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UNDERTAKEN AT NIIT CALABAR CENTER
No. 20 IBB Way, Calabar, C.R.S. FROM AUGUST 2010 TO FEBRUARY 2011. BY
ABARA, DANIEL NSOR (06/EEN/001)
SUBMITTED TO THE SIWES COORDINATOR, DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, CROSS RIVER UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY (CRUTECH), CALABAR, NIGERIA.
TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.0 SIWES 1.1 The Company 1.2 Objective and Scope of this report CHAPTER TWO: REPAIRS AND MAINTENANCE/ASSEMBLY 2.0 Introduction to Computer Hardware/Software 2.1 Tools and Materials used in Maintenance 2.2 Basic Components and their functions 2.3 Troubleshooting
CHAPTER THREE: ORACLE DATABASE ADMINISTRATION 3.0 Meaning of Database 3.1 ORACLE Database Management System: 3.1.0 Structure Query Language 3.1.1 Basic Administration 3.1.2 Backup and Recovery
CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.0 Overview of Experience Gained/Problems Encountered 4.1 Conclusion 4.2 Recommendations
ABSTRACT This SIWES report gives details about all the work carried out and the relevant experience gained at NIIT, Calabar, Center. During my six months attachment at NIIT Calabar Center, I was involved in several activities. Firstly, I was assigned to assist the repairs and maintenance engineer. We were involved in repairs and general maintenance of computer components within the center in Calabar. Also, since I was a former student at NIIT, and having being certified as an Oracle Professional before now, I was assigned a class to teach, as part of my Industrial Training. Several softwares like ORACLE Universal Installer, Windows Server 2003 and other tools were used during my attachment at NIIT. This report gives concise information on all the subjects afore mentioned, and defines clearly the experience gained. It also highlights some problems I encountered during the process of acquiring this experience, and a few recommendations.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION: 1.0 SIWES
SIWES is an acronym for Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme. SIWES is an effective instrument used for exposing students to the realities of the work environment in Nigeria especially, and the world in general, in their various professions, so as to achieve the needed technological advancement for the nation. Some of the aims of SIWES are: • To provide, for the students, opportunities to be involved in the practical aspect of their
respective disciplines; thus, bridging the gap between the theoretical aspect taught in the class and the real world situations. • To expose students to latest developments and technological innovations in their chosen
professions. • To prepare students for industrial working environments they are likely to meet after
1.1 The Company NIIT Calabar is a reputable company with international acknowledgement and recognition. When NIIT first came into Nigeria, it was called Nigerian Institute of Information Technology. It was introduced to Nigeria from the main company in India. Over time, it spread all over the world and it was decided that the name ‘Nigerian Institute for Information Technology’ was a limitation to only Nigeria, whereas NIIT had spread over 35 countries of the world.
Therefore, to achieve a suitable and consistent reputation of the organization, the name was changed to simply ‘NIIT’ as a brand name. Thus, NIIT no longer means Nigerian Institute of Information Technology; it is a brand name like DELL, NIKE etc. NIIT has centers all over Nigeria. The centers are not managed by one general executive, but are managed by individuals who have purchased the franchise from the Indian firm. So they are simply running under the name of the Indian company, but the management is mainly Nigeria. Calabar Center where I did my six months attachment, Uyo Center and the Two Centers at Port Harcourt, Nigeria are run by one Chief Executive Officer. NIIT Calabar existed prior to 2007 and was later closed down due to non-compliance with the policies of the main company in India. Then it was owned by other individuals and the center was located at the Murtala Mohammed Highway. In 2008, the center at IBB was reestablished and has been on since then. NIIT offers training programs in major professional courses offered in the Information Technology niche. Some of these courses include ORACLE, Linux, Sun Java (now ORACLE/Sun Java), CISCO trainings (Cisco Certified Network Associate), CompTIA, Web Design, Creative or Desktop Publishing and Computer appreciation (IT Fundamentals). The center in Calabar has basically 5 units, the administrative unit, the
1.2 Objective and Scope of This Report This report gives details about the various activities performed within the six months attachment at NIIT Calabar, Center from August 2010 to February, 2011. It covers the major roles performed which include Repairs/Maintenance and Database Administration. It highlights all the
tools and softwares or materials used in carrying out day to day activities and it serves as an evidence of the experience gained during the six months period of attachment.
CHAPTER TWO: REPAIRS AND MAINTENANCE/ASSEMBLY 2.0 Introduction to Computer Hardware/Software Briefly, computer systems are made up of hardware and software. The physical touchable part of the computer is called the hardware. This is the part that we can touch and feel. The hardware parts of a computer include the keyboard, monitor, mouse and printer, usually called the peripherals. Other hardware parts include scanner, lightpen, Random Access Memory (RAM) sticks or modules, processor etc. The software is a set of instructions that control the computer’s functionality. It cannot be seen or touched. We have two types, system software and application software. System software is further broken down into Operating Systems and Compiler Softwares. Operating systems are sets of instructions that enable interaction between the computer and the hardware. They act as an interface between the user and the computer. Application softwares are instructions which service a specific need such as Microsoft Excel, which is used for spreadsheets etc.
2.1 Tools and Materials Used in Maintenance In performing maintenance operations on computer systems and components, some sets of tools are required to make the job easier. Some recommended tools are screwdrivers (precision screwdrivers preferably), pliers, parts bag, flashlight, Compact Disk (CD) and portable hard disk or flash drive, and multimeter. Screwdrivers are usually used to remove screws so as to dissemble computer component parts or insert screws so as to assemble component parts. They are several types based on the shape of the head. Commonly used ones are star head screw drivers and flat screw drivers. For
laptop computers, precision screw drivers are needed. These screw drivers are adapted for special and smaller screws. Pliers are used as alternatives to the fingers where the fingers may be too large, especially on the motherboard where most of the components are small. Commonly used for this purpose are the needle nose pliers. Flashlights are small lighting devices which are used when working in the dark or in places that are darkened, for instance, one may need a light within the system unit to see the components more clearly. Compact Disks (CDs) are storage devices which are used to keep information. You have the recordable CD, which is typically used once, and the re-writeable CD, which can be used and re-used. CDs are necessary for installation of software during maintenance activities, where necessary. Portable hard disk drives or flash drives are needed during maintenance operations to move files from one place to another if necessary. A CD can also be used in this case, but flash drives and portable hard disks are needed when the file or files to be moved around are not too large, because it may be waste of the CD. These portable hard disks or flash drives may also contain utility diagnostic softwares to be used for diagnostics of the system to be maintained. Portable hard disks are also called External Hard disks. A multimeter may also be required for checking of power supplies especially on desktop systems.
2.2 Basic Components and Their Functions They are several component parts of a computer, we have the outer parts of the computer like the monitor, keyboard, mouse, system unit and we have the inner part of the computer which contains the motherboard, the processor, the RAM sticks or modules, the cables, the hard disks or secondary storage and many other components. Let us look at them in detail. Monitor: This is the visual part of the computer that looks like a television. It is called an output device because it enables the user to view an output of whatever operation he or she is performing. It is also called the visual display unit (VDU). Common problems we find with it include, slacking of the video connector (VGA connector). Keyboard/Mouse: The keyboard is an input device and is typically used for inputting data into the computer. The mouse is also an input device used as an alternative to the keyboard. The common problem with the keyboard and the mouse is breaking of the pins in the PS/2 connectors on their connector cables due to frequent plugging and unplugging. System Unit/Chassis or Case: The system unit basically holds the core components of the computer. It has a casing or container. This container is designed such that some of the features of the core components within the casing can be used. Within the system unit, we can find the motherboard.
Chassis or case
Motherboard: This is the most important component on a computer system. It is also called the main board. Every internal component in a computer connects to the motherboard and its features largely determine what the computer is capable of plus its overall performance. Motherboards are classified based on form factors (form factor refers to the physical dimensions, sizes and shape as well as certain connector, screw hole, and other positions that dictate into which type of case the motherboard will fit).
Processor: The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or processor could be thought of as the engine of the computer. It is identified by mainly two features, its speed and its width. The speed is a simple concept graded in Megahertz (MHz). The faster the speed of the processor, the better the performance (speed) of the computer.
Processor examples continued
Memory (RAM): The system memory is often called Random Access Memory (RAM). This is the primary working memory. It holds all the programs and the data that the processor is using at a given time.
RAM (memory) modules
Power Supply: The power supply feeds electrical power to the internal components in the computer.
Video Card: This is the component on the motherboard that controls the information that we see on the monitor. Sound Card: A sound card is the component on the motherboard that enables the PC to generate complex sounds.
Hard Drive: The hard disk is the primary high-capacity storage media for the system. All you data is stored on hard disks. Network Card/Modem: This is a component that is usually integrated on the motherboard to provide an interface for network connectivity.
2.3 Troubleshooting Troubleshooting is simply the process of finding out why a particular device or component is malfunctioning, and fixing or repairing that problem. There are various ways of troubleshooting depending on the type of component to be repaired or fixed or the type of problem experienced.
Some basic troubleshooting tips I learnt during my attachment are given in the table below.
Table 1. Troubleshooting Tips Problem Identification Operating system will not boot. Possible Cause Poor heat dissipation, improper voltage settings, loose connection of hard disk or faulty hard disk cable Corrupt operating system, bad hard disk Monitor turned off or has failed No audio adapter present, incorrect connection of speakers or no power to speakers, no audio drivers present Solution Check the capacity of the heat sink and replace it if necessary, Check the hard disk cables for tight connectivity and interchange them to ensure proper functionality. Verify that the hard disk is working correctly, re-install the operating system if necessary. Test the monitor and the power source and replace with known good source to confirm if necessary Make sure the audio adapter is present and well connected on the mother board, Ensure that the speakers are tightly connected and are linked to a working power source, ensure that sound drivers for the sound device are installed and working correctly. Check the AC input, make sure the cord is firmly seated in the wall socket, and in the power supply socket, or try a different cord, also, check the DC connectors, make sure the motherboard and disk drive power connectors are firmly seated and making good contact, check for loose screws.
Error: Operating system not found System appears to work but no video is displayed No sound
Power supply failures like Faulty power supply which may be spontaneous rebooting during due to bad power cord, or loose normal operations, hard disk and connection, fan refusing to spin, over heating due to fan failure, electric shocks felt on the system cases or connectors, smoke
CHAPTER 3: ORACLE DATABASE ADMINISTRATION 3.0 Meaning of Database Before we define databases generally, let us use lay-man terms. The word database comes from two words, data and base. Data is simply information while Base can be said to be a warehouse or store for something. From this, we can say that a database is simply a base where information stored. In this context, we mean an electronic database, hence, a database is the storage of information in form of text, images or other computer defined formats for several purposes. Definition of Database: In terms of computing, a database is a collection of information stored as a unit. This information may be anything from personal details, to messages, historical data, financial data etc. all stored under a single unit or name. A database could also be defined as an organized collection of data for various purposes, usually in digital form. Typically, data on databases is stored in tables. The term database is different from DBMS (Database Management system), which is the software itself that is used to organize, update, edit and retrieve this data. Some examples of database management systems include ORACLE, MySql, and Microsoft SQL Server etc. Every database belongs to one model or the other. Examples of database models are relational model, entity-relational model and object model.
3.1 ORACLE Database Management System The ORACLE database management system is an open, comprehensive and integrated approach to information management. ORACLE is application software which is used in the creation, managing and general administration of databases. During my attachment at NIIT, I was opportune to teach ORACLE. Oracle database management system has three main areas,
Structured Query Language, Workshop 1 (Administration 1) and Workshop 2 (Administration 2).
3.1.0 Structure Query Language (SQL) Structured Query Language is a database computer language designed for managing data in relational database management systems (RDBMS), and originally based upon relational algebra and calculus. Its scope includes data insert, query, update and delete, schema creation and modification, and data access control. SQL is wide and varies a bit across other database applications or management systems. In ORACLE, it is classified into Data definition language (DDL), Data Manipulation Language (DML), Data Control Language (DCL), and Transaction Control (TC). Data Definition Language includes SQL commands that are used to change the structure of a database like creating a new database, dropping or deleting a database, creating a table, altering or modifying a table and commenting on a table. Examples include CREATE, ALTER, DROP, TRUNCATE, COMMENT. Usage: SQL> CREATE TABLE result (student_name varchar2(12), score number(10), grade char(1)); Here, a table called result is created with three columns, student_name having character data type with maximum width of 12 characters, score having a data type of number and maximum width of 10 and grade having a data type of character and a width of 1.
Data Manipulation Language includes SQL commands that are used to manipulate, or work with the data in the database like, editing or updating, deleting a record and inserting a new record. Examples include DELETE, INSERT, SELECT, UPDATE, MERGE. Usage: SQL> INSERT INTO result VALUES (‘Daniel’, 85, ‘A’); Here, a record or row is inserted into the ‘result’ table. In the ‘student_name’ field, the value ‘Daniel’ is inserted, in the ‘score’ field, the value 85 is inserted and in the Data Control Language includes SQL commands that are used to control data access to users within the database, like granting privileges to view or not to view a particular table or data. Examples are GRANT and REVOKE. Usage: SQL> GRANT SELECT on result TO dan; Transaction control includes SQL commands that are used to control the way a transaction (a transaction is a set of SQL commands run concurrently and having a particular target in general) is achieved like when it should end, whether it should be saved for restore etc. Examples are COMMIT, SAVEPOINT, ROLLBACK. Usage: SQL> ‘user performs some operations’ SQL> SAVEPOINT error SQL>’user performs an operation in error’ SQL> ROLLBACK to SAVEPOINT A
Here, a user performs several operations, and creates a restore point called ‘error’, after that, he does an operation error. To undo that operation, he ‘rolls back’ to the restore point ‘error’, in the last command. SQL is administered to a database using an SQL client such as SQLplus or SQL developer. These clients are said to be Command Line Interfaces because all operations are performed using commands.
After SQL, is the administration stage. This part is broken down into two main areas, Administration 1 and Administration 2. Administration 1 is basically an alternative to SQL. Here principles and activities carried out using SQL can be carried out using Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) like Enterprise Manager (EM). Enterprise manager is another ORACLE client used to connect and administer the database via GUI. Operations like creation of tables, inserting records and others can be performed from here. However, they are some additional tasks which are exclusive to enterprise manager like connection to oracle support, and a few others. The second part, Administration 2 simply involves backup and recovery operations.
Backup and Recovery
As suggested by the name, a backup is simply a copy of the database files, or any section of the database files, kept for the purpose of bringing back the state of the database in case of a system crash, an application error, and a user error.
Recovery is the process of bringing a database to how it was at a particular time by use of backups. Backups and recovery operations can be performed at both the Command Line Interface (SQLplus) or through Graphical User Interface (GUI). A typical command to backup the database is given below. SQL> BACKUP DATABASE tag ‘first’; Here the database is being backed up, with the custom name ‘first’ given to the backup. In ORACLE, I learnt that databases are made up of tablespaces, which are made up of segments; segments are also broken down into extents, and extents into oracle data blocks. This is the logical structure represented in the figure below.
ORACLE DATA BLOCK
Logical Structure of Database.
The structure stated above comes in handy in backup and recovery operations because we may not always want to backup our entire database. We may want to backup just a tablespace, which is a work area in the database, and you can have different work areas. These tablespaces are further broken down into internal components like segments, extents and oracle data blocks.
Of all these, the part we use (the physical part or structure) and work with, is that on the right hand side, the ‘data files’. Every tablespace has one or more datafiles. These datafiles store the records which are on the tablespace. Hence to backup a tablespace, we simply backup its datafiles, to backup a data base, we backup all the available tablespaces. Other important files exist in an ORACLE database. They include the Control files and the Redo Log files. The control files are the brain box, containing control information and must always be present, hence regular backups are taken of the control files. The redo log files are used to store the changes that have taken place in a database, hence they need to also be backup up to ensure that the database can be recovered to the point of failure. Backups and recovery operations from command line, are performed using a client called RMAN. RMAN means Recovery Manager. From a GUI interface like enterprise manager, we can also perform backups and recoveries.
CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.0 Overview of Experience Gained and Problems Encountered During the six months attachment period I learnt a lot of things as indicated by my report so far. Before starting I knew little or nothing about hardware, computer assembly and disassembly, but now I can carry out basic troubleshooting operations on a computer, assemble a computer from scratch, and disassemble it if necessary. Also, since I was opportune to teach ORACLE, I was able to acquire practical experience on live databases, which I used to carry out class practices. I was also able to learn far more than I had ever known about an ORACLE database. However, I encountered a little problem in funding, during my six months attachment. Firstly, I was overloaded, I worked from Monday to Sunday because I was teaching, and classes are held on Sunday, and it was difficult for me to transport myself to and from the NIIT center at IBB, everyday. This is because I was not officially paid. 4.1 Conclusion SIWES was established to provide opportunities for students to be involved in the practical aspect of their respective disciplines in the industrial working environments. During my 6-month industrial training, I gained a wide range of experience from the various assignments undertaken such as the teaching of ORACLE students, assembly of systems, and fixing of small networks. All the experience gained help to fulfil the objectives of SIWES.
4.2 Recommendations Having gone through the 6 months industrial training, I have the following suggestions for the effectiveness of SIWES: • Companies should show more commitment to the training of engineering students so as to improve the quality of training given. • Government should endeavour to improve business relationships with companies that have SIWES students, as a way of adding importance to the scheme, in reality. • Students or trainees should learn to comport themselves well in these companies so as not to send a bad signal which may discourage such company from taking or accepting future SIWES students.
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