsuit bouyancy with increasing pressure. P = Ph + η d with η the ﬂuid speciﬁc density. At actual depth. Thus at depth. Underwater rates. and atmospheric pressure.3 1. (Ph + η (69) d ) v = Ph vmax (70) for any speciﬁc density. δ= P0 Ph ηd : (72) For fresh water. Y =η d + Ph . X 31 (73) . the corresponding gauge reading. Capillary Gauges In any ﬂuid. Figure 6 depicts capillary gauge reading as a function of actual depth at various elevations. Submersible tank gauges measure tank pressure directly. decreases exponentially. v max . and any surface pressure. the volumes are related. By Boyle’s law.
Relative buoyancy obviously depends on ﬂuid and object densities. we can write for any tank pressure. X (74) Substituting equations yields the gauge reading. δ = η d + Ph . d.000 f t increment of elevation. P0 . To obtain actual depths from capillary gauge readings. and volume. P. sea level gauges in fresh water at altitude. P Pr = = P0Vr : (77) V Vr (78) which permits direct estimation of remaining air volume. The ratio. the standard steel 72 f t 3 tank. Today. Ph . Vr . In any case. and bourdon depth gauges are usually calibrated at sea level for salt water. it 32 . for submersible gauge reading.000 f t increment and then add 3% of the reading. P0 (75) in analogy to a capillary gauge. and speciﬁed Pr and Vr . and ﬂexible objects containing gases. Relative buoyancy also changes rapidly as object density varies. Pr = 2475 lb=in2 . and remaining breathing volume. P. The capillary gauge. density and buoyancy changes result from changes in volume. η = 1. P0 . For contained gases. Figure 7 plots Bourdon and oil ﬁlled gauge readings at altitude as a function of actual depth. usually 1 atm. For all other gauges. Pr . Diaphram and oil ﬁlled gauges indicate depths that are too shallow. Sinking objects have negative buoyancy. are small (near 3%). denoting the actual tank volume. and rated gas volume. and buoyancy compensator (BC). Pr =Vr is called the tank constant. but gases. subtract 3.If calibrated at depth. for instance. for sea level atmospheric pressure. add 1 f sw for each 1. a few simple rules will sufﬁce for correcting salt water. then. while ﬂoating objects have positive buoyancy. δ. For instance. in any ﬂuid. Capillary. and objects less dense than a ﬂuid will ﬂoat. The rated tank volume is the amount of gas. Vr = 72 f t 3 . for any surface pressure. Knowing the rated tank pressure. diaphragm. while capillary gauges indicate depths that are too deep. inducing commensurate buoyancy change. η. Pr . δ. respond readily to pressure change. circumventing the problem. From Boyle’s law. The rated tank pressure is the maximum recommended pressure for the tank upon ﬁlling. meaning that. Since salt water is denser than freshwater. The lungs. is rated at 2475 lb=in2 . PVt = P0V (76) and we also know at rated pressure. Vr . initially at standard temperature and pressure. but all register increasing error with altitude. Objects with the same density as the ﬂuid are neutrally buoyant. as with bouyancy changes. wet and dry suit.5% of the reading for each 1. Submersible Tank Gauges Submersible gauges read tank pressure directly. compressed to the rated tank pressure. change density rapidly under pressure change. Vt . V . some gauges are available with adjustable scales for re-zeroing at altitude. at actual depth. PrVt Dividing the above two equations yields the ratio. and that. is unique in that it automatically registers sea level equivalent depths for table calculations at altitude. in salt water. using any convenient set of units. Fresh versus salt water reading errors alone. V . Solids and ﬂuids possess essentially ﬁxed density under nominal pressure changes. as mentioned. Y = δ + P0 . The body itself and equipment worn by divers contain air spaces that can expand and contract under pressure changes. permits rapid estimation of air remaining in the tank for breathing. and can be moved about without sinking or rising. HYDROSTATICS Objects denser than a ﬂuid will sink in that ﬂuid. and standard pressure.
V = Ah. equal to the weight of the displaced ﬂuid. Similarly. Similarly. ρ. can be written. drysuits. Fd = ρgAh = ρgV (79) or Archimedes’ principle. Archimedes Principle According to Archimedes many centuries ago. The increased wetsuit buoyancy is mostly of concern near the surface. since increased water pressure will compress the suit rapidly at moderate depth. Wetsuits. Wetsuit Expansion And Compression Gas bubbles in wetsuits are subject to Boyle’s law as external pressure changes. and then scale the result by the factor 0. At depth. V . we compute the effect using Archimedes’ principle and Boyle’s law directly. From what we know about pressure in a ﬂuid. this fact can be deduced easily by imagining a uniform block of height. effects ultimately relate to the densities of constituent ﬂuid media. Denoting total diver plus gear weight. ∆w = .:075 w ηd P0 + ηd (80) with η the speciﬁc density of water.50. since ambient pressure at altitude is less than at sea level. good to few percent up to 7. Fu = ρgA(h + d ). Buoyancy changes occur when divers descend and ascend. The altitude effect on underwater buoyancy loss is seen to be small. in an upright position. wet suits expand at elevation. due to wetsuit compression can be written. of ﬂuid of density. Fd = ρgAd. h. wet suits.exerts a greater buoyant force than fresh water. Wetsuit buoyancy loss per multiple of 100 lbs of diver weight. is exerted by the ﬂuid. essentially dictating functionality of weight belts. h. B. and the corresponding 33 . while fresh water is less dense than salt water. the buoyancy loss. On the bottom. B. is plotted in Figure 8 for various altitudes. as a ﬁgure of merit. the surface buoyancy increase due to wetsuit expansion. any object displacing a volume. increasing buoyancy. Fresh And Salt Water Buoyancy Application of Archimedes’ principle directly to a diver submerged in fresh and salt water at sea level yields the fresh water buoyancy loss. is exerted by the ﬂuid. B. ∆w. Both affect diver buoyancy because of Archimedes principle and Boyle’s law. Buoyancy is lost relative to the surface when wet suit divers descend. and then salt versus fresh water buoyancy. Consider the wetsuit effect ﬁrst. BCs. ∆w : 0029 wh (81) as the approximate buoyancy gain.000 f t. Buoyancy changes in fresh and salt water thus differ as object density changes. In all cases. though the response is something less than 50% of the volume change predicted by the gas law. and cross sectional surface area. Since fresh water is less dense than salt water. B = Fu . an upward force. w.3% of body weight. is buoyed upward by a force. Altitude environments are usually sufﬁciently cold that wetsuits are required (and more often drysuits today). d. A. as a speciﬁc function of depth. following increase in elevation. with volume. assuming the weight belt is 15% of diver weight. Submerging the block in a ﬂuid of density. Figure 9 charts surface wetsuit buoyancy gains at various altitudes as a function of body weight. The difference of the two forces is the buoyant (upward) force. Each multiple of 1. since every force on every face is balanced by an equal force on the opposite face. The sum total of all pressures on faces is zero. ρ. W . a downward force.000 f t elevation increases diver buoyancy by . This simple law has far reaching implications for diving. we can add up all the pressures on the block to determine the buoyant upward force. buoyancy is lost in fresh water relative to salt water. and drysuits expand and compress. To estimate the buoyancy increase due to expansion or compression. move between fresh and salt water and/or different elevations. and BCs for underwater activities. At the top of the block. Effects can be quantiﬁed by Archimedes’ and Boyle’s laws. ∆W .
there results. air can be treated as an ideal.:025 W (84) with the minus sign denoting a buoyancy loss. as well as one of the oldest. volume. a true measure of temperature. water vapor. By volume. helium. And while thermodynamic principles can predict many relations between the properties of matter. perfectly elastic. ∆W = ρgv(η . as well as over select ranges of pressure.volume of water displaced at sea level in salt water. GAS AND FLUID KINETICS The behavior of materials under pressure. ∆W = . PV =n RT (85) with n the number of moles of gas. and R the universal gas constant (8:317 j=gmole K o ). k. krypton. 20. do not interact.5% of total diver weight. ozone. and collide with themselves and the walls of any container. nitrous oxide. Real gases. volume. Ideal gas molecules occupy no space. 1) (83) with η the fresh water speciﬁc density (ratio of fresh water to salt water density). it is not possible to derive from thermodynamic considerations alone the absolute magnitude of heat capacities. and nitrogen dioxide. with variable amounts of carbon dioxide. yields a buoyancy change that depends on the ratio of densities and the total (body plus gear) diver weight. Figure 10 depicts fresh water buoyancy loss against diver body weight. V . the most fruitful. application of Archimedes’ principle to a body submerged in salt and fresh water (displacing equal volumes). and ﬁxed trace amounts of xenon. in short. but is composed of molecules. generating pressure. Simple monatomic (one atom molecules) and diatomic (two atom molecules) gases and mixtures. from correlation of assumed behavior with experiment (data ﬁts). of the form. and 1% everything else. v. v. the molecules are in constant linear motion. sulfur dioxide. in the limit of very large conﬁning volumes. such as heat capacities and variations with pressure and temperature. that is. R = N0 k (86) 34 . Ideal And Real Gases Air is a mixture of inert and metabolic gases. are considered ideal. And certainly such ﬁts are useful. Over nominal pressure and temperature ranges encountered in the Earth’s atmosphere. In the case of gases. We go beyond the limitations of pure thermodynamics only by making hypotheses regarding the nature of matter. related to Boltzmann’s constant. temperature. we have for neutral buoyancy. such as air at room temperatures and atmospheric pressures. and temperature changes was ﬁrst deduced phenomenologically. Taking η = :975. 1) = W (η . argon. act as vanishingly small. and cannot be distorted upon collision. through. gas. in fresh water and salt water is the buoyancy loss. W = ρgv (82) with ρ sea water density. nor the equation of state of a substance. is that matter is not continuous in structure. air is 78. and and temperature. As seen. T . but the sum total of all their kinetic energies is the internal energy of the molecular ensemble. and Avogadro’s number.9% oxygen. hard spheres in constant random motion from collisions. all behave like ideal gases. N0 . This simple correction for fresh water relative to sea water amounts to buoyancy reduction near 2. And by far. hydrogen. and neon. scatter elastically from each other. methane. The difference in buoyant forces acting upon an object of displaced volume. or dilute. Not all gas molecules have the same velocity. and density.1% nitrogen. and satisfy an equation o f state (EOS) relating pressure P. composed of hydrogen and oxygen mainly.
Under simple impulse. P= j =1 ∑ J pj (90) with p j the partial pressure of the jth gas species in a J component mixture. PV P T V T = γT (87) = γV (88) = γP (89) with γT = nRT . electromagnetic. and possibly distort with collision. be they acoustical. Such ﬁts to even very complicated gas behavior all have one feature in common. and surface water waves incident upon it. p. gravitational. V . All gas molecules occupy space. in terms of the molal specﬁc volume. but also known as Dalton’s law. such as the wind. Temperature is measured in absolute. v = V =n P v = a+ b c + v v2 + d v3 + :::: (91) with a. and the vertical oscillations produce a circular wave traveling outward from the block in concentric circles. the total pressure is the sum of component gas partial pressures. the block is motionless. wanting to maintain the ﬂuid surface ﬂat in the presence of any applied disturbance. gravity and surface tension act as restoring forces. Guy-Lussac. Surface water waves result from the interaction of gravity. T relationship. n is constant and changes in the state variables. plasma. pv=T . If the block is very large. Reﬂection. in short. energy scattered might be considered a function of wavelength. intuitively obvious. If each variable is alternatively held ﬁxed. V . we get three well known ideal gas law corollaries (Boyle. If the block is very small. P. and the wave is reﬂected. gets large. is clearly a special case of scattering. temperature. The quantity. P. as temperatures. approaching nearly horizontal motion at horizontal 35 . the block rises and falls with the surface of the water. or the waves very short.bridging thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. These observations pervade all types of wave motion and interactions with matter. always approaches the universal gas constant. are linked to each other by the P . and applied impulse. the virial expansion collapses to the ideal case. or real volume. and little energy is scattered. requiring wave slopes that are smaller than unity. particulary in appropriate pressure. thermal. ﬂuid particles trace elliptical orbits. The relationships connect any number of arbitrary changes of state for constant temperature. v. and d functions mostly of temperature. Such simpliﬁcations provide a linear basis for analysis of water motion. or pressure. but in general these virial constants are non zero. Then equations-of-state need include such effects. volume. For ideal gases. or water waves. c. approach absolute zero (-273 C o . b = c = d = 0. or -460 F o ). act as non ideal gas molecules. The block is set into vertical oscillations by the passage of the wave. and T . For a particular block. Consider a ﬂoating block of wood. Neglecting the viscosity and compressibility of water. units. b. or Kelvin (K o ). scatter inelastically at times. and γP = nR=P all constant. total energy scattered in all directions reaches a maximum for a particular resonant wavelength. V . however. respectively. Certainly as the speciﬁc volume. The virial expansion and coefﬁcients can be ﬁtted to sets of experimental data for gases. One describes the phenomena as isotropic scattering of incident energy. In a mixture of ideal gases. surface tension. In conservative processes. R. Water Waves Waves interact with matter in many complex ways. Denoting gas partial pressures. yhe most general form of the equation of state can be cast in virial form. the total pressure. exert short-ranged forces on each other. possibly speciﬁc volume. T . γV = nR=V . and density regimes. or the wave very long. is given by. and Charles principles). and then.
c=S p : (92) The corresponding tension. When this pressure drop approaches the weight of the bed per unit cross sectional area. PHASE DYNAMICS Solubility is an old subject. p. partial pressures usually refer to the free gas phase. and the ﬂow of ﬂuids through solids. d. is given by Henry’s law. Denoting the ambient partial pressure of a gas. Henry Coefﬁcients. although most early interest and study centered on the solubility of solids in water.150 . a hydrocarbon liquid.1) oil . we understand the thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of solubility fairly well.boundaries. Inert gases such as helium and nitrogen are readily soluble in tissue and blood. are listed in Table 11 for water and oil. while tensions refer to the dissolved gas phase. while deep water waves occur in depths greater than one half their wavelength. the particles remain in contact but move as a whole. S. between gas partial pressures and/or tensions across regions of varying concentration or solubility. and circular motion far from them. and the bed begins to resemble a liquid in the state of boiling. is also p at equilibrium. Some gas solubilities. Shallow waves (long wavelengths) ultimately break on a beach. the relative concentration of the dissolved gas component.1 ) water . regardless of the phases (free or dissolved) of the components.025 . It appears that the bed has been f luidized. such as surf or surge through rock and coral debris.008 . gases will diffuse until partial pressures are equal. When a ﬂuid is passed upward through a bed of granular solids. S.021 . Dissolved Phases All gases dissolve in all liquids. particles of different size continually mix and change relative position. c. but actual solubilities range over many orders of magnitude.009 .016 . Shallow water waves occur in depths less than one half their wavelength. is 470 times that of helium in water. and there are records of systematic studies by Pliny the Elder of the relative solubilities of many solids in water. the individual granules become disengaged from one another. or dissolved gas partial pressure. gas H2 He Ne N2 Ar O2 S (atm.014 . the solubility of xenon in n-octane. but it is difﬁcult to make quantitative predictions of solubility for real systems on ﬁrst principles. move from regions of higher partial pressures to regions of lower partial pressures. Aristotle knew that the evaporation of seawater uncovered dissolved salts. though some folks use them interchangeably.023 36 S (atm. When there exist differences. By convention. a pressure drop accompanies the ﬂow across the bed.122 . and its solubility. When the particles remain mostly localized.067 . while deep waves (short wavelengths) are dispersive. Amplitudes for such ﬂuid oscillations decrease exponentially at depth. In a turbulent bed. Of course. compared to shallow waves. The solubility of the anesthetic gas halothane in olive oil is more than 10 6 times the solubility of common gases in liquid mercury. and their solubility can fuel bubble growth with reduction in ambient pressure.012 . the granular system is a ﬁxed bed. and become shallow waves before they break on a beach. Table 11. in short. Today. or gradients. similar comments apply to bubble formation in the presence of dissolved gases. for illustration. still an important area of research and application. Gas solubilities can vary much more for complex solutes and solvents. in a liquid. a concern for decompressing divers. In a moving bed. Fluidization Fluidization of solids by liquids is a process intermediate between the ﬂow of solids through ﬂuids. Considering inert gases at room temperature.050 .
In divers, gas soulubility and transfer from blood to tissue, and back, is important. Gas is driven across the tissue-blood interface by the gradient, but the rate at which bulk tissue transfers gas also depends on the blood ﬂow rate and the degree of vascularity. Then both blood perfusion rate and gas diffusion rate contribute to the overall transfer process. Perfusion And Diffusion Transport Exchange of dissolved tissue and blood gas, controlled by blood ﬂow rates across regions of varying concentration or solubility, is driven by the local tissue-blood gradient, that is, the difference between the arterial blood tension, pa , and the instantaneous tissue tension, p, assuming that blood ﬂow rates are considerably slower than gas diffusion rates across the regions. Such behavior is modeled in time, t, by simple classes of exponential response functions, bounded by p a and the initial value of p, denoted p i . These multitissue functions satisfy a differential per f usion rate equation and are the bases for dive table and meter algorithms. Exchange of dissolved tissue and blood gas, controlled by diffusion across regions of varying concentration or solubility, is also driven by the local tissue-blood gradient, but solutions to the diffusion equation control transport. Diffusion equations have also been employed to build dive tables. Free Phases Henry’s law tells us that a gas will tend to separate from solution (pass from the dissolved state to the free state) if the tension of the gas in the dissolved state exceeds its partial pressure in the adjacent free state. And the opposite holds true if the gradient is reversed. Phase separation can be delayed if some remnant of a free phase does not already exist in the liquid, providing a pathway for the dissolved gas to dump over into the free state, rendering the dissolved gas metastable during the delay. The challenge in tracking phase separation is the presence and quantiﬁcation of free phase precursors, or seeds, that facilitate gas transfer in a process called nucleation. Nucleation Metastable states are unstable thermodynamic states lying close to stable conﬁgurations, that is, separated by relatively small energy differences. A substance in a metastable state will eventually transition into a stable state. For instance, a supercooled vapor will eventually condense into a liquid, a supercooled liquid will eventually become solid, and a superheated liquid will eventually evaporate into a gas. Bubble formation can be a process in which a gas, or vapor, phase is initially formed from a metastable liquid environment, one that is usually superswith dissolved gas. Metastable phase transitions deposit an unstable phase onto a stable phase, with aggregates in the stable phase serving as nuclei for the transition. Liquid drops in a supercooled vapor, if sufﬁciently large, become centers of condensation of the vapor, for example. Nuclei will form in both phases because of statistical ﬂuctuations, but the nuclei in the metastable phase will disappear in time, while those in the stable phase will remain. Such nuclei form statistically as a result of thermal ﬂuctuations in the interior of the media, with a certain (small) number reaching critical radius for growth. If large enough, nuclei in the stable phase seed the continuing process of phase transitions from the metastable state. For each metastable state, there is a minimum size which nuclei in the stable phase must possess to afford more stability than the metastable state. This size is called the critical radius, rc . Nuclei smaller than the critical radius will not support phase transitions from the metastable state, and will also disappear in time. In assigning a critical radius to nuclei, spherical aggregate symmetry is assumed, and is requisite to minimize surface energy. While theories of heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation work well for a number of liquids, the application of the heterogeneous model to water with impurities is not able to reduce the tensile strength to observable values. The homogeneous theory of nucleation predicts a tensile strength of water near 1,400 atm, the heterogeneous theory, with a variety of solid impurities, drops the tensile strength down to 1,000 atm, and the measured value for water is approximately 270 atm. In any solution, gas nuclei can be deactivated (crushed) by the application of large hydrostatic pressures. The process of crushing is also termed denucleation. When denucleated solutions are decompressed in supersaturated states, much higher degrees of supersaturation are requisite to induce bubble formation. In diving, denucleation has been suggested as a mechanism for acclimatization. If denucleation is size selective, that is, greater hydrostatic pressures crush smaller and smaller nuclei, and if number distributions of nuclei increase with decreasing radius (suggested by some experiments), than a conservative deep dive, followed by
sufﬁcient surface interval, should in principle afford a margin of safety, by effectively crushing many nuclei and reducing the numbers of nuclei potentially excited into growth under compression-decompression. The mechanisms of nucleation in the body are obscure. Though nucleation most probably is the precursor to bubble growth, formation and persistence time scales, sites, and size distributions of nuclei remain open questions. Given the complexity and number of substances maintained in tissues and blood, heterogeneous nucleation would appear a probable mechanism. Cavitation Simply, cavitation is the process of vapor phase formation of a liquid when pressure is reduced. A liquid cavitates when vapor bubbles are formed and observed to grow as consequence of pressure reduction. When the phase transition results from pressure change in hydrodynamic ﬂow, a two phase stream consisting of vapor and liquid results, called a cavitating ﬂow. The addition of heat, or heat transfer in a ﬂuid, may also produce cavitation nuclei in the process called boiling. From the physico-chemical perspective, cavitation by pressure reduction and cavitation by heat addition represent the same phenomena, vapor formation and bubble growth in the presence of seed nuclei. Depending on the rate and magnitude of pressure reduction, a bubble may grow slowly or rapidly. A bubble that grows very rapidly (explosively) contains the vapor phase of the liquid mostly, because the diffusion time is too short for any signiﬁcant increase in entrained gas volume. The process is called vaporous cavitation, and depends on evaporation of liquid into the bubble. A bubble may also grow more slowly by diffusion of gas into the nucleus, and contain mostly a gas component. In this case, the liquid degasses in what is called gaseous cavitation, the mode observed in the application of ultrasound signals to the liquid. For vaporous cavitation to occur, pressure drops below vapor pressure are necessary. For gaseous cavitation to occur, pressure drops may be less than, or greater than, vapor pressure, depending on nuclei size and degree of liquid saturation. In supersaturated ocean surfaces, for instance, vaporous cavitation occurs very nearly vapor pressure, while gaseous cavitation occurs above vapor pressure. In gaseous cavitation processes, the inception of growth in nuclei depends little on the duration of the pressure reduction, but the maximum size of the bubble produced does depend upon the time of pressure reduction. In most applications, the maximum size depends only slightly on the initial size of the seed nucleus. Under vaporous cavitation, the maximum size of the bubble produced is essentially independent of the dissolved gas content of the liquid. This obviously suggests different cavitation mechanisms for pressure (reduction) related bubble trauma in diving. Slowly developing bubble problems, such as limb bends many hours after exposure, might be linked to gaseous cavitation mechanisms, while rapid bubble problems, like central nervous system hits and and embolism immediately after surfacing, might link to vaporous cavitation. Today we know that the inception of cavitation in liquids involves the growth of submicroscopic nuclei containing vapor, gas, or both, which are present within the liquid, in crevices, on suspended matter or impurities, or on bounding layers. The need for cavitating nuclei at vapor pressures is well established in the laboratory. There is some difﬁculty, however, in accounting for their presence and persistence. For a given difference between ambient and gas-vapor pressure, only one radius is stable. Changes in ambient, gas, or vapor pressures will cause the nuclei to either grow, or contract. But even if stable hydrostatically, bubbles and nuclei, because of constricting surface tension, will eventually collapse as gas and vapor diffuse out of the assembly. For instance, an air bubble of radius 10 ;3 cm will dissolve in saturated water in about 6 sec, and even faster if the water is undersaturated or the bubble is smaller. In saturated solutions, bubbles will grow by diffusion, and then tend to be quickly lost at free surfaces as buoyant forces raise them up. A 10 ;2 cm air bubble rises at the rate of 1.5 cm=sec in water. If nuclei are to persist in water, or for that matter, any liquid media, some mechanism must prevent their dissolution or buoyant exit. A number of possibilities have been suggested to account for the presence of persistent, or stabilized, nuclei in undersaturated liquids, liquids that have been boiled, or denucleated. Crevices in the liquid, or surrounding boundary, may exert mechanical pressure on gas nuclei, holding them in place. Microscopic dust, or other impurities, on which gas and vapor are deposited, are stabilized already. Surface activated molecules, (such as hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in water), or surface activated skins formed from impurities may surround the nuclei and act as rigid spheres, offsetting constrictive surface tension, preventing diffusion of gas out of the nuclei and collapse. In all cases, the end result is a family, or group of families, of persistent nuclei. Time scales for stabilization and persistence of nuclei would obviously equate to the strength and persistence of stabilizing mechanism. Experimentally, trying to differentiate stabilization modes is very difﬁcult, because
(eventual) growth patterns of nuclei are the same in all cases. The ulimate crumbling of surrounding shells, release of crevice mechanical pressure, removal of dust and impurity nucleation centers, and deactivation of surface chemicals leads to the onset of cavitation and bubble growth. BUBBLE MECHANICS To satisfy thermodynamic laws, bubbles assume spherical shapes in the absence of external or mechanical (distortion) pressures. Bubbles entrain free gases because of a thin ﬁlm, exerting surface tension pressure on the gas, of magnitude, 2γ=r, with γ the Laplacian surface tension and r the bubble radius. Hydrostatic pressure balance requires that the pressure inside the bubble exceed ambient pressure by the surface tension pressure, 2γ=r. Figure 11 depicts the pressure balance in a spherical bubble of radius, r. At small radii, surface tension pressure is greatest, and at large radii, surface tension pressure is least. In watery tissue, γ = 50 dyn=cm, roughly. Gases will also diffuse into or out of a bubble according to differences in gas partial pressures inside and outside the bubble, whether in free or dissolved phases outside the bubble. In the former case, the gradient is termed f ree ; f ree, while in the latter case, the gradient is termed f ree ; dissolved. Unless the surface tension, γ, is identically zero, there is always a gradient tending to force gas out of the bubble, thus making the bubble collapse on itself because of surface tension pressure. If surrounding external pressures on bubbles change in time, however, bubbles may grow or contract. Figure 12 sketches bubble gas diffusion under instantaneous hydrostatic equilibrium ( γ nonzero). Surfactants Water, gasoline, glycerin, and salad oil are clearly liquids. Pancake syrup, paster, eggwhite, silly putty, paint, glue, and soap are also liquids, that is, they ﬂow on the application of stress, but border on classiﬁcation otherwise. In mechanical response, the latter class differs from each other as much as they differ from solids. And the response is variable in time. Syrup becomes sticky as it dries. Dishwashing soap often dries into light ﬂakes. Silly putty ﬂows on tilt, but shatters on sudden impact. Airplane glue is springy and rubbery. Substances in the latter category are called structured ﬂuids, owing their distinctive and unusual properties to large polyatomic composites, many times the size of a water molecule. Fluids containing polyatomic structures manifest a wide variety of mechanical response and self organization. Body tissues and ﬂuids host an uncountable variety of organic and inorganic matter, with many biochemical substances falling into structured ﬂuid category. Among the structured ﬂuids, a class of self assemblies, called surfactants, are very interesting, possessing properties which can stabilize microbubbles in various stages of evolution by offsetting surface tension. A surfactant is a structured ﬂuid which is ambiphillic, incorporating parts that assume preferential orientations at water-oil (immisicible) interfaces. A surfactant molecule usually consists of a bulky ion at one end, and a counter ion at the other. Isolated molecules cannot usually exist in one media type, or the other, but instead orient themselves into micelles, conﬁgurations in which like parts clump together, that is head in one substance and tail in the other. Micelles typically possess diameters near 10;3 microns, and render the interfaces unlike anything measured in the components. Lipid-aqueous tissue interfaces potentially present favorable environments for surfactants. Under certain conditions, a surfactant can reduce interfacial surface tension, allowing the interface to grow and wrap around itself. The result is a microbundle full of alternating surfaces and interfaces, spherical in structure to minimize thermodynamic energy constraints. Many substances may be bound up in the microbundle. If small gas nuclei, but typically much larger than a micelle, are in contact with the interfaces, or surfactants directly, a spherical gas micronucleus-microemulsion can develop, varying in size and surfactant content. The assembly is stable when the effective surface tension is zero, when surfactant skin pressure just balances mechanical (Laplace) surface tension. If the effective surface tension of the microbubble, γ, is not zero, the collection will grow or contract until stable, or disassemble. In the case of gas microemulsions, the surfactant is thought to coat the inside boundary layer mostly, with free gas in the interior. The actual picture is probably more complex, but such a picture can be drawn for computational simplicity. Surfactant stabilized micronuclei may theoretically destabilize under compression-decompression processes in diving, perhaps spawning bubble growth fueled by high gas tension in surrounding media. Microbubbles may remain at the interfaces, but probably migrate. Sources of initial gas nuclei, surfactant composition, and tissue sites await description. 39
Doppler Bubbles A change in the observed frequency of sound, light, and other waves, caused by relative source-observer motion, is known as the Doppler effect. One example is a change in train whistle pitch upon approach and retreat. The observed frequency, f , is higher than the source frequency, f , as source and observer approach each other, and lower as source and observer retreat from each other. For sound waves that propagate with characteristic velocity, u, in a medium (air, water, tissue), the Doppler shift depends on both source velocity, v s , and observer velocity, v o . The number of sound waves per second arriving at the observer can be estimated by simply counting the waves emitted per second by the source, and the change per second in the number of waves in ﬂight from source to observer,
u ; vo u ; vs
with source and observer velocities measured along the direction from source to observer (longitudinal component). If the observer is at rest, obviously, ∆f
vs u ; vs
as the usual case. If the observer is moving, and the source is at rest, ∆f
Doppler devices used to monitor bubbles in the circulation, or trap speeders with radar detectors, are simple. High frequency waves, emitted by a sending crystal of a Doppler probe, easily travel through body tissue, with a portion reﬂected back towards a receiving crystal. Tissue moving toward or away from the sending unit will reﬂect part of the source signal with a frequency shift determined by the velocity of the reﬂecting medium. Integrated Doppler systems discard the unshifted portion of the reﬂected signal, and only analyze the shifted portion. Shifted signals fall within the human audibility range. In the veins, bubbles reﬂect more of the signal than ﬂowing blood, with chirps and pops superimposed on continuous ﬂowing blood background sounds. Detected bubbles are graded from 0 to 4, roughly no bubbles to 1,000 or more per minute. Doppler probes are inserted into leg and arm veins, pulmonary arteries (heart to lung), and even the heart ventricles. Bubbles detected in veins or ventricles are traveling from tissues to the lungs. They may, or may not, be associated with free phases at joints, or in the spinal column, causing DCS at these sites. Doppler prediction of DCS falls in the 10% to 15% success range, even for high grade bubbles (3-4 Doppler grade). While less than totally predictive, the preponderance of high Doppler grade bubbles for a dive proﬁle renders the proﬁle suspect at least. Following a typical nonstop dive to the limits, Doppler bubble levels tend to peak in an hour, or two. Recent studies by the Divers Alert Network (DAN) at Duke University reported that some 18% of recreational dives produced some level of Doppler bubbling, on tables or decompression meters. Acoustical signals in the megahertz frequency range are typically employed in Doppler analysis. The size and velocity of reﬂecting bubbles in the ﬂowing media are crucial factors in the reﬂected return signals. Where ﬂow rates are the highest, the smallest bubbles can be detected with Doppler technology. Roughly, entrained bubbles in the 20 - 40 micron diameter range are detectable in ﬂows ranging 50 -60 cm=sec, as depicted in Figure 13, according to bubble ﬂow experiments employing 5 megahertz acoustical signals. Micronuclei And Gel Experiments Internal pressures in bubbles exceed ambient pressures by amounts equal to the effective surface tensions of the bubbles, as seen in Figure 11. To eliminate bubbles, or reduce growth, increasing ambient pressure is requisite not only to restrict size, but also to drive the gas by diffusion out of the bubble and across the tissuebubble interface, according to Figure 12. The shorter the desired time of elimination, the greater must be the ambient pressure. Experiments conducted in decompressed gels are illuminating, as described in Figure 14 depicting dissolution time against bubble size. The smaller the bubble, the shorter the dissolution time. Here implication for diving is suggestive. In the presence of asymptomatic free phases, increased offgassing pressure is prudent, With any overpressure, the length of time required to dissolve bubbles of 250 micron 40
or possibly reduction in surface tension at tissue interfaces or crevices. thereby constricting micronuclei down to smaller. listed in Table 12. as ﬁtted to gel experiments. short (crush) dive. Spontaneously bubble formation in pure supersaturated liquids under explosive decompression is mainly homogeneous. Micronuclei Excitation Radii. the seed pockets are surrounded by dissolved gases at high tension and can subsequently grow (bubbles) as surrounding gas diffuses into them. with which they are in both hydrostatic (pressure) and diffusion (gas ﬂow) equilibrium.53 273 . make the ﬁrst dive a deep. excitation radius pressure excitation radius r (microns) P ( f sw) r (microns) . If the composition of micronuclei and parent media differ.46 . or separated gas.89 153 . while at larger equilibrium radius. Homogeneous nucleation in body tissue under nominal and controlled conditions of decompression appears much less likely than heterogeneous nucleation. If the composition of both micronuclei and parent media are essentially the same. on decompression. by following three simple practices: 1. At some point in time.39 . considering pressure change and host of organic and inorganic body sustances.80 173 . bubbles tend to collapse on themselves. having dimensions starting at a few microns. gas nuclei may grow as bubbles. and not activated to growth or contraction by external pressure changes.66 213 . is established and bends symptoms become statistically more probable. and this supports the practice of underwater recompression for divers on general principles. the skin (surfactant) tension offsets both the Laplacian (ﬁlm) tension and any mechanical help from surrounding tissue. 41 . safer size. the micronuclei are crunched down to smaller sizes across families. Homogeneous nucleation and bubble formation usually require large decompressions (many tens of atmospheres). depending on their effective bubble radius. gels and body tissue are different. the model excitation radius is near .44 . depends directly on the difference between tissue tension and local ambient pressure. Immediate recompression within less than 5 minutes is adequate treatment for bubbles less than 100 microns in diameter. smaller than living cells. If families of these micronuclei persist.37 . they grow as gas diffuses into them. the nucleus. rc . Of course. while bubble formation on dust particles in supersaturated ﬂuids is mostly heterogeneous.72 193 . Bubbles are also crunched by increasing pressure because of Boyle’s law. which are unstable.49 . depending upon their composition and that of the surrounding media.diameter is signiﬁcantly shorter than that required to dissolve larger bubbles. apparently stabilizing at new reduced size. or contract. Micronuclei are small enough to pass through the pulmonary ﬁlters. yet dense enough not to ﬂoat to the surfaces of their environments. Large pressures (somewhere near 10 atm) are necessary to crush them. On compression. At sea level. while heterogeneous nucleation and bubble formation processes transpire with very small decompressions (tenths of atmospheres). denoted G. they probably restabilize as micronuclei. and then additionally shrink if gas diffuses out of them. the nucleation process is termed homogeneous.57 253 . or a sufﬁcient diffusion gradient exists to drive gas into. a critical volume of bubbles. Nucleation theory is consistent with a number of diving observations.41 . When nuclei are stabilized. Bubbles. as a function of pressure according to a bubble model (varying permeability).61 233 . the nucleation process is termed heterogeneous. gas nuclei which resist collapse due to elastic skins of surface activated molecules (surfactants). or out of. they vary in size and surfactant content. The rate at which bubbles grow. effectively the bubble pressure gradient. Below a certain critical radius. However. and gels are neither metabolic nor perfused by blood. Stabilized nuclei evolve into unstable bubbles when their effective surface tension is greater than zero. Under compression-decompression. are thought to grow from micron size. Divers can signiﬁcantly increase tolerance against bubble formation.8 microns.36 pressure P ( f sw) 13 33 53 73 93 113 133 Micronuclei can be broadly classiﬁed as homogeneous or heterogeneous. and therefore bends. As bubbles get smaller and smaller. Then all pressures and gas tensions are equal. Table 12.
of tissue interfaces. thus diving within crush limits of the ﬁrst dive and minimizing excitation of smaller micronuclei. after decompression. micronuclei must stabilize very rapidly with surfactant material. moving and stationary bubbles do occur following decompression. Source and generation mechanisms before stabilization are not well understood. Bubbles in the bone have been proposed as the cause of both dull aching pain and bone death. also possibly impairing the lungs or the arterial network. and difﬁcult respiration. nor possess the same size distributions. The presence of bubbles in the arterial circulation might result in embolism. make frequent dives (like every other day). in a sealed environment (the body). brain. while cerebral decompression sickness is believed due to emboli. underscoring physiological adaptation to recurring pressure environments. Passing through the pulmonary ﬁlters of the lungs. microbubbles would reduce the effective area and volume for tissue-blood gas exchange. bubble formation and risk are commensurately reduced. Some candidates include cosmic radiation and charged particles. with uptake faster than elimination. and a sense of localized heat. a condition collectively called the chokes. The mechanics of nucleation. blood turbulence and vorticity. Regeneration times for classes of micronuclei are estimated to be near a week. If nuclei are persistent. and spinal cord. the risk of decompression sickness increases with the magnitude of detected bubbles and emboli. Neurological DCI affects the heart. dissolved gases in ﬂuids we drink. make succeeding dives progressively more shallow. extravascular (autochthonous) bubbles. or decompression illness (DCI). only sub-micron sizes might survive. Bends Clinical manifestations of decompression sickness. If nucleation sites are extinguished. with stabilization mechanisms only recently quantiﬁed. Some can argue that gel ﬁndings are not relevant because biological ﬂuids are formed. can be categorized as pulmonary. a serious form of decompression sickness. or unstable. especially the chokes. the copious presence of microbubbles in the venous circulation would impact dissolved gas elimination adversely. most believe that bends symptoms follow formation of bubbles. 42 . Joint DCI is the most common form of mild bends. Bubble clogging of the pulmonary circulation is thought to relate to the chokes. Pulmonary DCI manifests itself as a sore throat with paroxysmal cough upon deep inspiration. Blotchy purple patching of the skin has been noted to precede serious DCI. reduced in number. Yet. 2. as well as surface friction (tribonucleation). lymph draining tissues into veins. An underlying point can be made here. stabilization. Vorticity in blood ﬂow patterns might cause small microbubbles. rash. Skin DCI manifests itself as itching. and the thin air-blood endothelium in the lungs. and joint (articular) assemblies. Crevices in tissues may form or trap gas phases. or moving apart. bone marrow (medullar). neurological. Chokes is seen often in severe high altitude exposures. but local pain can persist for a few days. thus depleting the number of micronuclei available to form troublesome bubbles. shunted venous gas emboli (VGE that pass through the pulmonary circulation and enter the arterial circulation). produced by the rapid tearing. the stomach. it is not clear that they populate all tissue sites. Microbubbles in the venous circulation would render gas uptake and elimination asymmetric. Doppler bubble and other detection technologies suggest that: 1. Expanding extravascular bubbles have been implicated in the mechanical distortion of sensory nerve endings.2. venous gas emboli. Once formed. and skin DCI. is a candidate. and stationary. and contained. Reiterating. but studies conﬁrm the existence of preformed gas micronuclei in serum and egg albumin. with later potential for release. other methods of instantaneous bubble formation are certainly possible. the biophysical evolution of the gas phase is incompletely understood. 3. Nuclei seem to pervade all manner of ﬂuids. collisional coalescence. through arterial gas emboli. or illdisposed to excitation. Abandoning preformed nuclei. Displacing blood. followed by severe chest pain. and bubble growth are fairly complex. exercise. Skin DCI is not considered serious enough for hyperbaric treatment. usually without apparent cerebral or spinal involvment. Neurogenic pain is localized at remote limb sites. with embolism also included in the categorization. or the gas phase. Cavitation. joint. All cases are linked to bubbles resulting from pressure reduction. affecting the nervous (neurogenic). Stable.
irritation. symptomless. Pulmonary damage. of course.6 atm (52. limited by d max and dmin . Gas phase formation is the single most important element in understanding decompression sickness. the lower the oxygen pressure the longer the time for symptoms to develop. and then possibly as deep as 165 f sw for treatment. d.5 f sw). Ph fO2 47:5 fO2 (96) ηdmin = (97) ηdmax . Confusion and difﬁculty in maintaining coordination are milder symptoms. unconsciousness may result. if oxygen pressures fall below . is no real constraint.44 atm (47. ηdmin = with working depths. and initiating circumstance. with the surface accessible as the limit. A closer look at these inert gases in a range of diving applications is illuminating. some 1. and coughing are manifestations (pulmonary toxicity). d min . convulsions. On the other. Severe hypoxia requires medical attention. Clearly a constraint in mixed gas diving is the oxygen partial pressure. ﬁrst. have been utilized very successfully.3. requiring a recompression chamber and various hyperbaric treatment schedules depending on the severity of the symptoms.16 atm. Ph fO2 5:3 .8 f sw) to prevent central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. Non-enriched mixtures of nitrogen/oxygen (nitrox). This window. and helium/nitrogen/oxygen (trimix). Other mixtures. MIXED BREATHING GASES Air is a usual breathing mixture for diving. Treatment of decompression sickness is an involved process. with the patient taken to a series of levels to mitigate pain. 4. notably mixtures of nitrogen. across a spectrum of activities. and some 1% of trace gases like neon. and lately those with higher oxygen content than air (enriched ) which can be employed efﬁciently in shallow diving. Denoting the mole fraction of oxygen. the variability in gas phase formation is likely less than the variability in symptom generation. composed of 79% nitrogen. and vice versa. carbon dioxide.000 f t elevation. helium/oxygen (heliox). 20% oxygen. High pressure oxygen toxicity can occur when breathing pure oxygen at pressures greater than 1 atm for periods of minutes to hours. have been employed commercially in deep and saturation diving. 43 . d max and dmin . Inspired partial pressures of oxygen must remain below 1. dmin d (98) dmax : (99) Certainly up to about 7. and is also a crucial element in preventative analysis. Depending on the depth of the treatment schedule. is conﬁning. Recompression is usually performed in a double lock hyperbaric chamber. oxygen may. so to speak. and dizziness are the symptoms (nervous system toxicity). be administered to washout inert gas and facilitate breathing. the upper and lower limits of this window. Treatment of air embolism follows similar schedules. Recently. Biological Reactivity Low pressure oxygen toxicity can occur if a gas mixture with 60% oxygen is breathed at 1 atm for 12 hours or more. and above . or may not. and interplay. advantages and disadvantages. and others. mixtures of hydrogen/oxygen (hydrox) have also been tested. ηdmax = 52:8 . location. and oxygen differing from pure air. helium. can be written ( f sw). f O2 . the lower limit.3 f sw) to prevent hypoxia. Low levels of oxygen inhibit tissue cell metabolic function (hypoxia). or silent. Twitching. argon. bubbles are also common following decompression. particularly gas properties.16 atm (5.
83 . The mechanism is not completely understood. while nitrogen is perferable to argon as a heavy gas. increased oxygen tension. Because it is the lightest. switching to nitrogen is without risk.43 . symptom onset fon nitrogen is near 100 f sw. while beyond 600 f sw loss of consciousness results. Solubilities. and hence the solubilities. Oxygen is also limited at depth for the usual toxicity reasons. and Narcotic Potency. Workable combinations of gas switching depend upon the exposure and the tissue compartment controlling the ascent.0093 .000 f sw range. Although the common gases nitrogen and helium associated with diving are physiologically inert under normal atmospheric conditions. Individual tolerances vary widely. Helium can be breathed for months without tissue damage. the nitrogen uptake can also be kept low. are dimensionless (referenced to nitrogen in observed effect).02 He 4.7 times faster than nitrogen. Differences between neon. and thus a very poor choice. and oxygen are listed in Table 14 below.0149 . ν. argon. Least potent gases have the highest index.0199 3.1480 0. argon. normoxic breathing mixtures of gases are often advantageously employed to address oxygen concerns. A (amu) S (atm. in the 1. but impaired carbon dioxide diffusion in the lungs. and helium will saturate and desaturate some 2. but is only slightly more soluble than helium.00 Ne 20. In deep saturation diving.7 times faster than nitrogen. neon. are quoted in atm . Thus. ν. helium is the least and argon the most narcotic inert gas under pressure. with the least narcotic gases the least soluble. Comparative Properties Nitrogen is limited as an inert gas for diving. hydrogen has elimination speed advantages over helium. helium is preferable to hydrogen as a light gas.0122 . Argon is highly soluble and heavier than nitrogen. Inert Gas And Oxygen Molecular Weights. With 80/20 mixtures. Neon solubility roughly equals nitrogen solubility.58 .00 .1 . Solubilities.02 Ar 39. and all coupled to reduced oxygen partial pressures. argon. Higher gas solubilities promote bigger bubbles. Of the ﬁve. neon.44 O2 32. helium. but. Comparative properties for hydrogen. often depending on activity. A normoxic breathing 44 . Symptoms can be marked at the beginning of a deep dive. Increased pressures of nitrogen beyond 200 f sw lead to excessive euphoria. Flow resistance and the onset of turbulence in the airways of the body increase with higher breathing gas pressure. A number of inert gas replacements have been tested. and very much deeper on helium. Dives beyond 300 f sw requiring bottom times of hours need employ lighter. with only helium and hydrogen performing satisfactorily on all counts.0150 4. particularly at increasing ambient pressure. helium has emerged as the best all-around inert gas for deep and saturation diving. while helium elimination is accelerated because the helium tissue-blood gradient is increased when breathing an air mixture. Following deep dives beyond 300 f sw breathing helium.0241 .18 N2 28.0502 1.1 ) blood oil ν H2 2. weights. S. Table 13.1220 The size of bubbles formed with various inert gases depends upon the amount of gas dissolved. and related chemical reactions have all been implicated in the past.0087 . such as hydrogen. considerably reducing ventilation with nitrogen-rich breathing mixtures during deep diving. Symptoms range from light headedness to unconsciousness at the extreme.0670 1. Different uptake and elimination speeds suggest optimal means for reducing decompression time using helium and nitrogen mixtures. more weakly reacting. and reduced mental and physical functional ability. and relative narcotic potencies. Neon is not much lighter than nitrogen. gradually decreasing with time. and nitrogen are not signiﬁcant for diving. they both exhibit anesthetic properties as their partial pressures increase. in atomic mass units. and less narcotic gases than nitrogen. By gradually increasing the oxygen content after substituting nitrogen for helium.0260 . fear. A.26 .Another factor inhibiting performance underwater is inert gas narcosis. Narcotic potency correlates with lipid (fatty tissue) solubility. Hydrogen will saturate and desaturate approximately 3. and helium. because of the high explosive risk in mixing hydrogen.00 . Saturation and desaturation speeds of inert gases are inversely proportional to the square root of their atomic masses. nitrogen.
heliox remains a popular. enriched nitrox affords a diving safety margin. simply because the nitrogen content is reduced below 79%. is to be underscored. Today. or equivalent air depths (always less than the actual depths on enriched nitrox) can be used with air tables.8 f sw) as the oxygen partial pressure limit. that is. afﬁrm helium as the least narcotic of breathing gases. heliox. it is advantageous to switch to nitrox on ascent to optimize decompression time. All the computational machinery in place for nitrogen diving can be ported over to helium nicely. When diving on heliox. the ﬂoor for any mixture is easily computed. Using standard techniques of extracting critical tensions from the nonstop time limits. Helium uptake and elimination can also be tracked with the standard Haldane exponential expressions employed for nitrogen. Progressive increases of nitrogen partial pressure enhance helium washout. the three mixtures (nitrox. reduces the oxygen percentage so that the partial pressure of oxygen at the working depth is the same as at sea level. Many equivalent means to schedule enriched nitrox diving exist. that is. Heliox The narcotic effects of nitrogen in the several hundred feet range prompted researchers to ﬁnd a less reactive breathing gas for deeper diving. Care. helium or nitrogen. or too much. Too little. a 74/26 nitrox mixture at a depth of 140 f sw has an equivalent air depth of 130 f sw for table entry. Thus. breathing mixture.000 f t or more on helium/oxygen mixtures by the US Navy. again. as discussed earlier. The narcotic effects of nitrogen in the 100 f sw to 200 f sw depth range mitigate against nitrox for deep diving. The fourth hydrogen mixture (hydrox) is much less commonplace. Closed breathing circuit divers have employed the equivalent air depth approach for many years. Air critical tensions can be employed with exponential buildup and elimination equations tracking the (reduced) nitrogen tissue gas exchange. ultimately ushered in the era of heliox diving. Modern bubble models. The use of enriched oxygen mixtures by recreational divers is aptly concerned with diver safety. and appropriate decompression procedures are valid concerns for the mixed gas diver. at saturation. Taking 1. fast compartment critical tensions can be assigned for applications. the later the change to a nitrogen breathing environment. a maximum permissible depth (ﬂoor) needs be assigned to any enriched oxygen mixture. For instance. Tests.mixture. Hypoxia is a concern with mixtures containing as much as 15% oxygen in this range. conducted at depths of 1.6 atm (52. trimix) are employed for deep and saturation diving. some 4 times less narcotic than nitrogen. Deep saturation and extended habitat diving. hypoxia and toxicity. though expensive. a 180 minute helium compartment behaves like a 480 minute nitrogen compartment. accurate assessment of component gas ratios. correlating narcotic effects and lipid solubility. Saturation diving on oxygen-scarce nitrox mixtures is a carefully planned exposure. The higher the helium saturation in the slow tissue compartments. Higher enrichments raise that ﬂoor proportionately. such as the varying permeability model. particularly for deep and long exposures. Mixtures of 30% more of oxygen signiﬁcantly reduce partial pressures of nitrogen to the point of down loading tissue tensions compared to air diving. Nitrox Mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen with less oxygen than 21% (pure air) offer protection from oxygen toxicity in moderately deep and saturation diving. Enriched nitrox with 32% oxygen is ﬂoored at a depth of 130 f sw for diving. Helium (normal 80/20 mixture) nonstop time limits are shorter than nitrogen. with the 2. Moderately deep here means no more than a few hundred feet. because of elevated oxygen partial pressures. depth times the square root of the nonstop time limit is approximately constant. oxygen can be a problem. the obvious concerns. Diving on enriched nitrox mixtures need be carefully planned exposures. in the use of breathing mixtures. oxygen toxicity. Breathing mixture purity. as summarized in Table 13. based on the standard Haldane critical tension approach. have also been used strategically in helium diving. but also minimize nitrogen absorption in those same 45 . also called the oxygen limit point. Decompression requirements on enriched nitrox are less stringent than air. oxygen toxicity. For very deep and saturation diving above 700 f sw or so. If standard air decompression procedures are employed. but with a notable exception. with a tendency towards usage of enriched oxygen mixtures in shallow (recreational) diving. Corresponding helium halftimes are some 2. but for opposite reason. and follow a t 1=2 law similar to nitrogen.7 scaling of halftimes expedient in ﬁtting most helium data. However. The latter procedure ultimately relates inspired nitrogen pressure on a nitrox mixture to that of air at shallower depth (equivalent air depth).7 times faster than nitrogen for the same hypothetical tissue compartment.
it is clear that the equivalent air depth. Considering solubility and diffusivity. With enriched mixtures ( f N2 < :79). nitrogen uptake and elimination rates in blood and tissue should be more rapid than nitrogen. d. The addition of nitrogen to helium breathing mixtures (trimix). is beneﬁcial in ameliorating HPNS. where oxygen partial pressure equals sea level partial pressure. gauges. often damaging vacuum tubes. δ. Trimix Diving much below 1400 f sw on heliox is not only impractical. is less than the effective depth. Such approaches to trimix decompression were tested by researchers years ago. δ. so that nitrogen decompression requirements are reduced when using δ to enter any set of air tables. the same set of M are assumed to apply equally to both air and other mixture in the approach. is the sea level equivalent depth described earlier.compartments. with nitrox mixtures. An amusing problem in helium breathing environments is the high-pitched voice change. and electronic components not usually affected by nitrogen. we get. total inert gas uptake and elimination can be assumed to be the sum of fractional nitrogen and helium in the trimix breathing medium. Helium is also very penetrating. Similarly. some nitrogen facilitates decompression. it is reasonably expected to offer the lowest breathing resistance in a smooth ﬂow system. established that oxygen percentages below the 3%-4% level provide a safety margin against explosive and ﬂammability risks. The equivalent air depth method for table use derives from the imposed equality of mixture and inert gas partial pressures. but is not the same. but also marginally hazardous. is related to the effective depth. and many others after them. Trimix is a useful breathing mixture at depths ranging from 500 f sw to 2. Ph :79 : (100) (101) At altitude. Hydrox Since hydrogen is the lightest of gases. Decompression concerns on trimix can be addressed with traditional techniques. Experiments with mice also indicate that the narcotic potency of hydrogen is less than nitrogen. δ= fN2 (Ph + d ) . d. Equivalent Air Depth In extending air tables to other breathing mixtures. At 46 . an extrapolation based on the foregoing forms the basis of the equivalent air depth method. the actual depth and effective depth are the same. using the usual exponential expressions for each inert gas component. and helps to keep the diver warm. Work in the early 1950s by the Bureau of Mines. Using a basic set of nitrogen halftimes and critical tensions. ameliorates the voice problem. with nitrogen percentages usually below 10% in operational diving. and a corresponding set of helium halftimes approximately 3 times faster for the same nitrogen compartment. while also addressing concerns of hypoxia. however. but greater than helium. and inexpensive. Obviously. and even helium. and is quite complex. A 97/3 mixture of hydrogen and oxygen could be utilized at depths as shallow as 200 f sw. because of narcotic effect. Though helium remains a choice for deep diving. Unlike helium. the equivalent air depth. Uptake and elimination of both helium and nitrogen can be limited by critical tensions.000 f sw. by imposing the equality of nitrogen partial pressures. often requiring electronic voice encoding to facilitate diver communication. High pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS) is a major problem on descent in very deep diving. progressive increases in oxygen partial pressures aid washout of all inert gases. For instance. In actuality. the effective depth. fN2 (Ph + d ) = :79 (Ph + δ) with Ph surface ambient pressure. and is very similar to the altitude equivalent depth method. users have been discouraged from experimenting with hydrox because of the explosive and ﬂammable nature of most mixtures. Despite any potential advantages of hydrogen/oxygen breathing mixtures. Simplifying. the performance of hydrogen falls between nitrogen and helium as an inert breathing gas for diving. d. hydrogen is also relatively plentiful. At sea level. promoting rapid transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the lungs at depth. the usual case.
Today. purge to prevent toxic inert gas buildup. F. i O2 . Gas consumption is related only to the physiological consumption of oxygen. one oxygen and the other inert gas (or a premixed cylinder). where it is scrubbed of carbon dioxide. and exhaled gas passes separately through an alkaline. usually corresponding to safe oxygen partial pressure at the maximum operating depth. Denoting the inert gas molar fraction in the standard (table) mixture. and the mixture is scrubbed of carbon dioxide before return to the breathing bag. and H2 . a relief valve opens in the exhalation bag. Crucial to the operation of rebreathers is a constant and continuous mass ﬂow of breathing gas. but is limited in depth and duration by the inefﬁciency of gas utilization. sodium and potassium hydroxide. the metabolic oxygen (consumption) rate. or frequent. depend on nozzle and mixture. we have. scrubbed of carbon dioxide by chemical absorbents. nitrogen. No gas is released into the water (no bubbles). 33 :79 (102) with d the actual depth. f O2 . δ= fk (Ph + d ) . A typical reduction process involves water vapor. are employed. m. fO2 F = iO2 F + (1 . Open circuit scuba offers greater depth ﬂexibility. admitting a continuous and constant mass ﬂow of gas determined by oxygen consumption requirements. but is limited in dive depth and duration by oxygen toxicity effects. and carbon dioxide in the reaction chain. subject to oxygen metabolic requirements and depth. depth is a limitation for oxygen rebreathing. CO2 + H2 + O ! H2 + CO3 2H2 + CO3 + 2NaOH + 2KOH ! Na2 + CO3 + K2 + CO3 + 4H2 + O Na2 + CO3 + K2 + CO3 + 2Ca(OH )2 ! 2CaCO3 + 2NaOH + 2KOH : (104) (105) (106) Rebreathers today last about 3 hr. trimix. f ks . δ= fN2 (33 + d ) . Mass balance simply requires that the ﬂow into the breathing bag equals the amount used by the body plus that exhaled into the breathing bag or exhalation bag. f O2 .sea level. are charged with safe levels of both. The diver inhales the mixture from the breathing bag and exhales it into the exhalation bag. purging excess gas into the water. Only a small amount of oxygen is required for extended exposures. F. and from the scrubber back into the breathing bag for diver consumption. using approximately 6 m 3 of oxygen and 4 lbs of absorbent. f k . and the inspired fraction. m. He. absorbent material. Gas ﬂow from the high pressure cylinders the breathing circuit is controlled by a regulator and nozzle. Two cylinders. and hydrox mixtures in theory. The same procedure can be applied to arbitrary heliox. To bridge this gap. depends on workload. semi-closed circuit mixed gas rebreathers were developed. basically an extrapolation from a reference (standard) table with the same gas components (helium. is uniquely determined with the other three speciﬁed. Pressure in the exhalation bag forces the gas mixture through the carbon dioxide scrubber. Two cylinders of oxygen and inert gas (or one premixed). the source oxygen fraction. and its molar fraction in the arbitrary mixture. Because of oxygen toxicity. exhaled gas is kept in the apparatus. or hydrogen with oxygen). but requires a continuous. closed circuit mixed gas rebreathers blend inert gases with oxygen (lowering oxygen partial pressure) to extend depth limitations. Oxygen is taken directly from a breathing bag. The metabolic rate. with k = N2 . 47 . and has been utlilized extensively in ocean diving. i O2 . the above reduces to the form. iO2 )m (107) The source ﬂow rate. When gas pressure in the breathing circuit reaches a preset limit. Ph fks : (103) Oxygen Rebreathing In closed circuit systems. Denoting the breathing gas ﬂow rate. and inspired (breathing bag) oxygen fraction. Closed circuit oxygen scuba takes advantage of gas conservation. and oxygen fraction. and then returned to the diver. The semi-closed circuit rebreather operates much like the closed circuit rebreather. Depth limitation for pure oxygen rebreathing is near 20 f sw. mass balance is written.
can be ﬁxed within limits. and maximum oxygen pressure (typically 1.5 l =min. upon being rubbed. The Greek word for amber is electron. and the force directed along the line joining them (1=4πε = 8:91 10 9 m= f arad ). risk only increases slightly when oxygen partial pressures are maintained below 1. it was noted that amber. Always. ionosphere). is uniquely determined by the maximum depth. and established the notion that charge can be neither created nor destroyed (conservation of charge) in physical processes. obviously a subcase.16 l =min. collective. experience a magnetic force. Oxygen rebreathing at high partial pressures can lead to central nervous system (or pulmonary) oxygen poisoning. Ampere deduced that two charges. with the gravitational constant. a convention still holding today. It is thought that high pressure oxygen increases the production of oxygen free radicals disrupting cell function. r. ﬁrst observed in ancient Greece in materials we now call dielectrics. The US Navy conducted research into safe depths and durations for oxygen diving. and concluded that there is very little risk of central nervous system oxygen toxicity when partial pressures of oxygen are maintained below 1. as is matter in the upper atmosphere (magnetosphere. and metabolic rate. As seen. inversely varying as the separation squared.6 atm. apart. 0. and only electrical charge.11nt m2 =kg2 . since corresponding magnetic poles have not been found to date. long range particle interactions due to the Coulomb force. m.4 atm). ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTIONS Electrodynamics is the study of charged particles and their associated electrical and magnetic ﬁeld interactions. G = 6:67 10 . The coupling of thermodynamics and electrodynamics is the basis of plasma physics. embodied in Maxwell’s equations. (109) with µ the magnetic permeability. and the study of fusion as a source of energy and power has led to extensive knowledge and advances in plasma physics. and their interaction with. experience a mutual force. q and e. ﬂames. iO2 . The universal graviational law takes the same form. at distance. the associated electric and magnetic ﬁelds ﬁelds produced. m. and oxygen source fraction. their emission of electromagnetic radiation. The comprehensive description of all electromagnetic phenomena. Electrodynamics is generically the study of charges in motion.8 atm. roughly. positive and negative. F. Coulomb noted from extensive laboratory experiments in the 1800s that two electrical point charges. the source rate.1. and electrical discharges. These deductions were based on the early work of Coulomb and Ampere. the source oxygen fraction. That electriﬁed bodies attract and repel was noted by Cabeo in the early 1700s. 5 . with typical values. and very high temperatures. inspired oxygen partial pressures are kept between hyperoxic and hypoxic limits.16 . F. F = qe 4πεr2 (108) with ε the electric permittivity. In terms of gross properties.6 . plasmas differ from nonionized gases because of their high electrical and thermal conductivity. Additionally.1. Matter in a controlled thermonuclear reactor would also be in a plasma state. and masses. while electrostatics and magnetostatics are concerned with stationary charges and constant ﬁelds in time. Stellar and interstellar matter is mostly in the plasma state. v and u. f O2 . is another crowning achievement in science.Or. matter. The fundamental entity is electrical charge.5 . attracts bits of straw and lighter objects. chemical and nuclear explosions. fO2 . The word was coined by Ampere in 1850 to describe all electromagnetic phenomena. F. unusual dielectric and refractive properties. Centuries ago. depend on depth. range.20. and r the separation (µ=4π = 1 48 . for requisite inspired fraction. the study of high temperature matter composed of charged particles.6 atm. given by. d max . Workload rates. 0. while du Fay and Franklin denoted these two types of electricities.7 henry=m). m and M. F = µqevu 4πr2 10 . and in. Coulomb And Ampere Laws Electrical charge is a property of matter. in addition to the Coulomb force. replacing q and e. q and e. moving with constant velocities. replacing 1=4πε. Electrodynamics describes moving charges and time varying ﬁelds. F. while source ﬂows. cylinder and nozzle.
while manganese and chromium are antiferromagnetic. in which spins of two dissimilar atoms are aligned antiparallel. excepting metals which are not plasmas. whether ferrromagnetic or antiferromagnetic in the ﬁnal state. wavelength. exhibiting ﬂuid turbulence and collective motion. In describing plasmas quantitatively. among electron magnetic moments or spins. like T . have subatmospheric densities on the whole. along with impetus for controlled thermonuclear reaction programs in the 1950s. just like the gravitational law. the inertia of the electrons causes this balancing procedure to be oscillatory. Plasmas are hot. spread. such as computers and transformers. Most terrestrial plasmas. but cannot do work on it. both the Coulomb and Ampere laws exhibit an inverse square dependence on the separation of source and ﬁeld point. Plasmas are quite luminous. and waves cannot propagate. and when it drops below the plasma frequency. accounting for the electrical conductivity of metals ar room temperatures and lower. cobalt. so plasma physics is some 100 years old. ω. fueled study of the complex mechanisms attending plasma interactions. Large densities of free electrons are also found in metals at solid densities. are very hot and not very dense. or compounds permitting ordered arrangements. Of the light sources in the universe. Hence the magnetic force can only change direction of the moving charge. The temperature necessary to induce a phase transition from an unordered magnetic state to a magnetically ordered state is the Curie temperature. This results from the collective nature of plasma interactions.Magnetic materials have traditionally been considered as elements. and into the X-ray regime. most are plasmas. for instance. most of the matter in the universe is thought to reside in stellar interiors. with frequency. the density of positive ions. The permanent properties of such materials are useful in magnetic devices. Not until development of the electrical power industry were controlled experiments on ionized gases possible. as seen in the reﬂection of radio waves. and is a relatively new science. The plasma state is the highest temperature state of matter. or disturbance. matter is in the plasma state if there are enough free electrons to provide a signiﬁcant electrical conductivity. Frequencies below the plasma frequency are not supported by the plasma. The spectrum of bremsstrahlung radiation produced spans the infrared to the ultraviolet. linear and nonlinear behavior. Practically speaking. if not all. one must consider the collective motion of the free electrons. in which neighboring spins are aligned antiparallel. alloys. However. the charge balancing ions are heavy and sluggish compared to the electrons. or correlations. Net magnetic polarization can be ferromagnetic. that is. Plasmas exhibit a state of matter in which a signiﬁcant number. Of course. as temperatures increase. Waves incident on plasmas in which they cannot propagate are reﬂected. Collisional ionization. or is less than. oddly enough. in which all spins are aligned parallel. 1 λ 1 000 microns : (110) Plasmas exhibit collisionless behavior. and their motion can be neglected. off the ionosphere. occuring certainly at much higher temperatures than the gaseous state. in that it represents a cutoff for any oscillatory electromagnetic wave. only a small fraction of electrons need be free to meet this criterion. When the density of negative electrons in a region exceeds. antiferromagnetic. Plasmas Plasma physics is the physics of ionized gases. Plasmas in discharge tubes. the temperature is also so high that only the plasma phase could exist. By comparison. where the density is so high that it is called a stellar plasma independent of its temperature. other higher frequency processes become more important with the collisional frequency suffering cutoff. The binary collisional frequency falls off with temperature. not bound to an atom or molecule. of the electrons are free. The frequency is a limiting frequency. is the source of large numbers of free electrons in matter.3=2 . Free electrons in a plasma emit photons when they collide with ions. or ferrimagnetic. in a process called bremsstrahlung. caused by energetic thermal motions of atoms at high temperature. 49 . resulting in charge imbalance. Studies at the turn of the century of gas discharges and radio propagation off the ionosphere. electric ﬁelds spontaneously develop restoring neutrality. for instance. The electrical force acts in the direction of motion. independent of the temperature. ionized gases. On the cosmological scale. propagation in the plasma. The discovery of the solar wind and Van Allen radiation belts in the 1960s provided much data for integration of plasma theory and experiment. An essential difference between electric and magnetic interactions appears in the direction of the force. Metals such as iron. λ. Interestingly. Plasmas are complex. Usually. and nickel are ferromagnetic. and wave and particle motions. σ. while the magnetic force acts normal to the direction of motion.
the star is assumed to be a gaseous sphere. and conﬁnement times. D. > n + He (111) releasing some 17. every barrel of seawater contains the energy equivalent of almost 30 barrels of oil in deuterium fuel. At sufﬁciently high densities and temperatures in the keV range. n. Both are tough problems technologically. τ. External forces. such that. subjected to its own gravity while maintaining spherical symmetry throughout its evolution. and dense.3 . denoting deuterium. with masses less than 4 times the solar mass. The evolution of nominal stars is detailed by four differential equations in space and time. a dynamical contraction phase due to gravity against a counteracting pressure gradient. like countless others in the universe. and the plasma must be conﬁned for long time scales so that many fusion collision reactions can take place to make the process economically feasible. Inertial fusion attempts the same by imploding small pellets. τ 1 sec. lesser expansion due to fusion burn of heavier elements (helium). A volume of seawater equal to the top meter of the oceans would yield enough fuel to power electrical generators for thousands of years at the present consumption rate. radiating plasma. Stellar Evolution The sun is a star with nuclear furnace. releasing of large amounts of energy. up to about 8 solar masses. much like the equations of hydrodynamics. because they are thought to burn carbon later in their evolution. magnetic ﬁelds. some 2 cal =min cm 2 . gravitational contraction until thermonuclear ignition. and stellar rotation are not included. For magnetic conﬁnement fusion.In the laboratory. the density is limited by the maximum magnetic ﬁeld strength that can be generated. ˜ both processes require fuel temperatures in excess of 10 8 K o . and fuel particle densities. Inertial fusion relies on the mass of the imploding target to provide conﬁnement. n 10 15 cm. For the past four decades. n 1025 cm. usually die as white dwarfs (including the sun). nτ 1015 sec=cm3 : (112) Magnetic fusion operates in a regime. so that. For inertial fusion. expansion due to fusion burn of light elements (hydrogen). very high collisional temperatures are necessary to overcome the Coulomb repulsion between interacting nuclei. Fusion Energy Fusion processes in the solar plasma are responsible for energy radiated to the Earth. Temperatures near 3 keV (3:47 10 7 K o ) are necessary for plasma ignition and sustained thermonuclear burn. tritium. from a contracting protostar in interstellar dust. dying orb. much research interest centers on economical means to exploit plasmas for energy production. with high energy light. The fusion reaction with the highest cross mechanism. Because seawater contains about 40 g of deuterium and 0. T . and therefore. Magnetic fusion uses very intense magnetic ﬁelds to squeeze a DT plasma to high enough temperatures and densities to ignite and sustain fusion burn.3 . may die as 50 . namely.10 sec. He. neutron. called magnetic conﬁnement fusion (MCF) and inertial conﬁnement fusion (ICF). With DT fuel.6 MeV of energy. which keeps bathing the Earth with direct solar energy from fusion processes. Star birth occurs following a gravitational instability in interstellar dust clouds. The attraction of this pursuit is the enormous energy potentially available in fusion fuels. To produce fusion reactions in a deuterium-tritium plasma. and ﬁnal contraction (death) into a white dwarf. or black hole (depending on stellar mass) as thermonuclear fuel is depleted. neutron star. Lightweight stars. certainly areas of investigation. such as deuterium and tritium. often determined by the material strength of the conﬁning vessel. or bred. or electron beams focused across the pellet. In such simpliﬁed approach. or sometimes enormous explosion (nova). One focus is fusion energy production in thermonuclear fuels. n. that is. τ 10 . thermonuclear reactions occur. these are tough technological constraints in the Earth laboratory. Again. Middleweight stars.1 g of lithium per ton. to a very hot. and the widely held view of fusion as a safe and clean energy source. from neutron capture on lithium). Most stars follow four steps of evolution. containing DT . scientists have pursued the dream of controlled thermonuclear fusion. and helium. to a fuel depleted. Development of an economically viable fusion reactor would literally give us the energy equivalent of oceans of oil. Two methods for producing controlled fusion are popular today. ion. D + T . but minor operational limitations in the interior furnace of the sun. and about 1/5 barrel of oil in tritium fuel (with tritium produced.
and their antiparticles. gathered from high energy accelerators and outer space. Increasing ambient pressure tends to shrink the bubbles by Boyle’s law. Leptons include electrons. usually in a hyperbaric chamber with controlled application of ambient pressure. beyond 8 solar masses. Masses of hadrons range from 135 MeV (pion) up to as high as 10. that is. and their antiparticles. bubbles. Strategic introduction of oxygen can also aid in the washing out of inert gases during decompression. and dissolve bubbles by increasing constrictive surface tension pressure. breathing mixture. and individual susceptibility. including weak and electromagnetic. Neutrinos are massless. weak. weak. Treatment consists of recompression. but a modern focus has been the latter three. strong. veins. on the order of tons=cm 3. neutrinos. radioactive nuclear transmutation. Information has been integrated in a consistent picture of elementary particle interactions. and electromagnetic forces. Baryon numbers are conserved in all interactions. affecting the pulmonary. acccording to general relativity. Meson numbers are not. Heavyweight stars. Haldane Model Haldane models limit degrees of tissue supersaturation. The long range forces of gravity and electromagnetism account for large scale macroscopic phenomena. and electromagnetic interactions. 10 36 : 1022 : 1010 : 1. in order. Many factors are relevant to the formation of bubbles. temperature. reducing size. Integer spin hadrons are mesons. tissue vascularity and type. time. electromagnetic. and circulatory systems adversely. pions. While such interactions on the cosmological scale are beyond imagination. p . the so called strong. with weak and electromagnetic interactions. Strengths of the fundamental forces inversely as their ranges. may also explode. To prevent decompression sickness. neurological. Matter densities in such stellar objects are enormous. or possibly explode as nova and supernova. and repetitions form the basis of diving tables and schedules. namely. Particles with strong interactions. Bubbles have been found in intravascular (arteries. assuming gas exchange is controlled by perfusion (blood ﬂow rate) in blood-tissue media. and roughly in the ratio. are thought to trigger a complex chain of physico-chemical reactions in the body. or some related form of free gas phase.800 MeV (τ lepton). DIVE TABLES AND METERS Decompression sickness results from excessive changes in ambient pressure over a particular period of time. but can degenerate (burn) into cold neutron stars or black holes. there exist interactions that are up to 10 3 6 stronger than the gravitational forces compressing massive stellar objects. the difference between the arterial blood and local tissue tension.511 MeV (electron) possibly up to 1. while half integer spin hadrons are baryons. Particles of spin 1/2. muons. more recently encoded into digital underwater computers. ∂( p .white dwarfs. weak. The past 40 years have witnessed an explosion of experimental particle data.λt ) 51 (114) = . presence of preformed nuclei. amount of pressure reduction. neutrons. are called hadrons. essentially compressed neutrons. With simple decompression sickness. while black holes are collapsed gravitational ﬁelds. tending to collapse them. like planetary attraction and charged particle scattering. and gravitational. so strong that light emerging from within is completely trapped by gravity. Particles are classiﬁed in distinct categories. Masses typically range from .200 Mev (short lived resonances). extracellular) sites upon decompression. Exchange of inert gas is driven by the local gradient. Elementary particle physics deals with all four at a fundamental level. pa ) exp (. The short range strong and weak forces account for microscopic phenomena. lymphatics) and extravascular (intracellular. Hadrons include protons. supported against gravitational collapse by neutron degeneracy (quantum exclusion limit) pressure. pa) ∂t with perfusion limited solutions.λ( p . strong. such as gas uptake and elimination in the tissues and blood. such as nucleon binding. Neutron stars are very dense objects. appropriate diving measures limiting depth. pa = ( pi . are called leptons. gas solubility and diffusivity. short lived resonances. pa) (113) . kaons. Elementary Particle Interactions Stellar interactions of enormous proportions are driven mainly by gravity. and hadron decay into leptons and photons.
and 480 min halftimes. 40. λi and λ j . In others.1=4 + 3:25τ. sets of critical tensions for nitrogen can be employed for other gases directly. Decay constants for lighter gases are thus greater than those for heavier gases. P. 240. Decay constants for different gases. 122 M 36 f sw. Table 14.67 2. along with previously mentioned exponential tissue functions. this is not always the case.27 2. atomic mass numbers. In such instances. 10. 5.76 1. gas uptake and elimination in all tissues is not controlled just by perfusion.15 2. M0 . particularly venous gas emboli.34 1. according to. Ai and A j . and initial tensions.67 1. For large values of τ. and pi the instantaneous. notably of American origin. M. Diffusion may dominate in certain tissue types. trial and error bootstrapping of model equations to observed exposure time limits. R. halftime τ (min) 5 10 20 40 80 120 critical ratio R0 3. render gas uptake and elimination asymmetric. The rate of uptake and elimination of inert gas is symmetric the same set of tissue halftimes are employed in calculations. and τ the assumed tissue halftime. Critical Tensions Haldane theory limits degrees of dissolved gas buildup. and critical gradients. both perfusion and diffusion are rate limiting.55 critical tension M0 ( f sw) 104 88 72 58 52 51 tension change ∆M 2. tissue uptake and elimination of inert gas is relatively slow according to the response function. and halftimes are assumed to be independent of pressure. are employed in applications today. The USN set are retabulated in Table 14 under appropriate headings. using nitrogen constants (tissue halftimes) scaled by the above. Bubbles in the interstitial areas. nor implied. Critical tensions extracted by Workman and Buhlmann for arbitrary compartments are well known.01 1. for P ambient pressure. Actually. Newer compilations ultimately extend older ones in like manner.19 The above set (Table 14) can be approximated by the ﬁt relationship. halftimes for uptake are then theoretically shorter than halftimes for elimination. Microbubbles in the circulatory system. d. such as bone and spinal cord. However. or agglutination of red blood cells in reaction to foreign bubbles would have similar effect on local perfusion rates. In this way. regions with lesser vascularity and greater distance between capillaries.1=4d 52 (118) . inert gas uptake and elimination proceed much more rapidly. 20. 80. pa . are the essential elements of the Haldane approach. Equivalently. arterial. and. ∆M. Critical tensions. For small values of τ. Critical parameters evolved from self consistent application of assumed tissue response to sets of exposure data. M. that is. A one-to-one correspondence between compartments and speciﬁc anatomical entities is neither established. with the R = M =P and G = M . generally increase linearily with depth.18 1. hypothetically absolute compartment supersaturation. simply a mobility effect. and change per depth. critical ratios. are related by Graham’s law. having a range. M = 152:7τ. 360. G are also employed. τ. by critical values. Compartments with 2. M = M0 + ∆Md (117) for surfacing critical tension. 120.26 1. λ jA j 1=2 1=2 = λ i Ai (116) with.58 1.λ= : 693 τ (115) for p. Classical US Navy Surfacing Ratios And Critical Tensions.
holds the ratios. and are compounded with increasing nitrogen tension upon surfacing at reduced atmospheric pressure. referenced as aerial and underwater decompression. Considering utility and functionality. accounting for 2 f sw incremental drops in tensions in the slowest compartment. R. offering larger. Simple bubble mechanics suggest that bubble excitation and growth are enhanced as ambient pressure decreases. Breathing pure oxygen before ascent helps to protect against decompression sickness by washing out nitrogen. Such similarity will force M to decrease 53 . but with a notable exception. and optimal ascent procedure. While it is true that the table procedures just described are quite easily encoded in digital meters. with reduced nonstop limits. algorithmic sophistication. that is more conservative than some of the linear M extrapolations of the recent past. To credit outgassing. Standard US Navy Tables provide safe procedures for dives up to 190 f sw for 60 min. Altitude Procedures Present diving schedules are based to large extent on the model discussed in the foregoing.with d the depth ( f sw).000 f t. Decompression studies developed separately above and below sea level. Hypobaric (aerial) decompression differs from routine hyperbaric (underwater) decompression because the blood and tissues are equilibrated (saturated) with nitrogen ambient pressure before ascent. though Statistics point to an enviable track record of decompression meter usage in nominal diving activities. Surfacing tensions in excess of 33 f sw (absolute) in the slowest compartment are assigned letter designations (groups). meter usage should increase in diving. and general acceptance. When employing the exact same algorithms as tables. Similar approaches focusing on deep and saturation diving have resulted in decompression tables for helium-oxygen (heliox). Larger bubbles possess smaller constricting surface tensions. exposures can be treated in this manner. computer usage has witnessed a very low incidence rate of decompression sickness. Such facts have been veriﬁed in the laboratory. The controlling repetitive tissue in the Buhlmann compilation is the 635 min compartment. and all. requiring some safe extrapolation procedure to altitude. A set of US Navy Tables. digital meters are capable of much more than table recitations. the Swiss tables are formulated and tested over a range of reduced ambient pressure. and so decompression problems are theoretically exacerbated by altitude. helium-oxygen-nitrogen (trimix). for each 2 f sw over 33 f sw. with the 120 min compartment (the slowest) controlling repetitive activity. The Swiss tables. digital meters can monitor diving almost continuously. less stable gas seeds for possible excitation and growth into bubbles. While the US Navy tables were constructed for sea level usage. Dives between 200 and 300 f sw were tested and reported in the exceptional exposure US Navy tables. and indeed such devices exist. providing rapid estimates of any model parameter. hypobaric and hyperbaric. So called penalty time is then added to actual dive time to updated appropriate tissue tensions. meters provide additional means to control and safety beyond table lookup. meters can easily compute time remaining before decompression. below 0. supported by technological advance in computing power. a Surface Interval Table. Table And Meter Algorithms Considering only dissolved gases. surface interval before ﬂying. Beyond that silent bubbles may retard nitrogen elimination. developed by Workman. one standard table approach. as well as an expanding user community. such procedure offers a considerable degree of protection. compiled by Buhlmann. Then it is possible to account for desaturation during any arbitrary surface interval.01% according to some reports. constraining activities so that M. time at a stop. Such procedures are bases for the US Navy Air Decompression and Repetitive Surface Interval Tables. A to O. When coupled to slow ascent rates and safety stops. Up to about 18. Nucleation theory also suggests that critical radii increase with decreasing pressure. When model equations can be inverted in time. and follow from simple bubble theory. are never compromised. Proﬁles can be stored for later analysis. incorporate the same basic procedures. An approach to altitude diving. including a 240 min compartment. also by the adjectives. Certainly the same considerations confront the diver at altitude. or R and G. and recent mixtures with some hydrogen (hydrox). forcing altitude exposures to be similar to sea level exposures. appears in Figure 15. The remaining excess nitrogen at the start of the next dive can always be converted into equivalent time spent at the deepest point of the dive. and will thus grow faster in conducive situations. Pulsing depth and pressure at short intervals. and the resulting data bank used to tune and improve models and procedures. groups combinations of depth and exposure times according to the surfacing tension in the slowest compartment. constant at altitude. is also constructed. Any.
α 1 + :0381 h. altitude. at altitude induces a necessary scaling of actual depth to sea level equivalent depth for table entry. time is measured directly.16 1. or change z ( f t) 0 1.9 30. and are always greater than one.11 1.7 correction factor α 1.000 2. P and α are reciprocally related. and a stop at 10 f sw at sea level translates to 8 f sw. The higher one ascends to dive.000 f t.000 4. the density difference is usually neglected. z = 1000 h. Recent analyses of high altitude aviator experiments also support the concept of constant tissue ratios for permissible decompressions.5 25. R. ascent rates. that is. that is.000 atmospheric pressure Ph ( f sw) 33.24 1. Convert all table sea level stops and ascent rates back to actual altitude through division by β. β.6 22. Thus. precise estimation of α on site.5 27. Convert depths at altitude to sea level equivalent depths through multiplication by β. called altitude correction factors.000 8.000 3.39 1.000 6.04 1. Whenever salt water tables are used directly in fresh water at sea level.00 1. Altitude Correction Factors And US Navy Altitude Groups. Today. wrist altimeters facilitate rapid. but is so small that it can be neglected in calculations anyway. Corresponding ascent rate is 50 f sw=min.000 10. Actual depths at altitude are multiplied by factors. Up to about 7. and so the approach is not without basis. They can also be estimated from the barometer equation. with h measured in multiples of 1. Here the 3% density difference between salt and fresh water is neglected.000 f t elevation. Neglecting the 3% density correction is conservative. Table 15 lists altitude factors at various altitudes. while stops are always less than at sea level.8 29. while all times remain unchanged.7 28. which are just the ratios. and one of minimal impact on these factors.0 31. and stops. A capillary gauge at altitude performs these depth calculations automatically. P.45 penalty group on arrival at altitude permissible group for ascension to altitude A B B C D E E F G H L K J I H G F E D C The similarity rule for altitude table modiﬁcation. decompression. Constant R extrapolations of this sort should be conﬁned to nominal diving activities.07 1. z. multiplied by the speciﬁc density of fresh water. nor saturation exposures.29 1. the deeper is his relative exposure in terms of sea level equivalent depth.5 23. certainly not heavy repetitive. applying correction factors to depths. taking β = 1:2. is straightforward. α.975 a conservative convenience. Ascent rates are always less than 60 f sw=min. β=η P0 Ph = ηα (119) with operational neglect of the speciﬁc density scaling by .20 1.5 26.000 f t uses a depth correction of 72 f sw. of sea level atmospheric pressure to altitude atmospheric pressure. Again.000 7. because the correction decreases equivalent depth by 3%.000 9. Table 15. ranging to 10. inverses actually.34 1. The sought ratio constancy.4 24. 54 . a diver at 60 f sw at an elevation of 5.exponentially with increasing altitude. The effect on ascent rate or stop level is not on the conservative side. and on the ﬂy.000 5.000 f t. keeping R constant with commensurate exponential reduction in the ambient pressure. As described and seen in Table 4. correction factors are only applied to underwater depths.
directing. ranging from a few to tens of thousands of dollars.COMPUTING Computing technology has made incredible progress in the past 50 years. In the not distant future. Supercomputers and mainframes are usually employed in high end. Smaller and less powerful computers are now employed for monitoring. but applications are growing. while more recent workstations employ RISC technology. and fast storage exchanging terabytes of information over simulation times are also requisite. because they are generally smaller in size. Ultrafast. graphics servers. or simply. statistics. have greatly enhanced computer performance. while in the 1960s. In the 1950s. Today. interconnecting networks. subtracts. and semiconductor fabrication joined the supercomputing revolution. Workstation clusters and mainframe parallel computers 55 . and graphics devices. ranging from one to tens of millions of dollars. Computers today are categorized as complex instruction set computers (CISC). This rapid rate of improvement has come from advances in technology used to build the computer and from innovation in computer design. Latencies develop at the nodes connecting various computer. involving thousands of processors processing trillions of data points. and peripheral devices. In 1945. simply because of impedance mismatch in data handling capabilities. controlling. Differences in raw processing speeds between various components in a high performance computing environment can degrade overall throughput. The label supercomputer usually refers to the fastest. computational ﬂuid dynamics problems in the aerospace industry were solved on supercomputers. and most powerful computer in existence at any time. and analyzing dives. operating systems. Diving is still on the fringes of supercomputing. oil reservoir simulation. 109 adds. but often in more diverse roles and applications. Increases in performance of computers are sketched in Figure 14. global climate and ocean circulation modeling. to discrete diodes and transistors (50s and 60s). user interfaces. To support these raw computing speeds. manifest time delays in processing data. compilers. and more disk storage than a million dollar computer in 1965. Supercomputers are the most expensive. These machines will probably be massively parallel computers. conditions termed latencies. while faster instruction execution is the RISC concern. while performance growth rate for microcomputers is closer to 35% per year. biggest. and 1990s seismological data processing. The latter class of computers is usually more portable. In the 1940s. materials and drug design. communications channels. compute intensive applications. or divides per second. such as memories. is an essential ingredient in modern systems. and mainframes are near 20% per year. or reduced instruction set computers (RISC). multiplies. more memory. physically marked by the rapid changing of building blocks from relays and vacuum tubes (40s and 50s). supercomputers were ﬁrst used in weather forecasting. econometric modeling. particularly in the areas dive proﬁle analysis. Very few areas in science and engineering have not been impacted by supercomputers. storage. and biomodeling. Minicomputers and microprocessors address the same functionality. opening yet another age in computational science. software. Performance growth rates for supercomputers. and environments. 1012 ﬂoating point operations per second (tera f lops) will be reached. In the 1970s. to large and very large scale integrated (LSI/VSLI) devices (70s and beyond). and reductions in hardware cost and physical size. minicomputers. 1980s. offer an expeditious means to assess output data. Today. while microprocessors are the least expensive. to small and medium scale integrated (SSI/MSI) circuits (60s and 70s). Reducing memory requirements in storing computer programs is a prime CISC concern. quantum ﬁeld theory. database banks. Efﬁcient structuring of all the components (platform) supporting computing. terminal. that is. networks transmitting data at gigabits per second. Larger mainframes usually employ CISC technology. have led many to consider workstation clusters for running parallel programs. molecular dynamics. data management. there were no stored program computers. divers. a few thousand dollars will purchase a desktop personal computer with more performance. Over the past four decades. structural analysis of buildings and vehicles. circuit layout. But device hardware is not the sole factor contributing to high performance computing. general purpose. supercomputers process data and perform calculations at rates of 10 9 ﬂoating point operations per second (giga f lops). network. the computer industry has experienced four generations of development. supercomputers were employed in the design of nuclear weapons (as still today). along ith substantial decrease in disk and memory costs. in terms of a nominal 1965 minicomputer. able to process voluminous amounts of information. Increases in device speed and reliability. brain tomography and imaging. equipment. high resolution graphics servers. Latencies are parasitic to sustained computing performance. Notable advances in reduced instruction set computer technology.
anywhere. 3. that is. is termed serial. A typical large application will generate from tens of gigabytes up to several terabytes of data. 4.have signiﬁcantly different network characteristics. To perform as a utility. and satellites. and architectures that integrate modalities. computers work on processing information. Clusters are limited by slower interconnection speeds and higher message latencies. and managed by software distributed across workstations. Serial computing architectures. doing calculations. to be processed in parallel. Choice of cluster or mainframe is often an economic decision by the computer consumer. Serial And Parallel Processors Obviously. manageability – ability to be monitored. Vector processing allowed large groups of numbers. while tape devices are employed to meet high speed and high capacity requirements. parallel supercomputing was introduced. distributed applications and connective services – ability to provide easy access to tools. ﬁber optics. Networks And Storage Networks are the backbone of modern computer systems. Gigaﬂop computers need gigabit =sec network transmission speeds to expedite the ﬂow of information. large memory computers. New high performance data systems (HPDS) are needed to meet the very large data storage and data handling Systems consist of fast. usefully communicate anything. is roughly termed parallel. to get more information through a network. may be possible. perhaps with increasing distance due to increasingly more complex superparallel systems. and resources across different computing platforms. Studies of clusters suggest minimal latencies in the few millisecond range. and full motion video can be digitally encoded. with anywhere from tens to thousands of central processing units (CPUs). In the early 1980s. software developments on future state of the art supercomputers will probably trail hardware advances. by any number of processors. and to oversee data transfer. By the end of the century. anytime. data. connectivity – ability to move information regardless of the diversity of the media. or vectors. Computer systems use a hierarchy to manage information storage: 56 . or group of entities (numbers). Such requirements are one to two orders of magnitude greater than the capacities of present generation storage devices. the greater the speeds and bandwidths required. one can increase the rate of ﬂow (speed). and fetching and storing data in steps. A set of operations performed in any fashion. and sent across a variety of physical media. Applications under development today presage the needs to transfer data very quickly tomorrow. or organizations. and processes that need to transmit information to one another. and high speed networks have created computing platforms allowing researchers to execute supercodes that generate enormous amounts of data. signiﬁcantly greater computing parallelism (combining tens of thousands of processing units perhaps). Like water in a pipe. resulting in performance speedups by factors of ten or more (compared to generational improvements on the order of 2 or 3). and to change with applications and devices. people. A set of operations. are now being replaced by parallel computing architectures. limited by the slowest component in the computing platform. in the few microsecond range. and/or increase the amount that can ﬂow through cross sectional area (bandwidth). that is. The architectural feature associated with supercomputers in the 1970s was vector processing. or vector. operating on a single entity. Advances in massively parallel. allowing multiple processors to work concurrently on a single problem. Mainframe parallel processors exhibit substantially better message passing capabilities. a network must possess four attributes: 1. Storage devices usually have a dedicated workstation for storage and device management. microwaves. Today. The assumption is that all information transmitted will be digital. The greater the number of systems. voice. As in the past. performed in sequential fashion by one processor. large capacity storage devices that are directly connected to a high speed network. Processors themselves can be scalar. once the standard. such as numeric and symbolic processing. interoperability – ability of diverse intelligent devices to communicate with one another. Supercomputers without high speed communications and network interfaces are degraded in application processing speed. image. including wire. Disk devices are used to meet high speed and fast access requirements. 2. data.
The computational speed and memory capacity of supercomputers have expedited solutions of difﬁcult physical and mathematical problems with Monte Carlo statistical trials. and costs decrease. the 6 million volumes in the Library Of Congress represent some 6 terabytes of information. brain tomography.30 1 3 20 plasma physics global ocean brain topology quantum dynamics 109 1 100 108 4 20 10 6 . air and groundwater pollution. thus serving as a useful computation tool in all areas of scientiﬁc endeavor. As a reference point. porous ﬂow in oil bearing substrates.008 Monte Carlo Methods Monte Carlo calculations explicitly employ random variates. Grand Challenge Computing Requirements. direct access storage – magnetic or optical disks. and problems whose solutions will have tremendous impact on the economic well being of the United States. high impact deformation and ﬂow. The simulations listed in Table 6 run for a week on the CM5. and breadth of application. sequential access storage – magnetic tape cassettes or microﬁlm.1. The scale of computational effort for nominal Grand Challenge problems can be gleaned from Table 16. primary storage – fast. Vortices in combustion engines. ocean and atmospheric circulation. storage capacity increases. listing ﬂoating point operations. global climate modeling. Although Monte Carlo is typically used to simulate a random process. providing large capacity.001 109 . global convection of tectonic plates. power. ductile and brittle fracture of materials under stress. elastic-plastic ﬂow.015 . Table 16. the Thinking Machines Corporation (TMC) massively parallel supercomputer. coupled to statistical sampling. it is frequently applied to problems without immediate probabilistic interpretation. 3. geomagnetic ﬁeld generation. three dimensional seismic imaging. providing fast access. In computational science. Monte Carlo methods play a special role because of their combination of immediacy. On future generation supercomputers. materials by computer design. solid state memory contained in the processor. networks. to simulate physical processes and perform numerical integrations. and many others are just such problems. computer memory. access time goes up. Moving down the hierarchy. Grand Challenge Problems Grand Challenge problems are computational problems requiring the fastest computers. ﬂuid turbulence. operations problem porous media ductile material description 3D immisicible ﬂow 3D molecular dynamics 3D material hydro numerical tokamak century circulation 3D rendering lattice QCD (giga f lops) memory (terabytes) storage (terabytes) 109 1 4 109 109 . connected to the processor. 2. simulation times are expected to drop to hours. and data storage requirements. and storage devices in existence. 57 .008 . HIV correlations.
assumed to increase monotonically with penetration. Surrounded by dissolved gas at tension. can economically invert the probability integral relating event and probability. µ. a description of material composition within each region. µ = I n+1 =In < 1. helpful in estimating the variance of scored quantities. G. that is. event generation. Cavitation nuclei are generated from the instantaneous Gibbs probability. the true mean is usually unknown. increases with number of events generated. Russian roulette and splitting (together) are a special case of exponential biasing. With high speed computers. 1 . n. The constant. In entering regions very important to physical simulations. supercomputers. and removed at external boundaries. When the importance decreases. Another approach. the accuracy of the simulation. each with weight. tend to acquire the same weights. with γ the liquid-vapor surface tension. w=µ. and assigned weights. In actual simulations. In addition to large number. each cell of a geometric region can be assigned an importance. A stochastic model. This generally includes a description of the geometrical boundaries of regions. A random variable on the interval. and rapid. In+1 =In . is seen in the exponential transformation. because of the use of random sampling to obtain solutions to mathematical and physical problems. the distribution of sample means itself is normally distributed about the true mean. as a function of nuclei radius. the ratio is less than one. The importance of a region is assigned the value. If the ratio is is greater than one. Biasing means sampling the most important region of a problem. as the number of sample sizes increases. w=µ. or are destroyed with probability. I = exp (αx). as a sampling probability. When splitting and Russian roulette are combined. and T the temperature. from region. but the central limit theorem tells us that. is constructed. cosmic ray tracking in detector chambers. because the numbers of events increase and the variance is reduced. and hard to abuse. of course. with. Russian roulette is employed. millions of events can be generated rapidily to provide simulation of the processes deﬁned by the probability function.4πγx2 =3kT )dx 3kT 0 (121) when inverted analytically. which may or may not be immediately obvious. dG = 8πγ r exp (. is adjusted to bias events which reduce variance. numerical solution estimates are obtained. while reﬂecting possible exponential physical behavior as well. splitting and Russian roulette are widely used variance reduction schemes. and the particle is split into µ = In+1 =In identical particles. Statistically. and the relative probability function for an event. Particles either survive with probability. µ. Such cavitation simulations can be applied to multiphase ﬂow in reactor vessels. In complex geometries. than particles in a region of importance. w. afﬁxing a weight factor to any event to correct for distortion in the sampling scheme. 58 . Popular techniques are splitting and Russian roulette. coalesced with each other on collision. coupled to increasing the numbers of particles and adjusting weights in regions of increasing importance. p. the importance ratio. Simple to use. 0 permits the instantaneous probability function to be sampled easily. cloud condensation processes in the atmosphere. measured by the variance. ζ. Weight is clearly preserved by the process. enters the region. Sampling schemes often employ biasing to reduce variance. I. All that is required for the simulation of the cumulative history is a probabilistic description of what happens at each point in the history. in terms of the random variable. is examined. in the absence of analytic means. or numerically. n + 1. and the statistics are improved. particles are split into µ identical particles. and. dG. bubbles can be generated and tracked through growth and collapse cycles in time. with x the penetration distance. allowed to move with surrounding ﬂuid.The Monte Carlo method is different than other techniques in numerical analysis. When a particle of weight. with w the weight of the incoming particles. P. cavitation around ship propellors. via. In the limit of inﬁnitely many splitting boundaries. Monte Carlo methods can be applied to generate bubbles in tissue and blood using the thermodynamical Gibbs free energy. I. for ambient pressure. α. Z 8πγ r ζ= x exp (.4πγr2 =3kT )dr 3kT (120) ζ 1. bubbles in tissue and blood. Monte Carlo calculations are then performed by simulating the physics at each point in an event sequence. r. and boiling processes in general. r. the particle is entering a cell of greater importance. by sampling from appropriate probability distributions. for bubble radius.
the risk of decompression sickness increases with the magnitude of detected bubbles and emboli.DIVING MALADIES AND DRUGS Diving has its own brand of medical complications. joint. near 800 f sw. Joint DCI is a common form of mild bends. venous gas emboli. Rapidly compressed divers. followed by severe chest pain. and bubbles are some. through arterial gas emboli. For brief consideration. Depending on the depth of the treatment schedule. staged compressions. are capable of affecting. linked to ambient pressure changes. a condition collectively called the chokes. Mechanical disruption. usually without apparent cerebral or spinal involvment. 4. breathing helium. Although HPNS can be avoided by slowing the compression rate. Neurogenic pain is localized at remote limb sites. Bends Clinical manifestations of decompression sickness. and warming have been useful in ameliorating HPNS in operational deep diving. bone marrow (medullar). Skin DCI is not considered serious enough for hyperbaric treatment. cramps. and a sense of localized heat. and joint (articular) assemblies. The bubble problem has been long discussed. or may not. hemoconcentration. symptomless. Gas induced osmosis has been implicated as partially causative in high pressure nervous syndrome. Bubbles in the bone have been proposed as the cause of both dull aching pain and bone death. the use of pharmacological agents. Under rapid pressure 59 . location. and stationary. At greater depths. the variability in gas phase formation is likely less than the variability in symptom generation. extravascular (autochthonous) bubbles. Pulmonary DCI manifests itself as a sore throat with paroxysmal cough upon deep inspiration. be administered to washout inert gas and facilitate breathing. can be categorized as pulmonary. but we can start off by summarizing a few concensus opinions concerning decompression sickness. with embolism also included in the categorization. brain. Skin DCI manifests itself as itching. the biophysical evolution of the gas phase is incompletely understood. 2. can cause a number of disorders. bubbles are also common following decompression. like so many other pressure related afﬂictions. A cursory discussion of some maladies and drugs then follows. the major constituent of the body. and then possibly as deep as 165 f sw for treatment. experience coarse tremors and other neurological disorders termed high pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS). after decompression. and skin DCI. and initiating circumstance. some nitrogen in the breathing mixture. shifting between different tissue compartments. ﬁrst. High Pressure Nervous Syndrome Hydrostatic pressure changes. as summarized by Vann. 3. or decompression illness (DCI). Recompression is usually performed in a double lock hyperbaric chamber. alcohol. Treatment of air embolism follows similar schedules. and vomiting often accompany the tremor. a few of the common medical problems associated with compression-decompression and diving follow. though usually reversibly. the rate needs to be substantially reduced for compressions below 1. rash. requiring a recompression chamber and various hyperbaric treatment schedules depending on the severity of the symptoms. say 120 f sw=min to 600 f sw. oxygen may. Expanding extravascular bubbles have been implicated in the mechanical distortion of sensory nerve endings. Doppler bubble and other detection technologies suggest that: 1. or silent. or the gas phase. and difﬁcult respiration. While the underlying mechanisms of HPNS are not well understood. Neurological DCI affects the heart.100 f sw. Blotchy purple patching of the skin has been noted to precede serious DCI. especially the chokes. Water. Chokes is seen often in severe high altitude exposures. dizziness. plasma loss. and is also a crucial element in preventative analysis. Treatment of decompression sickness is an involved process. shunted venous gas emboli (VGE that pass through the pulmonary circulation and enter the arterial circulation). moving and stationary bubbles do occur following decompression. and spinal cord. with the patient taken to a series of levels to mitigate pain. All are linked to bubbles upon pressure reduction. Most believe that bends symptoms follow formation of bubbles. particularly in the several hundred atm range. central nervous system activity. but local pain can persist for a few days. Yet. affecting the nervous (neurogenic). nausea. Gas phase formation is the single most important element in understanding decompression sickness. neurological.
been unraveled. Breathing air at atmospheric pressure after the onset of oxygen toxicity symptoms can restore balance. but counter. depending on severity of symptoms. difﬁculty hearing and ringing. and reduced hemoglobin capacity have all been indicted as culprits. The condition is known as oxygen toxicity. Low pressure pressure oxygen toxicity (Lorraine Smith effect) occurs when roughly a 50% oxygen mixture is breathed for many hours near 1 atm. Carbon dioxide seems to play an important. and carbon dioxide levels. At higher partial pressures. The biochemistry of anesthetics and narcosis in divers has not. The other postulates anesthetic action in the aqueous phases of the central nervous system. high inert gas tensions. Physicochemical theories of anesthetics divide in two. Elevated oxygen levels interfere with the enzyme chemistry linked to cell metabolism. air has been used as an anesthetic. aviators. and was ﬁrst observed. can have a deleterious effect on divers. is not understood. such as alcohol. gas concentrations across blood and tissue interfaces may not have sufﬁcient time to equilibrate. Oxygen toxicity portends another very complex biochemical condition. The narcosis was ﬁrst noticed in subjects breathing compressed air as earlier as 1835. The signs and symptoms of inert gas narcosis have manifest similarity with alcohol. krypton. affords some level of adaptation. But. with latency time inversely proportional to pressure above 1 atm. One hypothesis envisions anesthetics interacting with hydrophobic surfaces and interfaces of lipid tissue. anesthetically blocked ion exchange at the cellular interface. in two forms. while contributory to the chain of reactions according to measurements. confusion. inducing balancing. obviously. though subtle. temperature. Inert Gas Narcosis It is well known that men and animals exposed to hyperbaric environments exhibit symptoms of intoxication. simply called narcosis. argon. fatigue. Individual susceptibility to narcosis varies widely from individual to individual. work level. as well as the noble (rare) gases such as xenon. still today. Reduced metabolic and electrolytic transport across neuronal membranes has been implicated as a causative mechanism The role of carbon dioxide. Both helium and hydrogen. and act on all neural pathways. in the ﬁnal quarter of the 1800s. On the other hand. producing lung irritation and inﬂammation. Anesthetics have no real chemical structure associated with their potency. carbon dioxide retention. Combinations of elevated pressure. hypoxia (low oxygen tension). Hyperoxia And Hypoxia Elevated oxygen tensions (hyperoxia). These substances depress central nervous system activity in a manner altogether different from centrally active drugs. and those undergoing hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The strength of the osmotic gradient is proportional to the absolute pressure change. Early symptoms of oxygen poisioning include muscualr twitching (face and lips). and anesthesia. The effect. convulsions develop in high pressure oxygen toxicity (Bert effect). especially in the central nervous system. and coordination problems. with varying impact 60 . difﬁculty breathing and taking deep breaths. as with DCS. reduced alveolar function. followed ultimtely by unconsciousness. though varying in their potency and threshold hyperbaric pressures. The potency and latency of both relate to the stability of gas hydrates composing most anesthetics. apprehension. part in almost all compression-decompression afﬂictions. and neon. and individual susceptibility. is not isolated to air mixtures (nitrogen and oxygen). Anesthesia can be induced by a wide variety of chemically passive substances. like a bulk phase. and at sufﬁciently great pressure. Many factors are thought contributory to narcosis. ﬂuid pressure gradients (osmotic gradients).5 atm. ranging from inert gases to chloroform and ether. tunnel vision. The anesthetic aspects of narcosis are unquestioned in most medical circles. Frequent exposure to depth with a breathing mixture. Convulsions are the most serious manifestation of oxygen poisioning. the actual mechanism and underlying sequence is unknown. high oxygen tensions. it has been noted that only small increases in brain carbon dioxide correlate with severe symptoms of oxygen toxicity. however. a tissue debt (hypoxia) develops. similar to elevated inert gas tensions. Other factors besides pressure potentiate symptoms. Exposure to depths greater than 300 f sw may result in loss of consciousness. amount of carbon dioxde retained and inspired. Deep breathing and hyperventilation can also forestall convulsions if initiated at the earliest sign of symptoms. When the tissues fail to receive enough oxygen. cause the same signs and symptoms.changes. Factors contributing to the onset of symptoms are degree of exertion. just as with inert gas narcosis. nausea. Oxygen toxicity is not a problem whenever the oxygen partial pressures drop below . and gas solubility.
while euphoria. oxygen tensions can fall to a very low level before a diver returns to the surface and resumes breathing. and sore chest muscles. and carbon dioxide at . Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be equally successful when both breathing and heart action have ceased. and. as blood is unable to absorp enough oxygen to maintain its red color. Treatment in both cases is breathing standard air normally. drowsiness. and irreparable damage to the brain and higher centers usually occurs in about 4 minutes. such as nitrogen and helium. with the commensurate drop in carbon dioxide tension. Factors which increase the likelihood and severity of hypercapnia include corresponding high partial pressure of oxygen. it consumes some 20% of the oxygen inspired. Carbon dioxide affects the metabolic rate. breathing dead spaces. and many other associated biochemical reactions. Although the nervous system itself represents less than 3% of body weight. and there are no problems. or the expanding air is retained. life threatening condition. but also the sensitivity to carbon dioxide drops as oxygen tension drops. Any process which lowers carbon dioxide levels in the body below normal (hypocapnia). and larger scale biological impact on gas exchange and related chemistry. Carbon dioxide seems to be a factor in nearly every other compression-decompression malady. if fresh air is breathed. nausea. but the brain. When oxygen supply is cut. and high breathing resistance. again. and. respiratory failure follows in about a minute. Carbon dioxide at . chemical combination with alkaline buffers. blurring of vision. leading to hypocapnia.03% carbon dioxide. If obstructions to air passage exist. Oxygen levels are lowered because exertion causes oxygen to be used up faster. hyperoxia. and hypoxia. Transfer of inert gases follows simple laws of solubility (Henry’s law) in relation to partial pressures. providing breathing has not stopped. and unconsciousness progress. high gas densities. starting with confusion and drowsiness. dizziness. All tissues are affected by high levels of carbon dioxide. weakness. artiﬁcial respiration can stimulate the breathing control centers to functionality.10 atm. The victim of hypoxia may be unaware of the problem. rigidity. drowning if consciousness is lost. is the most susceptible. and unconsciousness. symptoms of hypercapnia become severe. Only relatively small changes in partial pressures of carbon dioxide can induce chain reactions in the three mechanisms. followed by muscle spasms. Following hyperventilation and during a longer breathholding dive. The physical chemistry of carbon dioxide uptake and elimination is much more complex than that of inert gases. Extended breathholding after hyperventilation can lead to a condition known as shallow water blackout. air contained in body cavities expands. such as headache. Rising carbon dioxide tensions and falling oxygen tesnions trigger the breathing response mechanism. The respiratory system monitors both carbon dioxide and oxygen levels to stimulate breathing. Hyperventilation (rapid and deep breathing) lowers the carbon dioxide levels. gas solubility. headache. 61 . consciousness can be lost in 30 seconds or less.02 atm pressure will increase breathing rate.10 atm. the long term effects following revival are inconsequential. Residual effects are minor. While the short term effects of both hypercapnia and hypocapnia can be disastrous in the water. recovery is equally as rapid.and latency time on body tissue types. faintness. When oyxgen partial pressures drop below . Hypoxia can result with any interruption of oxygen transport to the tissues. including decompression sickness. Upon ascension. but cardiac function continues. can produce weakness. permitting oxygen levels to drop even further. the drop in the partial pressure of oxygen in the lungs may be sufﬁcient to stop the uptake of oxygen completely. and diffusion between the cellular and plasma systems. excess in the breathing mixtures. Carbon dioxide transport depends on three factors. Hypercapnia And Hypocapnia Tissue carbon dioxide excess (hypercapnia) can result from inadequate ventilation. Obviously. The air we breathed contains only some . As partial pressures of carbon dioxide approach . with about 1 l of carbon dioxide produced for every 1 l of oxygen consumed. It is a direct product of metabolic processes.05 atm pressure induces an uncomfortable sensation of shortness of breath. unconsciousness is extremely rapid. or altered diver metabolic function. Blueness of the lips and skin results. Hypocapnia often results from hyperventilation. in the extreme case. the brain is impacted the most. Barotrauma With pressure decrease. namely. narcosis. Hypoxia is a severe. However. unconsciousness. the urge to breathe may also be suppressed. Usually. this expanding air vents freely and naturally. If breathing has stopped.
while failure to accommodate equalization on ascent is called a reverse block. and driving the air out of the emboli into solution. Newcomers to high altitude typically experience dyspnea (shortness of breath). To accommodate equalization when diving. and coughing of frothy blood. and then rupture. Although increased oxygen at depth 62 . and also rupture the lining (pneumothorax). sinuses. If the bubbles migrate to the tissues beneath the skin (subcutaneous emphysema). Problems with lung overexpansion can occur with pressure differentials as small as 5 f sw. which accelerates tissue absorption of the air trapped in the neck region. particularly. it is the eustachian tube which does not permit air passage from the throat to the middle ear. with inside pressure (air space) greater than ambient pressure. Under hypoxic stimulation (low oxygen tension). inducing cardiac arrhythmia. Burst alveoli are one serious manifestation of the problem. for instance. and possibly lodging in the coronary and cerebral arterioles. Though such complications can be very painful. shock. Gas trapped in the tissues about the heart and blood vessels. outside pressure greater than inside pressure locally. and convulsions. and malaise. lungs. can occur. shock. and push against the heart. and the trachea (mediastinal emphysema). When local pressure differentials develop because of inside and outside pressure imbalances. Other areas may suffer similar damage.overexpansion problems. thence. the ears. including dizziness. Clinical features of arterial gas embolism develop rapidly. teeth. no local pressure differentials exist. headache. Trapped in the intrapleural lining. headache. can adversely impact the circulation. cyanosis. The condition is exacerbated on ascent as gas trapped in tissues expands. conﬁned skin under a wetsuit. with outside pressure greater than inside (air space) pressure. followed by unconsciousness. Failure to accommodate equalization on descent is termed a squeeze. The amount of rupture and degree of bleeding is directly proportional to the pressure imbalance. after which continued overpressurization produces progressive distention. The lungs can accommodate overexpansion to just a certain point. the venous ﬂow. When pressure differentials exist. into the heart. Often the lungs collapse under the pressure. systemic circulation. Altitude Sickness At altitudes greater than some 7. that is. decreased partial pressures of oxygen can cause arterial hypoxemia. Treatment consists of oxygen breathing. The only treatment for air embolism is recompression in a hyperbaric chamber. hyperbaric treatment is utilized. and partial obstruction of the bronchial passageways. Symptoms disappear within a week. small openings in and around teeth ﬁllings complicate equalization of the air space under the ﬁlling (usually a bad ﬁlling). blood vessels will rupture in attempt to equalize pressure. hyperventilation occurs with secondary lowering of arterial carbon dioxide and production of alkalosis. Feeling of fullness. Acclimimatization is usually lost within a week at lower altitudes. Recompression is the indicated treatment for a concomitant condition. Death can result from coronary or cerebral occlusion. of the alveoli (air exchange sacs). often a case accompanying mediastinal emphysema. One very serious overexpansion problem occurs in the lungs. and anxiety ﬁrst. middle air. they are usually not life threatening. The sinuses have very small openings which close under congestive circumstance. and other organs. In all cases. and change of voice are associated with subcutaneous emphysema. and circulatory and respiratory failure. Pressure increases and decreases can be tolerated by the body when they are distributed uniformly. Symptoms of pneumothorax include sudden chest pain. In severe cases. and the intestines. air must have free access into and out of these spaces during descent and ascent. The most serious afﬂiction of pulmonary overpressure is the dispersion of air from the alveoli into the pulmonary venous circulation (arterial embolism). shortness of breath. inhibiting air exchange. collectively called barotrauma.000 f t. the gas may further expand on ascent. Symptoms include pain in the sternum. rapid heart rate. Similarly. the parietal pleura. and teeth ﬁllings are often imbalanced during compressiondecompression. Pressures in air spaces in the sinuses. and vice versa. their presence causes a swelling of neck tissue and enhanced local pressure. insomnia. Continuing to expand with further decrease in pressure. slow descents and ascents are beneﬁcial in ameliorating squeeze and reverse block problems. these emboli (bubbles) can block blood ﬂow to vital areas. breathing difﬁculty. Gas from ruptured alveoli may pass into the membrane lining the chest. along with thoracentesis. and sometimes fainting. This distention can be exacerbated by breathholding on ascent or inadequate ventilation. distortion of the shape of the local site supporting the pressure difference is the outcome. with the intent of shrinking emboli in size. In the case of the ear. and general graded exercise may hasten acclimatization.
communication. Rewarming in dry clothing is standard and obvious treatment. and commercial diving industry suggest that some 8% of all divers exposed to pressures in the 300 f sw range exhibited bone damage. Hyperthermia can be avoided by proper attention to water intake and protection from environmental heat. and diuretic therapy. Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Bone rot (dysbaric osteonecrosis) is an insidious disease of the long bones associated with repeated high pressure and saturation exposures. as well as ingestion of balanced electrolytes. Affecting the long bones as secondary arthritis or collapsed surface joints. especially with increasing levels of physical exertion. Medical Research Council. 10. Exercise always increases heat loss. As temperatures rise. Statistics compiled in the early 1980s by the US Navy. Rewarming at the earliest signs of hypothermia is prudent. and possible pain in the chest. but the usual treatment consists of ﬂuids. habitats. 63 .may be beneﬁcial. While more of a cold water problem. problems which can be ameliorated through suitable application of sets of established diving protocols. Symptoms might resemble the chokes (decompression sickness). and then death. temperature difference. and appropriate therapy. some 357 out of 4. or above. and full body ventilation. Royal Navy. Replacement of body ﬂuids and reduction of body temperature are necessary in effective treatment of hyperthermia. And commercial divers continue to be at higher risk of osteonecrosis. No lesions were seen in divers whose exposures were limited to 100 f sw. and good physical condition help to minimize hypothermia. Care in the choice of protective suit to conserve body heat.000 f t. inert gas reactivity. Symptoms usually appear within 18 hrs after arrival. Like hypothermia. caffeine. to heat stroke. Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema (ﬂuid buildup in the lungs) can affect nonacclimatized individuals who travel within a day or two to elevations near. severe hyperthermia is life threatening. increased oxygen partial pressures at depth are helpful. leading to fat cell enlargement in more closed regions of the bone core. altitude sickness is not life threatening. and the situation gets worse fast. salt. even fatal. Dehydration is a contributing factor. however. shortness of breath. including lower altitude. the surface malaise often precludes diving until acclimatization. to cramps. In itself. all falling into an operational control category. The facts. but diving rigors can precipitate pulmonary edema. evidence of cough. to weakness. Treatment requires immediate removal to lower altitude. is recommended. hypothermia can also occur in relatively warm and even tropical waters. called hypothermia. respiration and surface monitoring. hospitalization. to heat exhaustion. to coma. and alcohol are to be avoided. attention to feelings of cold. and then death. dyspnea. Deep and saturation diving portend problems with temperature control in environmental suits. called hyperthermia. symptoms progress from shivering. body fat. that is. or tightness serves as a warning. oxygen. Prevention includes adequate acclimatization and reduced levels of exertion. and many others. to coma. Environmental temperatures above body temperature are potentially hazardous. as noted by its yearly toll on mountain climbers. symptoms progress from profuse sweating. oxygen levels. Pulmonary edema can be a serious. lead to a progressive raising of temperatures in vital organs. consisting of rasping cough. Cool water immersion is employed in severe cases. are still not clear. with the rate dependent upon body area. to muscle rigidity. At altitude. compression and decompression. lesions. Hypothermia And Hyperthermia Exposure to cold results in heat loss. a condition that reduces blood ﬂow rate and probably increases local vulnerability to bubble growth. Some feel that very high partial pressures of oxygen for prolonged periods is the ultimate culprit for bone lesions. insulation properties of wet or dry suit. hospitalization with rest. detected as altered bone density upon radiography. usually in the presence of high environmental temperatures and low body ﬂuid levels. Inadequate ventilation and body heat loss. But aseptic bone necrosis is a chronic complication about which we know little. Exercise. Rapid treatment.463 examined divers. Severe hypothermia is a life threatening condition. As core temperatures drop. Again. and physical activity. Shivering and a feeling of being very cold are ﬁrst symptoms of hypothermia. A month of graded exercise may be requisite. afﬂiction. are the suspected cause.
Muscle relaxants. and recreational drugs. and others. antagonizing. additionally causing sedation. to f t 3 . Drugs addressing motion sickness may lead to functional motor impairment. Antihistamines. Antacids seem to have no noted adverse effects on divers. These drug products are typically antihistamines. 1. with trade name terfenadine. In the former category. used in the treatment of asthma. and unpredictable as far as altered behavior with increasing pressure. Hypertension drugs can limit diving performance. and opening passages between sinuses and middle ear for air exchange. using Tables and Figures for data. to f t (fresh water). Units are used interchangeably. causing drowsiness and headache. scopolamine. and cardiovascular stress on the more severe side. TECHNICAL DIVING PROBLEMS Problems are based on the material presented. such as theodur. or nitrogen concentrations. to msw=sec. diuresis. impair cognitive abilities. 38 f sw 1 ft 975 f sw = : 38:9 f t 2. haldol. Convert ascent rate. induce drowsiness. reducing tissue swelling. particularly meclizine and dimenhydrate are often employed for motion sickness. V = 62 m3 3532 f t 3 m3 64 = 2189 f t 3 . uniphyl. Another decongestant. Side effects can be subtle and also variable. and the simple equivalence ratios nested in Table 1 can be employed to convert back and forth across units. hytrin. Convert depth. tenex. particularly newer ones. and dehydration on the mild side. since little is known about many. oxycodone. Individual reactions vary widely. and heavy doses of caffeine have been linked to reduced mental and physical acuity. Tradename drugs in this category. vasodilatation. and extreme neurological. possibly compounding dehydration and electrolytic imbalance. Recent studies suggest that drug effects are compounded at increasing depth. having been described as potentiating. metaprel. According to the diving medical community at large. The (modiﬁed) USN Tables in Figure 15 should be employed for table applications. and have been noted to induce cardiac dysfunction. medication used to treat illness. Anti-anxiety drugs. d = 38 f sw. possibly exacerbated by other risk factors such as cold water. r = 60 f sw=min. These drugs include metoprolol. Many different types of drugs are utilized. and dalmane. Convert volume. and sinequan. such as valium. like lasix and hydrochlorothiazide. codein. Among the more common drugs used by divers are decongestants. Bronchodilators. also possesses sedative properties. Sedative and pain agents also alter mental function.Drugs Very few studies have systematized the overall effects of drugs underwater. halcion. with some additional side effects of blurred vision and dry mouth. elavil. are strong agents. r 3. has no sedative effects. Antihistamines often produce drowsiness and decreased mental acuity. sedation. the bottom line on drugs underwater is caution. and ventolin can cause cardiac dysrhythmias and CNS impairment. alcohol. producing signiﬁcant changes in mental outlook. oxygen. Agents used in the treatment of depression or psychosis cause sedation. Diuretics. tradename drugs. or hydrocodone reduce mental and physical exercise capacity. V = 60 f sw=min msw 3:28 f sw min 60 sec = : 305 msw=sec = 6:2 m 3 . The skin patch drug. Drug utilization by divers is connected with medication used to ameliorate diving problems. Analgesics containing propoxyphene. respiratory. such as f lexiril and robaxin. Agents affecting heart rate and peripheral vasculature may cause drowsiness and reduce blood ﬂow capacity. providing relief by constricting blood vessels. cause ﬂuid loss. Gastrointestinal drugs containing histamines can also affect the central nervous system. taken for ear and sinus relief. include theophylline and steroids. Narcotics and hallucinogens.
weigh. What is the mass. g = 32 f t =sec2 . does 600 g of calcium (Ca) occupy? ρCa = 1:55 g=cm3 V = m ρCa = 600 cm3 1:55 = 387 cm3 11. What is the gram molecular weight. What is the speciﬁc density.5 lb abalone iron weigh. η. m = 10 g. to lb=in2 . of weight. ρ Os ? AOs = 190:24 G = AOs g = 190:24 g ρ Os = 22:48 g=cm3 12. w = 31:2 lbs. ρ. What volume. ρ. w? w = 1:5 lb 7. of osmium (Os). m = 2050 kg. What is the density of salt water. of 1500 cm3 of iron (Fe)? ρFe = 7:86 g=cm3 m = ρFeV = 7:86 1500 g = 11:8kg 10. Convert acceleration. V . w? w w = = mg = 10 980 dynes 9:8 10 3 dynes What does a 1. G. of mercury (Hg) with respect to seawater? ρHg = 13:55 g=cm3 η ρHg ρseawater ρseawater 13:55 1:026 = 1:026 gm=cm3 = = = 13:21 13. What is the density of fresh water. P = 5:3 kg=m2 : 20 lb= f t 2 1 kg=m2 1 f t2 144 in2 = : 0074 lb=in2 5. P = 5:3 kg=m2 . occupying :5 f t 3 ? ρ = w V = 31:2 lb= f t 3 :5 = 62:4 lb= f t 3 8. v = 34 f t =sec? How long before the shaft impales a target grouper 9 f t away? v = ds dt dt = ds v 65 = 9 sec 34 = : 26 sec . What does a wrist thermometer of mass. m.4. and density. to m=sec2 . Convert pressure. occupying 2:0 m 3 ? ρ = m V = 2050: kg=m3 2:0 = 1025 kg=m3 9. of mass. g = 32 f t =sec2 1m 3:28 f t = 9:8 m=sec2 6. A spear gun propels a lock tip shaft at speed.
in the water? ∆W = 128 . mv = 2mv 18. and kinetic energy. A diver surfacing from 150 f sw covers the ﬁrst 90 f sw in 90 sec. m = 32 kg. 12 f t =sec = 15. in time. What is the average ascent rate. What is the average speed of a Zodiac covering distance. and are buoyed up in the water with a force of 124 lbs. adt = 24 6 f t =sec = 144 f t =sec 16. dt a = 24 f t =sec2 ? dv = 6 sec. m. with is the increase in kinetic energy. p. What are the momentum. 124 lbs = 4 lbs If a BC provides lift.14. is necessary to ﬂoat the pearl diver at neutral buoyancy? ∆B = ∆W = 4 lbs 19. ∆W . A pearl diver plus all gear weigh 128 lbs. If the speed is doubled. moves underwater with speed. F. what is the change in momentum. ∆K.46 5:6 5280 f t =sec2 3600 = . v = 6 m=sec? p = mv = 32 6 kg m=sec = 192 kg m=sec K = 1 2 mv 2 = 1 2 32 36 kg m2 =sec2 = 1:15 103 j What is the force. A submersible of mass. ∆p? ∆p = 3mv . the Zodiac stops in time. mv2 2 2 = 3 2 mv 2 If the speed is tripled. r? r = ds dt = 150 f sw=sec 90 + 30 = 1:25 f sw=sec 17. ∆B. v. What does the pearl diver weigh. of the submersible? ∆K = 1 1 m(2v)2 . required to stop it in 8 sec? dp = 192 kg m=sec dt = 8 sec F = dp dt = 192 kg m=sec2 8 66 = 24 nt . of a hydroplane accelerating for time. with acceleration. What is the magnitude of the deceleration. a? a = dv dt = . moving with velocity. dt = 5:6 sec. dv. ds = 23 miles. What is the change in speed. dt = 30 min? v = ds dt = 23 mph :5 = 46 mph Docking. and the remaining 60 f sw in 30 sec. how much additional lift. of a light diver propulsion vehicle (DPV). K.
What is the corresponding K +U = = Ei = Ef = 12 = 103 j 3 103 j = 8:2 E .1 ? 6:625 8:2 10. generated by the fall? W = dH dt 9:8 dH = mgh dt = : 74 sec 103 j dH = 80 2:7 kg m2 =sec2 = 2:13 W = 2:13 103 j=sec :74 = 2:86 103 watt What is the kinetic energy.20. U f = 0 + 12 103 + 0 j 12 103 j At some point in the drop. on impact. What is the energy.34 j sec 10 . f h ε = = 10 14 sec. What is the power. c. taking :74 sec to hit the surface. 9 103 j 23. ε. U f Ki + Ui . U. mg = 150 lbs. who ascends from 60 f sw to the surface? U = mgh = 150 60 f t lb = 9 10 3 f t lb 21. Ui = 12 103 j. when the paradiver hits the water (neglecting air resistance) in the Gulf of Tonkin? Ei Ui Kf = = = Ki + Ui 103 j = Ef = = Kf +Uf Ki = 12 = Uf 0j 0j = E f . An 80 kg diver giant strides from the deck of a boat into the water 2:7 m below. What is the increase in potential energy.5 cm = = 2:99 1010 cm 8:2 1014 67 = 3:6 .Uf = Ei . U? E U = = 10 3 j.K 12 103 . of a photon moving at the speed of light. the paradiver gains kinetic energy. Ki = 0 j (all relative to the surface of the Earth). and frequency.1 = hf = 6:625 10. λ? c λ c f = 2:99 1010 cm=sec 10. and zero kinetic energy.3 keV What is the corresponding photon wavelength. for a diver of weight. What is the kinetic energy. K. neglecting air resistance? v = = gt = 9:8 1 2 : 74 m=sec = 7:3 m=sec 10 3 j K 1 2 mv 2 = 80 53:3 j = 2:13 22. K f .19 j 3:39 10. K = 9 potential energy.20 j = f 5:4 = 8:2 1014 sec. A UDT paradiver jumps from a USN Seawolf helicopter with initial potential energy. W .
and foreshortening. viewed in air? µ = nquartz nair σ = nair nquartz 1:000 1:456 µ = 1:456 1:000 = 1:456 σ = = : 687 27. tall. What is the magniﬁcation. A coral head appears. :852)1=2 kg m2 =sec2 = 1:72 1017 j What is the corresponding kinetic energy. viewed in quartz? µ = nair nquartz : σ σ = nquartz nair 1:456 µ 28. in steel? u = 5032 m=sec dt = ds u = 10604 sec 5302 = 2 sec 68 . in taking. What is the energy. m = 1 kg. K? γ K = (1 . across the quartz-air interface for an object in quartz. at the air-water interface. What is the magniﬁcation. nair = 1:0. h. of a lead weight. µ.1=2 = 1:39 = 2 = (γ . that is. µ.1 (:75) 48:5o 26. 1)mc = : 39 1 10 8)2 kg m2 =sec2 3:49 1016 j 25. s? =8 = 687 =6 = f t. dt. What is the critical angle. σ. and foreshortening.24. swat µ = f t. v2 =c2 )1=2 = 108)2 (1 . aboard the Starship Enterprize initiating warp acceleration? c = 2:99 1 108 m=sec (2:99 m = 1 kg E = mc2 (1 . φc . and. does it take a sound wave to propagate a distance. v=c = :85. nwater = 1:33? sin φc φc = nair nwater = 1 1:33 = = : 75 = sin. in Truk Lagoon. σ. What are the actual height. v 2 = c2 ). moving at velocity. h wat and distance.1=2 (2:99 = : 52. E. for an object in air. σ = 1:33 : 75 h = hwat µ swat σ = 8 ft µ 6 ft 75 = 6 ft s = = : = 8 ft 29. How long. and. d = 10 604 m.
is reﬂected. dx = :64 cm. what fraction. for body temperature of 22:7 Co and water temperature of 4:1 C o ? φ K = : = . What is the energy. Ti ) ln X =Xi ln X f =Xi o T = 400 ln 60=20 ln 80=20 + 100 C = 417 Co 34. ε T . :02 95 What is the magnitude. (Co ). reﬂected from the surface. across a neoprene wetsuit of thickness. T . is transmitted. Γ = 2 cal =m 2 . Γr . τ = :04.ρ = : 1 . transmitted at the surface (absorbed in less than a cm)? εR εR = : = Rε εT εT = Tε : 9919 4:1 btu = 4:066 btu = 0081 4:1 btu = : 034 btu 31. ρ = :02. 273 298 . What is the heat ﬂux. Sunlight striking the shallow azure water off the coast of Cozumel delivers. If. is absorbed? ρ = : 02 1 τ α = : 04 ρ+τ+α α = = = 1. 273 25 o 33. T f = 500 Co X f = 80 ohms. at resistance. α. φ.2 cal =cm2 sec 32.8 watts=m2 K o4 = 298 K o 10.τ. and. and energy.30. does a light stick at 298 K o emit underwater. φ. What heat ﬂux. to the surface. and Ti = 100 Co Xi = 20 ohms? T . for ﬁxed points. If the thermometer is logarthmic in response. An welding thermometer is constructed using changes in resistance to measure temperature changes.K 64 cm dT dx dT = 0004 cal =cm Co sec φ = dx = : 22:7 . Ti = (T f . of the chemical candle? φ T φ = = = σ0 T 4 10.8 = σ0 = 5:67 5:67 Co 2984watts=m2 = 447:1 watts=m2 = K o . 4:1 C o = 18:6 Co : 0004 18:6 cal =cm2 sec :64 = 1:16 10. what is the temperature. and what is the Centigrade temperature. A surface tender screams at a diver underwater with acoustical energy. ε = 4:1 btu. εR . of the reﬂected radiation? Γr = ρΓ Γr = :02 69 2 cal =m2 = : 04 cal =m2 . X = 60 ohms. :04 .
6 nt What is the magnitude of the gravitational force. What is the speed of a shallow water wave. Convert 37 C o to Fahrenheit (F o ). What is the horizontal force. propagating in depth. m = 60 kg. dH. 38. Co = 5 o (F . u. ds = 12 m? dH = Fds = 64:7 12 j = 776:4 j 40.11 2:67 10.1 . What is the speed. vdeep . underwater? m = 60 kg G = M 6:67 = 6000 kg r = 30 m 10. M = 6000 kg. λ = 10 m. 32) 9 Co + 273 = 5 (80 . and then to Kelvin (K o ) temperatures. between the Earth and the hard hat diver? m F = = 60 kg 60 g = 9:8 m=sec2 = mg = 9:8 kg m=sec2 588 nt 36. r = 30 m. λ = 150 miles.35.11 nt m2 =kg2 60 6000 nt 302 = F = G mM r2 = 6:67 10. f slamming into Guam? u = λf = 150 : 31 mile=hr = 465 mph 39. is done in moving the tank a distance. Fo Ro = 9 o 9 C + 32 = 5 5 F o + 460 = 37 + 32 = 98:6o = 98:6 + 460 = 558:6 o 41. necessary to drag a 16:5 kg scuba tank across a ﬂat iron plate at a ﬁll station? µ F = = : 4 N = mg = µN = : 4 16:5 9:8 kg m=sec2 64:7 nt How much work. across the Oso Bay ﬂats at Corpus Christi (Texas)? vshallow = (gd ) 1=2 = (32 10)1=2 f t =sec = 17:9 f t =sec 37. in the South China Sea? vdeep = (gλ=2π) 1=2 = (9:8 10=6:28)1=2 m=sec = 9:9 m=sec = :31 hr . F. What is the speed of a deep water wave. separated a distance. 32) 9 = = 26:6o Ko = = 26:6 + 273 299:6 o 70 . and frequency. Convert 80 F o to Centigrade (Co ). and then to Rankine (Ro ) temperatures. F. wavelength. d = 10 f sw. F. vshallow . propagating with wavelength. of a tsunami (tidal wave). What is the magnitude of the gravitational force. and surface platform of mass. between a hard hat diver of mass.
What is the pressure of a column of seawater. what is the average velocity. What is the pressure of a column of fresh water. d = 10 msw. ρ = 64 lbs= f t 3 ? P = ρd = 64 33 lbs= f t 2 = 2112 lbs= f t 2 = 14:6 lbs=in2 = 43.42. What is the mean square speed change. fHe = :80. assuming density. v? v2 2 v = (2vdv) 1=2 = vdv = 623:7 m2 =sec2 = (2 623:7)1=2 m=sec = 35:3 m=sec 47. f O2 = :10. in the tank? P = T Pi Ti = 313 273 71 1 atm = 1:146 atm . assuming density. What are the composite partial pressures. A tank initially at standard temperature and pressure. Pi = 1 atm. A diver inﬂates his BC at depth. p. in a 80/10/10 trimix breathing gas at an ocean depth of 400 f sw (that is. and. and f N2 = :05)? pi = fi (33 + 400) f sw 433 f sw 433 f sw 433 f sw (i = He O2 N2 ) pHe = :80 pO2 pN2 = : = 346:4 f sw 43:3 f sw 43:3 f sw 10 = = : 10 = 45. to approximately :015 m 3 . does the diver do? dW dW = = PdV = 20:2 104 : 015 kg m2 =sec2 3:03 103 j 46. ρ P = 62:4 lbs= f t 3 ? ρd = 62:4 34 lbs= f t 2 = 2121 lbs= f t 2 = 14:7 lbs=in2 44. is heated to 313 K o by the sun.γ = 30 8:317 5=3 2=3 m2 =sec2 = 623:7 m2 =sec2 If the mean square speed change is roughly half the velocity squared of the exiting gas. A mole of air in a tank at 300 K o is released to the atmosphere and registers an average temperature drop of 30 K o . dW . 30 K o vdv = dT Rγ 1.γ dT = = R = 8:317 j=gmole K o . d = 33 f sw. P. vdv of the exiting gas? dv dT γ 5 3 = 1 Rγ v 1. How much work. d = 34 f t. What is the pressure. Ti = 273 K o .
occupies volume. v = 2 m3 =kgmole. What is ambient pressure. d. χ? χ = 2475 . :03) 1 8:31 10. What is the temperature.3 = 124:5 103 K o 52. occupied at depth. χ. What is volume. T . at an elevation of 6 500 f t? Ph P6:5 = = P0 exp (. and temperature. and b = :03 m 3 =kgmole? RT 100 4 = P+ a v2 (v . P = 50 f sw. at temperature. The air in a dry suit at ambient sea level pressure. a = 100 nt m=kgmole. T = 280 K o ? P0V0 PV = T0 T V = V0 P0 T PT0 = : 3 33 50 280 3 ft 300 = : 185 f t 3 49. V . The air pressure in a scuba tank drops from 2475 lbs=in 2 to 1500 lbs=in2 in 8 min? What is the air consumption rate.0:038h) P0 = = 33 f sw 33 : h = = 6:5 25:7 f sw 33 exp (.48. δ. what is the actual depth. b) T = 500 + (2 . taking the viral coefﬁcients.500 f t elevation? δ = 20 f sw d = δ ηα = 20 : 975 1:28 ft = 16 f t 53. 1500 lbs=in2 min 8 = 121:9 lbs=in2 min If the tank is rated at 72 f t 3 . in f t 3 =min? 121:9 lbs=in2 min 72 f t 3 2475 lbs=in2 72 = 3:5 f t 3 =min . of the stop at 6. What volume. P0 = 33 f sw. for actual depth. of a kgmole van der Waals gas at pressure. What is the altitude scaling factor. for depth. T = 300 K o . what is the consumption rate. α.0:038 6:5) f sw 78 f sw 51. Ph . d = 78 f t? α δ = = exp (0:038h) ηαd = : = exp (0:038 78 f sw 6:5) = = 1:28 975 1:28 97:5 f sw If a decompression stop is required at 20 f sw according to the USN Tables. P = 500 nt =m 2. V0 = :3 f t 3 . and what is the sea level equivalent depth. V . and a speciﬁc volume. does a gmole of an ideal gas occupy at standard temperature and pressure? p = 10:1 nt =cm2 PV T = = 273 K o V R = = 8:317 j=gmole K o nRT nRT P 103 cm3 = V = 8:317 273 cm3 :101 = 22:48 22:48 l 50.
χ 0 d = 20 f sw. What is the air consumption rate. z = 6 500 f t. in fresh water? δ α = = αηd = h = 1300 1000 δ = 3:28 = 4:26 exp (.0:038 4:26) 1:19 1:19 : 975 18 msw = 20:3 msw 59. χ0 = :95 f t 3 =min? in fresh water? χ = χ0 α 1+ dηα P0 χ = 95 1:28 : 1+ 46 : 975 33 1:28 f t 3 =min = 2:03 f t 3 =min 56.000 f t elevation will a high speed compressor deliver if its rated output is 10 f t 3 =min at sea level? χ0 α χ χ0 α = = 10 f t 3 =min h 9) = 9 exp (. P0 975 73 18 + 8:4 . what reading. d = 18 m? P0 δ = = 10 msw = : P4:26 = 8:4 msw = ηd + Ph . If a hookah unit pumps a surface rate.54. V = 34 f t 3 . What does a bourdon (oil) gauge read. on a reef? χ = = 5 f t 3 =min.300 m elevation and depth. d = 46 f t. At an altitude. δ. for sea level surface consumption rate. χ. and elevation. of air last at 33 f sw for an EOD specialist swimming against a 6 knot very cold current in the ocean? P0 = 33 f sw χ0 = 2 f t 3 =min χ = χ0 1 + d P0 χ = 2 1+ 33 33 f t 3 =min = 4 f t 3 =min t = V χ = 34 min 4 = 8:5 min 55. χ. of air . at 1. will a capillary gauge register at actual depth. z = 1 300 m. δ. How long. will it deliver at depth. 10: msw 15:9 msw . d = 18 m. t. What ﬁll rate at 9.0:038 10 f t 3 =min 1:41 = 1:41 = = = 7:09 f t 3 =min 58. at depth. what rate. will a tank containing. 33 3 f t =min 53 χ0 P0 P0 + d = 5 = 3:13 f t 3 =min 57.
how much add additional weigh. of sea water. registers a pressure. 200) lb = 18 lb 74 .60. V gear? = = 64 : 78 lb 49:9 lb 3:5 f t 3 . ∆W . A weather balloon is partially inﬂated at 50 f sw to 20 f t 3 . P = 1420 lb=in2 on a sub gauge. B. A 10 qt plastic container is submerged to 100 f t in Lake Michigan. B. A fully clad diver displaces. A tank rated 80 f t 3 at 3000 lb=in2 . What is the buoyant force. V ? V = Vr P Pr = V What is the tank constant. provided by the BC? B = ρV = B 65. A fully inﬂated BC displaces. must be added to the belt = ∆W B . V ? Pi = 33 f sw P = 33 + :975 PV V 100 f sw = = 130:5 f sw PiVi = = Vi Pi P = V 10 33 qt 130:5 = 10 : 253 qt 2:53 qt 63. on diver and B B = = ρV = 62:4 3:5 lb 218 lb If diver plus gear weigh. How much fresh water. V . V f . κ? κ = = 80 1420 3 ft 3000 37:8 f t 3 Pr Vr = 3000 lb=in2 f t 3 80 = 37:5 lb=in2 f t 3 61. at 20 f sw? Pi = 33 + 50 f sw = 83 f sw Pf PiVi = 33 + 20 = f sw = 53 f sw Vi = 20 f t 3 Pf V f 83 3 ft 53 = Vf 64. does a 200 lb lift bag displace? ρ V = 62:4 lbs= f t 3 W ρ = W = 200 lbs 3:2 f t 3 = 200 3 ft 62:4 = 62. W for neutral buoyancy? = 200 lb. and allowed to drift to the ocean surface slowly. of fresh water. What is its volume. What is the volume. What is the lift.W = (218 . V = Vi Pi Pf = 20 31:3 f t 3 = :78 f t 3 . What is the remaining air volume.
for a salvage diver plus gear of mass. increase? ∆w = : 0029wh = : h = 1830 1000 9:8 3:28 6 nt = 6 w = mg ∆w 0029 75 = 12:7 nt 70. :75 3 : 75 69.66. Vsur . ∆B = 64 56 + 6:11 lbs 67. ∆B. Vdis V = : Vdis = = 48 3 ft 64 = 75 f t 3 ξ 3 . ξ. rated at 3300 lbs=in2 ? ∆B What is the approximate tank volume. 22:5 nt . A 75 kg diver journeys to a mountain lake at 1 830 m. V . V ? r = = . 6:11 lbs 42:5 lbs w = ρV . m = 90 kg? W ∆W = = mg 90 9:8 nt = . w? V = : 56 f t 3 ρ = 64 lbs3 = f t : ∆B = = . A 448 lb winch gear. What is the relative buoyancy. is needed to inﬂate lift bags to bring the gear to the surface? d = 99 f sw Vli f t = ρ = 64 lbs= f t 3 = w = = 448 lbs w ρ 448 3 ft 64 7 f t3 Vsur = Vli f t 1 + = 3ft3 d 33 = 4 7 f t3 = 28 f t 3 68. V = 2 f t 3 . rests on a hard sea bottom at 99 f sw. of an empty 95 f t 3 steel tank. 6:11 lbs d 2 = d 3:14 = 7 in 25 l = 25 in V = πr2 l = πd 2 l 4 49 4 in3 = 962 in3 = : 56 f t 3 What does the tank weigh. What is the salt water to fresh water buoyancy loss. ∆W . of its volume will ﬂoat above water? ξ = V = 3 f t3 w ρ = V . What fraction. :025 75 . A buoy weighing 48 lbs occupies. What is the surface wetsuit buoyancy. displacing a volume. ∆w. What surface volume of air. :025 W = .
What is the change in internal energy. What is the new pressure. drops to a temperature. T = 283 K o . ε. Pi = 225 atm. d = 85 f sw. Assuming his lung tissues are 40% air space. of 1 gmole ideal gas at temperature. and at temperature. What is the mean molecular energy.71. is released to a larger tank with volume. the mixture. dW = 419 . is nitrogen soluble in oil versus water? ξ = Soil Swater 76 = 067 :012 : = 5:6 . dW = 165 j? dQ = 100 = 4:19 j = 419 j dW = 165 j dU dQ . V ? Vi Pi = : 4 6 qt = 2:4 qt 33 + d PiVi Pi P Vtis = = : 6 6 qt = 3:6 qt 118 f sw = 33 f sw P = 33 + 85 f sw = = PV f 33 qt 118 Vf V = = Vi = 2:4 = : 67 qt 4:27 qt V f + Vtis = : 67 + 3:6 qt = 72. What is the ratio. while doing piston expansion work. V = 4:5 f t 3 . Upon expansion.23 1:24 10. of air in a compressor heated an amount. dU. A helium-oxygen gas mixture at pressure. 165 j = 254 j = 900 K o ? ¯ 74.20 j 75. of neon dissolved in oil at a partial pressure p = 9:8 atm? c = Sp = : 009 9:8 = : 0882 76. of relative solubilities of neon in water and oil? ζ = Swater Soil = 009 :021 : = : 43 How many more times. T ¯ ε 3 2 = 3 kT 2 900 j = ¯ ε = 1:38 10. Vi = 1:2 f t 3 . ζ. What is the relative concentration. Ti = 293 K o . A skin diver with lung volume of 6 qt descends to a depth. dQ = 100 cal. c. P? Pi Vi Ti P = = PV T 283 atm 293 Pi Vi T V Ti = 225 1:2 4:5 = 51:6 atm 73. occupying. what is his compressed lung volume. ξ.
what are the working depths. rc .3 cm 20 . moving toward a stationary 333 m=sec ∆f = vs = 6 : 514 m=sec = : = 3:08 m=sec 32:5 3:08 hertz 333 + 3:08 0314 hertz 78. at total bubble internal pressure. assuming 1. What is the total pressure. vs u = = 32:5 hertz. inside a bubble lodged in an arteriole of diameter. of a boat horn. if ambient pressure. and assuming a watery surface tension.6 atm and . :2 f sw (means sur f ace is OK ) = . P = 1:0 10. d max and dmin . At elevation. 20:55 f sw :26 = = 182:5 f sw dmax ηdmin 182:5 ft η = = 187:2 f t = 5:3 . For ambient pressure. Ph f sw fO2 = 5:3 . What is the (Doppler) frequency shift. :21 f t 77 .77. P = 45 f sw. Pt . 20:55 f sw :26 dmin = . : 2 ft η . what is the watery critical bubble radius. γ = 50 dyne=cm? P = 45 33 10:1 nt =cm2 = 13:77 nt =cm2 2 nt =cm2 15:77 nt =cm2 2γ r Pt = = 5 100 dyne=cm2 10. f snorkeler at speed of vs = 6 knots? vs ∆f = f u . for a 74/26 nitrox mixture. P = 28 f sw.3 nt =cm2 10:1 nt =cm2 = 20 nt =cm2 P = 8:56 nt =cm2 rc = 2γ Pt .16 atm as the upper and lower oxygen partial pressure limits? fN2 h = = : 74 33 η = : 975 12:46) f sw = 3800 3:28 1000 = 12:46 P12:46 = exp (. z = 3 800 m.6 = P+ 2γ r = 13:77 + 2 nt =cm2 = 79. 8:56 = 1:14 µm 80. Pt = 20 nt =cm2? 2γ Pt = = 1:0 28 33 10. 2r = 10 µm. Ph f sw fO2 ηdmax 52:8 .:038 ηdmin = 20:55 f sw ηdmax = 52:8 . ∆ f .
d = 98 f sw. 1:0 9 2:8 : = : 32 84. 33 f sw = 89:7 f sw = 82. 1:0 7:6 . What is the inspired oxygen fraction. What is the instantaneous nitrogen pressure.m m 2:8 6:6 = : 50 F : = 7:6 l =min 1:0 l =min iO2 = 5 7:6 . δ = 110 f sw. f N2 .81. P0 f sw fO2 = 52:8 . 33 79 : : = : 74 = : = 74 79 (33 + 98) . i O2 ? Fd = F P 2P : = 7:6 l =min 2 = = 3:8 l =min iO2 = 5 3:8 .1 . Fd . i O2 .6 l =min of 50/50 nitrox to a Navy SEAL needing 1 l =min oxygen for metabolic consumption 3 miles off the coast of Kuwait? iO2 fO2 = = fO2 F . δ.1 15 78 = : 046 min. 1:0 = = : 42 If ambient pressure doubles. 33 :28 = 156 f sw 83. at ocean depth. and inspired oxygen fraction. p. in the 15 min tissue compartment of a Maine scallop diver at 67 f sw for 38 min. d max ? fO2 = : 28 P0 = 33 f sw dmax = 52:8 . what is the nozzle ﬂow. What is the equivalent air depth. What is the nitrogen fraction. m F . for enriched 74/26 nitrox? fN2 δ fN2 (33 + d ) . for an equivalent air depth. assuming initial sea level equilibration? τ pi pa = = = 15 min : f N2 = = : 79 33 79 f sw 26:1 f sw : fN2 (P0 + d ) λ : = (33 + 67) 79 f sw = 79 f sw = 693 min. 1:0 3:8 . for a rebreather delivering 7. at ocean depth. d 125 f sw? fN2 = : 79(δ + 33) (d + 33) = : 79 143 158 = : 72 What is the corresponding oxygen ﬂoor.
for the 80 min tissue at this depth? t = 9:1 min 88. pa 114:9 ln 91:6 min 84:6 9:1 min What is the nonstop limit. According to Graham.1=4 + 3:25τ. at a depth of 140 f sw. 79) 174 f sw = 69:7 f sw What is the tension in the 240 min compartment? λ p = = : 693 min. 78:2 exp (.1=4d : 152:7 51 + 3:25 51 10 f sw = 94:4 f sw What is the corresponding critical ratio. assuming initial nitrogen tension of 45 f sw? pi pa λ t = = : = : 45 f sw pa = fN2 (33 + d ) = = 79 (33 + 140) f sw 136:6 f sw M = 693 min.p p = = pa + ( pi .λt ) 22) f sw = 97:1 . is.? R = M P = 94:4 43 = 2:19 86. pa ln λ M . t. M 0 . 79) 896 f sw = 31:6 f sw 85.1 240 : 79 + (26:1 . M. at a nominal depth of 10 f sw for the 15 min tissue compartment? M M = = : 152:7τ. d = 90 f sw.1 26:1 f sw 97:1 f sw pi pa = = : 79 33 f sw = 79 (33 + 90) = M0 M0 = = pa + ( pi . what roughly is the ratio.:1386 79 94 f sw . ψ. R. pa) exp (. What is the critical tension. assuming that the 5 min compartment controls the exposure (has largest computed tissue tension at this depth)? λ = : 693 min. pa) exp (. what is the surfacing critical tension. t = 22 min.1 = :0029 min.λt ) : 79 + (26:1 . of molecular diffusion speeds of hydrogen to oxygen? ψ = AO2 AH2 1=2 = 32 2 1=2 = 4 87. How long does it take for the 80 min tissue compartment to approach its critical surfacing tension. If the nonstop time limit at depth.1 80 = = : 0087 min 52 f sw = 1 pi .1 5 : = : 1386 min. M = M0 = 52 f sw.
τ.1=4 + 3:25τ.λt ) exp (.G = (333 .5. 40. What is the ratio. accessible to the platform diver? M = 333 f sw d P = M. d.89.1 120 = : 0058 min. 40) f sw = 293 f sw = (P . p . G = M . 160.1 p = pa + ( pi . to initial tissue saturation. d = 34 f sw. of tissue saturation. pa exp (. in the DCIEM nitrogen tables is ( 2. 33) f sw = (293 . What is the nitrogen tension. ∆P. An oil rig diver is saturated at a depth of 300 f sw in the North Sea on heliox. What is the critical tension. If the spectrum of tissues.:693 ω= = = 6) = : 016 95. what is the minimum depth (ceiling). at depth. of narcotic potency of helium to argon? ζ Which is the least potent? Least Potent Gas = = νHe νAr = 4:26 :43 = 9:9 helium 92. A Group F diver sustains what overpressure. 20. τ = 7:56 min? M M = = 152:7τ. After 6 halftimes. t (p . 33) f sw = 260 f sw 91. 320 min). M. in the 120 min compartment of a surface F diver after 160 min? ∆P = 12 f sw λ pi . 10.λt ) 80 . ζ. pi)? = 6τ. p a ). For critical helium gradient (absolute). as the nitrogen tables? τHe τHe = AHe AN2 1=2 τN2 = 4 28 1=2 τN2 = : 38 τN2 = (:94 1:89 3:78 7:56 15:12 30:24 60:48 120:96) min 90. p. P = 40 f sw. A commercial diving operation is constructing a set of helium proprietary tables using the popular DCIEM nitrogen tables as a basis before testing. M. 5. in nitrogen loading (absolute) in the 120 min compartment? ∆P 94. pa : = fN2 ∆P = : 79 12 f sw = 9:48 f sw = 693 min. assuming the same critical tensions. for the helium tissue compartment. 80.1=4d : 152:7 : 603 + 3:25 603 34 f sw = 158:7 f sw 93. ω. pa pi . = 6 2 f sw = 12 f sw what is the ratio. (p . pa) exp (. what are the corresponding set for the helium tables.
elevation 6. in what group does the diver surface? Group B Penalty Time (60 f sw) Total Dive Time = = 11 min 31 min 20 + 11 min = = Sur f acing Group G As a Group G diver. p 0 . If a Park Ranger lugs his dive gear to Lake Catherine above Santa Fe (New Mexico) at an elevation of 9. in the Tables at sea level is 60 f sw=min. according to the 24 hr rule? Sur f ace Interval Time 81 = 3:7 hr . β.560 f t and plans a dive to 40 f t. 6860 f t Altitude Group = 2790 f t B = If the dive lasts 20 min. r.860 f t. pa ) fN2 = (29:8 .000 f t in elevation. what is the altitude correction factor. and what is the sea level equivalent depth for the dive? β = η exp (0:038h) δ = = : 975 exp (0:038 = 9:65) = 1:40 βd = 1:40 40 f sw 56:2 f sw If the ascent rate. r = r0 β = 60 f t =min 1:4 = 42:8 f t =min If the excursion to Lake Catherine is launched from Sante Fe. What is the surface oxygen partial pressure. for a normoxic breathing mixture at 450 f sw? p = : 21 atm (normoxic) p0 = P0 = = 33 f sw 33 483 P = 450 + 33 f sw 0137 atm = 483 f sw P0 p P = : 2 atm = : 97. 26:1) : 79 C = 4:68 f sw Group = 96.p = 26:1 + 9:48 exp (. what is the altitude rate. what is the maximum change in altitude permitted? Permitted Altitude Change = 6000 f t How long before a mountain Group G diver drops into Group A? Sur f ace Interval Time = 7:6 hr How long before a Group G diver can ascend 7. what Group should the Ranger diver assign to the start of the dive? ∆z = 9650 . taking 15 min.:0058 160) = 29:8 f sw Into what Group does the diver now fall? ∆P = ( p . r0 .
A reef ecologist at depth.10:7 . What is the exact USN critical tension. relative to faster middle compartments. What are the corresponding tissue gradients.13:7 .P = 152:8 .600 f t.5:7 . d = 35 f sw. in the 80 min tissue compartment at a depth. pa? g = p . 24 hrs 100. M. τ = (5 10 20 40 80 120 240) min. t. p = (50 48 43 41 40 42 44) f sw. suggest? Repetitive Diving Within 12 . in tissues. the nonstop limit at 100 f sw is 22 min.12:7 . R? R = 52 + 1:26 152:8 f sw = M P P = 80 + 33 f sw = 113 f sw R What is the critical gradient.98. What is the nonstop limit. According to the USN Tables at sea level. at mountain elevation of 5. g = p .11:7 . 113 f sw = 39:8 f sw 82 . G? G = = 152:8 113 = 1:35 M. d M0 = = 80 f sw? 52 f sw M = ∆M = 1:26 M0 + ∆Md 80 f sw = M What is the critical ratio. on a dive computer registers a spectrum of nitrogen tensions.3:7 . using the similarity method? β = η exp (0:038h) β δ = = : = : 975 exp (0:038 = 5:6) 975 1:23 1:20 120 f sw 100 t 1:20 f sw = = 12 min 99. what is the implication for the present dive? Present Dive Has Been Short And Shallow What might higher tissue tensions in the two slowest compartments.9:7) f sw Since tissue gradients are inward (all negative). pa g P = 33 + 35 f sw = 68 f sw pa = : 79 P = 53:7 f sw = (.
. 1969. Topics developed and discussed draw upon basic mechanics. Reading: Addison Wesley. Bonner B. Yet. 1964. Hope it has met your technical diving needs. Professional Association Of Diving Instructors. applications and problems have been discussed with an eye towards increasing diver awareness of the physical laws impacting the underwater environment. And Yet Another Approach To The Problems Of Altitude Diving And Flying After Diving.. and gas phase dynamics. Bassett B. ADDITIONAL READING References span a wide spectra of technical diving material and details. and Glasstone S. the same physical laws apply. 1970.A.C. Nuclear Reactor Theory. R 0 .. Barnes H. Philadelphia: W. Theory. 1987.0:0381 77 R 0 = (2:43 2:05 1:67 1:35 1:20 1:19) SUMMARY Underwater experiences are unique and fascinating to our perceptions.W. Batchelor G... Bell G.. Oceanography And Marine Biology. New York: John Wiley And Sons. Divers often have trouble interpreting the feedback underwater. Adamson A. New York: Dover Publications. 1979. Handbook Of Mathematical Functions.. hydrodynamics.E..0:0381h) R0 R7 R7 = (3:15 2:67 2:18 1:76 1:58 1:55) 7) = : = R0 exp (. 1969.000 f t elevation using the standard USN set.B. Abramowitz M.E.I. and Nieto M. optics. The only real difference is pressure and the water surrounding the diver. α. Beckwith B. The Physical Chemistry Of Surfaces. Singapore: World Scientiﬁc. Harvest Of The Sea. Waves And Beaches. and Stegun I.M.. Principals Of Animal Ecology. Santa Ana. Augenstein B.K... hyperbaric technician.W. completing or extending related reading at the end of each Part. and altitude similarity (downscaling) through the correction factor. New York: Cambridge University Press. Bascom W. New York: Doubleday Anchor. The targeted audience is the technical diver. Theory Of Homogeneous Turbulence. Construct a set of critical surfacing ratios at 7. 1953.. α = exp (0:0381h) R0 α h = 7 Rh = = R0 exp (. Understanding pressure effects and the impact of a totally liquid environment surrounding the diver is the essence of technical diving. Behavior and sensations seem very different underwater than on the surface. Saunders. table designer. underwater researcher. at sea level. Mills F. broaching historical to modern developments. Allee W. New York: Harper And Row. electrodynamics. and instructor. 1972. 1976. Mechanical Measurement. commercial diver. 1968. despite these vagaries.101. Bardach J. The exposition has attempted to walk a line between highly technical and mathematical physics and extended dialogue with more prose. London: Allen And Unwin. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 83 . Decompression In Depth Proceedings.. thermodynamics..E. Antiproton Science And Technology. Entries are alphabetically and chronologically listed.
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Landau L. and Nash S. Elementary Particle Physics.W. Mathematics In Physics And Engineering.. 1989.E..V. Lambertsen J. 1985. Cold Water Diving. Keen M. 1973. Holmes A.H. 1969.M. and Bornmann R. and Riess R. San Diego: Watersports. 167-180.. 1967. 1995.D. Flagstaff: Best. UPS 131. Proceedings Of The American Academy Of Underwater Sciences Repetitive Diving Workshop. J.C.. and Lifshitz E.A. AAUS Safety Publication AAUSDSP-RDW-02-92.. Reading: Addison Wesley. and von Maier R. Michigan Sea Grant Publication.. 1962. 1965. Development Of Decompression Procedures For Depths In Excess Of 400 Feet. Introduction To Marine Geology. 1957. Decompression Sickness. London. Numerical Methods And Software. Medical Research Council Report. 1962. MICHU-SG-87-201.M. San Francisco: W. 1979. Groen P.D. Hamilton R... 1977. Jessop N.S.D. Theory Of Elasticity.. 1987. New York: McGraw Hill. Bethesda.. Gradshteyn I.E. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.D..D. Society Of Automotive Engineers Report.A. Geiger R. Paton W. Goldstein H. 1961. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. 1965. US Air Force School Of Aviation Medicine Report. New York: Hyperion. 1970.. Warrendale. New York: John Wiley And Sons. Masland R. New York: Academic Press. Guillen M.. 85 ... and Ryzhik I.. 1979. The Effects Of Breathing Carbon Dioxide On Altitude Decompression Sickness.. Five Equations That Changed The World. Reading: Addison Wesley. and White H.. 1991. SAE-851337. Fundamentals Of Optics..... Freeman. 1980. Lang M. Irving J. Huang K.C. Brit. Fluid Mechanics. And Products. Molecular Theory Of Gases And Liquids. Biosphere: A Study Of Life... 1995. Kummell B. Curtiss C.M. Ontario: Nelson And Sons.L. 1975. Huggins K. and Mullineux N.Gasiorowicz S. Introduction To Historical Geology. Golding F.F.. Jenkins F. 1950. WS: 2-28-76. 1977. Multiprocessor Applications To Multilevel Air Decompression Problems.V.L. Ann Arbor.. London.V. A New Theoretical Basis For The Calculation Of Decompression Tables. Grifﬁths P. 1964. Randolph Field.B. Heine J. Numerical Analysis. Med. 1985. Undersea And Hyperbaric Medical Society Report.A. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.. 1972... New York: John Wiley And Sons. Bethesda. 17. New York: John Wiley And Sons.M. 1960. Ind. and Lifshitz E. Landau L. Hirschfelder J. Costa Mesa. and Vann R. Climate Near The Ground.N. Gilliam B... New York: John Wiley And Sons.. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Undersea And Hyperbaric Medical Society Publication 54WS(IC)1-11-82. Reading: Addison Wesley.. Reading: Addison Wesley. Reading: Addison Wesley.J. and Mahady S. Medical Research Council Report. 1952.M. and Hempleman H. New York: Pergamon Press.D.. Johnson L. Webb D. Gray J. Kahaner D. Project 409.. New York: John Wiley And Sons. Statistical Mechanics. Gernhardt M. Hempleman H. Classical Electrodynamics. Investigation Into The Decompression Tables. Hills B. 1992. 1967.. Isobaric Inert Gas Counterdiffusion. and Lifshitz E.O. Principles Of Physical Geology. Mechanics.. 1945. Mechanics.L. and Bird R. Jackson J. Moler C.D.M. Walder D.W.C.. Hempleman H.. Decompression Sickness During Construction Of The Dartford Tunnel. Series.D. 1968...S. Landau L. Table Of Integrals. Deep Diving. UPS 168. Tissue Gas Bubble Dynamics During Hypobaric Exposures.. London: Academic Press. Further Basic Facts On Decompression Sickness. The Waters Of The Sea.
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D. Waves. 1998. and is an Instructor Trainer with Scuba Diving International/Technical Diving International (SDI/TDI). is a Master Instructor with the Professional Association Of Diving Instructors (PADI) in various capacities (Instructor Review Committee). Wienke B.D. SCUBAPRO.B. in exercises often involving Special Operations Units. High Altitude Diving. decompression.R. Von Arx W. Flagstaff: Best. Second Symp. SUUNTO. 1972.. New York: John Wiley And Sons. South Paciﬁc. The SUUNTO VYPER dive computer incorporates the 87 . nonstop. Breakers. is an Institute Director with the YMCA. Workman R. NOAA Diving Manual.Somers L. Asia.. Diving Above Sea Level.D.. multilevel.. 1950-1970. Diving environs include the Caribbean. Tampa. Wienke. Wachholz C. Calculations Of Decompression Tables. and saturation).R. New York: McGraw Hill. Wienke B. scientiﬁc.. Reading: Addison Wesley. and ATOMICS engage (or have) him as Consultant for meter algorithms.. He authored Physics. Basic Diving Physics And Applications. Earth. Basic Decompression Theory And Application.. And Air: Survey Of The Geophysical Sciences. 1994. Montclair... Wienke B. USN Experimental Diving Unit Report. with interests in computational decompression and models. Flagstaff: Best. DC: National Academy Of Science 1. Weathersby P. 1985.. Technical and Decompression Review Board Member). above and underwater. DAN Newsletter 3-6. Washington DC BIOSKETCHES Bruce Wienke is a Program Manager in the Nuclear Weapons Technology/ Simulation And Computing Ofﬁce at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 1993. 1975. and Homer L. 1964. Calculation Of Decompression Schedules For Nitrogen-Oxygen And Helium-Oxygen Dives. 1963. EDU 12-37. Statistically Based Decompression Tables: Analysis Of Standard Air Dives.. Washington DC: US Government Printing Ofﬁce.. 1959.S. and is a Regional Data Coordinator for Project Dive Safety.R. and polar Arctic and Antarctic in various technical. inland and coastal United States.H. repetitive. Wallace D. The University Of Michigan Diving Manual. And Wakes. He is an Instructor Trainer with the National Association Of Underwater Instructors (NAUI). Decompression Sickness In Dive Computer And Table Use. Wienke B. An Analytic Development Of A Decompression Computer.. Reading: Addison Wesley.. gas transport. Spar J. a dual phase approach to staging diver ascents over an extended range of diving applications (altitude. He functions on the LANL Nuclear Emergency Strategy Team (NEST).A. Wilkes M. London: Cambridge University Press. 1989.F. and phase mechanics. Washington. Sea. Wienke B. Basic Decompression Theory And Application. New York: American Elsevier. Oscillations Of The Earth’s Atmosphere. Vann R. and recreational activities. 1991. Streeter V.. Washington DC Yarborough O. Physiology. a former dive shop owner in Santa Fe. Underwater Physiol. Ann Arbor: University Of Michigan Press.. Hawaii. Survanshi S. Dovenbarger J.. a consulting company for computer research and applications in wide areas of applied science and simulation. ABYSMAL DIVING. and Bennett P. Handbook Of Fluid Mechanics. 82-90. Diving Above Sea Level. Bores.. Gravitation And Cosmology. National Association Of Underwater Instructors Publication.R. Proc. multiday.R. military.. 1965. USN Experimental Diving Unit Report. and some 200 technical journal articles. NMRI 85-16. Naval Medical Research Institute report. He is the developer of the Reduced Gradient Bubble Model (RGBM). Weinberg S. Wittenborn A. has served on the Board Of Directors (Vice Chairman for Technical Diving. 1964. 1991. National Association Of Underwater Instructors Technical Publication. Basic Diving Physics And Applications. 1937. He heads Southwest Enterprises. High Altitude Diving. presently works with DAN on applications of high performance computing and communications to diving. Tricker R. Bethesda.D..K. Introduction To Physical Oceanography. 1981..V. 1965.. NEDU 6-65. Flagstaff: Best. And Decompression Theory For The Technical And Commercial Diver. 1991. Physiology And Decompression Theory For The Technical And Commercial Diver.. mixed gas. Physics.
Society Of Naval Architects And Marine Engineers (SNAME). South Paciﬁc. He has spoken at many underwater symposiums.RGBM into staging regimens. He has worked as a Commercial Diving Instructor at the Ocean Corporation. 78597 (800) 761-2030 Nauitec@aol. and is a former Contributing Editor of Sources. Central and South America.M. N. a Saturation Diver. and a PhD in particle physics from Nothwestern University. Society Of Industrial And Applied Mathematics (SIAM).gov Tim O’Leary is Director of NAUI Worldwide Technical Training Operations. American Physical Society (APS). ABYSS. a commercial software product. O’Leary received a BS in zoology from Texas AM University. National Association Of Diver Medical Technicians (NADMT). the NAUI Training Publication.com 88 . 87545 (505) 667-1358 brw@lanl. He is also Associate Editor for the International Journal Of Aquatic Research And Education. Bruce Wienke Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos. Inspector Trainer for PSI. He has dived in Asia. Mediteranian. as well as contributing to recreational and technical periodicals. and President of American Diving And Marine Salvage. an MS in nuclear physics from Marquette University. and Chamber Supervisor for many of the world’s commercial diving companies. and the American Academy Of Underwater Sciences (AAUS). and is a Level III NDT Technician. He currently serves as a Consultant for the offshore oil industry. Gas Rack Operator. and the United States as both a mixed gas Commercial Diver and technical diving Instructor Trainer. Tx. Course Director for NAUI Worldwide. O’Leary is a member of the Undersea And Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS). Mexico. Wienke received a BS in physics and mathematics from Northern Michigan University. He is a member of the Undersea And Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS). and is an Admiral in the Texas Navy. particularly for recreational diving (including nitrox). features some of the RGBM dynamical diving algorithms developed by him for Internet users and technical divers. Saturation Supervisor. a DMT and CHT from Jo Ellen Smith Medical Ceneter at the Baromedical Research Institute. Tim O’Leary American Diving And Marine Salvage 1807 Padre Boulevard South Padre Island. North Sea.
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