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O’Leary NAUI Technical Diving Operations Los Alamos National Laboratory and American Diving And Marine Salvage Los Alamos, N.M. 87545 and South Padre Island, Tx. 78587
FORWARD As land dwelling, air breathing creatures, we have evolved perceptions, behaviors, practices, and procedures for living in an air atmosphere. Venturing into the underwater world, many things change. A number of important physical changes affect this underwater world and are important to us as technical and commercial divers. This monograph discusses these changes and suggests application problems that will help to quantify underlying physical principles affecting underwater activities. Technical diving used to be the pervue of just commercial and military divers. Today, highly motivated and well trained recreational divers are pushing diving to new depths, on mixed gases, with sophisticated electronic sensors and dive computers, using modern rebreathers, wearing special exposure suits, in the oceans, lakes, and at high altitude. This new breed of diver receives training from any one of a number of new technical agencies, like the National Association of Underwater Instructors (NAUI), Technical Diving International (TDI), International Association Of Nitrox And Technical Divers (IANTD), and Association Of Nitrox Diving Instructors (ANDI), as well as the older recreational agencies, such as PADI, YMCA, SSI, and NASDS. For the technical diver and working commercial diver, this monograph is hopefully both a training tool and extended reference. Technical diving encompasses a wide spectrum of related disciplines, from geophysics to biophysics, atmospherics physics to hydrodynamics, medical physics to engineering physics, and mathematical physics to statistical analysis. The scope is immense, and so any monograph has to be selective, and probably not in depth as possible. And diving physics can be a tedious exercise for readers. Obviously, physiology is an even more complicated mix of physics, chemistry, and biology. Like comments apply to decompression theory, a combination of biophysics, physiology, and biochemistry in a much cloudier picture within perfused and metabolic tissue and blood. Biological systems are so complex, beyond even the fastest and biggest supercomputers for modeling analysis. Often, the tedium relates to a proliferation of equations and deduced results. So, selectivity without mathematical complexity is the direction we take here in narrative. Mathematical equations are kept at deﬁnitional level to facilitate description. The hope is to better encapsulate a large body of underlying physical principle in very readible form. Sample problems, with solutions, are included to enhance quantitative description and understanding. Topics are fundamental and chosen in their relevance to technical diving. Bibliographies do offer full blown treatments of all principles detailed for diving. For highlight, Figures include mathematical deﬁnitions for completeness, with the intended purpose of extending discourse. Problems (101) employ quantitative relationships detailed in the text, using data and information from Tables and Figures. Many thanks to our mutual and separate friends and colleagues, collaborators in the industrial, medical, and diving sectors, and to technical and commercial divers who posed many nitty questions about diving. Their queries prompted this monograph on diving physics, physiology, geophysics, marine phenomenon, biophysics, decompression models, algorithms, tables, and related topics. Special thanks to Luzanne and Diane for being spectacular women in all ways, and to Hillary and Seana for reminding us that adults have much to learn from children. Good reading, and good diving always.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES OVERVIEW AND UNITS / Units And Equivalences DIVING HISTORY / Modern Diving MATTER / Atomistics And Elementals / Density MECHANICAL INTERACTIONS / Force And Momentum / Energy And Work / Power / Light / Optics / Sound / Heat / Equation Of State / Wave Motion RHEOLOGY / Deformation / Friction / Viscosity / Shocks THERMAL INTERACTIONS / Temperature / First Law / Second Law / High Pressure Cylinders / Phase Transformations PRESSURE AND DENSITY EFFECTS / Pressure / Barometer Equation / Air Consumption GAUGES / Capillary Gauges / Bourdon And Oil Filled Gauges / Submersible Tank Gauges HYDROSTATICS / Archimedes Principle / Wetsuit Expansion And Compression / Fresh And Salt Water Buoyancy GAS AND FLUID KINETICS / Ideal And Real Gases / Water Waves / Fluidization PHASE DYNAMICS / Dissolved Phases / Perfusion And Diffusion Transport / Free Phases / Nucleation / Cavitation BUBBLE MECHANICS / Surfactants / Doppler Bubbles / Micronuclei And Gel Experiments / Bends MIXED BREATHING GASES / Biological Reactivity / Comparative Properties / Nitrox / Heliox / Trimix / Hydrox / Equivalent Air Depth / Oxygen Rebreathing ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTIONS / Coulomb And Ampere Laws / Plasmas / Fusion Energy / Stellar Evolution / Elementary Particle Interactions DIVE TABLES AND METERS / Haldane Model / Critical Tensions / Table And Meter Algorithms / Altitude Procedures COMPUTING /Serial And Parallel Processors / Networks And Storage / Grand Challenge Problems / Monte Carlo Methods MALADIES AND DRUGS / Bends / High Pressure Nervous Syndrome / Inert Gas Narcosos / Hyperoxia And Hypoxia / Hypercapnia And Hypocapnia / Barotrauma / Altitude Sickness / Pulmonary Edema / Hypothermia And Hyperthermia / Dysbaric Osteonecrosis / Drugs TECHNICAL DIVING PROBLEMS SUMMARY ADDITIONAL READING
Pages - 100, Figures - 15, References - 115, Problems - 101
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Hopefully by the end of this monograph, you will be able to: understand concepts presented in headings and subsections; discuss English and metric systems of units, and be able to easily convert back and forth between the systems; describe the basic mechanical laws of nature; describe how light, heat, and sound transmission are affected by water; describe the simple gas laws in diving, and associated phase dynamics; discuss breathing gas mixtures and impact on diving activity; describe the basic thermodynamic laws of nature; discuss temperature scales and their relationships; describe how pressure and density changes affect the diver underwater; describe how pressure and density changes affect diver equipment underwater; describe how dive tables amd meter algorithms limit diving activities; describe common diving maladies in a cursory fashion; work sample technical diving problems. OVERVIEW AND UNITS The physics, biology, engineering, physiology, medicine, and chemistry of diving center on pressure, and pressure changes. The average individual is subjected to atmospheric pressure swings of 3% at sea level, as much as 20% a mile in elevation, more at higher altitudes, and all usually over time spans of hours to days. Divers and their equipment can experience compressions and decompressions orders of magnitude greater, and within considerably shorter time scales. While the effects of pressure change are readily quantiﬁed in physics, chemistry, and engineering applications, the physiology, medicine, and biology of pressure changes in living systems are much more complicated. Caution is needed in transposing biological principles from one pressure range to another. Incomplete knowledge and mathematical complexities often prevent extensions of even simple causal relationships in biological science. Causal relationships between observables are, of course, the pervue of physics, and that difﬁcult process in living systems is biophysics. In the underwater realm, diving physics is collectively the quantiﬁcation of pressure related natural phenomena, and that certainly includes elements of geophysics, oceanography, astrophysics, and geology, as well. With such understanding, this primer focuses on diving physics and associated mathematical relationships. Basic principles are presented, and practical applications and results are detailed. Topics discussed are related to diver, diving protocols, and operational procedures. Topics include the usual energy and matter interactions, particle and wave mechanics, heat, light, sound, gas kinetics, thermodynamics, phase dynamics, temperature, nucleation and and cavitation, gas mixtures, hydrostatics, and their coupling in diving. Standard (SI) and English units are employed. However, by convention, because of usage, or for ease, some non standard units are also used. For instance, pressure and depth are both measured in feet of sea water ( f sw) and meters of sea water (msw), with 1 atm = 33 f sw = 10 msw to very good approximation. Units And Equivalences Notation for units are also abbreviated according to standard convention, otherwise spelled out. The abbreviated units include second (sec), minute (min), hour (hr), meter (m), millimeter (mm), centimeter (cm), micrometer (micron), nanometer (nm), kilometer (km), gram (g), kilogram (kg), pound (lb), inch (in), foot ( f t ), yard (yd ), miles per hour (mph), liter (l ), milliliter (ml ), quart (qt ), calorie (cal ), pounds per square 3
inch ( psi), newton (nt ), dyne (dyn), atmosphere (atm), British thermal unit (btu), horsepower (hp), gram molecular weight (gmole), atomic mass unit (amu), electrostatic unit (esu), coulomb (coul ), ampere (amp), feet of sea water ( f sw), and meters of sea water (msw). Units are easily converted using the chain rule or equivalence ratio, that is, simple multiplication of a measurement, or unit count, by the conversion ratio. For instance, to convert 3 nautical mile to kilometers, one merely multiplies 3 nautical mile by the ratio, 1:85 km=nautical mile, and cancels units to get the answer in kilometers, 3 nautical mile 1:85 km=nautical mile = 5:55 km : Multiple equivalence ratios can also be chained to give conversions. To convert 230 cal to ergs, one might use, 230 cal 4:19 j=cal 10 7 ergs= j = 963:7 107 ergs or any one of a number of other equivalence chains. Table 1 equivalences SI, English, and other units. Each equivalence can be cast as conversion ratio. Table 1. Equivalences And Unit Conversions. Time 60 sec 1 megahertz Length 1 cm 1m 1 micron 1 km 1 f athom 1 nautical mile
= = = = = = = = =
1 min 106 sec;1
1 light year
3:28 f t 1:09 yd 10;6 m :62 mile 6 ft 6 080 f t 1:15 mile 1:85 km 9:46 1012 km 5:88 1012 mile
Speed 1 km=hr 1 mph 1 knot
= = = =
27:77 cm=sec 5280 f t =sec 1:15 mph 51:48 cm=sec
Volume 1 cm3 1 m3 1l
= = = = = =
06 in3 35:32 f t 3 1:31 yd 3 103 cm3 3 :04 f t :91 qt
16 j 1:66 10 .3 hp Electricity and Magnetism 1 coul 1 amp 1 volt = = = = = 2:99 10 9 esu 1 coul =sec 1 volt =ohm 1 nt coul m 1 j=coul 5 .Mass and Density 1g 1 kg 1 g=cm 1 kg=m3 Force and Pressure 1 nt 1 g=cm 2 2 3 = = = = = 04 oz 32:27 oz 2:20 lb 3 :57 oz=in 3 :06 lb= f t : = = = = = = = = 1 kg=m 1 atm 105 dyne :22 lb 2 :23 oz=in 2 :20 lb= f t 33 f sw 10 msw 10:1 nt =cm2 14:69 lb=in2 Energy and Power 1 cal = = = 1j 1 keV 1 amu 1 watt = = = = = = = = 4:19 j 3:96 10.24g 1 j=sec 3:41 btu=hr 1:34 10.3 btu 3:09 f t lb 107 ergs :74 f t lb 103 eV 1:60 10.
and the quest to go deeper led to exotic gas breathing mixtures. In the mid to late 1950s. more reliable to use. gained renown in the 1600s. Saturation diving and underwater habitats followed soon after. And. while a little later. Oil concerns still drive the commercial diving industry today. oxygen toxicity was not completely understood. Quietly. in which air escapes through a one way exhaust valve. National Association of Underwater Instructors (NAUI). ushered the modern era of SCUBA in wartime Europe in 1943. were invented in 1840. The ﬁrst digital computers. Reed breathing tubes were employed by ambushing Roman Legions. aptly termed 6 . the apparatus was reﬁned considerably. in 1958. digital computers rapidly replaced pneumatic devices in the 1980s. Following introduction of a twelve compartment Haldanian device. Persians also carried air in goatskins underwater. in 1960. point to an enviable track record of diver safety. spurred by a world thirst for oil. Both multiple gas mixtures and saturation diving became a way of life for some commercial divers by the 1970s. However. rebreathers are witnessing a rebirth among technical divers. Cochrane in England invented the high pressure caisson in 1830. Diving would never be the same afterward. and a few are still around. with an underlying decompression sickness (DCS) incidence below 0. with the ﬁrst demand regulator. Fleuss developed and tested the ﬁrst closed circuit. Shortly afterward. In the mid 1950s. and Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI). or computers. the ﬁrst use of a caisson in 1841 in France by Triger also witnessed the ﬁrst case of decompression sickness. linked to Doppler technolgy. Full diving suits. and able to emulate almost any mathematical model. or so. and was chronicled by the Greek historian. gathered in the 1990s. the revolutionary aqua lung of Cousteau. At that time. designed by DCIEM in Canada. Both would acquire biblical status over the next 25 years. Commercial availability of the demand regulator in 1947 initiated sport diving and a ﬂedgling equipment industry. porous plugs. decompression computers reached a point of maturation and acceptance.000 feet of sea water. strong and still vital today. High pressure cylinders and compressors similarly expedited deeper diving and prolonged exposure time. Today. but also witnessed the ﬁrst use of computers to generate decompression schedules. Employed by the Canadian Navy (CN). Flexible. the Royal Navy (RN) released their bulk diffusion decompression tables. US Navy Underwater Demolition (UDT) and Sea Air Land (SEAL) Teams have continuously employed rebreathers for tactical operations. but the impact on non military diving was orders of magnitude greater. they were based on a four compartment analog model of Kidd and Stubbs. Diver mobility concerns ultimately fostered development of the modern SCUBA unit. by Barshinger and Huggins in 1983. Fredrickson in the USA and Alinari in Italy designed and released the ﬁrst analog decompression meters. utilizing Boyle’s law compressed air as breathing mixture. The ﬁrst case of nitrogen narcosis was reported by Junod in 1835. of course. As early as 1880. a reﬁnement of the Rouquayrol surface supplied demand regulator.05% roughly. organized in the late 1950s and 1960s. and primitive diving bells also date BC. by the late 1950s. emulating tissue gas uptake and elimination with pressure gauges. and distensible gas bags. Computer usage statistics. appeared in the mid 1950s. Freed from surface umbilical. SCUBA offered the means to explore the underwater world for fun and proﬁt. the US Navy (USN) compiled their modiﬁed Haldane tables with six perfusion limited compartments. The world record dives of Keller to 1. some Korean and Japanese breathold divers still gather pearls and sponges in the same old way. oxygen rebreathing system. the open and closed circuit units provided an element of stealth to tactical underwater operations to be sure. Their timely functionality and widespread use heralded the present era of hi-tech diving. supplied by hand bellows. recreational divers switched to the popular open circuit device developed by Cousteau and Gagnan. During the 1950s. some 500 years before Christ. particularly after the oil embargo. In ensuing years. Today. not only popularized multiple gas mixtures. Surface supplied air and demand regulators were employed in hard hat diving by the 1800s. Coupled to high pressure compressed air in tanks. and was used by underwater combatants in World War II. recreational divers used oxygen rebreathers. thereby trading oxygen toxicity and caustic carbon dioxide concerns for decompression sickness and nitrogen narcosis. with requirments for comprehensive decompression models across a full spectrum of activity. Herodotus. Serious diver training and certifying agencies. The inverted receptacles. patented by Rouquayrol in 1866. though the effects of breathing pure oxygen were coupled to excitability and fever. such as the YMCA.DIVING HISTORY Breathold diving dates as far back as Xerxes (519 BC) and Alexander the Great (356 BC).
Diving bells. nitrogen. they were postulated as the cause of decompression sickness in caisson workers and divers. Technological achievements. Similarly. With increasing depth and exposure time. while later divers used diving bells. expanded wet testing. Training and certiﬁcation requirements for divers. Spurred by both industrial and military interests in the ability of men to work underwater for long periods of time. of saturation diving. with heliox the choice for shallower exposures. bubbles were noted in animals subject to pressure reduction. In the 1900s. and scientiﬁc sectors. unknown or only partially understood. underwater tools (cutting. lockout and free ﬂooded submersibles. compression-decompression procedures. explosives). mixed gases. The development and use of underwater support platforms. driven by a commercial quest for oil and petroleum products.000 f sw. prompted recent study and application of helium. took deﬁnition with growing concern for underwater safety and well being. with decompression sickness perhaps the most restrictive. diver systems. military priorities. or 1 atm. and diver propulsion units also accelerated in the 1960s and 1970s. in military. commercial. divers encountered a number of physiological and medical problems constraining activity. the ﬁrst medical lock was employed by Moir to treat bends during construction of the Hudson River Tunnel. Some ﬁfty years later. and efﬁcient decompression algorithms signaled the modern diving era. computers. notable habitat experiments. Increases in pressure with increasing depth underwater impose many of the limitations in diving. despite tremendous advances in deep diving technology. Today. themselves operating from underwater platforms.000 f sw for minerals and oil. most of the ocean ﬂoor is outside human 7 . As knowledge and understanding of decompression sickness increase. by permitting him to live underwater. strategies for diving in excess of 1. and trimix the choice for deeper exposures in the ﬁeld. and range of applicability of models. so should the validity. saturation. such as habitats. and driven by a need to both optimize diver safety and time underwater. could be solved. and photographic systems paced technological advances. safety concerns.the bends because of the position assumed by victims to alleviate the pain. demonstrated the feasibility of living and working underwater for long periods of time. Within that postulate. the need for continued deep diving remains. and equipment functionality addressed many fundamental issues. because of narcotic reactivity. commercial diving requirements. at least from an operational point of view.000 f sw received serious scrutiny. and the needs of the commercial diving industry to service that quest. Equipment advances in open and closed circuit breathing devices. remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) scan the ocean depths at 6. and many of the problems. and international business spurred diving activity and scope of operation. deep diving. Conshelf. it became clear that open sea water work in the 1. Questions concerning pharmacological additives. by Bond and coworkers (USN) in 1958. and oxygen breathing mixtures at depth. permitting exploitation of the continental shelf impossible with the short exposure times allowed by conventional diving. absolute pressure limits. high pressure compressors. effective combinations of mixed breathing gases. In the conquest and exploration of the oceans. Saturation exposure programs and tests have been conducted from 35 f sw to 2. bell diving systems. Modern Diving A concensus of opinions. Yet.000 f sw range was entirely practical. gauges and meters. welding. Gulf Task. Today. hot water heating. decompression modeling has consolidated early rudimentary schedules into present more sophisticated tables and meters. Tektite. Since that time many divers and caisson workers have been treated in hyperbaric chambers. communications links. and for a variety of reasons. Early divers relied on their breathholding ability. hydrogen. surface supplied air. drilling. therapy. lights. such as Sealab. especially in the commercial sector. laboratory programs. Indeed. reducing descent and ascent time. ﬂotation and buoyancy control vests. reliability. expanding mobility. gear weight. in 1889. By the early 1980s. suggests that modern diving began in the early 1960s. for reasons of science and economics. mask and ﬁn design. limitations of nitrogen mixtures at depth. Support platforms extended both diver usefulness and bottom time.000 f sw to 2. thermal exchange. Surface supplied air and SCUBA are rather recent innovations. By the 1800s. the operational requirements of diving over the years have provided the incentives to study hyperbaric physiology and its relationship to decompression sickness. Heliox and trimix have become standards for deep excursion breathing gases. applying equally well to the design of equipment used in this environment. and Diogene. Man In Sea. saturation diving gained prominence in the 1960s. with demands that cannot be answered with remote. and lessing physical activity. sport. Around 1972. and impetus for describing fundamental biophysics. These efforts followed proof of principle validation. wet and dry suits.
mercury. All of observable science is based on this premise. Although all matter was formulated from these elements. all atoms of a given element are identical but different from the atoms of another element 2. at 0 C o and 1 atm pressure. matter and energy are equivalent. compounds are formed from these elemental atoms. physiological saline solutions. three more were added to the list. These two interacting concepts of elements and atoms are unsurpassed in their importance to the development of science and technology. indispensable to our understanding of chemical elements. but it can be transformed by chemical and nuclear reactions. namely. but can oscillate about their lattice points. the elements themselves represented qualities and were nonmaterial. and salt. Matter cannot be created nor destroyed. some 6:025 10 23 constituents. At standard temperature and pressure (STP). oxygenated ﬂuids have been used as breathing mixtures. BC. and number somewhere over 100 in natural occuring abundance. Stated simply. or that weight which will combine with or replace a unit of standard weight from a standard element. giving deﬁnition to chemical elements as certain primitive and simply unmingling bodies. and also heat and light. mass-energy can neither be created nor destroyed. which deﬁed decomposition with existent technology. Continued work by Lavoisier led to the law of deﬁnite proportions. serious attention was given to liquid breathing mixtures. a gram mole of ideal gas occupies 22. and cannot be derived from any other principle. N0 . In the 1960s. The list included some stable compounds. Breathing mixtures that are compressible are limiting. This was generalized to the law of equivalent weights. They are the building blocks of nature. Dalton postulated: 1. liquid. earth. 8 . In 1661. Liquid molecules are free to move and slide over each other. the nuclear and chemical binding energies of molecules and atoms result from very small mass reductions in constituent particles (mass defect) when in bound states. and incombustibility. the elements always occur in the same proportions by weight no matter how the compound is synthesized. This view prevailed for about 2000 yr. of atoms or molecules. Robert Boyle developed a chemical atomic theory. as alchemists found new transformations. Elements are collections of all the same atoms. Acting as inert respiratory gas diluents. Molecules in a solid are relatively ﬁxed. sulfur. and was based on some careful studies of decomposition and recombination. Centuries later. such as hydrogen. For instance. thereby eliminating decompression requirements. Lavoisier composed a list of elements based on experimentally veriﬁable deﬁnition. John Dalton postulated an atomic theory that incorporated atomic weight as distinguished from equivalent weight (but including equivalent weight as a supercase) and was capable of explaining empirically derived and observed laws of chemical combination. and he added a ﬁfth. such as silica and alumina. Molecules of a gas are in constant motion. the ether. In the most general sense. The Greek notion was still lingering. Some synthetic ﬂuids. water. that is. BC. a chemical substance is one that cannot be decomposed into simpler structures by chemical means. usually in solid. which states that in any given compound. Boyle also deduced the ideal gas law from experiments in the laboratory. The postulate of the conservation of mass-energy is fundamental. such as ﬂuorocarbon (FX 80 ). A gram molecular weight (gmole) of substance. that is. or gaseous state Matter has deﬁnite mass and volume. originated with the philosopher Leucippus and follower Democritus in the Fifth Century. on the heels of Democritus. that is. representing the heavenly bodies. Breathing mixtures that are not compressible offer interesting alternatives. exhibit enormous oxygen dissolution properties. A. Aristotle accepted from earlier philosophers that air. The list was some 30 elements long. in 1808. can change form and phase.reach. MATTER Matter is anything that occupies space. These were thought to represent the quantities of combustibility.4 l. volatility. and consists of tiny atoms and molecules. Two centuries later. while loosely bound. Atomistics And Elementals The concept that one or a few elementary substances could interact to form matter was originated by Greek philosophers in the Sixth Century. and ﬁre were elements. The atomic hypotheses. A century later. possesses Avogadro’s number. an amount of substance in grams equal to its atomic weight.
Today. collide with each other. exerts pressure. But. we might point to the substructure of electrons. well before atomic hypotheses. is the mass density. The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic weights. forming larger molecules that also have mass. and so on. for Z 94 in the natural world. by row and/or column (Periodic Table). or gas. neutrons. occupy space. particle accelerators and cosmic probes continue the search for superheavies. hahnium. if we lived in a smaller world (subatomic). density. Macroscopically. curium. partons. and gluons. per unit area. Density The concepts of mass and corresponding occupied volume are fundamental perceptions. The equation of state relates pressure. with a number of short lived elements already added to the Table (californium. and probably others. and elementary particle reaction kinetics. and move in collisional paths is a microscopic statement that matter has density. pressure in gases results from molecular collisions with surroundings. and can repel or attract each other. then that compound contains one X and one Y atom. That atoms have mass. may synthesize into macromolecules. Molecules. Romans. so to speak. The atomistics view is totally compatible with our level of perception and we can measure down to the atomistic level. For the ﬁrst time in history. occupy space. einsteinium. thought to be the building blocks of subatomic particles are the objects of the succint statement applied to atoms. Both pressure and density are intuitive. with 65 elements in the list.3. A. ρ= m V (2) 9 . such that the table contains columns and rows of elements with similar properties. Both stem from Feynman’s conjecture that the atomic hypothesis. Egyptians. P. and temperature in one relationship. And then the structure of these components might be further divided. or solid). 4. gas. This periodic law allows the arrangement of elements in the table in order of increasing weight. The mass. and Cannizzaro later corrected Dalton’s fourth assumption. such a fundamental conception exhibits itself in the equation of state of a solid. That atoms attract or repel one another is the basis of chemical. and others). fundamental concepts. in 1865. Soon the process results in matter on perceivable state and scale (liquid. m. and links temperature to measure collisional speeds. And the process continues along the same path to larger fundamental blocks. Pressure from extended matter results from the collective forces applied across boundaries of ﬂuids and solids. is simply the force. if only one compound can be formed from X and Y. Mendeleev made an important discovery while looking for relationships among these elements. fermium. using these assumptions constructed the ﬁrst Periodic Chart. V . And then we would suggest that quarks. As seen. Or they may directly interact producing new species after binding or colliding. Clearly pressure and density are fundamental concepts at the lowest level of description. in unit volume. liquid. However. nobelium. it was shown that the chemical elements form an entity in their interrelationships. Lussac. the Periodic Table has been ﬁlled. Babylonians. Mendeleev. occupy space. F. P= F A (1) and is equal in all directions (scalar quantity. is the most succint statement we can make about scientiﬁc knowledge. chemical reactions result from the atoms being arranged in new ways. and seemingly undiscovered elements with predictable properties could be sought to ﬁll holes in the table. The fourth assumption (incorrect as we know) suggested that nature is more simple than real. and protons comprising atoms. that is. Pressure. elucidated and measured at early times in our scientiﬁc history by the Greeks. Avogadro. ρ. rutherfordium. atomic. namely all things are made of atoms moving in perpetual motion. and move in collisional paths. Atoms may certainly stick together (attract into bound states). berkelium. while force itself is formally a vector quantity). merely by interjecting nX and mY atoms in the chemical reaction stream. Atoms have mass. Molecules may also attract or repel other atoms and molecules.
10 . a stipulation requiring the conservation of momentum in all directions. Newton’s third law states that for every action.self with the same momentum. given by. v. such as elongations and shear distortions. velocity. η. The three states of the same matter usually have much different densities. MECHANICAL INTERACTIONS Mechanics itself is concerned with the effects of forces to produce or retard motion (kinetic energy). Force And Momentum Force is a push or a pull. there is an equal and opposite reaction. p = mv that is. Examples include the simple bending of a beam. and the ﬂow of liquids and gases around obstacles. a. induce material deformation. followed by ﬂuids. m. the usual force is the hydrostatic pressure. ds. a. A diver. F = ma with acceleration. F = (6) dp dt (7) with d p and dt instantaneous changes in momentum and time. Table 2 lists densities of the naturally occuring elements. or electromagnetic in origin. Forces. nuclear. is the time rate of change of momentum. A force applied across an element of surface area. and then solids. The interactions of the macroscopic states of matter are generically termed mechanics. a convenient quantity in diving circles. and displacement. and with t the time. s. perpendicular to the surface element. The speciﬁc density. P= F A (8) with F and A the elements of force and surface area. or cause chemical and nuclear reactions (potential energy). for every applied force. Forces may be gravitational. F. p. propelling himself through the water also pushes the water away from hi. and dt instantaneous changes in the same quantities. simply the weight. Stated another way. Mechanical properties describe the change in shape of matter when external forces are applied.and gases are usually the least dense. and is not a speciﬁcally directed (vector) quantity. in unit volume. linked by Newton’s second law. t. Pressure at a point is equal in all directions. of a liquid is its density divided by the density of seawater. produce accelerations. V . generates a pressure. change position. and deformation is a change in volume. the propagation of sound waves. there is an equal and opposite reaction force. w. For matter in the liquid and gaseous state. The most general representation of force. Weight density is often used. P. For matter in the solid state. Newton’s ﬁrst law states that a body in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. acting upon bodies of mass. both tensile and shearing forces come into play to produce deformations. however. the permanent deformation of metals into useful shapes. v= ds dt dv dt (4) (3) a= (5) with dv. all measured over time.
92 144.14 5.32 15.971 1.0032 .55 2.27 145.35 9.45 10.22 190.18 195.45 1.62 .09 231.91 106.22 7.74 13.94 167.0059 1.41 114.05 227.008 4.94 7.12 ρ (g=cm3 ) 8.23 12.48 22.00 19.52 element Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Ti Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Z 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 A 112.92 91.0014 .86 8.52 6.18 22.91 137.74 2.70 5.96 7.01 14.09 226.23 7.65 7.91 131.70 121.85 11.73 4.013 10.73 11 .93 .24 4.91 95.96 79.54 65.95 7.94 173.35 7.12 238.82 2.76 127.04 174.63 88.39 207.01 150.04 11.90 50.52 4.72 72.70 2.27 168.07 237.08 157. Densities Of Elements.56 8.13 223.99 24.0010 5. element H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 A 1.91 5.10 7.0018 .53 22.19 6.62 19.78 6.88 ρ (g=cm3 ) .24 .02 101.36 138.85 2.87 5.53 180.35 152.86 8.32 16.06 211.52 6.03 210.48 87.940 9.08 16.76 9.16 9.42 1.28 6.91 19.61 204.12 102.0017 .94 39.0009 .86 186.33 8.51 164.87 1.98 32.24 192.12 222.82 118.95 183.003 6.96 47.91 8.22 10.69 6.94 58.99 178.24 10.75 9.95 8.55 11.10 40.07 .61 126.92 83.01 54.13 232.52 6.53 12.06 35.79 3.22 92.01 9.42 107.37 19.95 98.52 239.82 85.02 200.54 5.21 209.43 18.58 5.53 2.0017 .Table 2.00 20.92 140.53 1.0037 1.91 78.95 52.09 197.21 12.42 21.82 12.60 74.13 140.08 44.43 6.39 13.30 132.0009 .12 .28 20.85 58.94 55.93 162.38 69.32 26.0013 .78 6.36 5.26 158.98 28.09 30.71 63.22 7.46 39.
Binding energy is the energy associated with changes in both kinetic and potential energies in bound composite systems. The corresponding kinetic energy of motion. An inertial frame is a frame of reference moving with constant velocity (no acceleration). which follows as a consequence of the constancy of the speed of light in any inertial frame. the energy. undergoing chemical. exchanged. kinetic and potential. K. or dissipated in physical interactions. Macroscopically. p = γ mv Power Power. or potential energy of frictional surface distortions and stress fatigue. the second law of relativity. with potential and kinetic energy freely exchanging. m. is a constant independent of relative motion between reference frames. and. energy of particle depend on its mass. Power obviously measures how fast energy is being consumed. nuclear. is the sum of the kinetic and potential energy. h. that is. Electromagnetic and acoustical energies are kinetic and potential energies associated with light and pressure waves. vibrations. K = (γ .Energy And Work Energy in simplest terms is the ability to do work. and position. p. as mentioned. Or equivalently. The kinetic. Kinetic and potential are easily exchanged in physical processes. 1 K = mv2 2 U = mgh (9) (10) with g the acceleration of gravity (32 f t =sec2 ). Heat energy can be kinetic energy associated with random molecular translations. Kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion. v. in the ideal case. Energy takes two main forms. E. v2 = c2 ). 1) mc2 while the momentum. heat. is given by. is a constant of motion. and phase transformations. 12 . mass-energy is conserved. mass and energy are equivalent. or molecular interactions. generated. In the general (relativistic) sense. m. is written. and speed. in a gravitational ﬁeld (or any other force ﬁeld for that matter). U. The total energy. W is simply the rate of energy change. but always summing to the same H. suitably splitting mechanics into major observable categories. which is to say that mass can be converted to energy. Einstein postulated that the laws of physics are identical for two observers moving with constant velocity with respect to each other. this is a classical division. and sound. nuclear and chemical reactions. E = γ mc2 for c the speed of light. H. the ability to do work requires an interchange of energy between a system and its surroundings.1=2 with v the particle speed. Accordingly. W = (12) (13) (14) (15) dH dt (16) with dH the energy change in time dt. The interactions of matter and energy are sometimes broken down into light. associated with a moving particle of rest mass. and potential. and vice versa. In all processes known to man. takes the form. γ = (1 . and that the speed of light. H = K +U (11) and. c. and rotations. the ﬁrst law of relativity. but with the understanding that each is a detailed science by itself. K. Potential energy is the energy associated with position in a force ﬁeld.
or electromagnetic waves in the wavelength range. ε. φ . f . we have because of phase equality of incident.99 x 10 8 2. assuming n > n. but in a material medium. indigo.009 is the difference between blue and red light indices of refraction. ε = hf (17) for h Planck’s constant (6:625 10 . φ.27 x 10 8 2. equivalently regarded as photons (particles) or electromagnetic packets (waves). In a vacuum. Light.1 with red the least energetic and violet the most energetic component. which encompasses radio waves and infrared radiation at wavelengths longer than light. media vacuum air glass quartz steam salt water pure water refractive index n 1. reﬂection.0000 1. 0 00 (19) n sin φ = n sin φ 0 0 : (20) 13 . associated with wave frequency. and violet. Treated as photons. φ . 2:5 10 . and the indices of refraction. Refractive index. and ultraviolet. 00 0 0 n sin φ = n sin φ 0 0 =n sin φ 00 : (18) Therefore. c.19 j up to 5:2 10. The combination of all colors together is white light. what our eyes see as sunlight on the Earth. gamma ray. causes sensation of vision. φ .4832 1.98 x 10 8 2. and refracted waves. satisﬁes Snell’s law. Refractive Indices. Figure 1 depicts the the relationships between angles of incidence.02 x 10 8 2. the angle of incidence equals the angle of reﬂection.05 x 10 8 2.Light Light is energy in the form of radiation. orange. is really a function of wavelength. n. x-ray. In terms of refractive indices. n. however. 0. it is refracted and reﬂected according to the refractive indices of the media. This retardation is represented by an index of refraction.3321 media speed of light c=n (m=sec) 2. refraction. light (waves or photons) travels at constant speed. yellow. reﬂected. light possess particle energy. 3 10 14 sec.24 x 10 8 0 When light passes from one medium to another. that is.1 up to 8 1014 sec. slowing down the speed of propagation in the medium. namely red. In glass.3178 1. Table 3. Light forms a small part of the continuous spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.24 x 10 8 2. differences in refractive indices are small.3340 1.0003 1. φ=φ and the refracted angle. so that two light beams of different color (wavelength) propagate through materials at different speeds. span a frequency range. Across the visible spectrum.19 j. photons are absorbed and re-emitted by molecules. and cosmic ray radiation at progressively shorter wavelenghts. Solar radiation reaching the Earth’s surface is peaked in this same spectral range. 380 up to 800 nm. n and n . blue.4564 1. The colors of light. Table 3 lists refractive indices of a few materials.34 j sec). a range where humans and animals possess sensitive receptors. regarded as photons in the energy range.
with refractive indices. Incidence. n and n . striking the surface between two transmitting media. 14 . 0 φ=φ 0 00 n sin φ = n sin φ with the case drawn for n 0 0 > n. Reﬂection. experience reﬂection and refraction according to Snell’s law.Figure 1. And Refraction Of Light Plane electromagnetic waves. such as light.
15 . or layers. however. The vertical region in the ocean where light exists is called the euphotic zone. The spot diagram represents an outline picture of the image produced by the optical system. starting with the red part of the spectrum. In spite of microstructural limitations. white sunlight is selectively absorbed. only a few rays. and refractive indices of optical media. or rays. all is quite dark. apertures. Such refractive phenomena change image size and relative position. the dispersion is small and the bundle is clustered at near normal incidence. like land plants. Refraction of paraxial rays (very nearly normally incident). An optical system consists of an assembly of mirrors. are actually traced in an image assembly called a spot diagram. φ c . Any departure from a true sphere represents the presence of optical aberrations. At any point along a fan of rays emitted by an object point source of light. as shown in Figure 2 is a good example of the power of ray tracing techniques in optical applications. down to as much as 500 f sw in the clear tropical zones. require light for photosynthesis. and then remit the light as red. At 330 f sw. image distortions. is the lateral magni f ication. it is obvious that as one goes deeper underwater. At a depth of 33 f sw. or. Some indication of light penetration is the depth at which microscopic plants exist underwater. the study of which is called optics. but lacking ﬁne structure caused by light wave interference and diffraction. focal lengths. which are bent at the interfaces separating media. Thus. do not come from surface light. Although a glass of water seems to allow all the light to pass through. the refracted ray approaches a critical value. distances. The ratio of image to object distance. strategically chosen with regard to the optical system. Each ray from an object point. and image forming planes. The human eye is an optical system consisting of lenses. Colors. little or no color distinction is possible. is termed shortening. Unlike sound waves encountering density interfaces. perceived images of source objects differ across the interface separating the two media. Because of refraction. σ. In the ocean. a perfect image will be formed. in homogeneous media. while the ratio of image to object height. it is difﬁcult to determine at what depth water becomes dark. or curved in media with variable refractive indices. prisms. after passing through an optical system (such as the eye). In geometrical optics. µ. with all such points for all possible rays passing through the system constituting the geometrical image of the source as formed by the optical system. and shock wave propagation. The wave front is the locus of points reached by light after a given time along all possible ray paths. strikes a speciﬁed image plane at a single point. light travels along straight lines. For paraxial bundles of rays. Under these conditions. existing from the surface down to where only 1% of the light remains. because marine plants. Water clarity and lack of turbidity are also primary factors in determining light penetration in different regions. thermal. more simply. and apertures. there is a surface everywhere perpendicular to the rays. acoustical. beyond which no refracted light is possible. with so much water available. it gets darker. As one descends. the amount of light energy absorbed becomes important. Pigments in these creatures absorb the remaining blue-green light. light transmission through opaque liquid interfaces is only slightly attenuated. perceived in ﬁsh and other creatures underwater. plasma. with incident rays approaching and angle of incidence of 90 o (grazing incidence). While the number of rays are inﬁnite. usually with spherical surfaces to facilitate precise image formation. lenses. called the wave front. At 950 f sw. Such bending (refraction) occurs with electromagnetic. As a limiting case in the less dense optical media (smallest refractive indices). 0 0 0 Optics Optics deals with ray phenomena that are not dependent in any way on the wave or quantum behavior of light. If the wave front emerging from a lens or other optical interface is a true sphere. sin φ v 0 = sin φ v 0 0 (21) with v and v the propagation velocities. and light seems to be coming from all around. such as red. the simple ray tracing technique can quantify gross relationships between souce and image sizes. with energy passing easily from one media to the other. and then continuing to the green and blue parts. n sin φc = 1 : (22) n Water is transparent to light. The lower limit varies from 45 f sw along the coasts.The most general form for waves propagating across interfaces supporting different propagation speeds is written. visibility is limited to a few feet. There are no shadows.
but not necessarily in their true position nor size. an object underwater is foreshortened by a factor of 3/4.Figure 2. are seen clearly. they appear closer or farther away. Virtual Images And Refraction At Plane Surfaces Objects viewed through a plane surface separating media of refractive indices. and the apparent distance. n. 16 . smaller or larger. n . As virtual images. and magniﬁed by the reciprocal. n and n . s . s. are related through the paraxial relationship (near normal incidence). 0 0 0 s 0 = n s n 0 When looking into water from air. The actual distance. depending on the indices of refraction. the ratio of air to water refractive indices. in media. 4/3. in media.
of course. when viewing an object above the surface. but can’t localize sound underwater. The near and far ears. such as pressure. Since air is an elastic medium. Cutting off the most widely dispersed rays in the bundle reaching the eyes. resulting in a pressure ﬂuctuation that moves through the air column in the form of a sound (acoustical) wave. density. and transmission through media. acoustics is a discipline of physics. focusing light rays into spatial regions of higher intensity. Underwater viewing of surface objects is also limited by the critical angle. a slight disturbance is produced in the air in front of the mouth. and the signals received confuse our brain. sending out an acoustical signal which is reﬂected back to a receiver. If sounding from the bottom. viewed at the surface. we utter sound. about 4. 0 Sound Any change in stress or pressure leading to a local change in density. and dark peripheral background The refraction and focusing of overhead sunlight by wave motion produces the pattern of light ripples often seen on sandy bottoms below shallow. for instance. communicating motion to the hair cells in the cochlea. A great bulk of data gathered about the ocean bottom. When speaking. uses sound navigation and ranging. or sonar. limited by φc underwater. the depth is equal to 1/2 the time for the signal to leave and return. The greater the ability to accommodate angular dispersion in rays striking the eye. Someone nearby hears the sound. temperature. The end result is that we hear sound. Acoustics is concerned with ﬂuctuations in mechanical properties characterizing the state of matter. and n = 1 for air. Ships tracing out prescribed paths can continuously map the bottom with sonar. and other underwater objects. When we speak. appear larger and closer than their actual size and position. while the lateral magniﬁcation is 4/3. The eyes focus using paraxial rays. causes tunnel vision. Reaching the ear of an observer. whereas secondary measurements characterize the propagation speed and the rate of dissipation of acoustical energy. The ability to accommodate angular spread in the paraxial bundle is called peripheral vision. the greater is the corresponding peripheral vision. while the troughs act like diverging lenses. no surface images can be transmitted through the water to the eyes. Underwater. Wave crests act like converging lenses.σ= n n n n 0 (23) µ= 0 : (24) Objects underwater. which in turn displaces the little bones in the middle ear. Sonar may be active or passive. or echo sounding. the disturbance moves the eardrum. clear water. Active sonar. φc .950 f t =sec. acts like radar. In studying the production and reception of sound. Sound propagation is but one aspect of acoustics. and so on. Passive sonar is equipment that listens to noises underwater. That neighbor in turn passes the disturbance on to its next neighbor. or displacement from equilibrium. 17 . Table 4 lists sound speeds in various media. Primary acoustical measurements determine the magnitude and wave structure of one of these mechanical properties. defocusing light rays into spatial regions of lesser intensity. a compression resulting in a change in air pressure near 1 dyne=cm2. or the perception of a brightly illuminated foreground. it does not stay compressed and expands again passing on the disturbance to its neighbor. serving as differential signal sensors. Outside the viewing cone. and can determine presence and relative direction of sound sources. and displacement. multiplied by the speed of sound in water. receive signals too closely spaced in time to separate. with the ultimate biophysical interpretation of the hearing of the sound by the brain. but speech and hearing obviously invoke biological elements and processes. The shortening is 3/4. with a mask underwater. taking n = 4=3 for water. stress. sound travels faster than in air. in an elastic medium can generate an acoustical wave. The opposite occurs underwater.
the heat transferred is more difﬁcult to identify. Three fundamental and well known mechanisms include convection. using nominal values of water and air densities. is the energy exchanged between parts of mechanical systems at different temperatures. and corresponding densities for a cross section of materials. The mechanism is electromagnetic wave emission from a heated surface. linked to observables such as internal energy change and external work. conduction. T = :0081 (25) (26) R = :9919 in approximately both cases (air-water. then. Table 5 summarizes speciﬁc heats. and the distinctions between them in mechanical systems. For example. φ = σ0 T 4 18 (28) . and dT the temperature drop across the region dx. given by. Heat conduction is governed by Fourier’s law. media vacuum air steel copper paraﬁn wood salt water pure water sound speed u (m=sec) 0 333 5302 3292 1305 2984 1452 1461 Acoustical waves are readily reﬂected at air-water interfaces. Thermodynamics focuses on the controlled and slow evolution of heat. For an air-water interface. conductivity. conductivities. or water-air propagation). and we say that heat has passed from the ﬂame to the plate. and radiation. Heat In thermodynamics. is given by the Stefan-Boltzmann relationship. exchanging heat in the absence of mechanical interactions. conduction and convection. K. In practical situations. Heat. Transfer of molecular kinetic energy occurs directly by molecular impacts or collisions. heat exchange usually involves the ﬁrst two. T and R. coupled to the heat ﬂow equations in the system. energy. Then the determination of K involves solving the ﬂuid equations of a viscous. Radiative transfer is a different mechanism completely from conduction and convection. the heat transferred from the ﬂame is equal to the energy gain of the plate. and very little is transmitted. T . and entropy. φ. φ = . near standard temperatures and pressures. These results parallel electromagnetic wave propagation across a metallicdielectric (conducting-nonconducting) interface. and acoustical speeds. heat denotes the quantity of energy exchanged by thermal interaction of any system with its environment. Radiative transfer underscores fairly high temperatures. While heat is a tenuous concept. involving mechanical as well as thermal interactions. with the spectrum of wavelengths a complex function of surface temperature. if a ﬂame is applied to a cool metal plate. we often deal with systems at different temperatures. we have transmission and reﬂection factors. If energy losses to the surrounding air can be ignored.K dT dx (27) with heat ﬂux. Sound Speeds At Standard Temperature And Pressure. Heat conduction is the exchange of heat from one body at a given temperature to another body at a lower temperature with which it is in contact. φ. or external forces. the energy content of the plate increases. For a point (idealized) source at temperature. In more complex processes.Table 4. as evidenced by its temperature increase. heat conducting ﬂuid or gas. the radial (isotropic) heat ﬂux. Heat convection is a special case of conduction that occurs when a ﬂuid or gas ﬂows past the outer boundary of a system.
V . and depends on the wavelength.121 . Equation Of State The relationship between pressure. mainly because molecular interactions in solids and liquids are extended (long range). PV nT =R (30) for n the number of moles of the gas.381 . The most complex heat transfer phenomena are those in which extended physical systems interact by combinations of the above. or solidiﬁcation.0858 . The ratio of absorbed to incident radiation at a certain wavelength is called the absorptivity. A molecule which absorbs radiation at a particular wavelength is also able to emit radiation at the same wavelength. α+ρ+τ = 1 : (29) For a black body. Long before kinetic theory and statistical mechanics provided the molecular basis for gas laws.925 . especially in the infrared.721 .135 . A body with absorptivity equal to one is called a black body. The ratio of reﬂected to incident radiation is called the reﬂectivity.791 material air iron aluminum polyethylene neoprene glass salt water pure water alcohol Radiation is absorbed in passing through matter.189 2. and the ratio of transmitted to incident radiation is called the transmissivity. ρ. speciﬁc heat cP (cal =g Co ) . compared to solids and liquids. and temperature for any substance is called the equation of state (EOS).912 . present a simpler situation. and the fraction absorbed is characteristic of the material. in addition to phase transformations such as boiling.8 watt =m2 K o4 . to good order of the day.0001 . however.5375 .242 . is the molal volume.207 . under pressure. Pv T =R : V n (31) (32) 19 . τ. P.0013 .6939 . Interactions of gas molecules are localized (short range). and σ0 = 5:67 10.000 . α. Obviously. and the corresponding equation of state reﬂects the point nature of interactions. T . and temperature. Speciﬁc volume.00 . ρ = τ = 0. chemists (and probably alchemists) deduced that. Speciﬁc Heats. Table 5. T . Gases.00024 16. for any temperature. v. but there are many approximate black bodies. region. and α = 1. Of the incident radiation that is not absorbed. part is reﬂected and part is transmitted.0014 . Conductivities. equations of state are typically quite complicated. their range of investigation was limited in phase space. v= so that we write. changes. Perfect black bodies do not exist in nature. with R a constant.0004 .025 1. In the case of solids and liquids.312 1. condensation.949 1. but it is still interesting to note that all gas laws reduce to the simple form in the limit of low pressure.623 2. the three quantities are related by. volume. measured on an absolute (K o ) scale. Obviously. and temperature. And Densities. volume. or long wavelength.0010 density ρ (g=cm3 ) .0025 .653 conductivity K (cal =sec cm Co ) .with T the temperature.
and number of moles of gas is called the ideal gas law. The resultant wave exhibits classical interference patterns of reinforcement and cancellation in time and space. whether linear or nonlinear. so that the waves can be added. Electromagnetic waves in a vacuum are transverse. linearily.In terms of the number of molecules of the gas. Water waves are combination of both. however. u = fλ : (37) Wave speeds in dispersive media depend on wavelength in complicated fashion. 50 0:020 a b 3000 nt m=kgmole 2 0:032 m 3 =kgmole (35) (36) : In the limit of large speciﬁc volumes. or the interaction of different waves. as do other equations of state at large speciﬁc volumes. arising from the presence of intermolecular forces and the actual volume occupied by the gas molecule itself. so that waves cannot be added. while acoustical waves in a frictionless media are longitudinal. Media supporting wave propagation are dispersive or nondispersive. van der Waals proposed the following equation of state. Acoustical waves are linear. f . Waves are linear or nonlinear. while light waves in a vacuum and acoustical waves in air exhibit nondispersion. and R is the universal gas constant (8:317 j=gmole K o ). and b becomes negligible compared to v. the quantiﬁcations are often called the laws of Boyle. in which case they oscillate in direction of energy transport. Wave Motion All waves transport energy. possessing tranverse and longitudinal components. rather a process of adding time vary sinusoids together. dispersive or nondispersive. Interference phenomena. The van der Waals equation then goes over to the ideal gas law. u. tranverse or longitudinal. b ) = RT (34) with a and b constants. Wave speeds. no matter how complex the interaction with matter. with. The addition process is not simple arithmetic. with deviations occuring only at very high pressures. the pressure increases linearily with inverse speciﬁc volume. or they can be longitudinal. Wave motion pervades all mechanical interaction. while water and electromagnetic waves are nonlinear. Amplitudes of oscillation of linear waves are usually scalar quantities. or. linear 20 . Many equations have been proposed quantifying gas behavior more accurately than the ideal gas law. Some are empirical. in which case they oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of energy transport. When two waves waves interact. a third forms wave by superposition (addition). All waves. Water and plasma waves exhibit dispersion. In compressed gas diving applications. after the eighteenth century investigating chemists. Waves can be transverse. the relationship between pressure. n= N N0 : (33) With this subset of deﬁnitions. N 0 . N. If the pressure is kept constant. Amplitudes of oscillation of nonlinear waves are often vector quantities. we also have. in nondispersive media are independent of frequency. or superposed. temperature. dispersive or nondispersive. the speciﬁc volume varies linearily with temperature. in fact. and Avogadro’s number. The fact that real gases approximate this behavior has been known for centuries. a=v2 is small compared with P. linearily. In the latter 1800s. or superposed. while others derive from fundamental molecular assumptions. P+ a v2 (v . use of the ideal gas law is usually correct to a few percent in detailing gas behavior. If the temperature is kept constant. λ. or wavelength. the pressure increases linearily with temperature. A range of values for light gases like hydrogen and helium is. Charles and Gay-Lussac. volume. if the volume is kept constant. are common to all wave motion.
exhibit similar interference patterns of reinforcement and cancellation (constructive or destructive interference). Applications of holography span information storage. Diffraction refers collectively to the scattering of a wave train into many small wavelets. we could not walk on the Earth. under a normal force pressing the surfaces together. By deﬁnition. and propagate anew. molecular. and perfect multi-directionality of physical phenomena are precluded because of dissipative mechanisms. intermolecular. wavenumber. mechanical aging. inelastic contributions to deformations are large. the hologram contains in special code. Friction Friction is the tangential force necessary to overcome resistance in sliding contacting surfaces against each other. position. not just the light forming an image on the photographic plane. indeﬁnite oscillations. metrology. is appropriate for materials in which deformation is a nonlinear. The mechanical relationships. blurs. is one of the more important applications of optical diffraction. Yet. and biomedical analysis. contributing to overall increase in entropy. or plastic deformation. but travelling in opposite directions. all the information about an object that would be contained in a regular photograph. and X-rays off crystalline lattices is diffractive. If two sinusoids of the same amplitude and frequency. Propagation of waves into regions of geometrical shadow is another example. Interest in the elastic and inelastic properties of matter date back to Galileo. the rate dependent effects are small. plus other information that cannot be recorded in a photograph. and frequency. Passage of a wave train through a small aperture. Holography. If waves breakup. Holographic photography differs from regular photography in that holographic cameras record light reﬂected from every point on the object. heat generated by internal friction. Irreversible processes. are also called the material properties. For most metals and ceramics. image processing. nor swim underwater with ﬁns. Deformations are part of a class of destructive forces called dissipative. the resultant wave is called a standing wave. the response of organic polymers. or wave front reconstruction. or by a knife edge falls into this category. causing damping of vibrations in machines and oscillating mechanical systems. reform. Deformation A solid is elastic if the amount of deformation is directly proportional to the applied force. of the applied force. tending to convert kinetic energy into mostly heat and potential energy that is not recoverable. The categorization. Friction is mainly a surface phenomenon. and decipherable only upon application of diffraction theory. and gases with constitutive equations spanning atomic. because the interference pattern has ﬁxed nodes (zero points of oscillation) Waves propagating continuously (without breakup and reformation) in a media generate interference patterns described above. irreversible function of the applied force. such as macroscopic ﬂow. transverse or longitudinal. the interference pattern is more complicated. The hologram consists of a hodgepodge of specks. liquids. Examples include the permanent deformation of metals by large forces. blobs. interfere. through a scored grating. Perpetual motion machines. describing the change in shape or ﬂow of matter under internal and external forces. but with more complicated dependence on time. and the subsequent recombination of the wavelets into a new wave train. bearing no resemblance to the object. drive cars.or nonlinear. depending primarily on conditions at the interfacial surfaces. implying that the deformation process is reversible and independent of the way the force is applied. and stressing can be collectively quantized through constitutive equations. In plastics and rubbers. and these types of materials are termed viscoelastic. or direction. The passage of water waves past a narrow breakwater. friction is the ratio of the magnitudes of 21 . and whorls. A solid is inelastic if the displacement depends on the rate. and glass at high temperature. Rheology tries to correlate macroscopic response and ﬂow of solids. Friction and viscosity are also dissipative forces. light through a ruled lens. Nevertheless. plastic solid. RHEOLOGY Rheology is the interdisciplinary study of the deformation and ﬂow of material under internal and external forces. and broader domain scales. without frictional and viscous forces. and the process is termed di f f raction. Frictional and viscous forces impart irreversibility to physical processes. shearing. fatigue. solid deformation. but play an important role in the dissipation of oscillational energy.
so that. N. viscosity is dissipative. Tips adhere to opposing surfaces. separated by a distance. viscosity in liquids has a short range. Table 6. µ ranges from 0. F.4 Contact between surfaces that are dry. dx. that is. In liquids. Additionally.5 0. distance moved or slid. with ﬁlms solid (graphite). The volume of wear (material lost). total contact area is only a small fraction of the entire interfacial area. with respect 22 . and is essentially independent of pressure. while for ultraclean surfaces. The force. x.2.3 1. For ultrasmooth surfaces. and must be sheared if motion is to occur. Coefﬁcients Of Static Friction metal aluminum brass bronze copper iron against itself 1. ranging from small to large values.6 0. Wear (tribology). and inversely proportional to the material hardness.1 and 2. w=k Nx β (39) with k the proportionality constant. in multiple viscosity oil for car engines and compressors.0. shear forces resulting from velocity differences between molecules in interacting layers. while for very rough surfaces. on the other hand. µ= F N (38) with the coefﬁcient of friction. is proportional to the applied normal load. intermolecular force component. corrosion. required to induce a small velocity change. Viscosity arises in ﬂuids and gases as a result of momentum transfer between adjacent layers of molecules. usually involves the tips of tall asperities. to the normal (load) force. viscosity is proportional to the square root of absolute temperature. viscosity is indeed constant over a wide range of pressures. µ is large because of high asperity interlocking. somewhere in the range of 0. µ becomes very large. Like friction. In gases. Viscosity Fluid ﬂow is invariably accompanied by drag. are placed in a ﬂuid. mechanical work is expended to keep the ﬂuid in motion. F. For actual gases. and ordinarily rough.001 to 0. The effect is linked to viscosity. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication occurs in highly loaded assemblies with changes in ﬂuid viscosities under high pressure and temperature. Kinetic coefﬁcients are no more than 5% to 10% less.8 0. while the amount of frictional force necessary to maintain sliding is known as kinetic friction. µ is large because of large cohesive forces. for instance. The maximum value of frictional force required to start sliding is known as static friction. or internal ﬂuid friction as it is termed in analogy to material properties.01 atm up to 10 atm. Velocity differences can arise through applied forces. ﬂuid (oil).2 1. conceptually. Total force requisite to shear these junctions is roughly the product of the shear strength of the materials times the area of all junctions at the onset of sliding. Lubrication attempts to mitigate wear by imposing ﬁlms of foreign substances between contacting bodies. Some static coefﬁcients of friction for metals are listed in Table 6 below. or local turbulence and mixing. seen.3 0. For lubricated surfaces. or chemically active substances. abrasion. combinations of all. µ. boundary effects. tending to resist motion. for dry surfaces. and is then converted into heat. Static friction is always slightly greater than kinetic friction. temperature differences. varies between 0.4 0. dv. β. viscosity falls off rapidly with increasing temperature. simply. w. concerned with the loss or transfer of material in contact.4 1.4 against steel 0. Measurement of viscosity is simple. including adhesion. µ. fatique. and takes the form. or changes in motion. results from many interactive frictional forces.the required moving force. Two plates of cross sectional area. N. A. thus. obviously a function of many variables. and worse.
lose energy through viscous dissipation. reducing to ordinary sound (acoustical) waves. such as density and pressure. where temperature is a signiﬁcant variable. thermodynamics relates mechanics to heat and temperature changes. differ from shocks and detonation waves because deﬂagrations propagate at subsonic speeds. and marine disturbances generate geological shocks of enormous potential destructive force. For instance. and chemical reactions. A unique feature of shock wave propagation in gases is the high shock temperatures attainable. But more particularly. ¯ ε= 3 kT 2 (41) with k Boltzmann’s constant (1:38 10. simply the relationship between pressure and volume for given shock speed. Volcanism. Detonation waves are special types of self-sustaining shock waves. and an accurate assessment of their propagation characteristics in the Earth is an important component of seismology and geophysics. Thermodynamics provides a complete description of these properties under conditions of equilibrium. and up to pressures of 10 Mbar. so to speak. transport. The ﬁrst temperature measuring devices. has been established for many materials. employing displaced air volumes to deﬁne hotness of coldness according to the 23 . Thermodynamics grew naturally out of early studies of temperature. and igniting chemical reactions that sustain shock propagation. detonations in high explosives. not sustained in propagation. vibrational relaxation. Measurements of chemical reaction. also called the internal energy. passage of supersonic aircraft in the atmosphere. plate faulting. compressing. satisﬁes the Boltzmann relationship. X. The detonation process usually requires a shock wave to initiate reactions. deﬁnes the viscosity.to the other. like rheology. deals with macroscopic properties of extended matter. within polymers. dissociation. and serves as the basis for descriptions of macroscopic interactions. assigns directionality to physical processes. in parallel direction. THERMAL INTERACTIONS Thermodynamics. For ¯ an ideal gas. or discharges of lightning bolts in a narrow air channel. and have provided valuable data for geophysical analysis. near 15. over large temperature ranges. Deﬂagrations. Shock waves. F = XA dv dx : (40) The statement above assumes that the shear process does not alter the gas or ﬂuid structure. heating. Such high temperatures are very useful for the study and application of shock tubes to measurements of reaction rate processes in science and aeronautics.23 j=gmole K o ). through the relationship. Modiﬁed shock tubes can be used as short duration wind tunnels. Temperature Temperature is a measure of hotness or coldness. The shock equation of state. Shocks Shocks are wave disturbances propagating at supersonic speeds in materials. temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecular ensemble comprising the object. but for ﬂuids. the shearing and ﬂow result in partial alignment of elongated molecules. producing high Mach number ( µ = 16).000 K o . for instance. and T the absolute temperature. or ﬂames. high temperature (T = 6 000 K o ) environments replicating the gas dynamics encountered by missiles and reentry vehicles (RVs). characterized by rapid rise in local pressure. Shock waves are generated by the sudden release of large amounts of energy in a small region. this may not always be true. and ionization rates have been effected with shock tubes. Collectively. Certainly for gases this poses no problems. in which exothermal reactions move with supersonic speed into the undetonated material. Pressures and densities attained in shock compressed geologic material are comparable to those found in the Earth. and temperature in frontal regions. and offers a starting point for investigation of nonequilibrium phenomena such as hydrodynamics. the mean molecular kinetic energy. ε. Conventional wind tunnels are constrained by Mach numbers approximately half shock tube Mach numbers. density.
Ta T . Stable liquids do exist over the entire range. for example. on which the degree was 1=100 of the interval between the freezing and boiling points of water.000 to 10. at 1 atm pressure. the approximate melting point of a mixture of tantalum carbide and hafnium carbide. There are no known stable solids above 4. namely. Xa .200 K o . While thermometry is concerned with heat measurements and ﬁxed calibration points for instruments. is about 6. Co . Ta Tb . that is. Wide adoption of the Fahrenheit scale. Xa Xb . The scale was based on two ﬁxed points. although not extensively studied.000 K o .000 K o appreciable numbers of free electrons are present. Although intermolecular forces responsible for the stability of solids and liquids begin to weaken as temperature is increased from 1. Xa ln X =Xa ln Xb =Xa (42) = (43) with X. Later. all condensed phases (solid and liquid) are unstable against the gaseous phase. and technology sufﬁcient to produce reliable instruments giving identical readings under the same conditions. such as electrical resistance.pronunciations of the instrument maker. Ta = X . the international community adopted the constant volume hydrogen gas thermometer as deﬁning measurements on the Kelvin scale. F o . no stable molecules can exist in the gas phase. mostly electrons and bare nuclei persist. in the 1800s. Use of temperature as a measurement of hotness or coldness is based on two requirements.000 K o region. The liquid sealed in glass thermometers. the essence of temperature. In the 100. were called thermometers in the 1600s. atoms and ions can exist together. at Uppsala. Ta and Tb . was promoted by the trusty mercury (in glass) thermometers constructed in Danzig. At 50. what thermometers measure is the average kinetic energy.000 to 5. Kelvin introduced the absolute scale. Molecular species that are unstable at room temperatures are sometimes found in conditions of equilibrium in high temperature vapors. and radiant power. Combinations of the above are also employed for different temperature ranges of the same measuring device.000 K o range. supporting.000. appeared in the latter half of the 1600s. while above 10. Ta Tb .000 K o . The normal boiling point of tungsten. introduced the Celsius (Centigrade) scale. length of a mercury in a tube. a universal agreement on calibration and scale.000 K o temperature range. electrical potential. ultimately linked by statistical mechanics to an absolute zero. General forms include. thermometers employ linear or logarithmic scales.000 K o to 5. of the molecular ensemble. In the 5. based on the second law of thermodynamics and entropy. chemical valence binding is still of considerable importance in the gas phase. based on thermal expansion and contraction. around the mid 1700s. most often using two (sometimes three) calibration points.200 K o . in the case of deuterium and tritium. by Fahrenheit. Celsius. that is. like charged ions in a plasma possess sufﬁciently high collisional energy to overcome mutual Coulomb repulsion. fusion. K o .000 K o . In the 1. 24 . Typically. some indicated in Table 7 below. the melting point of ice and the temperature of a healthy human body (later replaced by the boiling point of water). εbar. and Xb values of measured properties. in the early 1700s. a temperature at which random molecular motion ceases. At temperatures near 10. By 1887. T .
performed on. PdV = PdV (49) (50) in a mechanical system. dQ. done on the system. W . processes usually proceed in only one direction. under pressure. Fo = 9 o C + 32 5 (44) K o = Co + 273 Ro = F o + 460 : (45) (46) Kelvin and Rankine temperatures are employed in the gas laws. Temperature Calibration Points. Centigrade (Co ). and Fahrenheit (F o ) temperatures are deﬁned on linear scales. and the work. N. the net heat ﬂow into the system. Denoting the number of molecules of the gas. a piece of rock resting on the ﬂoor will never cool itself down and jump up to the ceiling. we know that some processes satisfying the ﬁrst law (conservation of energy) never occur.Table 7. dW : (47) The internal energy of an ideal gas is only dependent on temperature. First Law The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics is really a statement of conservation of energy in any system. Heat ﬂow. and 1 atm). and that is a good approximation in most other real gases near standard temperature and pressure. Collectively. 25 . (32 F o . We do not live in a reversible world. convection. dT . we have dU ¯ = N εdT = 3 NkdT 2 = 3 nRdT 2 (48) as a measure of the internal energy change. Q. and the number of moles. dW so that. n. Second Law From experience. the ﬁrst law requires that inﬁnitesimal changes dQ. U. that is to say. and can be easily related. the system is associated with volume change. dU. into or out of the system occurs through conduction. Denoting the internal energy of the system. and dW satisfy. or by. the directionality ascribed to physical processes is termed entropy. dU = dQ . dV . with R the gas constant and k Boltzmann’s constant. For instance. dU. or radiation. dU = dQ . Rankine (Ro ). Mechanical work. for temperature change. dW . calibration point absolute zero hydrogen triple neon boiling oxygen boiling water triple water boiling sulfur boiling gold freezing Kelvin (K o ) 0 14 27 90 273 373 717 1336 Fahrenheit (F o ) -460 -434 -410 -297 32 212 831 1945 Centigrade (Co ) -273 -259 -246 -183 0 100 444 1063 Kelvin (K o ). P.
represent an idealization of physical reality. nor transformations. Aluminum is alloyed with other metals. relationships detailed above can be applied to air and ﬂuid ﬂows in diving systems. and the corresponding volume occupied by the breathing gas at 1 26 = 1 γR v 1. the heat transferred. there exist no thermodynamic processes. turbine. used in early tanks. temperature. and in the absence of shaft work and elevation changes. gas ﬂows involve high pressures and turbulent ﬂows. The essence of regulator and compressor ﬂow dynamics can be extracted from a simple high pressure ﬂow model. High Pressure Cylinders High pressure cylinders are mostly made from steel and aluminum. PdV (56) = PdV (55) Simple energy considerations applied to the steady ﬂow of a ﬂuid (gas or liquid) in system able to exchange heat and do external work. such as friction and viscosity. Regulators and compressors move gases from one reservoir to another at different pressure. associated with the process must be greater than or equal to zero imparts directionality to the process. heat. Carbon steel. such as a steam engine. dS = 0 (53) are termed reversible. internal energy. dQ = 0 : (54) Combining the ﬁrst and second laws. though the ﬁrst were imported from France in 1950. Cylinders carry compressed gases for underwater breathing. Regulators simply reduce gases at high pressure to low pressure. and aluminum tanks became popular in the 1970s. tanks. such as magnesium and titanium. namely. treating the air as an ideal gas. or isentropic. such as regulators. are related. hoses. dv. and γ = 5=3. and velocity change. S. dQ = T dS dS 0 : (51) (52) The requirement that the entropy change. temperatures. The simple. that is. especially high pressure ﬂows. and considering only mechanical work. or the process is forbidden. prevent a reduction in system entropy for any process. dQ. Dissipative mechanisms. provide a simple means to relate temperature. kinetic and potential energy. R.thereby converting heat energy into potential energy. so that for any process. Processes for which the entropy change is zero. Actual ﬂow patterns can be extremely complicated. refrigerator. dv dT with universal gas constant. Processes in which no heat is exchanged by the system are called adiabatic. dS. yet powerful. dW we see that. compressor. In both cases. and scuba regulator. and work. a ﬁxed reservoir with connecting ﬂow. for which steady state dynamics are a low order approximation. is given by. requiring numerical solution on high speed computers. for abiabatic ﬂow. The second law deﬁnes a state directional variable. called the entropy. In zero order. and gauges to yield rough estimates of pressures. particularly as time scales decrease. and are rated according to maximum working pressure. the ﬂow temperature change. and pressure changes to external work and heat. and often. dT . Steel tanks were introduced in the late 1940s. has been replaced with chrome molybdenum steel. compressors. although prototypes of stainless steel and ﬁber wound composites have appeared.γ (57) . that extract heat from a reservoir and convert it entirely into work. and compressors elevate gases at low pressure to high pressure. dU = T dS . Put another way by Kelvin.
5 5. 27 . the pressure on the liquid surface may be higher than this value.00 4.3 34. and volume. In other regions. but not their displacement. To recover the buoyancy characteristics of steel tanks. Figure 3 depicts the phase diagram for a substance like carbon dioxide that contracts on freezing. That of ideal gases is a simple example. Table 8.5 28.4 21. Inspection of the ﬁgure shows that there exist regions in which the substance can exist only in a single phase.8 29.40 27. temperature. Cylinder Speciﬁcations. Table 8 summarizes tank characteristics for a number of rated steel and aluminum cylinders.25 7. Saturation vapor pressures of known liquids vary widely.11 Pressures in a cylinder increase as temperatures increase. material steel aluminum aluminum steel steel aluminum aluminum aluminum steel volume ( f t3) 15 14 50 50 72 72 80 80 95 pressure (lb=in2 ) 3300 2015 3000 1980 2475 3000 3000 3000 3300 length (in) 13. by releasing molecules into the space above their free surfaces. P0 T0 or. some fundamental relationship between pressure.48 3.12 -6. P0 and T0 . Steel tanks are generally heavier and exhibit negative buoyancy when ﬁlled with air. solid-liquid.80 6. both phases exist simultaneously. A vapor is just the gas phase in equilibrium with its liquid phase. Table 9 lists saturation vapor pressures for a number of liquids.60 19.25 2. At any one temperature. and gas. thus increasing their weight.90 6.00 25. hence the saturation pressure increases with temperature. liquid. At this equilibrium point.00 weight (lbs) 7. Along a line called the triple line. or vaporize.00 26.25 7.80 16. the partial pressure exerted by released molecules increases until the rate at which molecules return to the liquid equals the rate at which they leave the liquid surface. vapor pressures of mercury and gasoline are seen to differ by a factor of 10 5 approximately.00 diameter (in) 4. P and T .80 6. Aluminum tanks are lighter and tend to exhibit positive buoyancy before all tank air is depleted. and liquid-vapor.00 4. all three phases coexist.40 6. Real substances can exist in the gas phase only at sufﬁciently high temperatures. assuming an ideal gas. Molecular evaporation increases with increasing temperature. we have.30 3. regions labeled solid.1 buoyancy (lbs) -1. vapor.00 22. At 70 F o . and decrease as temperatures decrease.60 4.90 7. At low temperature and high pressures. the vapor pressure is known as the saturation pressure. but it cannot be lower.atm. transitions occur to the liquid and solid phases.5 20.5 33. Liquids tend to evaporate.22 2.43 3. P= T P0 T0 (59) = P T (58) Phase Transformations Every substance obeys an equation of state. If this is a conﬁned space.50 25. Any slight reduction below saturation pressure induces the very rapid rate of evaporation called boiling. Denoting the initial pressure and temperature.5 39. labelled solid-vapor. and the ﬁnal pressure and temperature. aluminum tanks of the same size must have thicker walls.00 26.
or liquid vapor. 28 . Phase Surfaces For Carbon Dioxide An equation of state (EOS) is a relationship between temperature. solid-liquid. as portrayed below for carbon dioxide. and water coexist at 0. and volume (or density) for any substance. water vapor. pressure. In certain regimes.Figure 3. All possible states lie on a surface.0098 C o . solid. all three phases can coexist. typical during the winter. solid vapor. two phases can exist. ice. Along the triple point. or liquid phases are possible. only the gas. A vapor is a gas in equilibrium with its liquid phase. For instance. In other regions.
the same pressure exerted by the air column. the pressure is almost 1. in volume. For each 33 f sw of depth. about 7 miles. with h denoting the elevation. it would sink. P=ρgd with the density. ρ.000025 0.190 1.Table 9. but their working depth is closer to 200 f sw as a maximum. on the surface of the Earth. Early submarines were restricted to 300 f sw operationally. or 14:7 lb=in 2 .081 7. the weight of the gas or water above any point in the column exerts a force on the rest of the column below it. Pressure is the biggest reason man has not explored the deep ocean in submarines. At the deepest part of the ocean. But. Since air is compressible. Barometer Equation Atmospheric pressure falls off exponentially with altitude. ships like the Trieste are not capable of sustained activity under such pressures. Pressure is assumed to act equally in all directions at the point of application of the force. In terms of incremental elements. is given by. and the acceleration of gravity. near 7 ton=in 2.000 times greater than atmospheric pressure. Near elevation of 18. like water.778 89. P. a simple linear dependence on altitude could be employed to estimate altitude ambient pressure. simple linear pressure relationships. P= dF dA (60) with dF and dA the differential force and area. given by. the pressure increases 1 atm. pressure.492 1. but submarines today operate at 3 times that depth. at any point depends on the density. In ﬂuids. Scuba divers can descend to 550 f sw.5 f sw) of sea level pressure. as such. liquid mercury mercury water water water kerosene alcohol gasoline ammonia ammonia ammonia temperature (F o ) 70 320 200 70 32 70 70 70 200 50 -100 vapor pressure (lb=in2 ) 0. Pressure on the ﬂuid or gas at any point is equal in all directions.238 PRESSURE AND DENSITY EFFECTS Probably little need be said about pressure.439 794. such a representation is unequivocal. the vertical position (depth) in the column. ρ= for material mass. hence the scalar representation and deﬁnition. P. else the material would move by itself under pressure imbalance.965 4. If air were incompressible. d.000 f t. and. Of all underwater diving variables.089 0. some 80 miles high. of the material. some 36. atmospheric pressure is half (16. the Trieste (USN) descended to the bottom of the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench. pressure is the only predictable one. Such pressure is tremendous. Pressure Pressure is simply force per unit area. Ph . g.363 0. In 1960. m.510 0. The pressure.000 f sw. V . A pressure of roughly 1 350 lb=in 2 would compress a block of wood to half its size. Saturated Vapor Pressures. In a gas or water column. The trip took nearly 5 hrs. such as those to compute water 29 m V (62) (61) . ρ.
To good order. At elevation. atmospheric pressure falls off exponentially. Variation in consumption rate with ambient pressure is a gas density effect (regulator function).000 f t. assuming the same metabolic consumption rate for given activity. mental state. behavior of Ph with elevation. However. The exponential term. Ph P0 (1 . χ. 0:038 h ) (68) for h the usual elevation in multiples of 1. χ = χh 1+ dηα P0 : (66) with η the speciﬁc density of the water.000 f t. α. body morphology. The surface rate at altitude. the consumption rate. More speciﬁcally. Certainly these activities rates vary with individual. we have. lung capacity. is seen for the temperature case of 300 K o (80 F o ) in Figure 4. in water and on land. denoting the altitude surface consumption rate. Roughly. Ph . the lungs can function underwater in the same manner as on the surface. Table 10 codiﬁes nominal consumption rates at sea level for various activities. α = exp (0:038h) = P0 Ph : (65) Air Consumption Regulator function exploits air compressibility to deliver air to the lungs at any ambient pressure. and so on. Figure 5 graphs surface consumption rates at altitude for corresponding sea level consumption rates. output. because the air is compressed. Relative to χ0 . and implied elevation.000 f t elevation. α in operational protocols. temperature.0:0381 h) with h measured in multiples of 1. satisﬁes a similar relationship in terms of surface pressure. P. is related to the surface rate at sea level. though a linear approximation to Ph is good approximation over low altitude range. consumption rates increase rapidly with depth. drag. Rates at altitude are less than sea level rates because of reduction in ambient pressure relative to sea level. Assuming a uniform atmosphere. d. are not generally applicable. P0 . P = Ph + ηd = P0 α + ηd : (67) At any altitude.pressure. linear to about 7. Direct altitude measurements of pressure correlate with the barometer equation. χh . The same comments apply to compressor pumping rates. For small values of the argument. we consume air at a rate. physical condition. Filled with compressed air at ambient pressure. Ph = P0 exp (. inﬂating and deﬂating normally. for surface ambient pressure. h. χ0 . Seasonal and geographical variations near 7% are not uncommon. χh = χ0 α χ0 (1 . χ0 . for 0:0381h << 1. and horsepower levels. simply the ratio of sea level pressure over ambient pressure. that is. At sea level. that is. 0:0381 h) (64) (63) exhibiting the linear behavior for low altitude. χ h . 30 . offsetting reduced surface rates. metabolism. the diver uses more air to ﬁll the lungs than on the surface. The total pressure. the surface consumption is less than χ0 . while variation in rate with activity is a metabolic effect (oxygen requirement). underwater. at depth. by the relationship. scales directly with the pressure. is an altitude scaling factor. the underwater rate is greater.
while bourdon and oil ﬁlled gauges measure direct pressure and subtract off sea level atmospheric pressure to register depths. using a sea level ratio calibration point. the volumes are related. at atmospheric pressure. so that the volume ratio reduces. P. At depth. v max . Y . capillary gauge readings are dependent on the volume of compressed air in the tube. vmax v = P0 + δ P0 : (71) In any other ﬂuid. Thus. as noted. Activities Air Consumption Rates At Sea Level. d. is simply. (Ph + η (69) d ) v = Ph vmax (70) for any speciﬁc density. Bourdon And Oil Filled Gauges Other gauges measure absolute ambient pressure and mechanically subtract off surface pressure to give a reading. P = Ph + η d with η the ﬂuid speciﬁc density. d.Table 10. Y =η d + Ph . decreases exponentially. at elevation. Ph . Submersible tank gauges measure tank pressure directly. Capillary gauges employ pressure ratios to register depths.0 1. seen as follows. the corresponding gauge reading. and simplifying. to give depth readings. P. continue to increase with pressure. an effect also seen in wetsuit bouyancy with increasing pressure. is maximum. P0 . and any surface pressure. δ= P0 Ph ηd : (72) For fresh water. Out of the ﬂuid. senses ambient pressure.0 Compared to the sea level surface consumption rate. v. Quite obviously the surface rate at altitude decreases inversely with elevation. the volume of the tube. d. the total pressure.6 . η. the altitude surface consumption rate is reduced by the ratio of ambient pressure to sea level pressure. h. η = 1. subtracts off a constant. At actual depth. can be obtained by substituting the calibration relationship into the above. η. η = :975. a bourdon or oil ﬁlled gauge in ﬂuid of speciﬁc density. Capillary Gauges In any ﬂuid. at depth. reductions in surface pressures at altitude have increasingly lesser effect on consumption rates. and in salt water.8 1. the volume of the tube occupied by air. and atmospheric pressure. Ph . Capillary gauges are calibrated for sea level atmospheric pressure. Ph . d. Underwater rates. occupied by air is less (because of compression). GAUGES Underwater gauges sense pressure. Thus at depth. X. By Boyle’s law. at some depth. with the result. Land/Water Activity Reclining/Floating Horizontally Standing/Floating Vertically Walking/Light Treading Jogging/Slow Swimming Running/Moderate Swimming Sprinting/Cold Arduous Diving Sea Level Consumption Rate χ0 ( f t 3 =min) . or pressure ratios. δ. Figure 6 depicts capillary gauge reading as a function of actual depth at various elevations. at actual depth.3 1.6 2. of course. X 31 (73) . δ. and registers a mechanical response. α.
Ph . From Boyle’s law. then. V . Since salt water is denser than freshwater. and bourdon depth gauges are usually calibrated at sea level for salt water. δ. Pr = 2475 lb=in2 . but all register increasing error with altitude. The body itself and equipment worn by divers contain air spaces that can expand and contract under pressure changes. Y = δ + P0 . circumventing the problem. η = 1. and rated gas volume. d. is unique in that it automatically registers sea level equivalent depths for table calculations at altitude. and standard pressure. and volume. respond readily to pressure change. Relative buoyancy also changes rapidly as object density varies.If calibrated at depth. and ﬂexible objects containing gases. HYDROSTATICS Objects denser than a ﬂuid will sink in that ﬂuid. using any convenient set of units. compressed to the rated tank pressure. Solids and ﬂuids possess essentially ﬁxed density under nominal pressure changes. sea level gauges in fresh water at altitude. for any surface pressure. Vt . we can write for any tank pressure. add 1 f sw for each 1. The capillary gauge. The rated tank volume is the amount of gas. Diaphram and oil ﬁlled gauges indicate depths that are too shallow. The ratio. in salt water. inducing commensurate buoyancy change. Pr . diaphragm. P0 (75) in analogy to a capillary gauge. P. but gases. P0 . are small (near 3%). initially at standard temperature and pressure. some gauges are available with adjustable scales for re-zeroing at altitude. and can be moved about without sinking or rising. Vr . for submersible gauge reading. For all other gauges. PVt = P0V (76) and we also know at rated pressure. meaning that. in any ﬂuid. while capillary gauges indicate depths that are too deep. Capillary. δ = η d + Ph . subtract 3. is rated at 2475 lb=in2 . Vr .000 f t increment and then add 3% of the reading. and that. Submersible Tank Gauges Submersible gauges read tank pressure directly. Relative buoyancy obviously depends on ﬂuid and object densities. and buoyancy compensator (BC). V . and speciﬁed Pr and Vr . To obtain actual depths from capillary gauge readings. For contained gases. δ. For instance. Fresh versus salt water reading errors alone. Objects with the same density as the ﬂuid are neutrally buoyant.000 f t increment of elevation. it 32 . P0 . The lungs. a few simple rules will sufﬁce for correcting salt water. at actual depth. as mentioned. density and buoyancy changes result from changes in volume. Sinking objects have negative buoyancy. Knowing the rated tank pressure.5% of the reading for each 1. and objects less dense than a ﬂuid will ﬂoat. change density rapidly under pressure change. η. as with bouyancy changes. Pr . Pr =Vr is called the tank constant. PrVt Dividing the above two equations yields the ratio. and remaining breathing volume. Figure 7 plots Bourdon and oil ﬁlled gauge readings at altitude as a function of actual depth. permits rapid estimation of air remaining in the tank for breathing. In any case. P. for sea level atmospheric pressure. X (74) Substituting equations yields the gauge reading. Vr = 72 f t 3 . The rated tank pressure is the maximum recommended pressure for the tank upon ﬁlling. P Pr = = P0Vr : (77) V Vr (78) which permits direct estimation of remaining air volume. Today. wet and dry suit. for instance. the standard steel 72 f t 3 tank. denoting the actual tank volume. while ﬂoating objects have positive buoyancy. usually 1 atm.
though the response is something less than 50% of the volume change predicted by the gas law. this fact can be deduced easily by imagining a uniform block of height. good to few percent up to 7. increasing buoyancy. wet suits expand at elevation. ρ.:075 w ηd P0 + ηd (80) with η the speciﬁc density of water. is plotted in Figure 8 for various altitudes. Fd = ρgAd. In all cases. Wetsuits. B. The altitude effect on underwater buoyancy loss is seen to be small. At depth. effects ultimately relate to the densities of constituent ﬂuid media. Fresh And Salt Water Buoyancy Application of Archimedes’ principle directly to a diver submerged in fresh and salt water at sea level yields the fresh water buoyancy loss.000 f t elevation increases diver buoyancy by . and cross sectional surface area. BCs. Wetsuit buoyancy loss per multiple of 100 lbs of diver weight. Consider the wetsuit effect ﬁrst. equal to the weight of the displaced ﬂuid. Similarly. with volume.3% of body weight. ∆w. Fu = ρgA(h + d ). as a speciﬁc function of depth. Denoting total diver plus gear weight. To estimate the buoyancy increase due to expansion or compression. is buoyed upward by a force. is exerted by the ﬂuid. wet suits. At the top of the block. d. and then scale the result by the factor 0. following increase in elevation. since every force on every face is balanced by an equal force on the opposite face. we compute the effect using Archimedes’ principle and Boyle’s law directly. ρ. and the corresponding 33 . This simple law has far reaching implications for diving. B. and BCs for underwater activities. since ambient pressure at altitude is less than at sea level. any object displacing a volume. Buoyancy changes occur when divers descend and ascend. V = Ah. essentially dictating functionality of weight belts. The sum total of all pressures on faces is zero. an upward force. Buoyancy is lost relative to the surface when wet suit divers descend. Since fresh water is less dense than salt water. Buoyancy changes in fresh and salt water thus differ as object density changes. and then salt versus fresh water buoyancy. is exerted by the ﬂuid. Fd = ρgAh = ρgV (79) or Archimedes’ principle. From what we know about pressure in a ﬂuid. while fresh water is less dense than salt water. Submerging the block in a ﬂuid of density. the surface buoyancy increase due to wetsuit expansion. The difference of the two forces is the buoyant (upward) force. and drysuits expand and compress. in an upright position. Both affect diver buoyancy because of Archimedes principle and Boyle’s law. Similarly. due to wetsuit compression can be written. w. Archimedes Principle According to Archimedes many centuries ago. Altitude environments are usually sufﬁciently cold that wetsuits are required (and more often drysuits today).50. On the bottom. the buoyancy loss. move between fresh and salt water and/or different elevations. buoyancy is lost in fresh water relative to salt water. a downward force. as a ﬁgure of merit. Effects can be quantiﬁed by Archimedes’ and Boyle’s laws.000 f t. Each multiple of 1. B = Fu . ∆w : 0029 wh (81) as the approximate buoyancy gain. since increased water pressure will compress the suit rapidly at moderate depth. ∆w = . W . B. h. Figure 9 charts surface wetsuit buoyancy gains at various altitudes as a function of body weight. ∆W . The increased wetsuit buoyancy is mostly of concern near the surface. Wetsuit Expansion And Compression Gas bubbles in wetsuits are subject to Boyle’s law as external pressure changes. of ﬂuid of density. assuming the weight belt is 15% of diver weight.exerts a greater buoyant force than fresh water. we can add up all the pressures on the block to determine the buoyant upward force. h. V . drysuits. can be written. A.
W = ρgv (82) with ρ sea water density.1% nitrogen. temperature. Real gases. helium. This simple correction for fresh water relative to sea water amounts to buoyancy reduction near 2. and neon. air is 78. through. ∆W = ρgv(η . volume. and collide with themselves and the walls of any container.5% of total diver weight. PV =n RT (85) with n the number of moles of gas. are considered ideal. nitrous oxide. the most fruitful. v. sulfur dioxide. 1) (83) with η the fresh water speciﬁc density (ratio of fresh water to salt water density). all behave like ideal gases. and nitrogen dioxide. in short. argon. water vapor. krypton. 20. nor the equation of state of a substance. yields a buoyancy change that depends on the ratio of densities and the total (body plus gear) diver weight. act as vanishingly small. but the sum total of all their kinetic energies is the internal energy of the molecular ensemble. hydrogen. as well as one of the oldest. and density. we have for neutral buoyancy. methane. The difference in buoyant forces acting upon an object of displaced volume. T . Over nominal pressure and temperature ranges encountered in the Earth’s atmosphere. We go beyond the limitations of pure thermodynamics only by making hypotheses regarding the nature of matter. related to Boltzmann’s constant. generating pressure. but is composed of molecules. and R the universal gas constant (8:317 j=gmole K o ). such as heat capacities and variations with pressure and temperature. N0 . or dilute. By volume. and ﬁxed trace amounts of xenon.:025 W (84) with the minus sign denoting a buoyancy loss. do not interact. and temperature changes was ﬁrst deduced phenomenologically. volume. As seen. Figure 10 depicts fresh water buoyancy loss against diver body weight. Not all gas molecules have the same velocity. composed of hydrogen and oxygen mainly. Ideal gas molecules occupy no space. ∆W = . V . there results.volume of water displaced at sea level in salt water. such as air at room temperatures and atmospheric pressures. the molecules are in constant linear motion. scatter elastically from each other. with variable amounts of carbon dioxide. of the form. k. R = N0 k (86) 34 . air can be treated as an ideal. in fresh water and salt water is the buoyancy loss. And by far. and satisfy an equation o f state (EOS) relating pressure P. and and temperature. that is.9% oxygen. as well as over select ranges of pressure. And while thermodynamic principles can predict many relations between the properties of matter. and 1% everything else. a true measure of temperature. ozone. and cannot be distorted upon collision. Taking η = :975. In the case of gases. in the limit of very large conﬁning volumes. GAS AND FLUID KINETICS The behavior of materials under pressure. from correlation of assumed behavior with experiment (data ﬁts). hard spheres in constant random motion from collisions. Ideal And Real Gases Air is a mixture of inert and metabolic gases. is that matter is not continuous in structure. it is not possible to derive from thermodynamic considerations alone the absolute magnitude of heat capacities. 1) = W (η . And certainly such ﬁts are useful. v. and Avogadro’s number. gas. Simple monatomic (one atom molecules) and diatomic (two atom molecules) gases and mixtures. application of Archimedes’ principle to a body submerged in salt and fresh water (displacing equal volumes). perfectly elastic.
we get three well known ideal gas law corollaries (Boyle. however. The block is set into vertical oscillations by the passage of the wave. or the waves very short. and the vertical oscillations produce a circular wave traveling outward from the block in concentric circles. One describes the phenomena as isotropic scattering of incident energy. Such ﬁts to even very complicated gas behavior all have one feature in common. v = V =n P v = a+ b c + v v2 + d v3 + :::: (91) with a. but in general these virial constants are non zero. and little energy is scattered. and d functions mostly of temperature. or water waves. Denoting gas partial pressures. Surface water waves result from the interaction of gravity. respectively. total energy scattered in all directions reaches a maximum for a particular resonant wavelength. temperature. In conservative processes. as temperatures. the virial expansion collapses to the ideal case. P. scatter inelastically at times. b. Guy-Lussac. electromagnetic. Certainly as the speciﬁc volume. Reﬂection. wanting to maintain the ﬂuid surface ﬂat in the presence of any applied disturbance. approach absolute zero (-273 C o . V . and density regimes. γV = nR=V . act as non ideal gas molecules. energy scattered might be considered a function of wavelength. and T . The virial expansion and coefﬁcients can be ﬁtted to sets of experimental data for gases. requiring wave slopes that are smaller than unity. the total pressure is the sum of component gas partial pressures. Temperature is measured in absolute. always approaches the universal gas constant. or pressure. yhe most general form of the equation of state can be cast in virial form. The quantity. is clearly a special case of scattering. R. P. but also known as Dalton’s law. For a particular block. the total pressure. For ideal gases. Water Waves Waves interact with matter in many complex ways. b = c = d = 0. and the wave is reﬂected. such as the wind. Consider a ﬂoating block of wood. c. is given by. If each variable is alternatively held ﬁxed. T . exert short-ranged forces on each other. or the wave very long. P= j =1 ∑ J pj (90) with p j the partial pressure of the jth gas species in a J component mixture. units. v. or Kelvin (K o ). in terms of the molal specﬁc volume. pv=T . p. and Charles principles). V . or real volume. PV P T V T = γT (87) = γV (88) = γP (89) with γT = nRT . T relationship. Such simpliﬁcations provide a linear basis for analysis of water motion. and then. Under simple impulse. ﬂuid particles trace elliptical orbits. If the block is very small. and γP = nR=P all constant. the block is motionless. gravitational. possibly speciﬁc volume. approaching nearly horizontal motion at horizontal 35 . Neglecting the viscosity and compressibility of water. and surface water waves incident upon it. These observations pervade all types of wave motion and interactions with matter. and applied impulse. n is constant and changes in the state variables. All gas molecules occupy space. thermal. particulary in appropriate pressure. surface tension. intuitively obvious. The relationships connect any number of arbitrary changes of state for constant temperature. be they acoustical. If the block is very large. and possibly distort with collision. gravity and surface tension act as restoring forces. in short. volume. plasma. gets large. V . or -460 F o ). the block rises and falls with the surface of the water. In a mixture of ideal gases.bridging thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. are linked to each other by the P . Then equations-of-state need include such effects.
and circular motion far from them.150 . similar comments apply to bubble formation in the presence of dissolved gases. while deep water waves occur in depths greater than one half their wavelength. move from regions of higher partial pressures to regions of lower partial pressures.009 . in short. Dissolved Phases All gases dissolve in all liquids. is 470 times that of helium in water. Denoting the ambient partial pressure of a gas. compared to shallow waves. are listed in Table 11 for water and oil. such as surf or surge through rock and coral debris. or dissolved gas partial pressure.023 36 S (atm. and the ﬂow of ﬂuids through solids.025 .014 . partial pressures usually refer to the free gas phase.067 . PHASE DYNAMICS Solubility is an old subject. is also p at equilibrium. Considering inert gases at room temperature. S. Fluidization Fluidization of solids by liquids is a process intermediate between the ﬂow of solids through ﬂuids. and the bed begins to resemble a liquid in the state of boiling. Some gas solubilities.012 . c=S p : (92) The corresponding tension. Aristotle knew that the evaporation of seawater uncovered dissolved salts.021 . S. In a turbulent bed. gases will diffuse until partial pressures are equal. but actual solubilities range over many orders of magnitude. and there are records of systematic studies by Pliny the Elder of the relative solubilities of many solids in water. regardless of the phases (free or dissolved) of the components. When this pressure drop approaches the weight of the bed per unit cross sectional area. When the particles remain mostly localized.050 . c. gas H2 He Ne N2 Ar O2 S (atm. the relative concentration of the dissolved gas component. the particles remain in contact but move as a whole.1 ) water . Shallow waves (long wavelengths) ultimately break on a beach. is given by Henry’s law. the individual granules become disengaged from one another. we understand the thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of solubility fairly well. but it is difﬁcult to make quantitative predictions of solubility for real systems on ﬁrst principles. Today. in a liquid. the granular system is a ﬁxed bed. a concern for decompressing divers.008 . particles of different size continually mix and change relative position.122 . Of course.016 . between gas partial pressures and/or tensions across regions of varying concentration or solubility. a pressure drop accompanies the ﬂow across the bed. Inert gases such as helium and nitrogen are readily soluble in tissue and blood. and their solubility can fuel bubble growth with reduction in ambient pressure. or gradients. still an important area of research and application. By convention. Gas solubilities can vary much more for complex solutes and solvents. for illustration. while tensions refer to the dissolved gas phase. Amplitudes for such ﬂuid oscillations decrease exponentially at depth. When there exist differences. Table 11. Shallow water waves occur in depths less than one half their wavelength. The solubility of the anesthetic gas halothane in olive oil is more than 10 6 times the solubility of common gases in liquid mercury. When a ﬂuid is passed upward through a bed of granular solids. p. Henry Coefﬁcients.boundaries. although most early interest and study centered on the solubility of solids in water. d. though some folks use them interchangeably. a hydrocarbon liquid. while deep waves (short wavelengths) are dispersive. and become shallow waves before they break on a beach. It appears that the bed has been f luidized.1) oil . and its solubility. In a moving bed. the solubility of xenon in n-octane.
In divers, gas soulubility and transfer from blood to tissue, and back, is important. Gas is driven across the tissue-blood interface by the gradient, but the rate at which bulk tissue transfers gas also depends on the blood ﬂow rate and the degree of vascularity. Then both blood perfusion rate and gas diffusion rate contribute to the overall transfer process. Perfusion And Diffusion Transport Exchange of dissolved tissue and blood gas, controlled by blood ﬂow rates across regions of varying concentration or solubility, is driven by the local tissue-blood gradient, that is, the difference between the arterial blood tension, pa , and the instantaneous tissue tension, p, assuming that blood ﬂow rates are considerably slower than gas diffusion rates across the regions. Such behavior is modeled in time, t, by simple classes of exponential response functions, bounded by p a and the initial value of p, denoted p i . These multitissue functions satisfy a differential per f usion rate equation and are the bases for dive table and meter algorithms. Exchange of dissolved tissue and blood gas, controlled by diffusion across regions of varying concentration or solubility, is also driven by the local tissue-blood gradient, but solutions to the diffusion equation control transport. Diffusion equations have also been employed to build dive tables. Free Phases Henry’s law tells us that a gas will tend to separate from solution (pass from the dissolved state to the free state) if the tension of the gas in the dissolved state exceeds its partial pressure in the adjacent free state. And the opposite holds true if the gradient is reversed. Phase separation can be delayed if some remnant of a free phase does not already exist in the liquid, providing a pathway for the dissolved gas to dump over into the free state, rendering the dissolved gas metastable during the delay. The challenge in tracking phase separation is the presence and quantiﬁcation of free phase precursors, or seeds, that facilitate gas transfer in a process called nucleation. Nucleation Metastable states are unstable thermodynamic states lying close to stable conﬁgurations, that is, separated by relatively small energy differences. A substance in a metastable state will eventually transition into a stable state. For instance, a supercooled vapor will eventually condense into a liquid, a supercooled liquid will eventually become solid, and a superheated liquid will eventually evaporate into a gas. Bubble formation can be a process in which a gas, or vapor, phase is initially formed from a metastable liquid environment, one that is usually superswith dissolved gas. Metastable phase transitions deposit an unstable phase onto a stable phase, with aggregates in the stable phase serving as nuclei for the transition. Liquid drops in a supercooled vapor, if sufﬁciently large, become centers of condensation of the vapor, for example. Nuclei will form in both phases because of statistical ﬂuctuations, but the nuclei in the metastable phase will disappear in time, while those in the stable phase will remain. Such nuclei form statistically as a result of thermal ﬂuctuations in the interior of the media, with a certain (small) number reaching critical radius for growth. If large enough, nuclei in the stable phase seed the continuing process of phase transitions from the metastable state. For each metastable state, there is a minimum size which nuclei in the stable phase must possess to afford more stability than the metastable state. This size is called the critical radius, rc . Nuclei smaller than the critical radius will not support phase transitions from the metastable state, and will also disappear in time. In assigning a critical radius to nuclei, spherical aggregate symmetry is assumed, and is requisite to minimize surface energy. While theories of heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation work well for a number of liquids, the application of the heterogeneous model to water with impurities is not able to reduce the tensile strength to observable values. The homogeneous theory of nucleation predicts a tensile strength of water near 1,400 atm, the heterogeneous theory, with a variety of solid impurities, drops the tensile strength down to 1,000 atm, and the measured value for water is approximately 270 atm. In any solution, gas nuclei can be deactivated (crushed) by the application of large hydrostatic pressures. The process of crushing is also termed denucleation. When denucleated solutions are decompressed in supersaturated states, much higher degrees of supersaturation are requisite to induce bubble formation. In diving, denucleation has been suggested as a mechanism for acclimatization. If denucleation is size selective, that is, greater hydrostatic pressures crush smaller and smaller nuclei, and if number distributions of nuclei increase with decreasing radius (suggested by some experiments), than a conservative deep dive, followed by
sufﬁcient surface interval, should in principle afford a margin of safety, by effectively crushing many nuclei and reducing the numbers of nuclei potentially excited into growth under compression-decompression. The mechanisms of nucleation in the body are obscure. Though nucleation most probably is the precursor to bubble growth, formation and persistence time scales, sites, and size distributions of nuclei remain open questions. Given the complexity and number of substances maintained in tissues and blood, heterogeneous nucleation would appear a probable mechanism. Cavitation Simply, cavitation is the process of vapor phase formation of a liquid when pressure is reduced. A liquid cavitates when vapor bubbles are formed and observed to grow as consequence of pressure reduction. When the phase transition results from pressure change in hydrodynamic ﬂow, a two phase stream consisting of vapor and liquid results, called a cavitating ﬂow. The addition of heat, or heat transfer in a ﬂuid, may also produce cavitation nuclei in the process called boiling. From the physico-chemical perspective, cavitation by pressure reduction and cavitation by heat addition represent the same phenomena, vapor formation and bubble growth in the presence of seed nuclei. Depending on the rate and magnitude of pressure reduction, a bubble may grow slowly or rapidly. A bubble that grows very rapidly (explosively) contains the vapor phase of the liquid mostly, because the diffusion time is too short for any signiﬁcant increase in entrained gas volume. The process is called vaporous cavitation, and depends on evaporation of liquid into the bubble. A bubble may also grow more slowly by diffusion of gas into the nucleus, and contain mostly a gas component. In this case, the liquid degasses in what is called gaseous cavitation, the mode observed in the application of ultrasound signals to the liquid. For vaporous cavitation to occur, pressure drops below vapor pressure are necessary. For gaseous cavitation to occur, pressure drops may be less than, or greater than, vapor pressure, depending on nuclei size and degree of liquid saturation. In supersaturated ocean surfaces, for instance, vaporous cavitation occurs very nearly vapor pressure, while gaseous cavitation occurs above vapor pressure. In gaseous cavitation processes, the inception of growth in nuclei depends little on the duration of the pressure reduction, but the maximum size of the bubble produced does depend upon the time of pressure reduction. In most applications, the maximum size depends only slightly on the initial size of the seed nucleus. Under vaporous cavitation, the maximum size of the bubble produced is essentially independent of the dissolved gas content of the liquid. This obviously suggests different cavitation mechanisms for pressure (reduction) related bubble trauma in diving. Slowly developing bubble problems, such as limb bends many hours after exposure, might be linked to gaseous cavitation mechanisms, while rapid bubble problems, like central nervous system hits and and embolism immediately after surfacing, might link to vaporous cavitation. Today we know that the inception of cavitation in liquids involves the growth of submicroscopic nuclei containing vapor, gas, or both, which are present within the liquid, in crevices, on suspended matter or impurities, or on bounding layers. The need for cavitating nuclei at vapor pressures is well established in the laboratory. There is some difﬁculty, however, in accounting for their presence and persistence. For a given difference between ambient and gas-vapor pressure, only one radius is stable. Changes in ambient, gas, or vapor pressures will cause the nuclei to either grow, or contract. But even if stable hydrostatically, bubbles and nuclei, because of constricting surface tension, will eventually collapse as gas and vapor diffuse out of the assembly. For instance, an air bubble of radius 10 ;3 cm will dissolve in saturated water in about 6 sec, and even faster if the water is undersaturated or the bubble is smaller. In saturated solutions, bubbles will grow by diffusion, and then tend to be quickly lost at free surfaces as buoyant forces raise them up. A 10 ;2 cm air bubble rises at the rate of 1.5 cm=sec in water. If nuclei are to persist in water, or for that matter, any liquid media, some mechanism must prevent their dissolution or buoyant exit. A number of possibilities have been suggested to account for the presence of persistent, or stabilized, nuclei in undersaturated liquids, liquids that have been boiled, or denucleated. Crevices in the liquid, or surrounding boundary, may exert mechanical pressure on gas nuclei, holding them in place. Microscopic dust, or other impurities, on which gas and vapor are deposited, are stabilized already. Surface activated molecules, (such as hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in water), or surface activated skins formed from impurities may surround the nuclei and act as rigid spheres, offsetting constrictive surface tension, preventing diffusion of gas out of the nuclei and collapse. In all cases, the end result is a family, or group of families, of persistent nuclei. Time scales for stabilization and persistence of nuclei would obviously equate to the strength and persistence of stabilizing mechanism. Experimentally, trying to differentiate stabilization modes is very difﬁcult, because
(eventual) growth patterns of nuclei are the same in all cases. The ulimate crumbling of surrounding shells, release of crevice mechanical pressure, removal of dust and impurity nucleation centers, and deactivation of surface chemicals leads to the onset of cavitation and bubble growth. BUBBLE MECHANICS To satisfy thermodynamic laws, bubbles assume spherical shapes in the absence of external or mechanical (distortion) pressures. Bubbles entrain free gases because of a thin ﬁlm, exerting surface tension pressure on the gas, of magnitude, 2γ=r, with γ the Laplacian surface tension and r the bubble radius. Hydrostatic pressure balance requires that the pressure inside the bubble exceed ambient pressure by the surface tension pressure, 2γ=r. Figure 11 depicts the pressure balance in a spherical bubble of radius, r. At small radii, surface tension pressure is greatest, and at large radii, surface tension pressure is least. In watery tissue, γ = 50 dyn=cm, roughly. Gases will also diffuse into or out of a bubble according to differences in gas partial pressures inside and outside the bubble, whether in free or dissolved phases outside the bubble. In the former case, the gradient is termed f ree ; f ree, while in the latter case, the gradient is termed f ree ; dissolved. Unless the surface tension, γ, is identically zero, there is always a gradient tending to force gas out of the bubble, thus making the bubble collapse on itself because of surface tension pressure. If surrounding external pressures on bubbles change in time, however, bubbles may grow or contract. Figure 12 sketches bubble gas diffusion under instantaneous hydrostatic equilibrium ( γ nonzero). Surfactants Water, gasoline, glycerin, and salad oil are clearly liquids. Pancake syrup, paster, eggwhite, silly putty, paint, glue, and soap are also liquids, that is, they ﬂow on the application of stress, but border on classiﬁcation otherwise. In mechanical response, the latter class differs from each other as much as they differ from solids. And the response is variable in time. Syrup becomes sticky as it dries. Dishwashing soap often dries into light ﬂakes. Silly putty ﬂows on tilt, but shatters on sudden impact. Airplane glue is springy and rubbery. Substances in the latter category are called structured ﬂuids, owing their distinctive and unusual properties to large polyatomic composites, many times the size of a water molecule. Fluids containing polyatomic structures manifest a wide variety of mechanical response and self organization. Body tissues and ﬂuids host an uncountable variety of organic and inorganic matter, with many biochemical substances falling into structured ﬂuid category. Among the structured ﬂuids, a class of self assemblies, called surfactants, are very interesting, possessing properties which can stabilize microbubbles in various stages of evolution by offsetting surface tension. A surfactant is a structured ﬂuid which is ambiphillic, incorporating parts that assume preferential orientations at water-oil (immisicible) interfaces. A surfactant molecule usually consists of a bulky ion at one end, and a counter ion at the other. Isolated molecules cannot usually exist in one media type, or the other, but instead orient themselves into micelles, conﬁgurations in which like parts clump together, that is head in one substance and tail in the other. Micelles typically possess diameters near 10;3 microns, and render the interfaces unlike anything measured in the components. Lipid-aqueous tissue interfaces potentially present favorable environments for surfactants. Under certain conditions, a surfactant can reduce interfacial surface tension, allowing the interface to grow and wrap around itself. The result is a microbundle full of alternating surfaces and interfaces, spherical in structure to minimize thermodynamic energy constraints. Many substances may be bound up in the microbundle. If small gas nuclei, but typically much larger than a micelle, are in contact with the interfaces, or surfactants directly, a spherical gas micronucleus-microemulsion can develop, varying in size and surfactant content. The assembly is stable when the effective surface tension is zero, when surfactant skin pressure just balances mechanical (Laplace) surface tension. If the effective surface tension of the microbubble, γ, is not zero, the collection will grow or contract until stable, or disassemble. In the case of gas microemulsions, the surfactant is thought to coat the inside boundary layer mostly, with free gas in the interior. The actual picture is probably more complex, but such a picture can be drawn for computational simplicity. Surfactant stabilized micronuclei may theoretically destabilize under compression-decompression processes in diving, perhaps spawning bubble growth fueled by high gas tension in surrounding media. Microbubbles may remain at the interfaces, but probably migrate. Sources of initial gas nuclei, surfactant composition, and tissue sites await description. 39
Doppler Bubbles A change in the observed frequency of sound, light, and other waves, caused by relative source-observer motion, is known as the Doppler effect. One example is a change in train whistle pitch upon approach and retreat. The observed frequency, f , is higher than the source frequency, f , as source and observer approach each other, and lower as source and observer retreat from each other. For sound waves that propagate with characteristic velocity, u, in a medium (air, water, tissue), the Doppler shift depends on both source velocity, v s , and observer velocity, v o . The number of sound waves per second arriving at the observer can be estimated by simply counting the waves emitted per second by the source, and the change per second in the number of waves in ﬂight from source to observer,
u ; vo u ; vs
with source and observer velocities measured along the direction from source to observer (longitudinal component). If the observer is at rest, obviously, ∆f
vs u ; vs
as the usual case. If the observer is moving, and the source is at rest, ∆f
Doppler devices used to monitor bubbles in the circulation, or trap speeders with radar detectors, are simple. High frequency waves, emitted by a sending crystal of a Doppler probe, easily travel through body tissue, with a portion reﬂected back towards a receiving crystal. Tissue moving toward or away from the sending unit will reﬂect part of the source signal with a frequency shift determined by the velocity of the reﬂecting medium. Integrated Doppler systems discard the unshifted portion of the reﬂected signal, and only analyze the shifted portion. Shifted signals fall within the human audibility range. In the veins, bubbles reﬂect more of the signal than ﬂowing blood, with chirps and pops superimposed on continuous ﬂowing blood background sounds. Detected bubbles are graded from 0 to 4, roughly no bubbles to 1,000 or more per minute. Doppler probes are inserted into leg and arm veins, pulmonary arteries (heart to lung), and even the heart ventricles. Bubbles detected in veins or ventricles are traveling from tissues to the lungs. They may, or may not, be associated with free phases at joints, or in the spinal column, causing DCS at these sites. Doppler prediction of DCS falls in the 10% to 15% success range, even for high grade bubbles (3-4 Doppler grade). While less than totally predictive, the preponderance of high Doppler grade bubbles for a dive proﬁle renders the proﬁle suspect at least. Following a typical nonstop dive to the limits, Doppler bubble levels tend to peak in an hour, or two. Recent studies by the Divers Alert Network (DAN) at Duke University reported that some 18% of recreational dives produced some level of Doppler bubbling, on tables or decompression meters. Acoustical signals in the megahertz frequency range are typically employed in Doppler analysis. The size and velocity of reﬂecting bubbles in the ﬂowing media are crucial factors in the reﬂected return signals. Where ﬂow rates are the highest, the smallest bubbles can be detected with Doppler technology. Roughly, entrained bubbles in the 20 - 40 micron diameter range are detectable in ﬂows ranging 50 -60 cm=sec, as depicted in Figure 13, according to bubble ﬂow experiments employing 5 megahertz acoustical signals. Micronuclei And Gel Experiments Internal pressures in bubbles exceed ambient pressures by amounts equal to the effective surface tensions of the bubbles, as seen in Figure 11. To eliminate bubbles, or reduce growth, increasing ambient pressure is requisite not only to restrict size, but also to drive the gas by diffusion out of the bubble and across the tissuebubble interface, according to Figure 12. The shorter the desired time of elimination, the greater must be the ambient pressure. Experiments conducted in decompressed gels are illuminating, as described in Figure 14 depicting dissolution time against bubble size. The smaller the bubble, the shorter the dissolution time. Here implication for diving is suggestive. In the presence of asymptomatic free phases, increased offgassing pressure is prudent, With any overpressure, the length of time required to dissolve bubbles of 250 micron 40
36 pressure P ( f sw) 13 33 53 73 93 113 133 Micronuclei can be broadly classiﬁed as homogeneous or heterogeneous. If the composition of both micronuclei and parent media are essentially the same. or contract. Homogeneous nucleation in body tissue under nominal and controlled conditions of decompression appears much less likely than heterogeneous nucleation. Large pressures (somewhere near 10 atm) are necessary to crush them. the seed pockets are surrounded by dissolved gases at high tension and can subsequently grow (bubbles) as surrounding gas diffuses into them. However. as ﬁtted to gel experiments. make the ﬁrst dive a deep. and then additionally shrink if gas diffuses out of them.41 . Under compression-decompression. As bubbles get smaller and smaller. the skin (surfactant) tension offsets both the Laplacian (ﬁlm) tension and any mechanical help from surrounding tissue. they probably restabilize as micronuclei. If the composition of micronuclei and parent media differ. Homogeneous nucleation and bubble formation usually require large decompressions (many tens of atmospheres). Micronuclei are small enough to pass through the pulmonary ﬁlters.53 273 . Below a certain critical radius. with which they are in both hydrostatic (pressure) and diffusion (gas ﬂow) equilibrium. listed in Table 12. they grow as gas diffuses into them. depending upon their composition and that of the surrounding media. while heterogeneous nucleation and bubble formation processes transpire with very small decompressions (tenths of atmospheres). or separated gas. bubbles tend to collapse on themselves. yet dense enough not to ﬂoat to the surfaces of their environments. they vary in size and surfactant content. effectively the bubble pressure gradient. and this supports the practice of underwater recompression for divers on general principles. Stabilized nuclei evolve into unstable bubbles when their effective surface tension is greater than zero. depending on their effective bubble radius. 41 . apparently stabilizing at new reduced size. short (crush) dive. smaller than living cells. Spontaneously bubble formation in pure supersaturated liquids under explosive decompression is mainly homogeneous. rc . are thought to grow from micron size. having dimensions starting at a few microns.39 . At some point in time. on decompression. Micronuclei Excitation Radii. safer size. gas nuclei which resist collapse due to elastic skins of surface activated molecules (surfactants). a critical volume of bubbles. the micronuclei are crunched down to smaller sizes across families. Then all pressures and gas tensions are equal. Bubbles are also crunched by increasing pressure because of Boyle’s law. or possibly reduction in surface tension at tissue interfaces or crevices. Divers can signiﬁcantly increase tolerance against bubble formation. the nucleus.57 253 . gas nuclei may grow as bubbles.72 193 . depends directly on the difference between tissue tension and local ambient pressure.diameter is signiﬁcantly shorter than that required to dissolve larger bubbles. while bubble formation on dust particles in supersaturated ﬂuids is mostly heterogeneous.61 233 .80 173 . Immediate recompression within less than 5 minutes is adequate treatment for bubbles less than 100 microns in diameter. considering pressure change and host of organic and inorganic body sustances.66 213 . and not activated to growth or contraction by external pressure changes. excitation radius pressure excitation radius r (microns) P ( f sw) r (microns) . the model excitation radius is near . At sea level. The rate at which bubbles grow. Nucleation theory is consistent with a number of diving observations. Of course. or out of.49 .89 153 . as a function of pressure according to a bubble model (varying permeability).37 . or a sufﬁcient diffusion gradient exists to drive gas into. When nuclei are stabilized. Table 12. and therefore bends. On compression. and gels are neither metabolic nor perfused by blood. is established and bends symptoms become statistically more probable. If families of these micronuclei persist. Bubbles. gels and body tissue are different. the nucleation process is termed homogeneous.44 .46 .8 microns. the nucleation process is termed heterogeneous. thereby constricting micronuclei down to smaller. by following three simple practices: 1. while at larger equilibrium radius. which are unstable. denoted G.
rash. make succeeding dives progressively more shallow. Skin DCI is not considered serious enough for hyperbaric treatment. but studies conﬁrm the existence of preformed gas micronuclei in serum and egg albumin. thus depleting the number of micronuclei available to form troublesome bubbles. and the thin air-blood endothelium in the lungs. Neurological DCI affects the heart. and stationary. Abandoning preformed nuclei. and spinal cord. 3. also possibly impairing the lungs or the arterial network. Blotchy purple patching of the skin has been noted to precede serious DCI. or moving apart. stabilization. An underlying point can be made here. Displacing blood.2. exercise. bubble formation and risk are commensurately reduced. or illdisposed to excitation. The presence of bubbles in the arterial circulation might result in embolism. collisional coalescence. or unstable. but local pain can persist for a few days. 42 . Reiterating. usually without apparent cerebral or spinal involvment. shunted venous gas emboli (VGE that pass through the pulmonary circulation and enter the arterial circulation). it is not clear that they populate all tissue sites. Once formed. blood turbulence and vorticity. the biophysical evolution of the gas phase is incompletely understood. or decompression illness (DCI). and joint (articular) assemblies. Stable. thus diving within crush limits of the ﬁrst dive and minimizing excitation of smaller micronuclei. micronuclei must stabilize very rapidly with surfactant material. with later potential for release. through arterial gas emboli. Some can argue that gel ﬁndings are not relevant because biological ﬂuids are formed. Some candidates include cosmic radiation and charged particles. Neurogenic pain is localized at remote limb sites. Nuclei seem to pervade all manner of ﬂuids. or the gas phase. most believe that bends symptoms follow formation of bubbles. If nucleation sites are extinguished. moving and stationary bubbles do occur following decompression. Vorticity in blood ﬂow patterns might cause small microbubbles. lymph draining tissues into veins. underscoring physiological adaptation to recurring pressure environments. produced by the rapid tearing. a serious form of decompression sickness. and bubble growth are fairly complex. reduced in number. and a sense of localized heat. and contained. after decompression. Microbubbles in the venous circulation would render gas uptake and elimination asymmetric. with uptake faster than elimination. Regeneration times for classes of micronuclei are estimated to be near a week. while cerebral decompression sickness is believed due to emboli. only sub-micron sizes might survive. Crevices in tissues may form or trap gas phases. affecting the nervous (neurogenic). Bends Clinical manifestations of decompression sickness. other methods of instantaneous bubble formation are certainly possible. Bubbles in the bone have been proposed as the cause of both dull aching pain and bone death. brain. neurological. Chokes is seen often in severe high altitude exposures. If nuclei are persistent. Pulmonary DCI manifests itself as a sore throat with paroxysmal cough upon deep inspiration. Source and generation mechanisms before stabilization are not well understood. joint. and skin DCI. especially the chokes. venous gas emboli. Cavitation. microbubbles would reduce the effective area and volume for tissue-blood gas exchange. nor possess the same size distributions. Skin DCI manifests itself as itching. Doppler bubble and other detection technologies suggest that: 1. Passing through the pulmonary ﬁlters of the lungs. the stomach. bone marrow (medullar). dissolved gases in ﬂuids we drink. Joint DCI is the most common form of mild bends. of tissue interfaces. the copious presence of microbubbles in the venous circulation would impact dissolved gas elimination adversely. Bubble clogging of the pulmonary circulation is thought to relate to the chokes. make frequent dives (like every other day). extravascular (autochthonous) bubbles. with stabilization mechanisms only recently quantiﬁed. with embolism also included in the categorization. 2. Yet. as well as surface friction (tribonucleation). The mechanics of nucleation. can be categorized as pulmonary. is a candidate. and difﬁcult respiration. a condition collectively called the chokes. All cases are linked to bubbles resulting from pressure reduction. Expanding extravascular bubbles have been implicated in the mechanical distortion of sensory nerve endings. the risk of decompression sickness increases with the magnitude of detected bubbles and emboli. followed by severe chest pain. in a sealed environment (the body).
symptomless. A closer look at these inert gases in a range of diving applications is illuminating. Ph fO2 47:5 fO2 (96) ηdmin = (97) ηdmax . On the other. Recently. can be written ( f sw). Other mixtures. Low levels of oxygen inhibit tissue cell metabolic function (hypoxia). dmin d (98) dmax : (99) Certainly up to about 7. advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the depth of the treatment schedule.3 f sw) to prevent hypoxia. mixtures of hydrogen/oxygen (hydrox) have also been tested. Denoting the mole fraction of oxygen. bubbles are also common following decompression.16 atm. so to speak. and dizziness are the symptoms (nervous system toxicity). oxygen may. helium. with the surface accessible as the limit. and helium/nitrogen/oxygen (trimix). f O2 .44 atm (47. the upper and lower limits of this window. d max and dmin . and vice versa. Confusion and difﬁculty in maintaining coordination are milder symptoms. requiring a recompression chamber and various hyperbaric treatment schedules depending on the severity of the symptoms. 20% oxygen. and coughing are manifestations (pulmonary toxicity).5 f sw). and some 1% of trace gases like neon. and above . have been utilized very successfully. of course.8 f sw) to prevent central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. Ph fO2 5:3 . with the patient taken to a series of levels to mitigate pain. irritation. convulsions. Twitching. location. have been employed commercially in deep and saturation diving. and initiating circumstance. some 1. composed of 79% nitrogen. the lower limit. notably mixtures of nitrogen. is conﬁning. Treatment of decompression sickness is an involved process. This window. Treatment of air embolism follows similar schedules. the variability in gas phase formation is likely less than the variability in symptom generation. and others. and interplay. across a spectrum of activities. if oxygen pressures fall below .16 atm (5. Pulmonary damage. and then possibly as deep as 165 f sw for treatment. helium/oxygen (heliox). or silent. the lower the oxygen pressure the longer the time for symptoms to develop. 43 . and oxygen differing from pure air. is no real constraint. and lately those with higher oxygen content than air (enriched ) which can be employed efﬁciently in shallow diving. ﬁrst.000 f t elevation. Biological Reactivity Low pressure oxygen toxicity can occur if a gas mixture with 60% oxygen is breathed at 1 atm for 12 hours or more. Non-enriched mixtures of nitrogen/oxygen (nitrox). unconsciousness may result. d min . be administered to washout inert gas and facilitate breathing. and is also a crucial element in preventative analysis. ηdmin = with working depths. Gas phase formation is the single most important element in understanding decompression sickness. d. argon. High pressure oxygen toxicity can occur when breathing pure oxygen at pressures greater than 1 atm for periods of minutes to hours. Recompression is usually performed in a double lock hyperbaric chamber. limited by d max and dmin . MIXED BREATHING GASES Air is a usual breathing mixture for diving. 4. carbon dioxide. Clearly a constraint in mixed gas diving is the oxygen partial pressure. Inspired partial pressures of oxygen must remain below 1. particularly gas properties. ηdmax = 52:8 .3. Severe hypoxia requires medical attention.6 atm (52. or may not.
Comparative properties for hydrogen. By gradually increasing the oxygen content after substituting nitrogen for helium. Different uptake and elimination speeds suggest optimal means for reducing decompression time using helium and nitrogen mixtures. helium is the least and argon the most narcotic inert gas under pressure. In deep saturation diving. more weakly reacting. Least potent gases have the highest index.0087 . and related chemical reactions have all been implicated in the past. fear. increased oxygen tension. with the least narcotic gases the least soluble. argon. A number of inert gas replacements have been tested. Solubilities. Individual tolerances vary widely. nitrogen. while beyond 600 f sw loss of consciousness results. Argon is highly soluble and heavier than nitrogen. A normoxic breathing 44 . helium has emerged as the best all-around inert gas for deep and saturation diving.43 .00 . S. A. Helium can be breathed for months without tissue damage. ν. Narcotic potency correlates with lipid (fatty tissue) solubility. they both exhibit anesthetic properties as their partial pressures increase. and thus a very poor choice. while nitrogen is perferable to argon as a heavy gas. are dimensionless (referenced to nitrogen in observed effect). in the 1. Thus.0150 4.Another factor inhibiting performance underwater is inert gas narcosis. Table 13. switching to nitrogen is without risk. while helium elimination is accelerated because the helium tissue-blood gradient is increased when breathing an air mixture. With 80/20 mixtures. the nitrogen uptake can also be kept low. Hydrogen will saturate and desaturate approximately 3. Comparative Properties Nitrogen is limited as an inert gas for diving.1220 The size of bubbles formed with various inert gases depends upon the amount of gas dissolved. helium is preferable to hydrogen as a light gas. neon. Oxygen is also limited at depth for the usual toxicity reasons.0241 . such as hydrogen. and helium. weights. and very much deeper on helium. and all coupled to reduced oxygen partial pressures. and less narcotic gases than nitrogen.44 O2 32. normoxic breathing mixtures of gases are often advantageously employed to address oxygen concerns.0502 1. Symptoms range from light headedness to unconsciousness at the extreme. and relative narcotic potencies. Flow resistance and the onset of turbulence in the airways of the body increase with higher breathing gas pressure. Of the ﬁve. The mechanism is not completely understood. often depending on activity. and Narcotic Potency. hydrogen has elimination speed advantages over helium. gradually decreasing with time.1 . and reduced mental and physical functional ability.58 . Differences between neon.02 He 4. Symptoms can be marked at the beginning of a deep dive.1 ) blood oil ν H2 2. Dives beyond 300 f sw requiring bottom times of hours need employ lighter.0093 . with only helium and hydrogen performing satisfactorily on all counts. Following deep dives beyond 300 f sw breathing helium. considerably reducing ventilation with nitrogen-rich breathing mixtures during deep diving.7 times faster than nitrogen. Although the common gases nitrogen and helium associated with diving are physiologically inert under normal atmospheric conditions. but is only slightly more soluble than helium. because of the high explosive risk in mixing hydrogen. Increased pressures of nitrogen beyond 200 f sw lead to excessive euphoria. and hence the solubilities.83 . Inert Gas And Oxygen Molecular Weights. and oxygen are listed in Table 14 below. A (amu) S (atm. in atomic mass units.0260 . ν.0199 3.00 Ne 20.1480 0. argon. Neon solubility roughly equals nitrogen solubility. Because it is the lightest.7 times faster than nitrogen. but. symptom onset fon nitrogen is near 100 f sw. neon. Neon is not much lighter than nitrogen.18 N2 28. argon. Solubilities. Higher gas solubilities promote bigger bubbles.000 f sw range. and helium will saturate and desaturate some 2. are quoted in atm .0122 .00 . Workable combinations of gas switching depend upon the exposure and the tissue compartment controlling the ascent. helium.26 . but impaired carbon dioxide diffusion in the lungs.0670 1. Saturation and desaturation speeds of inert gases are inversely proportional to the square root of their atomic masses. particularly at increasing ambient pressure.02 Ar 39. and nitrogen are not signiﬁcant for diving.0149 .
Too little. All the computational machinery in place for nitrogen diving can be ported over to helium nicely. The use of enriched oxygen mixtures by recreational divers is aptly concerned with diver safety. oxygen toxicity. that is. a maximum permissible depth (ﬂoor) needs be assigned to any enriched oxygen mixture. at saturation. particularly for deep and long exposures. and appropriate decompression procedures are valid concerns for the mixed gas diver. The latter procedure ultimately relates inspired nitrogen pressure on a nitrox mixture to that of air at shallower depth (equivalent air depth). oxygen can be a problem. or equivalent air depths (always less than the actual depths on enriched nitrox) can be used with air tables. Corresponding helium halftimes are some 2. Thus. The higher the helium saturation in the slow tissue compartments. the three mixtures (nitrox.8 f sw) as the oxygen partial pressure limit. based on the standard Haldane critical tension approach. in the use of breathing mixtures. and follow a t 1=2 law similar to nitrogen. a 74/26 nitrox mixture at a depth of 140 f sw has an equivalent air depth of 130 f sw for table entry. heliox. though expensive. Breathing mixture purity. Air critical tensions can be employed with exponential buildup and elimination equations tracking the (reduced) nitrogen tissue gas exchange. Taking 1. as summarized in Table 13. The fourth hydrogen mixture (hydrox) is much less commonplace. with a tendency towards usage of enriched oxygen mixtures in shallow (recreational) diving. afﬁrm helium as the least narcotic of breathing gases.mixture. Care. again. because of elevated oxygen partial pressures. Diving on enriched nitrox mixtures need be carefully planned exposures. Modern bubble models. heliox remains a popular. helium or nitrogen. a 180 minute helium compartment behaves like a 480 minute nitrogen compartment. breathing mixture. If standard air decompression procedures are employed. When diving on heliox. also called the oxygen limit point. Heliox The narcotic effects of nitrogen in the several hundred feet range prompted researchers to ﬁnd a less reactive breathing gas for deeper diving. as discussed earlier. oxygen toxicity. the obvious concerns. Higher enrichments raise that ﬂoor proportionately. Tests. Hypoxia is a concern with mixtures containing as much as 15% oxygen in this range.000 f t or more on helium/oxygen mixtures by the US Navy. or too much.7 scaling of halftimes expedient in ﬁtting most helium data. The narcotic effects of nitrogen in the 100 f sw to 200 f sw depth range mitigate against nitrox for deep diving. ultimately ushered in the era of heliox diving. but with a notable exception. the later the change to a nitrogen breathing environment. but also minimize nitrogen absorption in those same 45 . For very deep and saturation diving above 700 f sw or so. conducted at depths of 1. correlating narcotic effects and lipid solubility. reduces the oxygen percentage so that the partial pressure of oxygen at the working depth is the same as at sea level. have also been used strategically in helium diving. with the 2. Enriched nitrox with 32% oxygen is ﬂoored at a depth of 130 f sw for diving. Progressive increases of nitrogen partial pressure enhance helium washout. Closed breathing circuit divers have employed the equivalent air depth approach for many years. simply because the nitrogen content is reduced below 79%. enriched nitrox affords a diving safety margin. but for opposite reason. it is advantageous to switch to nitrox on ascent to optimize decompression time. For instance. accurate assessment of component gas ratios. Mixtures of 30% more of oxygen signiﬁcantly reduce partial pressures of nitrogen to the point of down loading tissue tensions compared to air diving. Decompression requirements on enriched nitrox are less stringent than air. the ﬂoor for any mixture is easily computed. However.7 times faster than nitrogen for the same hypothetical tissue compartment. fast compartment critical tensions can be assigned for applications. Nitrox Mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen with less oxygen than 21% (pure air) offer protection from oxygen toxicity in moderately deep and saturation diving. Saturation diving on oxygen-scarce nitrox mixtures is a carefully planned exposure. depth times the square root of the nonstop time limit is approximately constant. Using standard techniques of extracting critical tensions from the nonstop time limits. Deep saturation and extended habitat diving. Helium (normal 80/20 mixture) nonstop time limits are shorter than nitrogen. trimix) are employed for deep and saturation diving. that is. some 4 times less narcotic than nitrogen.6 atm (52. Moderately deep here means no more than a few hundred feet. such as the varying permeability model. hypoxia and toxicity. Helium uptake and elimination can also be tracked with the standard Haldane exponential expressions employed for nitrogen. is to be underscored. Today. Many equivalent means to schedule enriched nitrox diving exist.
Unlike helium. With enriched mixtures ( f N2 < :79). but greater than helium. and helps to keep the diver warm. is the sea level equivalent depth described earlier. users have been discouraged from experimenting with hydrox because of the explosive and ﬂammable nature of most mixtures. total inert gas uptake and elimination can be assumed to be the sum of fractional nitrogen and helium in the trimix breathing medium. an extrapolation based on the foregoing forms the basis of the equivalent air depth method. The addition of nitrogen to helium breathing mixtures (trimix). d. some nitrogen facilitates decompression. Though helium remains a choice for deep diving. and even helium. is less than the effective depth. with nitrogen percentages usually below 10% in operational diving. Using a basic set of nitrogen halftimes and critical tensions. promoting rapid transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the lungs at depth. At 46 .000 f sw. Considering solubility and diffusivity. but is not the same. gauges. High pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS) is a major problem on descent in very deep diving. the same set of M are assumed to apply equally to both air and other mixture in the approach. The equivalent air depth method for table use derives from the imposed equality of mixture and inert gas partial pressures. the equivalent air depth. and many others after them. but also marginally hazardous. In actuality. and is very similar to the altitude equivalent depth method. is related to the effective depth. A 97/3 mixture of hydrogen and oxygen could be utilized at depths as shallow as 200 f sw. the usual case. so that nitrogen decompression requirements are reduced when using δ to enter any set of air tables. Experiments with mice also indicate that the narcotic potency of hydrogen is less than nitrogen. by imposing the equality of nitrogen partial pressures. nitrogen uptake and elimination rates in blood and tissue should be more rapid than nitrogen. and electronic components not usually affected by nitrogen. Hydrox Since hydrogen is the lightest of gases. Equivalent Air Depth In extending air tables to other breathing mixtures. For instance. however. is beneﬁcial in ameliorating HPNS. δ= fN2 (Ph + d ) . At sea level. Simplifying. while also addressing concerns of hypoxia. Trimix is a useful breathing mixture at depths ranging from 500 f sw to 2. Obviously. and inexpensive. Trimix Diving much below 1400 f sw on heliox is not only impractical. Similarly. Uptake and elimination of both helium and nitrogen can be limited by critical tensions. An amusing problem in helium breathing environments is the high-pitched voice change. fN2 (Ph + d ) = :79 (Ph + δ) with Ph surface ambient pressure. often requiring electronic voice encoding to facilitate diver communication. progressive increases in oxygen partial pressures aid washout of all inert gases. often damaging vacuum tubes. Despite any potential advantages of hydrogen/oxygen breathing mixtures. and is quite complex. where oxygen partial pressure equals sea level partial pressure. using the usual exponential expressions for each inert gas component. the actual depth and effective depth are the same. d. δ. established that oxygen percentages below the 3%-4% level provide a safety margin against explosive and ﬂammability risks. and a corresponding set of helium halftimes approximately 3 times faster for the same nitrogen compartment. Work in the early 1950s by the Bureau of Mines. we get. Such approaches to trimix decompression were tested by researchers years ago. it is reasonably expected to offer the lowest breathing resistance in a smooth ﬂow system. it is clear that the equivalent air depth. ameliorates the voice problem. because of narcotic effect. Helium is also very penetrating. the effective depth. Decompression concerns on trimix can be addressed with traditional techniques.compartments. with nitrox mixtures. Ph :79 : (100) (101) At altitude. the performance of hydrogen falls between nitrogen and helium as an inert breathing gas for diving. δ. d. hydrogen is also relatively plentiful.
and from the scrubber back into the breathing bag for diver consumption. exhaled gas is kept in the apparatus. i O2 . absorbent material. subject to oxygen metabolic requirements and depth. and carbon dioxide in the reaction chain. Closed circuit oxygen scuba takes advantage of gas conservation. Because of oxygen toxicity. the source oxygen fraction. depends on workload. No gas is released into the water (no bubbles). and inspired (breathing bag) oxygen fraction. Denoting the inert gas molar fraction in the standard (table) mixture. depend on nozzle and mixture. Gas ﬂow from the high pressure cylinders the breathing circuit is controlled by a regulator and nozzle. sodium and potassium hydroxide. with k = N2 . f k . fO2 F = iO2 F + (1 . we have. f O2 . f ks . usually corresponding to safe oxygen partial pressure at the maximum operating depth. Oxygen is taken directly from a breathing bag. where it is scrubbed of carbon dioxide. A typical reduction process involves water vapor. the above reduces to the form. Only a small amount of oxygen is required for extended exposures. using approximately 6 m 3 of oxygen and 4 lbs of absorbent. and has been utlilized extensively in ocean diving. a relief valve opens in the exhalation bag. CO2 + H2 + O ! H2 + CO3 2H2 + CO3 + 2NaOH + 2KOH ! Na2 + CO3 + K2 + CO3 + 4H2 + O Na2 + CO3 + K2 + CO3 + 2Ca(OH )2 ! 2CaCO3 + 2NaOH + 2KOH : (104) (105) (106) Rebreathers today last about 3 hr. are employed. or hydrogen with oxygen). Two cylinders. and the inspired fraction. and exhaled gas passes separately through an alkaline. Mass balance simply requires that the ﬂow into the breathing bag equals the amount used by the body plus that exhaled into the breathing bag or exhalation bag. The same procedure can be applied to arbitrary heliox. are charged with safe levels of both. or frequent. Depth limitation for pure oxygen rebreathing is near 20 f sw. purge to prevent toxic inert gas buildup. The metabolic rate. and its molar fraction in the arbitrary mixture. F. i O2 . scrubbed of carbon dioxide by chemical absorbents. and oxygen fraction. Two cylinders of oxygen and inert gas (or one premixed). 47 . and hydrox mixtures in theory. Denoting the breathing gas ﬂow rate. closed circuit mixed gas rebreathers blend inert gases with oxygen (lowering oxygen partial pressure) to extend depth limitations. Gas consumption is related only to the physiological consumption of oxygen. mass balance is written. semi-closed circuit mixed gas rebreathers were developed. m. is uniquely determined with the other three speciﬁed. He. depth is a limitation for oxygen rebreathing. Today. The diver inhales the mixture from the breathing bag and exhales it into the exhalation bag. trimix. The semi-closed circuit rebreather operates much like the closed circuit rebreather. Open circuit scuba offers greater depth ﬂexibility. basically an extrapolation from a reference (standard) table with the same gas components (helium. 33 :79 (102) with d the actual depth. iO2 )m (107) The source ﬂow rate. δ= fN2 (33 + d ) . δ= fk (Ph + d ) . the metabolic oxygen (consumption) rate. nitrogen. and the mixture is scrubbed of carbon dioxide before return to the breathing bag. and H2 .sea level. F. f O2 . When gas pressure in the breathing circuit reaches a preset limit. but is limited in depth and duration by the inefﬁciency of gas utilization. but is limited in dive depth and duration by oxygen toxicity effects. one oxygen and the other inert gas (or a premixed cylinder). m. Ph fks : (103) Oxygen Rebreathing In closed circuit systems. and then returned to the diver. To bridge this gap. but requires a continuous. Pressure in the exhalation bag forces the gas mixture through the carbon dioxide scrubber. Crucial to the operation of rebreathers is a constant and continuous mass ﬂow of breathing gas. purging excess gas into the water. admitting a continuous and constant mass ﬂow of gas determined by oxygen consumption requirements.
and concluded that there is very little risk of central nervous system oxygen toxicity when partial pressures of oxygen are maintained below 1. obviously a subcase. positive and negative.16 . the source oxygen fraction. moving with constant velocities. apart. a convention still holding today. is uniquely determined by the maximum depth. embodied in Maxwell’s equations. risk only increases slightly when oxygen partial pressures are maintained below 1. for requisite inspired fraction. Coulomb And Ampere Laws Electrical charge is a property of matter. with the gravitational constant.4 atm). at distance. and in. F = qe 4πεr2 (108) with ε the electric permittivity. in addition to the Coulomb force. fO2 .20. d max . G = 6:67 10 . can be ﬁxed within limits. In terms of gross properties. and their interaction with. 0. replacing 1=4πε. is another crowning achievement in science. while source ﬂows. The comprehensive description of all electromagnetic phenomena. (109) with µ the magnetic permeability. v and u. 5 . F = µqevu 4πr2 10 . Coulomb noted from extensive laboratory experiments in the 1800s that two electrical point charges. their emission of electromagnetic radiation. unusual dielectric and refractive properties. Additionally. and very high temperatures.1. Always. F.6 atm. ﬁrst observed in ancient Greece in materials we now call dielectrics. replacing q and e. and r the separation (µ=4π = 1 48 . r.11nt m2 =kg2 . That electriﬁed bodies attract and repel was noted by Cabeo in the early 1700s. F. ﬂames. It is thought that high pressure oxygen increases the production of oxygen free radicals disrupting cell function. the study of high temperature matter composed of charged particles. F. chemical and nuclear explosions. As seen. Workload rates.6 . and established the notion that charge can be neither created nor destroyed (conservation of charge) in physical processes. while electrostatics and magnetostatics are concerned with stationary charges and constant ﬁelds in time. attracts bits of straw and lighter objects. and masses. The word was coined by Ampere in 1850 to describe all electromagnetic phenomena. Stellar and interstellar matter is mostly in the plasma state. and only electrical charge. given by. The Greek word for amber is electron. iO2 . F. and the force directed along the line joining them (1=4πε = 8:91 10 9 m= f arad ). inspired oxygen partial pressures are kept between hyperoxic and hypoxic limits. while du Fay and Franklin denoted these two types of electricities. m and M. The universal graviational law takes the same form. Centuries ago. the associated electric and magnetic ﬁelds ﬁelds produced. Oxygen rebreathing at high partial pressures can lead to central nervous system (or pulmonary) oxygen poisoning. and metabolic rate. The fundamental entity is electrical charge. the source rate. collective. and electrical discharges. and oxygen source fraction.1. Electrodynamics describes moving charges and time varying ﬁelds. depend on depth. matter.5 l =min.7 henry=m). long range particle interactions due to the Coulomb force. Electrodynamics is generically the study of charges in motion. and the study of fusion as a source of energy and power has led to extensive knowledge and advances in plasma physics.8 atm. range. q and e.5 .6 atm. since corresponding magnetic poles have not been found to date. q and e. it was noted that amber. The coupling of thermodynamics and electrodynamics is the basis of plasma physics. Matter in a controlled thermonuclear reactor would also be in a plasma state. plasmas differ from nonionized gases because of their high electrical and thermal conductivity. m.16 l =min. and maximum oxygen pressure (typically 1. 0. The US Navy conducted research into safe depths and durations for oxygen diving. experience a magnetic force. inversely varying as the separation squared. ionosphere). with typical values. These deductions were based on the early work of Coulomb and Ampere. Ampere deduced that two charges. m. cylinder and nozzle. as is matter in the upper atmosphere (magnetosphere. upon being rubbed. roughly. ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTIONS Electrodynamics is the study of charged particles and their associated electrical and magnetic ﬁeld interactions. experience a mutual force.Or. f O2 .
propagation in the plasma. accounting for the electrical conductivity of metals ar room temperatures and lower. Frequencies below the plasma frequency are not supported by the plasma. The binary collisional frequency falls off with temperature. fueled study of the complex mechanisms attending plasma interactions. other higher frequency processes become more important with the collisional frequency suffering cutoff. and their motion can be neglected. ionized gases. Hence the magnetic force can only change direction of the moving charge. linear and nonlinear behavior. both the Coulomb and Ampere laws exhibit an inverse square dependence on the separation of source and ﬁeld point. Plasmas Plasma physics is the physics of ionized gases. as seen in the reﬂection of radio waves. excepting metals which are not plasmas. the charge balancing ions are heavy and sluggish compared to the electrons. The permanent properties of such materials are useful in magnetic devices. in which neighboring spins are aligned antiparallel. matter is in the plasma state if there are enough free electrons to provide a signiﬁcant electrical conductivity. or disturbance. while the magnetic force acts normal to the direction of motion. Plasmas in discharge tubes. are very hot and not very dense. Collisional ionization. Of the light sources in the universe.Magnetic materials have traditionally been considered as elements. Studies at the turn of the century of gas discharges and radio propagation off the ionosphere. Not until development of the electrical power industry were controlled experiments on ionized gases possible. Plasmas are hot. so plasma physics is some 100 years old. Metals such as iron. resulting in charge imbalance. and into the X-ray regime. alloys. λ. have subatmospheric densities on the whole. is the source of large numbers of free electrons in matter. just like the gravitational law. among electron magnetic moments or spins. Of course. as temperatures increase. This results from the collective nature of plasma interactions. Free electrons in a plasma emit photons when they collide with ions. or is less than. and waves cannot propagate. in which spins of two dissimilar atoms are aligned antiparallel. most are plasmas. the density of positive ions. Plasmas exhibit a state of matter in which a signiﬁcant number. independent of the temperature. cobalt. However. for instance. while manganese and chromium are antiferromagnetic.3=2 . only a small fraction of electrons need be free to meet this criterion. like T . The frequency is a limiting frequency. 49 . or compounds permitting ordered arrangements. Usually. that is. The electrical force acts in the direction of motion. the inertia of the electrons causes this balancing procedure to be oscillatory. in that it represents a cutoff for any oscillatory electromagnetic wave. such as computers and transformers. in a process called bremsstrahlung. along with impetus for controlled thermonuclear reaction programs in the 1950s. Practically speaking. When the density of negative electrons in a region exceeds. caused by energetic thermal motions of atoms at high temperature. not bound to an atom or molecule. occuring certainly at much higher temperatures than the gaseous state. off the ionosphere. but cannot do work on it. and wave and particle motions. wavelength. σ. whether ferrromagnetic or antiferromagnetic in the ﬁnal state. oddly enough. and nickel are ferromagnetic. ω. In describing plasmas quantitatively. The plasma state is the highest temperature state of matter. By comparison. if not all. with frequency. Interestingly. or ferrimagnetic. one must consider the collective motion of the free electrons. Waves incident on plasmas in which they cannot propagate are reﬂected. Large densities of free electrons are also found in metals at solid densities. for instance. antiferromagnetic. the temperature is also so high that only the plasma phase could exist. spread. 1 λ 1 000 microns : (110) Plasmas exhibit collisionless behavior. and is a relatively new science. Plasmas are quite luminous. On the cosmological scale. Most terrestrial plasmas. An essential difference between electric and magnetic interactions appears in the direction of the force. and when it drops below the plasma frequency. exhibiting ﬂuid turbulence and collective motion. Plasmas are complex. Net magnetic polarization can be ferromagnetic. in which all spins are aligned parallel. electric ﬁelds spontaneously develop restoring neutrality. or correlations. of the electrons are free. where the density is so high that it is called a stellar plasma independent of its temperature. The discovery of the solar wind and Van Allen radiation belts in the 1960s provided much data for integration of plasma theory and experiment. The spectrum of bremsstrahlung radiation produced spans the infrared to the ultraviolet. most of the matter in the universe is thought to reside in stellar interiors. The temperature necessary to induce a phase transition from an unordered magnetic state to a magnetically ordered state is the Curie temperature.
One focus is fusion energy production in thermonuclear fuels. D. neutron. scientists have pursued the dream of controlled thermonuclear fusion. Star birth occurs following a gravitational instability in interstellar dust clouds. certainly areas of investigation. with masses less than 4 times the solar mass. τ 1 sec. For magnetic conﬁnement fusion. magnetic ﬁelds. denoting deuterium. ion. and therefore. Both are tough problems technologically. from neutron capture on lithium). containing DT . and helium. Again. dying orb. For the past four decades. The fusion reaction with the highest cross mechanism. Stellar Evolution The sun is a star with nuclear furnace. with high energy light. usually die as white dwarfs (including the sun). Because seawater contains about 40 g of deuterium and 0. to a very hot. or sometimes enormous explosion (nova). or electron beams focused across the pellet. such that. may die as 50 . Most stars follow four steps of evolution. to a fuel depleted.10 sec. τ. Magnetic fusion uses very intense magnetic ﬁelds to squeeze a DT plasma to high enough temperatures and densities to ignite and sustain fusion burn. namely.3 . and stellar rotation are not included. External forces. nτ 1015 sec=cm3 : (112) Magnetic fusion operates in a regime. thermonuclear reactions occur. Development of an economically viable fusion reactor would literally give us the energy equivalent of oceans of oil. a dynamical contraction phase due to gravity against a counteracting pressure gradient.3 . up to about 8 solar masses. and about 1/5 barrel of oil in tritium fuel (with tritium produced. τ 10 . In such simpliﬁed approach. He. much research interest centers on economical means to exploit plasmas for energy production. A volume of seawater equal to the top meter of the oceans would yield enough fuel to power electrical generators for thousands of years at the present consumption rate. subjected to its own gravity while maintaining spherical symmetry throughout its evolution. such as deuterium and tritium. The attraction of this pursuit is the enormous energy potentially available in fusion fuels. because they are thought to burn carbon later in their evolution. called magnetic conﬁnement fusion (MCF) and inertial conﬁnement fusion (ICF). the star is assumed to be a gaseous sphere. Inertial fusion attempts the same by imploding small pellets.1 g of lithium per ton. that is. Fusion Energy Fusion processes in the solar plasma are responsible for energy radiated to the Earth. Temperatures near 3 keV (3:47 10 7 K o ) are necessary for plasma ignition and sustained thermonuclear burn.6 MeV of energy. neutron star. At sufﬁciently high densities and temperatures in the keV range. like countless others in the universe. > n + He (111) releasing some 17. or bred. gravitational contraction until thermonuclear ignition. lesser expansion due to fusion burn of heavier elements (helium). which keeps bathing the Earth with direct solar energy from fusion processes. With DT fuel. n 1025 cm. and dense. often determined by the material strength of the conﬁning vessel. but minor operational limitations in the interior furnace of the sun. releasing of large amounts of energy. tritium. To produce fusion reactions in a deuterium-tritium plasma. some 2 cal =min cm 2 . Lightweight stars. n 10 15 cm. the density is limited by the maximum magnetic ﬁeld strength that can be generated. and ﬁnal contraction (death) into a white dwarf. For inertial fusion. Two methods for producing controlled fusion are popular today. n. very high collisional temperatures are necessary to overcome the Coulomb repulsion between interacting nuclei. and the plasma must be conﬁned for long time scales so that many fusion collision reactions can take place to make the process economically feasible. T . D + T . Middleweight stars. so that.In the laboratory. these are tough technological constraints in the Earth laboratory. from a contracting protostar in interstellar dust. radiating plasma. Inertial fusion relies on the mass of the imploding target to provide conﬁnement. much like the equations of hydrodynamics. and the widely held view of fusion as a safe and clean energy source. or black hole (depending on stellar mass) as thermonuclear fuel is depleted. expansion due to fusion burn of light elements (hydrogen). and fuel particle densities. ˜ both processes require fuel temperatures in excess of 10 8 K o . n. every barrel of seawater contains the energy equivalent of almost 30 barrels of oil in deuterium fuel. The evolution of nominal stars is detailed by four differential equations in space and time. and conﬁnement times.
may also explode. with weak and electromagnetic interactions. neutrons. and repetitions form the basis of diving tables and schedules. but a modern focus has been the latter three. While such interactions on the cosmological scale are beyond imagination. weak. while half integer spin hadrons are baryons. and gravitational. Treatment consists of recompression. Matter densities in such stellar objects are enormous. the so called strong. and hadron decay into leptons and photons. and their antiparticles. and circulatory systems adversely. 10 36 : 1022 : 1010 : 1. pa ) exp (. are thought to trigger a complex chain of physico-chemical reactions in the body. kaons. veins. The long range forces of gravity and electromagnetism account for large scale macroscopic phenomena. lymphatics) and extravascular (intracellular. Information has been integrated in a consistent picture of elementary particle interactions. p . reducing size. that is. such as gas uptake and elimination in the tissues and blood. pa) ∂t with perfusion limited solutions. Neutrinos are massless. acccording to general relativity. Heavyweight stars. Strategic introduction of oxygen can also aid in the washing out of inert gases during decompression. time. assuming gas exchange is controlled by perfusion (blood ﬂow rate) in blood-tissue media. Integer spin hadrons are mesons. namely. and their antiparticles. presence of preformed nuclei. or some related form of free gas phase. The past 40 years have witnessed an explosion of experimental particle data.511 MeV (electron) possibly up to 1. there exist interactions that are up to 10 3 6 stronger than the gravitational forces compressing massive stellar objects. affecting the pulmonary. ∂( p . Increasing ambient pressure tends to shrink the bubbles by Boyle’s law. like planetary attraction and charged particle scattering. essentially compressed neutrons. strong. DIVE TABLES AND METERS Decompression sickness results from excessive changes in ambient pressure over a particular period of time. pa = ( pi . To prevent decompression sickness.λt ) 51 (114) = . amount of pressure reduction. Elementary Particle Interactions Stellar interactions of enormous proportions are driven mainly by gravity. Elementary particle physics deals with all four at a fundamental level. The short range strong and weak forces account for microscopic phenomena. Hadrons include protons. short lived resonances. Masses typically range from . Many factors are relevant to the formation of bubbles. and electromagnetic forces. gas solubility and diffusivity. Particles are classiﬁed in distinct categories. including weak and electromagnetic. pa) (113) . are called leptons. beyond 8 solar masses. but can degenerate (burn) into cold neutron stars or black holes. weak. gathered from high energy accelerators and outer space. neutrinos. extracellular) sites upon decompression. Bubbles have been found in intravascular (arteries. electromagnetic. Meson numbers are not.λ( p . Particles of spin 1/2. Particles with strong interactions.white dwarfs. Baryon numbers are conserved in all interactions. pions. temperature. and dissolve bubbles by increasing constrictive surface tension pressure. appropriate diving measures limiting depth. bubbles. so strong that light emerging from within is completely trapped by gravity. tending to collapse them. Leptons include electrons. weak. supported against gravitational collapse by neutron degeneracy (quantum exclusion limit) pressure. more recently encoded into digital underwater computers. are called hadrons. Haldane Model Haldane models limit degrees of tissue supersaturation. Strengths of the fundamental forces inversely as their ranges. With simple decompression sickness. usually in a hyperbaric chamber with controlled application of ambient pressure. tissue vascularity and type. and electromagnetic interactions. and individual susceptibility. breathing mixture. Exchange of inert gas is driven by the local gradient. muons. or possibly explode as nova and supernova.800 MeV (τ lepton). radioactive nuclear transmutation. the difference between the arterial blood and local tissue tension. Neutron stars are very dense objects. and roughly in the ratio. strong. while black holes are collapsed gravitational ﬁelds. such as nucleon binding.200 Mev (short lived resonances). Masses of hadrons range from 135 MeV (pion) up to as high as 10. neurological. in order. on the order of tons=cm 3.
A one-to-one correspondence between compartments and speciﬁc anatomical entities is neither established. sets of critical tensions for nitrogen can be employed for other gases directly. inert gas uptake and elimination proceed much more rapidly. For large values of τ.26 1. However. and. particularly venous gas emboli. Critical Tensions Haldane theory limits degrees of dissolved gas buildup. trial and error bootstrapping of model equations to observed exposure time limits. M = M0 + ∆Md (117) for surfacing critical tension. are the essential elements of the Haldane approach. pa . Equivalently. Ai and A j . Critical parameters evolved from self consistent application of assumed tissue response to sets of exposure data. according to. Compartments with 2. atomic mass numbers. M. In this way. Decay constants for different gases. and pi the instantaneous. 5. The USN set are retabulated in Table 14 under appropriate headings. hypothetically absolute compartment supersaturation.19 The above set (Table 14) can be approximated by the ﬁt relationship. or agglutination of red blood cells in reaction to foreign bubbles would have similar effect on local perfusion rates. Classical US Navy Surfacing Ratios And Critical Tensions. Decay constants for lighter gases are thus greater than those for heavier gases. Diffusion may dominate in certain tissue types.15 2. Bubbles in the interstitial areas. and critical gradients. and change per depth.55 critical tension M0 ( f sw) 104 88 72 58 52 51 tension change ∆M 2. G are also employed. M = 152:7τ. arterial. Actually. M. simply a mobility effect. nor implied. 360.27 2. halftimes for uptake are then theoretically shorter than halftimes for elimination. The rate of uptake and elimination of inert gas is symmetric the same set of tissue halftimes are employed in calculations.67 1. render gas uptake and elimination asymmetric.67 2. are employed in applications today. Critical tensions.58 1.λ= : 693 τ (115) for p. 20. that is. tissue uptake and elimination of inert gas is relatively slow according to the response function. using nitrogen constants (tissue halftimes) scaled by the above. 40. 10. for P ambient pressure. and 480 min halftimes. are related by Graham’s law. τ. generally increase linearily with depth.1=4 + 3:25τ. gas uptake and elimination in all tissues is not controlled just by perfusion. regions with lesser vascularity and greater distance between capillaries. both perfusion and diffusion are rate limiting. along with previously mentioned exponential tissue functions. Microbubbles in the circulatory system. critical ratios.18 1. this is not always the case. λi and λ j . 122 M 36 f sw. halftime τ (min) 5 10 20 40 80 120 critical ratio R0 3. In such instances. having a range. and τ the assumed tissue halftime. Critical tensions extracted by Workman and Buhlmann for arbitrary compartments are well known. M0 . Table 14.1=4d 52 (118) . by critical values. and initial tensions.01 1.76 1. with the R = M =P and G = M . and halftimes are assumed to be independent of pressure. d. ∆M.34 1. 240. such as bone and spinal cord. P. In others. R. 120. notably of American origin. 80. Newer compilations ultimately extend older ones in like manner. For small values of τ. λ jA j 1=2 1=2 = λ i Ai (116) with.
less stable gas seeds for possible excitation and growth into bubbles. also by the adjectives. When coupled to slow ascent rates and safety stops. providing rapid estimates of any model parameter. Considering utility and functionality. exposures can be treated in this manner. with the 120 min compartment (the slowest) controlling repetitive activity. meter usage should increase in diving. and all. surface interval before ﬂying. The Swiss tables. Then it is possible to account for desaturation during any arbitrary surface interval. Dives between 200 and 300 f sw were tested and reported in the exceptional exposure US Navy tables. a Surface Interval Table. Proﬁles can be stored for later analysis. meters can easily compute time remaining before decompression. Beyond that silent bubbles may retard nitrogen elimination. algorithmic sophistication. Such facts have been veriﬁed in the laboratory. helium-oxygen-nitrogen (trimix). or R and G. for each 2 f sw over 33 f sw. digital meters can monitor diving almost continuously. appears in Figure 15. Altitude Procedures Present diving schedules are based to large extent on the model discussed in the foregoing. Such procedures are bases for the US Navy Air Decompression and Repetitive Surface Interval Tables. Standard US Navy Tables provide safe procedures for dives up to 190 f sw for 60 min. Larger bubbles possess smaller constricting surface tensions. A to O. the Swiss tables are formulated and tested over a range of reduced ambient pressure. Breathing pure oxygen before ascent helps to protect against decompression sickness by washing out nitrogen. digital meters are capable of much more than table recitations. and indeed such devices exist. including a 240 min compartment. Up to about 18. computer usage has witnessed a very low incidence rate of decompression sickness. are never compromised. that is more conservative than some of the linear M extrapolations of the recent past. constant at altitude. A set of US Navy Tables. While it is true that the table procedures just described are quite easily encoded in digital meters. but with a notable exception. constraining activities so that M.01% according to some reports. Nucleation theory also suggests that critical radii increase with decreasing pressure. accounting for 2 f sw incremental drops in tensions in the slowest compartment. and recent mixtures with some hydrogen (hydrox). as well as an expanding user community. and optimal ascent procedure. and the resulting data bank used to tune and improve models and procedures. Such similarity will force M to decrease 53 . To credit outgassing.with d the depth ( f sw). The controlling repetitive tissue in the Buhlmann compilation is the 635 min compartment. groups combinations of depth and exposure times according to the surfacing tension in the slowest compartment. Any. hypobaric and hyperbaric. Simple bubble mechanics suggest that bubble excitation and growth are enhanced as ambient pressure decreases. Decompression studies developed separately above and below sea level. R. So called penalty time is then added to actual dive time to updated appropriate tissue tensions. and general acceptance. requiring some safe extrapolation procedure to altitude. and will thus grow faster in conducive situations. such procedure offers a considerable degree of protection. compiled by Buhlmann. Table And Meter Algorithms Considering only dissolved gases. Hypobaric (aerial) decompression differs from routine hyperbaric (underwater) decompression because the blood and tissues are equilibrated (saturated) with nitrogen ambient pressure before ascent. referenced as aerial and underwater decompression. holds the ratios. When model equations can be inverted in time. is also constructed. An approach to altitude diving. supported by technological advance in computing power. and are compounded with increasing nitrogen tension upon surfacing at reduced atmospheric pressure. incorporate the same basic procedures. and follow from simple bubble theory. While the US Navy tables were constructed for sea level usage. one standard table approach. Pulsing depth and pressure at short intervals. Certainly the same considerations confront the diver at altitude. meters provide additional means to control and safety beyond table lookup. with reduced nonstop limits. Similar approaches focusing on deep and saturation diving have resulted in decompression tables for helium-oxygen (heliox). and so decompression problems are theoretically exacerbated by altitude. Surfacing tensions in excess of 33 f sw (absolute) in the slowest compartment are assigned letter designations (groups). When employing the exact same algorithms as tables. forcing altitude exposures to be similar to sea level exposures. developed by Workman. though Statistics point to an enviable track record of decompression meter usage in nominal diving activities.000 f t. offering larger. The remaining excess nitrogen at the start of the next dive can always be converted into equivalent time spent at the deepest point of the dive. time at a stop. below 0.
is straightforward. The effect on ascent rate or stop level is not on the conservative side. correction factors are only applied to underwater depths.000 5. that is.000 9. while all times remain unchanged. called altitude correction factors. wrist altimeters facilitate rapid.000 8. z.45 penalty group on arrival at altitude permissible group for ascension to altitude A B B C D E E F G H L K J I H G F E D C The similarity rule for altitude table modiﬁcation. As described and seen in Table 4. inverses actually. because the correction decreases equivalent depth by 3%.exponentially with increasing altitude. or change z ( f t) 0 1. time is measured directly.5 23. Neglecting the 3% density correction is conservative. Whenever salt water tables are used directly in fresh water at sea level. keeping R constant with commensurate exponential reduction in the ambient pressure. ranging to 10. that is. certainly not heavy repetitive.5 27.000 f t uses a depth correction of 72 f sw. altitude.975 a conservative convenience. Today. Table 15. α.000 f t. Table 15 lists altitude factors at various altitudes. a diver at 60 f sw at an elevation of 5.00 1.000 6.000 f t. P and α are reciprocally related. Ascent rates are always less than 60 f sw=min. 54 . precise estimation of α on site. applying correction factors to depths.6 22. α 1 + :0381 h. Here the 3% density difference between salt and fresh water is neglected.0 31.8 29.000 4. Convert all table sea level stops and ascent rates back to actual altitude through division by β.5 25. and a stop at 10 f sw at sea level translates to 8 f sw. multiplied by the speciﬁc density of fresh water. Convert depths at altitude to sea level equivalent depths through multiplication by β. and stops. nor saturation exposures.24 1. R. of sea level atmospheric pressure to altitude atmospheric pressure. The higher one ascends to dive.7 28. and one of minimal impact on these factors.34 1. A capillary gauge at altitude performs these depth calculations automatically.39 1. the deeper is his relative exposure in terms of sea level equivalent depth.29 1. Recent analyses of high altitude aviator experiments also support the concept of constant tissue ratios for permissible decompressions. and so the approach is not without basis.7 correction factor α 1.000 f t elevation. decompression.16 1. Actual depths at altitude are multiplied by factors. Up to about 7.000 2. taking β = 1:2.20 1.11 1.000 10. ascent rates.9 30.000 atmospheric pressure Ph ( f sw) 33. β. The sought ratio constancy. but is so small that it can be neglected in calculations anyway. at altitude induces a necessary scaling of actual depth to sea level equivalent depth for table entry.000 3. Thus. the density difference is usually neglected. Corresponding ascent rate is 50 f sw=min. with h measured in multiples of 1. Again. and are always greater than one. and on the ﬂy. Altitude Correction Factors And US Navy Altitude Groups.07 1.04 1. β=η P0 Ph = ηα (119) with operational neglect of the speciﬁc density scaling by . P. which are just the ratios.5 26. while stops are always less than at sea level. They can also be estimated from the barometer equation.000 7.4 24. Constant R extrapolations of this sort should be conﬁned to nominal diving activities. z = 1000 h.
supercomputers were ﬁrst used in weather forecasting. high resolution graphics servers. statistics. offer an expeditious means to assess output data. in terms of a nominal 1965 minicomputer. Notable advances in reduced instruction set computer technology. subtracts. Reducing memory requirements in storing computer programs is a prime CISC concern. In 1945. 109 adds. Efﬁcient structuring of all the components (platform) supporting computing. physically marked by the rapid changing of building blocks from relays and vacuum tubes (40s and 50s). user interfaces. controlling.COMPUTING Computing technology has made incredible progress in the past 50 years. brain tomography and imaging. while performance growth rate for microcomputers is closer to 35% per year. Supercomputers and mainframes are usually employed in high end. equipment. Latencies develop at the nodes connecting various computer. interconnecting networks. minicomputers. In the not distant future. and biomodeling. ranging from one to tens of millions of dollars. but applications are growing. while faster instruction execution is the RISC concern. conditions termed latencies. while in the 1960s. Increases in performance of computers are sketched in Figure 14. involving thousands of processors processing trillions of data points. able to process voluminous amounts of information. Today. and more disk storage than a million dollar computer in 1965. and peripheral devices. and semiconductor fabrication joined the supercomputing revolution. computational ﬂuid dynamics problems in the aerospace industry were solved on supercomputers. and environments. along ith substantial decrease in disk and memory costs. to discrete diodes and transistors (50s and 60s). Over the past four decades. biggest. graphics servers. that is. Latencies are parasitic to sustained computing performance. materials and drug design. To support these raw computing speeds. compilers. but often in more diverse roles and applications. ranging from a few to tens of thousands of dollars. Workstation clusters and mainframe parallel computers 55 . operating systems. divers. circuit layout. database banks. In the 1970s. is an essential ingredient in modern systems. The label supercomputer usually refers to the fastest. or divides per second. storage. general purpose. Performance growth rates for supercomputers. a few thousand dollars will purchase a desktop personal computer with more performance. Very few areas in science and engineering have not been impacted by supercomputers. Differences in raw processing speeds between various components in a high performance computing environment can degrade overall throughput. and graphics devices. have led many to consider workstation clusters for running parallel programs. Today. while microprocessors are the least expensive. In the 1950s. terminal. Increases in device speed and reliability. simply because of impedance mismatch in data handling capabilities. econometric modeling. and mainframes are near 20% per year. These machines will probably be massively parallel computers. supercomputers were employed in the design of nuclear weapons (as still today). to large and very large scale integrated (LSI/VSLI) devices (70s and beyond). or reduced instruction set computers (RISC). have greatly enhanced computer performance. opening yet another age in computational science. global climate and ocean circulation modeling. more memory. or simply. and fast storage exchanging terabytes of information over simulation times are also requisite. The latter class of computers is usually more portable. Minicomputers and microprocessors address the same functionality. and most powerful computer in existence at any time. manifest time delays in processing data. compute intensive applications. This rapid rate of improvement has come from advances in technology used to build the computer and from innovation in computer design. Supercomputers are the most expensive. quantum ﬁeld theory. structural analysis of buildings and vehicles. In the 1940s. directing. there were no stored program computers. But device hardware is not the sole factor contributing to high performance computing. to small and medium scale integrated (SSI/MSI) circuits (60s and 70s). particularly in the areas dive proﬁle analysis. Computers today are categorized as complex instruction set computers (CISC). oil reservoir simulation. such as memories. and analyzing dives. Smaller and less powerful computers are now employed for monitoring. Larger mainframes usually employ CISC technology. molecular dynamics. and 1990s seismological data processing. supercomputers process data and perform calculations at rates of 10 9 ﬂoating point operations per second (giga f lops). networks transmitting data at gigabits per second. data management. communications channels. Diving is still on the fringes of supercomputing. network. Ultrafast. while more recent workstations employ RISC technology. the computer industry has experienced four generations of development. 1012 ﬂoating point operations per second (tera f lops) will be reached. multiplies. and reductions in hardware cost and physical size. software. 1980s. because they are generally smaller in size.
computers work on processing information. Studies of clusters suggest minimal latencies in the few millisecond range. that is. a network must possess four attributes: 1. is termed serial. software developments on future state of the art supercomputers will probably trail hardware advances. with anywhere from tens to thousands of central processing units (CPUs). Supercomputers without high speed communications and network interfaces are degraded in application processing speed. and fetching and storing data in steps. or group of entities (numbers). large capacity storage devices that are directly connected to a high speed network. Disk devices are used to meet high speed and fast access requirements. is roughly termed parallel. and to oversee data transfer. 3. by any number of processors. people. To perform as a utility. microwaves. Today. or vector. resulting in performance speedups by factors of ten or more (compared to generational improvements on the order of 2 or 3). image. A typical large application will generate from tens of gigabytes up to several terabytes of data. or vectors. usefully communicate anything. New high performance data systems (HPDS) are needed to meet the very large data storage and data handling Systems consist of fast. to get more information through a network. parallel supercomputing was introduced. Serial And Parallel Processors Obviously. that is. connectivity – ability to move information regardless of the diversity of the media. Mainframe parallel processors exhibit substantially better message passing capabilities. The architectural feature associated with supercomputers in the 1970s was vector processing. Processors themselves can be scalar. are now being replaced by parallel computing architectures. Computer systems use a hierarchy to manage information storage: 56 . ﬁber optics. Networks And Storage Networks are the backbone of modern computer systems. doing calculations. Clusters are limited by slower interconnection speeds and higher message latencies. signiﬁcantly greater computing parallelism (combining tens of thousands of processing units perhaps). and managed by software distributed across workstations. such as numeric and symbolic processing. The greater the number of systems. As in the past. anywhere. interoperability – ability of diverse intelligent devices to communicate with one another. perhaps with increasing distance due to increasingly more complex superparallel systems. The assumption is that all information transmitted will be digital. large memory computers. Such requirements are one to two orders of magnitude greater than the capacities of present generation storage devices.have signiﬁcantly different network characteristics. By the end of the century. voice. and satellites. 4. Vector processing allowed large groups of numbers. In the early 1980s. and resources across different computing platforms. including wire. distributed applications and connective services – ability to provide easy access to tools. and/or increase the amount that can ﬂow through cross sectional area (bandwidth). Storage devices usually have a dedicated workstation for storage and device management. Gigaﬂop computers need gigabit =sec network transmission speeds to expedite the ﬂow of information. Applications under development today presage the needs to transfer data very quickly tomorrow. while tape devices are employed to meet high speed and high capacity requirements. operating on a single entity. in the few microsecond range. may be possible. the greater the speeds and bandwidths required. Like water in a pipe. and architectures that integrate modalities. data. one can increase the rate of ﬂow (speed). Advances in massively parallel. and processes that need to transmit information to one another. manageability – ability to be monitored. once the standard. Serial computing architectures. data. and full motion video can be digitally encoded. anytime. and to change with applications and devices. allowing multiple processors to work concurrently on a single problem. limited by the slowest component in the computing platform. Choice of cluster or mainframe is often an economic decision by the computer consumer. to be processed in parallel. A set of operations performed in any fashion. performed in sequential fashion by one processor. or organizations. A set of operations. and sent across a variety of physical media. 2. and high speed networks have created computing platforms allowing researchers to execute supercodes that generate enormous amounts of data.
015 . listing ﬂoating point operations. Although Monte Carlo is typically used to simulate a random process. access time goes up.001 109 . Grand Challenge Problems Grand Challenge problems are computational problems requiring the fastest computers. and problems whose solutions will have tremendous impact on the economic well being of the United States. global climate modeling. geomagnetic ﬁeld generation. HIV correlations. direct access storage – magnetic or optical disks. The computational speed and memory capacity of supercomputers have expedited solutions of difﬁcult physical and mathematical problems with Monte Carlo statistical trials. coupled to statistical sampling. high impact deformation and ﬂow. As a reference point. storage capacity increases. providing fast access. porous ﬂow in oil bearing substrates. sequential access storage – magnetic tape cassettes or microﬁlm. computer memory. and breadth of application. Moving down the hierarchy. the 6 million volumes in the Library Of Congress represent some 6 terabytes of information. and data storage requirements. 57 . 2. 3. materials by computer design. Vortices in combustion engines. providing large capacity. solid state memory contained in the processor. Table 16. brain tomography. On future generation supercomputers. The scale of computational effort for nominal Grand Challenge problems can be gleaned from Table 16. Monte Carlo methods play a special role because of their combination of immediacy. ﬂuid turbulence. it is frequently applied to problems without immediate probabilistic interpretation. the Thinking Machines Corporation (TMC) massively parallel supercomputer. In computational science. and storage devices in existence. thus serving as a useful computation tool in all areas of scientiﬁc endeavor. operations problem porous media ductile material description 3D immisicible ﬂow 3D molecular dynamics 3D material hydro numerical tokamak century circulation 3D rendering lattice QCD (giga f lops) memory (terabytes) storage (terabytes) 109 1 4 109 109 . global convection of tectonic plates.008 Monte Carlo Methods Monte Carlo calculations explicitly employ random variates. three dimensional seismic imaging. ductile and brittle fracture of materials under stress. ocean and atmospheric circulation. to simulate physical processes and perform numerical integrations. networks. The simulations listed in Table 6 run for a week on the CM5. primary storage – fast. Grand Challenge Computing Requirements.1. simulation times are expected to drop to hours.30 1 3 20 plasma physics global ocean brain topology quantum dynamics 109 1 100 108 4 20 10 6 .008 . air and groundwater pollution. connected to the processor. elastic-plastic ﬂow. power. and costs decrease. and many others are just such problems.
This generally includes a description of the geometrical boundaries of regions. increases with number of events generated. Popular techniques are splitting and Russian roulette. The constant. the importance ratio. supercomputers. a description of material composition within each region. Sampling schemes often employ biasing to reduce variance. and T the temperature. A random variable on the interval. Russian roulette and splitting (together) are a special case of exponential biasing. ζ. the ratio is less than one. with w the weight of the incoming particles. for bubble radius. In the limit of inﬁnitely many splitting boundaries. and hard to abuse. is adjusted to bias events which reduce variance. helpful in estimating the variance of scored quantities. When a particle of weight. I = exp (αx). because the numbers of events increase and the variance is reduced. and the particle is split into µ = In+1 =In identical particles. Particles either survive with probability. In+1 =In . each cell of a geometric region can be assigned an importance. Simple to use. In addition to large number. In entering regions very important to physical simulations. Such cavitation simulations can be applied to multiphase ﬂow in reactor vessels. α.4πγr2 =3kT )dr 3kT (120) ζ 1. µ. µ. event generation. that is. Statistically. in terms of the random variable. A stochastic model. dG = 8πγ r exp (. G. When splitting and Russian roulette are combined. assumed to increase monotonically with penetration. via. 1 . Russian roulette is employed.The Monte Carlo method is different than other techniques in numerical analysis. w=µ. Biasing means sampling the most important region of a problem. P. Cavitation nuclei are generated from the instantaneous Gibbs probability. r. n. as a function of nuclei radius. dG. and the relative probability function for an event. Z 8πγ r ζ= x exp (. with γ the liquid-vapor surface tension. numerical solution estimates are obtained. If the ratio is is greater than one. w. coalesced with each other on collision. In complex geometries. The importance of a region is assigned the value. n + 1. allowed to move with surrounding ﬂuid. and boiling processes in general. by sampling from appropriate probability distributions. cavitation around ship propellors. w=µ. r. p. cloud condensation processes in the atmosphere. In actual simulations. for ambient pressure. and the statistics are improved. splitting and Russian roulette are widely used variance reduction schemes. which may or may not be immediately obvious. Weight is clearly preserved by the process. 0 permits the instantaneous probability function to be sampled easily. and rapid. is constructed. and removed at external boundaries. with x the penetration distance. measured by the variance. bubbles in tissue and blood. the distribution of sample means itself is normally distributed about the true mean. while reﬂecting possible exponential physical behavior as well. in the absence of analytic means. the accuracy of the simulation. and. can economically invert the probability integral relating event and probability. of course.4πγx2 =3kT )dx 3kT 0 (121) when inverted analytically. enters the region. is seen in the exponential transformation. Surrounded by dissolved gas at tension. All that is required for the simulation of the cumulative history is a probabilistic description of what happens at each point in the history. from region. the true mean is usually unknown. as the number of sample sizes increases. with. and assigned weights. the particle is entering a cell of greater importance. µ = I n+1 =In < 1. millions of events can be generated rapidily to provide simulation of the processes deﬁned by the probability function. but the central limit theorem tells us that. bubbles can be generated and tracked through growth and collapse cycles in time. or are destroyed with probability. tend to acquire the same weights. each with weight. I. particles are split into µ identical particles. With high speed computers. as a sampling probability. afﬁxing a weight factor to any event to correct for distortion in the sampling scheme. Monte Carlo methods can be applied to generate bubbles in tissue and blood using the thermodynamical Gibbs free energy. cosmic ray tracking in detector chambers. When the importance decreases. is examined. 58 . I. Monte Carlo calculations are then performed by simulating the physics at each point in an event sequence. Another approach. because of the use of random sampling to obtain solutions to mathematical and physical problems. than particles in a region of importance. or numerically. coupled to increasing the numbers of particles and adjusting weights in regions of increasing importance.
the use of pharmacological agents. At greater depths. the major constituent of the body. with embolism also included in the categorization. Most believe that bends symptoms follow formation of bubbles. like so many other pressure related afﬂictions. Skin DCI is not considered serious enough for hyperbaric treatment. after decompression. and joint (articular) assemblies. Bends Clinical manifestations of decompression sickness. linked to ambient pressure changes. nausea. Neurogenic pain is localized at remote limb sites. though usually reversibly. ﬁrst. Pulmonary DCI manifests itself as a sore throat with paroxysmal cough upon deep inspiration. plasma loss. oxygen may. 2. staged compressions. shifting between different tissue compartments. A cursory discussion of some maladies and drugs then follows. Joint DCI is a common form of mild bends. The bubble problem has been long discussed. Bubbles in the bone have been proposed as the cause of both dull aching pain and bone death. and a sense of localized heat. shunted venous gas emboli (VGE that pass through the pulmonary circulation and enter the arterial circulation). Doppler bubble and other detection technologies suggest that: 1. High Pressure Nervous Syndrome Hydrostatic pressure changes. bubbles are also common following decompression. and stationary. particularly in the several hundred atm range. and skin DCI. requiring a recompression chamber and various hyperbaric treatment schedules depending on the severity of the symptoms. or decompression illness (DCI). cramps. moving and stationary bubbles do occur following decompression. can cause a number of disorders. the risk of decompression sickness increases with the magnitude of detected bubbles and emboli. Recompression is usually performed in a double lock hyperbaric chamber.DIVING MALADIES AND DRUGS Diving has its own brand of medical complications.100 f sw. and spinal cord. but local pain can persist for a few days. be administered to washout inert gas and facilitate breathing. affecting the nervous (neurogenic). experience coarse tremors and other neurological disorders termed high pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS). can be categorized as pulmonary. and bubbles are some. Although HPNS can be avoided by slowing the compression rate. some nitrogen in the breathing mixture. extravascular (autochthonous) bubbles. with the patient taken to a series of levels to mitigate pain. the biophysical evolution of the gas phase is incompletely understood. hemoconcentration. location. or silent. or may not. a condition collectively called the chokes. especially the chokes. symptomless. 3. Rapidly compressed divers. breathing helium. usually without apparent cerebral or spinal involvment. and is also a crucial element in preventative analysis. venous gas emboli. the variability in gas phase formation is likely less than the variability in symptom generation. near 800 f sw. Chokes is seen often in severe high altitude exposures. bone marrow (medullar). Expanding extravascular bubbles have been implicated in the mechanical distortion of sensory nerve endings. followed by severe chest pain. Under rapid pressure 59 . a few of the common medical problems associated with compression-decompression and diving follow. the rate needs to be substantially reduced for compressions below 1. Gas phase formation is the single most important element in understanding decompression sickness. through arterial gas emboli. joint. Treatment of decompression sickness is an involved process. and then possibly as deep as 165 f sw for treatment. but we can start off by summarizing a few concensus opinions concerning decompression sickness. and warming have been useful in ameliorating HPNS in operational deep diving. Skin DCI manifests itself as itching. alcohol. and vomiting often accompany the tremor. Water. and difﬁcult respiration. While the underlying mechanisms of HPNS are not well understood. dizziness. or the gas phase. as summarized by Vann. 4. central nervous system activity. For brief consideration. are capable of affecting. Neurological DCI affects the heart. brain. and initiating circumstance. Yet. All are linked to bubbles upon pressure reduction. Treatment of air embolism follows similar schedules. neurological. Depending on the depth of the treatment schedule. Mechanical disruption. Gas induced osmosis has been implicated as partially causative in high pressure nervous syndrome. rash. Blotchy purple patching of the skin has been noted to precede serious DCI. say 120 f sw=min to 600 f sw.
Exposure to depths greater than 300 f sw may result in loss of consciousness. air has been used as an anesthetic. Inert Gas Narcosis It is well known that men and animals exposed to hyperbaric environments exhibit symptoms of intoxication. The biochemistry of anesthetics and narcosis in divers has not. and those undergoing hyperbaric oxygen treatment. obviously. like a bulk phase. while contributory to the chain of reactions according to measurements. and neon. hypoxia (low oxygen tension). the actual mechanism and underlying sequence is unknown. and at sufﬁciently great pressure. fatigue. The effect. The condition is known as oxygen toxicity. just as with inert gas narcosis. in two forms. work level. can have a deleterious effect on divers. convulsions develop in high pressure oxygen toxicity (Bert effect). high oxygen tensions. One hypothesis envisions anesthetics interacting with hydrophobic surfaces and interfaces of lipid tissue. The signs and symptoms of inert gas narcosis have manifest similarity with alcohol. Elevated oxygen levels interfere with the enzyme chemistry linked to cell metabolism. But. such as alcohol. anesthetically blocked ion exchange at the cellular interface. though varying in their potency and threshold hyperbaric pressures. still today. difﬁculty hearing and ringing. inducing balancing. however.5 atm. These substances depress central nervous system activity in a manner altogether different from centrally active drugs. The anesthetic aspects of narcosis are unquestioned in most medical circles. aviators. difﬁculty breathing and taking deep breaths. a tissue debt (hypoxia) develops. is not isolated to air mixtures (nitrogen and oxygen). The potency and latency of both relate to the stability of gas hydrates composing most anesthetics. Reduced metabolic and electrolytic transport across neuronal membranes has been implicated as a causative mechanism The role of carbon dioxide. Low pressure pressure oxygen toxicity (Lorraine Smith effect) occurs when roughly a 50% oxygen mixture is breathed for many hours near 1 atm. On the other hand. ranging from inert gases to chloroform and ether. Other factors besides pressure potentiate symptoms. Physicochemical theories of anesthetics divide in two. followed ultimtely by unconsciousness. Combinations of elevated pressure. At higher partial pressures. and coordination problems. Anesthetics have no real chemical structure associated with their potency. but counter. been unraveled. Early symptoms of oxygen poisioning include muscualr twitching (face and lips). Deep breathing and hyperventilation can also forestall convulsions if initiated at the earliest sign of symptoms. producing lung irritation and inﬂammation. Oxygen toxicity portends another very complex biochemical condition. and anesthesia. temperature.changes. and was ﬁrst observed. krypton. similar to elevated inert gas tensions. Convulsions are the most serious manifestation of oxygen poisioning. Many factors are thought contributory to narcosis. Anesthesia can be induced by a wide variety of chemically passive substances. and reduced hemoglobin capacity have all been indicted as culprits. and individual susceptibility. tunnel vision. The other postulates anesthetic action in the aqueous phases of the central nervous system. Individual susceptibility to narcosis varies widely from individual to individual. it has been noted that only small increases in brain carbon dioxide correlate with severe symptoms of oxygen toxicity. ﬂuid pressure gradients (osmotic gradients). Both helium and hydrogen. The narcosis was ﬁrst noticed in subjects breathing compressed air as earlier as 1835. carbon dioxide retention. with varying impact 60 . Factors contributing to the onset of symptoms are degree of exertion. argon. confusion. Hyperoxia And Hypoxia Elevated oxygen tensions (hyperoxia). though subtle. gas concentrations across blood and tissue interfaces may not have sufﬁcient time to equilibrate. The strength of the osmotic gradient is proportional to the absolute pressure change. part in almost all compression-decompression afﬂictions. nausea. with latency time inversely proportional to pressure above 1 atm. When the tissues fail to receive enough oxygen. Carbon dioxide seems to play an important. simply called narcosis. depending on severity of symptoms. apprehension. as well as the noble (rare) gases such as xenon. reduced alveolar function. affords some level of adaptation. high inert gas tensions. in the ﬁnal quarter of the 1800s. Oxygen toxicity is not a problem whenever the oxygen partial pressures drop below . Breathing air at atmospheric pressure after the onset of oxygen toxicity symptoms can restore balance. and act on all neural pathways. Frequent exposure to depth with a breathing mixture. and gas solubility. amount of carbon dioxde retained and inspired. is not understood. cause the same signs and symptoms. and carbon dioxide levels. as with DCS. especially in the central nervous system.
and. weakness. in the extreme case. Obviously. with about 1 l of carbon dioxide produced for every 1 l of oxygen consumed. but cardiac function continues. rigidity. namely. consciousness can be lost in 30 seconds or less. air contained in body cavities expands. the urge to breathe may also be suppressed. If breathing has stopped. Oxygen levels are lowered because exertion causes oxygen to be used up faster. drowsiness. Carbon dioxide seems to be a factor in nearly every other compression-decompression malady. followed by muscle spasms. When oyxgen partial pressures drop below . permitting oxygen levels to drop even further. can produce weakness. faintness. Carbon dioxide affects the metabolic rate. Only relatively small changes in partial pressures of carbon dioxide can induce chain reactions in the three mechanisms. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be equally successful when both breathing and heart action have ceased. and. artiﬁcial respiration can stimulate the breathing control centers to functionality.10 atm. and hypoxia.and latency time on body tissue types. or altered diver metabolic function. hyperoxia. the long term effects following revival are inconsequential. and there are no problems. but the brain. However. If obstructions to air passage exist. When oxygen supply is cut. Hyperventilation (rapid and deep breathing) lowers the carbon dioxide levels. 61 . unconsciousness is extremely rapid. providing breathing has not stopped. with the commensurate drop in carbon dioxide tension. Barotrauma With pressure decrease. It is a direct product of metabolic processes. such as nitrogen and helium. narcosis. headache. and unconsciousness. nausea. chemical combination with alkaline buffers. and unconsciousness progress. Rising carbon dioxide tensions and falling oxygen tesnions trigger the breathing response mechanism. if fresh air is breathed. As partial pressures of carbon dioxide approach . Any process which lowers carbon dioxide levels in the body below normal (hypocapnia). starting with confusion and drowsiness. Hypercapnia And Hypocapnia Tissue carbon dioxide excess (hypercapnia) can result from inadequate ventilation. while euphoria. Although the nervous system itself represents less than 3% of body weight. it consumes some 20% of the oxygen inspired. and larger scale biological impact on gas exchange and related chemistry. The victim of hypoxia may be unaware of the problem. Hypoxia is a severe. including decompression sickness. The physical chemistry of carbon dioxide uptake and elimination is much more complex than that of inert gases. blurring of vision. the drop in the partial pressure of oxygen in the lungs may be sufﬁcient to stop the uptake of oxygen completely. Upon ascension. Carbon dioxide transport depends on three factors.10 atm. but also the sensitivity to carbon dioxide drops as oxygen tension drops. again. gas solubility. respiratory failure follows in about a minute. life threatening condition. Hypocapnia often results from hyperventilation. is the most susceptible. high gas densities. Transfer of inert gases follows simple laws of solubility (Henry’s law) in relation to partial pressures. Usually. Extended breathholding after hyperventilation can lead to a condition known as shallow water blackout. and irreparable damage to the brain and higher centers usually occurs in about 4 minutes. and sore chest muscles. Residual effects are minor. or the expanding air is retained. The respiratory system monitors both carbon dioxide and oxygen levels to stimulate breathing. Hypoxia can result with any interruption of oxygen transport to the tissues.02 atm pressure will increase breathing rate. symptoms of hypercapnia become severe. While the short term effects of both hypercapnia and hypocapnia can be disastrous in the water. Treatment in both cases is breathing standard air normally. The air we breathed contains only some . breathing dead spaces.05 atm pressure induces an uncomfortable sensation of shortness of breath. the brain is impacted the most. and high breathing resistance. drowning if consciousness is lost. such as headache. All tissues are affected by high levels of carbon dioxide. and carbon dioxide at . this expanding air vents freely and naturally. Blueness of the lips and skin results. Factors which increase the likelihood and severity of hypercapnia include corresponding high partial pressure of oxygen. recovery is equally as rapid. leading to hypocapnia. dizziness. oxygen tensions can fall to a very low level before a diver returns to the surface and resumes breathing.03% carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide at . and many other associated biochemical reactions. Following hyperventilation and during a longer breathholding dive. and diffusion between the cellular and plasma systems. as blood is unable to absorp enough oxygen to maintain its red color. unconsciousness. excess in the breathing mixtures.
thence.overexpansion problems. distortion of the shape of the local site supporting the pressure difference is the outcome. Gas trapped in the tissues about the heart and blood vessels. Pressure increases and decreases can be tolerated by the body when they are distributed uniformly. the venous ﬂow. The condition is exacerbated on ascent as gas trapped in tissues expands. with the intent of shrinking emboli in size. shock. while failure to accommodate equalization on ascent is called a reverse block. and then rupture. inducing cardiac arrhythmia. In all cases. and sometimes fainting. Altitude Sickness At altitudes greater than some 7. the ears. and also rupture the lining (pneumothorax). hyperbaric treatment is utilized. the gas may further expand on ascent. headache. Other areas may suffer similar damage. and change of voice are associated with subcutaneous emphysema. of the alveoli (air exchange sacs). along with thoracentesis. Problems with lung overexpansion can occur with pressure differentials as small as 5 f sw. Failure to accommodate equalization on descent is termed a squeeze. cyanosis. systemic circulation. Pressures in air spaces in the sinuses. and driving the air out of the emboli into solution. shock. Often the lungs collapse under the pressure. and anxiety ﬁrst. decreased partial pressures of oxygen can cause arterial hypoxemia. Newcomers to high altitude typically experience dyspnea (shortness of breath). can occur. When pressure differentials exist. hyperventilation occurs with secondary lowering of arterial carbon dioxide and production of alkalosis. In the case of the ear. and possibly lodging in the coronary and cerebral arterioles. for instance. it is the eustachian tube which does not permit air passage from the throat to the middle ear. slow descents and ascents are beneﬁcial in ameliorating squeeze and reverse block problems. the parietal pleura. and partial obstruction of the bronchial passageways. The most serious afﬂiction of pulmonary overpressure is the dispersion of air from the alveoli into the pulmonary venous circulation (arterial embolism). Symptoms include pain in the sternum.000 f t. middle air. with outside pressure greater than inside (air space) pressure. and circulatory and respiratory failure. and convulsions. can adversely impact the circulation. and teeth ﬁllings are often imbalanced during compressiondecompression. Although increased oxygen at depth 62 . outside pressure greater than inside pressure locally. into the heart. Symptoms disappear within a week. Symptoms of pneumothorax include sudden chest pain. To accommodate equalization when diving. headache. including dizziness. that is. If the bubbles migrate to the tissues beneath the skin (subcutaneous emphysema). The only treatment for air embolism is recompression in a hyperbaric chamber. insomnia. and malaise. Death can result from coronary or cerebral occlusion. sinuses. This distention can be exacerbated by breathholding on ascent or inadequate ventilation. Gas from ruptured alveoli may pass into the membrane lining the chest. In severe cases. and coughing of frothy blood. followed by unconsciousness. Clinical features of arterial gas embolism develop rapidly. rapid heart rate. Continuing to expand with further decrease in pressure. and vice versa. often a case accompanying mediastinal emphysema. Treatment consists of oxygen breathing. with inside pressure (air space) greater than ambient pressure. Though such complications can be very painful. One very serious overexpansion problem occurs in the lungs. The sinuses have very small openings which close under congestive circumstance. The amount of rupture and degree of bleeding is directly proportional to the pressure imbalance. particularly. teeth. after which continued overpressurization produces progressive distention. their presence causes a swelling of neck tissue and enhanced local pressure. When local pressure differentials develop because of inside and outside pressure imbalances. which accelerates tissue absorption of the air trapped in the neck region. shortness of breath. small openings in and around teeth ﬁllings complicate equalization of the air space under the ﬁlling (usually a bad ﬁlling). these emboli (bubbles) can block blood ﬂow to vital areas. The lungs can accommodate overexpansion to just a certain point. Feeling of fullness. Recompression is the indicated treatment for a concomitant condition. and other organs. Acclimimatization is usually lost within a week at lower altitudes. inhibiting air exchange. collectively called barotrauma. and push against the heart. Similarly. blood vessels will rupture in attempt to equalize pressure. Under hypoxic stimulation (low oxygen tension). and the trachea (mediastinal emphysema). they are usually not life threatening. Trapped in the intrapleural lining. and the intestines. conﬁned skin under a wetsuit. lungs. air must have free access into and out of these spaces during descent and ascent. no local pressure differentials exist. breathing difﬁculty. and general graded exercise may hasten acclimatization. Burst alveoli are one serious manifestation of the problem.
severe hyperthermia is life threatening. body fat. salt. Some feel that very high partial pressures of oxygen for prolonged periods is the ultimate culprit for bone lesions. Treatment requires immediate removal to lower altitude. and commercial diving industry suggest that some 8% of all divers exposed to pressures in the 300 f sw range exhibited bone damage. called hypothermia. afﬂiction. Cool water immersion is employed in severe cases. Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema (ﬂuid buildup in the lungs) can affect nonacclimatized individuals who travel within a day or two to elevations near. Replacement of body ﬂuids and reduction of body temperature are necessary in effective treatment of hyperthermia. Care in the choice of protective suit to conserve body heat. to coma. Affecting the long bones as secondary arthritis or collapsed surface joints. that is. And commercial divers continue to be at higher risk of osteonecrosis. to coma. as noted by its yearly toll on mountain climbers. shortness of breath. Pulmonary edema can be a serious. detected as altered bone density upon radiography. and then death. In itself. called hyperthermia. oxygen. But aseptic bone necrosis is a chronic complication about which we know little. leading to fat cell enlargement in more closed regions of the bone core. symptoms progress from profuse sweating.may be beneﬁcial. evidence of cough. Medical Research Council. especially with increasing levels of physical exertion. to muscle rigidity. and appropriate therapy. 10. even fatal. Rewarming in dry clothing is standard and obvious treatment.463 examined divers. but the usual treatment consists of ﬂuids. with the rate dependent upon body area. Severe hypothermia is a life threatening condition. habitats. the surface malaise often precludes diving until acclimatization. The facts. Shivering and a feeling of being very cold are ﬁrst symptoms of hypothermia. caffeine. inert gas reactivity. and the situation gets worse fast. hospitalization with rest. and good physical condition help to minimize hypothermia. communication. a condition that reduces blood ﬂow rate and probably increases local vulnerability to bubble growth. or tightness serves as a warning. are still not clear. some 357 out of 4. Rewarming at the earliest signs of hypothermia is prudent. to heat exhaustion. Like hypothermia. A month of graded exercise may be requisite. to heat stroke. and full body ventilation. dyspnea. Hypothermia And Hyperthermia Exposure to cold results in heat loss. No lesions were seen in divers whose exposures were limited to 100 f sw. and many others. and physical activity. compression and decompression. but diving rigors can precipitate pulmonary edema. 63 . all falling into an operational control category. lesions. As temperatures rise.000 f t. consisting of rasping cough. respiration and surface monitoring. lead to a progressive raising of temperatures in vital organs. Symptoms usually appear within 18 hrs after arrival. and diuretic therapy. Again. and alcohol are to be avoided. symptoms progress from shivering. however. Inadequate ventilation and body heat loss. Exercise always increases heat loss. attention to feelings of cold. At altitude. Statistics compiled in the early 1980s by the US Navy. usually in the presence of high environmental temperatures and low body ﬂuid levels. and then death. Symptoms might resemble the chokes (decompression sickness). Rapid treatment. oxygen levels. Exercise. As core temperatures drop. is recommended. Prevention includes adequate acclimatization and reduced levels of exertion. While more of a cold water problem. Hyperthermia can be avoided by proper attention to water intake and protection from environmental heat. Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Bone rot (dysbaric osteonecrosis) is an insidious disease of the long bones associated with repeated high pressure and saturation exposures. as well as ingestion of balanced electrolytes. temperature difference. problems which can be ameliorated through suitable application of sets of established diving protocols. increased oxygen partial pressures at depth are helpful. Environmental temperatures above body temperature are potentially hazardous. and possible pain in the chest. Dehydration is a contributing factor. insulation properties of wet or dry suit. Deep and saturation diving portend problems with temperature control in environmental suits. Royal Navy. to cramps. altitude sickness is not life threatening. hospitalization. to weakness. hypothermia can also occur in relatively warm and even tropical waters. are the suspected cause. including lower altitude. or above.
Another decongestant. such as f lexiril and robaxin. halcion. Bronchodilators. Antacids seem to have no noted adverse effects on divers. possibly exacerbated by other risk factors such as cold water. Many different types of drugs are utilized. sedation. and unpredictable as far as altered behavior with increasing pressure. and others. Diuretics. haldol. V = 60 f sw=min msw 3:28 f sw min 60 sec = : 305 msw=sec = 6:2 m 3 . having been described as potentiating. to f t 3 . Tradename drugs in this category. has no sedative effects. According to the diving medical community at large. Convert ascent rate. Antihistamines often produce drowsiness and decreased mental acuity. include theophylline and steroids. uniphyl. with some additional side effects of blurred vision and dry mouth. used in the treatment of asthma. using Tables and Figures for data.Drugs Very few studies have systematized the overall effects of drugs underwater. to msw=sec. Narcotics and hallucinogens. Muscle relaxants. V = 62 m3 3532 f t 3 m3 64 = 2189 f t 3 . diuresis. These drugs include metoprolol. Sedative and pain agents also alter mental function. Agents used in the treatment of depression or psychosis cause sedation. tradename drugs. Hypertension drugs can limit diving performance. Agents affecting heart rate and peripheral vasculature may cause drowsiness and reduce blood ﬂow capacity. scopolamine. d = 38 f sw. Side effects can be subtle and also variable. also possesses sedative properties. and cardiovascular stress on the more severe side. possibly compounding dehydration and electrolytic imbalance. and extreme neurological. or hydrocodone reduce mental and physical exercise capacity. vasodilatation. or nitrogen concentrations. additionally causing sedation. and have been noted to induce cardiac dysfunction. and dalmane. taken for ear and sinus relief. particularly newer ones. metaprel. particularly meclizine and dimenhydrate are often employed for motion sickness. oxygen. 1. hytrin. such as theodur. such as valium. r = 60 f sw=min. r 3. Anti-anxiety drugs. The skin patch drug. oxycodone. providing relief by constricting blood vessels. These drug products are typically antihistamines. Units are used interchangeably. Recent studies suggest that drug effects are compounded at increasing depth. induce drowsiness. to f t (fresh water). The (modiﬁed) USN Tables in Figure 15 should be employed for table applications. Drug utilization by divers is connected with medication used to ameliorate diving problems. are strong agents. Drugs addressing motion sickness may lead to functional motor impairment. medication used to treat illness. and heavy doses of caffeine have been linked to reduced mental and physical acuity. Convert depth. and ventolin can cause cardiac dysrhythmias and CNS impairment. Among the more common drugs used by divers are decongestants. Gastrointestinal drugs containing histamines can also affect the central nervous system. codein. and opening passages between sinuses and middle ear for air exchange. tenex. impair cognitive abilities. TECHNICAL DIVING PROBLEMS Problems are based on the material presented. In the former category. cause ﬂuid loss. antagonizing. the bottom line on drugs underwater is caution. and dehydration on the mild side. with trade name terfenadine. producing signiﬁcant changes in mental outlook. respiratory. and the simple equivalence ratios nested in Table 1 can be employed to convert back and forth across units. and sinequan. 38 f sw 1 ft 975 f sw = : 38:9 f t 2. like lasix and hydrochlorothiazide. alcohol. Individual reactions vary widely. Analgesics containing propoxyphene. elavil. Antihistamines. and recreational drugs. reducing tissue swelling. Convert volume. since little is known about many. causing drowsiness and headache.
What is the speciﬁc density. A spear gun propels a lock tip shaft at speed. What does a wrist thermometer of mass. of mercury (Hg) with respect to seawater? ρHg = 13:55 g=cm3 η ρHg ρseawater ρseawater 13:55 1:026 = 1:026 gm=cm3 = = = 13:21 13. m. to m=sec2 . occupying :5 f t 3 ? ρ = w V = 31:2 lb= f t 3 :5 = 62:4 lb= f t 3 8. P = 5:3 kg=m2 . ρ. What is the mass. w? w = 1:5 lb 7. of mass. Convert acceleration. m = 10 g. g = 32 f t =sec2 . of weight. of 1500 cm3 of iron (Fe)? ρFe = 7:86 g=cm3 m = ρFeV = 7:86 1500 g = 11:8kg 10. Convert pressure. and density. V . does 600 g of calcium (Ca) occupy? ρCa = 1:55 g=cm3 V = m ρCa = 600 cm3 1:55 = 387 cm3 11. w = 31:2 lbs. w? w w = = mg = 10 980 dynes 9:8 10 3 dynes What does a 1. P = 5:3 kg=m2 : 20 lb= f t 2 1 kg=m2 1 f t2 144 in2 = : 0074 lb=in2 5. What volume. What is the gram molecular weight. of osmium (Os). G. to lb=in2 . What is the density of fresh water. weigh. ρ Os ? AOs = 190:24 G = AOs g = 190:24 g ρ Os = 22:48 g=cm3 12.4.5 lb abalone iron weigh. η. occupying 2:0 m 3 ? ρ = m V = 2050: kg=m3 2:0 = 1025 kg=m3 9. ρ. m = 2050 kg. g = 32 f t =sec2 1m 3:28 f t = 9:8 m=sec2 6. What is the density of salt water. v = 34 f t =sec? How long before the shaft impales a target grouper 9 f t away? v = ds dt dt = ds v 65 = 9 sec 34 = : 26 sec .
A pearl diver plus all gear weigh 128 lbs. p. mv = 2mv 18. dv. ∆B. What is the magnitude of the deceleration. a? a = dv dt = . of a light diver propulsion vehicle (DPV). of a hydroplane accelerating for time. ∆K. in time. is necessary to ﬂoat the pearl diver at neutral buoyancy? ∆B = ∆W = 4 lbs 19. ds = 23 miles. What is the average speed of a Zodiac covering distance. and are buoyed up in the water with a force of 124 lbs. what is the change in momentum. with acceleration. in the water? ∆W = 128 . 124 lbs = 4 lbs If a BC provides lift. dt = 30 min? v = ds dt = 23 mph :5 = 46 mph Docking. how much additional lift. the Zodiac stops in time. What are the momentum. and the remaining 60 f sw in 30 sec. What does the pearl diver weigh. What is the change in speed. r? r = ds dt = 150 f sw=sec 90 + 30 = 1:25 f sw=sec 17. ∆p? ∆p = 3mv . v.46 5:6 5280 f t =sec2 3600 = . adt = 24 6 f t =sec = 144 f t =sec 16. F. and kinetic energy. If the speed is doubled. ∆W . v = 6 m=sec? p = mv = 32 6 kg m=sec = 192 kg m=sec K = 1 2 mv 2 = 1 2 32 36 kg m2 =sec2 = 1:15 103 j What is the force. A diver surfacing from 150 f sw covers the ﬁrst 90 f sw in 90 sec. What is the average ascent rate. dt a = 24 f t =sec2 ? dv = 6 sec. m = 32 kg. required to stop it in 8 sec? dp = 192 kg m=sec dt = 8 sec F = dp dt = 192 kg m=sec2 8 66 = 24 nt . dt = 5:6 sec.14. moves underwater with speed. 12 f t =sec = 15. m. with is the increase in kinetic energy. of the submersible? ∆K = 1 1 m(2v)2 . moving with velocity. mv2 2 2 = 3 2 mv 2 If the speed is tripled. K. A submersible of mass.
K f . ε.20 j = f 5:4 = 8:2 1014 sec.34 j sec 10 . for a diver of weight. who ascends from 60 f sw to the surface? U = mgh = 150 60 f t lb = 9 10 3 f t lb 21. What is the increase in potential energy.K 12 103 . when the paradiver hits the water (neglecting air resistance) in the Gulf of Tonkin? Ei Ui Kf = = = Ki + Ui 103 j = Ef = = Kf +Uf Ki = 12 = Uf 0j 0j = E f .19 j 3:39 10. What is the energy. f h ε = = 10 14 sec. generated by the fall? W = dH dt 9:8 dH = mgh dt = : 74 sec 103 j dH = 80 2:7 kg m2 =sec2 = 2:13 W = 2:13 103 j=sec :74 = 2:86 103 watt What is the kinetic energy. What is the kinetic energy. on impact. of a photon moving at the speed of light. neglecting air resistance? v = = gt = 9:8 1 2 : 74 m=sec = 7:3 m=sec 10 3 j K 1 2 mv 2 = 80 53:3 j = 2:13 22. mg = 150 lbs.1 = hf = 6:625 10. What is the corresponding K +U = = Ei = Ef = 12 = 103 j 3 103 j = 8:2 E . 9 103 j 23.1 ? 6:625 8:2 10. and zero kinetic energy. Ki = 0 j (all relative to the surface of the Earth). K. An 80 kg diver giant strides from the deck of a boat into the water 2:7 m below. the paradiver gains kinetic energy. and frequency. U f Ki + Ui .5 cm = = 2:99 1010 cm 8:2 1014 67 = 3:6 .3 keV What is the corresponding photon wavelength. λ? c λ c f = 2:99 1010 cm=sec 10. W . U. A UDT paradiver jumps from a USN Seawolf helicopter with initial potential energy. c.Uf = Ei . taking :74 sec to hit the surface. What is the power. K = 9 potential energy. U f = 0 + 12 103 + 0 j 12 103 j At some point in the drop. Ui = 12 103 j.20. U? E U = = 10 3 j.
dt. E. What is the magniﬁcation. s? =8 = 687 =6 = f t. in taking. φc . tall. What is the critical angle. viewed in air? µ = nquartz nair σ = nair nquartz 1:000 1:456 µ = 1:456 1:000 = 1:456 σ = = : 687 27. for an object in air. at the air-water interface. What are the actual height. σ = 1:33 : 75 h = hwat µ swat σ = 8 ft µ 6 ft 75 = 6 ft s = = : = 8 ft 29. d = 10 604 m. and. in Truk Lagoon. and foreshortening. swat µ = f t.24. viewed in quartz? µ = nair nquartz : σ σ = nquartz nair 1:456 µ 28. A coral head appears. h wat and distance. of a lead weight. σ. K? γ K = (1 . h.1 (:75) 48:5o 26. v=c = :85. aboard the Starship Enterprize initiating warp acceleration? c = 2:99 1 108 m=sec (2:99 m = 1 kg E = mc2 (1 . σ. µ. nair = 1:0. What is the magniﬁcation. µ. v2 =c2 )1=2 = 108)2 (1 . and. and foreshortening. that is. nwater = 1:33? sin φc φc = nair nwater = 1 1:33 = = : 75 = sin. m = 1 kg.1=2 = 1:39 = 2 = (γ . does it take a sound wave to propagate a distance. across the quartz-air interface for an object in quartz. moving at velocity. What is the energy. in steel? u = 5032 m=sec dt = ds u = 10604 sec 5302 = 2 sec 68 . v 2 = c2 ). How long. :852)1=2 kg m2 =sec2 = 1:72 1017 j What is the corresponding kinetic energy. 1)mc = : 39 1 10 8)2 kg m2 =sec2 3:49 1016 j 25.1=2 (2:99 = : 52.
273 25 o 33. for ﬁxed points. for body temperature of 22:7 Co and water temperature of 4:1 C o ? φ K = : = .ρ = : 1 . What is the heat ﬂux. Ti ) ln X =Xi ln X f =Xi o T = 400 ln 60=20 ln 80=20 + 100 C = 417 Co 34. What is the energy. εR . τ = :04. and energy. If the thermometer is logarthmic in response. X = 60 ohms. α. is absorbed? ρ = : 02 1 τ α = : 04 ρ+τ+α α = = = 1. what is the temperature. 4:1 C o = 18:6 Co : 0004 18:6 cal =cm2 sec :64 = 1:16 10. reﬂected from the surface. Sunlight striking the shallow azure water off the coast of Cozumel delivers. 273 298 . to the surface.8 = σ0 = 5:67 5:67 Co 2984watts=m2 = 447:1 watts=m2 = K o . φ. An welding thermometer is constructed using changes in resistance to measure temperature changes.τ. Ti = (T f .30.K 64 cm dT dx dT = 0004 cal =cm Co sec φ = dx = : 22:7 .2 cal =cm2 sec 32. what fraction. ε = 4:1 btu. Γr . What heat ﬂux. across a neoprene wetsuit of thickness. at resistance. A surface tender screams at a diver underwater with acoustical energy. is transmitted. of the chemical candle? φ T φ = = = σ0 T 4 10. φ. is reﬂected. transmitted at the surface (absorbed in less than a cm)? εR εR = : = Rε εT εT = Tε : 9919 4:1 btu = 4:066 btu = 0081 4:1 btu = : 034 btu 31. and.8 watts=m2 K o4 = 298 K o 10. and Ti = 100 Co Xi = 20 ohms? T . If. and what is the Centigrade temperature. T f = 500 Co X f = 80 ohms. Γ = 2 cal =m 2 . does a light stick at 298 K o emit underwater. :02 95 What is the magnitude. (Co ). ρ = :02. T . of the reﬂected radiation? Γr = ρΓ Γr = :02 69 2 cal =m2 = : 04 cal =m2 . ε T . dx = :64 cm. :04 .
vshallow . What is the speed of a deep water wave. ds = 12 m? dH = Fds = 64:7 12 j = 776:4 j 40.1 . What is the magnitude of the gravitational force. F.35. 38. between the Earth and the hard hat diver? m F = = 60 kg 60 g = 9:8 m=sec2 = mg = 9:8 kg m=sec2 588 nt 36. underwater? m = 60 kg G = M 6:67 = 6000 kg r = 30 m 10. separated a distance. 32) 9 = = 26:6o Ko = = 26:6 + 273 299:6 o 70 . M = 6000 kg.11 2:67 10. r = 30 m. Convert 37 C o to Fahrenheit (F o ). between a hard hat diver of mass. vdeep . and frequency. necessary to drag a 16:5 kg scuba tank across a ﬂat iron plate at a ﬁll station? µ F = = : 4 N = mg = µN = : 4 16:5 9:8 kg m=sec2 64:7 nt How much work. across the Oso Bay ﬂats at Corpus Christi (Texas)? vshallow = (gd ) 1=2 = (32 10)1=2 f t =sec = 17:9 f t =sec 37. propagating in depth. 32) 9 Co + 273 = 5 (80 . and then to Kelvin (K o ) temperatures. of a tsunami (tidal wave). What is the horizontal force. in the South China Sea? vdeep = (gλ=2π) 1=2 = (9:8 10=6:28)1=2 m=sec = 9:9 m=sec = :31 hr . and then to Rankine (Ro ) temperatures. Co = 5 o (F . wavelength. is done in moving the tank a distance. and surface platform of mass. λ = 10 m.6 nt What is the magnitude of the gravitational force. What is the speed. F.11 nt m2 =kg2 60 6000 nt 302 = F = G mM r2 = 6:67 10. F. propagating with wavelength. dH. d = 10 f sw. m = 60 kg. λ = 150 miles. What is the speed of a shallow water wave. Fo Ro = 9 o 9 C + 32 = 5 5 F o + 460 = 37 + 32 = 98:6o = 98:6 + 460 = 558:6 o 41. Convert 80 F o to Centigrade (Co ). u. f slamming into Guam? u = λf = 150 : 31 mile=hr = 465 mph 39.
to approximately :015 m 3 . Pi = 1 atm. 30 K o vdv = dT Rγ 1.γ = 30 8:317 5=3 2=3 m2 =sec2 = 623:7 m2 =sec2 If the mean square speed change is roughly half the velocity squared of the exiting gas. d = 10 msw. in the tank? P = T Pi Ti = 313 273 71 1 atm = 1:146 atm . in a 80/10/10 trimix breathing gas at an ocean depth of 400 f sw (that is. fHe = :80. f O2 = :10.γ dT = = R = 8:317 j=gmole K o . and. A mole of air in a tank at 300 K o is released to the atmosphere and registers an average temperature drop of 30 K o . P. A tank initially at standard temperature and pressure. ρ = 64 lbs= f t 3 ? P = ρd = 64 33 lbs= f t 2 = 2112 lbs= f t 2 = 14:6 lbs=in2 = 43. What is the pressure. d = 33 f sw. How much work. What are the composite partial pressures. and f N2 = :05)? pi = fi (33 + 400) f sw 433 f sw 433 f sw 433 f sw (i = He O2 N2 ) pHe = :80 pO2 pN2 = : = 346:4 f sw 43:3 f sw 43:3 f sw 10 = = : 10 = 45. p. what is the average velocity. Ti = 273 K o . dW . d = 34 f t. What is the pressure of a column of fresh water. assuming density. assuming density.42. is heated to 313 K o by the sun. ρ P = 62:4 lbs= f t 3 ? ρd = 62:4 34 lbs= f t 2 = 2121 lbs= f t 2 = 14:7 lbs=in2 44. What is the mean square speed change. v? v2 2 v = (2vdv) 1=2 = vdv = 623:7 m2 =sec2 = (2 623:7)1=2 m=sec = 35:3 m=sec 47. vdv of the exiting gas? dv dT γ 5 3 = 1 Rγ v 1. A diver inﬂates his BC at depth. does the diver do? dW dW = = PdV = 20:2 104 : 015 kg m2 =sec2 3:03 103 j 46. What is the pressure of a column of seawater.
:03) 1 8:31 10. P0 = 33 f sw. What is volume. a = 100 nt m=kgmole. for actual depth. V . P = 50 f sw.0:038h) P0 = = 33 f sw 33 : h = = 6:5 25:7 f sw 33 exp (. b) T = 500 + (2 . for depth.48. d. T = 280 K o ? P0V0 PV = T0 T V = V0 P0 T PT0 = : 3 33 50 280 3 ft 300 = : 185 f t 3 49. What is ambient pressure. and a speciﬁc volume. d = 78 f t? α δ = = exp (0:038h) ηαd = : = exp (0:038 78 f sw 6:5) = = 1:28 975 1:28 97:5 f sw If a decompression stop is required at 20 f sw according to the USN Tables. What is the altitude scaling factor. α. of the stop at 6. P = 500 nt =m 2. at temperature. V . and temperature. T . in f t 3 =min? 121:9 lbs=in2 min 72 f t 3 2475 lbs=in2 72 = 3:5 f t 3 =min . v = 2 m3 =kgmole. does a gmole of an ideal gas occupy at standard temperature and pressure? p = 10:1 nt =cm2 PV T = = 273 K o V R = = 8:317 j=gmole K o nRT nRT P 103 cm3 = V = 8:317 273 cm3 :101 = 22:48 22:48 l 50. The air in a dry suit at ambient sea level pressure. V0 = :3 f t 3 . at an elevation of 6 500 f t? Ph P6:5 = = P0 exp (.500 f t elevation? δ = 20 f sw d = δ ηα = 20 : 975 1:28 ft = 16 f t 53. What is the temperature. 1500 lbs=in2 min 8 = 121:9 lbs=in2 min If the tank is rated at 72 f t 3 . and what is the sea level equivalent depth. Ph . of a kgmole van der Waals gas at pressure. occupied at depth. χ? χ = 2475 . What volume.3 = 124:5 103 K o 52. what is the actual depth. χ. and b = :03 m 3 =kgmole? RT 100 4 = P+ a v2 (v . taking the viral coefﬁcients. T = 300 K o . what is the consumption rate. The air pressure in a scuba tank drops from 2475 lbs=in 2 to 1500 lbs=in2 in 8 min? What is the air consumption rate.0:038 6:5) f sw 78 f sw 51. δ. occupies volume.
300 m elevation and depth. χ 0 d = 20 f sw. d = 18 m. will a tank containing. what reading. of air . in fresh water? δ α = = αηd = h = 1300 1000 δ = 3:28 = 4:26 exp (. 33 3 f t =min 53 χ0 P0 P0 + d = 5 = 3:13 f t 3 =min 57. How long. What does a bourdon (oil) gauge read.000 f t elevation will a high speed compressor deliver if its rated output is 10 f t 3 =min at sea level? χ0 α χ χ0 α = = 10 f t 3 =min h 9) = 9 exp (. z = 1 300 m. δ. At an altitude.0:038 4:26) 1:19 1:19 : 975 18 msw = 20:3 msw 59. d = 18 m? P0 δ = = 10 msw = : P4:26 = 8:4 msw = ηd + Ph . at 1. on a reef? χ = = 5 f t 3 =min.54.0:038 10 f t 3 =min 1:41 = 1:41 = = = 7:09 f t 3 =min 58. What is the air consumption rate. will it deliver at depth. d = 46 f t. what rate. χ. and elevation. of air last at 33 f sw for an EOD specialist swimming against a 6 knot very cold current in the ocean? P0 = 33 f sw χ0 = 2 f t 3 =min χ = χ0 1 + d P0 χ = 2 1+ 33 33 f t 3 =min = 4 f t 3 =min t = V χ = 34 min 4 = 8:5 min 55. χ. What ﬁll rate at 9. V = 34 f t 3 . at depth. χ0 = :95 f t 3 =min? in fresh water? χ = χ0 α 1+ dηα P0 χ = 95 1:28 : 1+ 46 : 975 33 1:28 f t 3 =min = 2:03 f t 3 =min 56. will a capillary gauge register at actual depth. 10: msw 15:9 msw . for sea level surface consumption rate. z = 6 500 f t. If a hookah unit pumps a surface rate. t. δ. P0 975 73 18 + 8:4 .
V gear? = = 64 : 78 lb 49:9 lb 3:5 f t 3 . How much fresh water. What is the lift. provided by the BC? B = ρV = B 65. A weather balloon is partially inﬂated at 50 f sw to 20 f t 3 . A 10 qt plastic container is submerged to 100 f t in Lake Michigan. What is the volume. of sea water. What is the buoyant force. V f . how much add additional weigh. V = Vi Pi Pf = 20 31:3 f t 3 = :78 f t 3 .60. 200) lb = 18 lb 74 . at 20 f sw? Pi = 33 + 50 f sw = 83 f sw Pf PiVi = 33 + 20 = f sw = 53 f sw Vi = 20 f t 3 Pf V f 83 3 ft 53 = Vf 64. must be added to the belt = ∆W B . W for neutral buoyancy? = 200 lb. V ? Pi = 33 f sw P = 33 + :975 PV V 100 f sw = = 130:5 f sw PiVi = = Vi Pi P = V 10 33 qt 130:5 = 10 : 253 qt 2:53 qt 63. on diver and B B = = ρV = 62:4 3:5 lb 218 lb If diver plus gear weigh. of fresh water. κ? κ = = 80 1420 3 ft 3000 37:8 f t 3 Pr Vr = 3000 lb=in2 f t 3 80 = 37:5 lb=in2 f t 3 61. B. A tank rated 80 f t 3 at 3000 lb=in2 . What is its volume. P = 1420 lb=in2 on a sub gauge. ∆W . A fully inﬂated BC displaces. and allowed to drift to the ocean surface slowly. does a 200 lb lift bag displace? ρ V = 62:4 lbs= f t 3 W ρ = W = 200 lbs 3:2 f t 3 = 200 3 ft 62:4 = 62. What is the remaining air volume.W = (218 . V . V ? V = Vr P Pr = V What is the tank constant. A fully clad diver displaces. registers a pressure. B.
of an empty 95 f t 3 steel tank. 6:11 lbs 42:5 lbs w = ρV . V . :75 3 : 75 69. ∆w. What is the relative buoyancy. increase? ∆w = : 0029wh = : h = 1830 1000 9:8 3:28 6 nt = 6 w = mg ∆w 0029 75 = 12:7 nt 70. :025 W = . ξ. A buoy weighing 48 lbs occupies. V = 2 f t 3 . for a salvage diver plus gear of mass. 6:11 lbs d 2 = d 3:14 = 7 in 25 l = 25 in V = πr2 l = πd 2 l 4 49 4 in3 = 962 in3 = : 56 f t 3 What does the tank weigh. :025 75 . What surface volume of air. What is the surface wetsuit buoyancy. rests on a hard sea bottom at 99 f sw.66. What fraction. A 448 lb winch gear. m = 90 kg? W ∆W = = mg 90 9:8 nt = . V ? r = = . rated at 3300 lbs=in2 ? ∆B What is the approximate tank volume. Vsur . ∆B. displacing a volume. Vdis V = : Vdis = = 48 3 ft 64 = 75 f t 3 ξ 3 . w? V = : 56 f t 3 ρ = 64 lbs3 = f t : ∆B = = . What is the salt water to fresh water buoyancy loss. ∆W . is needed to inﬂate lift bags to bring the gear to the surface? d = 99 f sw Vli f t = ρ = 64 lbs= f t 3 = w = = 448 lbs w ρ 448 3 ft 64 7 f t3 Vsur = Vli f t 1 + = 3ft3 d 33 = 4 7 f t3 = 28 f t 3 68. 22:5 nt . ∆B = 64 56 + 6:11 lbs 67. of its volume will ﬂoat above water? ξ = V = 3 f t3 w ρ = V . A 75 kg diver journeys to a mountain lake at 1 830 m.
23 1:24 10. A skin diver with lung volume of 6 qt descends to a depth.20 j 75. is released to a larger tank with volume. What is the change in internal energy. dU. What is the new pressure. What is the mean molecular energy. What is the relative concentration. Upon expansion. ξ. T ¯ ε 3 2 = 3 kT 2 900 j = ¯ ε = 1:38 10. P? Pi Vi Ti P = = PV T 283 atm 293 Pi Vi T V Ti = 225 1:2 4:5 = 51:6 atm 73. ζ.71. ε. occupying. What is the ratio. c. of relative solubilities of neon in water and oil? ζ = Swater Soil = 009 :021 : = : 43 How many more times. Pi = 225 atm. Ti = 293 K o . of neon dissolved in oil at a partial pressure p = 9:8 atm? c = Sp = : 009 9:8 = : 0882 76. of 1 gmole ideal gas at temperature. T = 283 K o . while doing piston expansion work. d = 85 f sw. A helium-oxygen gas mixture at pressure. dW = 419 . Vi = 1:2 f t 3 . is nitrogen soluble in oil versus water? ξ = Soil Swater 76 = 067 :012 : = 5:6 . of air in a compressor heated an amount. dW = 165 j? dQ = 100 = 4:19 j = 419 j dW = 165 j dU dQ . dQ = 100 cal. V ? Vi Pi = : 4 6 qt = 2:4 qt 33 + d PiVi Pi P Vtis = = : 6 6 qt = 3:6 qt 118 f sw = 33 f sw P = 33 + 85 f sw = = PV f 33 qt 118 Vf V = = Vi = 2:4 = : 67 qt 4:27 qt V f + Vtis = : 67 + 3:6 qt = 72. V = 4:5 f t 3 . Assuming his lung tissues are 40% air space. drops to a temperature. and at temperature. the mixture. what is his compressed lung volume. 165 j = 254 j = 900 K o ? ¯ 74.
Pt . 8:56 = 1:14 µm 80. what are the working depths. ∆ f .6 = P+ 2γ r = 13:77 + 2 nt =cm2 = 79. 20:55 f sw :26 = = 182:5 f sw dmax ηdmin 182:5 ft η = = 187:2 f t = 5:3 . :2 f sw (means sur f ace is OK ) = . if ambient pressure. assuming 1. and assuming a watery surface tension.:038 ηdmin = 20:55 f sw ηdmax = 52:8 . γ = 50 dyne=cm? P = 45 33 10:1 nt =cm2 = 13:77 nt =cm2 2 nt =cm2 15:77 nt =cm2 2γ r Pt = = 5 100 dyne=cm2 10. P = 45 f sw. P = 1:0 10. :21 f t 77 . At elevation. Ph f sw fO2 ηdmax 52:8 . z = 3 800 m. 20:55 f sw :26 dmin = .3 cm 20 . For ambient pressure.6 atm and .77. What is the total pressure. for a 74/26 nitrox mixture. inside a bubble lodged in an arteriole of diameter. 2r = 10 µm. moving toward a stationary 333 m=sec ∆f = vs = 6 : 514 m=sec = : = 3:08 m=sec 32:5 3:08 hertz 333 + 3:08 0314 hertz 78. at total bubble internal pressure.16 atm as the upper and lower oxygen partial pressure limits? fN2 h = = : 74 33 η = : 975 12:46) f sw = 3800 3:28 1000 = 12:46 P12:46 = exp (. d max and dmin . What is the (Doppler) frequency shift. what is the watery critical bubble radius. of a boat horn.3 nt =cm2 10:1 nt =cm2 = 20 nt =cm2 P = 8:56 nt =cm2 rc = 2γ Pt . f snorkeler at speed of vs = 6 knots? vs ∆f = f u . Pt = 20 nt =cm2? 2γ Pt = = 1:0 28 33 10. : 2 ft η . rc . P = 28 f sw. Ph f sw fO2 = 5:3 . vs u = = 32:5 hertz.
33 f sw = 89:7 f sw = 82.81. 1:0 9 2:8 : = : 32 84. for enriched 74/26 nitrox? fN2 δ fN2 (33 + d ) . 1:0 = = : 42 If ambient pressure doubles. in the 15 min tissue compartment of a Maine scallop diver at 67 f sw for 38 min. f N2 . P0 f sw fO2 = 52:8 . m F . p. 1:0 7:6 . d 125 f sw? fN2 = : 79(δ + 33) (d + 33) = : 79 143 158 = : 72 What is the corresponding oxygen ﬂoor. Fd . δ = 110 f sw. 33 :28 = 156 f sw 83. for an equivalent air depth.1 15 78 = : 046 min. 1:0 3:8 . at ocean depth. what is the nozzle ﬂow.6 l =min of 50/50 nitrox to a Navy SEAL needing 1 l =min oxygen for metabolic consumption 3 miles off the coast of Kuwait? iO2 fO2 = = fO2 F .m m 2:8 6:6 = : 50 F : = 7:6 l =min 1:0 l =min iO2 = 5 7:6 . i O2 . δ. What is the equivalent air depth. at ocean depth. d max ? fO2 = : 28 P0 = 33 f sw dmax = 52:8 . What is the inspired oxygen fraction. What is the instantaneous nitrogen pressure. assuming initial sea level equilibration? τ pi pa = = = 15 min : f N2 = = : 79 33 79 f sw 26:1 f sw : fN2 (P0 + d ) λ : = (33 + 67) 79 f sw = 79 f sw = 693 min. What is the nitrogen fraction. and inspired oxygen fraction. for a rebreather delivering 7.1 . 33 79 : : = : 74 = : = 74 79 (33 + 98) . i O2 ? Fd = F P 2P : = 7:6 l =min 2 = = 3:8 l =min iO2 = 5 3:8 . d = 98 f sw.
1=4 + 3:25τ.1 80 = = : 0087 min 52 f sw = 1 pi . for the 80 min tissue at this depth? t = 9:1 min 88.1=4d : 152:7 51 + 3:25 51 10 f sw = 94:4 f sw What is the corresponding critical ratio. of molecular diffusion speeds of hydrogen to oxygen? ψ = AO2 AH2 1=2 = 32 2 1=2 = 4 87. M 0 .p p = = pa + ( pi .:1386 79 94 f sw .1 5 : = : 1386 min. t = 22 min. 78:2 exp (. What is the critical tension. ψ.1 = :0029 min.1 26:1 f sw 97:1 f sw pi pa = = : 79 33 f sw = 79 (33 + 90) = M0 M0 = = pa + ( pi . R. d = 90 f sw. 79) 174 f sw = 69:7 f sw What is the tension in the 240 min compartment? λ p = = : 693 min.λt ) : 79 + (26:1 .1 240 : 79 + (26:1 . at a nominal depth of 10 f sw for the 15 min tissue compartment? M M = = : 152:7τ. assuming that the 5 min compartment controls the exposure (has largest computed tissue tension at this depth)? λ = : 693 min. According to Graham. How long does it take for the 80 min tissue compartment to approach its critical surfacing tension. t. what is the surfacing critical tension. M. is.λt ) 22) f sw = 97:1 . assuming initial nitrogen tension of 45 f sw? pi pa λ t = = : = : 45 f sw pa = fN2 (33 + d ) = = 79 (33 + 140) f sw 136:6 f sw M = 693 min. at a depth of 140 f sw. pa ln λ M . pa 114:9 ln 91:6 min 84:6 9:1 min What is the nonstop limit. pa) exp (. M = M0 = 52 f sw. what roughly is the ratio.? R = M P = 94:4 43 = 2:19 86. 79) 896 f sw = 31:6 f sw 85. pa) exp (. If the nonstop time limit at depth.
M. t (p . 160. accessible to the platform diver? M = 333 f sw d P = M.1 120 = : 0058 min. p.1=4 + 3:25τ. After 6 halftimes. d = 34 f sw. in the DCIEM nitrogen tables is ( 2. 20. pa) exp (. what are the corresponding set for the helium tables. pa exp (. M. 33) f sw = 260 f sw 91. What is the nitrogen tension. of narcotic potency of helium to argon? ζ Which is the least potent? Least Potent Gas = = νHe νAr = 4:26 :43 = 9:9 helium 92.λt ) 80 . For critical helium gradient (absolute). 33) f sw = (293 . 40) f sw = 293 f sw = (P .5. d. pi)? = 6τ. τ = 7:56 min? M M = = 152:7τ.89. p a ). What is the critical tension. of tissue saturation. A Group F diver sustains what overpressure. pa pi . ζ. pa : = fN2 ∆P = : 79 12 f sw = 9:48 f sw = 693 min. What is the ratio. 5. = 6 2 f sw = 12 f sw what is the ratio. in the 120 min compartment of a surface F diver after 160 min? ∆P = 12 f sw λ pi . 40. 10.1=4d : 152:7 : 603 + 3:25 603 34 f sw = 158:7 f sw 93.λt ) exp (. what is the minimum depth (ceiling). as the nitrogen tables? τHe τHe = AHe AN2 1=2 τN2 = 4 28 1=2 τN2 = : 38 τN2 = (:94 1:89 3:78 7:56 15:12 30:24 60:48 120:96) min 90.:693 ω= = = 6) = : 016 95. P = 40 f sw. at depth. ω. A commercial diving operation is constructing a set of helium proprietary tables using the popular DCIEM nitrogen tables as a basis before testing. assuming the same critical tensions. for the helium tissue compartment. p . If the spectrum of tissues. An oil rig diver is saturated at a depth of 300 f sw in the North Sea on heliox. τ. 80. to initial tissue saturation. G = M .G = (333 . (p . ∆P.1 p = pa + ( pi . in nitrogen loading (absolute) in the 120 min compartment? ∆P 94. 320 min).
elevation 6. and what is the sea level equivalent depth for the dive? β = η exp (0:038h) δ = = : 975 exp (0:038 = 9:65) = 1:40 βd = 1:40 40 f sw 56:2 f sw If the ascent rate. for a normoxic breathing mixture at 450 f sw? p = : 21 atm (normoxic) p0 = P0 = = 33 f sw 33 483 P = 450 + 33 f sw 0137 atm = 483 f sw P0 p P = : 2 atm = : 97. taking 15 min. what is the maximum change in altitude permitted? Permitted Altitude Change = 6000 f t How long before a mountain Group G diver drops into Group A? Sur f ace Interval Time = 7:6 hr How long before a Group G diver can ascend 7. r0 . r.860 f t. 26:1) : 79 C = 4:68 f sw Group = 96. What is the surface oxygen partial pressure.p = 26:1 + 9:48 exp (. what is the altitude rate. in what group does the diver surface? Group B Penalty Time (60 f sw) Total Dive Time = = 11 min 31 min 20 + 11 min = = Sur f acing Group G As a Group G diver.000 f t in elevation. p 0 . what is the altitude correction factor. 6860 f t Altitude Group = 2790 f t B = If the dive lasts 20 min.560 f t and plans a dive to 40 f t.:0058 160) = 29:8 f sw Into what Group does the diver now fall? ∆P = ( p . If a Park Ranger lugs his dive gear to Lake Catherine above Santa Fe (New Mexico) at an elevation of 9. according to the 24 hr rule? Sur f ace Interval Time 81 = 3:7 hr . what Group should the Ranger diver assign to the start of the dive? ∆z = 9650 . pa ) fN2 = (29:8 . in the Tables at sea level is 60 f sw=min. r = r0 β = 60 f t =min 1:4 = 42:8 f t =min If the excursion to Lake Catherine is launched from Sante Fe. β.
d = 35 f sw. t.12:7 .11:7 . According to the USN Tables at sea level. What is the nonstop limit. A reef ecologist at depth. τ = (5 10 20 40 80 120 240) min. M. What are the corresponding tissue gradients.13:7 . 24 hrs 100. the nonstop limit at 100 f sw is 22 min. suggest? Repetitive Diving Within 12 . what is the implication for the present dive? Present Dive Has Been Short And Shallow What might higher tissue tensions in the two slowest compartments. in tissues. at mountain elevation of 5.98.P = 152:8 . g = p . p = (50 48 43 41 40 42 44) f sw. 113 f sw = 39:8 f sw 82 .600 f t.3:7 .10:7 . pa g P = 33 + 35 f sw = 68 f sw pa = : 79 P = 53:7 f sw = (. relative to faster middle compartments. R? R = 52 + 1:26 152:8 f sw = M P P = 80 + 33 f sw = 113 f sw R What is the critical gradient. in the 80 min tissue compartment at a depth. on a dive computer registers a spectrum of nitrogen tensions. G? G = = 152:8 113 = 1:35 M.9:7) f sw Since tissue gradients are inward (all negative). d M0 = = 80 f sw? 52 f sw M = ∆M = 1:26 M0 + ∆Md 80 f sw = M What is the critical ratio. What is the exact USN critical tension. pa? g = p . using the similarity method? β = η exp (0:038h) β δ = = : = : 975 exp (0:038 = 5:6) 975 1:23 1:20 120 f sw 100 t 1:20 f sw = = 12 min 99.5:7 .
1969. and Stegun I. Bardach J.0:0381h) R0 R7 R7 = (3:15 2:67 2:18 1:76 1:58 1:55) 7) = : = R0 exp (. Saunders.K. and Glasstone S. Bonner B.I. The Physical Chemistry Of Surfaces. Santa Ana. Construct a set of critical surfacing ratios at 7. Batchelor G.. Yet. Adamson A. Harvest Of The Sea. Bassett B. New York: Cambridge University Press.A. The exposition has attempted to walk a line between highly technical and mathematical physics and extended dialogue with more prose.101. Divers often have trouble interpreting the feedback underwater. Allee W. Antiproton Science And Technology. and Nieto M. applications and problems have been discussed with an eye towards increasing diver awareness of the physical laws impacting the underwater environment.E. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. underwater researcher.0:0381 77 R 0 = (2:43 2:05 1:67 1:35 1:20 1:19) SUMMARY Underwater experiences are unique and fascinating to our perceptions. 1972.M. the same physical laws apply.E. The only real difference is pressure and the water surrounding the diver. Nuclear Reactor Theory.. 1964. Bell G. 1976. 1979. optics.. table designer. Behavior and sensations seem very different underwater than on the surface. Mechanical Measurement.. and altitude similarity (downscaling) through the correction factor. Handbook Of Mathematical Functions. α = exp (0:0381h) R0 α h = 7 Rh = = R0 exp (. electrodynamics. New York: John Wiley And Sons. 1970. at sea level. Topics developed and discussed draw upon basic mechanics... Principals Of Animal Ecology. commercial diver. Mills F. despite these vagaries. Augenstein B.E.B. Entries are alphabetically and chronologically listed. London: Allen And Unwin. 1968. And Yet Another Approach To The Problems Of Altitude Diving And Flying After Diving. 1969. New York: Doubleday Anchor.. Hope it has met your technical diving needs. Decompression In Depth Proceedings. Beckwith B.. α..W. Abramowitz M. ADDITIONAL READING References span a wide spectra of technical diving material and details. Singapore: World Scientiﬁc. 1953. broaching historical to modern developments.. Waves And Beaches. Theory Of Homogeneous Turbulence. 83 .. R 0 . thermodynamics. New York: Dover Publications. Philadelphia: W. hyperbaric technician. Oceanography And Marine Biology. Understanding pressure effects and the impact of a totally liquid environment surrounding the diver is the essence of technical diving.. Theory. Barnes H. The targeted audience is the technical diver.. and gas phase dynamics.. 1987. and instructor. New York: Harper And Row. Bascom W.000 f t elevation using the standard USN set. Professional Association Of Diving Instructors.W. hydrodynamics. Reading: Addison Wesley.C. completing or extending related reading at the end of each Part.
. 1975... Buckles R.. 1970. 1975.. Lowry C.. Ramparts 23-32. and Taylor H.A.L.. Diving Medicine For Scuba Divers. The ATOMICS Nucleus. II.. New York: Academic Press.A. Nature London 222..G.. Bove A. 1997. The Physics Of Bubble Formation And Growth.. New York: Doubleday. Saunders. 84 . Brunt D. Kinetic Theory Of Liquids.. Cross E..H. Memphis: Naval Technical Training. New York: McGraw Hill. University of Hawaii Sea Grant Report. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-TP-86-01. Evans A. Oak Ridge: United States Energy And Research Development Administration.. On The Origin Of The Species By Means Of Natural Selection. 1996.. 1941. 17-18.C. and Elliot D.H.J.R. 1062-1069. Reading: Addison Wesley.E. III. USN Navy Experimental Diving Unit Report. DC Duxbury A.L. 1968. Paris: Masson. Physics Of Magnetism.A.D. 39..M. Carslaw H. London: Bailliere Tindall And Cassell. The Feynman Lectures On Physics I. Carter L. and Davis J. Reading: Addison Wesley.... NEDU 3-59... New York: New American Library. US Navy SEAL Combat Manual. Honolulu. and Cashwell E. 1950.. Buhlmann A.B. and Businger J.. Edmonds C. Physical Oceanography. La Pression Barometrique. Introduction To Atmospheric Physics. 1958. 251-252.P.B. Investigation Into The Decompression Tables.Bennett P..J. Washington. 1977...M.. 1963.G. Linear Transport Theory. and Zweifel P. 1946. 1950. 1975. The Physiology And Medicine Of Diving And Compressed Air Work. Particle Transport Simulations With The Monte Crarlo Method. Portland: Book News. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Adaptation Of Helium-Oxygen To Mixed Gas Scuba.C. and Taylor H. and Lieberman G. Engelwood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. Diving And Subaquatic Medicine. 1986. London. A Method Of Calculating Decompression Stages And The Formulation Of New Diving Tables. 1971. and Thomas R. UPS 110. Ecocatastrophe. High Altitude Decompression. Leighton R. 1984. and Walder D. Diving Medicine. Brereton R.R.D.P.. Sydney: Aquaquest Publications. 1969.. Signiﬁcance Of Gas Macronuclei In The Aetiology Of Decompression Sickness. 1997. Darwin C. Case K. Chikazumi S. The Earth And Its Oceans. 1964.F.M. 1952. Sutton B. Aerospace Med. Decompression/Decompression Sickness.L. and Sands M.F.. Duffner G.. and Pennefather J. Hayashi E. New York: John Wiley And Sons. Bert P. McKenzie B. Frenkel J. Physical And Dynamical Meteorology.J. and Smith L. Berlin: Springer Verlag. Diving And Decompression Sickness Treatment Practices Among Hawaii’s Diving Fisherman.B. Davidson W.. Diving Physiology In Plain English. Fleagle R. Philadelphia: W.. Conduction Of Heat In Solids. 1961. 1878. Ehrlich P.M. Defant A. Feynman R. Engineering Statistics. Reading: Addison Wesley. 1969. London: Cambridge University Press.. London. Bookspan J... and Jaeger J. 1994.G. Decompression Ratio For Goats Following Long Exposure And Return To Atmospheric Pressure Without Stoppage..J.N.S. and Beckman E. 1974. Farm F. Bethesda: Undersea And Hyperbaric Medical Society.C. Bowker A. 1990. New York: Oxford University Press. Synder J. Evans R. Medical Research Council Report. Skin Diver Magazine 19. UPS 131. Edmonds C... Crocker W. Medical Research Council Report.. 1959. 1979.
L.. Numerical Methods And Software. New York: John Wiley And Sons. Masland R.D. Deep Diving. 1969. The Effects Of Breathing Carbon Dioxide On Altitude Decompression Sickness. New York: Pergamon Press. Paton W.. New York: John Wiley And Sons. 1952. and Lifshitz E. Kahaner D.W.. and Riess R.L.. The Waters Of The Sea. Climate Near The Ground. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.A.. 1960. Med. Reading: Addison Wesley. New York: John Wiley And Sons. Geiger R. Development Of Decompression Procedures For Depths In Excess Of 400 Feet.... Jessop N.. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.M.. Hempleman H..M.W. Undersea And Hyperbaric Medical Society Report. Keen M. J. 1973.. and Bird R. and Mahady S.N. Table Of Integrals. MICHU-SG-87-201. and Lifshitz E. 1987. 1965.. Huang K. Introduction To Historical Geology. 1989. Gilliam B. New York: John Wiley And Sons. Johnson L. 1968.D. Undersea And Hyperbaric Medical Society Publication 54WS(IC)1-11-82. and Vann R.. 1970.. New York: Academic Press. 167-180.D.. 1962. Five Equations That Changed The World. Mechanics.D.. Ann Arbor. Classical Electrodynamics. San Francisco: W. Introduction To Marine Geology. Michigan Sea Grant Publication. Moler C. and White H. Multiprocessor Applications To Multilevel Air Decompression Problems. UPS 131. Reading: Addison Wesley. Bethesda. New York: McGraw Hill.J. Freeman. Ind. and Lifshitz E. Numerical Analysis. 1977.. Huggins K.M.O. Decompression Sickness. Curtiss C. Cold Water Diving. London. Fundamentals Of Optics.. Gray J.A. 1991. Irving J.. WS: 2-28-76. Reading: Addison Wesley. Isobaric Inert Gas Counterdiffusion. 1995.. 1975.M..D. Grifﬁths P. And Products. Costa Mesa. and von Maier R. Elementary Particle Physics. San Diego: Watersports.S.. Reading: Addison Wesley...C. Goldstein H. Landau L. and Hempleman H.... Hills B. Mathematics In Physics And Engineering.M. 1995.E. Ontario: Nelson And Sons. Jackson J. Reading: Addison Wesley. and Bornmann R. Walder D. Mechanics.D. 1977. Bethesda.S. Guillen M.V.H. Flagstaff: Best.F.A. Warrendale. Decompression Sickness During Construction Of The Dartford Tunnel. Statistical Mechanics. Brit. Theory Of Elasticity. Medical Research Council Report. Principles Of Physical Geology. Golding F. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. 1945.. Society Of Automotive Engineers Report. Gradshteyn I..D.. 1961. 1985. 85 . New York: Hyperion. Webb D. Molecular Theory Of Gases And Liquids. Randolph Field. London: Academic Press. Lambertsen J.. 1950.M. and Nash S.. Hirschfelder J. Landau L. and Ryzhik I. Series.V.L. 1957. 1985... Project 409. AAUS Safety Publication AAUSDSP-RDW-02-92. 17.C. Jenkins F. 1967. Biosphere: A Study Of Life. Hamilton R... New York: John Wiley And Sons. 1965.. Tissue Gas Bubble Dynamics During Hypobaric Exposures.E. 1979.V. Gernhardt M. London. Landau L. 1979. 1962. Fluid Mechanics. and Mullineux N.. US Air Force School Of Aviation Medicine Report. 1972. 1980. 1992. Investigation Into The Decompression Tables.. UPS 168. Further Basic Facts On Decompression Sickness. SAE-851337. Kummell B. Proceedings Of The American Academy Of Underwater Sciences Repetitive Diving Workshop. Medical Research Council Report.. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Holmes A. Lang M. 1967. Heine J.B. A New Theoretical Basis For The Calculation Of Decompression Tables.Gasiorowicz S.C. Hempleman H. 1964..D. Groen P.
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. scientiﬁc. New York: John Wiley And Sons.. Wienke B. Montclair. and Bennett P. Tampa. NOAA Diving Manual. USN Experimental Diving Unit Report. Washington. 1989. 1950-1970. Wittenborn A... is a Master Instructor with the Professional Association Of Diving Instructors (PADI) in various capacities (Instructor Review Committee).. National Association Of Underwater Instructors Publication. Streeter V.. 82-90. Wachholz C. Flagstaff: Best. Dovenbarger J. mixed gas. Diving Above Sea Level. Technical and Decompression Review Board Member). 1994. Weinberg S.. And Decompression Theory For The Technical And Commercial Diver. Statistically Based Decompression Tables: Analysis Of Standard Air Dives. Calculations Of Decompression Tables. Workman R. National Association Of Underwater Instructors Technical Publication. Survanshi S. 1991. Gravitation And Cosmology. above and underwater.A. decompression. Earth. 1959. 1937.B.R. and recreational activities. Flagstaff: Best.. Asia. Wallace D.. 1991.Somers L. Proc. Washington DC: US Government Printing Ofﬁce. has served on the Board Of Directors (Vice Chairman for Technical Diving. 1965. and polar Arctic and Antarctic in various technical. Washington DC Yarborough O. South Paciﬁc. in exercises often involving Special Operations Units.K. 1998.R. USN Experimental Diving Unit Report. He authored Physics. ABYSMAL DIVING. 1963. a dual phase approach to staging diver ascents over an extended range of diving applications (altitude. New York: American Elsevier. 1975.. SCUBAPRO. inland and coastal United States. 1965. Diving environs include the Caribbean. Wienke B. Diving Above Sea Level. and ATOMICS engage (or have) him as Consultant for meter algorithms..D.V. Basic Diving Physics And Applications. London: Cambridge University Press. Reading: Addison Wesley. Second Symp. Oscillations Of The Earth’s Atmosphere. Basic Decompression Theory And Application.R. High Altitude Diving. The University Of Michigan Diving Manual. Underwater Physiol.S. Tricker R. Physiology And Decompression Theory For The Technical And Commercial Diver. Breakers. Wienke B.. and phase mechanics. 1993. Calculation Of Decompression Schedules For Nitrogen-Oxygen And Helium-Oxygen Dives. 1964.D. Von Arx W. Hawaii.. Bethesda. He is the developer of the Reduced Gradient Bubble Model (RGBM). 1972. Bores. Basic Diving Physics And Applications. Physiology. Flagstaff: Best. Handbook Of Fluid Mechanics. Wienke B. 1991. presently works with DAN on applications of high performance computing and communications to diving. Wilkes M. DAN Newsletter 3-6. Sea. multilevel. Waves. military. Wienke. and some 200 technical journal articles... and Homer L. nonstop. gas transport..F. 1985. with interests in computational decompression and models. Physics. 1981.D. An Analytic Development Of A Decompression Computer. repetitive. a former dive shop owner in Santa Fe. He heads Southwest Enterprises. EDU 12-37. and is a Regional Data Coordinator for Project Dive Safety. and is an Instructor Trainer with Scuba Diving International/Technical Diving International (SDI/TDI).. He functions on the LANL Nuclear Emergency Strategy Team (NEST). New York: McGraw Hill.. Ann Arbor: University Of Michigan Press. SUUNTO. Washington DC BIOSKETCHES Bruce Wienke is a Program Manager in the Nuclear Weapons Technology/ Simulation And Computing Ofﬁce at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). and saturation).. And Air: Survey Of The Geophysical Sciences. Introduction To Physical Oceanography. Reading: Addison Wesley. The SUUNTO VYPER dive computer incorporates the 87 . Naval Medical Research Institute report. Decompression Sickness In Dive Computer And Table Use.H.. Spar J. Basic Decompression Theory And Application. And Wakes. is an Institute Director with the YMCA. a consulting company for computer research and applications in wide areas of applied science and simulation. NMRI 85-16. He is an Instructor Trainer with the National Association Of Underwater Instructors (NAUI).. Wienke B. Weathersby P. High Altitude Diving.D. Vann R. 1964.. NEDU 6-65. multiday..R.R. DC: National Academy Of Science 1.
78597 (800) 761-2030 Nauitec@aol. Central and South America. Bruce Wienke Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos. a Saturation Diver. a DMT and CHT from Jo Ellen Smith Medical Ceneter at the Baromedical Research Institute. and the United States as both a mixed gas Commercial Diver and technical diving Instructor Trainer.RGBM into staging regimens.gov Tim O’Leary is Director of NAUI Worldwide Technical Training Operations. He has spoken at many underwater symposiums. Society Of Naval Architects And Marine Engineers (SNAME). Mediteranian. and President of American Diving And Marine Salvage. He is also Associate Editor for the International Journal Of Aquatic Research And Education. Gas Rack Operator. features some of the RGBM dynamical diving algorithms developed by him for Internet users and technical divers. and Chamber Supervisor for many of the world’s commercial diving companies. and a PhD in particle physics from Nothwestern University. as well as contributing to recreational and technical periodicals. Saturation Supervisor. and is an Admiral in the Texas Navy.com 88 . Tx. Tim O’Leary American Diving And Marine Salvage 1807 Padre Boulevard South Padre Island. 87545 (505) 667-1358 brw@lanl. Course Director for NAUI Worldwide. the NAUI Training Publication. South Paciﬁc. an MS in nuclear physics from Marquette University. and is a Level III NDT Technician. Wienke received a BS in physics and mathematics from Northern Michigan University. He currently serves as a Consultant for the offshore oil industry. He has worked as a Commercial Diving Instructor at the Ocean Corporation. and is a former Contributing Editor of Sources.M. a commercial software product. and the American Academy Of Underwater Sciences (AAUS). N. National Association Of Diver Medical Technicians (NADMT). American Physical Society (APS). O’Leary received a BS in zoology from Texas AM University. Mexico. ABYSS. Inspector Trainer for PSI. He is a member of the Undersea And Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS). North Sea. O’Leary is a member of the Undersea And Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS). particularly for recreational diving (including nitrox). He has dived in Asia. Society Of Industrial And Applied Mathematics (SIAM).
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