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Chapter

1

The Nature and Importance of Entrepreneurs

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Development of Entrepreneurship
Earliest Earliest Period- Marco Polo Middle Middle Ages- Theater, Architectural Works 17 17th Century- Mississippi Company 18 18th Century- Edison & Whitney 19 19th & 20th Centuries
 Organize/Operate  Innovation

1-3 McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights rese

Environmental Factors Affecting Organizations
Hypercompetition Changing Technology Short Product Life Cycles New Markets Changing Employee Drives/Motives Focus on Sales/Profits Available Capital
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Economies
Market-Oriented
UNITED STATES

Controlled
CUBA

Market Conditions

Innovation Orientation

Investment Community

Entrepreneurship Culture

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Market Conditions
Large Market Easy To Form Company Positive Tax Structure Positive Media Coverage Code of Business/Contract Law Strong Gov’t Agencies- No Corruption Standard-Setting Associations Individual Investment Mentality
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Principles for Successful New Venture
1) Define Market 2) Durable Products18 Month Customer Payback 3) Market Growth = 3050% in 5 Years 4) Patent Protection 5) No Product Substitutions Available 6) Products Variants 7) No Strong Competition Present
8) Quick Market Dominance 9) Gross Margin 30-50% 10)Staged Financing 11)ROI = 10X in 5 Years (25-30%/Year) 12)Positive Cash Flow in 18 Months 13)Strong Management in Industry
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Infrastructure Needed for Innovation
Long-Term Thinking Investment Community
Banks Venture Capitalists Informal/Informed Private Investors (Angels)
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Entrepreneurship Culture
More New Ventures Than Anywhere In The World Concentrated Areas
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Successful Entrepreneur
Initiates Creation Process Devotes Time/Effort Assumes Risk Receives Rewards
• Independence • Satisfaction • Money
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Entrepreneurial Decision
Present Lifestyle Catalyst New Enterprise
Desirable Possible
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Drivers of New Venture Formation
Desirability Influences
 Culture/Subculture  Family/Peers  Teachers

Possibility Factors
 Government  Background  Marketing  Role Models  Finances
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Types of Startups
Lifestyle Foundation High Potential Gazelles
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Entrepreneur & Economic Development
 Product-Evolution Process  Iterative Synthesis  Innovation
 Technological  Breakthrough  Government

 Technology Transfer  Intrapreneurship vs. Entrepreneurship
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Product Evolution
Need Recognition Industrial

Initiate Innovation

Development

Press To Invent
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Careers/Education
Life Space
 Work/Occupation  Individual/Personal  Nonwork/family

Skills Required
 Technical  Business Management  Personal
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Skills Required of Entrepreneur
Technical
Writing Oral Communication Monitoring The Environment Use Technology

Business Management
Planning Decision Making Human Relations Marketing (Selling)

Personal
Inner Control Risk Taking Innovative Change-Oriented Visionary
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Ethics & Social Responsibility
Ethics- Behavior/Morals in Business Value System
 Peer Pressure  Social Norms  Competitors  Individual vs. Community
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Future
Entrepreneurial Education Government- Promotion Society’s Support Corporate Intrapreneurship
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Entrepreneurial Universities
 Activities
 Seminars  Consulting  Research  Case Development  Technology Development & Transfer  Joint Ventures & Strategic Alliances
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 Structures

 Inputs
    

 Business Assistance Centers  Incubators  Innovation Centers  Industrial Parks  Enterprise Development Centers  Venture Capital Exchanges Guest Lectures Board of Advisors/Trustees Internships Student Projects Source of Funds

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