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41 Projects Using IC 741 OP-AMP

41 Projects Using IC 741 OP-AMP


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By:.t. same author: Practical Transistor Novelties Simple Audio Projects Practical SCRrrriac Projects Easy to Build Electronic A1aI;J:ns' Usmg Field Ej'fect Transistors
555 TiIqer-Use·and Appfications Build Your Own Test Instruments Understanding and UsmgMultimeten Digital Integrated Circuits-Learning by Experiments Using Semi-eonductor Diodes Power Suppliesfor AllOccas:ions Care 'and Repair of'Electronic Flash Guns CMOS Integrated Circuits-Learning by Ex:peritnents Using Functioin <5enerators and Phase Lock loops



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The Operational Amplifier IC74i" is perhaps one of the most inexpensive IC, available in the market. Yet it is comparable to the best of such Ie's in respect of versatility and superb performance. It is, therefore, natural that there is hardly any electronic magazine in the world which does hot contain a project using this Ie. This book which is now in your hands contains 41 projects emp-loying this Ie. You will find the electrical details of this Ie in the book itself, which make them so versatile. These projects ~vill provide the hobbyist, the experimenter and even the professional, practical experience in making these projects. In this connection, we would like to emphasise two aspects: firstly, good soldering and the use of Ie Sockets. It is not proposed to go into the details of good soldering, but. please bear in mind badly""soldered jqints will invariably disappoint you in the performance, of the pro" ject, no matter how well the circuit is designed or how good are the individual components. Secondly, it is always a .good practice to use an IC,socket, wire it up and then insert the Ie in the socket in the CORRECT way. At this stage, it will be appropriate to indicate that this IC741 is not capable of driving a loudspeaker directly .. Its output is usually connected to an output amplifier stage. At times, however, this IG may be designed to actuate a pair of earphones. . "J'he author Mr. M.C: Sharma is not new to our readers. Suggestions for improvement will be gratefully received by him as wen as ourselves.' . Publishers

5. Intercom 17. Monostable Muliivibrator 26. INTRODUCTION 2. 3.. Multitone Bell 24. 9. 13. 12W Amplifier 18. ~4. Bistable Multivibrator 27. Electronic Siren 25. Pulse Generator 23. POWER SUPPLIES Inverting DC Amplifier Non-Inverting DC Amplifier Inverting AC Amplifier Non-Inverting AC Amplifier DC Voltage FoIIower AC Voltage Follower Xtal Pickup Preamplifier Magnetic Pickup Preamplifier Magnetic Mike Preamplifier Guitar Preamplifier Telephone Pickup Preamplifier Mixer Amplifier Tone Control Signal Tracer 3WAmplifier 16. 4. De Motor Control 19. 8.CONTENTS 1. Trigger: Pulse Generator 1. PRACTICAL PROJECTS 3. Schmitt Trigger 21. 11. 1 5 35 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 IO- n Ii 12 _11 ·14 15 13 15~ 16 17 17 20 2Q 23 18 19 21 22 23 . 15. 7. Square Wave Generator 22. 12. 10. 6. AC Motor Control 20. 2.

Negative Reference Voltage 36. Touch Controller 33. Positive Reference Voltage 35. Regulated Power Supply 37. Analog to Digital Converter 25 25 24 26 27 28 28 29 30 10 31 32 32 33 . AC Millivoltmeter 39. DC Voltmeter 38.28. Engine RPM Counter 41. Timer 30. PM Tuning Indicator 34. Light Operated Relay 31. Power Failure Indicator 32. Microampere Meter 40. Flasher 29.

A signal applied to this. 11 . . The second input is called a non-inverting input and is denoted by a plus sign. The Op Amp is now used as a basic gain element.!.e I I NON-INVSRfING INPUT (+>0-----1 i ~o------. 1. MQdem integrated 'circuit technology and large scale production techniques have brought down the prices of such am plifiers within reach of all amateurs..!. One input is called the inverting input and is denoted by a minus. ! I ..input appears at the output as an amplified signal which bas the same phase as that of the input signal..·1 INTRODUCTION An operational amplifier. often referred to as an Op Amp. like an elegant transistor.!. sign. Symbol for an Operational Amplifier.. fa ~~---------- ". in electronic circuits. The operational amplifier has two inputs and ooly one output. A symbol used to represent an operational amplifier in schematics is shown in Fig. A signal applied to this input appears as an amplified but phase inverted signal at the output.. experimenters and hobbyists. .-----Fig. is a' very high gain high performance amplifier designed to amplify ac and dc signal voltages.

. f TOP VIEW Of the different types of operational amplifiers p. On the other hand. 8-pin dual-in-tine or in TO-style.gJJtations .A5E Fig. Pin Confiiurations. 'l"OPVI.~. .Special effects are obtained by combination of both types of feedbacks. packages. 2.. Pin configurations TOP VIEW Fig._. for Type 74'!l Dual Op Amp..•for 741 0". if the feedback is applied to the non-inverting input. the result is a negative feedback which gives a stable amplifier with precisely controlled gain characteristics. type 741 has achieved a very wide popularity. It is available in 14-pin-dual_ in-line. . Amp.odueed. [fa feedback is applied from the output to the inverting input tenninal.aun these packages are shown in Fig. Pin Confi.c:W TO_I" VI~ I"IN4CONNECTE[) TO-<'. 3.. 2 The availabIlity of two input terminals simplifies feedback circuitry and makes the operation a] amplifier-a highly 'Versatile device. the result is positive feedback which-gives oscillators and multivibrators ..

as done. The operational amplifier needs a dual symmetrical power supply with its centre tap grounded as shown in Fig.0 0.3 nA Mil ·mV mV ± 15 . 12 etc. Typ. the de output voltage is zero. positive-.0 ± 18- 2. But this does. It is too small to be objectionable in normal applications. Its frequency response has a smooth roll-ofif at the high end which keeps the circuit fully stable in all feedback configurations. or negative. because of small internal unbalances.0 2. the output voltage can be set precisely to zero by connecting a 10k potentiometer between terminals marked "offset-null" as shown in figures 4 and S. This is usually done by raising the standing de input voltage to the Doninverting input. Thi~ enables the operational amplifier to amplify de signals of both polarity. with respect to ground. Max. Operational amplifier type 741 has many features that have made .• 3 Integrated circuit type 747 accommodates two type 741 operational amplifiers in a single package. The 741 <JoE. It is possible to operate the 741 on a single railsupply also.3..7 80 2. a small de voltage.8- V rnA 500 6. Pin configurations for different packages are shown in Fig. 1..terminal to approximately half the supply voltage b-y Ii voltage divider network. not matter because the de can be easily blocked by a capacitor allowing only the ac signal to be passed on to the next stage. it 50 popular. The circuit is so designed that if both inputs are connected to ground. Important technical parameters of type 741 are gjven below: Parameter _Supply Voltage Supply Current Input Bias Current Input Resistance Input Offset Voltage Offset Voltage Adjustment Range Min. It has a built-in circuitry that provides full protection against output overloads or eve~ sho_rts to greund for any length of time. The output dc voltage in such eases stands at half the supply voltage. For critical applications. However. in figures 11. Units ±5 1._S not need any external component for phase compeasaaon or adjusting its frequency responsevThis simplifies circuit design and minimises the number of components used. _ may appear at the output.

000 75 25 Max. Units V~ltage Gain Output Resistance Output Short Circuit Current Gain Bandwidth Product. Typ.S 50 85 1 MHz .000 n rnA O. The experimenter caa Choose the correct one for his project. 200.4 Parameter Min.VIps mW The next chapter shows forty-one practical projects using 741. Chapter 3 gives practical power ·supply arrangements to operate a 741 hom different types of primaIy power sources available. Slew Rate Power Consumption 20. Two or more of these can be combined to meet individual requiremeats. .

4 1'1.1. GerieTal Purpose Inverting DC Am:plifi~r.. phase inverted. 4.KHt Fig.!!! Rf 100 1 .2 INPUT Z "" INPIIT GAIN OUTPUT 1 -9Y = =. A generai-parpo. »: "" - . The maximum output: voltage swing is abOut-± 7 volts. BANDWIDTH lMHZ GAIN =10. the ratio of the feedback resistors Rl and R2. 4.se inverting type of de amplifier 'operating OD_ a dual synunetricalsupply qf ± 9V is &Downin Fig.2· PRACTICAL ~PROJEC'TS 1. The input sigal is applied to the 'inverting input terminal of the 741 and the outlntt signal is therefore. INVER11NGDCj\MPL~K . . The amplifier gain is decided b} . = -. The standing de OdtpUl: I voltage can be' -set exactly to zero by R4.

The standing ou~ut VOltagecan beset exactly to zero by R3.. General Pu.. 5. the gain of the amplifier is decided by the feedback resistors Rl and ~.IN oorvur 1 30 BANDWUTH . A general purpose non-inverting type of de amplifier operating on a dual symmetrical supply of ±9V is shown in Fig.• -9 Fig.rpos. lOOK R2 INPUT Z :> 1M .GAIN" -1+~ - R1 101 oareor INPln :::: BANDWIDTH 1 1 _ - lMHZ GAIN =10 'KHz Fig. 6. INPUT Z = ::: Rf 33K R2 . " 3.Rt GA. Since the input signal is applied to the noa-inverting input terminal of the 741. General Purpose Non-inverting DC Amplifier. The outpu.0 30KHz r J . AC AMPLIFIER R2 1M . The input impedance in this case is high but the signal source must provide a de ground path for the input bias current. the output signal has the same phase as that of the input signal. NON-INVERTING DC AMPLIFIER. INVERTING . voltage swing is limited tl1l approximately ± 7 volts. .: Inverting AC Amplifier. 5. As befor .6 2.

'+ R'2 R1 34 15HZ C1 6 OIITPur ~I'-J'_F_. has th~ same phase as that of the input signal.at' a frequency where reactance ofCl e"'}ualsR3. . the standing de can' be Set exactly to iero by R4.nest stage tbrougb-a J_ capacitor.. NON-INVERTING AC AMPLIFIER R2 • 3. The amplifier gajn'falls by 3 dB at afrequcncywhere the reactance of Cl becomes-equal to Rl.JOK INPUT Z = = = lOOK GAIN .. Ii) shows a general purpose inverting type of acamplifier'. The amplifier gain is decided by the ratio of the feedback components R1 and RZ. can 4.ff is decided by Cl . Fig. OenentiPurpcse -1 BAtDVlO'I'H =- to 30KHz NOD-mvertmgAC Amplifier_ A general purpose Don-inverting type of ac amplifier is sbO\lr"D·in .lt sign@l is applied to the plus input of 741 and ~e output therefore.gain can be setto any value by choosing R1 and R2 but~the:._'~ provIDes a di: grmmd patJi to ~e bias current.7 Fig. Amplifier. The inPt. 7.. As the input signal is applied to the inverting input terminal. Th~-giin faUs by 3 dB.For direct coupling to the next stage. The low-frequency ron". the lower will be bandwidth.._~ INPUT 1 FJg. 7.higher the gaip. -c- . of t~e amplificJ. the output signal is phase inverted. R4 may be omitted if the amplifier ou~t is to be coupled to the . for ac coupling via a capacitor. R4 be - o~tted.

9. The signal input source must provide a direct path to ground of less than lOOk ohms for io:put bias current. Voltage divider netwoJ!k of R1 and R2 An ac coupled unity gain voltage follower operating on a single .. AC-Coupled Voltage Fgllower. sUl!ply i.S shown in Fig..• the input impedance is very high. 9. The circuit is useful for impedance transformation... INPuT C2 ~6~+-O~. The frequency response extends up to Ilvfi-Iz. 1 GAIN BAN. 8.:JTPUT Z /jIJTPlJr 1 OHM Ii/pur 1 Fig. 6. DC VOLT AGE FOLLOWER INPUT Z = VERi < . The circuit can deliver load current up to 10 milliamperes. HIGI-j Oi. 8. AC VO~TAGE FOLLOWER +9103()V R1 M Cl ~i~.DWIDTH == 1 MH~ A direct coupled unity gain voltage foDower is shown in Fig.:. and the output impedance isvcry low. Because of hundred"-per cent negative feedback . 1M 1 1'12 r OUfPUT Fig. Unity Gain DC Voltage Follower.4~ ~~ 0..8 5.1 F __ ~ .

.9 provides a de voltage equal to half the supply voltage to the 000inverting input of the 741.. 'The circuit is basically a non-inverting ac amplifier (see Fig. "'Voltage diYider-networkcomprising of RI. fre-' 1~ XTAL PICKUP PREAMPLIFIER . R2 and R5 provide a' . The input impedaneeis e. The output signal swings above and below this value.. ~~3f~f INPur ~~~ 1'12 22K -4 ooreor 1 1 Fig.qllal . the output impedance is very Jaw.9K +9 to30V lOf C2 FI + C1. the lower will be Ute: gain.e. 1) in which the gain is dependent on the feed back resistorR4.. . For low quency applications Cl and C2 can be replaced by .nt negative feedback. 1'14 K RS :s.input of 741. 10. A preamplifier operating on a single supply and suitable for use with high impedance type crystal pkku~ is shown in Fig .:{)ff characteristics are-decided by C3.to the value of R1 and R2 in parallel.10. The smaller is the R4. Preamplifier for a Crystal Pickup. . de bias of about half the supply voltage to the non-iaverting . . The standing de voltage at pin 6 does not matter because the output is coupled to the next stage via a eapacitor.: capacitors of large values. 500k ohms-in this case.-The output de voltage therefore stands at ha1f the supply voltage.electsolytic.i. The de output at pin 6 therefore stands at half'the supply voltage. The low-frequency tolJ.1. Beeause ofhundrea per ce.

11. MAGNETIC PICKUP PRlAMPLIFIER . R3. 11.002.. TIm amplifier gainis decided. 1 R3 1M r C-5 OIJTPVr Fig. . by· the feedback . R5 and C3 form a supply line filter to reduce the hum level and also to eliminate motorboating incase the preamplifieris operated on a common supplywitb other circuits. The output at pin 6 therefore stands at half the supply voltage.to compensate for the pickup characteristics. 8. R4 and R5 form a voltage divider to give a bias of about haJf the supply voltage to the non-inverting input of 741.eompcnenss in which C2 CoDtro~ the low frequencY rolloff characteristics while ~ reduces the ~ at high frequency end.F C4 lK R1 '" INPUi '::eo .10 R5 and C2 form a supply line filter to reduce the hum level as weil as to reduce the chances of motorboatmg when the preamplifier is operated on a common power supply. Preamplifier for MagneticPickup . The 741 is used as an ae coupled non-inverting amplifier operating on a single supply . A preamplifier for magneticpiekups of record players is shown in Fig..

The circuit operation is yery similar to that of Fig. MAGNETIC MIKE'PREAMPLIFIER Rl 1K 5!}K R2 ItJPlJr 1 RS toox r for Magnetic Mit. Preamplifier ""Fig.'l'Qpaone. 11. Preamplifier for Electric Guitar. GUITAR PREAMPL~ Fig. 12 shows a preamplifier operating on a single supply and suitable for magnetic microphones. The output can be accoupled-to the next stage via a capacitor- 10.11 9. 12. 13. / . OUTPUT Fig.

. it picks up inductively both sides of telephonic con. 'brilliant" or 'soft' tonal effects . 13. Preamplifier for TeJephone Pickup. Variable resistor R4 sets tbe gain and the circuit delivers sufficient outputto drive an earphone directly. 14. Switch Swl is used to' produce.12 A preamplifier suitable for use with high impedance type electric guitar pickups is shown in Fig.IFJER Fig. If a bigh impedance coil with: open magnetic core is placed near a telephone instrument or near one of the telephone wires. Potentiometer R6 forms the tone control..any electrical contact. 11.. A preamplifier suitable for amplifying tiny signals picked up by the coil is shown in Fig. TELEPHONE PICKUP PREAMP:t. The circuit is basically similar in operation to those shownin figures 10 and 11.(ersation without . 14. The circuit is basically an inverting: amplifier similar in operation to figure 6.

' 10" F 4. 17.7K Rl .. The output can be eitherac or dc coupled to the ne~ stage.. 14. ".A diooeioputprobe at the input will convert this audio sip) tracer intO an r:f s~cer. & +6. . The tone control network ' is insetted in the negative feedback path.gain nnD-inverting amplifiet its output ..isamplified -by a complementary pair Tl and 1'2 to drive :a loudspeaker.- -Fig. and . The audio output is enough to serve as a signal traeer . .. It provides about 15dB of Bass and Treble cut and boost with respect to the gain at the mldfrequency of 1000 Hz. 1be 741 is used as a.n ~mitter junction of Tl and 1'2 stabilises the ampJifier de voltages '!lid its gain.sb-. . 16. iO lOOK 6-. An overall negative feedback from the COlIUllO. 11.. The circuit is basically an inverting ~ amplifier operating on a single supply. SIGNAL tRACER -\ . . A high gain aolplifier operating on " battery pack of 6 or 9 volts and suitable for use as a signal tracer is shown in Fig..A preamplifier circuit providing independent Bass and Treble tone controls is sbown in Fig. Signal Tracer.Jli. .o9V G1+f ..

""".---. L.. -.§~N~H_ES -. . .DC blas for the non-inverting input terminals of beth operarioaar amplifiers is provided by R7 and R8.J Flg. _._-+-...15 15.12volts is shown in Fig. The output of second 741 if amplifie<iby cOmplementary transistor pair rt and 12. The fre-quenc-y response extends to 30 kHz and the circuit needs an input -signal. .___. The first 741 isused as a tone. INTERCOM 10K r R7 "$WI. A general purpose 3 watt audio amplifier f!peniting on '8 single supply of ....5 volts for full power output.. 18.:. 16.TALit ~c...3W AMPLIFIER RIO 270~ - 1':7 lK' • • Fig... ~ .41. 3 Watt Audio Amplifier. 16) and is directly coupled to the next 7.. .Two position Intei"tQm.of about 0. SW2 = PIJSII-It> .control circuit (see Fig. 19._ . 18.

T4. 20. 20 shows a 12 watt audio amplifier operating on a dual symmetrical supply of ± 12 volts. Since R6 is connected to the ground. 19.16 An intercom circuit operating ana dual symmetrical mains operated' power supply is Shown in Fig. An overall dc negative feedback from the common collector junction of::n and T4 stabilises the dc conditions of the circuit and keeps the junction point at zero volts. 1'2 and TI. The input signals for the Darlingtons are derived from the supply current of the 741. Fig. 12W AMPLIFIER • 1. the positive or negative signal currents also pass through R4 or R5. the speakers serve as microphones also. The 741 provides the required gain while the speaker drive is provided by the complementary Darlingtons Tl. The first 741 is used as a microphone preamplifier and the second 741 with Xl and T2 form a power amplifier similar to those shown in figures 17 and 18. Hence. . In this circuit. A bridge rectifier and filter capacnnrs C3 and C4 provide the 'dual symmetrical supply. The figure shows ooly two positions but any number can be added in a similar manner. A 12 Watt Amplifier.'JPlJ r 1 Fig. no coupling capacitor is required for the speaker. The voltage drop across these resistors serves as the input signal to the transistor pairs. 17. Resistors &1 and R2 serve-as individual volume controls.

Such 'a circuit is suitable for antenna rotators and similar applications .• Basically. the circuit is a de amplifier (see Figs. Resistor R7 sets the system sensitivity and PQte~tiometers R2 and R3 control the speed and direction of rotation. . 22. 4 and 5) followed by a direct coupled power amplifier comprising of transistor pairs TI. 21. 21 shows-a circuitfot oontinuous remote control otspeed and direction of rotation of a de motor. AC MOTOR -CONTROL Fig.17 18. DC MOTOR CONTROL Fig. Fig. T4. Speed Control of AC Motor. De Motor Control. I 19. T3 and T2.

SCHMITI TRIGGER 1'<1 10CI( - o- RB 5:6K .6K . Fig S. A Schmitt Trigger. The-difference between the Vonind Voff voltages is called 'hysteresis'. lienee. Schmitt triggers are useful in converting slowly rising waveforms into fast-rising ones and in relay like applications. within limits. -23. Fig. TIle first 741 is used as a square wave generator (see Fig. Because of heavy . The circuit operates on a single power supply. this stage converts the square waves into triangular waveforms whjch is almost as suitable as a sine wave for driving the motor. -6 OlJrPlJT ~3 100K ~--~------------~~----------~----~--o_ ov Fig. 20. 22 sho\V~ a circuit which can control the speed of a small 10 volt ae motor by varying the supply frequency from 30 Hz to 120 Hz. circuit shows two distinct signal input le_veisjor turning the circuit 'on' and 'off. the speed of an ac motor can be controlled by varying the frequency. '24) whose frequency ean be varied by Rl.capacidve negative feedback.18 TIle speed of an ae motor depends on tile frequency of supply voltage. Complementary transistor pair Tl and 1'2 provides the required drive to the motor. A Schmitt trigger.. The second 741 is used as an integrator.

The larger the ratio.5 K/'Iz IO/(/'Iz pOF lOOK R4 .50/lz 2.. 2. Voltage dividers R8 and _R9 set the -de input voltage to the non-inverting input. Potentiometer R2 sets the de voltage to the inverting input terminal and thus sets the threshold voltage at which the signal will trigger the circuit.ratio of R6 andR7.tickly to the fully positive output value.24: Wide Range Square WaV¢Generator. when the negative voltage across Cl falls below that at pin 3.3 rtJLIL Of/TP-UT 0. the output quickly switches tofuUy negative voltage. .a'?z). R6 and R7 for fast Switching. 24 . the smallerwllI be the ~hysten:sisshown tiy the circuit. The fre- .1}'F . The circuit D. When the voltage across Cl rises above that at the junction of R3 and R4. Clnow starts discharging and charges in the opposite direction.0. The input signal can be applied to either of the two input terminals.Se$ positive feedback for Schmitt trigger action and negative feedback for timing of the waveform. Again. The table in the figpre gives the relationship between the .OlpF rOHz 'QOHz' 10K a.ircuit switches back qt.. A wide range square wave generator using a 741 is shown in Fig. 23 uses a 74Jwith positive feedback via voltage. Cl now starts charging via R2 and RI. The amount of positive feedback depends on the. 500Hz Fig_.:~ues of Cl and th~ frequency ranges covered. the c:. The cycle repeats endlessly.terminal to halfthe'sHpply The-circuit shown in Fig. SQUARE WAVE GENERATOR R2 ~ FR~QUEiJCY MIN 1 Hz CI I MAX 25".19 _R5. "Let us Presume that the output is high and the capacitor Cl is completely discharged. "21.

. The wide range pulse generator shown in Fig. A three-tone circuit using a741 is shown in Fig.2D queney range can be changed by altering the-ratio af R3 and R4. R3 and D2. . C1 Fig. PULSE GENERATOR. through the same resistors.R 1 and discharges through Rl.26. The period for which the output is 'higlt' or 'low' can now becontrolled independently by lt2'and R3. Thus the pulse width and the time interval between the pulses can bec. 23. Cl therefore charges tbrough Dt. MULTITONE BELL A multitone call bell saves -up and down trips by distinguishing between calls made from the front door or back door or a side entrance. 24 ex&pt that the charge and discharge paths of Cl have been separated by diodes Dl and D2. 25 is similar in operation to the square wave generator of Fig. 25.ltr:>lled to produce pulses of any duty ratio and repetition fate by choosing Cl correctly and adjusting R2 and R3 properly.. R2 and. A Wide RangePulseGenerator.. the output is a synimetrical square wave. Since th~ capacitor Cl ebarges and discharges. 22..

The output of amplified by a complementary transistor pair T1 and 1'2 to give tone in. The circuit is basically a square wave generator (see Fig. tOol< Rl . 100~ II~~ fI~ 1'19 lOOt< 1001< O. C2 O. 27: Electronic Sir-en.Olyf 1'14 . 26. Fig. 101<. Multitone Bell. R2 and R3 produce different when any of the three call buttons is pressed. which the three resistorsRl. ELECTRONIC SIREN 1M '12 4-12\1 'I'. the speaker.21 LS a~ Hg. 24) in tones 741 is a loud 24. ..(.1jf R5 tOOK 1(101< c..

0. Different and interesting tones can be obtained by changing the frequency determining components viz· Cl.5 Fig. d!e siren will be turned on and off periodically. The output ther.01 so 5 0..5 0'1 . C2 and R6. A Monostable Multivibrator. A monostable multivibrator using a 741 and operating' GO a dual symmetricel power supply is shown in Fig. quickly goes fully positive and capacitor C2 starts charging through R2. . Such circuits are useful in timing applications. The periods for different values of C2 and R2 are shown in tne table.. 28. Tt and the loudspeaker.~ F 10 m.Dlal value.$ 0·5 0. For example if the value of Clis made large.asfuUy chatged. Normally.22 Another application of the square wave generator (see Fig. the ontputof whicb modulates the high frequenay tone produced by the second 741 multivibrator.. The first 741 is a low frequency multivibrator. R2.. The voltage developed across R2 by the charging current maintains the output to its high value: Wlien C2l:J.... ready to be triggered by the next inpU:~ pulse. to .n.$ C2 . A sharp negative going pulse at the input tenninallowers the voltage at pin 2 to a value below that pin 3.----<. when triggered once. 28.--..'at I i . 27. =r4!l" \100 INPur 0. the charging current drops and the circuit quickly retu~ to its normal position. the output at pin 6 stands at its fUlly negative value. The output of a monostable multivibrator.efote.__ __ + 5 15V R2 .. 25.uT0Ji. 24) is the electronic siren shown in Fig. The final output is amplified and converted into a loud siren sound by. Rl keeps the de voltage at pin 2 higher than tbat on pin 3 and hence. remains high for a predetermined 'period and then falls back to its npJ. MONOStlBLE MULTIVIB_.

17. 29.-----------t_R3 100l( R2 470K Hi Fig.01]1 ('. high (output fully positive) or low (output fully negative) till the 'state is changed by a trigger pulse ..to its previous position. IIiPI/T-. A Bistable Multivibrator.. 29..----------_. Ol/TPI/..:_~F"'t-.. ..widt~ Pul s e widti1 ~--_~~~±OV 10 10K P...F = 11')]1 )ec. = 1 y. A bistable muhivibrater using a 741 is shown in Fig. C2 =. Positive and Negative Pulse Generator.-_+9 to 15V OUrp"T 10'1<.J 0----11--"" --Rl L. TRIGGER"PULSE GENERATOR R2 lOOK . The ~cuit output wiU remain latched in that position tifl the next pulse of the proper polarity is applied. BISTABLE MUI. R6 RS -9 ~rIY'- -4 F Pulo. Similarly. 'the latching action is obtained by a small amount of positive' feedback provided byR2 and ro.. 30. Such circuits are useful in centrol applications. a positive pulse atlnput-lor anegativepulse atinput-2 will change the output state from high to low. A negative trigger pulse at input-l or a positive pulse at input-z will change the output from low to high.TIVIBRATOR Cl ~1-5. The output in this case remains latched .23 26..pc_ Fig. __ --. INPI/T-.".. L_.2 = ·OOly.

If an LED is connected to the output as shown in the figure. FLASHER Fig. 30. The output at tbe collector is differentiated by C2. A circuit that provides sharp positive or negative going pulses repetitively is shown in Fig. 24j w. the circuit becomes a tiny flasher. For tlashing230 volts lamps. . replace the lamp in the emitter circuit of T2 by a relay and a diode combination 3. 31. 24) operating on a single supply.nose frequency is controlled by R1. omit R6 and the LED and connect transistors Tl and T2 in a compound emitter follower configuration. The output pulses can be used to trigger multivibratots either directly or through coupling capacitors. Electronic Flasher. provides sufficient drive to the lamp. . the 741 is used as a square wave generator (see Fig. Resistor R4 sets the flashing 'rate.via R5 and a zener diode. Dl and R9 to give a positive going pU:lse. 1'2.24 the monostable and the bistable multMbrators require sharp pulses for their triggering. and 28". For making a high power flasher.and by CZ. The 741 is used as a square wave generator (see Fig. D2 R8 to give a negative going pulse. In tbe electronic flasher shown in Fig.5 shown in Fig. 32. 31. The output of741 is directly coupled to Tl.

The supply to the 741 is applied either through the START switch or through the Kl.. 30.therefore almostze. A momentary touch on the START switch applies powerto the 741. When the voltage across CI exceeds that at pin 3.rgi.. 33 will SWitch'offa relay When the light falling on the LDR (Light Dependent Resist-or) falls below a certain intensity.t. r In the timer circuit of Fig. interru. 32. The output at pin 6 is. When the light intensity increases above a ccrt. It can be used as an obstacle When tbdight intensity is low" the LDR resistance is high and so.S. The stand-by power consumption of the circuit is zero and hence. The ciremt IS now ready for next timing cycle. L .. is zero because ci is completely discharged. . voltage at pin 2. P Iy line and Cl quickly discharges through D1 and Tl. because of alarm. and the voltage at pin 3 is about 2/3 of the supply voltage . Capacitor Cl now charges slowly through Rl and R2 . the 741 is used as a voltage comparator.edThiS... the voltage at pin 2 falls below that at pin 3 and.ro and the relay is open. Blectronic Thner. th.. ooot'acts' of a DPDT relay.. is the voltage at pin 2. .~th~ ~UP-W. At this time. . TIMER Fig. 32. the input.ay is de-ene . LIGHT OPERATED RELAY The light operated circuit shown in Fig.Uo value.~-- 25 29. the output of 741 goes to ~bnOstzero an d th. The output of 741 is therefore fully positive and the relay latches.e arrangement is' suitable for battery operation..e ~l. .

. The dotted lines-show theeonnections for a latching action. .during switch ott... Light Operated Relay.. 23) and the consequent hysteresis eliminates the relay chatter..:. the output quickly rises to fully positive value.. This energises the relay.. Power Failure Indicator.. if required. In that case.-~------~ I ~-9'to24V I I I ______ .-0 I I I ---. 34. The diode in parallel with the relay protects the transistor from hl~voltages induced in the -relay coil .26 ~-----r----~--------. the circuit can be de-energised by interrupting the _supplyline momentarily. . I I I "ELAV_' 700 . positive feedback.. 31. -ov Fig... POWER FAn. 33.-- n U ~-- v' J I ...Schmitt trigger action (see Fig.URE INDICATOR RESEr 0=1 01 lN40()1 Fig.R5 introduces a . 'The positive feedback via.

However.024V Pt~rt'5 1M R1 rOIlCH '00:1( R. 35 gives a de output voltage which can be varied by touchingtwo pairs of touch contacts. a digital clock owner must know that the clock has to be'reset 10 correct time. Pressing the reset button makes pin 3 voltage-higher than that at pin 2 and the output swings high . When the supply is interrupted all voltages fall to zero.! Fig.6 volts lower than the supply voltage. The circuit stays in tbis state till the reset button is pressed. Positive feedbac$ via R2 makes the circuit latch in this state. holds the voltage at the non-inverting input low. Th~ circuit. Upon festoration of the supply the inverting input is immediately pulled up to its previous voltage. 35.ge-controlled attenuators an~amplifiers. For example. When the .27 Manyctrcuits. ~--~--------~-------------?----------~+ 6 . . The LED is therefore not lit. the voltage at pin 2 of741 is 0..supply is switched OQ. in Fig. via D1. especiaUy digital systems must have a continuous power supply to ensure correct operation. The output of 741 therefore swings low thereby lighting the LED. Touch Control1er~ The simple touch c{)ntroUer shown in Fig. 34 indicates power failure by a glowing LED. Ct being uncharged. again .. It may beused to drivea variety of vcltage-eontrolled circuits such as voltage-controUed oscillators! volta.

If the lower pair of touch centacts is bridged by a finger. . keep the voltages at pins 2 'and 3 equal. POSITIVE REFERENCE VOLTAGE Fig. The net effect is that the output The 741 is used as an invettingmtegrator. The output voltage therefore stands at half the supply voltage. FMTuning'Indicator.pin 2 oftbe Ie falls. 36. The-input terminals can be connected directly in place of the meter. the voltage at . to keep tbis vtiltage equal to that at pin 3.'The non-iDvertinginput ci bf voltage can be controlled by the fOuch on the tw. 36 shows a circuit that can replace a centre-zero tuning indicator meter in FM receiver. an 34. The integrating action of the Ie tries. the output . . An example to use the output voltage for making a voltage controlled attenuator using a lamp and an LDR is·also shown in the figure. by R2.0 pairs: of contacts. Hence.28 is held at half the supply vQItage by R2 and R3.indication sensitivity is set. replace 741 with aFET input op-amp . to input bias current of 741 the output voltage will tend to drift with time. ar action in the opposite direction takes place when the upper pair contacts is bridged by a finger. Fjg. Due. like S356C. FM TUNING iNDICATOR R2 :BOK II/PI'" 1 Fig. The reference voltage can be set to precise values by R2. Correct tuning h indicated when both the LED's are off.voltage rises and' the charging curreat ~jUgh ~d Rl tries to. The . 37 shows a variable positive voltage reference supply. For long term stability. A s' .33.

w Z~I)~r + RtF. 37.E IIEFEi?.I: out = Fig.E eosrnv« ourpuT 1~!.er (see Fig. except that it operates on a negative supply and provides: iii negative reference voltage output.C.29 3. 3.3V. 38. Basically. Rl -~-- Fig. 4O:O". The circuit shown in Fig.I'ICI! oarrur I VO"'" _"R!+R2 n. 4 and S) in which the negative feedback 'is via a zener diode. also given in the figUre. 31. the 'output voltage 'is determined by the formula given in the figure. NEG" TlVE REFERENCE VOLTAGE NEf. The formula for the de output is . thecircuit is a dc ~plifi. Within Ibnits.E. 38 operates' in a manner similar to that in Fig. Negative Voltage Refel'eo.!'REN..~ +5 '1Q ourrur t .A TIV. POiitive Volta~ Refere~ee Supply.5.ce Supply.

Voltage Regulated DC Power Supply. _ a "37•. If the Joad current exceeds lA. Thus the output gets regulated. All the load eurrent flows through R6. REGULATEDPOWE'RSUPPLY BV126 D1 Fig.and 1'2. The non-inverting input terminal of 741 is given a stable voltage by R3 which is the control to set the output. The voltage regulated Power supply shown in Fig. 40.ng input terminal. the voltage drop across R6 exceeds 0. DC ·'vQLTMETER A high impedance de voltmeter using a 741 is shown in Fig. D3. A fraction of the regulated output isfed back via·R4 andR5 to the inverti. The operational amplifier adjusts its output voltage so as to keep the voltage at the input terminals equal. Rectifier diodes D 1 and D2 along with filter capacitor Cl provide the main unregulated supply. The output voltage therefore starts falling when the load current exceeds lA. The operational amplifier is usedas a non-inverting deamplifier (see . Any of the output terminals can be grounded to get positive or anegative voltal{e with respect to the ground.6 volts and 1'3 starts conducting. 39 provides an adjustable voltage output at a load current up to lAo The supply has it built*in overload protection. This bypasses the supply to T1 and T2'and the regulating a~'On stops. R8 and a zener diode provide a negative voltage supply for the 741. C2. 3~.)0 36. compound emitter follower T1. The output of 741 is amplified by a .

5) in which the negative feedback is through a de meter requiting lmA for full scale deflection. ACMiUivoltmeter.1'001( tOOK 11'2 Full $<"'~ VQII<i. 38. viz 0. 40. The at J.Ilillivoltmeter shown in Fig. Since R6 is 100 ohms.3. Fig. Diodes Dl arid 02 protect the Ie from accidental excessive input voltages and diodes D3 and D4 protect the meter from overloads.1 volts. High Impedance DC V-ohmeter..0"" IV fOV ~C 1M Fig.1I5t:G/~ V"/t. barrier voltage of .~" soo« . AC MILLIVOLTMETER 1'<2 F'!.g ~~ (".OM rOM n lev '01711 to -9V I( Fig. 41 uses a 741 as an inverting amplifier. the meter will show full scale reading when the de input voltage to pin 3 is equal to the voltage drop across R6.1 193 R2 R3 10K 111 . The operational amplifier output overcomes the. 41.or 1~F INPUT Rt IK 10K TOOK 112 1M 1M 1M 1M 1"mV . The negative feedback is through a bridge rectifier and R2. Choice of Rl and R2 for getting different voltage ranges are shown in the tabJe.

MICROAMPERE METER II lOOK 10K IK FgII S€.A -9V 100. the voltage acrossthe contacts is converted . 39.1 V input.32 the diodes and gives linear rectification characteristics.. The current to be measured is passed through a known resistance' R and the voltage drop across it is measured. The table in the figure shows the relationship between different values of R and the current that will give full scale deflection. Choice of Rl and R2 for getting different ranges are shown in the table. R4 100 Fig. 42. The input signal is taken from the contact points of the engine. 40. . Capacitor Cl differentiates these square waves and sharp pulses are applied to the inverting input of 741. 42 is basically a de millivoltmeter similar to that shown in Fig. gives a pulse of fixed amplitude .1\. 43 indicates the RPM of an engine on a meter.".a pulse stretcher. The 741.into square waves by Dl and D2. ENGINE RPM COUNTER by deflection The analog meter shown in Fig. 40. Calibration control R7 is set by applying known voltage at the input and adjusting R7 till the meter reads the correct voltage. As the contacts make and break.f:J/~ aUFr. The microampere meter shown in Fig. Zener diodes D3 and DAprovide a regulated supply to the IC as welJ as provide a mid point fOI giving half the supply voltage to the non-inverting' input terminal. acting as. The eircuit gives full seale deflection for 0. Microammeter. I)' A 10jlA 100pA I".

M. Symbol for Put and Put Equivalent.7V 03 l°:t:r CJ 132 5~ V l_ ~----~ L_ ----~--~--- oX Fig. and fixed duration for each input pulse. ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER- G l" I I I C'\J I ~ I L. urr.lJNctIQ... For some particular setting.N T"<AN5ISTOR SYMBOL OF f'<l(lGRAM MABLE UNUUNCTION ' TRANSISTOR J. the engine RPM .f I > _ K UtJI. RPM COunter.._.Q'IoIIV"L£NT CIRCUIT OF PROGRAMMABLE l:INf..are measured by a stroboscope and R6 is set till the meter reads the same RP]I.33 1<5 330-"+12V 4.QN TI'lAN. These pulses are rectified by D5 and D6 and the average current through the meter is directly proportional to the engine RPM. 41.15TOR Fig. ....)UNCTI.1. 43.

34 The analog-to-digital converter shown in Fig. R4 is used to "Set'tbeinput signal tbreshofd to reject noise etc. When -a negative de input signal is applied to the inverting input via R'l. 44. As soon as the voltage across the capacitor C2 reaches a certain value. This fraction is the characteristic of the UJT -and is specified by the manufacturer . Patentieraeter R8 is-set to give a convenient multiplier s~ 100 or 1000 so that a digita1. Two complementary transistors can also be connected in a regenerative manner to give Pl}T like operatiorr characteristics. hi Fig.can be set to a desired value by 'application of a_Be voltage to the. . 45 the 14115 used as an integrator. The symbo Ifor a PDT is shown in Fig.count~r diFeedy-indicates tbe input voltage. 45. The capacitor s:hargingeurrent is given by Vio/tll. let us see bow a PUT works. As the circuit uses a PUT (programmable Unijunctfon Transistor). the PUT fires. 45. the output voltage at pin 6 falls to zero and the-cycle starts again.fraction of the total supply voltage (Vl+vi).alteredand.gate of the PUT. Analog to D~gital Converter.gives a saw tooth output signal whose frequency is directly proportional to -the ma@itude ordc input voltage. A unijunctton transistor fires when the 'voltage Vi between its emitter and base two (see Fig. Fig. IB a_PUT this fraction can be. the output' voltage starts rising linearly and capacitor C2st_artscbarging. thflrefol'e the frequency of the output signal is directly pro pertien a1to the input signal voltage. 44) is a certain.

Half Wave Rectifier. +15V to". . '" -I5V lamo txl~F ±ov Fig.3 .: POWER SUPPLIES In most of the applications. the operational amplifiers require a dual supply. L -For mains operation different circuit configurations are given below: 01 Fig.o . Full Wave Rectifier. The current drawn by a 741 under no load conditions is about 3 rnA only and the sinrptest power supply for its operation is a pack of two batteries connected as -shown in Pi'g. 47. 46.

ment can be used to give a dual low current supply from a high voltage ' ". ] Fig.+0---__1'--_o+ 1K A simple half-wave rectifier giving a dual output is shown ip Fig. A dual supply using two zener diodes as -'regulatorS/ as wen as splitters is shown in Fig. 48. A much better arrangement consuming very little stand-by power is to use an operational amplifier as shown in Fig.__~~--------_o-~ (b) V Fig. 48b. as shown in Fig. provides enough regu'ia~on economically. Zener RegulatedDua1 Supply. 50. 49. Fpr low current requirements a zener diode. +~--~---------~--------_o+~ 2 lK &---+----. A similar arrange- de-supply as shown in Fig. 47 gives lesser hum and better load and supply regulation. a bridge connected as shown in Fig.36 46 _A full-wave rectifier using . Voltage Splitters. positive and negative with respect to ground. A floating supply can be split up in two voltages. 49. 48a by a resistive divider. .

A series eapaciser is used as a voltage dropping device in place of a resistor.from a. . . '. 51...5 V .. Supplytfom High Voltage AC Source.Fi: - 70' ~F='" +ov i '-.1W- :Jaov oa 3.c_.~ZM". ~ ~r!Zril'lJ.. 50. . 37 10K S'W 10K SW 1K lW .? 2..1NI/ 15V Fig..Op Amp" Supply.f-1' +lSV + !II RUT 15V."...20 Fig. High Voltag~ DC Source. +15V . Op Amp.. - 250Jl. Fig 51 shows a transfottnerless dsal low voltage power sl1pply for operational amplifiers.32j. lSV. Sucharrangements are good only for low current requirements.F~ 7DV ~--~--~~--~M---'_--------~-15V BY1.

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